Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

Dr. Christos Drakos University of Florida

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis Need to predict & understand stress/strain distribution within the pavement structure as they (σ & ε) relate to failure (cracking & rutting) Numerical Models • Need model to compute deflections (δ) and strains (ε) • Numerous models available with different:
What would be an ideal model?

– Capabilities – Underlying assumptions – Complexity – Material information requirements IDEAL MODEL Predicts Input Parameters • Stresses • Static & dynamic loads • Strains • Material properties • Traffic • Environment

However, can obtain reasonable estimates!

No current model meets these requirements!

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 1. Available Models • • • • • Multilayer Elastic Theory Finite Element Methods Viscoelastic Theory (time and temp.-dependent behavior) Dynamic Analysis (inertial effects) Thermal Models (temperature change)

Most widely used

• Reasonable Results • Properties Relatively Simple to Obtain
How do we get E? Before & after construction

E&ν

Before: lab testing (MR) After: field testing (FWD)

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis Falling Weight Deflectometer

• • • •

Small trailer Dropping Weight Geophones Deflection Basin

Uses elastic theory to predict the deflection basin for the given load. Then iterates with different moduli configurations until the calculated deflection basin matches the measured.

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 2. Multilayer Elastic Theory
a = radius q = pressure E1, ν1 E2, ν2 E3, ν3 ∞ z1 z2 z3
Point B Same properties in all directions Properties @ A = Properties @ B

Point A

Assumptions (p. 60):

Hooke’s Law

• Each Layer 1 – Continuous ε z = (σ z − ν (σ r + σ t )) – Homogeneous E – Isotropic – Linearly Elastic – Material is weightless & infinite in areal extend – Finite thickness (except last layer)

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 2. Multilayer Elastic Theory (cont.)
a = radius q = pressure E1, ν1 E2, ν2 E3, ν3 ∞ z1 z2 z3
Point B

Point A

Assumptions (cont.):

• Surface stresses – Circular – Vertical Why do we want full – Uniformly distributed friction between layers? • Full friction between layers • Each layer continuously supported

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis Units Guidelines • Stress: • Strain:
– Reported in psi:

psi =

lbs in 2 in × 10 −6 in

– Reported in µε:

µε = microstrain =
in 1000

• Deflections:

– Reported in mils:

mils =

For homework, exams, and projects, you are expected to convert all of your answers to these units.

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3. One-layer System 3.1 Based on Boussinesq (1885) Point load on an elastic half-space
• Examine σ distribution along Z & X σz Z σz X σz r P z

Half-space: infinite area & depth

σz =

3 2π

1 ⎡ ⎛ r ⎞2 ⎤ ⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝z⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
5 2

P z2

Where:
– – – –

σz = Vertical stress r = Radial distance from load z = Depth P = Point load

Notice that the stress distribution is independent of E

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2 One-layer Solutions (Foster & Ahlvin) Developed charts to determine σz, σt, σr, τrz & w (ν=0.5)
Figures 2.2 – 2.6 2a q
• • Axisymmetric loading: – σz = Vertical stress – σr = Radial stress – σt = Tangential stress – τrz = Shear stress – w = Deflection Pre-solved @ radial distances

σz τrz σr
r

z
0

a q Depth
1a 2a 3a 2a 1a 0

σt

Offset

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2 One-layer Solutions (Foster & Ahlvin) Charts follow similar outline
Depth (z) and offset (r) are expressed in radial ratios

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2.1 Vertical Stress Given:
– Load, P = 9000 lbs – Pressure, q = 80 psi σz r=6” a q z=6”

Find:

– Vertical Stress, σz @ z=6” & r=6” First, we need to calculate the radius:
q= P 9000 = A π × a2

a=

9000 ≅ 6in π × 80

z/a = 6/6 =1 r/a = 6/6 =1

Figure 2.2 (vertical stress distribution)

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2.1 Vertical Stress (cont) σz z/a = 6/6 =1 × 100% ≅ 33 r/a = 6/6 =1 q

