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03/12/2014
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© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 1
Antennas
Antennas are transducers that transfer electromagnetic energy
between a transmission line and free space.
Transmitting
Antenna
I
I
Transmitter
Transmission Line
Electromagnetic
Wave
Receiving
Antenna
I
I
Receiver
Transmission Line
Electromagnetic
Wave
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 2
Here are a few examples of common antennas:
Linear dipole fed
by a twowire line
Ground plane
Linear monopole
fed by a single wire
over a ground plane
Coaxial ground
plane antenna
Parabolic (dish) antenna
Linear elements connected
to outer conductor of the
coaxial cable simulate the
ground plane
UdaYagi dipole array
Passive elements
Loop dipole
Log−periodic array
Loop antenna
Multiple loop antenna wound
around a ferrite core
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 3
From a circuit point of view, a transmitting antenna behaves like an
equivalent impedance that dissipates the power transmitted
The transmitter is equivalent to a generator.
I
I
Transmitter
Transmission Line
Transmitting
Antenna
I
I
Transmitter
Transmission Line
Electromagnetic
Wave
Z
eq
= R
eq
+ jX
eq
P t R I
eq
( ) =
1
2
2
V
g
Z
g
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 4
A receiving antenna behaves like a generator with an internal
impedance corresponding to the antenna equivalent impedance.
The receiver represents the load impedance that dissipates the time
average power generated by the receiving antenna.
I
I
Transmission Line
Receiving
Antenna
I
I
Receiver
Transmission Line
P t R I
in
( ) =
1
2
2
V
eq
Z
eq
Electromagnetic
Wave
Z
in
Z
R
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 5
Antennas are in general reciprocal devices, which can be used both
as transmitting and as receiving elements. This is how the
antennas on cellular phones and walkie−talkies operate.
The basic principle of operation of an antenna is easily understood
starting from a two−wire transmission line, terminated by an open
circuit.
V
g
Z
g
 I 
 I 
Note: This is the return
current on the second wire,
not the reflected current
already included in the
standing wave pattern.
Z
R
→ ∝
Open circuit
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 6
Imagine to bend the end of the transmission line, forming a dipole
antenna. Because of the change in geometry, there is now an
abrupt change in the characteristic impedance at the transition
point, where the current is still continuous. The dipole leaks
electromagnetic energy into the surrounding space, therefore it
reflects less power than the original open circuit ⇒ the standing
wave pattern on the transmission line is modified
Z
0
V
g
Z
g
 I 
 I 
 I
0

 I
0

Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 7
In the space surrounding the dipole we have an electric field. At
zero frequency (d.c. bias), fixed electrostatic field lines connect the
metal elements of the antenna, with circular symmetry.
E
E
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 8
At higher frequency, the current oscillates in the wires and the field
emanating from the dipole changes periodically. The field lines
propagate away from the dipole and form closed loops.
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 9
The electromagnetic field emitted by an antenna obeys Maxwell’s
equations
Under the assumption of uniform isotropic medium we have the
wave equation:
Note that in the regions with electrical charges ρ
j
j
E H
H J E
u u
us
V× ÷
V× +
2
2
E H J E
H J E
J H
j j
j
u u u u u us
us
u us
V× V× ÷ V× ÷ +
V× V× V× + V×
V× +
2 2
E E E E p s V× V× VV ÷ V V ÷ V
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 10
In general, these wave equations are difficult to solve, because of
the presence of the terms with current and charge. It is easier to
use the magnetic vector potential and the electric scalar potential.
The definition of the magnetic vector potential is
Note that since the divergence of the curl of a vector is equal to
zero we always satisfy the zero divergence condition
We have also
B A
B A 0
j j j E A E H A 0
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 11
We define the scalar potential φ first noticing that
and then choosing (with sign convention as in electrostatics)
Note that the magnetic vector potential is not uniquely defined,
since for any arbitrary scalar field ψ
In order to uniquely define the magnetic vector potential, the
standard approach is to use the Lorenz gauge
0
E A E A j j
B A A
j A 0
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 12
From Maxwell’s equations
From vector calculus
j
j
j j
1
H B J E
B J E
A J A
j
2 2
A A A J A
j j A A
Lorenz Gauge
2
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 13
Finally, the wave equation for the magnetic vector potential is
For the electric field we have
The wave equation for the electric scalar potential is
2 2 2 2
A A A A J u us ß u V + V + ÷
2 2
D E
A
A j
j j j u us o
p
p u o
s
p
o u o u
s
V = V V ÷ ÷ V
V + V + V ÷ ÷
2 2 2 2
p
o u us o o ß o
s
V + V + ÷
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 14
The wave equations are inhomogenoeous Helmholtz equations,
which apply to regions where currents and charges are not zero.
