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Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

Dr. Christos Drakos

University of Florida

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


Need to predict & understand stress/strain distribution within
the pavement structure as they (σ & ε) relate to failure
(cracking & rutting)
Numerical Models
• Need model to compute deflections (δ) and strains (ε)
• Numerous models available with different:
– Capabilities
– Underlying assumptions What would be an
– Complexity ideal model?
– Material information requirements
IDEAL MODEL
Predicts Input Parameters
• Stresses • Static & dynamic loads
• Strains • Material properties
• Traffic However, can obtain
• Environment reasonable estimates!
No current model meets these requirements!
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
1. Available Models
• Multilayer Elastic Theory
• Finite Element Methods
• Viscoelastic Theory (time and temp.-dependent behavior)
• Dynamic Analysis (inertial effects)
• Thermal Models (temperature change)

Most widely used


• Reasonable Results
• Properties Relatively Simple to Obtain
How do we get E? Before
& after construction
E&ν Before: lab testing (MR)
After: field testing (FWD)

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

Falling Weight Deflectometer

• Small trailer
• Dropping Weight
• Geophones
• Deflection Basin

Uses elastic theory to predict the deflection basin for the given load. Then
iterates with different moduli configurations until the calculated deflection
basin matches the measured.
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
2. Multilayer Elastic Theory
a = radius

q = pressure
Properties @ A = Properties @ B
E1, ν1 z1

Same properties in all directions


E2, ν2 z2 Point B
Point A

E3, ν3 Hooke’s Law


z3
Assumptions (p. 60):
∞ • Each Layer
1
– Continuous ε z = (σ z − ν (σ r + σ t ))
– Homogeneous E
– Isotropic
– Linearly Elastic
– Material is weightless & infinite in areal extend
– Finite thickness (except last layer)

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


2. Multilayer Elastic Theory (cont.)
a = radius

q = pressure
E1, ν1 z1

E2, ν2 z2 Point B
Point A

E3, ν3
z3
Assumptions (cont.):
∞ • Surface stresses
– Circular
– Vertical
Why do we want full
– Uniformly distributed
friction between layers?
• Full friction between layers
• Each layer continuously supported
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

Units Guidelines
• Stress: lbs
– Reported in psi: psi =
in 2

• Strain: in
– Reported in µε: µε = microstrain = × 10 −6
in

• Deflections: in
– Reported in mils: mils =
1000

For homework, exams, and projects, you are expected to


convert all of your answers to these units.

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


3. One-layer System
3.1 Based on Boussinesq (1885)
Half-space: infinite
Point load on an elastic half-space area & depth
• Examine σ distribution along Z & X

P 3 1 P
σz = 5
σz 2π z2
⎡ ⎛ r ⎞2 ⎤ 2

⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
σz z ⎢⎣ ⎝ z ⎠ ⎥⎦
Z
r Where:
– σz = Vertical stress
σz
– r = Radial distance from load
– z = Depth
– P = Point load
X
Notice that the stress distribution
is independent of E
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
3.2 One-layer Solutions (Foster & Ahlvin)
Developed charts to determine σz, σt, σr, τrz & w (ν=0.5)
Figures 2.2 – 2.6 • Axisymmetric loading:
2a – σz = Vertical stress
– σr = Radial stress
q – σt = Tangential stress
– τrz = Shear stress
– w = Deflection
• Pre-solved @ radial distances
σz z a
q
τrz 0

Depth
1a
σr σt 2a

r 3a 2a 1a 0
Offset

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


3.2 One-layer Solutions (Foster & Ahlvin)
Charts follow similar outline

Depth (z) and offset


(r) are expressed in
radial ratios
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

3.2.1 Vertical Stress


a
Given:
– Load, P = 9000 lbs q
– Pressure, q = 80 psi
σz z=6”
Find:
– Vertical Stress, σz @ z=6” & r=6”
r=6”

First, we need to calculate the radius:


P 9000 9000
q= = a= ≅ 6in
A π × a2 π × 80

z/a = 6/6 =1
Figure 2.2 (vertical stress distribution)
r/a = 6/6 =1

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


3.2.1 Vertical Stress (cont)
z/a = 6/6 =1 σz 33 × 80
× 100% ≅ 33 σz = = 26.4psi
r/a = 6/6 =1 q 100
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis

3.2.2 Deflection
Flexible Plate Rigid Plate

Rubber q q Steel

Deflection Profile

Ground Reaction
Which deflection is higher?
WRigid ≅ 79% ⋅ WFlexible

W0 =
( )
2 1 − ν 2 qa
W0 =
( )
π 1 − ν 2 qa
E 2E
1.5qa 1.18qa
W0 = W0 =
E E

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


3.2.2 Deflection (cont.)
a = 6”
How can we use one-layer
q = 80 psi theory to estimate the deflection
h1= 4” of the system?
h2= 8” Pavement
Structure
h3= 12”
We can assume the pavement
structure to be incompressible
A

Basically: δ surface ≡ δ A

For this case (assuming one-layer):
q× a
δA = ×F Get F from Fig 2.6
E
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
3.2.2 Deflection (cont.)

Given:
z/a=24/6=4
r/a=0
Find:
F=0.37

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


3.2.2 Deflection (cont.)
a = 6”
• Examine two cases:
q = 80 psi
h1= 4”
Clay Dense Sand
h2= 8” E=2,500 E=25,000
80 × 6 80 × 6
h3= 12” w= 0.37 = 0.071 w = 0.37 = 0.0071
2500 25000
A
w=71 mils (High) w=7.1 mils (Low)

Subgrade quality is very important in pavement design


Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
4. Stresses & Strains for Design
• Purpose of the pavement structure:
– Protect the subgrade; reduce stresses to a tolerable level to prevent
excessive settlement or collapse
4.1 Vertical Stress
• Vertical stress on top of subgrade; important in pvt design as
it accounts for permanent deformation (rutting)
• Allowable σz depends on E of the subgrade material
Vertical compressive strain (εc) used as a design criterion
a
– To combine the effect of stress (σ) and
q
stiffness (E)
– Effect of horizontal stress is relatively small; E1 h1
vertical strain caused primarily by vertical
stress E2 h2
1
εz = (σ z − ν (σ r + σ t )) ≅ σ z εc E3
E E

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


4.2 Tensile Strain
• Tensile strain at the bottom of AC layer; used in pvt design as
the fatigue cracking criterion
• Two types of strain:
– Overall minor principal strain, ε3
– Horizontal ‘principal’ strain, εt (not an actual principal strain)

Horizontal ‘principal’ strain (εt) used as a design criterion.

a
q
ε E1 h1

E2 h2

E3

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
4.2.1 Overall Principal Strains
• Based on all 6 components of normal and shear stresses – σx,
σy, σz, τxy, τxz, τyz
− Solve cubic equation to get σ1, σ2, & σ3
1
− Then calculate principal strains ε 3 = (σ 3 − ν (σ1 + σ 2 ))
E
Minor principal strain (ε3) considered to be tensile strain
because tension is negative
a What is the orientation of ε3?
q

εε3 AC Minor principal strain (ε3) does not always act on


3 the horizontal plane

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


4.2.1 Horizontal ‘Principal’ Strain
• Based on the horizontal normal and shear stresses only – σx,
σy, τxy
• Horizontal ‘principal’ strain (εt) is slightly lower than the minor
principal strain (ε3)
– ε3 ≥ ε t
• Maximum horizontal strain on the X-Y plane
• Always acts on the horizontal plane
• Used by the program KENLAYER to predict fatigue failure
a
q 2
εx + εy ⎛ ε − εy ⎞
εt AC εt = − ⎜ x 2
⎟ + γ xy
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
5. Two-layer Theory (Burmister)
Developed solutions for:
• Vertical deflections (flexible & rigid)
• Vertical stresses (limited # of cases)
− σ & δ highly dependent on stiffness ratio E1/E2

Notice the
importance of
stiffness ratio in
reducing stresses.