σz =

33 × 80 = 26.4psi 100

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2.2 Deflection
Flexible Plate Rubber q Deflection Profile Ground Reaction Which deflection is higher? q Rigid Plate Steel

W0 =

2 1 − ν 2 qa E

(

)

WRigid ≅ 79% ⋅ WFlexible
W0 =

π 1 − ν 2 qa 2E

(

)

W0 =

1.5qa E

W0 =

1.18qa E

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2.2 Deflection (cont.)
a = 6” q = 80 psi h1= 4” h2= 8” h3= 12”

How can we use one-layer theory to estimate the deflection of the system? Pavement Structure We can assume the pavement structure to be incompressible Basically:

A ∞ For this case (assuming one-layer):

δ surface ≡ δ A

δA =

q× a ×F E

Get F from Fig 2.6

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2.2 Deflection (cont.)
Given: z/a=24/6=4 r/a=0 Find: F=0.37

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 3.2.2 Deflection (cont.)
a = 6” q = 80 psi h1= 4” h2= 8” h3= 12”

• Examine two cases: Clay
E=2,500

Dense Sand
E=25,000

w=

80 × 6 80 × 6 0.37 = 0.071 w = 0.37 = 0.0071 2500 25000
w=7.1 mils (Low)

A ∞

w=71 mils (High)

Subgrade quality is very important in pavement design

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 4. Stresses & Strains for Design • Purpose of the pavement structure:

– Protect the subgrade; reduce stresses to a tolerable level to prevent excessive settlement or collapse

4.1 Vertical Stress • Vertical stress on top of subgrade; important in pvt design as it accounts for permanent deformation (rutting) • Allowable σz depends on E of the subgrade material Vertical compressive strain (εc) used as a design criterion
– To combine the effect of stress (σ) and stiffness (E) – Effect of horizontal stress is relatively small; vertical strain caused primarily by vertical stress
a q E1 E2 h1 h2

εz =

1 (σ z − ν (σ r + σ t )) ≅ σ z E E

εc

E3

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 4.2 Tensile Strain • Tensile strain at the bottom of AC layer; used in pvt design as the fatigue cracking criterion • Two types of strain:
– Overall minor principal strain, ε3 – Horizontal ‘principal’ strain, εt (not an actual principal strain)

Horizontal ‘principal’ strain (εt) used as a design criterion.
a q

ε

E1 E2 E3

h1 h2

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 4.2.1 Overall Principal Strains • Based on all 6 components of normal and shear stresses – σx, σy, σz, τxy, τxz, τyz
− Solve cubic equation to get σ1, σ2, & σ3 − Then calculate principal strains ε 3 =

1 (σ 3 − ν (σ1 + σ 2 )) E

Minor principal strain (ε3) considered to be tensile strain because tension is negative
a q

What is the orientation of ε3? Minor principal strain (ε3) does not always act on the horizontal plane

εε 3 3

AC

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 4.2.1 Horizontal ‘Principal’ Strain • Based on the horizontal normal and shear stresses only – σx, σy, τxy • Horizontal ‘principal’ strain (εt) is slightly lower than the minor principal strain (ε3) – ε3 ≥ ε t • Maximum horizontal strain on the X-Y plane • Always acts on the horizontal plane • Used by the program KENLAYER to predict fatigue failure
a q

εt

AC

εt =

εx + εy 2

⎛ ε − εy ⎞ 2 − ⎜ x ⎟ + γ xy ⎝ 2 ⎠

2

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5. Two-layer Theory (Burmister) Developed solutions for: • Vertical deflections (flexible & rigid) • Vertical stresses (limited # of cases)

− σ & δ highly dependent on stiffness ratio E1/E2

Notice the importance of stiffness ratio in reducing stresses.

