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Presenter: A. Zengeya, NSSA-Gweru NSSA-
Electrical safety encompasses among other aspects; design, selection, erection, operation, maintenance, inspection and testing of electrical equipment/installations. The objective of this presentation is to highlighting the basic measures that are very vital in protecting persons and property against the hazards that may arise from the use of electricity.
3. VOCABULARY Electricity: A form of energy passing from one point to the other in the form of an electric current Voltage: Electrical pressure Current: The quantity of electrons contained in the flow of energy Direct Current: Current which flows in one direction only. Alternating current: current where the direction of flow alters at regular intervals Conductor: Substance with low resistance to the flow of electricity 5 5/12/2011 Insulator: Substance with high resistance to the .
4.g. ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT A= Source of electrical current e. battery or generator C=Line/phase conductors conductors R=Appliance/Machine/Equipment v=Voltage i=Current 6 5/12/2011 .
5. DANGERS OF ELECTRICITY Contact burns Arc burns Radiation burns Sparks and arcing Shock/Electrocution Eye injuries caused by uv-radiation from arcs Fire 7 5/12/2011 .
Direct contact Indirect contact and corresponding protective measures 8 5/12/2011 .Dangerous Contact Standards and regulations distinguish two kinds of dangerous contact.
Direct Contact 9 5/12/2011 .
Indirect Contact 10 5/12/2011 .
The working environment also has a major impact on electrical safety.6. The principal protective measures of achieving the aforesaid are protection against direct contact and protection against indirect contact. CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICAL SAFETY Electrical safety is primarily concerned with protecting persons from electric shock and other dangers highlighted above. 11 5/12/2011 .
³Hazardous-live-parts shall not be accessible and accessible conductive parts shall not be hazardous.´ This requirement needs to apply under Normal conditions & under a single fault condition 12 5/12/2011 .Protection Against Electric Shock The fundamental rule of protection is provided by the document IEC 61140 which covers both electrical installations and electrical equipment.
a) PROTECTION AGAINST DIRECT CONTACT Proper insulation of live parts Protection by obstacles to prevent unintentional bodily approach/contact Protection by barriers/enclosures providing the relevant degree of protection Protection by position i. placing out of reach 13 5/12/2011 .e.
Protection Against Direct Contact( Insulation) 14 5/12/2011 .
Protection Against Direct Contact (Enclosures) 15 5/12/2011 .
or death by electrocution. and with sufficient rapidity to prevent injury to. highly sensitive fast tripping devices. based on the detection of residual currents to earth (which may or may not be through a human being or animal) are used to disconnect the power supply automatically. of a normally healthy human being 16 5/12/2011 .Additional Measures Against Direct Contact In order to protect users in such circumstances.
and are referred to as RCDs of high sensitivity 17 5/12/2011 .Additional Measures Against Direct Contact An additional measure of protection against the hazards of direct contact is provided by the use of residual current operating device. which operate at 30 mA or less.
4s) of supply Protection by use of doubleinsulated(class II) equipment.b) Protection Against Indirect Contact Protection by earthed equipotential bonding and automatic disconnection (0. Protection by non conducting location Protection by earth-free local equipotential bonding. Protection by electrical separation 18 5/12/2011 .
Automatic Disconnection Of A TT System 19 5/12/2011 .
20 5/12/2011 .Class II Equipment No conductive parts of a class II appliance must be connected to a protective conductor: A simple example is that of drawing a cable into a PVC conduit.
EarthEarth-Free Equipotential Bonding 21 5/12/2011 .
Shaver SeparationSocket Outlet 22 5/12/2011 .Electrical Separation.
Protection By Interposition Of Obstacles measure can only be applied in a dry location 23 5/12/2011 .
heating and air conditioning equipment. ducting. fuses. 24 5/12/2011 .c) Earthing Connect all extraneous conductive parts of the premises to the main earthing terminal of the electrical installation Extraneous conductive parts include water/gas/service pipes. etc. Maintenance of earth continuity is very vital. metallic structural parts. Protection achieved by use of overcurrent protective devices i.e. residual current devices. circuit breakers.
Earthing Connections 25 5/12/2011 .
Supplementary Equipotential Earthing 26 5/12/2011 .
The centre point of the secondary winding of the transformer providing the 110 volt supply is centre tapped to earth. Can be provided by means of small portable and mobile generator sets.Reduced Voltage Most commonly used is the 110 volt centre point earthed system. At no point of the 110 volt circuit can the voltage to earth exceed 55 volts. 27 5/12/2011 .
Extra Low Voltage Normally not exceeding 50 V a.c. SELV(50V) for swimming pools & amusement parks FELV(=<50V) for relays & contactors PELV(25V rms) for safety in high risk locations 28 5/12/2011 . or 120 V ripple free d.c.
Handling/using electrical appliances while bathing/wet.Unsafe Acts In The House Replacing fuses with wire or cigarette aluminum foils. 29 5/12/2011 . Relying on cheaper bush electricians for repairs. to maintain them in the on position. Supplying power to several appliances using one plug. Tieing or holding switches that keep tripping. Unplugging appliances by pulling at the cable.
