©(First Edition) W.K.

Ng (Private), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: 1999: Free Distribution (First Reprint) WAVE Publications, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: 1999: Free Distribution (Second Reprint) Penang Buddhist Association, Penang, Malaysia: 2000: Free Distribution ©(Revised Edition) WAVE Publications, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: 2003: a gift in the public domain, the material cannot be copyrighted.

Knowing and Seeing
(Revised Edition)

The material in this book may be reproduced without the author’s permission. It is strongly recommended, however, that unauthorized changes and other misrepresentation of the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw’s teachings be avoided.

Talks and Questions-and-Answers at a Meditation Retreat in Taiwan by

The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw

A GIFT – NOT FOR SALE

A GIFT – NOT FOR SALE

Contents
page

Contents in Detail .................................................................................................................... v Index of Questions from Yogis ........................................................................................................... xi Bibliographical Abbreviations ............................................................................................. xvii List of Charts ..................................................................................................................... xviii Editorial Note ...............(Revised Edition) ...........................................................................xix Foreword .....................(First Edition) ............................................................................. xxiii Editorial Note ...............(First Edition) ...............................................................................xxv

Introduction .............(Revised Edition) ......................................................................................1
1: How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption ............................37

Questions and Answers 1 ..................................................................................59
2: How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects ...............................................67

Questions and Answers 2 ..................................................................................85
3: How You Develop the Sublime Abidings and Protective meditations ............97

Questions and Answers 3 ................................................................................115
4: How You Discern Materiality ................................................................................131

Questions and Answers 4 ................................................................................175
5: How You Discern Mentality ...................................................................................199

Questions and Answers 5 ................................................................................215
6:

How You See the Links of Dependent-Origination ...........................................227 Questions and Answers 6 ................................................................................237

7: How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna ...........................255

Questions and Answers 7 ................................................................................279
8: 9:

The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings ............................297 The Most Superior Type of Offering ....................................................................317

Appendix 1: Glossary of Untranslated Pāëi Terms ...................................................................341 Appendix 2: Contact Addresses .............................................................................................345

Knowing and Seeing

Contents
(in Detail)
page

Questions and Answers 11 ............................................... 59 2: How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects ............................................... 67
How You Develop the Thirty-Two Parts of the Body .................................... 67 The Three Entrances to Nibbāna .......................................................... 69 How You Develop Skeleton Meditation ......................................................... 70 —— " the Ten Kasinas ............................................................... 73 The Colour Kasinas ......................................................................................... 73 How You Develop the White Kasina ................................................... 73 — — " Remaining Colour Kasinas............................. 76 How You Develop the Earth Kasina .................................................... 77 — "— Water Kasina .................................................... 77 —— " Fire Kasina ....................................................... 78 — "— Wind Kasina ..................................................... 78 — "— Light Kasina ..................................................... 78 — "— Space Kasina .................................................... 79 The Four Immaterial Jhānas ............................................................................ 79 How You Develop the Base of Boundless Space ....................................... 79 — "— Base of Boundless Consciousness ......................... 81 — "— Base of Nothingness............................................... 81 — "— Base of Neither-perception-nor-non-perception .... 82

Index of Questions from Yogis ........................................................................................................... xi
Meditation (Practical) ........................................ xi Meditation (Doctrinal) ...................................... xii 1 Doctrine (Bodhisatta Path etc.) ..................... xiii Sundry .............................................................. xiii

Introduction .................................................................................................................................1
The Buddha’s Dispensation ............................................................................... 1 What Needs to be Fully Realized ...................................................................... 2 The First and Second Noble Truth ................................................................. 4 Knowing and Seeing the First Noble Truth ..................................................... 11 How You Know and See the First and Second Noble Truth ....................... 14 You Develop Concentration......................................................... 14 " Develop the Light of Wisdom .............................................. 15 " Protect Your Concentration .................................................. 16 " Penetrate to Ultimate Reality ............................................... 17 Penetrating to Ultimate Materiality ...................................... 17 — — " Ultimate Mentality........................................ 19 The Three Purifications ................................................................................ 24 Knowing and Seeing the Second and Third Noble Truth ............................... 25 How You Know and See the Third Noble Truth ......................................... 26 You Know and See Dependent Origination ................................ 29 " Practise Vipassanā ................................................................ 31 " Know and See the Unformed ............................................... 33 " Fully Realize the Four Noble Truths .................................... 34

Questions and Answers 21 ............................................... 85 3: How You Develop the Sublime Abidings and Protective meditations ............97
Introduction ...................................................................................................... 97 How You Develop Lovingkindness ................................................................ 97 Introduction .................................................................................................. 97 How You Develop Lovingkindness Person by Person ................................ 99 — — " Break Down the Barriers .......................................................... 102 The Twenty-Two Categories ..................................................................... 103 How You Develop the Unspecified and Specified .................................... 104 — — " Ten Directional Categories .................................. 105 How You Develop Compassion .................................................................... 106 — — " Appreciative Joy ............................................................ 107 — — " Equanimity..................................................................... 107 — — " The Four Protective Meditations ................................... 108 How You Develop Recollection-of-the-Buddha ................................ 109 — — " Foulness Meditation ........................................... 111 — — " Recollection of Death ......................................... 111 Summary ...................................................................................................... 112

1: How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption ........................37
Introduction ...................................................................................................... 37 Why Meditate? ...................................................................................... 37 What is Meditation? .............................................................................. 38 The Noble Eightfold Path ..................................................................... 38 How You Develop Concentration ................................................................ 41 How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing ..................................... 42 The Nimitta .................................................................................... 47 How You Balance the Five Controlling Faculties ........................ 50 — — " Seven Factors of Enlightenment ............... 54 How You Attain Jhāna .................................................................. 55

Questions and Answers 31 ............................................. 115

1

For untranslated Pāëi, please see Appendix 1, p.341

1

Please see index of questions from yogis, p. xi

v

vi

................................................................. 142 How You See the Twelve Characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................— — ..... 161 How You See Consciousness-Produced Materiality ....... 258 The Forty Perceptions ...... 213 Questions and Answers 51 ............... 200 How You Discern Jhāna Cognitive-processes ............. 268 How You Develop the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away According to the First Method of Dependent Origination .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... p................. 152 How You Analyse the Rūpa-kalāpas ..................................................................................................... 156 — — " Nutritive Essence ............................................................... 172 — — 4: — — " " Heart ....................... 211 Table 6: The Mind-Door Cognitive Process .................. 164 " — — " Nutriment— —....................................199 Introduction ......... 208 Table 5: The Five-Door Cognitive Process ............................................... 235 Questions and Answers 61 .... 264 How You Develop the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away According to the Fifth Method of Dependent Origination ............................................................................ 151 (Benefits of Concetration) ... 173 How You Discern Mind-Door Cognitive-processes ................................................................................................................................... 260 The Seven Ways for Mentality ................ xi 1 Please see index of questions from yogis................... 171 " — — 3: — — " " Body................................................255 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 264 Introduction ............................................. 157 How You Analyse Transparent-elements Materiality ................................................. 265 The Observation of the Nature of Arising .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 152 How You See the Four Elements....................... 199 The Four Stages to Discerning Mentality ... 274 You Review Your Knowledge...... 272 You Know the First Eleven Knowledges .............................................................................................................................. 237 7: How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna ...................... 151 Transparent and Opaque Rūpa-kalāpas ........... p.............. 155 — — " Flavour ................ 142 How You Develop Four-Elements Meditation .. 157 — — " Life-Faculty............................................... 167 Table 1: The Twenty-Eight Material Elements .......................................................... 140 " The Beginning of Vipassanā .............................................................................................................. 227 The Fifth Method .................................Contents (In Detail) Knowing and Seeing 4: How You Discern Materiality ........................ 150 Seeing the Body Transparent-element as One Block ..................................... 265 — — " Passing-Away ............................................... 155 — — " Odour .......................... 258 The Seven Ways for Materiality ............................... 256 — — " Promote Your Insight Knowledge ....................................................................... 273 You Know and See Nibbāna........................ 232 — — a Male Yogi Discerned .............. 150 How You See the Rūpa-kalāpas............... xi vii viii .......................................................................227 Introduction ......................................... 152 — — " Colour....................................................... 164 " Summary ..................................... 271 — — " Develop the Knowledge of Dissolution............................................................ 201 — — " Sensual Realm Cognitive-processes............... 266 — — " Arising And Passing-Away .................................. 234 The First Method........................ 138 " Nutriment............................................................................. 169 — — 2: The Basic Elements of the Eye ........... 135 Kamma-Produced Materiality.— —..................................and Sex-materiality ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 136 Temperature........................................................................................................................ 232 What a Female Yogi Discerned ..................................................................... 204 1 Please see index of questions from yogis.................. 269 How You Overcome the Ten Imperfections of Insight .................................................................................................................................. 139 " Consciousness........................... 132 The Elements of the Three Types of Rūpa-Kalāpa.......................................................................... 228 The Three Rounds of Dependent-Origination ................ 131 Three Types of Rūpa-Kalāpa ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 163 — — " Temperature............................................................................................................... 132 Materiality’s Four Types of Origin ......... 175 5: How You Discern Mentality.......... 232 " How You Discern More Past Lives ........... 148 How You See Ultimate Materiality ............................................................. 205 — — " Five-Door Cognitive-processes ........................ 144 The Ten Ways to Develop Your Concentration .......................................................... 204 Wise and Unwise Attention .................................... 255 How You Develop the Knowledge of Comprehension .....— —... 159 All the Elements in a Sense-Organ ................................................................... 233 How You Discern Your Future.................................................. 215 6: How You See the Links of Dependent-Origination....................................................................... 229 Examples ...............................................................................— — .......... 276 Questions and Answers 41 ......................................................... 206 How You Discern External Mentality ......... 228 How You Discern Your Past Life ... 262 How You Develop the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away ..........................................131 Introduction .....

............. 331 Offerings at Retreat .......................... 300 How We May Show Our Faith .............. 298 Our Duty as Buddhists ...................................................................... 318 Opportunities Not to Be Missed ............................................................................................................................................................................. 317 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 300 How We May Benefit the World ...................... 323 " Seven Kinds of Offering to the Sa ï ............................ 335 How You Make a Most Superior Offering .. 321 The Fourteen Types of Personal Offering .................................. 341 Appendix 2: Contact Addresses ..................................................................... 279 8: The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings.................... 317 The Disciple’s Debts to His Teacher ...............Contents (In Detail) Knowing and Seeing Questions and Answers 71 .............................................. 301 What We Must Learn and Practise ................................................................................ 338 Appendix 1: Glossary of Untranslated Pāëi ......... 302 The Basis for Practice ........................... 305 The Buddha’s Exhortations to the Saïgha ............................................................................................. 327 " Six Qualities of an Immeasurable Offering ....................................................................................................................................... 310 The Buddha’s Advice to Bhikkhus ................ 297 The Buddha Declares His Wishes ...................................................................................................................... 345 ix x ........... 333 The Giver’s Wishes..........297 The Buddha Relinquishes the Will to Live ................................................................................................................................ 302 Samatha and Vipassanā Meditation ........................... 334 The Most Superior of All Worldly Offerings .......................................................................................................... 326 gha " Four Kinds of Purification of Offering ....................................... 312 9: The Most Superior Kind of Offering .........

....... dependent-origination........ or using concentration to discern ultimate phenomena (paramattha dhamma)? .............................1 = Questions-&-Answers No.4: Can a yogi who has finished the course.....................122 3..............................................................4: Where does the (ānāpāna) nimitta come from? What makes it appear? ................... why not? ...................................................2: Does the sitting posture affect the ability for beginners to concentrate............... in meditation...... after attaining the fourth jhāna................................2: What is the difference between access concentration and absorption concentration? .............85 2...126 4........5: What are the seven stages of purification and sixteen insight-knowledges? .........................292 Meditation (Doctrinal) 1.............. to have a nimitta? .........................Knowing and Seeing Index of Questions from Yogis (Arranged sequentially according to subject.........................4: Does work for the Saï affect one’s meditation? Does it depend on the individual.125 3.59 1.............................................................. and heaviness in that sequence? Can one choose to start with any one of the characteristics? .........186 4.... can they enter jhāna? .................. mentality........ will his mind (citta) and view (diññ hi) change? .....................................11: Before we attain the fourth jhāna......................................117 3..........59 1...........1: How should a yogi who practises ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing)..........................86 2.....186 4.......................... skeleton...............3: What is the object of the fourth ānāpānā jhāna? If there is no breath in the fourth jhāna.. 1................................. Can we use foulness meditation (asubha)..................................................... after which work has no effect?...... to start with hardness.................................................... appear. their nature of impermanence.................................................... but who cannot see a nimitta........... gha or can one achieve a certain degree of concentration................................... four elements....285 7.........................................2: After finishing the meditation course....... images of events from more than thirty years back..........2: Which is easiest and quickest for the attainment of Nibbāna: using theory to perceive impermanence..........................................1: How do we.................... so that he can improve and enter jhāna? In other words............10: Can one practise Vipassanā while in the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception attainment (nevasaññ ā-nāsaññāyatana samāpatti)? In which sutta or other source can the answer be found? ..................................... can a yogi attain Path and Fruition Knowledges (magga ñāõa and phala ñāõa)? If not...... how can there be a nimitta? ............. and Vipassanā? ......7: When a yogi is able to discern rūpa-kalāpas or ultimate materiality.... attain the Knowledge Standing on Phenomena (dhammaññ hiti ñāõa)? If so..1: In ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing).................. suffering...........................) The first number refers to the talk...................................................5: Can one attain supramundane states with only access concentration? .... and let them disappear automatically? . many unwholesome thoughts still arise due to bad habits.8: How does concentration purify the mind (citta visuddhi)? What kinds of defilement (kilesa) are removed by concentration? ......................................... 2....................... there are the parikamma-nimitta.. but not yet attained Nibbāna...........................9: How does Vipassanā purify view (diñ ñ hi visuddhi)? What kinds of defilement (kilesa) are removed by Vipassanā? ..........4: Can one enter an immaterial jhāna attainment (arūpa jhāna samāpatti)......... the uggaha-nimitta......................................... after having discerned materiality and mentality.............................................................. decide when to go from one stage to another? ....................................... e............................................................................................... suffering.......................... Is this due to lack of mindfulness.............................219 6...285 7................62 2...................... in our daily life (outside a meditation retreat) we know that greed or hatred arises................... practise mindfulness of feeling (vedānanupassanā satipaññhāna) to attain supramundane states? .............................................. in the four stages of ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing)... For example.9: Are the methods for ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing) and four-elements meditation the same? Why must we practise four-elements meditation only after ānāpānasati? ................. and enter jhāna? There are many yogis who sit on a small stool to meditate.. which lets the mind leave the object? ..................121 3...........128 7.. and the pañ ibhāga-nimitta.....11: How should a yogi practise wise attention (yoniso manasikāra) in his daily life. and attain Nibbāna? Why do we before attaining Nibbāna need to practise meditation on the thirty-two parts of body..194 4.............2: Is it necessary.......280 7................................................. materiality............................237 6............................................62 3..................................... check himself physically and mentally....................................5: Under what conditions does a yogi drop... or regress from absorption to access concentration? Under what conditions does a yogi in access concentration attain absorption concentration? ...............................2 = Questions-&-Answers No...............g................3: Why...........115 3..............288 7.......1: How should beginners balance the faculties (indriya) of concentration and wisdom? How should they practise wisdom in ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing)? .......................................238 6........194 5.16: How to overcome the uninterested and bored mind state that occurs during long periods of meditation...........2 2................... what are the conditions needed to have a nimitta? ....4: Is there access concentration............ Question No.. and non-self................ go straight to discern the five aggregates.. white kasiõa..........9: Is it necessary when discerning the twelve characteristics in four-elements meditation............................ or staying alone in the forest? Is this kind of mind state an unwholesome dhamma?.............. must one practise the first and fifth methods of dependent-origination (pañ iccasamuppāda)? What are the first and fifth methods? ...................238 6..................... the second number to the question........... which the yogi had forgotten.........7: While meditating.. What is the parikamma-nimitta? Is the parikamma-nimitta always grey? What is the difference between the parikamma-nimitta and the uggaha-nimitta?........................................... and how in his Samatha-Vipassanā practice? .........................................................3: Under what conditions.. and non-self..........120 3.. or practise lovingkindness meditation directly from ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing)? ...........6: Can one with only momentary concentration (khaõika samādhi).....285 xi xii .......184 4.............................249 7..120 3................237 6....13: What is the difference between mundane jhānas (lokiya jhāna) and supramundane jhānas (lokuttara jhāna)? ................................................................ or in what state............. or lovingkindness meditation (mettā bhāvanā) to remove them? Or should we ignore them and just concentrate on our meditation subject.. roughness... 1....... can it regress? ..... Question No..10: Could the Sayadaw please explain the light experienced in meditation scientifically? .... and eradicate ignorance (avijjā).....1 Meditation (Practical) page 1....177 4.............. as well as absorption concentration at each of the four jhānas? What are their characteristics? .............. can we say that a meditation experience is access concentration or absorption concentration? ........92 3............2: Why don’t we...........

.... did he attain a path or was he just a worldling (puthujjana)? Why can a noble one (ariya) not become a bodhisatta? Can a disciple (sāvaka) change to become a bodhisatta? If not.... or are they on the wrong path? .... be without fear at that time..... if his concentration drops.... which the yogi had forgotten...... the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away..... Even if he loses his Samatha-Vipassanā due to negligence............................................................................... for example in an air crash........................ a noble (ariya) does not regress to become a worldling (puthujjana)..... Are these fixed laws in accordance with the law of impermanence?...........60 3......289 7....10: Practising four-elements meditation enables one to balance the four elements in the body...........250 xiii xiv ..... Beings are also infinite in number.. When one is sick....239 6...................175 4........ has schizophrenia................. when dying................10: Are all suttas taught by The Buddha only? .......... can one choose to not do so......................... So.............12: How does the bhavaï function in the sensual realms....3: Some say that while practising ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing) their soul goes out of the body.......... Is this phenomenon similar to that which occurs during meditation..........221 5............ Similarly...............9: An arahant can also give a definite prophecy.. a person has strong mindfulness..... because of a desire and vow to practise the bodhisatta path? 5.....6: When a person dies... This too is a natural fixed law. this is a law of nature (sammatta niyāma)................... in the Question-and-Answer session of June 2nd........................... what is the method? ..................... then at the time for him to come down to become Metteyya Buddha.. practise this type of meditation? If he can.....242 6.......................1: Is a bodhisatta.. can one practise four-elements meditation with strong mindfulness to cure the sickness?........... a worldling (puthujjana)? If Arimetteyya Bodhisatta is a worldling like us.) 4...................... and attain the Path Knowledge (maggañāõa)............................... one who has received a definite prophecy cannot abandon his bodhisatta practice.................7: After attaining the path and fruition..... immaga terial realms and supramundane realm? Would the Sayadaw please explain with examples? ........................... fine-material realms..... why not? When by following the Sayadaw’s teaching one is able to attain the Path and Fruition Knowledges of Stream-Entry (sotāpatti maggañāõa and sotāpatti phalañāõa).............................8: If............................ what is the definition of definite prophecy here? In which sutta or other source can this information be found?...................................1: The eight attainments (samāpatti) make it possible to attain the Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality (nāmarūpa pariccheda ñāõa)..........221 Was there a bodhisatta during The Buddha’s time? If so..................... stroke or malfunction of the brain and nerves. be reborn in a woeful state? In which sutta is this mentioned? ........ to practise the more than thirty types of meditation subject (kammañ ñ hāna)? What are the benefits in doing so?......................192 5.225 5.................... a kamma-nimitta may arise because of past wholesome or unwholesome kamma....................224 5....5: Is it possible to practise the path to liberation (vimuttimagga) and the path of bodhisatta [path to Buddhahood] at the same time? If so....................3: The round of rebirths (sa§sāra) is without beginning or end. that is..122 3..........11: Can a person who is mentally abnormal.......... depending on the power of one’s meditation................ other benefits to the eight attainments? ...............6: If one day we were to die in an accident...240 6............ The ‘Sotānugata Sutta’ says also that he will attain Nibbāna quickly... what is the difference between the conditions for him to become a Buddha and for us? ...........................................) .......4: (The following questions are all covered by the same answer.6: Is this method [of meditation] for liberation only....15: Is the discerning mind that discerns mentality-materiality itself included in mentality-materiality? Is it included in wisdom? ......................... so as to become disgusted with them........ appear? .... apart from this................... the kamma of having practised Samatha-Vipassanā still exists..7: The Buddha was a great arahant. in this system of meditation.......................................249 Sundry 1.... can he prevent a kamma sign (kamma nimitta) of previous unwholesome or wholesome kamma from arising? ....127 4..............123 3.... and be liberated? What degree of concentration is required? .........................................224 6..126 3................... How can we develop lovingkindness by contemplating that all beings have been our mother? Can we attain lovingkindness jhāna (mettā jhāna) by contemplating that all beings have been our mother? .................... choose the time of one’s death? ........... did The Buddha say.................... say that a bodhisatta who has received a definite prophecy from a Buddha can. ‘Originally all beings have the Tathā gata’s wisdom and other qualities’? ..........................223 5.......225 5....225 5.. One may at some time get sick because the four elements are out of balance............... can we see Him by psychic powers to discuss Dhamma with Him? ..............................................8: After His enlightenment.. Is that true........12: What is the difference between attention (manasikāra) and practising the seven ga) enlightenment factors (bojjha ï ? ........... he will not be reborn on any of the four woeful realms. What was the difference between Him......... when images of past events................ including Arimetteyya Bodhisatta. hears voices. will his insight-knowledge also drop? Can he be reborn in a woeful state (apāya)?............ or is it also for the bodhisatta path? .. why did the Sayadaw....... or the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations.....8: When an ordinary disciple has practised Samatha-Vipassanā up to the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition.......................... with their eyes open? ..........193 4.. and disciples like the Venerables Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallāna who were also arahants? ............... Are there.........................9: Is the arahant’s perception of voidness (suññata) in his own five aggregates the same as his perception of voidness in outside inanimate things? Is Nibbāna the same as entering voidness? ................289 7...11: Since we cannot see The Buddha while in concentration................5: How can one decide when to die...... but not yet attained the Path Knowledge (maggañāõa) and Fruition Knowledge (phalañāõa)..........................................215 5....................8: What is the ‘intermediate life’ (antara bhava)? .......179 4... a brain disease.............................. and to see their subtle arising and passing-away..196 5.......226 6..........13: Could the Sayadaw please explain the diagram? Is it necessary..... could our mind at that time ‘leave’ so that we would not have any bodily pain? How? Can one.....7: Do all the good and bad kammas of an arahant mature prior to his Parinibbāna? .....3: A yogi who has finished the meditation course.............247 6....................... so those who have been our mother are infinite too...................................................................... what kinds of precaution should he take? .Index of Questions from Yogis Knowing and Seeing 7............. But The Buddha declared that everything is impermanent....................11: Can those who have discerned the thirty-two parts of the body see them in someone else.....291 Doctrine (Bodhisatta Path etc........... even if he has practised meditation up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations..................

Sayadaw..14: Can a hating mind produce many generations of temperature-produced octad-kalāpas (utuja ojaññ hamaka-kalāpa)................... will this improve his skill in communicating with others? Can attaining jhāna correct such problems? .... inference and creativity belong? They are part of the five aggregates......................279 7.................281 7............................................................ for example..............................19: The Buddha taught the Snake Mantra to bhikkhus......2: To which associated mental factors do memory.............................293 7..................... Is chanting the Snake Mantra the same as loving-kindness? Is chanting a mantra a Brahmanic tradition brought into Buddhism? .................... and make the eyes flash? .............................. no Sayadaw is giving a Dhamma talk...................284 7..6: What is the difference between rūpa-kalāpas and ultimate materiality (paramattha rūpa)? ................ When he attains jhāna up to the fourth jhāna..280 7.................... who does not have good human relations.... and does not think it is wrong....................1: What is the difference between perception (saññā) and the perception aggregate (saññākkhandha)............................ craving (taõhā) and clinging (upādāna)? ..........286 7.......................279 7. but how do they become suffering (dukkha)? .........17: Could the Sayadaw please give an example of a wish that is not associated with ignorance (avijjā).............. spent the money of a Saï for his pergha sonal use.................12: If a person............................................3: Which associated mental factor does ‘Taking an object’ involve?............... then who.. is giving a Dhamma talk? In other words...... succeeds in attaining the fourth jhāna...............................................252 7..... and between feeling (vedāna) and the feeling aggregate (vedānakkhandha)? ..................... So is there a relationship between the five aggregates and the self? ...294 xv xvi ............................................18: If the five aggregates are non-self...................291 7........................Index of Questions from Yogis Knowing and Seeing 6...................................... if the five aggregates are non-self............293 7...................... does his mind or view change? ..........................................................................5: Can a person who develops the jhānas with evil intent benefit from attaining them? And how about a person who has......10: What is the difference between citta and diññ hi? ..

..................................I. (Commentary) ..........................(‘Mindfulness-of-Breathing Explanation’) ................ (Sub-commentary) Source references are according to the standard divisions in the Pāë i: Collection • Book • Section • Chapter • Sutta..................................... (Commentary)1 Dhamma Saïgaõī .......................................................................... D..... VsTi = Paramattha Mañjūsā 3 Visuddhi Magga (Purification Path) is a commentary.........(Sub-commentary)2 Visuddhi Magga ......... (Analysis) —"— Aññhakathā .............. (Connected Collection) —"— Aññhakathā ............................................................................ (Purification Path)3 —"— òīkā......................... MA....................................i... S.......................... (Purification Path) Chapter 8 ‘Ānāpānasati Kathā‘ .......................213 The Pāëi titles for the commentaries are: AA = Manorathapūraõi............................................................................................... Dh................. (Venerable B-uddhaghosa’s Pāëi Text) § 223 ...................... VbhTi........(‘Root Fifty Texts’) Book 1 Chapter 1 ‘Mūlapariyāya Vagga’ ......... (Commentary) Dīgha Nikāya .................................. VbhA = Sammohavinodanī 2 The Pāëi titles for the sub-commentaries are: VbhTi = Mūla-Tīkā.. (Used in Source References) A AA........................... DA = Sumaïgalavilāsinī............................................viii B223/Ñ90 Charts page Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 5: 1 The Twenty-Eight Material Elements ............................. DhA... (Connected Suttas) ‘Khandha Vagga’ .............................. MA = Papañcasūdanī..... (Inspiration) Vibhaïga ...............................5 Vs........................................ 1 Please note also references to section numbers in Visuddhi Magga (third example).................. M............................................(Dhamma Compendium) Dhamma Pada ............................................................................Knowing and Seeing Bibliographical Abbreviations etc... (Commentary) Sutta Nipāta ...... VbhA.......... U........................... SA..... (‘All the Taints Sutta’) Sutta 2 Sa§yutta Nikāya . (‘Aggregates Book’) Book 3 Section 1 ‘Khandha Sa§yutta’ ...................(Middle-Length Suttas) ‘Mūla Paõõāsa Pāëi’.I................... he is referring to the commentary to the Visuddhimagga = the sub-commentary........................... Aïguttara Nikāya .... DA..................... (‘Nakulapita Chapter’) ‘Samādhi Sutta’........ii............... (Long Collection) —"— Aññhakathā ............ Ps........ (Venerable Ñ-āõamoli’s Path of Purification) § 90 S.............. (‘Root Series Chapter’) ‘Sabbāsava Sutta’ ............................. (Discrimination Path) Sa§yutta Nikāya .............173 The Five-Door Cognitive Process ........... xvii xviii ........211 The Mind-Door Cognitive Process .......... (Commentary) —"— òīkā.................... and when the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw refers to the ‘Visuddhi Magga Commentary’.............III.............................................................................. (Sutta Book) Udāna ........172 The Basic Elements of the Heart..... (Commentary) Pañisambhidā Magga ..................................169 The Basic Elements of the Eye ......... (Dhamma Path) Aññhakathā ...................... (Commentary) Majjhima Nikāya ..171 The Basic Elements of the Body ............................... (‘Aggregates Section’) Chapter 1 ‘Nakulapitu Vagga’............................................................. Vbh............... SA = Sāratthappakāsinī.......................................... For example:1 M............................................. (‘Concentration Sutta’) Sutta 5 Visuddhi Magga ............... (Numerical Collection) —"— Aññhakathā . Vs...2 M I i 2 S III I i 5 Vs viii B223 Ñ90 = = = = = = = = = = = = = Majjhima Nikāya .... Dhs.... VsTi............ (Middle-Length Collection) —"— Aññhakathā ........... Sn........

Please see also the source references inserted throughout the talks. It is borne out by. but to give the entire text an overhaul. Given some of the responses to the first editions of this book. 2 Attention to this was drawn already in the first edition by quoting the Venerable Buddhaghosa’s and the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw’s own words on the matter (now given on the left inside cover). Buddha) are in standard English too restricted in meaning. They were almost only of language. harking back to the bhikkhus who received instruction from The Buddha Himself. as well as later Sinhalese Commentaries. Furthermore. since the Sayadaw’s teaching is nothing other than what is stated in the Pāëi Texts. and ‘consciousness’ as a countable noun (one consciousness. the Visuddhi Magga. source references. 500 A. his voice is in fact not his own: it is the voice of the tradition handed down through generations of bhikkhus. Burmese (and Pāëi) are pleonastic languages. Furthermore. and an index of the questions from meditators). 2 From an English point-of-view. 3 Visuddhi Magga (Purification Path): authoritative and extensive instruction manual on meditation.C.Knowing and Seeing Editorial Note (Revised Edition) The first edition of Knowing and Seeing. A 1 Burmese element of proper usage has also been added. since the Asian appellations (which can be translated as Lord or His Majesty King etc. it is considered immodest to refer to oneself in the first person singular. and again he read through the material. translated back into Pāëi by Indian scholar monk Venerable Buddhaghosa (approx.4 The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw has also made adjustments in terminology.1 For this edition too the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw was consulted.) xix xx . so as to make it less inaccessible to newcomers. adding comments. not only to put things right.3 Yogis who have taken the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw or one of his authorized teachers as teacher have and do fully or partly put into practice the system of instruction that 1 As there are several ‘Pa-Auk’ monasteries. further explanations. compiled from ancient. 3 This includes an introduction to Talk 4 ‘How You Discern Materiality’. there is no such thing. namely. the authoritative texts of the Theravāda tradition:2 the ancient Theravāda Canon. and in strict accordance with.2 and other excess text (incl. making corrections etc. Endeavours have thus been made to streamline the language (one thing referred to by only one term: as far as possible). orthodox Sinhalese translations of the even earlier Pāëi Commentaries (predominantly ‘The Ancients’ (Porāõā). with this revised edition. a collection of talks given in Taiwan by the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw1 was. the Venerable Pa-Auk Sayadaw has adopted Tawya (Forest) into his name. which could not unfortunately but have an adverse effect on the contents. drawn directly and unadulterated from. 1. and to the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw’s teachings as a whole. Capitalization of ‘the Buddha’ to ‘The Buddha’ has been adopted as an orthographical sign of respect. An attempt has been made. to specify which one he belongs to. 2. in spite of the best intentions. published with regrettably very many flaws and errors. the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw added an introduction to the entire course of meditation. as one of the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw’s disciples has pointed out. the following four points need perhaps be made. for example. dating back to the time of The Buddha and the First Council). two consciousnesses) has been adopted. ‘cognitive-process’ for citta vī thi (instead of ‘thought-process’). Commentaries and Sub-Commentaries: most notably the ancient commentary and meditation manual. the many hyphens). Although the Pa-Auk system may be used as a convenient term to refer to the teachings of the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw. footnotes. Modesty by way of the first person plural may be found in also the Commentaries to the Pāëi Texts. and on the one hand to remove unnecessary repetitions. the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw’s reference to himself in the first person plural instead of the first person singular (we and our instead of I and mine): in Burmese. with continual reference to pertinent Pāë i Texts. on the other hand to add information where deemed necessary (charts. 4 Written by a ‘ghost-writer’ under the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw’s close guidance and supervision.3 and in some cases even to re-arrange the text. The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw’s system of instruction is by no means ‘his’. a detailed table of contents.

from its very inception. the merit of reading these talks by future readers. are taken into account. aimed entirely at practice. which leads eventually to realization (pañivedha) of it. for whatever scratches that still remain after this final polish. Suttas and Abhidhamma) are. says the Venerable Pa-Auk Sayadaw. May all the merit of that work. 4. Once again. the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw.Editorial Note (Revised Edition) Knowing and Seeing 3. is presented here. practical experience of that knowledge. The individual yogi’s practice may therefore. mundane and supramundane. strengths and weaknesses etc. May absolutely all parties involved in the production of this material. As advised by The Buddha. the book is not to be regarded as a manual but as an overview. reap much merit from their labours. very well differ from what is presented here. The main talks are not descriptive so much as prescriptive. attained thereby all go towards keeping the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw healthy and happy for long to come. and the merit of the attainments. the editors beg forgiveness from their readers and from their teacher. the merit of the meditation assisted and perhaps engendered by these talks. learning (pariyatti) goes hand-in-hand with practice (pañipatti). Editors of Pa-Auk Forest Monastery xxi xxii . in sequence and detail. The Pāë i Texts (Vinaya. Nevertheless. Yogis who take the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw or one of his authorized teachers as their teacher should know that there are no hard and fast rules about how he guides the individual yogi: in each case the yogi’s preferences.

It is out of compassion that he sacrifices much of his time to teach meditation for the benefit of humankind. concentration. be able to have a deeper understanding of the Buddha’s teachings. For this I am very grateful to the Sayadaw. His teaching is markedly clear and detailed throughout the seven stages of purification. His teaching is the same as. and explains the seven stages of purification. and non-self.1 and become a noble one. gross and subtle. future and present. the Sayadaw teaches yogis. as impermanence. step by step. and insight-knowledges. commentaries and the Visuddhi Magga itself. and answers to questions. p. to practise the original system of Buddhist meditation. what is described in the Visuddhi Magga. Only one who sees it knows it. and thereby gradually eradicate or reduce various defilements. please see Appendix 1. how to attain those stages of purification. in this age wherein Buddhism is degenerating. suffering. yogis must comprehend all mentalitymateriality. But how to attain them has been a difficult question for all Buddhists over many generations. Only after comprehending all of them penetratively as impermanence.1 Then they continue to practise Vipassanā to attain the higher paths and fruitions up to Arahantship. his teaching will definitely arouse interest in the original meditation. to realize Nibbāna in this very life. and only one who experiences it can enjoy the bliss of the A Taiwanese Bhikshuni2 Dhamma. but something absolutely practical. As for the objects of Vipassanā meditation. This is a rare teaching and hard to come by. The goal of the teaching at Pa-Auk Forest Monastery is. indeed it is in much more detail than. we are fortunate to have the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw of Pa-Auk Forest Monastery.276 Yogi at said retreat. they are not only the internal and external five aggregates. and non-self. what defilements they have abandoned. so that they can realize for themselves: ‘All formations are impermanent. given in Taiwan by the Sayadaw. It makes me feel as if I were back in the Buddha’s time. 1 2 For untranslated Pāëi. May the publication of this book help provide a refuge for those who wish to know what the rounds of birth-and-death are. From April to June. It is very fortunate that I still have the opportunity. at Yi-Tung Temple. For this. Hopefully the reader will. the three trainings of morality. can yogis attain the noble paths and fruitions.Knowing and Seeing Foreword (First Edition) As most of us know. in accordance with the ancient texts. To achieve that end.341 For details on how the yogi sees this. whereby they are no longer subject to rebirth. xxiii xxiv . the Pāë i texts. Through the practice of the three trainings. After having seen Nibbana for the first time. Based on the very same sources. yogis can see clearly that they have attained the first path and fruition. superior and inferior. far and near. an ordinary person can attain supreme Nibbāna. and what defilements they still need to aban1 don. and Nibbāna is utterly peaceful. all dhammas are non-self. suffering.’ To see that is certainly not something impracticable. not only in Taiwan. but in the whole world. but also the five aggregates of past. and sixteen insight-knowledges. and who wish to attain liberation. and will attain final Nibbāna after death. Among many Taiwanese. after reading the profound talks. It is based on the Pāë i texts and commentaries. are the three stages of Buddhist practice. please see further p. who then went to Pa-Auk Tawya Monastery to continue. and wisdom. and studying the Pā ë i texts and commentaries to rediscover this teaching. May the true Dhamma endure long. who spent many years practising in the forest. the Sayadaw conducted a two-month meditation retreat for the first time in Taiwan. The Visuddhi Magga compiled by the Venerable Buddhaghosa is an exposition of the three trainings. also known as the five aggregates. May this book guide more people onto the right path to liberation. It is also a great help to fill in some gaps in Mahāyāna meditation.

the abbess of Yi-Tung Temple. Efforts have been made to retain the Sayadaw’s particular way of speaking English. and then read in English by the Sayadaw. some terms. subsequently. For the benefit of the audience. Brahmā (supreme being in a very high realm of existence?). and the Chinese read concurrently with the Sayadaw’s reading. Mawlamyine. Myanmar. and scholar alike. Pa-Auk Forest Monastery xxv xxvi . ‘impermanence (anicca)’. Appendix 1 is a glossary. and the answers then having been likewise prepared beforehand by the Sayadaw. other donors. for the chief donor. who were all Chinese. The Sayadaw teaches also pure-insight meditation. yogi. In the course of those two months. when he discusses with and instructs yogis. for those reasons. diverse helping hands have been involved in the translating. Sing Choo City. the helping hands alone are responsible. and his approval secured for changes other than those of only form. awkward in English. apart from giving daily meditation instructions to individual yogis. he usually follows the Burmese custom of including a gloss from the commentaries. the Sayadaw requested that the language and contents be changed in any way deemed necessary. It should here be mentioned that. have been left untranslated. The Sayadaw read a further two talks. and to try to make the talks readable to newcomer. All sixteen talks had been prepared in English. Even page Editors. Pa-Auk. The talks are concerned mainly with the Sayadaw’s principal approach to insight meditation: to practise tranquillity meditation first. been somewhat compromised. To that end. while he conducted a two-month meditation retreat at Yi-Tung Temple. the Sayadaw read seven main talks. The Pāë i has initially been retained in brackets. initially. and was the traditional talk on offerings. after which to use it as a vehicle for insight meditation. The talks. The other was read at the end of the retreat. the questions having been given beforehand by the yogis at the retreat. which had been prepared at Pa-Auk prior to the retreat. the talks were also translated beforehand into Chinese. when the Sayadaw translates a Pāë i quotation. In the genesis of this book. The editing has been mostly of form and not content. Taiwan. and himself added further details etc. after which it has usually been omitted: for example. are not word-perfect versions of the talks as they were given in Taiwan. composing. ‘impermanence’. One was read to the general public on the occasion of Vesākha day (the anniversary of the Buddha’s birth. and editing. and the organizers and helpers at the retreat. Most of the Pāë i terms used by the Sayadaw have been translated. The editorial priorities have been to maintain the required degree of accuracy. Those talks were interspersed with seven Question-and-Answer talks. deva (god? deity?). enlightenment and final passing away). there are considerably fewer of his usual copious references from the Theravāda texts and commentaries. Since the Sayadaw was addressing Taiwanese and Malaysian-Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhists. which is why he provides an exposition of the orthodox instructions for both methods. This is because the Sayadaw decided that the material should be edited prior to publication. such as: kasiõ a (totality? device?). The Sayadaw was very frequently con- sulted during the entire editing process. as they appear here. Conversely. Complete uniformity in editing has. which defines rather than translates those terms. For any errors or faults in the material.Knowing and Seeing Editorial Note (First Edition) The talks in this book were given by the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw of Pa-Auk Forest Monastery.