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.1 Two-Layer Deflections • In one-layer theory we assumed that all layers could be represented as one a • For two-layer theory we have:
– Vertical Surface Deflection – Vertical Interface Deflection
qa F2 E2 qa = 1.18 F2 E2

– δsurface = δtop of the subgrade

q h1

E1 E2

5.1.1 Surface Deflections
• Flexible Wmax = 1.5 • Rigid
Wmax

Why use E2 for surface deflection? • E2 accounts for most of the deflection (see following example) • F2 takes into account the stiffness ratio

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.1.2 Surface Deflections Example
a=6” q=80 psi

E1=50,000 psi E2=10,000 psi

6”

∞ Given: h1/a=6/6=1 E1/E2=5 Find: F2=0.6 qa 6(80) Wmax = 1.5 F2 = 1.5 0.6 E2 10000

Wmax = 0.0432" ≅ 43 ⋅ mils

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.1.3 Interface Deflections Example
• For the same example as above
a=6” q=80 psi

F

E1=50,000 psi E2=10,000 psi Given: h1/a=6/6=1 ;r/a=0 E1/E2=5 Find: F=0.83 qa 6(80) W= F= 0.83 E2 10000

6”

W = 0.0398" ≅ 40 ⋅ mils

h1/a

Offset

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.1.4 Surface Vs Interface Deflections Compare the results from the example: • Surface deflection = 43 mils Top layer compression = 3 mils • Interface deflection = 40 mils Compression percentages:
– Top Layer =

3 × 100 ≅ 7% 43 40 × 100 ≅ 93% 43

– Subgrade Layer =

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.2 Two-Layer Vertical Stress
a=6” q=80 psi

What thickness do we have to use to protect the subgrade?

E1=500,000 psi h1 E2=5,000 psi Maximum allowable σc for clay = 8 psi Given: σc/q=0.1 E1/E2=100 Find: a/h1=1.15

Fig 2.15

h1 =

6 = 5.2" 1.15

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 5.2 Critical Tensile Strain
a=6” q=80 psi

e = εt= critical ∞ tensile strain Given: E1/E2=20 Fig 2.21 h1/a=1 Find: Fe=1.2

E2=10,000 psi

q 80 Fe = 1.2 E 200000 in ε t = 0.00048 = 480µε in εt =

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 6. Failure Criteria 6.1 Fatigue Cracking Model • Based on Miner’s cumulative damage concept

– Amount of damage expressed as a damage ratio predicted/allowable load repetitions f1 = Laboratory to field shift −f −f Nf = f1 ε t 2 E1 3 factor f2 & f3 =Determined from fatigue −3.291 −0.854 Nf = 0.0796 ε t E1 tests on lab specimens

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

6.2 Rutting Model • Allowable number of load repetitions related to εc on top of the subgrade
– Does not account for failure in other layers

Nd = 1.365 × 10 −9 ( ε c )

Nd = f4 ( ε c )

− f5 −4.477

Strain Factor, Fe

εt E1=200,000 psi 6”

f4 & f5= Predicted performance to field observation shift factors

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7. Sensitivity Analysis • Sensitivity analyses illustrate the effect of various parameters on pavement responses • Variables to be considered:
– Layer thicknesses h1 & h2 – Layer moduli E1, E2, & E3

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7.1 Effect of HMA Thickness

hcr Tensile Strain (εt) • Critical thickness where εt is max • Above hcr, increasing h1 effectively reduces εt Compressive Strain (εc) • Increasing h1 effectively reduces εc when base is thin

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7.2 Effect of Base Thickness

Tensile Strain (εt) • Increase in h2 does not significantly decrease εt especially when h1 is large

Compressive Strain (εc) • Significant decrease of εc when h1 is low

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7.3 Effect of Base Modulus

Tensile Strain (εt) • Increase in E2 significantly decreases εt when E1 is low • Limits bending

Compressive Strain (εc) • Small decrease of εc when E1 is low

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 7.4 Effect of Subgrade Modulus