We use the following system of coordinates for an antenna body
z
x
y
r
r '
r r ' ÷
Radiating antenna body
Observation point
r
r
J( ')
( ') p
dV'
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 15
The general solutions for the wave equations are
The integrals are extended to all points over the antenna body
where the sources (current density, charge) are not zero. The effect
of each volume element of the antenna is to radiate a radial wave
j r r
V
J r e
r dV
r r
'
'
A '
4 '
ß
u
*
÷ ÷
÷
j r r
V
r e
r dV
r r
'
' 1
'
4 '
ß
p
o
*s
÷ ÷
÷
j r r
e
r r
'
'
ß ÷ ÷
÷
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 16
Infinitesimal Antenna
z
x
y
r r r ' ÷
r ' 0
Infinitesimal antenna body
Observation point
J(0)
(0) p
dV'
S A
z A
I constant
phasor
z x A <<
Dielectric medium (ε , µ)
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 17
The current flowing in the infinitesimal antenna is assumed to be
constant and oriented along the z−axis
The solution of the wave equation for the magnetic vector potential
simply becomes the evaluation of the integrand at the origin
z
S r S
V r z
V
i
S z I J ' J 0 '
' J ' I
A A A
A A
A
A
1
H A
I
A
4
1
E H
j r
z
z e
i
r
j
÷
=
¹
V×
¹
A
¹
´
¹
V×
¹
¹
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 18
There is still a major mathematical step left. The curl operations
must be expressed in terms of polar coordinates
z
x
y
r
0
w
i
w
i
w
i
0
r
i
Azimuthal angle
Elevation angle
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 19
In polar coordinates
r
r
r
r
r
i r i r i
r
r
A rA r A
A A i
r
A r A i
r r
r A A i
r r
2
sin
1
A
sin
sin
1
sin
sin
1 1
sin
1
0 w
0 w
w 0
w 0
0 w
0
0 w
0
0
0
0 0 w
0 w
0
o o o
V×
o o o
o o ]
÷
]
o o
]
o o ]
+ ÷
]
o o
]
o o ]
+ ÷
]
o o
]
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 20
We had
For the fields we have
j r
z z r
j r
z e
i i i i
r
j z e
i
r r
ith
j
w
I
A cos sin
4
I
1
A 1 sin
4
ß
0
ß
w
u
0 0
*
u ß
0
* ß
÷
÷
A
÷
A
 `
= V× +
. }
j r
j z e
i
r j r
I
1 1
H A 1 sin
4
ß
w
ß
0
u * ß
÷
A
 `
V× +
. }
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 21
The general field expressions can be simplified for observation
point at large distance from the infinitesimal antenna
j r
r
j z e
j r
i
j r
j r
i
j r
j r
2
2
I
1
E H
4
1 1
2cos
1 1
sin 1
ß
0
ß
u
us s *
0
ß
ß
0
ß
ß
÷
A
V×
 `
× +
. }
]
 `
+ + + ]
]
. }
]
r r
j r
j r
2
1 1 2
1 1
*
ß
ß x
ß
>> >> = >>
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 22
At large distance we have the expressions for the Far Field
• At sufficient distance from the antenna, the radiated fields are
perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation.
• The magnetic field and electric field are in phase and
These are also properties of uniform plane waves.
E H H
u
:
s
j r
j z e
i
r
I
H sin
4
ß
w
ß
0
*
÷
A

j r
j z e
i
r
I
E sin
4
ß
0
ß
u
0
s *
÷
A

r 2* x >>
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 23
However, there are significant differences with respect to a uniform
plane wave:
• The surfaces of constant phase are spherical instead of planar,
and the wave travels in the radial direction
• The intensities of the fields are inversely proportional to the
distance, therefore the field intensities decay while they are
constant for a uniform plane wave
• The field intensities are not constant on a given surface of
constant phase. The intensity depends on the sine of the
elevation angle
The radiated power density is
2
*
2
2
1 1
( ) Re E H
2 2
I
sin
2 4
r
r
P t i H
z
i
r
w
u
s
ß
:
0
*
×
A  `
. }
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 24
The spherical wave resembles a plane wave locally in a small
neighborhood of the point ( r, θ, ϕ ).
z
( ) P t
E
0
H
w
r
0
J
w
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 25
Radiation Patterns
Electric Field and Magnetic Field
z
x
or H E
0 w
0
y
x
Plane containing the antenna
proportional to sinθ
Plane perpendicular to the antenna
omnidirectional or isotropic
Fixed r
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 26
Time−average Power Flow (Poynting Vector)
z
x
( ) P t
0
Plane containing the antenna
proportional to sin
2
θ
Plane perpendicular to the antenna
omnidirectional or isotropic
y
x
Fixed r
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 27
Total Radiated Power
The time−average power flow is not uniform on the spherical wave
front. In order to obtain the total power radiated by the infinitesimal
antenna, it is necessary to integrate over the sphere
Note: the total radiated power is independent of distance. Although
the power decreases with distance, the integral of the power over
concentric spherical wave fronts remains constant.