Sammā- the Perfectly Sambuddhassa. Arahato. the Worthy. the Blessed. Bhagavato.Knowing and Seeing Even page Namo Tassa. Odd page xxvii xxviii . Homage to Him. Self-Enlightened One.

.V....... bhikkhus. if anyone said: [1] ‘Without having realized the Noble Truth of Suffering as it really is... (Dukkhanirodhagāminiya Pañipadāya Ariyasaccassa) that you and I have for a long time wandered the round of rebirth..... bhikkhus..... bhikkhus.. The Four Noble Truths are thus the foundations of The Buddha’s Teaching...................... But that is not possible without the right conditions.......... such a thing is impossible.. bhikkhus.. [3] The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering has been understood and penetrated.V.. What Needs to Be Fully Realized The Buddha taught the Four Noble Truths for us to realize the Third Noble Truth....... [4] The Noble Truth of the Path to the Cessation of Suffering Bhikkhus. the Blessed One was dwelling among the Vajjians at Koñigāma.. (Dukkhasamudayassa Ariyasaccassa) that you and I have for a long time wandered the round of rebirth....... please see Appendix 1 ‘Glossary of Untranslated Pāëi Terms’.... In the ‘Kūñ āgāra Sutta’ (‘Pinnacled House Sutta’)...... bhikkhus......... (Dukkhassa Ariyasaccassa) that you and I have for a long time wandered the round of rebirth.. The Buddha explains first the conditions that make it impossible to put a complete end to suffering:1 Indeed. I shall erect the roof’. 1 2 .v.. 1 S.. [2] The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering has been understood and penetrated. because of not understanding and not penetrating the Noble Truth of the Path to the Cessation of Suffering . because of not understanding and not penetrating the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering ...... 2 For untranslated Pāëi............ What four? [1] It is........ His Dispensation... He then explains: 1 has been understood and penetrated.... Craving for existence has been cut off....Knowing and Seeing Introduction1 The Buddha’s Dispensation On one occasion......4.. (Dukkhanirodhassa Ariyasaccassa) that you and I have for a long time wandered the round of rebirth...... (dukkha§ ariyasacca§ yathābhūta§ anabhisamecca) [2] ‘without having realized the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering as it really is. which is to put a complete end to rebirth and therefore suffering.. please see above ‘Bibliographical Abbreviations etc....... (Catunna§ Ariyasaccāna§) that you and I have for a long time wandered the round of rebirth...... it is because of not understanding (ananubodhā) and not penetrating (appañivedhā) the Four Noble Truths . bhikkhus.. [4] It is..... [2] It is....1 ‘Pañhamakoñigāma Sutta’ (‘First Koñigāma Sutta’) For bibliographical abbreviations and source references....... [3] It is. now there is no more renewed existence.... p.........XII...xvii the Cessation of Suffering as it really is..’ p...... the tendency to existence has been destroyed...341ff 3 S....... because of not understanding and not penetrating the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering .... A pinnacled house is here a single-storied house with four outside pillars that are surmounted with beams that support a high roof that tapers towards a pinnacle... [3] ‘without having realized the Noble Truth of This introduction is an addition to the revised edition of Knowing and Seeing..iii............................ Nibbāna..... So too... There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus2 thus:3 [1] The Noble Truth of Suffering.XII.... if anyone said: ‘Without having built the room of a pinnacled house....... has been understood and penetrated. because of not understanding and not penetrating the Noble Truth of Suffering .........

..V......................................v..................... In summary: the aim of the Fourth Noble Truth (the Eightfold Noble Path) is to realize the Third Noble Truth (Nibbāna). He teaches us to know and see the five aggregates.............................. (sīla) Concentration .... 3. 2............. such a thing is impossible....... non-return (anāgāmi)................ the Noble Eightfold Path associated with supramundane Path Truth (Lokuttarā Magga Sacca): the path (magga) of stream-entry (sotāpatti)................................. the Noble Truth of Suffering? In the ‘Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta’.....III.............. is the Noble Truth of Suffering: birth is suffering..... the Buddha explains:1 Now this......... where The Buddha explains the eleven qualities in a bhikkhu that make it impossible for him to progress in the Dhamma and Vinaya..... and for laypeople..................... is the ultimate reality of the world 1 2 3 Morality ...... The only way to attain these realizations is to first practise the mundane Fourth Noble Truth........................ S................. When The Buddha teaches the Noble Truth of Suffering.... we can develop access-concentration (upacāra samādhi) and absorption concentration (jhāna).. When we are established in morality..................... (saññā) ..iv........Introduction Knowing and Seeing [4] ‘without having realized the Noble Truth of the Path to the Cessation of Suffering as it really is.II. we cannot realize The Buddha’s Teaching.... which is Vipassanā meditation...I......... suffering............................................................ (samādhi) Wisdom............................… [4] Mental formations ........ which is achieved only by fully realizing the First and Second Noble Truths (Suffering and the Origin of Suffering)..................................... The First and Second Noble Truth But what is the First Noble Truth........ being united with the unpleasant is suffering... the five aggregates of clinging (pañc-upādānak-khandhā) are suffering.. He teaches the five aggregates. Our human world is the existence of the five aggregates (pañca vokāra bhava)....................... ‘I shall put a complete end to suffering’................................ are we able to realize the supramundane Fourth Noble Truth......... it is the eight or five precepts.(rūpa) ....................ii. ageing is suffering....... the Supramundane Noble Eightfold Path.... 1 This is explained in the commentary to M. Vipassanā meditation is nothing except to realize the impermanent... This He explains in the ‘Puppha Sutta’:3 And what is the ultimate reality of the world (loke lokadhammo) that the Tathāgata has realized with perfect and complete knowledge? [1] Materiality ............................(viññāõa).... being separated from the pleasant is suffering.. illness is suffering.... and can then proceed to develop wisdom.........3 ‘Mahāgopālaka Sutta’ (‘Great Cowherd Sutta’)....... (vedanā) .. which is the mundane Noble Eightfold Path....XII.............. (saïkhārā) ..........................… [3] Perception ...… [2] Feeling. the threefold training: 1............. and arahantship.......... Nibbāna) unless we have first fully realized the First Noble Truth (suffering (dukkha)).. This means that we cannot put a complete end to suffering (we cannot attain the Third Noble Truth.. Only then are we able to realize also the supramundane Fourth Noble Truth. morality is Pāñ imokkha restraint....................................... and fully realize these two Noble Truths......1 ‘Dhamma-Wheel Rolling Sutta’ pañcavokāra is an synonym for pañca khandha (five aggregates) S..... not to get what one wants is suffering: in brief.2 and unless we know and see the five aggregates................... bhikkhus. and fully realized the Second Noble Truth (the origin of suffering (samudaya))... once-return (sakadāgāmi). and non-self nature of the Noble Truth of Suffering and Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering....... Only when we practise Vipassanā well and thoroughly.................. bhikkhus.............. the mundane Path Truth (lokiya maggasacca)............ (paññā)1 For bhikkhus..… [5] Consciousness .. death is suffering........................2 ‘Flower Sutta’ 3 4 ....

. The first of the five aggregates of clinging (materiality) is also called just materiality (rūpa)...ii.. that is..6 From another point-of-view. or present.........) [4] the mental formations aggregate of clinging. bhikkhus..... proclaims it....… perception.....) [10-11] far or near . that can be clung to..... which are the Noble Truth of Suffering and the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering..I. whether past....... they comprise each eleven types. . how can I do anything with that foolish common person.......... mentality depends on materiality. These five aggregates of clinging are the First Noble Truth.. (vedanupādānakkhandho. analysed and elucidated by the Tathāgata........ blind and sightless...... And in the ‘Mahāsatipañ ñ hāna Sutta’ He explains:1 And how............. disclosed. mental formations.........v... He explains mentality-materiality as eighteen elements (dhātu): the six sense-doors...........) [3] the perception aggregate of clinging..... that can be clung to (upādāniya)........ (ajjhatta§ vā bahiddhā vā......... The world of the five aggregates is explained by The Buddha in the‘Loka Sutta’ (‘World Sutta’).. if there is someone who does not know and see... and consciousness) are together also called just mentality (nāma)....) [4-5] internal or external. p..) And in.2....4 5 6 .. ...... Whatever kind of feeling....10) S. we need to know and see that in the world of five aggregates (pañcavokāra bhava). and footnote 1. discloses it and elucidates it.i.......... (hīna§ vā paõīta§ vā.....… mental formations...... six sense-objects and six types of consciousness..... teaches it..... He says:2 And what...... bhikkhus.. This means that to know and see the five aggregates is to know and see the eleven types of each aggregate............ mentality-materiality are by The Buddha referred to as the six bases (sālāyatana: six internal and six external).... (rūpupādānakkhandho...... establishes it. future.. it is called the consciousness aggregate of clinging... Thus... Hence.........III....... (atītā nāgata paccuppanna§.. Having done so...) [2] the feeling aggregate of clinging.. are called the five aggregates of clinging.Introduction Knowing and Seeing that the Tathāgata has realized with perfect and complete knowledge.... ........) [8-9] inferior or superior..... The Buddha explains phenomena according to the inclination and understanding of his listeners. internal or external....… Whatever kind of consciousness there is... in short..) [5] the consciousness aggregate of clinging..... are the five aggregates of clinging (pañcupādānakkhandhā) suffering? They are as follows: [1] the materiality aggregate of clinging.9 ‘Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness’ (Also M............ are the five aggregates of clinging? Whatever kind of materiality (rūpa) there is...I.. and the remaining four aggregates of clinging (feeling....(ya§ dūre santike vā) 1 2 that is tainted...... Please see also Answer 2..... the Noble Truth of Suffering.........1 To know and see mentality-materiality as they really are. When it is thus explained.. who does not know and does not see? The realities of the world that The Buddha is here explaining are the five aggregates. Here.. Throughout His Teaching. (oëārika§ vā sukhuma§ vā. p..... is the origin of the world? 1 D.. the ‘Khandha Sutta’(‘Aggregates Sutta’).. gross or subtle. whether [1-3] past.... ..I.......) [6-7] gross or subtle..... (viññāõupādānakkhandho. .. bhikkhus............. bhikkhus..... although they refer ultimately to the same things.. taught....... far or near that is tainted (sāsava). (saññupādānakkhandho..... or present. ...... which is a term He also uses when explaining dependentorigination... ..86........II. 307. the five aggregates of clinging are also called just mentality-materiality (nāma-rūpa). as The Buddha explains...... it is called the materiality aggregate of clinging.. He explains and analyses the five aggregates of clinging further as of eleven types:2 And what.. we need also to know and see how they are connected.......... He explains mentality-materiality in many different ways.. ... for example............. and............ 2 S.v.. future.... (saïkhārupādānakkhandho........ perception..... These..... He explains it...... inferior or superior......

(cakkhu-dvāra) Ear-door ................) With contact as condition...…) Dependent on the nose and odours. 4..... (mano-dvāra) ga) come to be.............................. ..... parideva) suffering.....upāyāsa) 1...... [2] The ear-faculty ..... But as the latter are not the world (are neither mentality nor materiality............ 6....... ‘element’ etc..… (Manañca pañicca dhamme ca uppajjati mano-viññāõa§. (ghānindriya§)................. ( sota-dvāra) Nose-door ....... grief and despair ..) with birth as condition..................... which include Nibbāna and concepts (paññatti)............. ................ ................. as He is speaking of the eighteen elements of the world............ clinging......… (Kāyañca pañicca phoññhabbe ca uppajjati kāya-viññāõa§....… (Jivhañca pañicca rase ca uppajjati jivhā-viññāõa§............ (jivhindriya§).........(dukkha............. without which the object cannot be seen..... ........... Brahmin...... the mind-door (bhavaï ga)....... elsewhere..) With the meeting of the three there is contact.) with feeling as condition.... maraõa.... When speaking of dhammas in other contexts......... eye-consciousness arises............ which is the materiality that is the heart-base (hadaya vatthu)..............) with existence as condition..... (kāyindriya§).............. lamentation...................................... ‘door’.......…) The first five sense-doors are materiality (rūpa)................ 3........... This is explained by The Buddha in the ‘Uõõābhabrāhmaõa Sutta’.........V.. dhammas refers to the sixteen kinds of subtle materiality. 3............… (Sotañca pañicca sadde ca uppajjati sota-viññāõa§...... birth............... and do not experience (paccanubhontāna§) each other’s sphere and field....................................... (phasso...... and are therefore not the First and Second Noble Truths) they are not included in the ‘World Sutta’... [3] The nose-faculty ...... Here.............. (cakkhundriya§)........... rūpa refers to colour.......................................307............................. tongue-consciousness arises..... As explained by The Buddha..2mind-consciousness arises...................... (jāti..... ... but the sixth sense-door.......... (jivhā-dvāra) Body-door......…) To know and see mentality-materiality we need thus to know and see: 1. (upādāna......... ear-consciousness arises......... body-consciousness arises................ 5................... (vedanā........... ageing and death........... p. and are therefore the same as the five sense-bases (vatthu).......................... not experiencing each other’s sphere and field..............2 ‘Uõõābha Brahmin Sutta’) 7 8 .............................. feeling [comes to be]....... . whereas the mental mind-door takes those five objects and its own objects.......... these five faculties (indriya) have each a different sphere (visaya).......................................) sorrow............. and all associated mental factors........................................ The Brahmin to whom The Buddha is here speaking.............................................................. (Cakkhuñca pañicca rūpe1 ca uppajjati cakkhu-viññāõa§.) with craving as condition.......... Dependent on the ear and sounds............................................................... used ‘five faculties’ in his introductory question.. existence....... (ghāna-dvāra) Tongue-door. Now.... (bhava............. (S....................... there are six sense-doors: Eye-door .. The five material doors take only their respective material object..…) Dependent on the mind and dhammas...................) Dependent on the tongue and flavours...(sotindriya§)...... It depends on the sixth sense-base................ The Buddha means all objects...................... a different field (gocara).................. (jarā..... [4] The tongue-faculty ............. these five faculties....... 2... nose-consciousness arises........ although the term He uses is faculty (indriya):1 Brahmin............................................. The sense-doors The objects that strike upon the sense-doors The thereby arisen consciousnesses and associated mental factors.....IV........... Please see further footnote 1.... craving................… (Ghānañca pañicca gandhe ca uppajjati ghāna-viññāõa§….. [5] The body faculty .............. is mentality (nāma)........... 1 Dependent on the body and tangibles.......... (soka.. .............Introduction Knowing and Seeing Dependent on the eye and colour... domanassa. What five? [1] The eye-faculty ........... 2.........) with clinging as condition............... (taõhā........................... 1 2 Here..............v.........(kāya-dvāra) Mind-door (bhava ï ........ having separate spheres and separate fields... Faculty (indriya) is here the same as ‘base’......................................................

... (cakkhu-viññāõa) Ear-consciousness ...... (sukhuma rūpa) 6 kinds of consciousness element ..................... (sota-viññāõa) Nose-consciousness ...... (2) auditory-........... Please see Table 6.......................) As The Buddha explained....... 2. The object is known by mind-consciousnesses that arise afterwards..Introduction Knowing and Seeing have the mind (mano) as their refuge (pañisaraõa§)................(pasāda rūpa) (five material sense-doors) 16 kinds of subtle materiality..... (rasārammaõa) Touch objects2 ..... Colour objects ....... the kasiõa object...........(dhammārammaõa) Eye-consciousness .... 6.... We have thus six types of object........ In the same way... (ghāna-viññāõa) Tongue-consciousness .............. 6........................ consciousness arises....................... 3.................... the unformed element . We may thus understand that to know mentality-materiality we need to know each type of mentality.................. When you have developed strong and powerful concentration... The actual knowing of the object is done by a series of mind-consciousnesses (mano viññāõa) that arise later............................... 3................. it strikes also upon the mental sense-door...... As The Buddha also explained to the Brahmin............ for the ultimate realities............................................g......................................... (cetasika) The Nibbāna element........... when an object strikes upon one of the five material sense-doors............. (phoññhabbārammaõa) Dhamma objects ... from Dispeller of Delusion........... 2 More precisely: (1) visible-/chromatic-........ (viññāõa dhātu) 52 kinds of associated mental factors .. a mind-consciousness arises followed by an eye-consciousness: they do not ‘know’ the object..... when one of the six sense-doors comes together with its appropriate object...... 5.................. 5.............................. 4................... they do not know that it is colour........... (kāya-viññāõa) Mind-consciousness .................. Then will you also be able to see that the consciousnesses that arise in one of the material sense-doors are very weak. 9 10 .................... each type of materiality.................... 4......... They ‘just pick up’ the object (abhinipātamattā). 1.. and quotation p.................. it appears at the same time in the mind-door....... 5 kinds of gross.............................................. (rūpārammaõa) Sound objects .......... 4...... a shadow falls at the same time on the ground. 5..... (saddārammaõa) Odour objects ..... 1 The materiality of the door..............................................213............. the concept of the breath................................ when the object strikes its material door..... transparent materiality ........... (gandhārammaõa) Flavour objects ............................ When the material objects strike upon their material sense-door..................... 6............. They comprise six types: 1. and the mind experiences (paccanubhoti) their spheres and fields........ and how they work together...... We need to know: 1.1 For example.. p..... 2..........154..... and (5) tangible/tactile objects............ and names 1 The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw refers to the simile in the Aññhasālinī (The Expositor B114/PTS96): When sunlight strikes a bird sitting on a branch..... that are not the world.... you will be able to see that the object is reflected in the mind-door as in a mirror...(3) olfactory-........................ without which we cannot communicate.. 3... (4) gustatory-....... The objects that strike upon the mind-door alone include also those that are not mentality-materiality...................................... (Asaïkhata Dhātu) The infinite number of concepts ......... when a material object such as colour strikes the materiality of the eye-door............. they strike at the same time upon the mind-door:1 all other objects strike upon the mind-door alone.............(jivhā-viññāõa) Body-consciousness ................ We have thus six types of consciousness: 1...... 2.... and strikes at the same time the minddoor (the bhavaï ga)...........(paññatti) (e........(mano-viññāõa) Dhamma objects are all objects apart from the previous five material types of object: all other objects in the world.

. 1 That is in total ten types of consciousness.... And we need to know and see that without the materiality of the eye-door....... (rūpāvacara citta) 12 types of immaterial world consciousness . Mentality comprises thus eighty-nine types of consciousness and fifty-two types of associated mental factors. BPS. not ultimate materiality (paramattha rūpa). And in the heart-base arise all other types of consciousness: • 12 types of unwholesome consciousness ...... They arise and pass away very quickly. • We need to know and see the eye-door. and need to know and see that there are objects known by mindconsciousnesses alone. the nose. there arise also a number of associated mental factors... Ed.. Bhikkhu Bodhi.... Wholesome resultant consciousnesses ... (ahetuka citta) (the same type as the ten types of ‘two times five consciousness’) 24 types of sense sphere beautiful consciousness .... (kāma sobhaõa citta) 15 types of fine material world consciousness . and without the materiality of the object (colour).. which also arise dependent on heart-base materiality. but that is only conceptual reality (vijjāmānapaññatti)... p. blind and sightless.) 2 For details about penetrating the delusion of compactness..... the individual consciousness arises dependent on its respective base... To know and see materiality as it really is... (akusala citta) When doing nāma-kammaññhāna (mentality meditation) one knows and sees these things directly (please see also below p.... who does not know and does not see... and the mind-consciousnesses and eye-consciousness that arise when colour strikes the eye-door. in this our five aggregates world........... The materiality of the object. the tongue...... mentality arises dependent on materiality........(kusala vipāka viññāõa) Unwholesome resultant consciousnesses.... and ‘How You Analyse the Rūpa-Kalāpas’... one is referred please to the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha (e... 2..... That means we need to directly know and directly see also the materiality.3.. 199ff).Introduction Knowing and Seeing 2. Knowing and Seeing The First Noble Truth • • • • 8 types of rootless consciousness . A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma.. and body too. its object (colour)... no eye-consciousness arises. please see Answer 1.... (arūpāvacara citta) 8 types of supramundane consciousness ...or mind-consciousness arises either. 11 12 .. 3.... Until then.60. of which there are fifty-two in total. p. because that is only to know and see things as they appear. And whenever one of these types of consciousness arises..(akusala vipāka viññāõa) This gives eighty-nine types of consciousness......1 To know and see the Noble Truth of Suffering as it really is. To know and see materiality as it really is we need to know and see how materiality consists of sub-atomic particles that are in Pāë i called rūpa-kalāpas. we need thus to directly know and directly see all these types of consciousness and associated mental factors... which means we remain what The Buddha called a foolish common person... We need to see that in the five sense-bases arises one of two types of consciousness..... without the materiality of the heart-base no mind-consciousness arises either.. we need to penetrate the concept of rūpa-kalāpas (penetrate the delusion of compactness2) and see the ultimate realities (paramattha saccā) that are the individual elements that comprise the individual types of rūpa-kalāpa. To know and see these things as they really are we need to penetrate to ultimate reality (paramattha sacca)... we need to know and see ultimate mentality-materiality (paramattha nāma-rūpa)... ‘two times five consciousness’ (dve pañca viññāõa): 1... The mentality that arises in the material door and mind-door. no eye..... We need to know and see this for the ear... (lokuttarā citta) We need to know and see each and every type of mentality....g..152. But these realities are not to be known only as concepts. But as The Buddha explained.

.......... tejo-..........1 ‘Concentration Sutta’ Here. This means we need to know and see all twenty-eight types of materiality: primary materiality (bhūta)....... (gocara rūpa) • (colour......... flavour (vaõõa..Introduction Knowing and Seeing In the ‘Mahāgopālaka Sutta’1 The Buddha explains the knowledge of materiality that is necessary for a bhikkhu to progress in the Dhamma and Vinaya: How does a bhikkhu have knowledge of materiality (rūpaññū hoti)? Here a bhikkhu understands as it really is: ‘All materiality of whatever kind consists of the four great elements and materiality derived from the four great elements (cattāri mahābhūtāni... and body transparent-element (cakkhu-..... at Pa-Auk... jivhā-. That is why.. water-................. and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Vinaya...’ [3] He understands as it really is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering.. sadda.. p. ghāna-... which is: The four great elements .. please see Answer 3. kāya pasāda). And He says that without this knowledge the bhikkhu is incapable of growth....i.. we teach first to develop the strong and powerful concentration of the jhānas (absorption concentration (appanā samādhi)) using.... which comprise the five physical sense-doors) The four types of sense-field materiality .. and that requires strong and powerful concentration.... for the ten kasiõas.... p.............. please see Talk 1 ‘How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption’ p...... Please see further footnote 1...... a bhikkhu understands dhammas2 as they really are .. develop concentration. sota-........ fire-. rasa)) Nutritive-essence ...169f S.. a bhikkhu understands dhammas as they really are.. catunnañca mahābhūtāna§ upādāyarūpan’ti). 3 For a discussion about the different types of concentration.... (mahā bhūta) • (earth-........... wind-element (pathavī-..... nose........ And what does he understand as it really is? [1] He understands as it really is: ‘This is suffering... dhammas refers to the Four Noble Truths together...... mindfulness-of-breathing (ānāpānasati) and the ten kasiõas............ for example.) 1 2 How You Know and See the First and Second Noble Truth You Develop Concentration To be able to see the individual elements of individual rūpakalāpas is to be able to see ultimate materiality... or access concentration (upacāra samādhi)3 using four-elements meditation (catu-dhātu vavatthāna).. Only strong and powerful concentration is able to know and see things as they really are.. p.......(pasāda rūpa) • (the eye.. It is explained by The Buddha in...... ear.. such as:2 The five types of transparent materiality ........... increase.307..................... for example............. (hadaya rūpa) • (the physical base for mind-consciousnesses (mano-viññāõa) and their associated mental factors........V..............1...... vāyo-dhātu)) And the twenty-four types of derived materiality (upādā rūpa).... please see Talk 2 ‘How You Develop Absorption on Other Please see further next page 13 14 ..............’ Bhikkhus. (yathābhūta§ pajānāti). (jīvitindriya) • Heart-materiality ... gandha...... the ‘Samādhi Sutta’ (‘Concentration Sutta’) of the ‘Sacca Sa§yutta’ (‘Section on the Truths’):1 Bhikkhus...........3 ‘Mahāgopālaka Sutta’ (‘Great Cowherd Sutta’) For a complete list of the twenty-eight types of materiality... sound..37ff... or one of them alone.......XII. (ojā) • Life-faculty ..... develop concentration.......I...... āpo-...........’ [2] He understands as it really is: ‘This is the origin of suffering.115......... 4 For mindfulness-of-breathing.......’ [4] He understands as it really is: ‘This is the path leading to the cessation of suffering.. odour..iv.4 1 2 M.’ That is how a bhikkhu has knowledge of materiality.. tongue. please see Table 1 ‘The Twenty-Eight Material Elements’........ Having attained concentration.......... Having attained concentration................

Introduction

Knowing and Seeing

You Develop the Light of Wisdom

Strong and powerful concentration produces strong and powerful light, and it is by that strong and powerful light that you are able to penetrate to ultimate reality (paramattha sacca). It is explained by The Buddha in the ‘Ābhāvagga’ (‘Splendour Chapter’) of the Aï guttara Nikāya:1
• • • • •

Bhikkhus, there are four splendours. What four? The splendour of the moon, of the sun, of fire, and of wisdom ........................... (paññ-ābhā). Bhikkhus, there are four radiances. What four? The radiance of the moon, of the sun, of fire, and of wisdom ....................... (paññā-pabhā). Bhikkhus, there are four lights. What four? The light of the moon, of the sun, of fire, and of wisdom ...........................(paññ-āloko). Bhikkhus, there are four brilliances. What four? The brilliance of the moon, of the sun, of fire, and of wisdom ........................ (paññ-obhāso). Bhikkhus, there are four brightnesses. What four? The brightness of the moon, of the sun, of fire, and of wisdom ...................... (paññā-pajjoto).

powerful: for example, the light of the Enlightened One’s enlightenment spread throughout the ten-thousand-fold world system.1 How does this light arise? The mind that is in deep concentration is associated with wisdom (paññā). Such a mind produces many generations of consciousness-produced materiality (cittaja rūpa) of great brightness.2 Using that light, we are able to penetrate to ultimate reality (paramattha sacca); to see things as they really are. It is like going into a dark room: we need light to see the objects there.
You Protect Your Concentration

But it is not enough just to develop deep concentration, because to be able to penetrate to ultimate reality is deep and profound, and is an opportunity we must not lose. We teach therefore also how you protect yourself and your meditation by developing the four Sublime Abidings (Brahmavihāra) up to jhāna or access concentration:3
1. 2.

And He refers to the light also in His very first teaching, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, when He explains His enlightenment:2 …thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things (dhammā) unheard before, there arose in me vision (cakkhu), knowledge (ñāõa), wisdom (paññā), true knowledge (vijjā) and light (āloko). Consciousnesses of mundane insight produce strong and powerful ‘light of enlightenment’ (vipassanobhāso), but consciousnesses of supramundane insight produce light that is extremely strong and
Subjects’, p.67ff; for four-elements meditation, please see Talk 4 ‘How You Discern Materiality’, p.131ff 1 A.IV.III.v.1-5 ‘Ābhā-’, ‘Pabhā-’, ‘Āloka-’, ‘Obhā-’, and‘Pajjota Sutta’ 2 S.V.XII.ii.1 ‘Dhamma-Wheel Rolling Sutta’

Lovingkindness ........................................................................................... (mettā) to overcome anger and hatred.4 Compassion .................................................................................................(karuõā) to overcome ill-will and cruelty.

1

Vs.xx ‘Vipassanupakkilesa Kathā’ B634 (‘Insight Imperfection Explanation’Ñ107). The light is the result of wholesome dhammas and is in itself not an imperfection. But it can be the basis for imperfection (uppakilesa-vaññhu) if the yogi who experiences it becomes very attached to it, and develops the wrong view that he has thereby attained Path and Fruition. Please see also SA.V.XII.ii.1 ‘Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta’ (‘Dhamma-Wheel Rolling Sutta’), and below ‘How You Overcome the Ten Imperfections of Insight’, p.271. 2 For details about the light that arises with very deep concentration and insight meditation, please see, ‘Consciousness-produced Materiality’, p.138, and Answer 4.10, p.194 3 Please see The Buddha’s analysis of the four divine abidings, A.VI.I.ii.3 ‘Nissāraõīya Sutta’ (‘Escape Sutta’), and M.II.ii.2 ‘Mahārāhulovāda Sutta’ (‘Great Advice-to-Rāhula Sutta’), and Answer 2.2, p.86 4 Please see The Buddha’s advice, ‘Meghiya Sutta’ (Udāna.iv.1), discussed also ‘Summary’, p.112, and Answer 7.13, p.290

15

16

Introduction

Knowing and Seeing

3. 4.

Appreciative joy ........................................................................................ (muditā) to overcome envy. Equanimity ................................................................................................(upekkhā) to overcome indifference towards beings.

For the same reason, we teach also the four Protective Meditations (caturārakkha kammaññhāna) up to jhāna or access concentration:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Lovingkindness ........................................................................................... (mettā) to protect you against dangers from other beings.1 Recollection-of-The Buddha ................................................... (Buddhānussati) to protect you against fear,2 and dangers from other beings. Foulness meditation ................................................................. (asubha bhāvanā) to protect you against lust and desire.3 Recollection-of-death................................................................. (maraõānussati) to protect you against laziness in meditation: to fire you with a sense of urgency (sa§vega).4

With the jhāna concentration or access concentration that you have already developed, these subjects do not take long to develop.5
You Penetrate to Ultimate Reality

see materiality as it really is, using four-elements meditation (catudhātu vavatthāna).1 But if you prefer not to develop Samatha, and prefer to develop only access concentration, you go straight to four-elements meditation. We teach the discernment of materiality first for several reasons. One reason is that to discern materiality is very subtle and profound. But although materiality changes billions of times per second, it does not change as quickly as mentality does. This means that once you have completed the profound discernment of materiality, the more profound discernment of mentality becomes easier for you to do. Another reason is that mentality depends on materiality, and unless one can see the specific materiality that a consciousness depends upon, one cannot see the mentality at all. To be able to see it, one needs to see its arising.2 Four-elements meditation means you discern the four elements in materiality, and you start with the materiality that is your own body, that is, you start with materiality that The Buddha called internal (ajjhatta). The Buddha explains four-elements meditation in the ‘Mahāsatipañ ñ hāna Sutta’:3 Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reviews this body, however it may be placed or disposed, in terms of the elements (dhātu): ‘There are in this body [1] the earth-element ........................................................................... (pathavī-dhātu), [2] the water-element................................................................................. (āpo-dhātu), [3] the fire-element ..................................................................................... (tejo-dhātu), [4] the wind-element ............................................................................... (vāyo-dhātu).’
1 2

Penetrating to Ultimate Materiality

If you are a Samatha yogi, with strong and powerful concentration that is well protected, we then teach you how to know and
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Please see The Buddha’s explanation of the benefits of lovingkindness practice, A.XI.ii.5 ‘Metta Sutta’ (‘Lovingkindness Sutta’): quoted p.105. For an example of this meditation’s efficacy, please see also Answer 2.2, p.86 2 Please see The Buddha’s advice, S.I.XI.i.3 ‘Dhajagga Sutta’ (‘Standard Sutta’) 3 For details on this meditation, please see below p.111f 4 Please see The Buddha’s advice, A.VI.ii.10&11 ‘Pañhama-’ & ‘Dutiyamaraõassati Sutta’ (‘First-’ & ‘Second Recollection-of-Death Sutta’) 5 For the sublime abidings and protective meditations please see Talk 3 ‘How You Develop the Sublime Abidings and Protective Meditations’, p.97ff

For four-elements meditation please see Talk 4 ‘How You Discern Materiality’, p.131ff This is explained Vs.xviii ‘Nāmarūpapariggaha Kathā’ B669-671(‘Mentality-Materiality Definition Explanation’Ñ16-23), where is added that if one does not complete the discernment of materiality before proceeding to discern mentality, one ‘falls from one’s meditation subject like the [foolish] mountain cow…’. A.IX.I.iv.4 ‘Gāvī-Upamā Sutta’ (‘Cow Simile Sutta’) mentioned p.56. ). But this refers only to sensual realm mentality, not fine-material mentality (jhāna). Please see also p.200 3 D.ii.9 ‘Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness’ (Also M.I.i.10). Please see also M.II.ii.2 ‘Mahārāhulovāda Sutta’ (‘Great Advice-to-Rāhula Sutta’)

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Introduction

Knowing and Seeing

It is easier to start with one’s own materiality because it is easier to know that one’s own materiality is hot or cold or hard or soft than it is to know it in external materiality such as the materiality of another being. But once you have become skilled in discerning internal materiality, you will need to discern also the remaining ten types of materiality enumerated by The Buddha: past, future, present, external, gross, subtle, inferior, superior, far and near.1 The Buddha taught four-elements meditation in order that we may be able to know and see ultimate materiality. First, you develop the ability to know and see the different characteristics of the four elements in your body as one compact mass of materiality, as one lump. As your skill and concentration develops you will eventually be able to see the rūpa-kalāpas, and then, using the light of concentration that you have developed, you will then be able to penetrate the delusion of compactness,2 penetrate to ultimate materiality, to know and see, to identify and analyse the individual elements in the different types of rūpa-kalāpa.
Penetrating to Ultimate Mentality

riality by way of the sense-doors, the Visuddhi Magga says you should do the same for mentality:1 When he has discerned materiality
thus, the immaterial states become plain to him in accordance with the sense-doors.

And the commentary says further that to discern mentality by way of the doors is to be free from confusion.2 The six sense-doors and their objects were mentioned earlier, and are:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The eye-door, which takes colour objects. The ear-door, which takes sound objects. The nose-door, which takes odour objects. The tongue-door, which takes flavour objects. The body-door, which takes touch objects. The mind-door (bhavaï ga), which takes the previous five objects of the five material sense doors, and dhamma objects.3

When one of the six types of object strikes its respective door, a series of consciousnesses (citta) arise, and with each consciousness arise also a number of associated mental factors (cetasika): this is according to the natural law of consciousness (citta niyāma). A such series of consciousnesses and associated mental factors is called a cognitive process (vīthi), and there are accordingly six types:
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

Having now truly known and seen the different elements that are ultimate materiality, you can proceed to knowing and seeing ultimate mentality, which is meditation on mentality (nāma kammaññhāna). We can discern mentality either by way of the six sense-bases or by way of the six sense-doors.3 But, since you discerned mate1 2

Eye-door cognitive-process ...............................................(cakkhu-dvāra vīthi) Ear-door cognitive-process .................................................... (sota-dvāra vīthi) Nose-door cognitive-process ............................................. (ghāna-dvāra vīthi) Tongue-door cognitive-process .......................................... (jivhā-dvāra vīthi) Body-door cognitive-process ............................................... (kāya-dvāra vīthi) Mind-door cognitive-process .............................................. (mano-dvāra vīthi)

Please see ‘Khandha Sutta’ (‘Aggregates Sutta’) quoted above, p.5 For details regarding the delusion of compactness, please see Answer 1.3, p.60, and ‘How You Analyse the Rūpa-Kalāpas’, p.152. 3 When you discern by way of the sense-bases, you discern the consciousnesses and associated mental factors that arise dependent on each of the sense-bases. (E.g. you discern the eye-base (the eye-transparent element), and then the eye-consciousness (1) and associated mental factors (7) that arise dependent on the eye-base.) When you discern by way of the six sense-doors, you discern the different types of consciousness in the cognitive processes of each door. For example, the different
Please see further next page

consciousness and associated mental factors of the eye-door cognitive process. Please see also above p.11 and following. 1 Vs.xviii ‘Nāmarūpapariggaha Kathā’ B664 (‘Mentality-materiality Definition Explanation’ Ñ8) 2 VsTi.ibid. For each of the five sense-bases only one such type of consciousness arises, but for the heart-base, there arise all other types of consciousness. Unless one is well familiar with the Abhidhamma’s explanation of the different types of consciousnesses in the different types of cognitive process, this may be very confusing to the beginning yogi. 3 Please see above p.9 for explanation of ‘dhamma objects’.

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you first discern the different types of cognitive process... which means you discern how many consciousness moments (cittakkhaõa) there are in each cognitive-process. please see also Answer 1.. Please see above p.Introduction Knowing and Seeing When a material object strikes upon its material door.... for example. and their associated mental factors. because to know and see these cognitive processes. you leave out the discernment of jhāna consciousnesses.. a consciousness and its associated mental factors arise as a compact group. above.4 Each cognitive process comprises what we call consciousness moments (cittakkhaõa). and discern the different types of consciousness-moment.60.. Mentality comprises.... included in those eighty-one types of mundane consciousnesses are the jhānas.. p.. stand and pass away.211ff Please see Talk 4 ‘How You Discern Materiality’. you need to analyse each type of consciousness-moment and know and see the individual consciousness and its associated mental factors.. bhikkhus... we need first to know and see materiality.2 This too takes place according to the natural law of consciousness (cittaniyāma). but you can do it because of the strong and powerful light of concentration that you have developed. But you cannot discern unless you have attained them.12f ‘Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness’ (Also M.1 eighty-nine types of conscious and fifty-two types of associated mental factors... Furthermore... associated mental factors do not arise alone: they arise always together with a consciousness.. When.. and because of the power of discernment that you developed when discerning materiality. But eight of those consciousnesses are supramundane (lokuttarā citta: four Paths and four Fruitions). we need first to know and see the sense-doors and their objects.3. as mentioned.. when one of the five types of material object strikes upon its material door.... To break down this compactness. As also mentioned before. [1] a bhikkhu understands (pajānāti) a consciousness associated with lust as a consciousness associated with lust. which gives rise first to an eye-door cognitive process. But that is not ultimate mentality (paramattha nāma)... whereas the results of that Vipassanā are the eight supramundane consciousnesses. and arise only when you do Vipassanā practice on one of the remaining eighty-one types of consciousness (all mundane). and then to many mind-door cognitiveprocess. A consciousness does not arise alone: it arises always together with associated mental 1 2 3 4 factors... a colour object strikes upon the eye-door...8ff For details. it strikes at the same time upon the mind-door (bhavaï ga). so do you here need to break down the delusion of compactness that is the cognitive-process. p. Likewise. and its associated mental factors.... (sarāga citta). bhikkhus. In other words. What you will now be able to discern is explained by the Buddha in the Mahāsatipañ ñ hāna Sutta:2 Again. Just as you with materiality had to break down the delusion of compactness that is the rūpa-kalāpa.. It is thus clear that to know and see mentality.1 1 2 Please see ‘Uõõābha Brahmin Sutta’ (quoted) etc... Should you therefore be a pure-insight yogi. p. how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating consciousness as consciousness? Here.. It is far subtler than knowing and seeing the elements of materiality. and each consciousness moment is the time it takes for one consciousness (citta) and its associated mental factors (cetasika) to arise. This you did when you discerned materiality.I.. please see Tables 5 and 6.. the mind-door (the bhavaï ga).10) 21 22 . is called a mind-door cognitive-process (mano-dvāra vīthi). p.3 When discerning mentality. That is knowing and seeing ultimate mentality (paramattha nāma).131 ff For details regarding the delusion of compactness. the objects of Vipassanā are only the mundane eighty-one types of consciousness. a cognitive-process of the first five doors arises: this is called a five-door cognitive-process (pañca-dvāra vīthi).. But a cognitive process of the sixth door.and a ga): mind-door cognitive-process arise. it strikes at the same time upon the mind-door (bhavaï 1 both a five-door. Hence.i..

................... (vītadosa citta)................ without interest in the object.......2 The Visuddhi Magga... externally and both internally and externally............. Thus..... as they really are........ compiled from ancient. More precisely. He understands a distracted consciousness as a distracted consciousness .......... he abides contemplating consciousness as consciousness internally (ajjhatta§).... Having now known and seen mentality-materiality as they really are............... That means you should know and see each pair....................(mahaggata citta)......... He understands an unsurpassed consciousness as an unsurpassed consciousness ....... you have realized what is called the three purifications....... such as a consciousness associated with lust.......... 2 D......... and know and see it as it really is............................... or he abides contemplating consciousness as consciousness externally (bahiddhā)................................... (vītarāga citta)... 4 ibid.. (vimutta§ citta)....... it is a consciousness (citta).................. distracted agitated........... He understands a consciousness dissociated from delusion as a consciousness dissociated from delusion .... (avimutta§ citta).... orthodox Sinhalese translations of the even earlier Pāëi Commentaries (predominantly ‘The Ancients’ (Porāõā).......................... exalted of a fine-material/immaterial sphere (jhāna).................... slothful and torpid.. This covers all types of mundane consciousnesses..... (anuttara citta). unexalted of a sense-sphere.... unconcentrated mind without....... 1 [15] He understands a liberated consciousness as a liberated consciousness . He understands an unexalted consciousness as an unexalted consciousness . worried 3 ibid..... this refers to a consciousness that is temporarily liberated owing to wise attention or because the hindrances have been suppressed by concentration unliberated not so..Introduction Knowing and Seeing [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] He understands a consciousness dissociated from lust as a consciousness dissociated from lust ... (sa-uttara citta)...... or he abides contemplating consciousness as consciousness both internally and externally........ 5 ibid..... ibid.. this is ‘a mind with lust’..... This covers all types of mundane consciousnesses...................... He understands a consciousness associated with delusion as a consciousness associated with delusion...... [16] He understands an unliberated consciousness as an unliberated consciousness .................. He understands a concentrated5 consciousness as a concentrated consciousness ............ 3 (Purification Path) authoritative and extensive instruction manual on meditation..9: contracted shrunken...C.................................... (amahaggata citta)............ He understands an exalted3 consciousness as an exalted consciousness ............... He understands a contracted2 consciousness as a contracted consciousness .... (vikkhitta citta).............. surpassed of a sense-sphere...................... however.. This covers all types of mundane consciousnesses. The Three Purifications 1 In ordinary language.. (vītamoha citta).................. the lustful quality of which is determined by the associated mental factor (cetasika) of lust.......... (samoha citta).................... liberated at this stage................. (asamāhita§ citta)......3 explains:1 1 restless....... unsurpassed of a fine-material/immaterial sphere (jhāna).. 2 Please see further p. (sa§khitta citta).. (sadosa citta).... and do it internally. The Buddha explains mentality as comprising sixteen types of consciousness.. He understands a surpassed4 consciousness as a surpassed consciousness... dating back to the time of The Buddha and the First Council) as well as later Sinhalese Commentaries........92.. He understands a consciousness associated with hatred as a consciousness associated with hatred ....... by way of each of the six sense-doors.ii...... This covers all types of mundane consciousnesses............. (samāhita citta)......................................... He understands a consciousness dissociated from hatred as a consciousness dissociated from hatred ........................ and translated back into Pāëi by Indian scholar monk Venerable Buddhaghosa (approx.... 500 A.......... He understands an unconcentrated consciousness as an unconcentrated consciousness .. Then will you have penetrated to ultimate mentality. [14] Here............) 23 24 ....... and one dissociated from lust.......... concentrated with access-concentration or jhāna..............

birth [11] ..... which is to know and see how five causes in one life (ignorance.. ageing and death .. (vibhavataõhā)................285... (2) ear-.. (dukkha samudaya§ ariyasacca§) With ignorance [1] as condition.. (kāmataõhā).. parideva). volitional formations...... 2 There are two types of existence (bhava): 1) kamma-process existence (kamma bhava)....XII........ existence [10] ................... • with feeling as condition..... (4) tongue-..... bhikkhus....... You need to see how this ongoing process continues from life to life..ii............. The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering is explained by The Buddha in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta:3 Now this..... bhikkhus.......... (6) mind-base........ This................. mentality-materiality [4] ..........III.............II.............. bhikkhus..................... the six sense-bases [5]1 .................................. Knowing and Seeing the Second and Third Noble Truth To attain Nibbāna. (vedanā)...... (soka....... the six sense-bases........... which is five results (consciousness...................... (taõhā)................ namely.......... (avijjā paccayā).1 ‘Dhamma-Wheel Rolling Sutta’ A................................ accompanied by delight and lust............................ mentality-materiality..(saïkhārā)................ which is the result of kamma (genesis in any sphere of existence)..... • with consciousness as condition........ however.........1 ‘Titthāyatana Sutta’ (‘Sectarian Doctrines Sutta’) 25 26 ..... feeling [7] .. (diññhi visuddhi) is the correct seeing of mentality-materiality (nāmarūpāna§ yāthāvadassana§)............ • suffering... contact [6] . S................... • with volitional formations as condition........... [2] craving for existence ................. bhikkhus..... you need also to see it as the passing-away and cessation of formations:3 And what.................................................. which is the production of kamma....... is the 1 Vs........ How You Know and See the Third Noble Truth • But it is not enough to see dependent origination only as the arising of formations....... is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering: it is this craving (taõhā) that leads to renewed existence... clinging and existence2) give rise to rebirth........................... clinging [9] ....... p... the mind-base (manāyatana).. • with birth as condition....... grief and despair [12].... please see also Answer 7. • with contact as condition..... In more detail....Introduction Knowing and Seeing [1] …purification of morality ...........8........V..III........... (upādāna)........... (sīla visuddhi) is the quite purified fourfold morality beginning with Pāñimokkha restraint [2] …purification of consciousness ............ is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering? ... 3 A.... (3) nose-.................. (citta visuddhi).......... [1] craving for sensual pleasures .... seeking delight here and there..... [3] craving for extermination .......... (nāma-rūpa).. The sixth āyatana....... comprises all consciousnesses. contact and feeling).............................. • with clinging as condition.. lamentation ... This is the origin of the whole mass of suffering..xviii ‘Diññhi-visuddhi Niddesa’ B587 (‘View-Purification Description’Ñ1-2) For how concentration purifies the mind..(viññāõa). (salāyātanā)................ • sorrow.............. • volitional formations [2] [come to be]. the eight attainments [the jhānas]together with access concentration2 [3] …purification of view......... we need to know and see also the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering....... • with existence as condition.. (phassa).. with the six sense-bases as condition...II.......(jarā................... upāyāsa) • come to be........................ (bhava)... Also this needs to be known and seen as it really is.............. The Buddha explains the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering as dependent origination (pañiccasamuppāda):4 And what....... (bhavataõhā).............. that is. craving..... craving [8] ..... (5) body-.........ii. maraõa).. domanassa.. is called the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering........ (jāti)..............................1 ‘Titthāyatana Sutta’ (‘Sectarian Doctrines Sutta’) salāyātanā (six sense-bases) (1) eye-............ consciousness [3].........................ii........ 2) rebirth-process existence (upapatti bhava).......... • 1 2 3 4 with mentality-materiality as condition.................(dukkha...... • with craving as condition...............

..ii..... and suffered pleasant and unpleasant feelings................ • with the six sense-bases’ cessation.. who do not understand birth… existence… clinging… craving… feeling… contact… the six sense-bases… mentality-materiality… consciousness… volitional formations. And you need to continue until you see that you in the future attain arahantship and later attain Parinibbāna. for example. mentality-materiality(4)..I.311 )... You need to see the momentary cessation of formations that takes place from consciousness-moment to consciousness-moment... those ascetics or Brahmins . • with craving’s cessation. by realizing it for themselves with direct knowledge. 2.. because of a back pain (please see p.. • with clinging’s cessation.... and who do not understand [4] the way leading to ageing-and-death’s cessation . there are no more formations.. (samaõā vā brāhmanā vā) [1] who do not understand ageing-and-death. the six sense-bases [5] cease. mentality-materiality[4] cease. and such venerable ones do not. which is knowing and seeing the mundane Truth of Suffering..........2) It is only at your Parinibbāna that the five aggregates cease without remainder: it is 1 only at your Parinibbāna that suffering ceases.... This means there are two types of cessation: 1.. • with volitional formations’ cessation. you know and see Nibbāna: you do not at this stage know and see Nibbāna.. and the way leading to their cessation: these I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or Brahmins among Brahmins. their cessation.. grief and despair [12] cease.297). the goal of asceticism and Brahminhood:1 Bhikkhus....... feeling [7] ceases..(samudaya).1 (Even The Buddha was possessed of the five aggregates.... This is the cessation of the whole mass of suffering.. and there will have been the remainderless cessation (avasesa nirodhā) of volitional formations [2]. you cannot realize Nibbāna.3 ‘Samaõabrāhmaõa Sutta’ (‘Ascetics and Brahmins Sutta’) (5).... and at old age because of that (please see quotation p.. lamentation. you understand that your Parinibbāna will have been realized. 1 The five aggregates are the same as consciousness (3).. birth [11] ceases.... But suffering itself will not have ceased... craving [8]. consciousness [3] ceases... (dukkha nirodha§ ariyasacca§) With ignorance’s [1] cessation ... 2 The Buddha suffered. [2] who do not understand ageing-and-death’s origin .... bhikkhus.. the six sense-bases S. • sorrow. • with consciousness’s cessation........ craving [8] ceases. (saïkhāra nirodho).... • with mentality-materiality’s cessation... At this stage you know and see only when the five causes that give rise to formations cease.. • with birth’s cessation. contact [6] ceases. in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of Brahminhood. ignorance [1] will have been destroyed.Introduction Knowing and Seeing Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering? ... existence [10] ceases.... is called the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering......II... 27 28 .. • with contact’s cessation. says The Buddha.. • with existence’s cessation. • volitional formations [2] cease .. (nirodha)... [3] who do not understand ageing-and-death’s cessation .. and clinging [9]: the causes for suffering will have ceased.. the cessation at your attainment of Arahantship the cessation at your Parinibbāna The cause for these two cessations is the Arahant Path Knowkhata)) Nibbāna. But this does not mean that when you now look into the future and know and see your attainment of arahantship and Parinibbāna... which knows and sees (Unformed (Asaï Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (lokuttara Nirodha Sacca)... • with feeling’s cessation. contact (6).(nirodha gāmini pañipada§).... their origin. clinging [9] ceases.... the ledge....... because the results of past kamma still operate: you will still be possessed of the five aggregates. When you in the future attain arahantship... ageing and death..... Without seeing this. suffering.. With that knowledge. (avijjāya tveva asesavirāga nirodhā).... and feeling (7).. This.

at the time of practising deep and profound meditation continuously over a period.. and if he had become a bhikkhu when elderly. the conditions will have changed. That is why........ brilliance and brightness of wisdom that you have developed enables you to go back along the line of successive mentality-materiality from the present to the moment of your rebirth in this life...... and is hard to get by owing 1 S.. atthaïgama and nirodha are synonyms for ‘cessation’. which is ever destroying like a thunderbolt..... (saïkhārāna§ samudayañca atthaïgamañca).... p. [4] The origin and cessation of mental formations . he would have become an arahant. (viññāõassa samudayañca atthaïgamañca)....227ff Dhp......... you can see these things..... and present causes will give results in the future...4 By looking at the individual constituents of mentality-materiality............... [5] The origin and cessation of consciousness .(rūpassa samudayañca atthaïgamañca)... light.... to the moment of your death in your past life. (saññāya samudayañca atthaïgamañca).xi..... But if you stop meditating etc.... and then also look into the future............... For details please see Talk 6 ‘How You See the Links of Dependent-Origination’..5 The Pāëi is quoted p........ This shows that our future is determined all the time by our present.1 They both inherited very much wealth... he and his wife had nothing at all.... But because of drink. develop concentration. he attained nothing at all. which offers no footing owing to its great profundity. if he had become a bhikkhu when middle-aged.9 ‘Mahādhanaseññhiputtavatthu’ (‘The Case of Mahādhana.. The Buddha explains in the ‘Samādhi Sutta’ (‘Concentration Sutta’) of the ‘Khandha Sa§yutta’ (‘Section on the Aggregates’):1 Bhikkhus. (yathā bhūta§ pajānāti)... The Buddha explained to Ānanda that if Mahādhāna had become a bhikkhu when young.. engaged in the deep and profound practice of discerning ultimate mentality-materiality.. [2] The origin and cessation of feeling . you will see your own Parinibbāna either in this life or in the future...... even in a dream.............. and were begging in the streets.. Without seeing past lives and future lives it is impossible for you to understand dependent origination as it really is: to know and see how past causes have given results in the present. An example of this is Mahādhana the Treasurer’s Son and his wife......... this Wheel of Becoming... you will be able to identify the causes and effects... to the time of your own Parinibbāna......III......114 For dhammas........ please see footnote 2.......14.... and further back in the same way to as many lives as you can discern.. he would have become a nonreturner....... And without knowing and seeing dependent origination....... It is explained in the Visuddhi Magga: There is no one. Finally. it is impossible to know and see the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering as it really is..... he would have become a once-returner: such were his pāramī s.... 1 2 3 4 At the time of practising diligently and with a mind that is purified by strong and powerful concentration.. Having attained concentration a bhikkhu understands dhammas2 as they really are .... in which case the future results will also have changed..... p..i. [3] The origin and cessation of perception.Introduction Knowing and Seeing But you can enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism....I...... the Treasurer’s Son’) 29 30 . who has got out of the fearful round of rebirths.. You Know and See Dependent Origination The splendour. (vedanāya samudayañca atthaïgamañca).. and was now a beggar... you will see that in the future there is the attainment of final cessation: Nibbāna....... unless he has severed with the knife of knowledge well whetted on the stone of sublime concentration.. radiance..A...... but Mahā dhana squandered it on drink and entertainment. And what does he understand as it really is? 3 [1] The origin and cessation of materiality .. and how the cessation of the causes gives the cessation of the results.. because you have developed strong and powerful concentration.

. and the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering as it really is.. this is not my self’ ..... Venerable Sir. suffering and subject to change.... (‘Eta§ mama....... or present.......... past..... it is through not understanding....... 31 32 .v.. suffering (dukkha) and without a self. Venerable Sir.. this is not my self’.) this I am....... and in the future too its occurrence will be due to conditions... (nesohamasmi).. Venerable Sir..... far or near.) this is my self’? .... then he sees (samanupassati) that....... and past and future mentality/materiality.... you have realized the Purification by Overcoming Doubt (Kaïkhāvitaraõa Visuddhi)................ Ānanda..... (nicca§ vā anicca§ vā’ti?) (Impermanent.ii... whether past.... .… should be seen as it really is with right wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine.. ‘This I am not’ is a reflection on suffering..............xvii ‘Bhavacakka Kathā’B659 (‘The Wheel of Becoming Explanation’ Ñ314) The quotation is from D... non-self (anatta).... this I am not .227ff 4 For dhammas.. gross or subtle......… Whatever kind of mental formations there are....3 It is only at this stage that you can begin to practice Vipassanā.... bhikkhus...... and the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering as it really is: you know and see the arising and passing away of all eleven types of mentality-ma1 Vs..... p.. ‘This is not my self’ is a reflection on non-self. future.........7 The commentary to the ‘Channovāda Sutta’ (‘Advice to Channa Sutta’...) That which is impermanent.III........… Whatever kind of perception there is. You know and see formations as they really are.) Therefore...... unhappy destinations… perdition.. this I am not... It is explained in the Visuddhi Magga:2 When he has thus seen that the occurrence of mentality-materiality is due to conditions (paccayato)....... as now.... and reflect on them according to the instructions given by The Buddha in His second teaching.........2 ‘Mahānidāna Sutta’ (‘Great Causation Sutta’) 2 Vs. M.. you will have overcome doubt about the three divisions of time: present... please see footnote 2. And this has been said by the Blessed One: This dependent origination is profound..I.... that this generation has become a tangled skein................i......... is materiality permanent or impermanent? ... all materiality should be seen as it really is with right wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine .. through not penetrating it..1 Once you have known and seen the Second Noble Truth......14 S. But this time you know and see them as impermanence (anicca)..................... the ‘Anattalakkhaõa Sutta’ (‘Non-self Characteristic Sutta’).xix ‘Paccayapariggaha Kathā’ B679 (‘Condition Dependence Explanation’Ñ5) 3 For the discernment of dependent origination/cessation.... (na meso attā)... and future.... ( eso me attā’ti?) (No. inferior or superior..............… Whatever kind of consciousness there is........ because it is only at this stage that you know and see ultimate reality: you cannot practise Vipassanā until you have seen dhammas4 as they really are......2 [1] 1 2 Having reached this stage. internal or external..... (dukkha§ vā ta§ sukha§ vā’ti?) (Suffering.. (neta§ mama)... [3] fit to be regarded thus: ‘This is mine.... You Practise Vipassanā When practising Vipassanā.. please see Talk 6 ‘How You See the Links of Dependent Origination’.......... a knotted ball of thread........ Ānanda... And........... and profound it appears.. matted as the roots in a bed of reeds.. and finds no way out of the round of rebirths. whatever kind of materiality there is....... teriality.. .. which He taught to the group of five bhikkhus (pañca vaggiyā bhikkhū):1 What do you think. (esohamasmi. with its states of loss..... Whatever kind of feeling there is..... [2] is it suffering or happiness? ................ you go back and again know and see the Noble Truth of Suffering as it really is... p.........................II..........III. so in the past too its occurrence was due to conditions..2) explains that ‘This is not mine’ is a reflection on impermanence.....Introduction Knowing and Seeing to the maze of many methods....) Is that which is impermanent. bhikkhus....

This is explained by The Buddha:1 Let him look on the world as void: Thus. bhikkhus.. p.9.XII. I shall erect the roof’.....V.... 33 34 . And He adds: Therefore.. we may say that you must see absolute zero.. which is why they are non-self.225 For a discussion of the inevitable full awareness at the realization of Nibbāna. void of happiness (sukha) and void of self (atta). You Know and See the Unformed (Asaïkhata Dhātu).. such a thing is possible.. please see p. So too..1 This is the realization of the Supramundane Eightfold Noble Path. quoted Vs... you progress through the remaining Knowledges (Ñāõa).117 For the realization of Nibbāna... please see Talk 7 ‘How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna’. an exertion should be made .. (dukkha§ ariya sacca§ yathā bhūta§ abhisamecca)... [2] having realized the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering as it really is. the Buddha explains also how those conditions make it possible to put a complete end to suffering:3 Indeed.v....2 You Fully Realize the Four Noble Truths Through a series of exercises in which you contemplate the rising and passing-away of formations... For King Death cannot see the man Who looks in this way on the world... which is mentality-materiality and their causes. always mindful. When The Buddha says we must know and see the world as void. such a thing is possible. But this does not mean that the mind is absolute zero: the mind is fully aware: it is the object that the mind knows and sees which is absolute zero. when all eight factors take Nibbāna as object...4 ‘Pinnacled House Sutta’. pass away as soon as they arise... I shall put a complete end to suffering’. bhikkhus. if anyone said: [1] ‘Having realized the Noble Truth of Suffering as it really is .... and then only the passingaway of formations...xxi ‘Saïkhārupekkhāñāõa Kathā’ B765 ‘Equanimity-Towards-Formations-Knowledge Explanation’ Ñ60) 2 Further to the perception of voidness... and that has been possible only because the necessary conditions for doing so have been present.. [4] having realized the Noble Truth of the Path to the Cessation of Suffering as it really is... if anyone said: ‘Having built the room of a pinnacled house. When you know and see the unformed.255ff 3 S. [3] having realized the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering as it really is. after which you will eventually know and see the unformed (Asaïkhata). He means that we must know and see it as void of permanence (nicca).2 In ordinary language.. they have no self (atta). (yogo karaõīyo) to understand: 1 2 Sn. or stable and indestructible essence.v.. In the Kūñ āgāra Sutta (‘Pinnacled House Sutta’) mentioned above. which is Nibbāna..15 ‘Mogharājamāõavapucchā’ (‘Young Brahmin Mogharāja’s Questions’). Mogharāja.. please see also Answer 5.. you know and see the Deathless (Amata). they are subject to constant arising and passing-away.Introduction Knowing and Seeing In other words. which is why they are impermanent (anicca).. which is why they are suffering (dukkha).. The object that the mind is fully aware of and knows and sees is the Nibbāna element: the unformed element 1 It is at this stage that you will have realized the Four Noble Truths as they really are. p. formations (saïkhārā). He may escape the clutch of death By giving up belief in self.

.........’ ...... an exertion should be made to understand: ‘This is [3] the cessation of suffering......(ida§ dukkhan’ti) Therefore...... an exertion should be made to understand: ‘This is [2] the origin of suffering..’ (ida§ dukkha nirodha gāminī pañipadā’ti) May all beings find the opportunity to make the necessary exertion to fully realize the Four Noble Truths.............odd page Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw Pa-Auk Tawya Monastery 35 36 ... and put a complete end to suffering..’ .’ ................................................................ bhikkhus... bhikkhus... bhikkhus.......... (ida§ dukkha samudayan’ti) Therefore......................................... (ida§ dukkha nirodhan’ti) Therefore.......Introduction Knowing and Seeing [1] ‘This is suffering.... an exertion should be made to understand: ‘This is [4] the path to the cessation of suffering....

.....3 We believe that the meditation taught in the Pāë i Buddhist texts is the same as the meditation practised by The Buddha Himself...... First we should ask ourselves..... p............... (sammā diññhi) Right thought ........ and unwholesome mental formations........... all of which produce new birth.............. ageing.......... In other words.. What Is Meditation? So what is meditation? Meditation consists of Samatha and Vipassanā meditation. we must completely destroy both wholesome mental formations..C...1 While in Taiwan we should like to teach you something about the system of meditation taught at Pa-Auk Forest Monastery........) Now.......... rooted in greed.......... 3............... Nibbāna is release and freedom from the suffering of the round of rebirths (sa§sāra).... In 1 2 Right view ...... and right concentration are together called the training of concentration (samādhi)........................... which is Samatha meditation (samatha bhāvanā)........ which must both be based upon moral conduct of body and speech. non-anger.......... ageing......... (sammā vāyāma) Right mindfulness..... and death. (sammā kammanta) Right livelihood .......... near Mawlamyine in Myanmar....... 7............. To reach Nibbāna....... at the invitation of some Taiwanese monks and nuns who stayed at Pa-Auk Forest Monastery... and so to free ourselves from the many forms of suffering we need to meditate.......... we must learn how to meditate in order to attain Nibbāna..... therefore..................... If we destroy them totally with the path knowledge (ariyamagga)........ and translated back into Pāëi by Indian scholar monk Venerable Buddhaghosa (approx... and right livelihood are together called the training of morality (sīla)...Knowing and Seeing Talk 1 How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Introduction We are very happy to have come to Taiwan.............. and is the cessation of rebirth. 500 A.... orthodox Sinhalese translations of the even earlier Pāëi Commentaries (predominantly ‘The Ancients’ (Porāõā).. and non-delusion.............. Right speech........ (sammā saïkappa) Right speech ............. 38 37 ............. (sammā sati) Right concentration .................. meditation is the development and perfection of the Noble Eightfold Path (ariya aññhaïgika magga)....................... sickness............................. It is based upon instructions found in the Pāë i2 Buddhist texts and the Visuddhi Magga............ The Noble Eightfold Path is: 1..... (sammā vācā) Right action ......... Why Meditate? other words............. 6..... anger........ sickness and death......... Right view and right thought are together called the training of wisdom (paññā)..................... and delusion......... (sammā samādhi) Right view The Buddha called Vipassanā right view (vipassanā sammā diññhi) and path right view (magga sammā diññhi)...... We are all subject to the suffering of rebirth....... 3 (Purification Path) authoritative and extensive instruction manual on meditation.......... dating back to the time of The Buddha and the First Council) as well as later Sinhalese Commentaries....................... ageing...... The Noble Eightfold Path Pa-Auk Tawya = Pa-Auk Forest For untranslated Pāëi terms........ right mindfulness.. Since we wish to be free from all suffering............ please see Appendix 1........ right action.......... 4.. 5........ rooted in non-greed.... compiled from ancient....... ‘What is the purpose of meditation?’ The purpose of Buddhist meditation is to attain Nibbāna.................. then we will have realized Nibbāna. Right effort............. 8......... and taught by Him to His disciples during His lifetime.... and death.. ‘Why did The Buddha teach meditation?’ or................. sickness. 2.341... (sammā ājīva) Right effort ...... let us look a little bit more at each of the eight factors of the Noble Eightfold Path. Nibbāna is the cessation of mentality (nāma) and materiality (rūpa)........

Right action is to abstain from killing. The three factors of right speech. 4. 2. Since they work together in this way. animals for slaughter. in other words. Right speech is to abstain from lying. or the twelve internal and external sense-bases. 3. 3. and right view understands it as it really is. or the seven factors of enlightenment.1 . Mindfulness of the body Mindfulness of feelings Mindfulness of consciousness Mindfulness of dhammas Here. Right livelihood is to abstain from obtaining a living by wrong speech or wrong actions. or lying. The fourth factor of the Noble Eightfold Path is right action (sammā kammanta). What is right view? Right view consists of four kinds of knowledge: 1. intoxicants. stealing. 3. Thus. 4. the five aggregates of clinging. The effort to remove unwholesome states that have already arisen. Right effort is also of four kinds: 1. and right livelihood are called the training of morality (sīla sikkhā). concentration. which is the cessation of the five aggregates of clinging. 3. they are called the training of wisdom (paññā sikkhā). and poisons. dhammas are the fifty-one associated mental factors excluding feeling. The fifth factor of the Noble Eightfold Path is right livelihood (sammā ājīva). we must practise and develop the three trainings of morality. The second factor of the Noble Eightfold Path is right thought (sammā saïkappa). which is the five aggregates of clinging. and wisdom. These two factors work together to apply the mind to each of the Four Noble Truths. and from sexual misconduct. right action. humans. from theft. which is the Noble Eightfold Path. Applied thought to the object of the Noble Truth of Suffering. The realization and knowledge of the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering. Applied thought to the object of the Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering. and to understand them. In order to develop these four types of right effort. Right mindfulness is also of four kinds: 1. The seventh factor of the Noble Eightfold Path is right mindfulness (sammā sati). For laypeople it includes to abstain from the five types of wrong trade: trade in weapons. or the Four Noble Truths. it is the insight-knowledge of dependent-origination.How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing The first factor is right view (sammā diññhi). which is Nibbāna. slander. Applied thought to the object of the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering. the Noble Eightfold Path. which is the five aggregates of clinging. 2. The effort to arouse the arising of wholesome states that have not yet arisen. 2. or the five aggregates of clinging. The sixth factor of the Noble Eightfold Path is right effort (sammā vāyāma). 2. which is the causes for the five aggregates of clinging. Nibbāna. 4. 4. Applied thought to the object of the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering. The knowledge of the Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering. But the four types of mindfulness can in fact be reduced to just two. which discerns the causes for the five aggregates of clinging. The effort to prevent the arising of unwholesome states that have not yet arisen. mindfulness of materiality and mindfulness of mentality. such as killing. The third factor of the Noble Eightfold Path is right speech (sammā vācā). The insight-knowledge of the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering. and useless talk. right thought applies the mind to the object of the Truth of Suffering. or the eighteen elements. harsh speech. Right thought too is four-fold: 1. 40 39 . The insight-knowledge of the Noble Truth of Suffering. The effort to increase wholesome states that have already arisen. etc. which is the way of practice leading to the realization of Nibbāna.

let us now look briefly at how to practise ānāpānasati.9‘Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness’ (Also M. concentration. They are called person-to-be-led (neyya-puggala). and. the ‘Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness’.ii. and must practise the Noble Eightfold Path in its gradual order. You should be able to feel it either just below the nose or somewhere around the nostrils.2 right concentration is explained further as the four fine-material jhānas (rūpa jhāna). and after purifying their mind by way of concentration practice. ‘I am breathing out a long breath’. and wisdom.I. and must develop the Noble Eightfold Path step by step. I will breathe in’. Breathing in a short breath he knows. either the top of the upper lip or around the nostrils. thus he trains himself. ‘Calming the breath body. Most people. ‘Calming the breath body.i. These are called right concentration according to the ‘Mahāsatipañ ñ hāna Sutta’. thus he trains himself. Do not follow the breath into the body or out of the body. sits down cross-legged and keeps his body erect and establishes mindfulness on the meditation object. 1 Breathing in a long breath. please see above p. ‘I am breathing out a short breath’. or to the foot of a tree.xvii. Ever mindfully he breathes in. I will breathe in’.9 (Also M. or breathing out a short breath. a bhikkhu having gone to the forest. thus he trains himself. general characteristics (sammañña lakkhaõa) or colour of the nimitta (sign of concentration).ii. [1] [2] [3] [4] How should you develop concentration? There are forty subjects of Samatha meditation. ‘Experiencing the whole breath body. Do not pay attention to the individual characteristics (sabhāva lakkhaõa). After purifying their morality they must train in concentration. or breathing out a long breath. in the order of morality. thus he trains himself. ‘I am breathing in a short breath’.10) For bibliographical abbreviations and source references. the Visuddhi Magga explains that ‘Purification of Consciousness’ is ‘the eight attainments together with access concentration’: this is the same as Right Concentration. To begin meditating. and ever mindfully he breathes out.xviii ‘Diññhi-Visuddhi Niddesa’ B662 (‘Description of Purification of View’Ñ1) Here. he knows.i. he knows. the four immaterial jhānas (arūpa jhāna) and access concentration (upacāra samādhi). or to an empty place. he knows. they must train in wisdom.How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing The eighth factor of the Noble Eightfold Path is right concentration (sammā samādhi). ‘Experiencing the whole breath body. I will breathe out’. here in this Teaching. sit in a comfortable position and try to be aware of the breath as it enters and leaves the body through the nostrils. Most people succeed in meditation by using either ānāpānasati or fourelements meditation. Some people have a great accumulation of pāramī s. and fourth jhāna. I will breathe out’. ‘I am breathing in a long breath’. Those who cannot decide which meditation subject to develop should start with ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing). and a person can develop any of these to attain concentration. third jhāna. How You Develop Concentration How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing The development of ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing) is taught by The Buddha in the ‘Mahāsatipañ ñ hāna Sutta’1 He says: Bhikkhus. do not have such pāramī s.I. and. Therefore. Right concentration is the first jhāna (absorption). and can attain Nibbāna by simply listening to a brief or detailed talk on the Dhamma. 2 Vis. second jhāna. because then you will not be able to perfect your concentration. The individual characteristics are 1 D. Just be aware of the breath at the most obvious place it brushes against or touches. however.10) 41 42 .1 In the Visuddhi Magga.1 . D. Then you will be able to develop and perfect your concentration.

the Visuddhi Magga suggests counting the breaths. pushing. thus he trains himself. This means. Sometimes the breath may be long throughout the sitting. At this stage the nimitta may appear. and determine that during that time you will not let your mind drift. but to no more than ten. in-outtwo. you should decide to make the breath calm. I will breathe in’. or breathing out a long breath. you should move on to the fourth stage: [4] ‘Calming the breath body. or around the nostrils. etc. Breathing in a short breath. and no nimitta appears. you should move on to the third stage. Here The Buddha is instructing you to be aware of the whole breath from beginning to end. ‘I am breathing out a short breath’. The concept of the breath is the object of ānāpānasati. Do not note. and be aware of whether the breaths are long or short. and make it calmly aware of only the breath. he knows. You should know this by being just aware of the length of time that the breath brushes against and touches the upper lip. Simply be aware of the in-and-out breath as a concept. heat. If it does. or ‘in-out-nonself’. which you are trying to develop. and non-self (anatta) characteristics of the breath.How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing the characteristics of the four elements in the breath: hardness. As you concentrate on the concept of the breath in this way. and no nimitta appears. but do not purposely try to make it long or short. As you do this the nimitta may now appear. thus he trains himself and. You should decide for yourself what length of time you will call ‘long’. do not immediately shift your mind to it. but length in time. I will breathe out’. If you are calmly aware of the breath from beginning to end for about an hour. you should proceed to the first and second stage of the meditation: [1] At this stage. [2] Breathing in a long breath. I will breathe out’. and if you practised this meditation in a previous life. as you like. 1 Vs. you find that you are able to concentrate your mind. ‘Inout-long. roughness. ‘Experiencing the whole breath body. thus he trains himself. and sometimes short. do not note ‘in-out-impermanent’. ‘I am breathing in a short breath’. ‘Long’ or ‘short’ here do not refer to length in feet and inches. you will easily be able to concentrate on the in-and-out breath. but if you are able to do this calmly for about one hour.1 Count up to at least five. 43 44 . Just knowing this is all you have to do at this stage. and go on being continuously aware of the breath from beginning to end. you have to develop awareness of whether the inand-out breaths are long or short. suffering (dukkha).’ etc. I will breathe in’. After concentrating your mind like this for at least half an hour. but be only calmly aware of the breath. or go elsewhere. You will notice that the breath is sometimes long in time. he knows. When you count like this. ‘I am breathing out a long breath’. he knows. as it enters and leaves the body. It is this object you must concentrate on to develop concentration. just ‘In-out’. he knows. We suggest you count to eight. and sometimes short. or ‘in-out-suffering’. The general characteristics are the impermanent (anicca). but stay with the breath. up to any number between five and ten. So you should count. and developed some pāramī s. and what length of time you will call ‘short’. ‘Calming the breath body. supporting. the duration. You should count after the end of each breath: ‘In-out-one. flowing. If not. [3] ‘Experiencing the whole breath body. thus he trains himself and.1 .viii ‘Ānāpānasati Kathā B223ff’ (‘Mindfulness-of-Breathing Explanation’ Ñ90ff) To do this. In-out-short’. because that reminds you of the Noble Eightfold Path. breathing out a short breath. Be aware of the duration of each in-and-out breath. ‘I am breathing in a long breath’.

... his nostrils become inadequate... Attention is the mental factor that makes the mind advert towards the object.... the Visuddhi Magga says: Because previously... associated mental factors..................1 ............... you will find the breath becomes calmer......... (samannāhāra) You continue to do so.... you pay sustained attention to the breath that way... and is the term employed in the subcommentary’s discussion....... no reviewing................. So his bodily formation [the in-and-out breath] at the time when he has discerned [it] is subtle in comparison with what it was at the time when he had not [discerned it]... Reflect on the fact that you are not one of them.........217.’ Attention .... To further explain why the bhikkhu needs to investigate the inand-out-breaths........ keep the breath in the mind...... you advert the mind towards the breath..e........... 2 When consciousness....... (paccavekkhaõa) You review (vīma§sa) the breath.................................. Concern... an unconscious person... to the effect: ‘I will try to make the breath calm... The Visuddhi Magga gives four factors for making the breath calm:1 1......................... a lot of yogis encounter difficulties............ a person in the fourth jhāna....... vima§sa is synonymous with paccavekkhaõa......... 2.... 3........ Just before the nimitta appears. and materiality produced by consciousness are suspended...................... and a brahmā: only these seven types of person do not breathe........ you should keep your awareness where you last noticed the breath................... at the time when the yogi had not yet discerned the [in-and-out breath] there was no concern in him.. For details regarding this attainment. no attention.......... 45 46 .......... (manasikāra) Literally ‘deciding to make the breath calm’......... That way...... no reaction............ A dead person........ 2..... and your concentration will not 1 1 Vs.... When it is subtle. you apprehend the breath................. (ābhoga) Reaction ... as the effort will cause agitation.. Attention makes the mind conscious of the breath and know the breath.............. 4...... Here........... and to be continuously aware of it............. a foetus in the womb.. to the effect: ‘I will try to make the breath calm...... there is....... and that it is just your mindfulness which is not strong enough for you to be aware of the breath........... become increasingly subtle........ and is lying in the cool shade................. then his in-breaths and out-breaths are gross.... make it clear to the mind.... they may think the breath has stopped....... a drowned person.... 4.... (manasikāra) Reviewing ...... And they are explained first with a simile: Suppose a man stands still after running or after descending from a hill................’ Likewise....... the bhikkhu’s in-and-outbreaths are gross to begin with....How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing You should do nothing else...... do it again and again................. Concern ................. Mostly they find that the breath becomes very subtle and unclear.... you should not make the breath more obvious.............. But when he has rid himself of his fatigue and has bathed and drunk and put a wet cloth on his chest....’ So all you need to do at this stage is to decide to calm the breath.......... Reaction . after which he has to investigate whether they exist or not...................... If this happens................ Reviewing1 .. and he keeps on breathing in and out through his mouth...... please see p......... then his in-breaths and out-breaths eventually occur so subtly that he has to investigate whether they exist or not........ (samannāhāra) Attention........ says the Visuddhi Magga........viii ‘Ānāpānasati Kathā’ B220 (‘Mindfulness-of-Breathing Explanation’ Ñ178).... and the nimitta may appear.. and wait for it there.. otherwise your concentration will break and fall away.................... (paccavekkhaõa) 3.... i.......................... a person in the attainment of cessation (nirodha samāpatti)2..........’ But once he has discerned [the in-and-out breath]............................... (ābhoga) You pay initial attention to the breath.......... that you are in reality breathing....... to the effect that [he knew] ‘I am progressively tranquillizing each grosser bodily formation [the in-and-out breath]......... to the effect: ‘I will try to make the breath calm.... 1..... or putting down a load from his head............

But it is not only the perception that is very subtle. neither-contactnor-non-contact. The Visuddhi Magga explains that this is because the nimitta is produced by perception. when the commentaries say the nimittas are different because of perception. the contact and all the other mental formations are also very subtle. or drawn out cotton. Do not let it go away. or a sun. they are merely explaining the ānāpānanimitta from the single point-of-view of perception. 202. sustained thought.How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing develop.viii ‘Ānāpānasati Kathā’ B231 (‘Mindfulness-of-Breathing Explanation’ Ñ216) VsTi.3 So. moving air or a draught. 3 Vs. even though ānāpānasati is a single meditation subject. a lotus. effort. a puff of smoke. For details regarding this jhāna. but are altogether thirty-four. the fourth immaterial jhāna. a bright light like the morning star Venus. If you do. in its explanation of the attainment of the base of neither-perceptionnor-non-perception (nevasaññā-nāsaññā yatana jhāna). This is in fact explained elsewhere in the Visuddhi Magga. brilliant and clear. a film of mist. and if it is not clear. So. the nimittas are different because of perception. which is why we call it the attainment of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. whatever the shape or colour of your nimitta. So when your nimitta first 1 2 Vs. it is the pañ ibhāga-nimitta (counterpart sign). It is a mental formation that arises always together with the individual consciousness and other mental formations: these mental formations associated with the indi1 2 vidual consciousness are called associated mental factors (cetasika).2 Thus.82. one-pointedness. a stretched out cobweb. To some the nimitta is pure and fine like cotton wool. in the attainment of neither-perceptionnor non-perception there is also neither-feeling-nor-non-feeling. a chariot wheel.1 . the consciousness. decision. the Visuddhi Magga explains that the perception in that jhāna is very subtle. Please see also footnote 1. it is important not to play with your nimitta. for example. your concentration will not develop any further and your progress will stop. or a bright pearl. but when bright and sparkling. a bright ruby or gem.1 So. etc. The feelings. To yet others it is like a long rope or string. When like a dull ruby or gem.x ‘Nevasaññā-nāsaññā-yatana Kathā’ B287 (‘Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception Base Explanation’ Ñ50) 47 48 . contact. the mental factors are not only the one perception. as you apply your mindfulness and wisdom in this way. But. neither-consciousness-nor-non-consciousness. it produces various types of nimitta: the nimitta appears differently to different people. Just be aware of the breath as it is. applied thought. But perception does not arise alone. Your nimitta will probably disappear. and desire: not only perception differs. The other images should be understood in this way too. says the Visuddhi Magga. and is usually dull and opaque. To others it is like the stem of a cotton plant. it is the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. please see p. attention. using perception as their example. a moon. a pure white nimitta like cotton wool is the uggaha-nimitta (taken-up sign or learning sign). the breath will reappear.ibid. In most cases. a wreath of flowers. volition. The Nimitta The nimitta of ānāpānasati varies according to the individual.1 And the Commentary to the Visuddhi Magga explains that it is the different perceptions which the different yogis had before the nimitta arose. it is the uggaha-nimitta. and do not intentionally change its shape or appearance. When the nimitta becomes bright like the morning star. p. whatever your perception of the in-and-out breath. if a yogi concentrates on the ānāpāna nimitta with a happy mind. in terms of perception (saññāsīsa). simply wait for it where you last noticed it. You will find that. such as. or a sharpened piece of wood.2 There. but also all the other mental factors differ. Thus.

................................................. and the pañ ibhāganimitta like clear ice or glass?’ If these kinds of thought persist...... and keep it from straying off the path of Samatha (tranquillity) and Vipassanā (insight) that leads to Nibbāna...... and be aware of just the nimitta.... is stable. Practise until you succeed................ then just leave your mind there..... It is important to have faith in the enlightenment of The Buddha. Faith .. If your nimitta appears far away in front of you... ‘Jhāna 49 50 .... gas How You Balance the Five Controlling Faculties To avoid dropping into bhavaï and to develop further...... such as the Triple Gem............. or more... 5........... you ga need the help of the five controlling faculties (pañcindriyā) to push the mind and fix it on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta...... It is called access concentration because it is close to and precedes jhāna..... In reality the mind has not stopped..................... (paññā) The five controlling faculties are the five powers that control the mind......... namely the Four Paths....... He should develop ānāpānasati without any doubts. and appears as the breath itself.... as it will probably disappear... and when it is white like cotton wool........ Nibbāna.............. but the yogi is just not sufficiently skilled to discern this.......... It is also important to have faith in the teaching of The Buddha....... Both types of concentration have the pañ ibhāga-nimitta as their object. they result in views such as.... and simply concentrate on the breath at the place where the breath touches...... or three hours.... Absorption concentration is jhāna..... two. you will find it disappears..... (sati) Concentration .. At this stage you will reach either access (upacāra) or absorption (appanā) concentration. the nimitta becomes whiter and whiter........ If you can keep your mind fixed on the uggaha-nimitta for one or two hours............ the Four Fruits.. ‘Can jhāna really be attained by just watching the in-breath and out-breath? Is it really true that the uggaha-nimitta is like white cotton wool..................... 3............ The teaching of The Buddha shows us the way of meditation. three hours... (samādhi) Understanding .....’ and the yogi’s faith in the teaching will decline.. do not move your mind from the breath to the nimitta........ 2. The first controlling faculty is faith in what one should have faith in... ignore it...... The five controlling faculties are: 1....... and he will be unable to stop himself from giving up the development of Samatha. ‘Jhāna cannot be attained in the present age.. You should determine to keep your mind calmly concentrated on the white uggaha-nimitta for one.. a person will regress from his work in meditation. and one can fall into bhavaï (lifegas ga continuum consciousness). If you force your mind to come away from it...... If you ignore it... (saddhā) Effort... Determine and practise to keep your mind on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta for one. Let us say the yogi thinks........... bright....... and brilliant............. so at this stage it is important to have complete faith in it. By moving your mind from the breath to the nimitta. For this reason bhavaï still occur.1 ....................... If one or more of the controlling faculties are in excess.... and your mind by itself has become fixed on it.... The only difference between them is that in access concentration the jhāna factors are not fully developed.. it should become clear. If your nimitta appears at the place where the breath touches.. If you do. etc...... As you keep your mind on the nimitta...... The yogi will say that everything stopped..... because without it.......... 4.. and the breath as the nimitta... there will be an imbalance.(vīriya) Mindfulness ........ or faith in kamma and its results..... He should think........ two............ This is then the pañ ibhāga-nimitta (counterpart sign).... you will probably lose your concentration.....How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing appears. So a person who is developing concentration with a meditation subject like ānāpānasati needs to have strong faith......... then forget about the breath.. you will be able to make further progress.......... it is the uggaha-nimitta. If you find that the nimitta is stable... as the bhavaï are very subtle........................................ and may even think it is Nibbāna................ the nimitta will come and stay there.

1 . on Gijjhakūta (Vulture Peak mountain). wisdom is not clear and firm. kamma. and concentration weak. He will believe that if he meditates in accordance with The Buddha’s instructions. and respect for objects without use and essence. which means his mind will very often fall into bhavaï ga. he became an Arahant. he will become neither lazy. if concentration is strong and effort is weak. he won no attainment and was filled with despair. wisdom is strong and faith is weak. For example. and reverence for objects revered and respected by religions outside orthodox Buddhism. he developed painful sores on his feet. He did not lie down and sleep. mindfulness. he will be able to attain the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. on the other hand. became aware of his despair and visited him. Again. and wisdom is unable to understand the pañ ibhāga nimitta. and winning faith. ‘I will certainly reach jhāna. If faith and wisdom are balanced. Without meditating. a person will develop faith in. Then. When concentration and effort are balanced. he heard the Buddha teach. The Buddha taught him a subject for meditation. is praised by the wise. faith. a person can become quite crafty. Excessive faith contains excessive joy (piti). will be unable to respectively decide. and he went to the monastery Sī tavana. mindfulness is unable to establish knowledge of the pañ ibhāga nimitta. For instance. the remaining faculties. concentration. and here it is faith in the meditation pañ ibhāga nimitta. he pays attention to the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta with a relaxed mind. But if effort is strong. concentration is unable to prevent the mind from going to another object. because excessive faith has decided on the object. and keep them there. however. he can become agitated. if. nor agitated. having reflected on the lesson. he may become lazy. If he thinks. 51 The Buddha explained that in the same way.How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing can be achieved if I follow the instructions of The Fully Enlightened Buddha systematically. The Venerable Soõa profited from the lesson. If. If. his concentration will decrease. however. such as guardian spirits or protective deities. When a person wishes to cultivate a Samatha subject. establish. and when he could no longer walk. it is in any case good to have very strong faith. To balance faith with wisdom.’ If. prevent distraction. a person lets his faith become excessive. and develop penetrative discernment. He worked very hard. without knowing it penetratively. This can be illustrated by the case of the Venerable Soõa. he will develop faith in. because not long afterwards. too much energy or effort ends in flurry. Thus excessive effort causes the mind not to stay calmly concentrated on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. mindfulness and concentration are weakened: effort is unable to raise associated mental formations to the pañ ibhāga nimitta. a person can become lazy. and also the remaining faculties. and will be able to attain jhāna. and wisdom is unable to see the pañ ibhāga nimitta penetratively. he will spend his time simply passing judgements. faith is strong and wisdom is weak. and by concentrating on 52 . he got his parents’ consent and ordained. for instance. and its effects. however. a person will have faith in objects he should have faith in: the Triple Gem. This means the yogi’s mind is disturbed by joyful excitement. if I develop concentration on the pañ ibhāganimitta’. then by the power of that faith. and too little energy or effort ends in idleness. He worked so hard that his meditation path was stained with blood. when the yogi’s concentration improves. In the city of Rājagaha. Thus excessive faith leads actually to a decrease in faith. which leads to emotions. This is as difficult to cure as to cure a disease caused by an overdose of medicine. And The Buddha reminded him that when he as a layman had played the vī õā (a type of Indian lute). but pacing up and down in meditation with great energy. the lute was not tuneful or playable if the strings were strung either too tight or too loose: they had to be strung evenly. and jhāna. and concentration with effort. Even so. The five jhāna-factors will in that case not be strong enough to maintain the high level of concentration. and wisdom. The Buddha. he crawled on his hands and knees. effort. If effort is too strong.

...... and balances them on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta............................ They are: 1.. which further require that concentration and wisdom be balanced with effort and faith.... Mindfulness ................. as is the seasoning of salt in all sauces......... and joy... and non-self penetratively.. Without mindfulness.... Investigation of Phenomena .. 2...........ibid......................... he will definitely achieve jhāna................. Then one should not develop tranquillity.. in this case the pañ ibhāga-nimitta... (sati) Remembers the pañ ibhāga-nimitta and discerns it again and again.... Joy ................ and from laziness due to excess concentration.. Without mindfulness the mind is incapable of attaining any special and extraordinary states. the mind will become agitated and distracted..... and a prime minister for all the king’s affairs..........(upekkhā) Evenness of mind that neither becomes excited................. and equanimity. The Buddha taught that this applies equally to supramundane jhānas (lokuttara jhāna)..............(vīriya) Brings the enlightenment factors together. For a person developing Vipassanā it is good that wisdom be strong..... and joy..... Then one should do the opposite........ concentration.............. and the Factor of Investigation of Phenomena...... and not develop investigation of phenomena.. or wisdom...... it is also important to balance the Seven Factors of Enlightenment. Mindfulness protects the mind. however......1 ......... Equanimity ....... but instead develop investigation of phenomena.... and seven factors of enlightenment are balanced........ This way the agitated and distracted mind becomes restrained and calmed....... because it protects the mind from agitation due to excess faith...... This is because jhāna is based primarily on concentration...... Hence the ancient commentaries say the The Blessed One said................1 1 How You Balance the Seven Factors of Enlightenment If one is to achieve jhāna using ānāpānasati. as well as the mind of the yogi. Tranquillity............ With insufficient effort the mind will fall away from the object of meditation... because it helps the mind arrive at special and high states it has never reached or known before................... and keeps the object of meditation from becoming lost.. That is why to one discerning it with insight-knowledge..................... When there is too much effort.... A yogi must develop and balance all seven enlightenment factors..... Mindfulness is necessary under all circumstances. concentration with effort........ (samādhi) One-pointedness of the mind on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta........ that have the pañ ibhāga-nimitta as their object. but instead develop tranquillity.. 4........(dhammavicaya) Understands the pañ ibhāga-nimitta penetratively....... concentration... 5............. It balances faith with wisdom............. nor withdraws from the pañ ibhāga-nimitta...... Mindfulness is a refuge.......... effort.... a person is unable to lift the mind up or restrain the mind......(passaddhi) Calmness of the mind and associated mental factors......................... That way the mind is raised up again............iv ‘Dasavidha-appanā Kosalla§’ B62 (‘The Ten Kinds of Skill in Absorption’ Ñ45-49) and VsTi. This is how the five controlling faculties...... because when wisdom is strong he will be able to know and see the three characteristics of impermanence.. Only when concentration and wisdom are balanced can mundane jhānas (lokiya jhāna) arise......’ Why? Because it is a refuge and protection for the meditating mind. 7...... Effort... Please see also Vs..... and equanimity. 3............ effort...... and concentration with wisdom. Concentration ... 53 54 .(pīti) Gladness of the mind when experiencing the pañ ibhāga-nimitta................... 6..... and especially reinforces itself..... So mindfulness is always necessary................... effort................................. ‘Mindfulness is always necessary in any meditation subject............................................. suffering.........How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing the pañ ibhāga-nimitta....... mindfulness appears as that which protects the object of meditation.............................. which is why The Buddha said it is necessary in all instances.....

............. your mind will know the pañ ibhāga-nimitta without interruption.. So. To review the jhāna factors...... and the commentaries explain that it is the mind-door (manodvāra).. and carry out the resolve... You should then discern the five jhāna factors one at a time....... while joy...... and has the gross jhāna factors of applied and sustained thought...... even all night. 4..199.. please see Talk 5...... Sustained thought .... which have the same object............. concentration will go beyond access...... To resolve (adhiññhāna) to stay in jhāna for a determined duration. which is without them............. 3. 4........ you should again concentrate on the pañ ibhāganimitta................. happiness. Adverting is performed by the mind-door adverting consciousness (manodvārāvajjana).......... This can continue for several hours. which in this case takes as object one of the five jhāna factors.. you should again concentrate on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta...............IX.... When the five controlling faculties.iv... Joy ..... the five jhāna factors are: 1............. as well as be unable to attain the other jhā nas.... When your mind stays continuously concentrated on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta for one or two hours......... One will lose all the jhānas. and again review the jhāna factors with mindfulness and full awareness....... and not spend too much time discerning the jhāna factors. absorption concentration.. mindfulness..... He explains that if one does not master the first jhāna completely......... or for a whole day.. concentration..... (sukha) Happiness about the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta... a desire for only joy... also called ‘Gāvī-upamā Sutta’ (‘Cow Simile Sutta’) To enter jhāna whenever desired.... six................1 Applied thought ......... 55 56 .... and onepointedness........... that is ga the heart-materiality.......... p.. the two jhāna factors of applied thought and sustained thought will appear gross to you..... up to jhāna............. Adverting and reviewing occur in the same mind-door cognitive-process (manodvāra-vīthi). emerge from it...How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing How You Attain Jhāna 2........ reflect on its faults... guttara Nikāya.. One-pointedness . There are five masteries: 1.. or seven reviewing impulsion consciousnesses. Bliss.. The bhavaï -consciousness is bright and ga luminous........ five.....213 2 A.. So. To advert to the jhāna factors.......... again and again... 3.. faith... making it less calm than the second jhāna. and reflect on the advantages of the second jhāna.I..... and understanding are sufficiently developed. and Table 6.1 ............ (vicāra) Maintaining the mind on the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta. 5....... 5............ with no desire now for those two jhāna factors.. you will be able to discern them all at once.........4 ‘Mountain Cow Sutta’.. 1 The jhāna factors are together called jhāna.. If you try many times.. You need to enter the now familiar first jhāna....... and tries to go to higher jhānas.. For details..... (vitakka) Directing and placing the mind on the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta. and pañ ibhāganimitta as it appears there.... In the case of ānāpānasati........ It is followed by the four. You should develop mastery (vasī-bhāva) of the jhānas. To emerge from jhāna at the determined time. When you are just beginning to practise jhāna.. (pī ti) Liking for the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta.................2 The In the ‘Pabbateyyagāvī Sutta’ of the Aï Buddha says one should not try going to the second jhāna before mastering the first jhāna.. 2......(ekaggatā) One-pointedness of mind on the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta. in order to abandon the gross factors and obtain the peaceful factors...... you can try to progress to the second jhāna...... one will lose the first jhāna........ you will eventually discern both the mind-door (bhavaï ga).. and attain the first jhāna.... When you have mastered the first jhāna............ happiness or bliss and one-pointedness appear peaceful............. effort.. you should practise entering jhāna for a long time... That is: the first jhāna is close to the five hindrances.. When you reach jhāna................. p........ you should try to discern the area in the heart where the bhavaï -consciousness rests.... With continued practice............. When you now emerge from the first jhāna.......

With the attainment of the fourth jhāna. which has the gross jhāna factor of joy. and want to develop the third jhāna. the skeleton. until it stopped in the fourth jhāna. and attain the second jhāna. cannot develop into sensual happiness (rāga).1 making it less calm than the third jhāna. When you now emerge from the third jhana. So. and reflect on the advantages of the third jhāna. making it less calm than the fourth jhāna. and one-pointedness. You should then develop the five masteries of the third jhāna. and as concentration developed through the four jhānas. the breath became progressively calmer and calmer. joy. a desire for only the peaceful factors. move on to develop Vipassanā meditation. which. possessed of only equanimity and onepointedness. the jhāna factor of bliss will appear gross to you. while equanimity and onepointedness appear peaceful.1 .This way you will be able to attain the fourth jhāna. if he wishes. and want to develop the fourth jhāna. in order to abandon the gross 1 factor and obtain the peaceful factors. And the second jhāna itself has the gross jhāna factor of joy. When a yogi has reached the fourth jhāna by using ānāpānasati. You should then develop the five masteries of the second jhāna. That will be the subject of our next talk. the jhāna factor of joy will appear gross to you. But here we do not encourage you to develop jhā nas for the sake of attaining rebirth in the fine-material realm. while bliss and one-pointedness appear peaceful. That is: the second jhāna is close to the first jhāna. This completes the fourth stage in the development of ānāpānāsati: [4] ‘Calming the breath body. and he can. you should again concentrate on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. and again review the jhāna factors. which is without it. the third jhāna is close to the second jhāna. thus he trains himself. because they may cause rebirth in the fine-material realm. and. and reflect on the advantages of the fourth jhāna. which is without it. it is only subtle (pīha). you should emerge from the now familiar third jhāna. etc. 57 58 . and again review the jhana factors. in order to abandon the gross factor and obtain the peaceful factors. namely. the light of concentration is bright. because the object is very subtle. And the third jhāna itself has the gross jhāna factor of happiness. you should emerge from the now familiar second jhāna. So. You should then develop the five masteries of the fourth jhāna. reflect on its faults. This way you will be able to attain the third jhāna. This stage began just before the nimitta appeared. the breath stops completely. So. brilliant and radiant. The four jhānas are also called fine-material-realm jhānas. ten kasiõas. possessed of only happiness and one-pointedness.How You Develop Mindfulness-of-Breathing to Absorption Knowing and Seeing This way you will be able to attain the second jhāna. you should again concentrate on the pañ ibhāganimitta and attain the third jhāna. which has the gross jhāna factor of applied. you should again concentrate on the pañ ibhāga nimitta. With the desire now to attain the fourth jhāna. When you have succeeded. When you have succeeded. bliss. thus he trains himself. That is. I will breathe out’. but for the sake of using them to develop Vipassanā meditation. (rūpāvacara jhāna). how you develop Samatha meditation on the thirty-two parts of the body. I will breathe in’. The yogi can. and has developed the five masteries. you should again concentrate on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. continue to develop Samatha meditation. with no desire now for that gross factor. When you now emerge from the second jhāna. reflect on its faults. ‘Calming the breath body. Even page The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw explains that the jhāna factor of joy (pīti) is a contributory factor towards developing attachment for jhāna happiness (jhāna sukha).and sustained thought. possessed of only those three factors. on the other hand.

if you want it to be red. It does not cease entirely. breaking down the barriers is called the nimitta.xxi ‘Upakkilesavimutta-Udayabbayañāõa Kathā’ B739 (‘Knowledge of Contemplation of Rise and Fall II’. if you want it to be round. This is the subtlest stage. Only when you discern ultimate mentality-materiality (paramattha nāma-rūpa) internally and externally. short breath. short breath. you should try to know the whole. only for easy understanding. if you can concentrate on the whole long breath.Knowing and Seeing Questions and Answers 1 How do we. In this way.Ñ4) 59 60 .44. long breath. If the breath does not become subtle by itself. You may perceive yourself as outside the body. you must first discern the rūpa-kalāpas (small particles).)2 it necessary. all the four stages. At the time of actual practice. the perception of non-self (anatta saññā) will arise. If one wants to attain jhāna in other meditation subjects. just decide that it should be calm. in meditation.1 The Buddha taught ānāpānasati step by step: long breath. In lovingkindness 1 It is because of the perception of compactness. you should try to know the whole. So. It is not a problem. then because of different perceptions. It is simply a mental creation. and you can change to concentrate on the subtle breath. like recollection-of-TheBuddha (Buddhānussati). to have a nimitta? Answer 1. and the whole short breath for about one hour. Question 1.2 In some meditation subjects (kammaññhāna) like ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing). whole breath and subtle breath. kasiõa meditation and repulsiveness meditation (asubha). which are at least eight 1 2 For more details about calming the breath. and powerful. all four stages may occur at the same time. strong. are included in a single stage. if you want the nimitta to be long. it will be round. Only a name. long. Then you must discern the different types of ultimate materiality. Then. So various perceptions may arise while practising ānāpānasati. you need to break down the compactness of mentality and materiality. When concentration is deep. short. Just ignore it. subtle breath.1 That way it will become subtle. or are they on the wrong path? Answer 1. and return to being mindful of your breath. when the subtle breath is short. if you want it to be short. can you solve the problem of a soul: you will not find a soul anywhere. subtle breath. then (as your concentration improves) the breath will automatically become subtle. whole breath and subtle breath. it will be long.1 Some say that while practising ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing) their soul goes out of the body. When the subtle breath is long. Is that true. in the four stages of ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing). but you must not make the breath subtle on purpose. the breath becomes only very subtle. you should concentrate on it (attention (manāsikāra)) with the decision that it should be subtle.1 Question 1. For example. nor make it long or short on purpose. Question 1. it will be short. To break down the compactness of materiality. The breath ceases entirely only at the fourth jhāna. At the early part of the fourth stage. different nimittas appear. decide when to go from one stage to another? Answer 1. for it is in fact not a nimitta.3 Nānādhātuyo vinibbhujitvā ghanavinibbhoge kate anattalakkhaõa§ yāthāvasarasato upaññhāti (When we break down compactness. not because of a soul. please see p. Vs. a nimitta is not possible. it will be red.3 A concentrated mind can usually create a nimitta. that the perception of a soul arises.2 Is meditation (mettā bhāvanā). and realize ultimate mentality and materiality. a nimitta is necessary.

.. because with the perception of impermance comes the perception of non-self. If you break down the four types of compactness of mentality this way..4 Most mind states that arise dependent upon the heartbase produce breathing.................. it will very soon disappear................ please see also ‘How You Analyse the RūpaKalāpas’.. As said by The Buddha....Questions and Answers 1 Knowing and Seeing in each rūpa-kalāpa.......... and its associated mental factors..4 Where does the [ānāpāna] nimitta come from? What makes it appear? Answer 1. manifestation and proximate cause of each consciousness and each of its associated mental factors. it is not the real ānāpāna-nimitta... 3. Compactness of function ............ Without doing this the perception of a soul will not disappear........ Only a deeply concentrated mind produces a nimitta. and in each impulsion moment there are thirty-four mental formations... for example a mind-door cognitive-process of access concentration that has the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta as object.... 2. Compactness of continuity ............ And how do you break down the compactness of mentality? Take. the perception of a soul will not disappear... This means the cognitive1 process that knew needs itself to be known by a subsequent cognitive process...152 U. What are the seven stages of purification and sixteen insight-knowledges? Answer 1. but not necessarily the real ānāpāna-nimitta. If you concentrate on that nimitta.. (kicca ghana): to break this down... arises in each consciousness-moment throughout the cognitive process. it is not a real nimitta....... 4....... the breath produced by a deep and concentrated mind makes an ānāpāna-nimitta appear... jhāna will not arise.....) Question 1.. A nimitta may appear because of concentration..... If the nimitta is far from the nostrils.....(santati ghana): to break this down... you need to discern the characteristic. we call it an ā nāpāna-nimitta.... Compactness of object ...IX...5 The seven stages of purification are: Question 1. Compactness of group ....... without breaking down the compactness of mentality..... If you meditate on that nimitta... you need to discern the insightknowledge cognitive-process that discerned the cognitive process you have just examined (the mind-door cognitiveprocess of access concentration).. you need to discern how a different consciousness..I........... function... you may think that the wandering mind is your soul. There are four types of compactness in such a cognitive process that need to be broken down by insight knowledge: 1... (ārammaõa ghana): to break this down...1 (also A.....iv.. (For those who have powerful insight-knowledge of impermanence. one can no longer think one’s consciousness is one’s soul. you need to discern each consciousness and each of its associated mental factors in every consciousness-moment throughout the cognitive-process... in the ‘Meghiya Sutta’:1 Aniccasaññino meghiya anattasaññā saõñhāti...... Therefore....... you will see only the rapid arising and passing-away of consciousnesses and their associated mental factors......3) 61 62 ... With that perception of impermanence.. insight-knowledge of non-self will also appear clearly.. p. A real ānāpāna-nimitta comes from the breath...1 Similarly..... For example. Usually the concentration cannot become strong and powerful......5 1 For the delusion of compactness in materiality.. But not every mind state produces a nimitta... In the mind-door adverting-consciousness moment there are twelve mental formations..... But if it does not produce jhāna.. Such a cognitive-process has one mind-door adverting-consciousness and seven impulsion-consciousnesses (javanas). If the nimitta produces jhāna... when your mind wanders...i. (samūha ghana): to break this down.....

....................... (sīla visuddhi) Purification of Mind ...... Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away............ (pañipadāñāõadassana visuddhi) Purification of Knowledge and Vision................................... (phala ñāõa) 16..... why is he making so much noise!!’ If your mind is overwhelmed by hatred or dissatisfaction. sleepiness may be due to tiredness.. 1 The Buddha Sensual Desire................... it will be like a heap of ashes hit by a stone. ‘Oh......................... (nāma-rūpa pariccheda ñāõa) 2.................... (paccavekkhaõa ñāõa) Now you know the names of the insight-knowledges: have you experienced them? No............... it would be good if the whole room belonged to me!’ If you are overwhelmed by sensual desire............ 2.................................................................................... Sometimes...................................(thina middha) A kuñi is a monastic dwelling for one................. You must exert strong mindfulness and make effort to stop the arising of sensual desire................. Knowledge of Reflection ................................ makes a noise with his robes................................ If your mind is restless.... (muñcitukamyatā ñāõa) 10........ It is the desire for sense objects................ (paccaya-pariggaha ñāõa) 3........................ While meditating you may think... If you do.... Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality .(udayabbaya ñāõa) 5............................................................... The third hindrance is sloth and torpor (thina middha)....... 3........................ (bhaïga ñāõa) 6.. and let it leave your meditation object............ 63 64 ................................ That is why to have only theoretical knowledge is not enough..... (sammasana ñāõa) 4.................’ Or you may think.............. Purification of Morality .................. 5. The first hindrance................................................. however... Knowledge of Conformity .............................. It is hatred for or dissatisfaction with people or things.................(kāmacchanda) Ill-Will... you will not be able to concentrate well on your meditation object................... ‘Oh.............. (nibbidā ñāõa) 9.... Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations ........................................... a cell or lodge....... illness................................................ you must not relax the mind........ Knowledge of Dissolution .... you may get attached to your kuñ i1 or room........ Knowledge of Comprehension .... (magga ñāõa) 15...................... Knowledge of the Path ................ or lack of rest................................................] Now let us discuss briefly the five hindrances (nīvaraõa): 1............ 2......... Here too............................ Knowledge of Change-of-lineage ................... 5... Knowledge of Terror ............ if the yogi sitting next to you................... For example.......... you will not be able to concentrate well on your meditation object either. Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance ................................................ The fifth hindrance is doubt (vicikicchā). For example.. Knowledge of Disenchantment ............................. and good deeds not done in the past.................................(vicikicchā) And the sixteen insight-knowledges are: 1............... while sitting down................................... The second hindrance is ill-will (byāpāda)...... Remorse is to regret bad deeds done. sloth and torpor can occur.... 4.......... (ādīnava ñāõa) 8........... [At the end of this talk the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw added the following comment on the five hindrances........................................ ‘Oh.................................. (ñāõadassana visuddhi) 4........................... (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa) 12......... Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition .. or not interested in the meditation object......................................... (gotrabhu ñāõa) 14..... (pañisaïkhā ñāõa) 11........................................... (diññhi visuddhi) Purification of Overcoming Doubt... (byāpāda) Sloth and Torpor ................................. sensual desire (kāmacchanda)....... The mind is scattered... is attachment to property or people............ 7............ restlessness will occur....... Knowledge of Fruition ................................... The fourth hindrance is restlessness and remorse (uddhacca kukkucca)........ 3................ (bhaya ñāõa) 7.......................... (maggāmaggañāõadassana visuddhi) Purification of Knowledge and Vision of the Way ............... it would be good if my kuñ i were beautiful... flying about and scattering..................................................................... you may become angry and think.............. and make great effort to stop the arising of restlessness and remorse........ While meditating.............. Knowledge of Danger............ It is having doubts about: 1........................ If the mind is weak... you must exert strong mindfulness...Questions and Answers 1 Knowing and Seeing 1................... (uddhacca kukkucca) Doubt ........... Restlessness and Remorse.......... Knowledge of Reviewing ......................... 6............ (citta visuddhi) Purification of View ............................................................. (kaïkhāvitaraõa visuddhi) Purification of Knowledge and Vision of What Is and What Is Not the Path .... you must practise with great effort to also realize them.................... (anuloma ñāõa) 13........

which is past and future lives. concentration. 3. Dependent-Origination (pañiccasamuppāda). you may think: ‘Is it possible to attain jhāna through ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing)? Can jhāna be attained by concentrating on the ānāpāna-nimitta?’ The five hindrances are opposite to jhāna concentration. you cannot meditate well. The past five aggregates (khandhā). and wisdom. For example. 6. 8. which is past lives. which is future lives. If you have doubts about the training in concentration. which includes the present five aggregates.Questions and Answers 1 Knowing and Seeing 2. The Dhamma The Saï gha The three trainings: morality. Both the past and future five aggregates. 4. 5. 7. Odd page 65 66 . The future five aggregates.

if he wishes. You should then use the light to try to discern the thirty-two parts of the body. tears grease saliva snot synovia2 urine If you want to develop meditation on the thirty-two parts of the body. again using the light of concentration and with your eyes still closed. 9. IV 16. 14. If. ten kasiõas. 8. from head hairs down to urine. 2. one at a time. 18. and the part of the body being discerned become unclear. The thirty-two parts of the body are twenty parts with predominantly the earth-element. 6. discern the thirty-two parts once internally. 13. 19. 4. brilliant. brilliant and radiant. 12. Today. Try to see each part as distinctly as you would see your face in a clean mirror. How You Develop the Thirty-Two Parts of the Body The twelve water-element parts should be discerned in two sets of six: I 1. do this many times. or from urine back to head hairs. 3. from head hairs down to urine. so the light is again bright and strong. 7. 1 2 gorge undigested food. 11. which means the yogi can. But at this point the yogi can also go on to develop his Samatha meditation further. you should first re-establish the fourth ānāpāna-jhāna so the light of concentration is bright. 20. and how to develop the five masteries. The twenty earth-element parts should be discerned in four sets of five: I 1. 15. 5. Practise so that you are. Then. Then return to discerning the parts of the body. the light of concentration is then bright. but one at a time. 17. 4. Do this whenever the light of concentration fades. able to see each one clearly and with penetrating knowledge. Discern the thirty-two parts forwards and backwards many times. and twelve parts with predominantly the water-element. you should re-establish the fourth ānāpāna-jhāna. head hairs body hairs nails teeth skin 6. It is especially good to discern someone in front of you. As discussed. and from urine back to head hairs. and radiant. again and again. etc. that is in your own body. that is in the other person’s body. contents of the stomach synovia unctuous fluid in the joints 1 Mesentery the fastenings of the bowels 67 68 . flesh sinews bones bone marrow kidneys heart liver membrane spleen lungs intestines mesentery1 gorge1 faeces brain Discern the parts in the given order. move on to develop Vipassanā meditation. 8. you should try to discern another being close by. II bile phlegm pus blood sweat fat 7.Knowing and Seeing Talk 2 How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects In the previous talk we discussed how to develop the meditation subject of ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing) up to the fourth jhāna. keep practising until you become skilful. we shall discuss how to develop other Samatha subjects: meditation on the thirty-two parts of the body. 10. Discern the thirty-two parts of the body in that person or being. When you have succeeded. 10. II III 11. the skeleton. the light of concentration should fade. 9. 3. 12. and once externally. 5. 2. while doing this.

east.1 The Buddha teaches that the four foundations of mindfulness is the only way to Nibbāna. west. skilful. 69 70 . so the light is bright. one person or other being at a time. Once your concentration on the repulsiveness of the skeleton is established. and discern it with wisdom.10) The entrance of colour kasiõas is mentioned in the ‘Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta’(‘Greath Parinibbāna Sutta’ D. When the whole skeleton is clear. Discern thus internally and externally once or twice. you should drop the perception of ‘skeleton’. so that its repulsive nature can arise.5). north east. devas. which is four-elements meditation.repulsive skeleton’.ii.225 To develop meditation on repulsiveness (pañikkūla manasikāra) you take as object either all thirty-two parts of the body or only one part.33. You should try to keep your mind calmly concentrated on the object of repulsiveness of the skeleton for one or two hours. south west.9) in the section‘Kāya Nupassanā’ (‘Contemplation of the Body’). Be careful to see the colour. and then in a being nearby. the bones. According to the Visuddhi Magga. and expert in discerning the thirty-two parts of the body. internally and externally.V. animal or other beings. he can 1 2 D. then can you be said to be successful.2 Therefore. and Answer 5. the ‘Abhibhāyatana Sutta’ (‘Place of the Vanquished Sutta’ A. north. internally or externally. Because of the strength and momentum of the fourth-jhāna concentration based on ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing). for example. You should thus gradually extend your field of discernment bit by bit. In the ‘Mahāsatipañ ñ hāna Sutta’. The Three Entrances to Nibbāna choose to develop any of those three entrances. be they human. You should be able to extend your field of discernment in all ten directions: above. and the ‘Abhibhāyatana kathā ’( ‘Explanation of Place of the Vanquished’ DhsA. and discern the thirty-two parts. south. and just be mindful of the repulsiveness. once internally and once externally. below. and voidness of self (suññata).ii. cows.3). whenever and wherever you look.repulsive’. You should first re-establish the fourth ānāpāna-jhāna. Do not think that you cannot discern beings far away. Using the brilliant light of the fourth jhāna. please see above p.VIII. which is one of the thirty-two parts of the body. from near to far. south east. let us look at what is called the three entrances to Nibbāna. The first entrance we shall discuss is repulsiveness meditation. and note it again and again as either: ‘repulsive .9 ‘Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness’ (Also M.skeleton. north west. shape. that is the concept. or ‘skeleton . How You Develop Skeleton Meditation Here. in those ten directions. take the repulsiveness of the skeleton as object. or buffaloes. the skeleton. you will find that this meditation will also become deep and fully established: you will be able to produce. Let us look at how to meditate on. position. Then take the internal skeleton as a whole. Note it in any language you like. the power of meditation will increase. not with the naked eye.2 . seeing the colour.i.9. and delimitation of a part is seeing the uggaha-nimitta. The commentary explains further that there are three entrances to the way to Nibbāna. The entrance of repulsiveness and voidness (of self) are mentioned in the ‘Mahā Satipaññhāna Sutta’ (‘Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness’ D. sustain and develop the perception and knowledge of repulsiveness. or ‘repulsive skeleton . Further to the perception of voidness. you can easily see beings far away. repulsiveness (pañikkūla manasikāra). Then use the light to discern the thirty-two parts in your own body. When you no longer see men.1).ii. women.How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects Knowing and Seeing When you are able to discern internally and externally like this. and other animals as such. but with the eye of wisdom (ñāõacakkhu). Take whomever you discern. brilliant and radiant. position and delimitation of the skeleton. p. when a person has become proficient in discerning the thirty-two parts of the body. but see only groups of thirty-two parts. They are the Samatha subjects of the colour kasiõas (vaõõa kasiõa).I. shape.ii.

. once internally then once externally.. You can.... at which time the five jhāna factors will be present.... (vicāra) Maintaining the mind on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the repulsiveness of the skeleton..... which make the mind hot and tired.. the yogi should here too take the nearest being..... best of all a person sitting in front of him...... Do this alternately.............. A question arises: ‘How can joy and happiness arise with the repulsiveness of the skeleton as object?’ The answer is that.................................... once internally and once externally........ Taking one direction at a time..... should go on to develop the five masteries of the first jhāna.... because you have understood the benefits of it.. develop each direction in the same way.viii ‘Kāyagatāsati Kathā’ B214 (‘Mindfulness of the Body Explanation’ Ñ141) 71 72 .. and it has become deep and fully developed......ibid. you see only skeletons. Vs... neither access concentration (upacāra samādhi) nor absorption concentration (appanā samādhi)........................... The Abhidhamma Commentary explains that whoever has attained the first jhāna on the repulsiveness of the skeleton............. Applied thought ........ thinking...... 3...... wherever your light of concentration reaches.. you can attain the first jhāna. After that.......... and death...1 If.....vii.. and experience it as really repulsive... and because you have understood that it will help you to eventually attain freedom from ageing.................... 4.. They are: 1...(sukha) Happiness associated about the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the repulsiveness of the skeleton. Joy and happiness can arise also because you have removed the defilements of the five hindrances... in a similar way............2 ... in all directions..(pīti) Liking for the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the repulsiveness of the skeleton............ 5. You should apply your penetrating knowledge both near and far.... you should again concentrate on the internal skeleton as repulsive........................ He should concentrate on it as repulsive.........2 When the jhāna factors are clear.........1 ‘Suttantabhājanīya Kāyānupassanā Niddesa’ (‘By Sutta Reflection-of-theBody Description’) 2 VbhTi.. according to the commentary... 1 VbhA. you are ready to develop the white kasiõa meditation....’ Or like a person who is severely ill would be happy and joyful when relieved by vomiting or having diarrhoea..... and with his light of concentration take that person’s skeleton as object. and develop this perception until the jhāna factors become prominent.... Joy .............. Sustained thought ...... you concentrate on the external skeleton as if it were dead.. the Mūlañ ī kā.........................How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects Knowing and Seeing Seeing and discerning the repulsiveness of that part is seeing the pañ ibhāga-nimitta........................ because the object is living......... Even though they are prominent... however..... according to the sub-commentary to the Abhidhamma. it is. 2........................... sickness.. Practise until wherever you look in the ten directions. you should extend your field of discernment in all ten directions........... ‘I will earn a lot of money from this..... attain the first jhāna on the repulsiveness of one of the other parts of the body....... (ekaggatā) One-pointedness of mind on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the repulsiveness of the skeleton.... (vitakka) Directing and placing the mind on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the repulsiveness of the skeleton....... Once you have succeeded.. attain access concentration............. again and again................. 1 It is just like a scavenger would be delighted to see a big heap of garbage.. there is joy because you have undertaken this meditation.............. When you have meditated like this on the repulsiveness of the skeleton...... you can..... although you are concentrating on the repulsiveness of the skeleton....... One-pointedness ...1 By concentrating on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the repulsiveness of the skeleton. Bliss.............

When you are able to concentrate on the white for one or two hours. yellow. or four inches. If you want to discern it as repulsive you can.I. two. With one of the objects of white in the external skeleton as object. fat and urine can be used for the yellow kasiõa. you can change to the perception of it to ‘white . and use that as your preliminary object.2 For that reason. or. You will find. and the white parts. is the parikamma-nimitta (preparatory sign).X. that this concentration is not very stable and does not last long.white’ to make it 73 74 . To do this. Alternatively. and irises of the eyes can be used for the blue. Before the uggaha-nimitta arises. See if you succeed. that the white kasiõa is the best of the four colour kasiõas. All four kasiõas can be developed up to the fourth jhāna by using as object the colours of different parts of the body. Continue concentrating on the pañ ibhāganimitta until you enter the first jhāna. you should concentrate on the white pañ ibhāganimitta for one or two hours. you need to expand the nimitta.ibid. In order to make it stable and last a long time.iii. According to the Abhidhamma Commentary. and concentrate on it as ‘white . Then discern just the skeleton. You should first re-establish the fourth ānāpāna-jhāna. When the white circle is white as cotton wool. brown. the whole skeleton. the skeleton nimitta from which it arises. red.How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects Knowing and Seeing How You Develop the Ten Kasiõas The Colour Kasiõas There are four colours used for kasiõa meditation: blue. the bones. or ‘brown’. the head hairs. brilliant. if not.white’. and your concentration is really sharp.white’. take the skeleton as white. however. and make that perception stable and firm. You should then use the light to discern the thirty-two parts of the body internally. When it is bright and clear like the morning star. Then go back to noting it as ‘white . Continue to note the kasiõa as ‘white . or black kasiõa up to the fourth jhāna. you will find that the skeleton disappears and only a white circle remains. let us first discuss how to develop the white kasiõa. it is the pañ ibhāga-nimitta (counterpart sign). it is the uggahanimitta (taken-up sign). teeth. or four inches. blood and flesh can be used for the red kasiõa. two. depending on how much you think you are able to expand it. body hairs. simply discern the external skeleton. but do not try to expand the nimitta without first determining a limit: make sure to determine a limit of one. and instead develop the white kasiõa.9 ‘Pañhamakosala Sutta’ (‘First Kosala Sutta’) and reached the first jhāna. thus making the white of the skeleton more evident. you may find that it becomes unstable. three. or the back of the skull. and white. because it makes the mind clear and bright. While expanding the white circle. you should practise to keep the mind calmly concentrated for one or two hours. you can.white’ until it becomes the pañ ibhāga-nimitta.2 . so the light of concentration is bright. Because of the strength and momentum of the fourth-jhāna concentration based on ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing). A. Then. you will find that your mind will stay calmly concentrated on the object of white. and nails can be used for the white kasiõa. ‘Blue’ (nīla) can also be translated as ‘black’.1 How You Develop the White Kasiõa It says in the suttas. Then determine to expand the white circle by one. if you want to. if the whole skeleton is white. and then externally in a being nearby. three. Then take either the whitest place in that skeleton. You can also discern first the repulsiveness in an external skeleton. if you have seen the internal skeleton as repulsive 1 2 VbhA. and radiant.

.. because as you concentrate on it..iii.. Thus. One-pointedness ... and continue to note ‘white ........... You can also use those parts in your own body.. and the red kasiõa using external blood. inviting you to develop the red kasiõa............... then just like hanging a hat on a hook.. etc...How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects Knowing and Seeing stable.... bright....(pīti) Liking for the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the white kasiõa......... internal or external. (vitakka) Directing and placing the mind on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the white kasiõa...... If you developed the white kasiõa in a past life.. it will automatically expand in all ten directions......II.. you can develop the colour kasiõas using the colour of also flowers. without limit............... and so on. the yellow kasiõa using external fat or urine.. Do this until it extends in all ten directions around you. plus a further six: the earth.... This way you can expand the nimitta in stages..........white’....I ‘Aññhakasina§ Soëasakkhattuka§’ (‘Eight Kasinas & Sixteen Times’) 75 76 .... and then develop the second......... Do it till you see not even a trace of materiality.. water. until it is one yard in size...... 3.................. and when it is stable..... You must continue to meditate... then you will not need to expand the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. a skilled yogi can use whatever he sees to develop kasiõa concentration and insight..... again determine to expand it by a few inches.. and light kasiõas.... the white kasiõa will also be calm and stable................ Then the jhāna factors will become very prominent................ When you have succeeded. and the masteries of them too........ The jhāna factors are together called jhāna........ third........... be it animate or inanimate...2 . and fourth jhānas. and will be exceedingly white... But as your concentration increases the nimitta will become stable and calm.. you should repeat the process......... Sustained thought ... If you have developed the white kasiõa meditation up to the fourth jhāna using the white of an external skeleton... that is........... you see only white.......... All white flowers are calling out..2 1 2 Please see p....... inviting you to develop the yellow kasiõa....... blue...... if you have white kasiõa pāramī .......... during this or a previous Buddha’s dispensation.55 M..... When the first expanded nimitta has become stable.... All yellow flowers are calling out. They are the mentioned four colour kasiõas..... Bliss............ develop the five masteries1 of the first white kasiõa jhāna.. put your mind on one place in that white kasiõa..... until you can concentrate on that white kasiõa pañ ibhāga-nimitta continuously for one or two hours... space... inviting you to develop the blue kasiõa. When your mind is calm and stable... (vicāra) Maintaining the mind on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the white kasiõa...7 Mahāsakuludāyī Sutta’ (‘Great Sakuludāyī Sutta’) & Dhs.... and so that wherever you look....... The five jhāna factors are: 1................... or other external objects... then two yards... and you will have reached the first jhāna.......................... How You Develop the Remaining Colour Kasiõas 2. Applied thought .. then you will also be able to develop the brown. The Buddha taught ten kasiõas.. produced by expanding the original white kasiõa pañ ibhāga-nimitta.... According to the Pāë i texts.. and strong in your mind........ Joy ............ that is......... (ekaggatā) One-pointedness of mind on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the white kasiõa.......... or black kasiõa using external head hairs............ 4........................... and clear.... inviting you to develop the white kasiõa.(sukha) Happiness about the pañ ibhāga-nimitta of the white kasiõa................. wind.. Keep your mind there...... clear........ All red flowers are calling out.......... All blue and brown flowers are calling out...... You should in either case now keep your mind calmly concentrated on the expanded white kasiõa..... whether internal or external...... 5. fire.... This too is a pañ ibhāga-nimitta... In the way described in the talk on ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing).....

You can discern the nimitta of the wind by re-establishing the fourth jhāna with another kasiõa object. or the sight of leaves or branches moving in the wind. and then develop it in the usual way.How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects Knowing and Seeing Now. Ignoring the smoke. If unable to visualize the nimitta in this way. as they stream into a room through. You can also look up through the branches of a tree. and then develop it in the usual way. you can go and develop it somewhere else.water’ till you get the uggaha-nimitta.or grass-fire. so you see only the flames through the hole. but concentrate on only the concept of earth. as ‘light . touching the body. To develop the light kasiõa. That is your meditation object: an earth kasiõa. or the characteristics of hardness. How You Develop the Water Kasiõa To develop the fire kasiõa. draw a circle about one foot across. and fall on the floor. let us discuss how to develop the remaining six types of kasiõa. Concentrate on the concept as ‘wind . or sight. and place the pot in such a way that rays of light come out of the opening of the pot. 77 78 . roughness etc. and note it as ‘earth . The uggaha-nimitta looks like steam coming off hot milk rice. in all ten directions. you should look at rays of light. Continue to develop this uggaha-nimitta until it becomes pure and clear. Concentrate on the concept of water as ‘water . Put the screen in front of a wood. a crack in the wall. You should not concentrate on the colour of the earth nimitta. and then develop it as you did the earth kasiõa. clear water.earth’. and develop this meditation up to the fourth jhāna. and with no sticks. When you see the nimitta of earth as clearly as if you were looking at it with your eyes open. or white kasiõa-jhāna. you can make a screen with a circular hole in it about one foot across. You should concentrate on the wind coming in through a window or door. How You Develop the Wind Kasiõa The wind kasiõa is developed through the sense of touch. which is reddish brown like the sky at dawn. and fall upon the wall. Concentrate on it for a while with your eyes open. you should find a piece of plain earth. but the pañ ibhāga-nimitta is motionless.2 . or as they stream through the leaves of a tree and fall on the ground.wind’ till you get the uggaha-nimitta. a fire.of the earthelement. you should re-establish the fourth ānāpāna-. for example. you should use a bowl. bucket or well of pure. stones. How You Develop the Earth Kasiõa How You Develop the Fire Kasiõa To develop the earth kasiõa. Then with a stick or some other instrument. concentrate on the concept of fire as ‘fire . and burning wood or grass. If unable to visualize it. and then close them. You should concentrate on it. You should then expand the pañ ibhāga-nimitta a little at a time. at the light in the sky above. and is the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. you should use a candle. you can put a candle or lamp inside an earthen pot.fire’ till you get the uggaha-nimitta.light’ till you get the uggahanimitta. or leaves. Develop the nimitta in the usual way. How You Develop the Light Kasiõa To develop the water kasiõa. and it is thus an uggaha-nimitta. or any other flames you remember seeing. and using the light of concentration see this movement externally. Concentrate on the circle of light on the wall as a concept. Then use the light of concentration to look at the earth kasiõa. If unable to visualize it. and visualize the earth kasiõa.

.. 2..... Continue to concentrate on the boundless space nimitta. for example...... Please see footnote 1.. you should look at the space in a doorway.. you are open to assault with weapons such as knives.(ākāsānañcāyatana) The Base of Boundless Consciousness.... The Base of Boundless Space ..... emerge from it.. If unable to do so. about eight inches to one foot across.... p... it has joy of the third jhāna as its near enemy... (nevasaññā-nāsaññāyatana) You can develop them with all the kasiõas except the space kasiõa. Thus you need to surmount the kasiõa materiality. This is the first immaterial jhāna........ (viññāõañcāyatana) The Base of Nothingness . spears. the entire earth-kasiõa nimitta is replaced by boundless space.80 79 80 . and develop the nimitta in the usual way. and then expand that up to the infinite universe. Since you have a produced body...... or as much as you wish. as ‘space . Concentrate on the space within that circle as a concept... it is still based on it... because they are the same as in the immaterial jhānas...... 1 Since space is not materiality.............. the space kasiõa cannot be used to surmount the kasiõa materiality to attain an immaterial jhāna...... Even though a fourth fine-material jhāna surpasses gross physical materiality. But you do not need to reflect on the disadvantages of the mental formations (jhāna factors) in the fourth jhāna......... and it is grosser than the four immaterial jhānas. say..... and replace the kasiõa materiality with the space it occupies. you should discern and concentrate on the space of one place in the earth-kasiõa nimitta... or keyhole. and then develop the five masteries......How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects Knowing and Seeing How You Develop the Space Kasiõa To develop the space kasiõa.......boundless space’.. The produced body is also subject to many diseases of.. also called the base of boundless space (ākāsānañcāyatana).. until you reach jhāna... What remains is the boundless space formerly occupied by the kasiõa...space’ or ‘boundless space . also called the four immaterial states... you are subject to various kinds of suffering.. by concentrating on the space as ‘space . such as the earth kasiõa.1 How You Develop the Base of Boundless Space To develop the four immaterial jhānas.. Having considered this... you should also reflect on the more peaceful nature of the immaterial jhānas... Hold the board up so you see only the sky through the hole. no trees or other objects.. and with no desire now for the kasiõa materiality.. so that it is boundless.... you should first reflect upon the disadvantages of materiality. and to being hit... The Four Immaterial Jhānas Once you have attained the four jhānas with each of the ten kasiõas. which you no longer desire.. If unable to visualize it...... They are: 1. Then expand your nimitta. beaten....... The human body produced by the sperm and egg of your parents is called the produced body (karajakāya). you can make a circular hole in a piece of board. you should re-establish the fourth jhāna with one of the nine kasiõas1.... of the earth kasiõa. you can also be free of the suffering.2 .. ears.. So you should consider with wisdom that because you have a produced 1 body made of materiality. (ākiñcaññāyatana) The Base of Neither-perception-nor-non-perception . and bullets.. you can proceed to develop the four immaterial jhānas (arūpa jhāna).. 3. As a result..... and that if you can be free of that materiality.. window... 4.... With no desire now for the fourth fine-material jhāna..........space’...... and heart..... and reflect on its disadvantages: it is based on materiality...... and tortured............. the eyes..

So. Then concentrate on the absence of the consciousness that had boundless space as its object. you should reflect on the disadvantages of the base of nothingness: it has the base of boundless consciousness as its near enemy. Two consciousnesses cannot arise in one consciousness-moment (cittakkhaõa). Then concentrate again and again on the consciousness that had boundless space as its object. also called the base of nothingness. has as its object the absence of the consciousness that had boundless space as its object. and develop the five masteries. Continue to concentrate on the boundless-consciousness nimitta. Continue to concentrate on the ‘peaceful . and then develop the five masteries. there is also neither-feeling-nor-non-feeling.1 To develop the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. There were two jhāna-consciousnesses: first the cons81 The fourth immaterial jhāna is also called the base of neitherperception-nor-non-perception (nevasaññānāsaññāyatana). With no desire now for the base of nothingness. and it has as object the consciousness of the base of nothingness. you should reflect on the disadvantages of the base of boundless space: it has the fourth fine-material jhāna as its near enemy. How You Develop the Base of Nothingness ciousness of base of boundless space (ākāsānañcāyatana citta) and then that of the base of boundless consciousness (viññāõañcāyatana citta).nothingness’ or ‘absence . you should reflect on the disadvantages of the base of boundless consciousness: it has the base of boundless space as its near enemy and is not as peaceful as the base of nothingness. and note it as ‘nothingness . a boil and a dart. you should also reflect on the more peaceful nature of the base of nothingness. neither-consciousness-nornon-consciousness. all the mental formations in this jhāna are extremely subtle.48. you should also reflect on the more peaceful nature of the base of boundless consciousness. you take the absence of the consciousness of the base of boundless-space as object. Furthermore. also called the base of nothingness (ākiñcaññāyatana). To develop the base of boundless consciousness. neither-contact-nor-non-contact etc. When the consciousness of the base of boundless space was present. and vice versa. also called the base of boundless consciousness. you should also reflect on the more peaceful nature of the base of neitherperception-nor-non-perception. and is not as peaceful as the base of neither-perception-nornon-perception. In fact. the other consciousness could not be present too. has as its object the base-ofboundless-space consciousness (ākāsānañcāyatana citta). and note it as ‘boundless consciousness . That is because the perception in this jhāna is extremely subtle.boundless consciousness’ or just ‘consciousness consciousness’. also called the base of boundless consciousness (viññāõañcāyatana citta). until you reach jhāna. p. How You Develop the Base of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception The third immaterial jhāna. This is then the third immaterial jhāna.How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects Knowing and Seeing How You Develop the Base of Boundless Consciousness The second immaterial jhāna. Then concentrate again and again on the consciousness of the base of nothingness as ‘peaceful peaceful’. and which was itself the object of the base of boundless consciousness. With no desire now for the base of boundless space. But the jhāna is explained in terms of perception. With no desire now for the base of boundless consciousness.peaceful’ 1 This is discussed in connection also with the different nimittas in mindfulness of breathing (ānāpānasati). perception is a disease. To develop the base of nothingness. Continue to concentrate on that nimitta. This is then the second immaterial jhāna. until you reach jhāna.2 . and is not as peaceful as the base of boundless consciousness.absence’. which had boundless space as its object. 82 .

2 . compassion. also called the base of neither perception nor non perception. Today we discussed how to develop the ten kasiõas. foulness meditation and recollection-of-death. In the next talk. appreciative-joy. recollection-ofThe-Buddha. odd page 83 84 . This is then the fourth immaterial jhāna. and the four protective meditations (caturārakkha bhāvanā) of lovingkindness. and the eight attainments: the four fine-material jhānas and the four immaterial jhānas. until you reach jhāna.How You Develop Absorption on Other Subjects Knowing and Seeing nimitta. we shall discuss how to develop the four sublime abidings (brahmavihāra) of lovingkindness. and equanimity. and develop the five masteries.

It knows only the natural breath. skeleton. Now you are practising Samatha. you are now practising ānāpānasati. Onepointedness of mind on the breath is concentration (samādhi). suffering. it is enough just to know the breath clearly. In Samatha meditation. as well as try to balance them. This means that the effort faculty cannot maintain associated mental formations on the breath. materiality. after attaining the fourth jhāna. mindfulness cannot become established on the breath. Why don’t we. Their effort to know the breath clearly must be strong enough. and wisdom cannot know the breath clearly. Being mindful of the breath is mindfulness (sati). you cannot do anything. Only when they are strong and powerful is it necessary to balance them. Too much general knowledge apart from this is not good. Question 2. Their mindfulness of the breath must be strong enough. if faith is too strong and powerful. When. With laziness. the concentration faculty too. mentality. it is still good for a beginner to balance his five controlling faculties. Their concentration on the breath must be strong enough. and their five controlling faculties are not yet developed. and concentrate on the breath with faith. will make little or no effort to discern the breath. we can say his wisdom is excessive. In the beginning of meditation. Their faith in ānāpānasati must be strong enough. It is not so important for beginners to balance concentration and wisdom. as you may always be discussing and criticizing. so the other controlling faculties become again weak. but excessive concentration produces laziness. four-elements. that is of course also good. and may have no faith. When mindfulness is weak. which also makes the other controlling faculties weak. This is because they are only beginners. and non-self. there is usually much restlessness in the mind.Knowing and Seeing Questions and Answers 2 Question 2. They must see the breath clearly. Knowing the breath is wisdom (paññā).2 The Buddha taught the five-aggregates method of practising Vipassanā to three types of person: those who have sharp wisdom. If a yogi discusses and criticizes ānāpānasati too much. When the uggaha or pañ ibhāga-nimitta appears. effort is excessive. cannot concentrate deeply on the breath. even though it is not yet very important. Beginners must try to develop strong and powerful controlling faculties. and Vipassanā? Answer 2. for example. ānāpānasati is mindfulness-of-breathing. their nature of impermanence. white kasiõa. At this stage wisdom is very dull or inferior. it produces emotion. and unable to function properly. but we can summarize what was said. and cannot function properly. dependent-origination. and cannot function properly. So for the beginner who is practising Samatha meditation. They must try to make their five controlling faculties strong and powerful. For example.2 85 86 . wisdom knows the uggaha or pañ ibhāga-nimitta. For example.1 How should beginners balance the faculties (indriya) of concentration and wisdom? How should they practise wisdom in ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing)? Answer 2. and those who prefer to practise Vipassanā in the brief way. because you cannot concentrate on the breath.1 We already talked about balancing the five controlling faculties in the very first talk. the other faculties become again very weak. The effort to know the breath clearly is effort (vīriya). So the faculties are not yet strong and powerful. But if beginners are able to balance the faculties already at the beginning stage. If one is excessive. the others cannot function properly. it makes the mind restless. How to balance them? We must practise with strong and powerful mindfulness and effort to know the breath clearly. and attain Nibbāna? Why do we before attaining Nibbāna need to practise meditation on the thirtytwo parts of body. Having faith that ānāpānasati can lead to jhāna is faith (saddhā). go straight to discern the five aggregates. So. those whose insight-knowledge of mentality is not clear. strong and powerful concentration is good.

with craving as condition. the commentaries explain: There is no one. The Buddha explains: This dependent origination is profound. existence.vi. perception is the perception-aggregate (saññākkhandha). unhappy destinations…perdition. with clinging as condition. the perception-aggregate. 3. associated mental factors and materiality together are called ‘mentality-materiality’ (nāmarūpa). let us discuss mentality-materiality and the five aggregates. with existence as condi1 2 For a full list. with the six sense-bases as condition.1 With regard to this statement. and consciousness.Questions and Answers22 Knowing and Seeing What are the five aggregates? What is the difference between the five aggregates and mentality-materiality? Do you know the answer? Before answering your second question. with mentality-materiality as condition. mentality-materiality. Sometimes the consciousnesses (cittā) and associated mental factors (cetasikā) together are called mentality (nāma). and profound it appears. perception. The consciousnesses. who has got out of the fearful round of rebirths. p. with feeling as condition. through not penetrating this Dhamma. well whetted on the stone of sublime concentration. the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering? With ignorance as condition. with consciousness as condition. the fourth ultimate reality. need to be understood as such. guttara Nikāya. the feelingaggregate. These five aggregates subject to clinging are Dukkha sacca Dhammā: the dhammas of the Noble Truth of Suffering. Sometimes they are seen as four aggregates. consciousness. we must see: 1. it is through not knowing. 2. To attain Nibbāna. and finds no way out of the round of rebirths with its states of loss. Of the fifty-two associated mental factors. feeling.ii. feeling. They are sometimes also called the five aggregates: materiality.xvii ‘Bhavacakka Kathā’ B661 (‘The Wheel of Becoming Explanation’ Ñ344.1 ‘Suttantabhājaniya Vaõõanā’ (‘By Sutta Comment’). And. even in a dream. Ānanda. formations. feeling is the feeling-aggregate (vedanākkhandha).2 Eighty-nine types of consciousness Fifty-two associated mental factors Twenty-eight types of materiality1 The eighty-nine types of consciousness are called the consciousness-aggregate (viññāõakkhandha). The materiality-aggregate (rūpakkhandha) is the twenty-eight types of materiality. unless he has severed with the knife of knowledge.II.III. which is ever destroying [beings] like a thunderbolt. a knotted ball of thread.ii. cannot escape from the round of rebirths. that is. Ānanda. materiality (rūpa). this And in the ‘Titthāyatana Sutta’ of the Aï 3 was said by The Buddha: And what. bhikkhu. we must see the impermanent. associated mental factors (cetasikā). with contact as condition. and the remaining fifty associated mental factors are the formationsaggregate (saïkhārak-khandha). clinging. suffering and non-self nature of the other three. There are four ultimate realities (paramattha): consciousnesses (cittā). and Nibbāna.) 3 A. please see Table 1. this Wheel of Becoming [Dependent-Origination].2 ‘Mahānidāna Sutta’ (‘Great Causation Sutta’) VbhA. Vs. [there are] volitional formations. craving. and has not penetrated Dependent-Origination by the different stages of insight knowledge.169 D. that this generation has become become a tangled skein. Their causes are also only mentality-materiality. which together are the mentality-aggregate (nāma khandha). with volitional formations as condition. They 1 This means that the yogi who does not know. which offers no footing owing to its great profundity and is hard to get by owing to the maze of many methods. matted as the roots in a bed of reeds.1 ‘Titthāyatana Sutta’ (‘Sectarian Doctrines Sutta’) 87 88 . the formations-aggregate and the consciousness-aggregate. contact. In the ‘Mahānidāna Sutta’ of the Dī gha Nikāya. the six sense-bases.

. as suffering (dukkha)... p. is called the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering...... please see Talk 4..... The yogi must always use that meditation subject as his foundation.... 2..... 2 For details about lovingkindness jhāna... and have broken down the barriers between the different types of person...... (asubha bhāvanā) So although a yogi uses ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing) as his pārihāriya kammañ ñ hāna. there are two types of meditation subject (kammaññhāna): pārihāriya kammañ ñ hāna and sabbatthaka kammañ ñ hāna. and you need to see the four elements in those small particles....6ff For how and why you must protect your meditation....).......1 They are the four protective meditations: 1..97...... which is the five clinging aggregates.......... for details..... As a meditation subject it is for those who have already attained lovingkindness jhāna (mettā jhāna)..... Now your second question. The Buddha taught the bhikkhus the ‘Karaõī yamettā Sutta’ both as a meditation subject and as a protective chant (paritta).. please see above p........... and the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering....1 And you need to discern both the base and its object together......... he must practise the four protective meditations before going on to Vipassanā..... how can you comprehend them that they are impermanent etc.......... in which one practises up to the third jhāna by extending lovingkindness to eleven categories of beings with the thought: ‘Sukhino vā khemino hontu...Questions and Answers22 Knowing and Seeing tion... it is better if the yogi has already developed the white-kasiõa meditation up to the fourth jhāna........ Pārihāriya kammañ ñ hāna is the meditation subject by which the individual yogi develops concentration to be used for Vipassanā.... birth. An example of this is the five hundred bhikkhus to whom The Buddha taught the ‘Karaõī yamettā Sutta’.. 89 90 . 16. and as non-self (anatta).... They are the object of Vipassanā........ And The Buddha says dependent origination is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering (Samudaya Sacca)...... 3.. you must practise four-elements meditation till you see that materiality consists of small particles that we call rūpakalāpas. on the other hand. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering... p. pain.. is the meditation sub1 2 jects to be developed by all yogis alike.. the four mental aggregates of clinging... are called formations (saïkhārā).2 The ‘Karaõī yamettā Sutta’ is a more specialized practice of lovingkindness. (maraõānussati) Foulness meditation . Sabbatthaka kammañ ñ hāna. please see Talk 3 ‘How You Develop the Sublime Abidings and Protective Meditations’.... insight knowledge.. lamentation.........131.. (mettā bhāvanā) Recollection-of-The-Buddha .. (Buddhānussati) Recollection-of-death........ This is the orthodox procedure...... The Noble Truth of Suffering. But they returned to the Buddha.? That is why we teach Vipassanā systematically... This....... At the different stages of insight knowledge you comprehend these formations as impermanence (anicca).... sorrow....... please see ‘How You Develop the Sublime Abidings and Protective Meditations’.......... with birth as condition. To develop lovingkindness meditation up to jhāna.. you cannot discern mentality... which is dependent origination... 4... because the devas resident in the forest had become annoyed and had frightened the bhikkhus....... Those bhikkhus were expert in the ten kasiõas and eight attainments (samāpatti). To know ultimate materiality. That is why we teach Vipassanā stage by stage. Please see further ‘Introduction’ p.. Lovingkindness meditation... The Texts say The Buddha knew those five hundred bhikkhus would very easily 1 For four elements meditation and related details......2 Without discerning materiality this way..... ageing-and-death.... displeasure and despair come to be.. This is also called dependent origination.. sabbe sattā bhavantu sukhitattā’ (May all beings be happy and secure etc.. had practised Vipassanā up to the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away (udayabbaya ñāõa)... According to the Theravāda tradition... and had gone to the forest to meditate further. the materiality-aggregate of clinging... bhikkhus... Without knowing and penetrating them.......

3 There are. The Purification of Morality .... Why.iv ‘Mettā Kathā’ (‘Lovingkindness Explanation’) For details about how you practise the first and fifth methods of dependent origination.’ With a beginner that smiling face very soon disappears. 1 then because of the preceding concentration the smiling face will not fade away.. and five hundred and twenty-eight ways mentioned in the Pañ isambhidāmagga Pāë i Text... brighter and more tranquil mind....(indriya sa§vara sīla) 1 2 A.... he is able to succeed within one sitting... it is different. he should first take the smiling face of that person as object.. which is also very helpful for practising other meditation subjects.1 The white kasiõa makes the yogi’s mind clear and bright.....I..... and then recollection-ofdeath (maraõānussati)....... skeleton meditation and whitekasiõa meditation. In our experience. (sīla visuddhi) Morality (sīla) of four types:3 i Pātimokkha restraint ..... Did you attain jhāna? In practice.. 91 92 ...X.. and when he develops lovingkindness.227ff. If he uses the fourth white-kasiõa jhāna.. He is able to concentrate deeply on that image..iii. after the fourth ānāpāna jhāna we usually teach yogis to do the thirty-two parts of the body.... And how is lovingkindness jhāna made easier by kasiõa meditation? guttara Nikāya... (pātimokkhā sa§vara sīla) ii Sense restraint ....i. The Buddha taught that of the four In the Aï colour kasiõas.. because it produces a clearer... If a yogi practises lovingkindness meditation with a clear mind...9 ‘Pañhamakosala Sutta’ (‘First Kosala Sutta’) Ps. most yogis say that the fourth white-kasiõa jhāna is better than the fourth ānāpāna jhāna.II.. must one practise the first and fifth methods of dependent-origination (pañiccasamuppāda)? What are the first and fifth methods?2 Answer 2. seven stages of purification (visuddhi).. ‘Sīlappabheda Kathā’ B13ff ‘Morality-Classification Explanation’ Ñ42 for details... if a yogi wants to extend lovingkindness to someone of the same sex. he usually attains lovingkindness jhāna within one sitting. free from defilements.. etc..Questions and Answers22 Knowing and Seeing be able to do this. a yogi wants to go straight to Vipassanā..... please see Talk 6. He emerges from the jhāna. If. and after emerging from it... So if one enters the fourth white-kasiõa jhāna. If a yogi practises foulness meditation up to the first jhāna. A clear and tranquil mind is superior and powerful.. and then develop lovingkindness towards him with: ‘May this good person be free from mental suffering. So we usually teach white-kasiõa meditation before lovingkindness meditation.. If he practises systematically up to the breaking down of barriers between the different types of person. In order to attain the fourth white-kasiõa jhāna... You may have practised lovingkindness meditation. he can even practise the eleven ways of the ‘Karaõī yamettā Sutta’. after having discerned materiality and mentality........ That is why we teach the white-kasiõa meditation before the four protective meditations... You may also have practised recollection-of-The-Buddha (Buddhānussati). a yogi should first practise skeleton meditation internally and externally..3 1... we usually teach the white-kasiõa meditation before lovingkindness meditation. because this makes the white-kasiõa meditation very easy. again because of the preceding concentration. There is also a problem common to beginners..... and able to attain up to the third lovingkindness jhāna within one sitting. however.... and so he cannot attain lovingkindness jhāna or anything.. because there is no object.. Foulness meditation (asubha) too becomes easy..1 For this reason too. Therefore.. according to the Theravāda tradition.. The first five are: Question 2. Did you attain access concentration? When those who have succeeded in lovingkindness jhāna practise recollection-of-The-Buddha.... 3 Vs..... it is very easy to succeed... p. he can do so: no problem..... practises lovingkindness jhāna...... because they were already expert in the ten kasiõas.... He cannot continue his lovingkindness meditation. the white kasiõa is best. without practising the four protective meditations. they are able to reach access concentration within one sitting....