Tensile Strain (εt) • Minimal effect on εt

Compressive Strain (εc) • As expected, E3 has great effect on εc independent of what E1 might be

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8. Computer Program KENLAYER Program should be on a disk at the back of your textbook 8.1 System • Elastic multi-layer analysis system • Elastic theory assumptions apply
– Load

Circular uniformly distributed

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.2 Loads Circular, uniform pressure
PARAMETER LOAD=0 Y LOAD=1 Yw ACTUAL LOAD

Single wheel
X – Longitudinal (direction of traffic) Y – Transverse

Dual wheel
X Y

LOAD=2

Yw

Dual tandem
X Xw

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.3 Material Properties • Material types
– – – – 1 2 3 4 = = = =

Linear elastic Nonlinear elastic Linear viscoelastic Combination of 2 & 3 1 2

σ

ε

3

ε 8.4 Input/Output • Program LAYERINP creates the input file • Run KENLAYER to perform the analysis • Default name for the output file is LAYER.TXT

t

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.5 KENLAYER Example 1 Given:
• Three-layer system • Uniform circular load • Elastic material
h1= 6” h2= 12” a = 4.5” q = 100 psi E1=500,000 psi ; ν1=0.4 E2=50,000 psi ; ν2=0.5

Calculate:

• Maximum deflection • Critical tensile strain • Critical compressive strain

E3=10,000 psi ; ν3=0.5

Where would the critical/maximum values occur?
– Maximum deflection δmax @ z=0 – Critical tensile strain εt @ bottom of AC layer – Critical compressive strain εc @ top of subgrade

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.5 KENLAYER Example 1 (cont.) Procedure: • Create input file • Run the analysis • Retrieve the output
– LAYER.TXT – KENLAYER.EXE – LAYERINP.EΧΕ

Output format: • Single wheel load is analyzed in axisymmetric space • Sign convention: Is there a way to find out?
– Positive (+) = Compression – Negative (-) = Tension

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 Given:
• • • Three-layer system Dual wheel load Elastic material

14”

4”

Calculate:
1. δmax 2. εt 3. εc

4”

E1=500,000 psi ν1 =0.4 E2=15,000 psi ν2 =0.5 E3=5,000 psi ν3 =0.5

x x

x x x x x x

q=100 psi a=4 in

8”

x

Where would the critical/maximum values occur?

x x x Check output

Plane of Symmetry

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.) Procedure: • Create input file • Run the analysis • Retrieve the output
– LAYER.TXT – KENLAYER.EXE – LAYERINP.EΧΕ

Output format: • Dual wheel load is analyzed in spatial coordinates • Sign convention remains the same:
– Positive (+) = Compression – Negative (-) = Tension

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.) Output format: • Results for each point (X,Y) at each requested depth (z) • Principal stresses and strains σ1 σ2 σ3 εz ε1 ε3 δ σz

εh

τ
τmax

τmax =

σ1 − σ3
2

Which strain considered critical for cracking & rutting?

Principal Stresses act on planes where τ = 0 σ3 σ2 σ1

σ

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.) Output @ Location (0,7,12.05)
σ1 = 6.72 psi σ2 = 2.04 psi σ3 = 1.47 psi
σ1 σ3 σ2

Can we use the principal stresses to calculate vertical strain?

1 (σ z − 0.4(σ x + σ y )) E 1 (6.72 − 0.4(2.04 + 1.47 )) = 993 ⋅ µε εz = 5000 = 992.2 µε (output) εz =

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis 8.7 KENOUT Kenout is a data manipulation program geared to help you post process your data Procedure: • Rename the KENLAYER output file (LAYER.TXT) to something relevant to your problem (i.e. Example2) • Run the Kenout.exe program • The program then asks for the filename to be read (Example2 – no .txt extension needed) • Then it prompts you to give a new filename to store the reduced data (i.e. Ex2 – again, no extension needed) Output format: • Original file – Example2 • Kenout – KENOUT.EXE • Modified file – Ex2

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful