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University of Florida

Need to predict & understand stress/strain distribution within

the pavement structure as they (σ & ε) relate to failure

(cracking & rutting)

Numerical Models

• Need model to compute deflections (δ) and strains (ε)

• Numerous models available with different:

– Capabilities

– Underlying assumptions What would be an

– Complexity ideal model?

– Material information requirements

IDEAL MODEL

Predicts Input Parameters

• Stresses • Static & dynamic loads

• Strains • Material properties

• Traffic However, can obtain

• Environment reasonable estimates!

No current model meets these requirements!

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

1. Available Models

• Multilayer Elastic Theory

• Finite Element Methods

• Viscoelastic Theory (time and temp.-dependent behavior)

• Dynamic Analysis (inertial effects)

• Thermal Models (temperature change)

• Reasonable Results

• Properties Relatively Simple to Obtain

How do we get E? Before

& after construction

E&ν Before: lab testing (MR)

After: field testing (FWD)

• Small trailer

• Dropping Weight

• Geophones

• Deflection Basin

Uses elastic theory to predict the deflection basin for the given load. Then

iterates with different moduli configurations until the calculated deflection

basin matches the measured.

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

2. Multilayer Elastic Theory

a = radius

q = pressure

Properties @ A = Properties @ B

E1, ν1 z1

E2, ν2 z2 Point B

Point A

z3

Assumptions (p. 60):

∞ • Each Layer

1

– Continuous ε z = (σ z − ν (σ r + σ t ))

– Homogeneous E

– Isotropic

– Linearly Elastic

– Material is weightless & infinite in areal extend

– Finite thickness (except last layer)

2. Multilayer Elastic Theory (cont.)

a = radius

q = pressure

E1, ν1 z1

E2, ν2 z2 Point B

Point A

E3, ν3

z3

Assumptions (cont.):

∞ • Surface stresses

– Circular

– Vertical

Why do we want full

– Uniformly distributed

friction between layers?

• Full friction between layers

• Each layer continuously supported

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

Units Guidelines

• Stress: lbs

– Reported in psi: psi =

in 2

• Strain: in

– Reported in µε: µε = microstrain = × 10 −6

in

• Deflections: in

– Reported in mils: mils =

1000

convert all of your answers to these units.

3. One-layer System

3.1 Based on Boussinesq (1885)

Half-space: infinite

Point load on an elastic half-space area & depth

• Examine σ distribution along Z & X

P 3 1 P

σz = 5

σz 2π z2

⎡ ⎛ r ⎞2 ⎤ 2

⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

σz z ⎢⎣ ⎝ z ⎠ ⎥⎦

Z

r Where:

– σz = Vertical stress

σz

– r = Radial distance from load

– z = Depth

– P = Point load

X

Notice that the stress distribution

is independent of E

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

3.2 One-layer Solutions (Foster & Ahlvin)

Developed charts to determine σz, σt, σr, τrz & w (ν=0.5)

Figures 2.2 – 2.6 • Axisymmetric loading:

2a – σz = Vertical stress

– σr = Radial stress

q – σt = Tangential stress

– τrz = Shear stress

– w = Deflection

• Pre-solved @ radial distances

σz z a

q

τrz 0

Depth

1a

σr σt 2a

r 3a 2a 1a 0

Offset

3.2 One-layer Solutions (Foster & Ahlvin)

Charts follow similar outline

(r) are expressed in

radial ratios

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

a

Given:

– Load, P = 9000 lbs q

– Pressure, q = 80 psi

σz z=6”

Find:

– Vertical Stress, σz @ z=6” & r=6”

r=6”

P 9000 9000

q= = a= ≅ 6in

A π × a2 π × 80

z/a = 6/6 =1

Figure 2.2 (vertical stress distribution)

r/a = 6/6 =1

3.2.1 Vertical Stress (cont)

z/a = 6/6 =1 σz 33 × 80

× 100% ≅ 33 σz = = 26.4psi

r/a = 6/6 =1 q 100

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

3.2.2 Deflection

Flexible Plate Rigid Plate

Rubber q q Steel

Deflection Profile

Ground Reaction

Which deflection is higher?

WRigid ≅ 79% ⋅ WFlexible

W0 =

( )

2 1 − ν 2 qa

W0 =

( )

π 1 − ν 2 qa

E 2E

1.5qa 1.18qa

W0 = W0 =

E E

3.2.2 Deflection (cont.)

a = 6”

How can we use one-layer

q = 80 psi theory to estimate the deflection

h1= 4” of the system?

h2= 8” Pavement

Structure

h3= 12”

We can assume the pavement

structure to be incompressible

A

Basically: δ surface ≡ δ A

∞

For this case (assuming one-layer):

q× a

δA = ×F Get F from Fig 2.6

E

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

3.2.2 Deflection (cont.)

Given:

z/a=24/6=4

r/a=0

Find:

F=0.37

3.2.2 Deflection (cont.)

a = 6”

• Examine two cases:

q = 80 psi

h1= 4”