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


5.1 Two-Layer Deflections
• In one-layer theory we assumed that all layers could be
represented as one a
– δsurface = δtop of the subgrade
q
• For two-layer theory we have:
– Vertical Surface Deflection h1 E1
– Vertical Interface Deflection
E2
5.1.1 Surface Deflections
qa ∞
• Flexible Wmax = 1.5 F2
E2
qa
• Rigid Wmax = 1.18 F2
E2

Why use E2 for surface deflection?


• E2 accounts for most of the deflection (see following example)
• F2 takes into account the stiffness ratio
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
5.1.2 Surface Deflections Example
a=6”
q=80 psi

E1=50,000 psi 6”

E2=10,000 psi


Given:
h1/a=6/6=1
E1/E2=5
Find:
F2=0.6
qa 6(80)
Wmax = 1.5 F2 = 1.5 0.6
E2 10000
Wmax = 0.0432" ≅ 43 ⋅ mils

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


5.1.3 Interface Deflections Example
• For the same example as above F
a=6”
q=80 psi

E1=50,000 psi 6”

E2=10,000 psi Offset


h1/a

Given: ∞
h1/a=6/6=1 ;r/a=0
E1/E2=5
Find:
F=0.83
qa 6(80)
W= F= 0.83
E2 10000
W = 0.0398" ≅ 40 ⋅ mils
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
5.1.4 Surface Vs Interface Deflections
Compare the results from the example:
• Surface deflection = 43 mils
• Interface deflection = 40 mils Top layer compression = 3 mils

Compression percentages:
3
– Top Layer = × 100 ≅ 7%
43
40
– Subgrade Layer = × 100 ≅ 93%
43

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


5.2 Two-Layer Vertical Stress
a=6” What thickness do we have to
q=80 psi
use to protect the subgrade?

E1=500,000 psi h1

E2=5,000 psi

Maximum allowable ∞
σc for clay = 8 psi

Given:
σc/q=0.1
Fig 2.15
E1/E2=100

Find:
a/h1=1.15
6
h1 = = 5.2"
1.15
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
5.2 Critical Tensile Strain
a=6”
q=80 psi

εt E1=200,000 psi 6”

Strain Factor, Fe
E2=10,000 psi
e = εt= critical
tensile strain ∞
Given:
E1/E2=20
Fig 2.21
h1/a=1
Find:
Fe=1.2
q 80
εt = Fe = 1.2
E 200000
in
ε t = 0.00048 = 480µε
in

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


6. Failure Criteria
6.1 Fatigue Cracking Model
• Based on Miner’s cumulative damage concept
– Amount of damage expressed as a damage ratio predicted/allowable
load repetitions
f1 = Laboratory to field shift
( ) ( )
−f −f
Nf = f1 ε t 2 E1 3 factor
f2 & f3 =Determined from fatigue
( ) ( )
−3.291 −0.854
Nf = 0.0796 ε t E1 tests on lab specimens
6.2 Rutting Model
• Allowable number of load repetitions related to εc on top of
the subgrade
– Does not account for failure in other layers

Nd = f4 ( ε c )
− f5 f4 & f5= Predicted performance to
field observation shift factors
Nd = 1.365 × 10 −9 ( ε c )
−4.477
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
7. Sensitivity Analysis
• Sensitivity analyses illustrate the effect of various parameters
on pavement responses
• Variables to be considered:
– Layer thicknesses h1 & h2
– Layer moduli E1, E2, & E3

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


7.1 Effect of HMA Thickness

hcr

Tensile Strain (εt) Compressive Strain (εc)


• Critical thickness where εt is max • Increasing h1 effectively reduces εc
• Above hcr, increasing h1 effectively when base is thin
reduces εt
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
7.2 Effect of Base Thickness

Tensile Strain (εt) Compressive Strain (εc)


• Increase in h2 does not • Significant decrease of εc when h1
significantly decrease εt especially is low
when h1 is large

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


7.3 Effect of Base Modulus

Tensile Strain (εt) Compressive Strain (εc)


• Increase in E2 significantly • Small decrease of εc when E1 is low
decreases εt when E1 is low
• Limits bending
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
7.4 Effect of Subgrade Modulus

Tensile Strain (εt) Compressive Strain (εc)


• Minimal effect on εt • As expected, E3 has great effect on
εc independent of what E1 might be

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


8. Computer Program KENLAYER
Program should be on a disk at the back of your textbook
8.1 System
• Elastic multi-layer analysis system
• Elastic theory assumptions apply
– Load Æ Circular uniformly distributed
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
8.2 Loads
Circular, uniform pressure
PARAMETER ACTUAL LOAD

LOAD=0 Single wheel

Y X – Longitudinal (direction of traffic)


Y – Transverse
LOAD=1 Yw Dual wheel
X
Y

LOAD=2 Yw Dual tandem


X

Xw

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


8.3 Material Properties
• Material types
– 1 = Linear elastic
– 2 = Nonlinear elastic
– 3 = Linear viscoelastic
– 4 = Combination of 2 & 3

1
σ ε 3
2

ε t
8.4 Input/Output
• Program LAYERINP creates the input file
• Run KENLAYER to perform the analysis
• Default name for the output file is LAYER.TXT
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
8.5 KENLAYER Example 1
Given: a = 4.5”
• Three-layer system q = 100 psi
• Uniform circular load
h1= 6” E1=500,000 psi ; ν1=0.4
• Elastic material

Calculate: h2= 12” E2=50,000 psi ; ν2=0.5


• Maximum deflection
• Critical tensile strain
• Critical compressive strain E3=10,000 psi ; ν3=0.5


Where would the critical/maximum values occur?
– Maximum deflection δmax @ z=0
– Critical tensile strain εt @ bottom of AC layer
– Critical compressive strain εc @ top of subgrade

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


8.5 KENLAYER Example 1 (cont.)
Procedure:
• Create input file
– LAYERINP.EΧΕ
• Run the analysis
– KENLAYER.EXE
• Retrieve the output
– LAYER.TXT

Output format:
• Single wheel load is analyzed in axisymmetric space
• Sign convention: Is there a way to find out?
– Positive (+) = Compression
– Negative (-) = Tension
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
8.6 KENLAYER Example 2
Given:
14” 4”
• Three-layer system q=100 psi
• Dual wheel load a=4 in
• Elastic material x x x x
4” E1=500,000 psi
Calculate: ν1 =0.4
1. δmax x x x x
2. εt
3. εc 8” E2=15,000 psi
ν2 =0.5
x x x x
Where would the E3=5,000 psi Check output
critical/maximum ∞
ν3 =0.5
values occur?
Plane of
Symmetry

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.)
Procedure:
• Create input file
– LAYERINP.EΧΕ
• Run the analysis
– KENLAYER.EXE
• Retrieve the output
– LAYER.TXT

Output format:
• Dual wheel load is analyzed in spatial coordinates
• Sign convention remains the same:
– Positive (+) = Compression
– Negative (-) = Tension
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.)
Output format:
• Results for each point (X,Y) at each requested depth (z)
• Principal stresses and strains
δ σz σ1 σ2 σ3 εz ε1 ε3 εh

Which strain considered critical


τ σ1 − σ3 for cracking & rutting?
τmax =
τmax 2

Principal Stresses act on


planes where τ = 0
σ3 σ2 σ1 σ

Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis


8.6 KENLAYER Example 2 (cont.)
Output @ Location (0,7,12.05)
σ1
σ1 = 6.72 psi Can we use the principal
σ3 stresses to calculate vertical
σ2 = 2.04 psi
σ2 strain?
σ3 = 1.47 psi

1
εz = (σ z − 0.4(σ x + σ y ))
E
1
εz = (6.72 − 0.4(2.04 + 1.47 )) = 993 ⋅ µε
5000
= 992.2 µε (output)
Topic 3 – Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis
8.7 KENOUT
Kenout is a data manipulation program geared to help you post
process your data
Procedure:
• Rename the KENLAYER output file (LAYER.TXT) to something
relevant to your problem (i.e. Example2)
• Run the Kenout.exe program
• The program then asks for the filename to be read (Example2
– no .txt extension needed)
• Then it prompts you to give a new filename to store the
reduced data (i.e. Ex2 – again, no extension needed)
Output format:
• Original file – Example2
• Kenout – KENOUT.EXE
• Modified file – Ex2