2
2
0 0
2
2 3
0
2
sin ( )
I
2 sin
2 4
I
4
3 4
tot
P d d r P t
z
r d
r
z
p p
p
j q q
b
h
p q q
p
b
p h
p
=
Ê ˆ D
=
Á ˜
Ë ¯
Ê ˆ D
=
Á ˜
Ë ¯
Ú Ú
Ú
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 28
1 2 tot tot
P P
1 tot
P
2 tot
P
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 29
The total radiated power is also the power delivered by the
transmission line to the real part of the equivalent impedance seen
at the input of the antenna
The equivalent resistance of the antenna is usually called radiation
resistance. In free space
2
2
2 2
I
1 4 2 1 2
I I
2 3 4 2 3
eq
tot eq
R
z
z
P R
*: * *:
x * x
]
A  `
A
 `
]
. }
. }
]
]
.
2
2
8 20 0 1
o
o
eq o
z
R *
u
: *
x
:
s
A
 `
.
O
}
= O
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 30
The total radiated power is also used to define the average power
density emitted by the antenna. The average power density
corresponds to the radiation of a hypothetical omnidirectional
(isotropic) antenna, which is used as a reference to understand the
directive properties of any antenna.
z
x
( , ) P t 0
0
ave
P
Power radiation pattern of an
omnidirectional average antenna
Power radiation pattern
of the actual antenna
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 31
The time−average power density is given by
The directive gain of the infinitesimal antenna is defined as
Surface of wave front
2
2
2
Total Radiated Powe
2
r
I
1
I
12 3 4
4 4
ave
tot
P
z
P
z
r
r r
ß
: :
ß
* *
* *
A  `
A
. }
1
2 2
2
2
( , , ) I I
si ( , )
3
sin
2
n
2 4 3 4
ave
P t r z z
P r r
D
0 ß ß
: :
0 0
0
*
w
*
÷
 `
A A  `  `
. } . }
. }
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 32
The maximum value of the directive gain is called directivity of the
antenna. For the infinitesimal antenna, the maximum of the
directive gain occurs when the elevation angle is 90°
The directivity gives a measure of how the actual antenna performs
in the direction of maximum radiation, with respect to the ideal
isotropic antenna which emits the average power in all directions.
2
3
max ( , ) sin 1 Directivi . t
2 2
y 5 D
*
0 w
 `
. }
x
z
90°
ave
P
max
P
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 33
The infinitesimal antenna is a suitable model to study the behavior
of the elementary radiating element called Hertzian dipole.
Consider two small charge reservoirs, separated by a distance ∆z,
which exchange mobile charge in the form of an oscillatory curent
+
−
( ) I t
t
z A
+
−
+
−
+
−
+
−
+
−
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 34
The Hertzian dipole can be used as an elementary model for many
natural charge oscillation phenomena. The radiated fields can be
described by using the results of the infinitesimal antenna.
Assuming a sinusoidally varying charge flow between the
reservoirs, the oscillating current is
current flowing
out of reser
charge on
reference rese
voir
rvoir
cos ( ) ( ) ( ) I
phaso
o
r
o o
d d
I t q t q t j q
dt dt
u u =
.
Radiation
pattern
o
q
o
I
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 35
A short wire antenna has a triangular current distribution, since the
current itself has to reach a null at the end the wires. The current
can be made approximately uniform by adding capacitor plates.
The small capacitor plate antenna is equivalent to a Hertzian dipole
and the radiated fields can also be described by using the results of
the infinitesimal antenna. The short wire antenna can be described
by the same results, if one uses an average current value giving the
same integral of the current
max
2
o
I I
I
max
I
o
z A
I
o
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 36
Example − A Hertzian dipole is 1.0 meters long and it operates at
the frequency of 1.0 MHz, with feeding current I
o
= 1.0 Ampéres.
Find the total radiated power.