Clay Dense Sand

h2= 8” E=2,500 E=25,000

80 × 6 80 × 6

h3= 12” w= 0.37 = 0.071 w = 0.37 = 0.0071

2500 25000

A

w=71 mils (High) w=7.1 mils (Low)

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

4. Stresses & Strains for Design

• Purpose of the pavement structure:

– Protect the subgrade; reduce stresses to a tolerable level to prevent

excessive settlement or collapse

4.1 Vertical Stress

• Vertical stress on top of subgrade; important in pvt design as

it accounts for permanent deformation (rutting)

• Allowable σz depends on E of the subgrade material

Vertical compressive strain (εc) used as a design criterion

a

– To combine the effect of stress (σ) and

q

stiffness (E)

– Effect of horizontal stress is relatively small; E1 h1

vertical strain caused primarily by vertical

stress E2 h2

1

εz = (σ z − ν (σ r + σ t )) ≅ σ z εc E3

E E

∞

4.2 Tensile Strain

• Tensile strain at the bottom of AC layer; used in pvt design as

the fatigue cracking criterion

• Two types of strain:

– Overall minor principal strain, ε3

– Horizontal ‘principal’ strain, εt (not an actual principal strain)

a

q

ε E1 h1

E2 h2

E3

∞

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

4.2.1 Overall Principal Strains

• Based on all 6 components of normal and shear stresses – σx,

σy, σz, τxy, τxz, τyz

− Solve cubic equation to get σ1, σ2, & σ3

1

− Then calculate principal strains ε 3 = (σ 3 − ν (σ1 + σ 2 ))

E

Minor principal strain (ε3) considered to be tensile strain

because tension is negative

a What is the orientation of ε3?

q

3 the horizontal plane

4.2.1 Horizontal ‘Principal’ Strain

• Based on the horizontal normal and shear stresses only – σx,

σy, τxy

• Horizontal ‘principal’ strain (εt) is slightly lower than the minor

principal strain (ε3)

– ε3 ≥ ε t

• Maximum horizontal strain on the X-Y plane

• Always acts on the horizontal plane

• Used by the program KENLAYER to predict fatigue failure

a

q 2

εx + εy ⎛ ε − εy ⎞

εt AC εt = − ⎜ x 2

⎟ + γ xy

2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

5. Two-layer Theory (Burmister)

Developed solutions for:

• Vertical deflections (flexible & rigid)

• Vertical stresses (limited # of cases)

− σ & δ highly dependent on stiffness ratio E1/E2

Notice the

importance of

stiffness ratio in

reducing stresses.

5.1 Two-Layer Deflections

• In one-layer theory we assumed that all layers could be

represented as one a

– δsurface = δtop of the subgrade

q

• For two-layer theory we have:

– Vertical Surface Deflection h1 E1

– Vertical Interface Deflection

E2

5.1.1 Surface Deflections

qa ∞

• Flexible Wmax = 1.5 F2

E2

qa

• Rigid Wmax = 1.18 F2

E2

• E2 accounts for most of the deflection (see following example)

• F2 takes into account the stiffness ratio

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

5.1.2 Surface Deflections Example

a=6”

q=80 psi

E1=50,000 psi 6”

E2=10,000 psi

∞

Given:

h1/a=6/6=1

E1/E2=5

Find:

F2=0.6

qa 6(80)

Wmax = 1.5 F2 = 1.5 0.6

E2 10000

Wmax = 0.0432" ≅ 43 ⋅ mils

5.1.3 Interface Deflections Example

• For the same example as above F

a=6”

q=80 psi

E1=50,000 psi 6”

h1/a

Given: ∞

h1/a=6/6=1 ;r/a=0

E1/E2=5

Find:

F=0.83

qa 6(80)

W= F= 0.83

E2 10000

W = 0.0398" ≅ 40 ⋅ mils

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

5.1.4 Surface Vs Interface Deflections

Compare the results from the example:

• Surface deflection = 43 mils

• Interface deflection = 40 mils Top layer compression = 3 mils

Compression percentages:

3

– Top Layer = × 100 ≅ 7%

43

40

– Subgrade Layer = × 100 ≅ 93%

43

5.2 Two-Layer Vertical Stress

a=6” What thickness do we have to

q=80 psi

use to protect the subgrade?

E1=500,000 psi h1

E2=5,000 psi

Maximum allowable ∞

σc for clay = 8 psi

Given:

σc/q=0.1

Fig 2.15

E1/E2=100

Find:

a/h1=1.15

6

h1 = = 5.2"

1.15

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

5.2 Critical Tensile Strain

a=6”

q=80 psi

εt E1=200,000 psi 6”

Strain Factor, Fe

E2=10,000 psi

e = εt= critical

tensile strain ∞

Given:

E1/E2=20

Fig 2.21

h1/a=1

Find:

Fe=1.2

q 80

εt = Fe = 1.2

E 200000

in

ε t = 0.00048 = 480µε

in

6. Failure Criteria

6.1 Fatigue Cracking Model

• Based on Miner’s cumulative damage concept

– Amount of damage expressed as a damage ratio predicted/allowable

load repetitions

f1 = Laboratory to field shift

( ) ( )

