Content-Based Instruction: Integrating Language and Content

June 18 – June 29, 2007

Patricia Prinz

Content of the Institute
Broad overview of Content Based Instruction Pedagogical approaches Theories of learning Hands-on experiences that apply theories and pedagogy Reflection

Today Overview of Content Based Instruction Effective classroom interactions .

social studies. literature Second or foreign language .What is content based instruction? Simultaneous study of Academic subject: science. math.

Goal of CBI Mastery of subject content Mastery of English .

(2004) Content-Based Second Langue Teaching and Learning. &Austin. M.Content driven CBI Models Instruction in Subject + Language Language driven Total immersion in subject Language focused Content theme Haley. Boston: Pearson . T.H. Y.

not communicate Behaviorist influence. Learning is habit formation. Learn vocab & grammar to translate. Lessons based on dialogue and exercises Applied Linguistics Focus ion oral communication INSTRUCTIONAL ORIENTATION GRAMMAR-BASED METHODS Grammar Translation EMPIRICIST Notional-Functional Approach Audiolingual Methods Direct Method COMMUNICATIVE .Orientations to Language Learning PHILOSOPHICAL BASE Expansion of intellect.

ESL/EFL Teaching: Principles for Success . Silent Way Community Language Learning Total Physical Response Natural Approach CALLA Problem Posing Content-Based Language Teaching RATIONALIST Includes social/individual psychological aspects of learning and miscue analysis SOCIOCULTURAL PSYCHOLINGUISTIC Adapted from: Freeman & Freeman.Orientations to Language Learning PHILOSOPHICAL BASE INSTRUCTIONAL ORIENTATION METHODS Applies theories of the developmental process of L1 to L2 cognitive theories of learning.

CBI Influenced by Sociocultural theory of learning Psycholinguistic theory of language development .

Sociocultural Theory of Learning Language and culture central to human development Social interaction: Learning takes place through interaction with a more capable adult or peer. MA: MIT Press. L. Scaffolds are contextual. social. and temporary frameworks designed with a specific learning situation in mind. S. Thought and language. VYGOTSKY(1896-1934) V Vygotsky. . Cambridge. Zone of proximal development: A level beyond independent functioning of the learner. The distance between what the student can accomplish independently and what he or she can accomplish with assistance Scaffolding: Support and assistance to permit the student to perform at the next level of development. (1962).

Social interaction Classroom interactions Teacher-student Peer-Peer Student content .

Zone of proximal development Instruction one level above students’ current competence in -Content curriculum -Language curriculum -Literacy curriculum -Learning strategies Based on ongoing assessment .

Scaffolding Support learning through: Pedagogy Teaching learning strategies Modifications to content Structure of lessons Gradual release of responsibility .

use.Psycholinguistic Theory The study of the influence of psychological factors on the development. . and understanding of language.

LANGUAGE •Grammar •Pronunciation •Fluency •Sociolinguistic •Discourse •Strategic •Abstract thinking •Critical thinking Social Proficiency 2 . Language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters .3 years Academic language Proficiency 5 .8 years Adapted from. Power. Cummins. (2000). ad Pedagogy. J.

theoretical Specialized Language and Discourse Decontextualized Expository Cummins. J. Power. ad Pedagogy. (2000).CUMMINS THEORY OF SECOND LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY Social Language Face to Face interaction Concrete Meaning negotiated Contextualized Conversational Academic Language Presentations Abstract. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters . Language.

Academic Language and Literacy Academic language is the spectrum of words and phrases that help students organize and process core knowledge and skills in schools. . Academic Literacy is the specific language demands of reading. writing and oral participation characteristic of particular disciplines.

Content-Based Instruction Explicit attention to academic literacy and language development Subject area .

Academic Language Lexis Syntax Discourse patterns/text structure Academic language functions .

Academic Literacy Academic Reading and Writing Content Vocabulary Academic Thinking Skills Classroom Discussion Skills .

2004) Preparation language and content objectives vocabulary development. student connections ESL techniques Academic Literary Building Background Comprehensible Input Strategies Metacognitive and cognitive strategies .(Echevarria. Vogt. & Short.

& Short. Vogt.(Echevarria. 2004) Interaction oral language practice all 4 language skills meet objectives Academic Literary Practice & Application Lesson Delivery Review & Assessment review vocabulary and concepts .

Background Knowledge Content Culture Cognitive functions Discourse community Critical Thinking .

Activating Background Knowledge Connects to students’ personal experiences Connects to past lessons Focuses on academic vocabulary .

Comprehensible Input Modifications in syntax Reduction in new vocabulary One level beyond student’s current language proficiency Allows student to focus on content .

CBI Institute Plenary sessions provide theoretical overview of these principles Interactive sessions provide opportunities see the principles in action and practice activities based on theories. 2004) . Vogt. & Short. Focus on elements of Academic Literacy (Echevarria.

Focus of Today’s Workshop: Classroom Interactions Designing lessons to: To maximize opportunities to use and practice English Focus on language of content area Structure pair and group work to keep students on task and interacting .