For a short dipole with triangular current distribution and maximum
current I
max
= 1.0 Ampére
8 6
2
2 2
Hertzian dipol
3 10 10 300
1 m
4 2 1 2
120 ( ) ( 1 1 )
3 4 12 300
4.39
e
mW
o
o
o
tot
I z
c f
z
I z
P
:
x
x
x
* : * *
*
x * *
A
 ×
A =
A
 `
. }
<
max
2 4.39/ 4 1.09 mW
o tot
I I P = 
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 37
Time−dependent fields  Consider the far−field approximation
( )
2
I sin
Re H Re
4
I sin
Re cos( ) sin
I sin
s
I sin
sin(
in
( )
4
Re
( )
4
4
E
)
j t r j t
j t
j z
e i e
r
z
i j t r j t
E t
H t
z
i t r
r
t
r
e
r
r
z
i
r
0
u ß u
w
w
w
u
ß 0
*
ß
ß 0
: u
0
u ß u
ß 0
u
*
*
ß
ß
*
ß
÷
A ¹ ¹

´ '
¹ ¹
A ¹ ¹
 ÷ + ÷
´ '
¹ ¹

 ÷ ÷
A
÷
A
÷
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 38
Linear Antennas
Consider a dipole with wires of length comparable to the
wavelength.
z A
' 0
0
' r
r
'
i
0
i
0
' z
z
1
L ÷
2
L
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 39
Because of its length, the current flowing in the antenna wire is a
function of the coordinate z. To evaluate the far−field at an
observation point, we divide the antenna into segments which can
be considered as elementary infinitesimal antennas.
The electric field radiated by each element , in the far−field
approximation, is
In far−field conditions we can use these additional approximations
'
I
' sin '
4 '
j r
j z e
E i
r
ß
0
ß
u
0
s *
÷
A
A
r r z
'
' 'cos
0 0
0

 ÷
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 40
The lines r and r’ are nearly parallel under these assumptions.
z A
' 0 0 
0
' r
r
' z
z
2
L
'cos z 0
This length is neglected if
' 'cos r r z 0  ÷
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 41
The electric field contributions due to each infinitesimal segment
becomes
The total fields are obtained by integration of all the contributions
you cannot
neglect here
' cos
4 'cos
I
'
4
j r j z
j z e e
E i
r z
ß ß 0
0
ß
u
s * 0 *
÷
A
A
÷
you can
neglect here
sin0
2
1
2
1
cos
cos
E sin I( )
4
H sin I( )
4
j r
L
j z
L
j r
L
j z
L
j e
i z e dz
r
j e
i z e dz
r
ß
ß 0
0
ß
ß 0
w
u ß
0
s *
ß
0
*
÷
÷
÷
÷
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 42
Short Dipole
Consider a short symmetric dipole comprising two wires, each of
length L << λ . Assume a triangular distribution of the phasor
current on the wires
The integral in the field expressions becomes
max
max
1 0
I( )
1 0
I z L z
z
I z L z
÷ >
¹
´
+ <
¹
cos
max
since short
1
dipole for a
cos
2
max 1
1
2
I( ) I( )
2
z
L L
j
L L
j
z
L
z e dz z dz
z L L
I
e
ß
ß 0
0
*
ß ß
x
÷

÷


=
.
<
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 43
The final expression for far−fields of the short dipole are similar to
the expressions for the Hertzian dipole where the average of the
triangular current distribution is used
average
current
max
max
max
E sin 2
4 2
sin
4
H sin
4
j r
j r
j r
j e I
i L
r
j I L e
i
r
j I L e
i
r
z
ß
0
ß
0
ß
w
u ß
0
s *
u ß
0
s *
ß
0
*
÷
÷
÷
A
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 44
Half−wavelength dipole
Consider a symmetric linear antenna with total length λ/2 and
assume a current phasor distribution on the wires which is
approximately sinusoidal
The integral in the field expressions is
max
I( ) cos( ) z I z ß
4
cos
max
max
2
4
2 cos
cos cos
2
sin
j z
I
I z e dz
x
ß 0
x
* 0
ß
ß 0
÷
 `
. }
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 45
We obtain the far−field expressions
and the time−average Poynting vector
max
max
cos
E cos
2 sin 2
cos
H cos
2 sin 2
j r
j r
j e I
i
r
j e I
i
r
ß
0
ß
w
u * 0
s * 0
* 0
* 0
÷
÷
 `
. }
 `
. }
2
2
max
2 2 2
cos
( ) cos
2
8 sin
r
I
P t i
r
u * 0
s
* 0
 `
. }
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 46
The total radiated power is obtained after integration of the
time−average Poynting vector
The integral above cannot be solved analytically, but the value is
found numerically or from published tables. The equivalent
resistance of the half−wave dipole antenna in air is then
2.4376
2
2
max
0
2
max
1 cos 1 1
2 4
1
0.193978
2
eq
tot
R
u
P I du
u
I
* u
s *
u
s

÷
 `
. }
.
.
( 2) 0.193978 73.07
eq
R
u
x
s
 O
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 47
The direction of maximum radiation strength is obtained again for
elevation angle θ =90° ande we obtain the directivity
The directivity of the half−wavelength dipole is marginally better
than the directivity for a Hertzian dipole (D = 1.5).
The real improvement is in the much larger radiation resistance,
which is now comparable to the characteristic impedance of typical
transmission line.
2
max
2 2
2
2
max
2 2
( , , 90 )
8
1.641
1
4
2.4376
8
tot
I
P t r
r
D
P r
I
r
u
s
*
u
*
s
*
°

Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 48
From the linear antenna applet
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 49
For short dipoles of length 0.0005 λ to 0.05 λ
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 50
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 51
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 52
For general symmetric linear antennas with two wires of length L, it
is convenient to express the current distribution on the wires as
The integral in the field expressions is now
max
I sin z I L z ß ÷
cos
max
max
2
sin
2
cos cos cos
sin
L
j z
L
I L z e dz
I
L L
ß 0
ß
ß 0 ß
ß 0
÷
÷ ]
]
÷
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 53
The field expressions become
2
1
2
1
cos
max
cos
max
E sin I( )
4
cos cos cos
2 sin
H sin I( )
4
cos cos cos
2 sin
j r
L
j z
L
j r
j r
L
j z
L
j r
j e
i z e dz
r
j I e
i L L
r
j e
i z e dz
r
j I e
i L L
r
ß
ß 0
0
ß
0
ß
ß 0
w
ß
w
u ß
0
s *
u
ß 0 ß
s * 0
ß
0
*
ß 0 ß
* 0
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 54
Examples of long wire antennas
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 55
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 56
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 57
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 58
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 59
Radiation Pattern for E and H
Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 60
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 61
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 62
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 63
Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern
Antennas
Here are a few examples of common antennas:
Linear dipole fed by a twowire line Linear monopole fed by a single wire over a ground plane Coaxial ground plane antenna
Ground plane
Linear elements connected to outer conductor of the coaxial cable simulate the ground plane
Loop antenna UdaYagi dipole array Loop dipole
Multiple loop antenna wound around a ferrite core
Parabolic (dish) antenna
Log−periodic array
Passive elements © Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 2
Antennas
From a circuit point of view, a transmitting antenna behaves like an equivalent impedance that dissipates the power transmitted
Transmitting Antenna
Transmitter
I
Transmission Line
Electromagnetic Wave I
Transmitter
Zg Vg
Transmission Line
I
1 P( t ) = Req I 2 2
Zeq = Req + jXeq
I
The transmitter is equivalent to a generator.
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 3
Receiver I Transmission Line Receiving Antenna Electromagnetic Wave I I Zeq Zin 1 P( t ) = Rin I 2 2 Veq ZR Transmission Line I The receiver represents the load impedance that dissipates the time average power generated by the receiving antenna. © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 4 .Antennas A receiving antenna behaves like a generator with an internal impedance corresponding to the antenna equivalent impedance.
which can be used both as transmitting and as receiving elements. not the reflected current already included in the standing wave pattern. I Zg Vg ZR → ∝ Open circuit I Note: This is the return current on the second wire. This is how the antennas on cellular phones and walkie−talkies operate.Antennas Antennas are in general reciprocal devices. terminated by an open circuit. © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 5 . The basic principle of operation of an antenna is easily understood starting from a two−wire transmission line.
forming a dipole antenna. there is now an abrupt change in the characteristic impedance at the transition point. therefore it reflects less power than the original open circuit ⇒ the standing wave pattern on the transmission line is modified  I0  Zg I Vg Z0 I  I0  © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 6 .Antennas Imagine to bend the end of the transmission line. where the current is still continuous. Because of the change in geometry. The dipole leaks electromagnetic energy into the surrounding space.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 7 . E E © Amanogawa. fixed electrostatic field lines connect the metal elements of the antenna.Antennas In the space surrounding the dipole we have an electric field. At zero frequency (d.c. bias). with circular symmetry.
Antennas At higher frequency. The field lines propagate away from the dipole and form closed loops. © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 8 . the current oscillates in the wires and the field emanating from the dipole changes periodically.