−f −f

Nf = f1 ε t 2 E1 3 factor

f2 & f3 =Determined from fatigue

( ) ( )

−3.291 −0.854

Nf = 0.0796 ε t E1 tests on lab specimens

6.2 Rutting Model

• Allowable number of load repetitions related to εc on top of

the subgrade

– Does not account for failure in other layers

Nd = f4 ( ε c )

− f5 f4 & f5= Predicted performance to

field observation shift factors

Nd = 1.365 × 10 −9 ( ε c )

−4.477

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

7. Sensitivity Analysis

• Sensitivity analyses illustrate the effect of various parameters

on pavement responses

• Variables to be considered:

– Layer thicknesses h1 & h2

– Layer moduli E1, E2, & E3

7.1 Effect of HMA Thickness

hcr

• Critical thickness where εt is max • Increasing h1 effectively reduces εc

• Above hcr, increasing h1 effectively when base is thin

reduces εt

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

7.2 Effect of Base Thickness

• Increase in h2 does not • Significant decrease of εc when h1

significantly decrease εt especially is low

when h1 is large

7.3 Effect of Base Modulus

• Increase in E2 significantly • Small decrease of εc when E1 is low

decreases εt when E1 is low

• Limits bending

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

7.4 Effect of Subgrade Modulus

• Minimal effect on εt • As expected, E3 has great effect on

εc independent of what E1 might be

8. Computer Program KENLAYER

Program should be on a disk at the back of your textbook

8.1 System

• Elastic multi-layer analysis system

• Elastic theory assumptions apply

– Load Æ Circular uniformly distributed

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

8.2 Loads

Circular, uniform pressure

PARAMETER ACTUAL LOAD

Y – Transverse

LOAD=1 Yw Dual wheel

X

Y

X

Xw

8.3 Material Properties

• Material types

– 1 = Linear elastic

– 2 = Nonlinear elastic

– 3 = Linear viscoelastic

– 4 = Combination of 2 & 3

1

σ ε 3

2

ε t

8.4 Input/Output

• Program LAYERINP creates the input file

• Run KENLAYER to perform the analysis

• Default name for the output file is LAYER.TXT

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

8.5 KENLAYER Example 1

Given: a = 4.5”

• Three-layer system q = 100 psi

• Uniform circular load

h1= 6” E1=500,000 psi ; ν1=0.4

• Elastic material

• Maximum deflection

• Critical tensile strain

• Critical compressive strain E3=10,000 psi ; ν3=0.5

∞

Where would the critical/maximum values occur?

– Maximum deflection δmax @ z=0

– Critical tensile strain εt @ bottom of AC layer

– Critical compressive strain εc @ top of subgrade

8.5 KENLAYER Example 1 (cont.)

Procedure:

• Create input file

– LAYERINP.EΧΕ

• Run the analysis

– KENLAYER.EXE

• Retrieve the output

– LAYER.TXT

Output format:

• Single wheel load is analyzed in axisymmetric space

• Sign convention: Is there a way to find out?

– Positive (+) = Compression

– Negative (-) = Tension

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

8.6 KENLAYER Example 2

Given:

14” 4”

• Three-layer system q=100 psi

• Dual wheel load a=4 in

• Elastic material x x x x

4” E1=500,000 psi

Calculate: ν1 =0.4

1. δmax x x x x

2. εt

3. εc 8” E2=15,000 psi

ν2 =0.5

x x x x

Where would the E3=5,000 psi Check output

critical/maximum ∞

ν3 =0.5

values occur?

Plane of

Symmetry

8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.)

Procedure:

• Create input file

– LAYERINP.EΧΕ

• Run the analysis

– KENLAYER.EXE

• Retrieve the output

– LAYER.TXT

Output format:

• Dual wheel load is analyzed in spatial coordinates

• Sign convention remains the same:

– Positive (+) = Compression

– Negative (-) = Tension

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.)

Output format:

• Results for each point (X,Y) at each requested depth (z)

• Principal stresses and strains

δ σz σ1 σ2 σ3 εz ε1 ε3 εh

τ σ1 − σ3 for cracking & rutting?

τmax =

τmax 2

planes where τ = 0

σ3 σ2 σ1 σ

8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.)

Output @ Location (0,7,12.05)

σ1

σ1 = 6.72 psi Can we use the principal

σ3 stresses to calculate vertical

σ2 = 2.04 psi

σ2 strain?

σ3 = 1.47 psi

1

εz = (σ z − 0.4(σ x + σ y ))

E

1

εz = (6.72 − 0.4(2.04 + 1.47 )) = 993 ⋅ µε

5000

= 992.2 µε (output)

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

8.7 KENOUT

Kenout is a data manipulation program geared to help you post

process your data

Procedure:

• Rename the KENLAYER output file (LAYER.TXT) to something

relevant to your problem (i.e. Example2)

• Run the Kenout.exe program

• The program then asks for the filename to be read (Example2

– no .txt extension needed)

• Then it prompts you to give a new filename to store the

reduced data (i.e. Ex2 – again, no extension needed)

Output format:

• Original file – Example2

• Kenout – KENOUT.EXE

• Modified file – Ex2

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