Safe Acts In The House Switch off appliances not being used and plug the socket off Use approved adapters. Whenever in doubt. be sure the water is not in contact with a source of electricity. When entering a flooded room. 30 5/12/2011 . Disconnect appliance cords at the wall outlets and not at the appliances. switch off. Ensure cables are of the right size and length.
Provision of an isolator within 20 metres of the worker using the tool. 31 5/12/2011 . Residual Current Devices (Earth Leakage Protective Devices) can give additional protection where tools and equipment are used at mains voltage. Damaged cables should be replaced/repaired without delay.PORTABLE ELECTRIC TOOLS/EQUIPMENT They should be provided with contact voltage protection as highlighted above. Routine inspection and maintenance.
ensure no person is in the danger zone. Before switching on. Never wedge.MAINTENACE OF ELECTRICAL MACHINERY Switch off power to the machine in question. tie or override electrical switch gear. Check/confirm that the switches chosen were the right ones. Report immediately any faults & provide safety measure until fault is rectified. 32 5/12/2011 . Lock off the switch wherever a locking-off device is fitted. Place a danger notice on the switch.
33 5/12/2011 .PERMIT TO WORK SYSTEMS This should incorporate the following clearly defined stages. Completion of work and return to service. Withdrawal of plant/equipment from service. Comprehensive assessment of the work to be done. Physical. electrical and/or mechanical isolation of the plant.
If sufficiently high charges develop. 34 5/12/2011 . Insulators such as plastics are responsible for trapping the charges. they can cause electric shocks or spark ignition of flammable gases.STATIC ELECTRICITY Generation Generated when two dissimilar surfaces come together and are separated. The electric field so created is mostly a nuisance.
Static Electricity cont¶d Safety Measures Earthing Earthing of persons Using vessels or apparatus made of conductive materials. 35 5/12/2011 . Electrostatic eliminators.
from cloud-to-cloud or from cloudto-ground. 36 5/12/2011 .LIGHTNING Creation Lightning charges are build up in thunderstorm clouds Lightning itself is in actual fact the electrical discharge which takes place between these two opposite charges. Flashes of discharge may be within a cloud.
37 5/12/2011 .Lightning cont¶d Effect on Humans can be Fatal electric shock Burns Tearing of the flesh due to the explosive action of discharge.
38 5/12/2011 . metal-roofed buildings. persons should seek shelter under cover listed hereunder in order of priority: Reinforced concrete buildings. Large unprotected buildings. Large caves. buildings with lightning conductors. Cluster of trees or wood.Lightning cont¶d On hearing the rumble of thunder. Buildings with continuously bonded metal gutters and down-pipers. steel framed structures.
Lightning Back Current 39 5/12/2011 .
Lightning Protection 40 5/12/2011 .
41 5/12/2011 . ELECTROCUTION The human body acts as a volume conductor and hence offers little electrical resistance. It is quite essential to note that the let go current of a conductor held in the hand is usually not more than 1mA.ELECTRICAL SHOCK. Currents above this letter are therefore quite hazardous if not deadly. Most of the resistance is in fact in the skin.
Body Electrical Resistance Path of current flow through body Amount of current and duration of current flow Amount of current and duration of current flow 42 5/12/2011 . Electrocution cont¶d Seriousness of Electric Shock This is dependent on.Electrical Shock.
Electrocution cont¶d Concepts of Electrical Shock Asphyxia Respiratory Arrest Ventricular Fibrillation 43 5/12/2011 .Electrical Shock.
1A Maximum for safety Most serious/fatal accidents 0.Typical Responses to Current/voltage Voltage 15 V 20-25V 30V 70V 120V 200-240V Response Threshold of feeling Threshold of pain Current 0.005A - Muscular spasm(non.015A release) Minimum for death 0.002A 0.002-0.0.2A 44 5/12/2011 .
Non conductive head gear 45 5/12/2011 .PPC/E FOR ELECTRICAL WORK This shall include among others. Insulated tools Insulating material for covering live parts of equipment and floors at fixed electrical machinery/equipment Rubber gloves and rubber boots.
FIRSTFIRST-AID RULES Make sure its safe to approach by switching off current wherever possible. If not then render artificial respiration 46 5/12/2011 . place him/her in a recovery position and call for medical attention. If switch is not readily accessible then pull off victim using a suitable length of dry nonconducting material Check for breathing If victim is breathing.
Summary Protective measures are mostly preventive. Lack of proper maintenance Imprudence. A situation in which insulation is no longer effective 47 5/12/2011 . carelessness Normal (or abnormal) wear and tear Accidental contact Immersion in water. etc. but experience has shown that they are not infallible due to among others.
48 5/12/2011 .SUMMARY Electrical accidents are caused mostly through human error such as. negligence or carelessness Forgetfulness Experimenting Taking short cuts Selfishness Ignorance.
If corectly used. 49 5/12/2011 . Electrical accidents are minimal but fatalities are highly likely. abundant methods of rendering the equipment safe. electricity is one of the safest forms of energy available to man.Summary cont¶d The fundamental principle of electrical safety is to use as low voltages as possible Where the use of extra low voltage is not practicable. do exist.
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