Antennas The electromagnetic field emitted by an antenna obeys Maxwell’s equations E j H H J j E Under the assumption of uniform isotropic medium we have the wave equation: 2 E j H j J E H J j E 2 J H Note that in the regions with electrical charges ρ 2 E 2E E E © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 9 .
because of the presence of the terms with current and charge. It is easier to use the magnetic vector potential and the electric scalar potential. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 10 .Antennas In general. these wave equations are difficult to solve. The definition of the magnetic vector potential is BA Note that since the divergence of the curl of a vector is equal to zero we always satisfy the zero divergence condition B A 0 We have also E j H j A E j A 0 © Amanogawa.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 11 . since for any arbitrary scalar field ψ B A A In order to uniquely define the magnetic vector potential.Antennas We define the scalar potential φ first noticing that 0 and then choosing (with sign convention as in electrostatics) E j A E j A Note that the magnetic vector potential is not uniquely defined. the standard approach is to use the Lorenz gauge A j 0 © Amanogawa.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series A j 12 .Antennas From Maxwell’s equations 1 H B J j E B J j E A J j j A From vector calculus 2 2 2 A A A J A j Lorenz Gauge A j © Amanogawa.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 13 . the wave equation for the magnetic vector potential is 2 2 A A A A J 2 For the electric field we have 2 D E j A 2 2 j A j j The wave equation for the electric scalar potential is 2 2 2 2 © Amanogawa.Antennas Finally.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 14 . We use the following system of coordinates for an antenna body z r' J( r ') ( r ') r r' Observation point dV ' r y x Radiating antenna body © Amanogawa. which apply to regions where currents and charges are not zero.Antennas The wave equations are inhomogenoeous Helmholtz equations.
The effect of each volume element of the antenna is to radiate a radial wave e j r r ' r r' 15 © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series . charge) are not zero.Antennas The general solutions for the wave equations are j r r ' J r ' e Ar V 4 r r' j r r ' r ' e 1 r r r' 4 V dV ' dV ' The integrals are extended to all points over the antenna body where the sources (current density.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 16 .Antennas Infinitesimal Antenna z J(0) (0) S z r' 0 Observation point r r r' y Infinitesimal antenna body x dV ' I constant phasor z Dielectric medium (ε . µ) © Amanogawa.
Antennas The current flowing in the infinitesimal antenna is assumed to be constant and oriented along the z−axis I S J r ' S J 0 V ' S z V ' J r ' I z iz The solution of the wave equation for the magnetic vector potential simply becomes the evaluation of the integrand at the origin I z e j r iz A 4 r .
1 H A 1 H E j 17 © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series .
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 18 . The curl operations must be expressed in terms of polar coordinates z r Elevation angle i i ir Azimuthal angle y i x © Amanogawa.Antennas There is still a major mathematical step left.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 19 .Antennas In polar coordinates ir 1 A 2 r sin r Ar r i rA r sin i r sin A 1 sin A A i r r sin 1 1 Ar r A i r r sin 1 r A Ar i r r © Amanogawa.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 20 .Antennas We had I z e j r A iz 4 r with i z i r cos i sin j I z e j r 1 A i 1 j r sin 4 r For the fields we have j I z e j r 1 1 H A i 1 j r sin 4 r © Amanogawa.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 2 r r 1 21 .Antennas j r 1 j I z e E H j 4 r 1 1 i 2 cos 2 r j r j r 1 1 sin 1 i 2 j r j r The general field expressions can be simplified for observation point at large distance from the infinitesimal antenna 1 1 1 j r j r 2 © Amanogawa.
the radiated fields are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation. • The magnetic field and electric field are in phase and E H .Antennas At large distance we have the expressions for the Far Field j I z e j r H i sin 4 r j r j I z e E i sin 4 r 2 r • At sufficient distance from the antenna.
© Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 22 . H These are also properties of uniform plane waves.
therefore the field intensities decay while they are constant for a uniform plane wave • The field intensities are not constant on a given surface of constant phase. The intensity depends on the sine of the elevation angle The radiated power density is 1 * 2 1 P( t ) Re E H i r H 2 2 2 . and the wave travels in the radial direction • The intensities of the fields are inversely proportional to the distance.Antennas However. there are significant differences with respect to a uniform plane wave: • The surfaces of constant phase are spherical instead of planar.
I z ir sin 2 2 4 r © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 23 .
θ. © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 24 .Antennas z P( t ) H r J E The spherical wave resembles a plane wave locally in a small neighborhood of the point ( r. ϕ ).
Antennas Radiation Patterns Electric Field and Magnetic Field z E or H y x Fixed r x Plane containing the antenna Plane perpendicular to the antenna proportional to sinθ omnidirectional or isotropic © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 25 .