. is easy for beginners. Without knowing mentality-materiality and their causes.xviii ‘Diññhi-Visuddhi Niddesa’ B662 (‘Description of Purification of View’Ñ1) 93 94 .. The commentary explains it as. This is the main principle in the fifth method............. [etc.... 4. and that five present causes will produce five future effects.3 Altogether there are five methods. (kaïkhāvitaraõa visuddhi): The Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition (paccaya pariggaha ñāõa)..... with consciousness as condition... The Purification by Overcoming Doubt ..... The fifth method taught by the Venerable Sāriputta.’ The five aggregates are.i....... suffering. ‘impermanence is the five aggregates.......1 and ‘aniccanti khandha pañcaka§..’.. mentalitymateriality. They pass away as soon as they arise........ (paccayasannissita sīla) 3.... suffering. or stable and indestructible essence. in other words. (citta visuddhi) Access concentration (upacāra samādhi) and the eight attainments (samāpatti). and their causes and effects...]) The first method is popular in Theravāda Buddhism.. seeing dependent-origination (pañiccasamuppāda)... and taught four methods for discerning dependent-origination. viññāõa paccayā nāma-rūpa§ etc........ materiality and dependent-origination..........xxi ‘Upakkilesavimutta-Udayabbayañāõa Kathā’ B740 (‘Knowledge of Contemplation of Rise and Fall II’Ñ6) 2 VbhA.. you should practise up to this stage..... how can we comprehend that they are impermanent........ So real Vipassanā requires that you know the five aggregates.... It is to discern that five past causes have produced five present effects.. Why? Vipassanā is insight.. So before Vipassanā there are four purifications.....1‘Suttantabhājaniya Vaõõanā’ (‘By Sutta Comment’) 3 Ps.1 The Purification of View ..... they have no self (atta)......(maggāmaggañāõadassana visuddhi): The Knowledge of Comprehension (sammasana ñāõa) and Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away (udayabbaya ñāõa) which is the beginning of Vipassanā..... but may be very difficult for those who have no Abhidhamma knowledge..Questions and Answers22 Knowing and Seeing iii iv 2.... that we can practise Vipassanā meditation.. which is why they are non-self.... The Purification of Mind ... and non-self? How can we practise Vipassanā? It is only after we have thoroughly discerned mentality-materiality and their causes.. If you want to know it with direct experience....... ith ignorance as condition..... formations come to be.... Livelihood purification . with formations as (W condition.ii. in other words.. consciousness.. and non-self nature of mentality-materiality and their causes..... mentality-materiality and their causes.. ‘aniccanti pañcakkhandhā...............(ājīva pārisuddhi sīla) With regard to requisites ..........4 Dhammaññhitiñāõa Niddeso (‘Standing-on-Phenomena Knowledge Description’) Vis. suffering... Even yogis with good Abhidhamma knowledge may have many difficulties.. Comprehending impermanence.. The first of the methods taught by The Buddha is to discern dependent-origination in forward order: Avijjā paccayā saïkhārā....viii ‘Ānāpānasati Kathā’ B236 (Mindfulness-of-Breathing Explanation Ñ234)...’2 That means. which is why they are suffering. The Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What Is and What Is Not the Path .... (diññhi visuddhi): The Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality (nāma-rūpa pariccheda ñāõa).. discern mentality.... In the Pañ isambhidāmagga. 1 5...I..... Mentality-materiality and their causes are called ‘formations’ (saïkhārā)....... they are subject to constant arising and passingaway... and non-self in this way is real Vipassanā.......... to comprehend the impermanence.. there is yet another method. which is why they are impermanent. So before Vipassanā.... and recorded in the Pañ isambhidāmagga Pāë i Text..... Vs.. The Buddha taught according to the character of his listeners...... saïkhāra paccayā viññāõa§. we teach yogis to 1 Vs.

Questions and Answers22

Knowing and Seeing

After practising the fifth method systematically, you will not have much difficulty in practising the first method. For this reason we teach the fifth method before the first method. We teach all five methods to those who have time, and want to practise further. But although The Buddha taught dependent-origination according to the character of his listeners, one method is enough to attain Nibbāna. Even so, because the first method is popular in Theravā da Buddhism, we teach both the fifth and first methods. One day, the Venerable Ānanda practised dependent-origination in all four ways. In the evening, he went to The Buddha and said, Bhante, although dependent-origination is deep, it is easy to me. The Buddha replied:1 Etassa cānanda, dhammassa ananubodhā, appañivedhā evamaya§ pajā tantākulakajātā, kulāgaõñhikajātā, muñjapabbajabhūtā apāya§ duggati§ vinipāta§ sa§sāra§ nātivattati. This means that without knowing dependent-origination, with the anubodha ñāõa and the pañ ivedha ñāõa, one cannot escape the round of rebirths (sa§sāra), and four woeful realms (apāya). The anubodha ñāõa is the Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality (nāma-rūpa pariccheda ñāõa), and Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition (paccaya pariggaha ñāõa). The pañ ivedha ñāõa is all the insight-knowledges (vipassanā ñāõa). So without knowing dependentorigination with the anubodha ñāõa and pañ ivedha ñāõa, one cannot attain Nibbāna. With this quotation, the commentary says that without knowing dependent-origination, no one can escape from the round of rebirths, even in a dream.2odd page
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D.ii.2 ‘Mahānidāna Sutta’ (Great Causation Sutta’) For further details, please see ‘Introduction’ p.31.

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Knowing and Seeing

Talk 3 How You Develop the Sublime Abidings and Protective Meditations
Introduction

• • • •

Yourself ............................................................................................................... (atta) A person you like and respect ..................................................... (piya puggala) A person you are indifferent to .......................................... (majjhatta puggala) A person you hate............................................................................. (verī puggala)

Today let us look at how you develop the four sublime abidings (cattāro brahmavihārā), and four protective meditations (caturārakkha bhāvanā). The four sublime abidings are the meditation subjects of
1. 2. 3. 4.

Lovingkindness ........................................................................................... (mettā) Compassion .................................................................................................(karuõā) Appreciative joy ........................................................................................ (muditā) Equanimity ............................................................................................... (upekkhā)

The four protective meditations (caturārakkha bhāvanā) are the meditation subjects of
1. 2. 3. 4.

Lovingkindness ........................................................................................... (mettā) Recollection-of-The-Buddha .................................................. (Buddhānussati) Foulness meditation ................................................................. (asubha bhāvanā) Recollection-of-death................................................................. (maraõānussati)

How You Develop Lovingkindness

Introduction

To develop the sublime abiding of lovingkindness (mettā), you need first of all be aware that it should not be developed towards a person of the opposite sex (liïgavisabhāga), or a dead person (kālakatapuggala). A person of the opposite sex should not be used as object, because lust towards him or her will probably arise. After you have attained jhāna, however, it is possible to develop lovingkindness towards the opposite sex as a group with, for example, ‘May all women be happy.’ A dead person should at no time be used, because you cannot attain lovingkindness jhāna with a dead person as object. The people you should develop lovingkindness towards are:
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In the very beginning, though, you should develop lovingkindness towards only the first two, yourself and the person you like and respect. This means that in the very beginning, you should not develop lovingkindness towards the following types of person: a person you do not like (appiya puggala), a person very dear to you (atippiyasahāyaka puggala), a person you are indifferent to (majjhatta puggala), and a person you hate (verī puggala). A person you do not like is one who does not do what is beneficial to you, or to those you care for. A person you hate is one who does what is detrimental to you, or to those you care for. They are in the beginning both difficult to develop lovingkindness towards, because anger may arise. It is in the beginning also difficult to develop lovingkindness towards a person to whom you are indifferent. In the case of a person who is very dear to you, you may be too attached to that person, and be filled with concern and grief, and even cry if you hear something has happened to him or her. So these four should not be used in the very beginning. Later, though, once you have attained lovingkindness jhāna, you will be able to develop lovingkindness towards them. You cannot attain jhāna using yourself as object even if you were to develop that meditation for a hundred years. So why begin by developing lovingkindness to yourself? It is not to attain even access concentration, but because when you have developed lovingkindness towards yourself, with the thought, ‘May I be happy’, then are you able to identify yourself with others; to see that just as you want to be happy, do not want to suffer, want to live long, and do not want to die, so too do all other beings want to be happy, not want to suffer, want to live long, and not want to die.

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3 - How You Develop The Sublime Abidings and Protective Meditations

Knowing and Seeing

Thus you are able to develop a mind that desires the happiness and prosperity of other beings. In the words of The Buddha:1 Sabbā disā anuparigamma cetasā, Nevajjhagā piyatara mattanā kvaci. Eva§ piyo puthu attā paresa§, Tasmā na hi§se paramattakāmo. (Having searched in all directions with the mind, one cannot find anyone anywhere whom one loves more than oneself. In this same way do all beings in all directions love themselves more than anyone else, therefore, one who desires his own welfare should not harm others.) So in order to identify yourself in this way with others and make your mind soft and kind, you should first develop lovingkindness towards yourself with the following four thoughts:
1. 2. 3. 4.

May I be free from danger ................................................... (aha§ avero homi) May I be free from mental pain ............................................ (abyāpajjo homi) May I be free from physical pain ..............................................(anīgho homi) May I be well and happy ........................................ (sukhī attāna§ pariharāmi)

is really very easy to develop lovingkindness meditation (mettā bhāvanā).1 The reason is that with the concentration of the fourth jhāna the mind is purified of greed, anger, delusion, and other defilements. After having emerged from particularly the fourth white-kasiõa jhāna, the mind is pliant, workable, pure, bright, brilliant and radiant, and because of this, you will in a very short time be able to develop powerful and perfect lovingkindness (mettā). So, with the strong and bright light, you should direct your mind towards a person of your own sex, whom you like and respect: maybe your teacher or a fellow yogi. You will find that the light spreads out around you in all directions, and that whomever you pick as object becomes visible. You then take an image of that person, sitting or standing, and select the one you like most, and which makes you the happiest. Try to recall the time when he or she was the happiest you ever saw, and choose that image. Make it appear about one yard in front of you. When you can see the image clearly before you, develop lovingkindness towards him or her with the four thoughts:
1. 2. 3. 4.

If one’s mind is soft, kind, understanding, and has empathy for others, one should have no difficulty developing lovingkindness towards another. So it is important that the lovingkindness you have developed towards yourself be strong and powerful. Once your mind has become soft, kind, understanding, and has empathy for other beings, then can you begin to develop lovingkindness towards them.
How You Develop Lovingkindness Person by Person

May this good person be free from danger ............................. (aya§ sappuriso avero hotu) May this good person be free from mental pain ............... (aya§ sappuriso abyāpajjo hotu) May this good person be free from physical pain ................. (aya§ sappuriso anīgho hotu) May this good person be well and happy........... (aya§ sappuriso sukhī attāna§ pariharatu)

If you have attained the fourth ānāpāna-, or white kasiõ a-jhāna, you should re-establish it so the light is bright, brilliant, and radiant. With the light of particularly the fourth white-kasiõa jhāna, it
1

Extend lovingkindness towards that person with these four phrases three or four times, and then select the one you like most, for example, ‘May this good person be free from danger’. Then, with a new image of that person, in this case free from danger, extend lovingkindness using the corresponding thought, in this case, ‘May this good person be free from danger - may this good person be free from danger’. Do it again and again, until the mind is calm and steadily fixed on the object, and you can discern the jhāna factors. Then, keep practising until you reach the second,
1

S.I.III.i.8 ‘Mallikā Sutta’ (‘Mallikā Sutta’)

In this regard, please see further Answer 2.2, p. 86ff.

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who are very dear to you (atippiyasahāyaka). and you can take them as one.3 . kind and pliant. Do this again and again. You will by now have mastered the lovingkindness jhāna to such an extent that you can in the same way develop it towards about ten people of your own sex whom you hate. If you are a type of Great Being like the bodhisatta when he was Mahākapi. you make your mind increasingly soft. By this stage you can safely go on to people. or white kasiõa-jhāna. then someone you are indifferent to.How You Develop The Sublime Abidings and Protective Meditations Knowing and Seeing and third jhānas. and so on. After that take each of the other three phrases and develop lovingkindness up to the third jhāna. then do not look for someone to use here. with different groups of four. extend lovingkindness to yourself for about a minute or even a few seconds. from the easiest to the more difficult. until you can reach the third jhāna using any of them. and in the same way develop lovingkindness towards them until the third jhāna. do it again with another person of your own sex whom you like and respect. With the strong and bright light. ‘May this good person be free from danger’ etc. 4. but the other three types must now each be a different person. becomes even. nor despise anyone. and without distinctions. up to the third jhāna. many times. when thinking ‘May this good person be free from danger’. and then someone you hate. as just people you like. In this way you should develop the three jhānas. Only those who have people they hate or despise can develop lovingkindness towards that type. Then again yourself briefly. the monkey king. When you have succeeded with one person you like and respect. Thus you should every time change the person of each of the three types: a person you like. each. and you really neither hate. that is. until it becomes balanced and without distinctions. you should have another image. by taking up the 102 . when thinking ‘May this good person be free from mental pain’. Try doing this with about ten people of that type. 3. that is. You should have an appropriate image for each of the four phrases. 101 How You Break Down the Barriers As you continue to thus develop lovingkindness. you will be able to further develop your lovingkindness meditation. When you are able to develop lovingkindness jhāna towards any of the four without distinction. Yourself People you like People you are indifferent to People you hate You will need to continue developing lovingkindness towards these four. those you are indifferent to. Then you will be left with only these four types of person: 1. 2. and those you hate. who never hated anyone who harmed him. in the same way. those very dear to you. and those very dear to you. until you are finally able to attain jhāna on any of the four types: those you respect. Practising lovingkindness in this way. one of that person as free from mental pain. each one up to the third jhāna. then towards someone you like. and one you hate. Remember to develop them with each of the four phrases. Even though you cannot attain lovingkindness jhāna with yourself as object. you still need to include yourself in order to balance the four types. still of your own sex. one you are indifferent to. you will find that your lovingkindness towards those you like and respect. progressively from one to the next. you will have achieved what is called ‘breaking down the barriers’ (sīmāsambheda). until the third jhāna. Take about ten people of that type. you need to re-establish the fourth ānāpāna-. and remember in each case to practise the five masteries (vasī-bhāva). by developing concentration up to the third jhāna on each type of people. Then you can also take about ten people of your own sex whom you are indifferent to. To do this. With the barriers between types and individuals broken down. so that your mind is continuously developing lovingkindness without interruption. you should have a particular image of that person as free from danger. and develop lovingkindness towards them one by one.

........... (sabbā itthiyo) All men ........1 The Twenty-Two Categories 9.. For example....How You Develop The Sublime Abidings and Protective Meditations Knowing and Seeing method taught by the Venerable Sāriputta................... within the determined area: it means that the yogi should extend lovingkindness with the intention that it is for every single woman.. (pacchimāya anudisāya) To the north-east ..... 3.............. around the building or monastery.. 2..................... 7. 2......... 5.......................... To develop this method of lovingkindness meditation.......... 7........ (dakkhiõāya disāya) To the south-east ........ Thus you will be pervading lovingkindness in a total of forty-eight ways ((7+5) x 4 = 48).................. all beings.............................. (sabbe vinipātikā) May they be free from danger..... You should at each category pervade lovingkindness in four ways: 1......................... seven specified categories (odhiso pharaõā)........................... 3............................. (sabbe sattā) All breathing things ...... in the light............................................................................ All women ..... and seven specified categories: twelve in total.. he should see them all......... 4................ when you extend lovingkindness to all women.. you can develop lovingkindness towards them according to the five unspecified categories... (sabbe pāõā) All creatures ......................... you should as before re-establish the fourth jhāna with the white kasiõa...................... (uparimāya disāya) The method in the Pañ isambhidāmagga involves twenty-two categories by which to extend one’s lovingkindness: five unspecified categories (anodhiso pharaõā)................................................. 6...... 5.............. and one you hate.......................... May they be free from physical pain... man... (sabbe devā) All human beings ... recorded in the Pañ isambhidāmagga............ you should actually see......................................................................... until there are no barriers between them and you....................................iv ‘Mettā Kathā’ (‘Lovingkindness Explanation’) This does not mean that the yogi can actually see every single woman................ 1 To the east....................................... and that insofar as he can..... 5..........................(puratthimāya disāya) To the west ...... Downwards ............ (sabbe purisā) All enlightened beings ....... 103 104 .................................... 6...... man........... (pacchimāya disāya) To the north .... Once they are clear....................................... The beings in each category should be clearly visible in the light of concentration and understanding..... in the determined area........... deva etc......... Then use the bright and brilliant light to see all the beings in as big an area as possible around you......... (dakkhiõāya anudisāya) ‘They’ is in each case one of your twelve categories...............(puratthimāya anudisāya) To the north-west .. and develop lovingkindness towards yourself......................1 You must develop each category up to the third jhāna before moving on to the next. 8.............................. deva etc............... (sabbe ariyā) All unenlightened beings ................................ beings in lower realms etc....................................... one you are indifferent to................................................... 4.................................................... (sabbe bhūtā) All people............................................... devas......................... (sabbe manussā) All beings in the lower realms............................... etc...... 2...................... (sabbe puggalā) All individuals...........................................(sabbe attabhāvapariyāpannā) The seven specified categories are: 1........................................................ 2........ 3.... You should practise in this way until 1 Ps. a person you respect or who is dear to you......................... 4...... The ten directional categories are: 1............ (uttarāya disāya) To the south ........... 10.... 3........(uttarāya anudisāya) To the south-west......... How You Develop the Unspecified and Specified Categories All beings ..............................3 ............................ May they be well and happy... You should actually see the men..................... (sabbe anariyā) All devas ................. 4..................... all devas.............. (heññhimāya disāya) Upwards . The five unspecified categories are: 1........................................... May they be free from mental pain........................ and ten directional categories (disā pharaõā)..................II..... the women within the determined area......

much practised. the whole state. and therefore to be reborn in the lower realms.5 ‘Metta Sutta’ (‘Metta Sutta’) Once you have developed lovingkindness as just described. he dies unconfused. up to the third jhāna. Once proficient you may proceed to the ten directional categories. second. Then re-establish the fourth jhāna with the white kasiõa. To develop compassion. How You Develop the Ten Directional Categories [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] A man sleeps in comfort. he is dear to non-human beings. the whole world. his mind is easily concentrated. eleven benefits can be expected. and if he penetrates no higher. poison and weapons do not affect him. towards a person you like. This gives a total of four hundred and eighty ways to extend lovingkindness (10 x 48 = 480). To develop compassion towards beings who are not suffering in any apparent way. ‘May this good person be released from suffering’ (aya§ sappuriso dukkhā muccatu). so the light is bright and clear. and extend lovingkindness to them in the fortyeight ways. Furthermore. and the five masteries of each. consolidated. it should not be difficult to develop the sublime abiding of compassion (karuõā). the whole country. When we add the original fortyeight categories of pervasion. You should arouse compassion for him by reflecting on his suffering. when the mind-deliverance of lovingkindness is cultivated. made the foundation. his complexion becomes bright. which The Buddha taught in the Aï guttara Nikāya:1 Bhikkhus. Emerge from it. and so on in the other directions. Do this many times. fire. he will be reborn in the Brahma World. Once you master these five hundred and twenty-eight ways of pervading lovingkindness. and third jhānas. the whole village.ii. you should reflect on the fact that all unenlightened beings are liable to experience the results of the evil they have done while wandering through the round of rebirths. Once proficient. the whole solar system. the whole township. and properly undertaken. What are the eleven? 1 A. and then develop lovingkindness up to the third jhāna.3 . towards yourself. until the barriers have been broken down. and use the light to see that person. You should see all beings in the whole of the infinite universe to the east of you. he is dear to human beings. made the vehicle. we get five hundred and twentyeight ways to extend lovingkindness (480 + 48 = 528).How You Develop The Sublime Abidings and Protective Meditations Knowing and Seeing you become proficient in pervading lovingkindness in all fortyeight ways. you should expand the determined area to include the whole monastery. one you are indifferent to. developed. established. you should develop compassion as you did lovingkindness. and develop compassion towards that suffering person with the thought. 105 106 . that is.XI. and one you hate. After that. again and again. Develop each of the expanded areas in the fortyeight ways up to the third jhāna. you should first select a living person of your own sex who is suffering. Then do the same thing to the west of you. and dreams no evil dreams. until you attain the first. wakes in comfort. devas guard him. How You Develop Compassion The ten directional categories of lovingkindness involve the previously discussed forty-eight categories in each of the ten directions. you will experience the eleven benefits of practising lovingkindness. and the whole of the infinite universe. the whole galaxy.

the sight of whom makes you happy. and the five masteries of each. one who is very dear to you. until you attain the fourth jhāna and the five masteries of it. you should also here develop compassion as you did lovingkindness: towards yourself and the usual three types of person up to the third jhāna. and appreciative-joy. so the light is bright and clear. towards whom you are indifferent. It is for this reason worthwhile to learn and develop them before proceeding to Vipassanā meditation. and one you hate. or the ‘Four Protective Meditations’. and develop appreciative joy towards the happy person with the thought: ‘May this good person not be separated from the prosperity he has attained. With the support of the third jhānas of lovingkindness. second and third jhānas. Afterwards develop it towards a person you respect or who is dear to you. Do this many times. and one hundred and twenty directional categories (5 + 7 + (10 x 12) = 132). and one you hate. until you have broken down the barriers between you. and use the light to see that person.’ (aya§ sappuriso yathāladdhasampattito māvigacchatu). again and again. sickness. Then re-establish the fourth jhāna with the white kasiõa. Let us begin with recollection-of-The-Buddha. and whom you are very fond of and friendly with. This completes the development of the Four Sublime Abidings. Finally develop appreciative-joy towards all beings in the infinite universe in the hundred and thirty-two ways. a person you respect or who is dear to you. one you are indifferent to. Then develop appreciative-joy jhāna towards yourself and the usual three types of person up to the third jhāna. again and again. compassion.3 . until you attain the first. This is because they protect the yogi from various dangers. To develop the sublime abiding of equanimity (upekkhā). and then develop the third lovingkindness jhāna. you should select a living person of your own sex who is happy.How You Develop The Sublime Abidings and Protective Meditations Knowing and Seeing every being is worthy of compassion. foulness meditation and recollection-of-death are called the ‘Four Protections’. Emerge from that. Then again towards yourself. We have already discussed how to develop loving-kindness. How You Develop Appreciative Joy To develop the sublime abiding of appreciative joy (muditā). namely: five unspecified categories. compassion. After that you should develop compassion in the same hundred and thirty-two ways you developed lovingkindness. until the barriers have been broken down. Then develop equanimity towards a person you are indifferent to with the thought: ‘This good person is heir to his own kamma (aya§ sappuriso kammassako)’. seven specified categories. recollection-ofThe-Buddha. it should not take you long to develop the fourth jhāna of equanimity. and appreciative joy each up to the third jhāna. you should first re-establish the fourth jhāna with the white kasiõa. Do this many times. Finally develop equanimity towards all beings in the infinite universe in the above hundred and thirty-two ways. and develop lovingkindness. After reflecting thus. because they are not free from the suffering of ageing. until the barriers have been broken down. 107 108 . namely their closeness to affection. and to elation and joy. so we need now only discuss how to develop the other three protective meditations. Then emerge from the third jhāna and reflect on the disadvantages of those three sublime abidings. How You Develop the Four Protective Meditations The four meditation subjects of lovingkindness. Afterwards reflect on the fourth jhāna based on equanimity as peaceful. and death. to like and dislike. How You Develop Equanimity Then choose a living person of your own sex. Emerge from it and develop compassion jhāna.

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How You Develop Recollection-of-The-Buddha

7. 8. 9.

Recollection-of-The-Buddha (Buddhānussati) can be developed by looking at the nine qualities of The Buddha, using a formula He gives frequently in the suttas:1 Itipi So Bhagavā (The Blessed One is such): [1] Araha§ [2] Sammā Sambuddho [3] Vijjā-Caraõa Sampanno [4] Sugato [5] Lokavidū [6] Anuttaro Purisadamma Sārathi [7] Satthā Deva Manussāna§ [8] Buddho [9] Bhagavā’ti. This can be explained as:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

He is the teacher of devas and human beings: Satthā Deva Manussāna§. He is an Enlightened One: Buddho. He is the most fortunate possessor of the results of previous meritorious actions: Bhagavā.

Let us discuss how to develop concentration with, for example, the first quality, Araha§. According to the Visuddhi Magga, the Pāë i word Araha§ has five definitions:
1.

2. 3.

This Blessed One, having destroyed all defilements, is a worthy one: Araha§. He has attained perfect enlightenment by Himself: Sammā Sambuddho. He is perfect in knowledge and morality: Vijjā-Caraõa Sampanno. He speaks only what is beneficial and true: Sugato. He knows the worlds: Lokavidū. He is the unsurpassed tamer of men fit to be tamed: Anuttaro Purisadamma Sārathi.

4.

5.

Since He has removed totally, without remainder, all defilements and habitual tendencies, and has thereby distanced Himself from them, The Buddha is a worthy one: Araha§. Since He has cut off all defilements with the sword of the Arahant Path, The Buddha is a worthy one: Araha§. Since He has broken and destroyed the spokes of the wheel of dependent-origination, beginning with ignorance and craving, The Buddha is a worthy one: Araha§. Since His virtue, concentration, and wisdom are unsurpassed, The Buddha is paid the highest reverence by brahmās, devas, and men, and is a worthy one: Araha§. Since He does not, even when in seclusion and unseen, do any evil by body, speech, or mind, The Buddha is a worthy one: Araha§.

1

D.iii.1 ‘Pathika Sutta’ (‘Sutta of Provisions for a journey’); Vinaya.I.1 ‘Verañjakaõóa’ (‘Verañja Section’); Vs.vii ‘Buddhānussati Kathā’ B125-130 (‘Recollection of The Buddha Explanation’ Ñ425)

To develop this meditation, you should memorize these five definitions well enough to recite them. Then re-establish the fourth ānāpāna-, or white kasiõa-jhāna, so the light is bright and clear. Then use the light to visualize a Buddha image you remember, like, and respect. When it is clear, see it as the real Buddha and concentrate on it as such. If you were in a past life fortunate enough to meet The Buddha, His image may re-appear. If so, you should concentrate on also the qualities of The Buddha; not just His image. If the image of The real Buddha does not appear, then first see the visualized im110

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age as The real Buddha, and then recollect His qualities. You can choose the definition of Araha§ you like most, take the meaning as object, and recollect it again and again as ‘Araha§-Araha§’. As your concentration develops and becomes stronger, the image of The Buddha will disappear, and you should simply remain concentrated on the chosen quality. Continue to concentrate on that quality until the jhāna factors arise, although you can with this meditation subject attain only access-jhāna (upacāra-jhāna). You can concentrate on the remaining qualities of The Buddha too.
How You Develop Foulness Meditation

Visuddhi Magga,1 recollection-of-death too can be developed using a corpse you remember seeing. Therefore, you should reestablish the first jhāna with the repulsiveness of a corpse, and with that external corpse as object, reflect: ‘This body of mine is also of a nature to die. Indeed, it will die just like this one. It cannot avoid becoming like this.’ By keeping the mind concentrated on and mindful of your own mortality, you will also find that the sense of urgency (sa§vega) develops. With that knowledge, you will probably see your own body as a repulsive corpse. Perceiving that the life-faculty has in that image been cut off, you should concentrate on the absence of the life-faculty with one of the following thoughts:
1. 2. 3. 4.

The second protective meditation is foulness meditation (asubha bhāvanā) on a corpse. To develop it you should re-establish the fourth ānāpāna-, or white kasiõa-jhāna, so the light is bright and clear. Then use the light to visualize the foulest corpse of your own sex, that you remember seeing. Use the light to see the corpse exactly as it was when you really saw it in the past. When it is clear, make it appear as repulsive as possible. Concentrate on it, and note it as, ‘repulsive - repulsive’ (pañikkūla, pañikkūla).1 Concentrate on the object of the repulsiveness of the corpse until the uggaha-nimitta (taken-up sign) becomes the pañ ibhāga-nimitta (counterpart sign). The uggaha-nimitta is the image of the corpse as you really saw it in the past, and is a hideous, dreadful, and frightening sight, but the pañ ibhāga-nimitta is like a man with big limbs, lying down after having eaten his fill. Continue to concentrate on that nimitta, until you reach the first jhāna, and then develop the five masteries.
How You Develop Recollection-of-Death

My death is certain; my life is uncertain ...(maraõa§ me dhuva§, jīvita§ me adhuva§) I shall certainly die ................................................................... (maraõa§ me bhavissati) My life will end in death ..............................................(maraõapariyosāna§ me jīvita§) Death - death .................................................................................. (maraõa§ - maraõa§)

Choose one and note it in any language. Continue to concentrate on the image of the absence of the life-faculty in your own corpse, until the jhāna factors arise, although you can with this meditation subject attain only access concentration.
Summary

As mentioned earlier, the four meditation subjects of lovingkindness, recollection-of-the-Buddha, foulness, and recollectionof-death are called the Four Protections, or the Four Protective meditations, because they protect the yogi from various dangers. In the ‘Meghiya Sutta’ of the Khuddaka Nikāya it says:2 Asubhā bhāvetabbā rāgassa pahānāya, mettā bhāvetabbā byāpādassa pahānāya, ānāpānassati bhāvetabbā vitakkupacchedāya.
1

The third protective meditation is recollection-of-death (maraõānussati). According to the ‘Mahāsatipañ ñ hāna Sutta’2 and the
1 2

Here, asubha (foulness) and pañikkũla (repulsiveness) are synonyms. D.ii.9 ‘ Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness ’ (also M.I.i.10)

2

Vs.viii ‘Maraõānussati Kathā’ B168 (‘Death-Mindfulness Explanation’ N6-7) U.iv.1 ‘Meghiya Sutta’ (‘Meghiya Sutta’) (also A.IX.I.i.3)

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(For the removal of lust, meditation on foulness should be developed; for the removal of anger, lovingkindness should be developed; and ānāpānasati should be developed for the cutting off of discursive thought.) According to this sutta, foulness meditation is the best weapon for removing lust. If you take a corpse as object, and see it as repulsive, it is called ‘foulness of a lifeless body’(aviññāõaka asubha). To take the thirty-two parts of the body of a being, and see them gut as repulsive (as taught in the ‘Girimānanda Sutta’ of the Aï tara Nikāya1) is called ‘foulness of a living body’ (saviññāõaka asubha). Both these forms of foulness meditation are weapons for removing lust. The best weapon for removing anger is to develop lovingkindness, and for removing discursive thought ānāpānasati is the best weapon. Furthermore, when faith in meditation slackens, and the mind is dull, the best weapon is to develop recollection-of-The-Buddha. When the sense of urgency is lacking, and you are bored with striving in meditation, the best weapon is recollection-of-death. Today we discussed how to develop the Four Sublime Abidings and Four Protective meditations. In the next talk, we shall discuss how to develop Vipassanā meditation, beginning with the fourelements meditation, and analysis of the various kinds of materiality.
Benefits of Samatha

Samādhi§, bhikkhave, bhāvetha; samāhito, bhikkhave, bhikkhu yathābhūta§ pajānāti. Kiñca yathābhūta§ pajānāti? Rūpassa samudayañca atthaïgamañca, vedanāya samudayañca atthaïgamañca, saññāya samudayañca atthaïgamañca, saïkhārāna§ samudayañca atthaïgamañca, viññāõassa samudayañca atthaïgamañca. (Bhikkhus, you should develop concentration. A bhikkhu who is concentrated, bhikkhus, knows dhammas as they really are. And what [are the dhammas] he knows as they really are? The arising of materiality and the passing-away thereof; the arising of feelings, of perception, and of formations, and the passing away of feelings, of perception and formations; the arising of consciousness and the passing away thereof.) Therefore, a bhikkhu who is concentrated knows the five aggregates and their causes, and their arising and passing away. He sees clearly that because of the arising of their causes the five aggregates arise, and because of the complete cessation of their causes, the five aggregates also completely cease. The Samatha we discussed in the first two talks and today produces strong concentration. It is the light of this concentration that lets you see ultimate mentality-materiality for Vipassanā. With that deep, strong and powerful concentration, you can see clearly the impermanent, suffering, and non-self nature of mentality-materiality and their causes. This clarity is a great benefit coming from Samatha. Samatha also gives you a resting-place. There is much to discern in Vipassanā and tiredness may occur. In that case, you can stay in one of the jhānas for a long time. That rests and refreshes your mind, and then you can go back to Vipassanā. Whenever tiredness occurs, you can again enter jhāna to rest. It is good to remember these benefits of Samatha, when in the following talks we discuss Vipassanā. Even page

Before ending, we should like to discuss briefly the relation between Samatha and Vipassanā. In the ‘Samādhi Sutta’ of the ‘Khandhavagga’ in the Sa§yutta Nikāya, The Buddha said:2
1 2

A.X.II.i.10 S.III.I.i.5, quoted also above p.29, and mentioned Answer 4.6, p.186

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............... The three types of meditation are: 1..........(parikamma bhāvanā) Access meditation................... (upacāra samādhi) Absorption concentration ... The three types of nimitta are: Question 3................ the concentration will gradually decrease. the uggaha-nimitta. 3.......................... It may have another colour too. this is why they are 1 The parikamma-nimitta (preparatory sign): The natural breath is a nimitta..... Preparatory concentration ... The uggaha-nimitta (taken-up sign): When the preparatory concentration increases in strength and power...........1 In ānāpānasati............ called ‘access’.. Real access concentration.................................. When access concentration is fully developed...... The touching point is also a nimitta............. please see p........ (counterpart sign) The three types of concentration are: 1... it leads to absorption concentration (jhāna)....... When preparatory concentration....... 115 116 ... a smoky grey usually appears around the nostrils.... (appanā bhāvanā) The object of preparatory concentration can be the parikammanimitta........ there are the parikamma-nimitta....... The Commentary says the nostril nimitta (nāsika nimitta).... 1.1 When the perception changes....... there are three types of nimitta..... (preparatory sign) The uggaha-nimitta .... 1 For further details on the relationship between the nimitta and perception. and real access meditation are very close to absorption concentration (jhāna)...... 2......... 3.................. or momentary concentration...... which means he has different objects............... the uggaha-nimitta.... is as a metaphor also called ‘access concentration’ or ‘access meditation’.. Preparatory meditation is the same as preparatory concentration....... What is the parikamma-nimitta? Is the parikammanimitta always grey? What is the difference between the parikamma-nimitta and the uggaha-nimitta? Answer 3.....1 2....1 1...... and occasionally the pañ ibhāga-nimitta.. We already discussed the nimitta in previous talks.. Preparatory meditation .... But it may become another colour........ There are... three types of nimitta: the parikamma-nimitta............ The parikamma-nimitta ..... the smoky grey usually changes to white: white like cotton wool...... So the yogi should ignore the colour and shape of the nimitta..... and the pañ ibhāga-nimitta........ The concentration and meditation at the parikamma-nimitta stage are preparatory.......... This smoky grey is also the parikamma-nimitta.......... When the concentration is a little stronger......... is fully developed it leads to access concentration..... He should concentrate on it only as an ānāpāna-nimitta.................... If the colour and shape change very often.................... But sometimes deep and strong concentration before absorption concentration.........Knowing and Seeing Questions and Answers 3 In ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing)... 2.. his object thereby also changes............. the colour and shape of the nimitta may also change..... with the pañ ibhāga-nimitta as object.... (appanā samādhi) Also called jhāna concentration: the eight attainments....... and the pañ ibhāganimitta........ and four immaterial jhānas. Here the nimitta is the object of concentration...... eight attainments: the four material jhānas... and upper-lip nimitta (mukha nimitta) are the parikamma-nimittas for beginners....... (taken-up sign) The pañ ibhāga-nimitta .... Access concentration..... 2.. owing to a change in perception.... three types of concentration (samādhi) and three types of meditation (bhāvanā).. as mentioned...... (parikamma samādhi) Sometimes called momentary concentration (khaõika samādhi)...48.. This is because whenever yogi’s perception changes.......... The concentration and meditation on the uggaha-nimitta are also preparatory....... the uggaha-nimitta.......... 3.(upacāra bhāvanā) Absorption meditation .....

if he wants it to be ruby red. the nimitta may also change. bright and radiant. be it good or bad. the nimitta is still the pañ ibhāga-nimitta.Questions and Answers 3 Knowing and Seeing 3. and their causes. if the perception changes. it will gradually decrease.1 If one does. one will achieve one’s aim. That object may be kamma. ‘without formations’. is the arahant fruition-consciousness (arahattaphala citta). ga In any kind of practice. and access meditation. But at this stage. If the arahant fruition-consciousness is entered upon from the first jhāna. If one purposely practises to fall into bhavaï one will achieve one’s aim.’ In this case too. In this case too. he Question 3. Usually the pañ ibhāga-nimitta is clear. and Nibbāna is without either of them. and sees Nibbāna. this idea is a very big ‘rock’ blocking the way to Nibbāna. the yogi wants the nimitta to be long it will become long. Why does he say he knew ga nothing? Because the object of the bhavaï is the object of the ga near-death consciousness in the past life. a kamma sign (kamma nimitta) or a rebirth sign (gati nimitta). then even though the concentration is deep. because the jhāna factors too are weak. one cannot attain Nibbāna. khāra: that is. The beginning stage of concentration and meditation on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta are also preparatory. if he practises again and again. If he does not remove this big ‘rock’. The pañ ibhāga-nimitta (counterpart sign): When the concentration has become even stronger and more powerful. it will become ruby red. If. but the concentration is now absorption concentration. Their concentration cannot be maintained for long. for example. The problem of thinking that the attainment of knowing nothing is Nibbāna needs perhaps to be explained further. because he has not yet discerned dependent-origination. If he plays with it he cannot attain jhāna. but it is not ga. if he wants it to be short it will become short.2 When the pañ ibhāga-nimitta appears. and bhavaï gas still occur. in the same way. a Buddha or arahant enters the fruition attainment. which is the stage of access concentration. If a yogi thinks it is Nibbāna. Nibbāna. What is the difference between access concentration and absorption concentration? Answer 3. But close to jhāna they are access concentration. But it is not itself visaï khāra: the act of seeing Nibbāna requires the formation of consciousness. ultimate materiality. Formations Nibbāna is visaï (saïkhārā) are mentality-materiality and their causes. is Nibbāna. Thus their concentration is only weak. The Visuddhi Magga says one should not do so. and say: ‘I knew nothing then. This is because one has different perceptions. The consciousness that is formed when. the concentration is powerful. like the morning star. he can eventually stay in bhavaï for a long time. one falls into bhavaï The yogi will say that everything stopped.2 1 Vs. without knowing ultimate mentality. when the concentration is strong and powerful. the uggaha-nimitta changes to the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. But the yogi cannot see this. together with its associated mental factors. ‘Practice makes perfect. and is thus a first-jhāna arahant fruition-consciousness. and the meditation is absorption meditation. So a yogi should not play with the nimitta. It is only once he has discerned dependentorigination that he sees that the bhavaï took one of those obga jects. So they do not think it is necessary to develop sufficiently deep concentration in order to discern mentality-materiality and their causes as taught by The Buddha. and thereby different objects. To attain Nibbāna we must practise the seven stages of purification step by step.iii ‘Cattālīsakammaññhāna Vaõõanā’ B47 (‘Forty Meditations Subjects Comment’ Ñ113) may fall into bhavaï for a long time. Why does this idea occur? Many yogis think that a disciple (sāvaka) cannot know mentalitymateriality as taught by The Buddha. or may think it ga. he cannot attain Nibbāna. and bhavaï gas (life-continuum consciousnesses) still occur. if one practises again and again. When absorption arises. The mind that knows Nibbāna is called visaï khāragata citta.’ If he practises in this way. This principle applies in all the other Path and Fruition Knowl118 117 . there are thirty-seven mental formations. the jhāna factors are not fully developed.