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 26 .Antennas Time−average Power Flow (Poynting Vector) z P( t ) y x Fixed r x Plane containing the antenna Plane perpendicular to the antenna proportional to sin2θ omnidirectional or isotropic © Amanogawa.
it is necessary to integrate over the sphere 2p Ptot = dj 0 Ú Ú0 p dq r 2 sin q P(t ) 2 h Ê b I D zˆ 2 p = 2p Á r Ú dq sin 3q 0 2 Ë 4p r ˜ ¯ 4p h Ê b I D z ˆ = 3 Á 4p ˜ Ë ¯ 2 Note: the total radiated power is independent of distance. the integral of the power over concentric spherical wave fronts remains constant.Antennas Total Radiated Power The time−average power flow is not uniform on the spherical wave front. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 27 . © Amanogawa. In order to obtain the total power radiated by the infinitesimal antenna. Although the power decreases with distance.
Antennas Ptot1 Ptot 2 Ptot1 Ptot 2 © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 28 .
Antennas The total radiated power is also the power delivered by the transmission line to the real part of the equivalent impedance seen at the input of the antenna 2 2 1 4.
2 I z 1 2 2.
z 2 Ptot I Req 4 2 I 3 2 3 Req The equivalent resistance of the antenna is usually called radiation resistance. In free space o .
.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series z 2 Req 80 2 29 .o 120 o © Amanogawa.
Antennas The total radiated power is also used to define the average power density emitted by the antenna. Power radiation pattern of an omnidirectional average antenna Power radiation pattern of the actual antenna z x Pave P( t. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 30 . which is used as a reference to understand the directive properties of any antenna. ) © Amanogawa. The average power density corresponds to the radiation of a hypothetical omnidirectional (isotropic) antenna.
Antennas The time−average power density is given by Pave Total Radiated Power Surface of wave front 2 Ptot .
.
I z 2 1 I z 2 12 2 3 4 r 4 r 4 r The directive gain of the infinitesimal antenna is defined as 2 2 1 .
) . r . I z P( t.
I z sin 2 D( . 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 31 . ) Pave 2 4 r 3 4 r 3 2 sin 2 © Amanogawa.
5 2 2 The directivity gives a measure of how the actual antenna performs in the direction of maximum radiation. z Pave P max 90 x © Amanogawa. with respect to the ideal isotropic antenna which emits the average power in all directions. ) sin 1. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 32 .Antennas The maximum value of the directive gain is called directivity of the antenna. For the infinitesimal antenna. the maximum of the directive gain occurs when the elevation angle is 90° 3 2 Directivity max D( .
which exchange mobile charge in the form of an oscillatory curent I( t) t − + − + − + z + − + − + − © Amanogawa.Antennas The infinitesimal antenna is a suitable model to study the behavior of the elementary radiating element called Hertzian dipole. separated by a distance ∆z. Consider two small charge reservoirs. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 33 .
the oscillating current is current flowing out of reser voir I( t) d d q( t) qo cos( t) dt dt charge on reference rese rvoir phasor I o j qo Radiation pattern Io qo © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 34 . The radiated fields can be described by using the results of the infinitesimal antenna.Antennas The Hertzian dipole can be used as an elementary model for many natural charge oscillation phenomena. Assuming a sinusoidally varying charge flow between the reservoirs.
Antennas A short wire antenna has a triangular current distribution. The short wire antenna can be described by the same results. since the current itself has to reach a null at the end the wires. Imax z Io Io The small capacitor plate antenna is equivalent to a Hertzian dipole and the radiated fields can also be described by using the results of the infinitesimal antenna. The current can be made approximately uniform by adding capacitor plates. if one uses an average current value giving the same integral of the current Io Imax 2 © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 35 .
Find the total radiated power.0 MHz. with feeding current Io = 1.0 Ampéres.0 meters long and it operates at the frequency of 1.Antennas Example − A Hertzian dipole is 1. c f 3 10 8 106 300 z 1 m Hertzian dipole 4 .
2 Io z 2 1 2 2 120 ( ) ( )2 1 1 Ptot 300 3 4 12
o
Io z
4.39 mW
For a short dipole with triangular current distribution and maximum current Imax = 1.0 Ampére
Io Imax 2
© Amanogawa, 2001 – Digital Maestro Series
Ptot 4.39 / 4 1.09 mW
36
Antennas
Time−dependent fields  Consider the far−field approximation
j t j I z sin
j( t r ) i Re
H t Re H e e ! 4 r " I z sin
i Re
jcos( t r ) j 2 sin( t r ) ! 4 r " I z sin
i sin( t r ) 4 r
j t E t Re E e I z sin
i
sin( t r ) 4 r © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 37 .