When the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta appears. Just like a strong and powerful man can stand up straight the whole day. Both take the same ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta as object. In the same way. three hours. It is therefore clear that when the yogi knows nothing. impossible to enter one of the Fruition attainments and say about it: ‘Everything stopped: I knew nothing then. at the third. His mind does not go to other objects. can one say it is absorption concentration. And for the duration of that period. to push the mind and fix it on the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. Just like. His mind may also for brief moments have thought of an object other than the pañ ibhāganimitta.’ Before entering a fruition attainment. mindfulness to not forget it. second. when learning to walk. for example one or two hours. the yogi’s mind may fall into bhavaï because the jhāna factors are not yet ga. and Nibbāna has the characteristic of peaceful bliss. as well as absorption concentration at each of the four jhānas? What are their characteristics? Answer 3. can we say that a meditation experience is access concentration or absorption concentration? Answer 3. mental suffering (domanassa vedanā). How does a yogi know his mind is falling into bhavaï When ga? he notices that he has very often been unaware of the pañ ibhāganimitta. he knows nothing. strong. sustained thought (vicāra). But in the fourth access-jhāna. At the absorption-jhāna stage. with also the pañ ibhāganimitta as object. one can say that it is access concentration. without interruption. Under what conditions.4 Let us take the example of the ānāpāna jhānas. which take the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta as object. the jhāna factors become increasingly powerful at each access-jhāna. and four levels of absorption concentration. This does not happen in absorption concentration. equanimity (upekkhā) and one-pointedness (ekaggatā). Apart from the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. concentration (samādhi). further. one determines how long it will last. Whenever a Noble One (ariya) enters the fruition attainment. The jhāna factors at the first access-jhāna suppress physical pain (kāyika dukkha vedanā). the jhāna factors are still not fully developed. and wisdom (paññā). there are five jhāna factors. In the first. taking the pañ ibhāga-nimitta as object.3 Is there access concentration. and one may fall into bhavaï it is not ga: Nibbāna. he knows there were bhavaï gas. or more.4 119 120 . and at the Question 3. At that time he does not hear a sound. a small child who is too weak to stand by himself. In absorption concentration there is only complete absorption without interruption. mindfulness (sati). There are four levels of access concentration. It is therefore. you need the help of the five controlling faculties: faith (saddhā). he knows Nibbāna. But the nimitta must be the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. So it is the level of concentration that is different. It takes effort to make the mind know the pañ ibhāga-nimitta again and again. the jhāna factors are fully developed. Nibbāna is known continuously as the peaceful bliss it is (santisukha). will fall down again and again. stay in absorption jhāna for a long time without falling into bhavaï Complete and uninterrupted absorption may continue for ga. they all take Nibbāna as object. there is no bliss (sukha). one. Question 3. and third access-jhāna.Questions and Answers 3 Knowing and Seeing edges. Only if one is able to stay in complete absorption for a long time.3 If many bhavaï gas occur during concentration. at the access concentration stage. physical pleasant feeling (kāyika sukha vedanā). To avoid falling into bhavaï and to develop concentration ga. and then absorption jhāna. and wisdom to know it. a yogi can. only applied thought (vitakka). and with the knowledge of fruition enjoys the peaceful bliss that is Nibbāna. at the second. or in what state. it is because his concentration is still weak. Together with their associated mental factors. At each level there is access jhāna first. effort (vīriya). Although they take the same nimitta as object. it is not because he has attained Nibbāna. two.

If. we can say that because of wise attention many wholesome dhammas arise. Is this phenomenon similar to that which occurs during meditation. Question 3.’ then his attention is unwise attention. Those objects reduce the concentration. many hindrances (nīvaraõa) will arise. If you look at your meditation object with wise attention. It stops completely at the fourth absorption-jhāna. which the yogi had forgotten. Jhāna wholesome dhammas.5 If the yogi does not respect his meditation practice. but only in some cases. Also. Wholesome and unwholesome dhammas cannot arise simultaneously in one consciousness-moment or cognitive-process. because wholesome dhammas and unwholesome dhammas are always in opposition. they are unwholesome dhammas. When a person dies. ‘This is cause’. again and again. In the first absorption jhāna.5 breath. and has nearly stopped. They arise due to unwise attention (ayoniso manasikāra). a son. also two: equanimity and one-pointedness. Is this due to lack of mindfulness. his attention is also wise attention. a brahmā. Generally speaking. ‘This is the second absorption jhāna’. and in the fourth. while you are practising meditation. then from access concentration you will attain absorption concentration. and when. because of unwise attention. Those unwholesome dhammas reduce the concentration. such as the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta. sustained thought. So. when images of past events. an animal. then wholesome dhammas will arise and increase. here the concentration increases level by level. in the second. especially the fourth. appear? Answer 3. If you develop this wise attention to full strength. appear. then hindrances or defilements will certainly follow. But if he sees: ‘This is a man.’. ‘This is effect’. When wholesome dhammas are strong and powerful. or ‘This is non-self’. joy. it is wise attention. Here we need to understand wise attention (yoniso manasikāra) and unwise attention (ayoniso manasikāra). ‘This is impermanence’. or cause it to regress and drop. How is it the highest? You should try for yourself. are among those wholesome dhammas. and concentrates on the natural Question 3. a yogi sees: ‘This is materiality’. a daughter. etc.6 While meditating. we can say. ‘This is suffering’. unwholesome dhammas are strong and powerful. which lets the mind leave the object? Question 3. We distinguish between the absorption-jhānas also by looking at the jhāna factors.7 121 122 . mental pleasant feeling or happiness (somanassa vedanā). if you concentrate on the nimitta. ‘This is mentality’. three: joy. a woman. When the uggaha-nimitta or pañ ibhāga-nimitta appears. Under what conditions does a yogi drop. Fourth-jhāna concentration is the highest. and because of unwise attention many unwholesome dhammas arise. his attention is still wise attention. a mother. a deity. At that level. images of events from more than thirty years back.6 There may be some similarity. bliss and one-pointedness. When a yogi practises ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing). unwise attention arises.Questions and Answers 3 Knowing and Seeing fourth. in Vipassanā meditation. By looking at the jhāna factors. two: bliss and one-pointedness. and the yogi concentrates on it. money. five jhāna factors are present: applied thought. ‘This is gold. Many yogis report that the fourth jhāna is the best and the quietest. If. bliss and one-pointedness. wholesome dhammas are far away. It may be similar to the arising of a kamma-nimitta in those whose death took place quickly. This is how we distinguish between the different levels of access concentration. the breath is the subtlest. in the third. which the yogi had forgotten. but respects objects other than the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. etc. a father. ‘This is the first absorption jhāna’. unwholesome dhammas are far away. again and again. or regress from absorption to access concentration? Under what conditions does a yogi in access concentration attain absorption concentration? Answer 3. a kamma-nimitta may arise because of past wholesome or unwholesome kamma. etc. for example. Many thoughts of sensual pleasure and hatred will arise. his attention is wise attention.

That type of mindfulness can prevent an unwholesome sign or sensual-realm wholesome sign from arising. They were reborn as very beautiful and shiny gandhabbas. already ga knows the Vipassanā object. or non-self nature of a chosen formation. a worldling (puthujjana) who has heard the Teachings. It can produce a deva rebirth-linking consciousness (deva pañisandhicitta).8 ‘Sakkapañha Sutta’ (‘Sakka’s Questions Sutta’) Musicians and dancers in the deva realm.IV. Tassa tattha sukhino dhammapadā plavanti. But no formation occurs by itself. Many yogis do not know about attention. mentioned also p. Dandho bhikkhave satuppādo. ‘Catukka Nipāta’:1 the Aï So muññhassati kāla§ kurumāno aññatara§ devanikāya§ upapajjati. He may be slow to reflect on the Dhamma or to do Vipassanā.8 Strong. the bhavaï that is. so they do not understand that these images appear because of attention. and p. If. when dying. That type of mindfulness can also prevent unwholesome signs from appearing. where all formations appear clearly in his mind. (Bhikkhus. and if he practises Vipassanā up to the near-death moment. but what is strong. This is because all formations are conditioned.1 ‘Sotānugata Sutta’ (‘One Who Has Heard Sutta’). The Vipassanā sign is the impermanent.7 have practised meditation on mentality do they understand it. suffering. powerful mindfulness can prevent such nimittas from arising. powerful mindfulness? If a yogi enters jhāna. without a cause. so that he is spontaneously reborn as a deva. in this case the impermanent. 123 124 . He may die with such a sign as the object of his near-death impulsion (maraõāsanna javana).2 They had good morality and good concentration. and the bhavaï -consciousness of the following deva life take ga the same object.8 Concerning the benefits that this type of yogi may get in his future life as a deva. The host. An example of this is the ‘Sakkapañha Sutta’. as well as prevent other wholesome signs from replacing his Vipassanā sign. but their minds inclined towards life as male gandhabbas. as well as other wholesome signs that may replace his Vipassanā sign. you can say that the mindfulness of that jhāna is strong and powerful. often repeated Them.Questions and Answers 3 Knowing and Seeing It could be. Question 3. the three bhikkhus had gone to a laywoman’s house every day for 1 2 3 A. which is why insight knowledge can easily be developed. then his near-death impulsion is insight-knowledge associated with strong and powerful mindfulness. Another type of strong. and thoroughly penetrated them with insight knowledge. suffering.248 D. The Buddha says in the ‘Sotānugata Sutta’ of guttara Nikāya. If a yogi’s insight-knowledge is the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa).3 When they died they went to the deva realm. But it could also be because of attention (manasikāra). So according to that sutta. he may be reborn in one of the deva realms. a person has strong mindfulness.ii. and keeps it completely stable right up to the time of death. Cognitive-processes occur very quickly. or nonself nature of formations. an ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta or white-kasiõa pañ ibhāga-nimitta. but he attains Nibbāna very quickly. You should try to possess this type of mindfulness before death takes place. atha so satto khippameva visesagāmī hoti. 183. if he dies. for example. who looked sixteen years old. It takes only the jhāna object. reflected upon Them. powerful mindfulness is the mindfulness associated with insight-knowledge. about three bhikkhus who practised Samatha and Vipassanā.IV. strong mindfulness associated with insight-knowledge can prevent unwholesome signs from appearing.v. During their lives as bhikkhus.) Why do formations appear clearly in his mind? Because the near-death impulsion-consciousness of the previous human life. can he prevent a kamma sign (kamma nimitta) of previous unwholesome or wholesome kamma from arising? Answer 3. Only once they Answer 3.

and he saw that they were very beautiful and shiny. the sequence is not important. and unwise attention as the proximate cause. it only suppresses ignorance. One may at some time get sick because the four elements are out of balance. powerful concentration. Please see further Answers 7.285ff 125 126 . fire-element.. Question 3. But once we can discern all the characteristics easily and clearly. temperature (utu) or the mind (citta). He said: ‘When you listened to the teachings and practised the Dhamma. and heaviness in that sequence? Can one choose to start with any one of the characteristics? Answer 3.1 and attained arahantship there. When one is sick. He thought: ‘They are very beautiful and shiny. For example. if the affliction arises because of temperature.8 and 7. we must follow the sequence given by The Buddha: earth-element (pathavī-dhātu). and died. When we see the rūpa-kalāpas. and eradicate1 ignorance (avijjā). what were your eyes and ears directed at?’ Two of the gandhabbas remembered their past lives and were ashamed. roughness. not by balancing the elements. But some of the afflictions that occur because of unbalanced elements. They developed Samatha and Vipassanā again. to start with hardness. fire. If you are able to replace unwise attention Question 3.it can be cured only by taking medicine. such as The Buddha’s back pain. malaria. This is because that sequence produces strong. He knew that their virtue. in our daily life (outside a meditation retreat) we know that greed or hatred arises. Why? The life span of a rūpa-kalāpa is very short. many unwholesome thoughts still arise due to bad habits. and had taught her Dhamma. concentration and wisdom had been very good. So. The afflictions produced by previous kamma cannot be cured by balancing the four elements. Is it necessary when discerning the twelve characteristics in four-elements meditation. The three gandhabbas performed for the son of Sakka.9 In the beginning we can start with a characteristic that is easy to discern. can one practise four-elements meditation with strong mindfulness to cure the sickness? Answer 3.Questions and Answers 3 Knowing and Seeing almsfood.10 Before we attain the fourth jhāna. and when she died. and remained a gandhabba. When discerning the four eleQuestion 3. There are also afflictions that occur because of food. This type of mindfulness is the best insurance. water-element (āpo-dhātu).11 Unwholesome kamma has ignorance (avijjā) as a latent cause. 7. etc.7. Some afflictions are due to previous kamma. She had become a stream-enterer. What was their kamma?’ He saw they were the three bhikkhus who had come to his house when he was a laywoman.9 p. may disappear when the yogi tries to balance them. Unwise attention is very harmful. Some afflictions are due to unbalanced elements. and we can cure the mind. So he reminded them of their past life. quickly attained the non-returning path and fruition. and are able to easily discern the four elements in each one. as with cancer. Can we use foulness meditation (asubha). what is very important then is to discern them simultaneously.9 1 ments in a rūpa-kalāpa there is not enough time to recite ‘earth.11 1 DA-II-8 ‘Sakkapañha Sutta’ (‘Sakka’s Questions Sutta’) The fourth jhāna does not eradicate ignorance. It may be less than a billionth of a second. the son of Sakka. They were reborn in the realm of Brahma Parohitā (Brahma’s Ministers). wind’. she was reborn as Gopaka. water. Practising four-elements meditation enables one to balance the four elements in the body. The third bhikkhu was not ashamed.10 There are many types of affliction. and wind-element (vāyo-dhātu). fireelement (tejo-dhātu). This is the same for afflictions produced by unsuitable food. it is not necessary to contact a life insurance company. and let them disappear automatically? Answer 3. If an affliction arises because of the mind. or lovingkindness meditation (mettā bhāvanā) to remove them? Or should we ignore them and just concentrate on our meditation subject. so we must discern them simultaneously. the affliction may disappear.

12 1 jhāna attainment. places that exist. the bhavaï has as ga object only kamma or a kamma sign: no rebirth sign. that is. ga In the sensual realms (kāmāvacara bhūmi). But Vipassanā is the best weapon to destroy defilements. It is the best wise attention. if the wise attention is very strong and powerful. In the immaterial realms (arūpāvacara bhūmi). There is none in ga the four path.1 It arises so the consciousness-moments in a life do not stop. Since the object of the bhavaï is thus the same as the object of the ga Question 3. or maybe forever. the bhavaï of one who has reached a fine ga material realm due to ānāpāna-jhāna will have as object the ānāpāna-pañ ibhāga-nimitta. How does the bhavaï function in the sensual ga realms. It is. one’s bhavaï will have as object the consciousness of the base of boundga less space. Hence. and in the realm of the base of neither-perception-nornon-perception. (2) The fine-material realm (rūpāvacara).13 The three realms: (1) The sensuous realm (kāmāvacara). where there is only mentality. in the realm of the base of boundless space one’s bhavaï ga will have as object boundless space.13 Answer 3. the hells and the deva-worlds. where the materiality is very subtle. (3) The immaterial realm (arūpavacara). while another’s may have as object the Shwedagon Pagoda:2 these objects are concepts. four fruitions. and asura worlds. the word ‘realm’ is only a metaphor. ‘the fine-material realms’ and ‘the immaterial realms’. ghost-. these objects are kamma.and four fruition-consciousnesses. in fact. the animal-. Since there is materiality-mentality (nāma-rūpa) in the sensual and fine-material realms. The supramundane jhānas are the 127 128 . and Nibbāna. For example. kamma sign (kamma nimitta) or rebirth sign (gati nimitta). not a place at all. the bhavaï may have as ga object a kamma. the object of the bhavaï will depend upon the ga jhā na. which is the life-continuum. which means there cannot be ga any bhavaï in Nibbāna. For example. immaterial realms and supramundane realm? Would the Sayadaw please explain with examples? Answer 3. the greed or hatred will disappear for a while. while the one who is there due to mettā -jhāna will have as object all beings in the infinite universe: both these objects are concepts. and since there is no mentality-materiality (nāmarūpa) in Nibbāna. it will have as object the consciousness of the Base of Nothingness: being consciousnesses. When we say ‘sensual realms’.12 The function of the bhavaï is the same in the first ga three types of realm. and in the realm of the base of nothingness. there is also a bhavaï there. ga Question 3. 2 The two most famous pagodas in Myanmar. one being’s bhavaï may have as object the ga Kyaikthiyo Pagoda. We already discussed wise and unwise attention in a previous question. the bhavaï has as ga object only a kamma sign: no kamma and no rebirth sign. These meditations are also wise attention. When we say ‘supramundane realm’ we mean only the four paths. In the realm of the base of boundless consciousness. which includes the human world. This is because the kamma that produces this life has not yet been exhausted. fine-material realms. What is the difference between mundane jhānas (lokiya jhāna) and supramundane jhānas (lokuttara jhāna)? The mundane jhānas are the four fine-material-sphere jhānas and four immaterial-sphere jhānas (arūpāvacara jhāna). not a place. because it is the result of the jhāna-attainment at death in the foregoing life. For example. The bhavaï of one in a fine-material realm is called the finega material resultant jhāna (rūpāvacara vipāka jhāna). You can use foulness meditation or lovingkindness meditation to remove greed and hatred. the eight attainments (samāpatti). In the fine-material realm (rūpāvacara bhūmi). which includes the Brahma worlds. there is no bhavaï in the supramundane realm. and mentality in the immaterial realms. we are referring to realms that exist. there is no mentality for the bhavaï to maintain. it maintains the mentality. it will have as object the the absence of the baseof-boundless-space consciousness: both these objects are concepts.Questions and Answers 3 Knowing and Seeing with wise attention. But when we say ‘supramundane realm’ (lokuttara bhūmi).

The other jhānas can in the same way be (the conditions for their respective) supramundane (jhānas). for example. Odd page Even page 129 130 . This is how the path and fruition can be the first jhāna path. the mundane fine-material-sphere first jhāna as impermanence. and first jhāna fruition. your Path Knowledge is the first jhāna. sustained thought. which was the object of Vipassanā.Questions and Answers 3 Knowing and Seeing jhāna factors associated with the Path and Fruition Knowledges. and if you see Nibbāna. joy. When you discern the mental formations of. Why? In the mundane fine-material-sphere first jhāna. bliss and one-pointedness. This is a supramundane jhāna. In the supramundane first jhāna there are the same five. suffering or non-self. there are the five jhāna factors: applied thought.

... in order that it may be easier for you to understand the profound meditation that is four-elements meditation (catu-dhātu vavatthāna).. 3................. which is discerning the elements (dhātu) of materiality (rūpa)............ mental formations..3 ‘Mahāgopālaka Sutta’ (‘Great Cowherd Sutta’)) please see also ‘Introduction’ p...1 To see this.............. and then explain about the origin of materiality............... which is located in the blood in the heart: hence the materiality on which the mind-door depends is also called the heart-base..........Knowing and Seeing Talk 4 How You Discern Materiality Introduction Today............ In the world of five aggregates (pañcavokāra)... For eye-.................... Generally speaking............ dependent upon which a mind-consciousness arises...... we shall discuss four-elements meditation (catu-dhātu vavatthāna)..... But they are not ultimate reality.. nose-.. But the minddoor............... you need to see the individual elements that comprise materiality............. Thus......... (āpo) Fire ....(dasaka) The nine plus a tenth.ii......... Decad-kalāpas ...................... p. (navaka) The basic eight plus a ninth............. 3............. 131 132 ....... ear-....... The Visuddhi Magga explains that the elements Please see further next page Earth .............. That is the aim of fourelements meditation.....III......................... the materiality of our body is composed of these three types of rūpa-kalāpa mixed together in different ways.......... and consciousness (vedanā....... perception... which means you need first to penetrate to the sub-atomic particles called rūpa-kalāpas..............5 ‘Bahudhātuka Sutta’ (‘Many Kinds of Element Sutta’). (M. you need to see that the individual type of rūpa-kalāpa consists of individual elements (dhātu):3 only then can you see what materiality really is.... For The Buddha’s explanation of the necessity for discerning the elements of materiality etc...1 Three Types of Rūpa-Kalāpa As mentioned.............iv. depends on the four great elements.. 1 and can see how it is related to mentality........... let us discuss briefly the different types of rūpa-kalāpa and their elements........ (pathavī) Water ...................................... which are the four ‘great elements’ (mahābhūtā)....... and the remaining four (feeling....... for example................ materiality is nothing except rūpa-kalāpas.. saññā.................2 in total eight elements: 1... But.. please see also Answer 7.......... Materiality is the first of the five aggregates of clinging............. an ear-consciousness arises dependent on the materiality that is the ear-door etc........xv ‘Dhātuvitthāra Kathā’B518 (‘Elements Details Explanation’Ñ21)) ........ tongue.......... You need to see that materiality is nothing except these rūpa-kalāpas............... 2.......... Nonad-kalāpas ... saïkhārā.. is mentality (the bhavaï ga).......... 2........ which means that consciousnesses arise dependent on their respective material base...2 To penetrate to ultimate reality.........86 2 derived materiality so called because it derives from.......................... before explaining the meditation.... the base and the door are the same thing....... viññāõa)) can together be called mentality (nāma)...... (tejo) ‘cause the individual characteristic to be carried’ (attano sabhāva§ dhārentīti dhātuyo) (Vs............. (aññhaka) With a basic eight elements.. an eye-consciousness arises dependent on the materiality that is the eye-door...........285 3 dhātu (element: substance that cannot be analysed further) Please see.6.. M................. The Elements of the Three Types of Rūpa-Kalāpa The first type of rūpa-kalāpa comprises the four elements (catu dhātu)..... and four elements of derived materiality (upādā rūpa)..... mentality depends on materiality. Octad-kalāpas.13 2 For the difference between rūpa-kalāpas and ultimate materiality.... and there are basically three types of rūpa-kalāpa: 1......................... 1 Please see also Answer 2...................2 p...................I. and the materiality it depends on is the mind-base..and body materiality....

......... have life........2 For example.....xiv ‘Rūpakkhandha Kathā’ (‘Materiality Aggregate Explanation’).... 5..................... 2.. this type of rūpa-kalāpa is called an octad-kalāpa (aññhaka kalāpa)..... Their tenth.......... kāya dasaka-kalāpa) th 1 2 The Pāëi for the different types of rūpa-kalāpa is kalāpa that has x as the y The fire-element of rūpa-kalāpas that have life-faculty sustains concomitant octad-kalāpas....................... ear-........ 133 134 ...... and are inanimate.... and a sound-object is an auditory object etc.......... (bhāva dasaka-kalāpa) Their tenth element is the sex-element (bhāva-rūpa). and because nutritive essence is the eighth...... is also the sense-base: the heart-base (vatthu)....... (ojā) 2.... Eye-...9 4 Eye decad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements [1-earth 2-water 3.. Heart decad-kalāpas.......... Sex decad-kalāpas ........ nose-... tenth element of 1. tongue......... sota-..................... and body decad-kalāpas . 2 Please see also S.................. and body transparentelement (pasāda rūpa)...... But it is not the mind-door (the bhavaï ga)..and body-base) are also the five material sense-doors (dvāra)1 (eye-...1 They are found throughout the body........... and because it has life-faculthy as the ninth......... it strikes upon the transparent. it strikes the sixth sense-door (the mind-door.. are opaque materiality (napasāda rūpa)....... it is also called a nutritive-essence octad-kalāpa (ojaññhamaka kalāpa).. Because it has eight elements..IV......... tenth element of an eye decad-kalāpa. Please see footnote 2...... opaque-element of a heart decad-kalāpa. bhavaï at the ga) same time. Wind ...................... or the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw’s little book Mindfulness-of-Breathing and Four-Elements-Meditation (WAVE Publications..... jivhā-. They are found throughout the body and are also opaque. this type of rūpa-kalāpa is called a decad-kalāpa (dasaka).. (rasa) Nutritive essence . Whenever an object strikes upon one of the five sense-doors............ Heart decad-kalāpas are found in the blood in the heart..and body-door)........ (vāyo) Colour .....4 and upon the mind-door (bhavaï at the same ga) time.. the opaque-element. the five material sense-bases (vatthu) (eye-. ear-......... the transparent-element (pasāda rūpa).e.......... Malaysia) Eye-...... Because they have life-faculty...... they are animate................... nose-...... p......... ghāna-...... 1 The term dvāra (door) describes the fact that objects need an entrance through which to be known by a consciousness.2 ‘Uõõābhabrāhmaõa Sutta’ (‘Uõõābha Brahmin Sutta’) quoted in ‘Introduction’......... which is why............. although it depends on the material tenth....... verbal intimation as the tenth/thirteenth.. because the mind-door is mentality........ for example............ 3 There are also rūpa-kalāpas of derived materiality that need to be discerned but are here not discussed....................... (gandha) Flavour ........ it is also called a life nonad-kalāpa (jīvita navaka-kalāpa).. 7. without life.............. tongue-............... There are three types of decad-kalāpa: 1...2 The second type of rūpa-kalāpa comprises these basic eight elements and a ninth.. the materiality rots...... when a colour-object3 strikes upon the eye-door.. tongue. Kuala Lumpur..... nose-.... is the respective sense-base. Because it has ten elements... (vaõõa) Odour .... Their tenth....... The five material sensebases are also the five material sense-doors....fire 4-wind 5-colour 6-odour 7flavour 8-nutritive essence] & (9) life-faculty & (10) eye transparent-element..How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing 4..... they are animate.......... ear-.......... and a tenth.......... 8........... ear-....... tongue-... life-faculty as the ninth. nose-...... lightness as the eleventh....... and body decad-kalāpas are found in the respective organ.................... which is opaque (napasāda)...... Without the heat of the life-faculty......3 Because it has nine elements. although they are without life-faculty. rūpa-kalāpas with sound/bodily intimation as the ninth/twelfth.. 3...4 .... this type of rūpa-kalāpa is called a nonad-kalāpa (navaka).......... life-faculty (jīvitindriya).. (hadāya dasaka-kalāpa) Their tenth element is the heart-element (hadāya-rūpa).........V......... (cakkhu-.......... such as happens when a person dies: the animate body becomes an inanimate corpse.....v... Their tenth element is eye-.. and the mind-door is based on the opaque......... ear-.. For these and other elements........ 6..... please see Vs......... The third type of rūpa-kalāpa comprises the basic eight elements.......8 3 Strictly speaking a visual/chromatic object................ i........... nose-.. which is also opaque................... tongue-. p.

...... tenth element in an ear decad-kalāpa etc. colour. striking upon the transparent element of eye decad-kalāpas (the eye1 Heart decad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements [1-earth 2-water 3.. which means we have four types of materiality:1 1.. the materiality falls apart........ All other types of rūpa-kalāpas are without the transparent element... tongue-......... and decad-kalāpas: eye-................ flavour and nutritive essence... 135 136 .ii.... is sex materiality (bhāva)..’ It is found in only males...... body-. tongue-...... (cittaja rūpa) Temperature-produced materiality .. the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering.......... (2) consciousness. for example. (3) nutriment..(itthi bhāva) which provides the physical characteristics of females.. which is why they are opaque.(kammaja rūpa) Consciousness-produced materiality.... ear-..... Having life-faculty.... which is rebirth............ nutritive essence... the order of the four origins of materiality is: (1) kamma..... and body decad-kalā pas are transparent. the opaque-element.. it strikes upon the transparent. the materiality of our body is nothing except rūpa-kalāpas.... and craving arises in anything that is agreeable and pleasant: sights through the eye... Their nutritive essence (ojā) is kamma-produced (kammaja ojā).. Sex-materiality decad-kalāpas are found throughout the body.... heart.... Female sex-materiality ........ which is of two types:3 i) consciousness.... water.’ It is found in only females......and sex decad-kalāpas. which you will also need to discern when doing fourelements meditation..... Apart from the objects that also strike the five sense-doors... they are animate.9 (‘Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness’) ‘Samudayasacca Niddeso’ (‘OriginNoble-Truth Description’)....... wind.............. Kamma-produced materiality .... sex. Materiality’s Four Types of Origin Having now discussed the basic structures of ultimate materiality. nose-. the First Noble Truth........173 2 Please see ‘Introduction’ p......xiv ‘Rūpakkhandha Kathā’ (‘Materiality Aggregate Discussion’)...... (4) temperature...... The order here is that taught by the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw..9 3 Also referred to as purisindriya and itthindriya (indriya = faculty) In the Visuddhi Magga. by which we know: ‘This is a male... as.....1 The colour object is known first by a mind-consciousness... Animate materiality is materiality with life....... temperature and nutriment.. Let us now look further at each of the four types of origin for materiality.. As mentioned.. 1 Kamma-produced materiality (kammaja rūpa) comprises life nonadkalāpas...................and heart decadkalāpas just discussed. The eighth. 2. It is in kamma-produced materiality that we see something of the realities of the Second Noble Truth... Kamma-Produced Materiality It is because their tenth element is transparent that eye-..... odour..How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing a heart decad-kalāpa..... we can go on to a general discussion about the origin of materiality... Materiality has one of four origins: kamma...... there are also objects that strike the mind-door (bhavaï alone: they are the six types of ga) 2 dhamma objects. ear-.. 3.. 2 D.. Their tenth........2 rebirth (suffering) takes place because of craving (taõhā)..... and all rūpa-kalāpas have at least the basic eight elements: earth....(āhāraja rūpa) ii) Male sex-materiality .. maintains materiality.. Please see also Table 4.............. and Vs..... second by an eye-consciousness... 4.... as explained by The Buddha in the ‘Mahāsatipañ ñ hāna Sutta’.........4 ..... nose-. p.............. (purisa bhāva) which provides the physical characteristics of males. 3.......... and is then known by further mind-consciousnesses. (utuja rūpa) Nutriment-produced materiality . And.... which is why when there is no longer nutritive essence...... fire....fire 4-wind 5-colour 6-odour 7flavour 8-nutritive essence] & (9) life-faculty & (10) heart element................... by which we know: ‘This is a female..... When a sound-object strikes upon the ear-door..