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 38 . z L2 ' r' r i i ' z z' L1 © Amanogawa.Antennas Linear Antennas Consider a dipole with wires of length comparable to the wavelength.
Antennas Because of its length. is E' i j r ' j I z e sin ' 4 r ' In far−field conditions we can use these additional approximations ' r ' r z 'cos © Amanogawa. in the far−field approximation. To evaluate the far−field at an observation point. The electric field radiated by each element . we divide the antenna into segments which can be considered as elementary infinitesimal antennas. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 39 . the current flowing in the antenna wire is a function of the coordinate z.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 40 .Antennas The lines r and r’ are nearly parallel under these assumptions. z z L2 ' r' r z' This length is neglected if z 'cos r ' r z 'cos © Amanogawa.
Antennas The electric field contributions due to each infinitesimal segment becomes E' i j I z e j r e j z 'cos sin 4 r 4 z 'cos .
you can neglect here you cannot neglect here The total fields are obtained by integration of all the contributions E i L2 j e j r sin I( z) e j z cos dz L1 4 r j e j r L2 H i sin I( z) e j z cos dz L1 4 r © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 41 .
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 42 . each of length L << λ . Assume a triangular distribution of the phasor current on the wires Imax 1 z L I( z) Imax 1 z L The integral in the field expressions becomes z#0 z 0 L L 2L j z cos I( z) e dz I( z) dz Imax L L 2 1 2 L 1 for a short dipole since max z L e j z cos 1 © Amanogawa.Antennas Short Dipole Consider a short symmetric dipole comprising two wires.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 43 .Antennas The final expression for far−fields of the short dipole are similar to the expressions for the Hertzian dipole where the average of the triangular current distribution is used E i j e 4 r j r z I sin 2 L max 2 average current i j Imax L e j r sin 4 r j Imax L e j r H i sin 4 r © Amanogawa.
Antennas Half−wavelength dipole Consider a symmetric linear antenna with total length λ/2 and assume a current phasor distribution on the wires which is approximately sinusoidal I( z) Imax cos( z) The integral in the field expressions is 4 4 Imax cos z e j z cos cos cos dz 2 2 sin 2 Imax © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 44 .
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 45 .Antennas We obtain the far−field expressions E i j e j r Imax cos cos 2 2 r sin j e j r Imax cos H i cos 2 2 r sin and the time−average Poynting vector P( t ) i r 2 Imax 2 cos cos 2 8 2 r 2 sin 2 © Amanogawa.
but the value is found numerically or from published tables.07 46 .193978 2 Req The integral above cannot be solved analytically.193978 73.4376 1 2 Imax 0. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 0.Antennas The total radiated power is obtained after integration of the time−average Poynting vector 1 2 Ptot Imax 2 1 2 1 cos u 0 u du 4 2. The equivalent resistance of the half−wave dipole antenna in air is then Req ( 2) © Amanogawa.
5).Antennas The direction of maximum radiation strength is obtained again for elevation angle θ =90° ande we obtain the directivity 2 Imax 8 2 r 2 P( t. r. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 47 .641 2 1 Ptot 4 r 2 I 2.4376 2 2 max 8 r The directivity of the half−wavelength dipole is marginally better than the directivity for a Hertzian dipole (D = 1. © Amanogawa. 90) D 1. which is now comparable to the characteristic impedance of typical transmission line. The real improvement is in the much larger radiation resistance.
Antennas From the linear antenna applet Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 48 .
0005 λ to 0. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 49 .05 λ Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa.Antennas For short dipoles of length 0.
Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 50 .
Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 51 .
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 52 .Antennas For general symmetric linear antennas with two wires of length L. it is convenient to express the current distribution on the wires as I z Imax sin L z The integral in the field expressions is now L L Imax sin L z e j z cos dz 2 Imax 2 sin cos L cos cos L © Amanogawa.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 53 .Antennas The field expressions become E i i L2 j e j r sin I( z) e j z cos dz L1 4 r j Imax e j r cos L cos cos L 2 r sin j e j r L2 H i sin I( z) e j z cos dz L1 4 r j Imax e j r i cos L cos cos L 2 r sin © Amanogawa.
Antennas Examples of long wire antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 54 .
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 55 .Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa.
Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 56 .
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 57 .Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa.
Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 58 .
Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 59 .
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 60 .Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa.
2001 – Digital Maestro Series 61 .Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa.
Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 62 .
Antennas Radiation Pattern for E and H Power Radiation Pattern © Amanogawa. 2001 – Digital Maestro Series 63 .
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