..... And although the kamma that produces the materiality at a human rebirth1of a human life is kusala..... Such consciousnesses are very pure.(ñhiti) passing away.. Each rūpakalāpa arises and passes away in the same place. 2 For details... It is the foundation of all other materiality............ the very first materiality is only heart-.... but for there to be a result....... the mind is directed at the leg and foot. ga striking upon the transparent element of ear decad-kalāpas (the ear-door) and the bhavaï (mind-door) etc... Anger and worry are both hatred (dosa). very powerful and superior... Consciousness-Produced materiality arising ........ we get hot.......... For example.. the direct cause for rebirth is kamma....... sounds.. 51 (17 x 3) kammaproduced rūpa-kalāpas are produced............... the fire-element of all rūpa-kalāpas produces temperature-produced rūpa-kalāpas..... body..... please see Table 5............... sounds through the ear...... Each consciousnessmoment (cittakkhaõa) (of the 17 that are materiality’s life-span) has three stages: 1.. And... This means that during one cognitive-process....How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing door) and the bhavaï (mind-door)...... Path and Fruition consciousnesses.. Their temperature produces temperature-produced rūpa-kalāpas.....4 ...... (bhaïga) At each stage.... tangibles and mental objects.... As the Buddha also explains.. with no heaviness (the earth-element)............ An example is anger and worry.... Since...... rebirth itself has taken place because of clinging... new kamma-produced materiality is arising....... Another example is bodily movement: moving the limbs and body forwards and backwards.....and sex decadkalāpas... The consciousness-produced rūpa-kalāpas that arise at the raising of the foot are different from the consciousness-produced rūpa-kalāpas that arise at the lowering of the foot......... Vipassanā.. so too the wind-element carries the limbs and body along.. apart from the rebirth-linking consciousness............ 3..... wind.............2 1 At a human rebirth... That is why. and a consciousness of hatred produces consciousnessproduced materiality with predominant fire-element. and new rūpakalāpas arise elsewhere and pass away there. and the temperature and nutritive-essence of those rūpa-kalāpas produce also more etc.... The movement is a long series of different consciousness-produced rūpa-kalāpas being produced in different places... because there are no upakkilesa (imperfections).......... it requires craving... and throughout the body: it has predominant wind-element...... all consciousnesses that arise dependent on the heart-base produce consciousness-produced materiality. 2.... A third example is Samatha.......... That means these consciousnesses produce very many generations of pure and superior consciousness-produced materiality of which the earth-... That intention produces consciousness-produced materiality in the leg and foot..... which is conditioned by ignorance: not understanding the Four Noble Truths... p.... and is produced only by consciousnesses that arise dependent on the heart-base.... which is conditioned by craving................... when we are angry or worried.... all kamma-produced. (uppāda) standing....... in the womb...... and their nutritive-essence produces new nutriment-produced rūpa-kalāpas. as mentioned before... the fire-element in 138 137 .. and the opaque element that is the heart-base exist because of craving for pleasant and agreeable sights........ Kamma-produced materiality is being produced all the time... when we walk.211 Consciousness-produced materiality (cittaja rūpa) comprises octadkalāpas.and fire-element are very soft and subtle... odours... not consciousnesses of the five sense-doors/ bases.... Just as wind carries objects along. When those soft and subtle rūpa-kalāpas touch the body-door (the tenth element in the body decad-kalāpas) the yogi experiences great bodily comfort. The transparent elega ment that is the five sense-doors/bases..... flavours... up and down.. Their nutritive essence is consciousness-produced (cittaja ojā)...

develop sufficiently concentrated and pure consciousness.iii. if you.VIII. The food in the bowl. tender plants. for example. which comes from the fire-element (tejo dhātu).1 This accounts also for the clear and bright skin and faculties of yogis who develop these superior consciousnesses. semi-digested. When materiality falls apart. for example.iii. it is because the fire-element no longer produces new materiality but instead consumes itself: the materiality rots.I. Their nutritive essence is nutriment-produced nutritive essence (āhāraja ojā).6 1 2 That is how. the faeces). A good example is plants. When materiality is consumed by fire. metals. for example.and fully digested food in the intestines. please see Introduction p. the newly eaten undigested food in the stomach. stones. the ascetic who meets the newly enlightened Buddha says: ‘Friend. food and water is very weak. 6 E. which themselves have fire-element etc.2 The materiality produced by. and an huge amount of fireelement bursts forth.’ M. not very many generations of materiality are produced.15 Frequently referred to in the Texts.4 . your faculties are clear.6 ‘Ariyapariyesanā Sutta’ (‘Noble Search Sutta’) 3 AA. which means the fire-element becomes predominant and the materiality is consumed. 139 140 . The fire-element (tejo) of a kamma-produced (kammaja) rūpa-kalāpa itself produces temperature-produced rūpa-kalāpas (utuja): kammaja 1st utuja 2nd utuja 3rd utuja 4th utuja 5th utuja Nutriment-produced materiality (āhāraja rūpa) also comprises octad-kalāpas. and dissolves. Their materiality is temperature-produced materiality and is produced by the fire-element originally in the seed.5 The fire-element of all rūpa-kalāpas produces temperature-produced rūpa-kalāpas. which is why the materiality soon falls apart. life-faculty) they are in themselves inanimate. Nutriment-Produced Materiality For The Buddha’s description of this light.133. such as when wood is burning. That is why that materiality can last long. the fire-element produces materiality through a number of generations. It takes place with the assistance of the fireelement from the soil. according to its power.and temperature-produced materiality. the colour of your skin is pure and bright. Being octad-kalāpas (without the ninth.4 Their nutritive essence is temperature-produced (utuja ojā). But the fire-element in.3 Temperature-Produced materiality Temperature-produced materiality (utuja rūpa) comprises octadkalāpas. the third element of all rūpa-kalāpas. brilliance and brightness that arises with those superior consciousnesses is produced by the brilliance of the colour-materiality of the consciousness. pus. You too.g. minerals and hardwood is very powerful. very many generations of materiality. All inanimate materiality is produced and maintained by temperature. sun (hot). blood and urine are the same: nothing but inanimate temperature-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas. e.10 ‘Anuruddha Mahāvitakka Sutta’ (‘Anuruddha Great Thought Sutta’) 4 But please see footnote 2.g. and produces very. it is because the fire-element of the external materiality (the flames that strike the wood) supports the fire-element of the internal materiality (the wood). softwood.I. which themselves have fire-element that produces temperatureproduced rūpa-kalāpas. 5 tejo (fire) and utu (temperature) refer to the same phenomenon.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing those superior consciousness-produced rūpa-kalāpas produces many temperature-produced rūpa-kalāpas inside and outside the body. The fire-element in. and water (cold). the food in the alimentary canal (the food in the mouth. Their growth is nothing except the continued production of temperature-produced materiality through many generations. p. flesh. The radiance. It is produced by the food and drink that we consume. may be able to see other realms of existence etc. the Venerable Anuruddha’s divine-eye consciousnesses (dibba-cakkhu abhiññāõa) spread throughout a thousand world-systems: they were lit up by the superior consciousness-produced materiality and became visible to him. falls apart.

If one has first developed a Samatha subject of meditation. for example. p. which are (as mentioned1) produced by kamma. when medicinal oil is applied to the skin. Whether one’s path to Vipassana is first to develop a Samatha subject of meditation (such as ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing) up to jhāna). which is of the deva-realm and is most superior. not only as a concept. although the number of generations produced depends on the quality of the food.13 (M.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing The digestive heat is the fire-element of life nonad-kalāpas. because at the end of four-elements meditation you will have developed the ability to discern ultimate materiality. begin four-elements meditation. That concludes the brief discussion of the origins of materiality. We can say that you are now collecting the material necessary to do the work of Vipassanā. the process of digestion found in the alimentary canal is found to a weaker degree throughout the body. or an injection of medicine is made under the skin. Both paths are taught at the Pa-Auk monasteries in Myanmar. may reproduce this way for up to one or two months. The brief is for those of quick understanding. and the detailed for those who have difficulty with Please see ‘Kamma-Produced Materiality’. you need to know and see all these things.2 You need first to see that materiality (rūpa) 1 2 consists of rūpa-kalāpas. because you need to see materiality as it really is. the weakness of the digestion may mean it takes long to digest. and the existing nutriment-produced rūpa-kalā pas. and having emerged from it. and semi-digested food. one should please enter the fourth jhāna at every sitting. and temperature-produced rūpa-kalāpas. but this should be sufficient for you better to understand four-elements meditation. consciousness-. But if very much oil is applied. That is why it is necessary for all yogis to develop four-elements meditation. and how they function. fire. Again. we may say that this is the beginning of Vipassanā. above p. one needs to complete four-elements meditation before one can do Vipassanā. there are two ways to develop four-elements meditation: in brief and in detail. How You Develop Four-Elements Meditation In the Pāë i texts.iv. If you want to attain Nibbāna. after which you need to penetrate the delusion of compactness to see the individual elements of the individual rūpa-kalāpa. The nutriment of food taken in one day may reproduce in this way for up to seven days. water-.and windelement. Since life nonad-kalāpas are found throughout the body. and then you need to analyse the materiality: see the different elements. The Beginning of Vipassanā Although you are here not practising Vipassanā proper. which is to see ultimate materiality.4 .136 For The Buddha’s words on the need to see the ultimate realities of materiality. That is why. you start with four-elements meditation. the medicine spreads throughout the body (is ‘digested’). it reproduces further through many generations of nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas. when that nutritiveessence meets the (kammically produced) digestive heat. further nutritive-essence octad-kalā pas are produced: they are nutriment-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas. or one’s path begins with four-elements meditation (that leads only up to access concentration). Divine nutriment. To be able to do that. which will now be discussed. their origin. please see Introduction. with nutriment-produced nutritiveessence (ahāraja ojā) as the eighth. There is much more that could be explained. which is necessary for Vipassanā. which is to know and see the four great elements (mahābhūtā): earth-.3 ‘Mahāgopālaka Sutta’ (‘Great Cowherd Sutta’)) 141 142 . When the digestive heat meets with the nutritive essence of the temperatureproduced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas (utuja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa) of the undigested.I. And it supports also the nutritive-essence in kamma-.

.... 3 [4] what is pushing or supporting is the wind-element............ Then move your awareness to a part of the body nearby.. then the neck........ then try to feel the pushing as the chest expands........... for the purpose of showing the absence of any living being in the four great primary elements thus: ‘When a space is enclosed with bones.. and the legs and feet..How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing the brief one. as consisting of just elements. 4.......... When you discern it........ hardness..............’ 1 2 3 To develop this meditation... and review it again and again as ‘earthelement........ fire-element... the wind-element ...... there are these four [bodily] parts mentioned by the Elder Sāriputta... and discern the elements in brief in this way....I..(vāyo-dhātu)...... Or alternatively.... and skin........ This way you will slowly be able to discern pushing first in the head...’ that is to say...............’ and he should advert and give attention to it... there comes to be the term ‘material form’ (rūpa)’..... the earth-element .... (1) hardness (2) (3) heaviness (4) (5) smoothness (6) (8) Water-element: ...... the trunk of the body.....4 ....... separating them out by the hand of knowledge.... lightness.......... one of quick understanding who wants to develop this meditation should go into solitary retreat.... flesh...... ‘In this body.......... Then he should advert to his entire material body................ it is not long before concentration arises in him. or the abdomen moves when breathing............... (āpo-dhātu). the arms.... If that is not 1 The first book of the Abhidhamma..... as mere elements...149 To discern pushing....... thus.... cohesion..... and look for pushing there... softness.... which is reinforced by understanding that illuminates the classification of the elements. wind-element. supporting.......If the pushing of the breath in the centre of the head is not easy to discern.. coldness...... the water-element............ concentrate on it until it becomes clear to your mind.. p........... As he makes effort in this way......ii. Usually..... the fire-element ... (9) heat Wind-element: ... and then throughout the body. and soulless. ‘There are in this body just [1] [2] [3] [4] As taught at Pa-Auk Tawya Monastery (in accordance with the Dhammasaï ginī ).............. [2] what is flowing or cohesion is the water-element..... Do it again and again........ not a being.. flowing.... heaviness.....xi ‘Catu-Dhātu Vavatthāna Bhāvanā’ B306 (‘Four-Elements Definition Meditation’ Ñ41-43) Please see also footnote 1. many times. until wherever you place your awareness in the body you see pushing easily. How You See the Twelve Characteristics 1..... D... as its objects...9 ‘ Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness ’ (Also M.......... [3] what is maturing or heat is the fire-element... 143 144 ........ heat..... of pushing in the centre of your head as you breathe in and out.. begin by being aware......... And he should resolve each of these...............’ 2..... water-element.. and later the more difficult ones............ roughness. and which is only access and does not reach absorption because it has states with individual essences as its object.1 you should discern the four elements in the whole body as twelve characteristics: 1...... 3......i....10) Vs.... smoothness.... Each characteristic must be discerned in first one place in the body............ one at a time... you must learn how to discern each of the twelve characteristics. (pathavī-dhātu).................. (7) flowing (10) Fire-element: .. Earth-element:..... through the sense of touch.......... the beginner is first taught the characteristics easier to discern. sinews.................... (tejo-dhātu). however it be positioned or placed.. The Buddha taught the brief method in the ‘Mahā Satipa hāna Sutta’:1 A bhikkhu reviews this very body..... They are usually taught in this order: pushing........... (11) supporting (12) roughness softness lightness cohesion coldness pushing The Visuddhi Magga explains further:2 So firstly. and then discern them in the way already stated thus [above]: ‘In these what is hardness..... [1] what is hardness or roughness is the earth-element......

and feel their hardness. Relax your bite. Bite them together and feel how hard they are. there is pushing. Repeat this many times until you are satisfied that you can do it. Practise until you can discern lightness throughout the body. then again wag a finger up and down and feel its lightness. 7. look for the five. If it is not clear. Next look for softness by pressing your tongue against the inside of your lower lip to feel its softness. supporting. If you cannot feel it. look for heaviness again. hardness. And then look for all eight characteristics. as this can make it easier. and you may discern it with them. Wherever you begin. go back to discern the three. Alternate between these two. so your body bends forward. Practise systematically until you discern heaviness throughout the When you can discern heaviness clearly. heaviness. through the sense of touch. Place one hand on top of the other in your lap. in other places less so. again and again. Then look for roughness. You can now discern ten characteristics. Wherever there is movement. Next look for coldness by feeling the coldness of the breath as it enters the nostrils. from head to feet. 8. try looking at pushing and hardness again. or the skin of your arm. and feel roughness. Next look for smoothness by wetting your lips and rubbing your tongue over them from side to side. 3. and heaviness. and softness throughout the body. Then straighten it. body. roughness. and feel the heaviness of the top hand. in turn. throughout the body. look for hardness. from head to feet. so that you discern pushing throughout the body. When you can discern roughness. but it is present throughout the body. hardness. pushing. flowing and cohe- 145 146 . Do not deliberately tense the body. The force that keeps the body straight is supporting. roughness. and practise systematically until you can discern softness easily throughout the body. roughness. and supporting throughout the body. until you are satisfied. The first ten characteristics are all known directly through the sense of touch. or feel the heaviness of the head by bending it forward. 10. heaviness. but the last two characteristics. or any other obvious form of pushing. Now look for the six. try to discern hardness throughout the body systematically from head to feet. and keep it straight. pushing. When you can feel the heaviness of the whole body.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing clear. Then look for all seven characteristics throughout the body. hardness. When you can feel this. Next look for lightness by wagging a finger up and down.4 . If you cannot feel roughness. and then hardness throughout the body. And then look for all nine characteristics. try to discern it together with hardness. Then look for heaviness. one at a time. Then. Practise systematically until you discern supporting throughout the body. This is usually very easy to do. pushing and hardness. 6. Relax your back. pushing. when you can discern supporting easily. and then discern it systematically throughout the body. 4. Practise until you can discern smoothness throughout the body. again look for pushing throughout the body. pushing. of heat in any place where it is clear to you. When you can discern hardness throughout the body. 5. Now try to discern roughness throughout the body systematically as before. Then relax your body. In some places it will be obvious. 9. in the same way as you did to discern pushing. look for the four. Rub your tongue over the edge of your teeth. you must slowly develop your understanding. roughness. 2. and feeling its lightness. throughout the body. Then look for supporting. When you are satisfied that you can see pushing. Begin by discerning the hardness in the teeth. Next look for heat (or warmth) throughout the body. discerning pushing throughout the body. or brush your hand over your robe. until you are satisfied. hardness. again and again. try to feel the pulse. Begin by being aware.

some elements may become excessive and even unbearable. and wind: the sequence given by The Buddha. water...... Having now become skilled in the discernment of the twelve characteristics in the whole body. one at a time from head to feet.. and supporting and pushing... from head to feet... the air flowing into the lungs... you should discern the first six at one glance as the earth-element... or pushing... Without cohesion the body would fall into separate pieces and particles... be aware of how the body is held together by the skin. you should concentrate more on the opposite quality. In sequence . It is usually best to take the overview as if you were looking from behind your shoulders. You should thus continue to discern earth.(anupubbato) Earth.. if flowing is in excess concentrate more on cohesion... If this is not clear... It is for the sake of balancing the elements that twelve characteristics were taught in the first place.. cohesion... If it is still not clear.... supporting... roughness and smoothness.. and wind. The Ten Ways to Develop Your Concentration The subcommentary to the Visuddhi Magga says now to develop your concentration in ten ways. While practising in this way. you should discern them again and again in this order..... fire... in order to calm the mind and attain concentration.. look at it together with coldness.. discern just the qualities of pushing and hardness again and again.... or heat flowing throughout the body.. softness. one at a time throughout the body. and pushing can become excessive. Particularly hardness. water. like water in a balloon.. heaviness and lightness. It can also be done as if looking from above your head down... Instead. at least three rounds a minute. although this may lead to tension and imbalance of the elements. Discern this as cohesion.. You should do this again and again hundreds. the blood flowing through the blood vessels..How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing sion. The opposites are: hardness and softness. heat and coldness. flesh.. When you have become skilled in that.... A good method for keeping the mind calm and concentrated is to no longer move your awareness from one part of the body to another. or millions of times.. are inferred from the other ten characteristics.. be aware of the saliva flowing in the mouth.. In that order try to discern each characteristic.. with the twelve characteristics having become clear. The blood is held inside by the skin. you will find that the quality of cohesion also becomes clear. When the elements are balanced. take an overview of the body.... heat. Then you should feel as if your whole body was wound up in rope. lightness...... flowing.. To discern flowing.. coldness.... the elements will for some yogis become unbalanced. roughness. and pushing. heaviness.1 You should discern the four elements 1. 11. and continue to develop concentration in that way... heat. or if supporting is in excess concentrate more on pushing. flowing and cohesion. heat.xi ‘Catudhātu-vavatthāna-bhāvanā’ D308 (‘Four-Elements Definition Meditation’) 148 . thousands. If this occurs. 147 For example... To discern cohesion. If this is not clear. the next two as the fire-element.... When you can discern all twelve characteristics clearly throughout the body. The force of gravity that keeps the body stuck to the earth is also cohesion. it is easier to attain concentration.. When satisfied you should rearrange the order to the one first mentioned in the beginning: hardness.. and the last two as the wind-element...... smoothness.. discern all ten qualities again and again. 12. 1 VsTi.. and develop it as you developed the other characteristics. and sinews. That is a good reason to teach them last. fire. the next two at one glance as the water-element. You should try to develop this until you can do it quite quickly....4 ... and you may discern flowing..

.. At this point you will see only elements....... roughness.... and approach access concentration (upacāra samādhi).(anupaññhānamuñcanato) Once you can discern all twelve characteristics... the heat and coldness of the fire-element. please see p. wind’.... 6. water.. effort..II. you will not see them clearly........ Function: act as foundation (for all other types of materiality)........... You need also to keep at least one characteristic for each of the four elements. concentration... As you continue to concentrate on the four elements in the 1 (8) A...... and your whole body will appear as a white form...... smoothness...... and not see them as a person or self.The sub-commentary further recommends that you develop your concentration according to: (8) ‘Adhicitta Sutta’ (‘Higher Mind Sutta’) (9) ‘Sī tibhāva Sutta’ (‘Becoming Cool Sutta’) 1 ga (10) ‘Bojjhaï Sutta’ (‘Enlightenment Factors Sutta’) 4. and Vs..... (9) A...... F: warm/age/digest/consume/mature... Manifestation: receive (all other types of materiality within the same rūpa-kalāpa) water C: fluidity/flow/trickle (7)...... heaviness (5).. 149 150 .. it will become whiter like cotton wool.. (10) S..........1 ‘Sītibhāva Sutta’ (‘Becoming Cool Sutta’). tranquillity....... The Buddha advises balancing the five faculties (indriya): faith.. You cannot work on just three.... please see p... They were discussed in the first talk.4 ..............v.. mindfulness.. and balancing the seven factors of enlightenment (bojjhaïga): mindfulness... M: soften (as in cooking raw materials into edible food) wind C: Support (11) F: move/push (12) M: carry..How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing 2. two... softness (2).....IX.... and then bright white.. In those three suttas.............. Not too fast ... joy....ii..... (nātisaõikato) If you discern the four elements too slowly. the four elements.vi. Warding off distractions ...Element as One Block 7... and pushing.50 ff..... ‘earth..... coldness.. investigation of phenomena......VI......... you will see different kinds of light.. Discarding what is unclear.... fire....... because of an imbalance in the elements..... softness.. and understanding.. and the characteristics of each element are not yet clear..... and the enlightenment factors... the flowing and cohesion of the water-element...... but not if it leads to pain or tension. 5.II... To some yogis it is a smoky grey light... If you continue to concentrate on the four elements in that grey light. roughness (3)...... with none left out...... you should concen- 3... trate on only the natural characteristics (sabhāva lakkhaõa): the hardness and roughness of the earth-element.... and not let it wander....... lightness..... Discerning the characteristics....................3 ‘Enlightenment Factors Sutta’ also called ‘Aggi Sutta’ (‘Fire Sutta’) 2 Balancing the five faculties......... like clouds... (paññattisamatikkamanato) You should not just mentally note...... supporting. you may temporarily leave out characteristics that are unclear........... M: bind/cohere [here C and M are sometimes seen as the same thing] (8) fire C: heat (9)/cold(10)........ and the supporting of the wind-element. concentration and equanimity. flowing............ but be aware of the actual realities the concepts represent: hardness. effort.... however....III.... (lakkhaõato) When you begin to meditate...... (vikkhepapañibāhanato) You should keep the mind with only the object of meditation......... (nātisīghato) If you discern the four elements too fast.. you can also concentrate on the function and manifestation of the elements. And it is best if all twelve characteristics are clear..... Not too slow ..II.. 1 earth Natural Characteristic: hardness (1). Please see also M.... heaviness.................. 8-9-10.11 (Also called ‘Nimitta Sutta’ (‘Sign Sutta’)).1 When your concentration gets better... F: expand/dilate..xi ‘Catudhātuvavatthānabhāvanā’ B350 (‘Definition of the Four Elements’ N93) As you continue to develop concentration on the four elements..... lightness (6).....2 ‘Mahārāhulovāda Sutta’ (Great Advice-to-Rāhula Sutta’).... or one element.. cohesion...... heat. Going beyond concepts ................. smoothness (4)....2 How You See Ultimate Materiality Seeing the Body Transparent....... you will not reach the end....V..........54 ff.......

who have no jhāna. nose-. of individual transparent. and can be used as a resting-place during Vipassanā meditation. water.9 ‘Dvedhāvitakka Sutta’ (‘Two Kinds of Thought Sutta’) 151 152 .I.or body transparent-element) are the transparent rūpa-kalāpas. This transparent materiality is the five sensitivities (pasāda). Pure-Vipassanā yogis. So the warriors retreat to their fortress. nose-. which explains how a yogi can rest in jhāna. eye-. they leave the fortress and return to the battle-field.and opaque rūpa-kalāpas. Let us then go back to discussing how you develop Vipassanā meditation. That is the beginning of Vipassanā meditation.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing white form.4 . 1 2 How You See the Four Elements Regarding compactness of materiality and mentality. ear-.2 Having reached this stage. How You Analyse the Rūpa-kalāpas Before explaining how to develop Vipassanā meditation. they are called rūpa-kalāpas. tongue. which is why your whole body appears transparent. Jhāna is like a fortress. and start with the analysis of rūpa-kalāpas. sometimes the warriors feel tired.3. The enemy may be strong. Inside the fortress they are safe from the enemy’s arrows and can rest. earth. it will eventually become transparent like a block of ice or glass. and tiredness will usually occur.1 How You See the Rūpa-kalāpas If you continue to discern the four elements in the transparent form (or block). The body transparent-element is found throughout the body. of group and of function. which is purification of mind (citta visuddhi). You see the transparent-elements as one transparent form or block. With the light. It says that during a battle. Rūpa-kalāpas that contain one of the five transparent-elements (eye-. There is a simile in the commentary to the ‘Dvedhāvitakka Sutta’1 of the Majjhima Nikāya. please see also Answer 1. In both cases. 1 MA. which we call also the five ‘transparent-elements’: the body-. and the jhāna concentration of a Samatha yogi. let us look at a practical benefit that is to be gained from both the access concentration that a pure-insight yogi has here reached. and many arrows flying. by looking for small spaces in it.60 Rūpa (materiality) + kalāpa (group/cluster) You should first discern the four elements. p. (Benefits of Concentration) There is much to discern in Vipassanā meditation. Transparent and Opaque Rūpa-kalāpas Rūpa-kalāpas fall into two groups: transparent rūpa-kalāpas and opaque ones. the yogi can then return to the battle-field of Vipassanā clear and refreshed. can instead use their access concentration as a fortress to rest in. Then. When you can concentrate on the four elements in this form (or block) continuously for at least half an hour.ii. and tongue transparent-elements. There is thus great benefit in having a resting-place. it will sparkle and emit light. You will now find that the transparent form breaks down into small particles. you can proceed to develop purification of view (diññhi visuddhi). and wind. by analysing the rūpa-kalāpas. ear-. in all six sense-bases. when they feel strong and powerful again. because you have not yet seen through the three kinds of compactness (ghana): compactness of continuity. you have reached access concentration. it is good to take a rest. When this happens. and have started directly with four-elements meditation. discern the space-element in the transparent form. fire. All other rūpa-kalāpas are opaque.

and the beginning of your Vipassanā practice.4 .8 153 154 . Please see also ‘Introduction’ p. but try to do Vipassanā by contemplating the arising and passing away of those small lumps. For details about compactness of materiality and mentality. But before proceeding. As mentioned before. (3) heaviness (or (1) softness. There are not opposing characteristics within one rūpa kalāpa. please see ‘Introduction’ p. Because discerning the elements of materiality is very profound. and will be unable to analyse them. p. let us first discuss the general procedure for discerning these four elements. and have not arrived at ultimate reality (paramattha). he can discern only eight characteristics in one given rūpa kalāpa: (1) hardness. very quickly. (6) heat (or coldness). If you are still unsuccessful. please see quotation above. but they were composed by skilled yogis and also meant for skilled yogis. you will be trying to do Vipassanā on concepts. When you have succeeded. and wind-element. If you do not go any further. (5) cohesion.11ff Although the yogi has discerned twelve characteristics. you should concentrate on the earth-element alternately in the whole body at once and in a single rūpa-kalāpa. because you still see them as small particles with size. You need to discern the four elements in a single transparent rūpa-kalāpa and a single opaque one. from the easiest to the more difficult. and should go on to discern the remaining four: colour. remain. you would pretend not to see or notice him. they can see all four elements (eight characteristics) in a rūpa-kalāpa at once.1 ‘Ekakaniddesa Vaõõana’ B766 (‘One-Description Comment’) 3 The actual knowing of an object is performed by seven javana consciousnesses in the mind-door cognitive process. until you can see the elements in single ones: in order to reach ultimate reality. (4) flowing. please see Answer 1. flavour. ear-. the power of Vipassanā of beginners is usually not yet strong and powerful enough for them to see 1 all the elements at once. You should in the same way take no notice of the arising and passing away of the rūpa-kalāpas. and nutritive essence. (All phenomena are known by the mind-door impulsion (javana)3 alone. you are still in the realm of concepts (paññatti).10. p. You will now have discerned the first four. So we teach them to discern the elements one-by-one. (3) lightness). transparent and opaque rūpa-kalāpas all comprise a basic eight elements.1 When you have seen the four elements in a single transparentand a single opaque rūpa-kalāpa. very quickly. Since you have not yet seen through the three kinds of compactness. you are unable to discern the four elements in single rūpa-kalāpas. then ignore their arising and passing away: just as when meeting someone you do not want to meet. an Abhidhamma commentary. which are the rūpa-kalāpas. (8) pushing. And do the same with the water-. the small lumps.60 2 For a discussion of Vipassanā on concepts. of group (samūha-ghana). and concentrate on only the four elements in single ones. because they arise and pass away very. The Texts explain that one should discern all the elements at once.)4 1 Compactness of continuity (santati-ghana). If. discern the four elements in a number of transparent and opaque rūpa-kalāpas of the six sense-bases: the eye-.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing You will find that the rūpa-kalāpas arise and pass away very. The Dispeller of Delusion. This is the procedure that we teach at Pa-Auk: you discern the elements one-by-one. this regardless of the door through which the object has arrived. 2 VbhA. when they have become very skilled in the practice. Then. nose-. (2) roughness. tongue-. says:2 Sabbopi panesa pabhedo manodvārikajavaneyeva labbhati. (2) smoothness.2 So you must analyse the rūpa-kalāpas further. (7) supporting. odour. It is possible for you to do this because of the power of your concentration.1 It is because you have not seen through the concepts of group and shape that the particles. body.and heart-base in turn. and Table 6. it is the end of your Samatha practice. the beginning of Purification of View (diññhi visuddhi): you have begun discerning ultimate mentality-materiality (nāma-rūpa pariggaha) and analysing ultimate mentality-materiality (nāma-rūpa pariccheda). base-by-base.3 p. the end of Purification of Mind (citta visuddhi).213 4 For The Buddha’s explanation of how the mind-faculty knows the objects of the other five faculties. fire-. and of function (kiccaghana).xvi. That is how four-elements meditation comprises both Samatha and Vipassanā.

As with the nose. is the object of smell (gandhārammaõa). How You See Colour Colour (vaõõa) is the fifth element to be discerned. because it is a life-long habit to use the nose and tongue. And here too. you need first to discern the materiality that the two types of consciousness depend on. luminous mind-door (the bhavaï 1 It should be easy to do bega). you can proceed to disga cern the odour of a rūpa-kalāpa near the nose decad-kalāpa where you discerned the transparent-element. you use a nose. Because it is a lifelong habit to use the nose to smell with. to find heart-element. and that something is the four elements. you will in the beginning need a nose-consciousness to help you know odour with a mind-consciousness. How You See Flavour Odour (gandha) is the sixth element to be discerned. and flavour of a rūpa-kalāpa that way.and wind-elements of a rūpa-kalāpa you knew with mind-consciousnesses alone. To do this. Having done that. we can then look at how you discern the colour. you then discern the flavour of a rūpa-kalāpa. so do we see the transparency of a rūpa-kalāpa by discerning the four elements: they are the ‘glass’ that possesses the transparency. You can take a rūpa-kalāpa from the saliva on your tongue. but be sure to look at a decad-kalāpa in the nose that is of the nose-base and not of the body-base. and heart materiality is the tenth element of a heart decad-kalāpa. for example.1 How You See Odour ment is the tenth element of a nose decad-kalāpa. A Samatha-Vipassanā mind produces particularly bright rūpa-kalāpas because there are no upakkilesa (imperfections). namely the nose transparentelement and opaque heart-materiality.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing The earth-. To find the nose transparent-element. But although it is easy to see colour with a mind-consciousness alone. You will see that the odour impinges on the nose. It is very easily known with a mind-consciousness alone. The nose transparent-ele1 Flavour (rasa) is the seventh element to discern. is the object of sight (rūpārammaõa). first discern the four elements in the nose. you will in the beginning need a tongue-consciousness to help you know flavour with a mind-consciousness.or tongue-consciousness to help you. because by seeing the rūpa-kalāpas you have already seen colour. water-. flavour and nutritive-essence in rūpa-kalāpas. 155 156 . it is difficult to see odour and flavour that way. And you can know. To speak of the bhavaïga’s luminosity is to use a metaphor. until your meditation has become strong and powerful. also the colour. odour.138. and is also found in all rūpa-kalā pas. Having now discerned the nose transparent-element (the nosedoor) and the bhavaï (the mind-door). the temperature of which produces further bright rūpa-kalāpas. and is found in all rūpa-kalāpas. fire. because it is in fact the luminosity of the rūpa-kalāpas produced by the bhavaïga: consciousness-produced rūpa-kalāpas. For details. is the object of taste (gandhārammaõa). Colour is always the colour of something. Having now explained the two ways for discerning an object. and is also found in all rūpa-kalāpas. please see above ‘Consciousness-Produced Materiality’ p. Therefore. Only nose decad-kalāpas have the nose transparent-element. cause you have already discerned the four elements in the transparent and opaque rūpa-kalāpas of the six sense-bases. odour.4 . you need to discern the bright. Next. you need first to discern the materiality that the two types of consciousness depend on: the tongue transparent-element and opaque heart-materiality.and mind-door at the same time. 1 The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw explains that just as we see the transparency of a glass by looking at the glass.

....... 4... body and heart..... the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw remains faithful also to the terminology used in the particular Pāëi Text..........How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing How You See Nutritive Essence Nutritive essence (ojā) is the eighth element to discern.... sex-. tongue....... Discern an eye decad-kalāpa. 2........ please see above p....(cittaja ojā) Temperature-produced nutritive-essence .. it is easiest for you to discern life-faculty first in a trans1 For an explanation of kamma-. if not.......4 ........... 2 Heart decad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements [1-earth 2-water 3.. Please see also Tables 2-4.... The base needs still to be discerned...4 all transparent rūpa-kalāpas are kamma-produced... 3.........(utuja ojā) Nutriment-produced nutritive-essence . Life nonad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements & (9) life-faculty.......... 4 Please see ‘Kamma-Produced Materiality’ above p...... Since...... 3. the bhavaï To see it ga..135 ff 2 According to usage in the Pāëi Texts. not the materiality of others. In that case.... (kammaja ojā) Consciousness2-produced nutritive-essence ...... as mentioned earlier........... luminous mind-door..... Just now you discerned the life-faculty element in a transparent rūpa-kalāpa of the eye.. citta is usually ‘mind’....... It is easiest first to discern the life-faculty element of either a life nonad-kalāpa or a sex decad-kalāpa..fire 4-wind 5-colour 6-odour 7flavour 8-nutritive essence] & (9) life-faculty & (10) heart element........ p. it is a life nonad-kalāpa.. you should try to discern the remaining three basic elements that are found in specific rūpa-kalāpas: the lifefaculty-. you look for the sex-element (bhāva rūpa)....... of four types:1 1.. Kamma-produced nutritive-essence .... but sometimes also ‘consciousness’... It is also found in all rūpa-kalāpas... Life nonad-kalāpas2 ............. To tell the two rūpa-kalā pas apart..1‘Assutavā Sutta’ (‘Unlearned Sutta’)). Sex decad-kalāpas2 ... If it has the sex-element... temperature. which means it is found only there...................I. and then look for it in a rūpa-kalāpa of also the ear.. (bhāva dasaka-kalāpa) throughout the body......... 171ff 157 158 ...... and you will find nutritive essence from which rūpa-kalāpas are seen to multiply forth again and again.. Out of respect for the authority of the Pāëi Texts. Since life nonad-kalāpas and sex decad-kalāpas are found in all six senseorgans.....fire 4-wind 5-colour 6-odour 7flavour 8-nutritive essence] & (9) life-faculty & (10) eye transparent-element........... To discern an opaque rūpa-kalāpa of the heart...... Then you need also try to discern the life-faculty element in an opaque rūpa-kalāpa....1 and see that the life-faculty element sustains the elements of its own rūpa-kalāpa only..............................II. Then try to discern the rūpa-kalā pas that support the bhavaï You should be able to find them in the ga. which means it is sometimes synonymous with viññāna (the usual term for ‘consciousness’).. you concentrate again on the bright...........vii... wiggle your finger.. Sex decad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements & (9) life-faculty & (10) sex-materiality... and is..... Having now discerned the eight basic elements that are found in all rūpa-kalāpas..... as is the case here (Please see also S. which is why he will often use more than one Pāëi term for the same thing: depending on which text he is referring to.. not the mind-base (materiality) that was discerned........ 1....... as explained earlier.. 1 Examine any rūpa-kalāpa..and nutriment-produced materiality.(jīvita navaka-kalāpa) throughout the body...... it was the mind-door (mentality)... so look again in the eye and discern an opaque rūpa-kalāpa with the life-faculty element.. discern another opaque rūpa-kalāpa until you discern the sex-element..............136 Eye decad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements [1-earth 2-water 3.. and heart-element... 3 When discerning odour and flavour. (hadaya dasaka-kalāpa) only in the heart............ nose...and Sex-element The life-faculty (jīvitindriya) element sustains only kamma-produced materiality.......... it will be either one. (āhāraja ojā) parent rūpa-kalāpa.. The body has three types of opaque rūpakalāpa with the life-faculty element: Heart decad-kalāpas2 ................ consciousness-... and see the consciousness that wants to wiggle the finger...... it is a sex decad-kalāpa. very clearly.... 2....3 How You See Life-Faculty.

... and are also mixed with the transparent rūpa-kalāpas. (cakkhu pasāda) It is sensitive to colour.... The eye decad-kalāpa ........... fire-. nose-.... Again discern a transparent-element in the eye......... Then look at the colour-element of a group of rūpa-kalāpas some distance away from the eye.. To see all this... Tangible objects are the earth-.. (cakkhu dasaka-kalāpa) The tenth element is the eye transparent-element. If it impinges on the transparent-element..... This difference allows you to know which is which............. the eye are: 1...How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing lower part of the bhavaï they are opaque..........fire 4-wind 5-colour 6-odour 7flavour 8-nutritive essence] & (9) life-faculty & (10) heart element..4 ..... Sex decad-kalāpas too are found throughout the six sense-organs.. Please see also Table 4. and see the different types of rūpa-kalāpa there.... for example... If a sound impinges on the transparent-element.................. fire... water.... How You Analyse the Transparent-Elements Each organ has several kinds of rūpa-kalāpa mixed together.. (ghāna pasāda) It is sensitive to odour...(kāya pasāda) It is sensitive to touch...... The body decad-kalāpa . the transparent-element is a nose 159 160 ...(kāya dasaka-kalāpa) The tenth element is the body transparent-element... nose....... or wind-element of a group of rūpa-kalāpas nearby.... whereas the body transparent-element is sensitive to touch (tangible objects).....2 You start by analysing just the two types of transparent-element. flavour.. nose.. The two types of transparent rūpakalāpa in.... the transparent-element is an eye-transparentelement (of an eye decad-kalāpa)...... for example..... the eye-ball etc... 1........... tongue. The nose transparent-element . And you have discerned them in the appropriate transparent and opaque rūpa-kalāpas in all six sense-organs. heart decad-kalā ga: pas....... mixed with the decadkalāpas there: in the eye mixed with the eye decad-kalāpas. the transparent-element is a body transparent-element (of a body decad-kalāpa).1 With this.... nutritive essence. and discern that rūpa-kalāpa’s transparent-element....... Discern a transparent-element in the nose...... First discern the four elements in the eye to discern a transparent rūpa-kalāpa.......... p..... Then smell the odour of a group of rūpa-kalāpas nearby.. odour.... Otherwise it is a body transparent-element (of a body decad-kalāpa). Then look at the earth-....... but since the bases have already been explained as being in fact only the tenth element in the appropriate rūpa-kalāpas.......... 3......... and identify the transparent-element respective to each (the eye-..... and wind-elements. body and heart...... body and heart).. How You Analyse Each Sense Organ Body decad-kalāpas are found throughout the six sense-organs (eye.......... Then listen. Then discern the body transparent-element as you did in the eye..........173 2 These six sense-organs are referred to also as the six ‘sense-bases’...... The ear transparent-element ..... The eye.... in the ear mixed with the ear decad-kalāpas (sota dasaka-kalāpa) etc. ear-.......and wheat flour: the transparent rūpa-kalāpa of the respective organ and transparent rūpa-kalāpa of the body...... The eye transparent-element . ear. 1 Heart decad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements [1-earth 2-water 3.. colour... If it impinges on the transparentelement. the transparent-element is an ear transparent-element (of an ear decadkalāpa).... The next stage in discerning materiality is to analyse the materiality of each of the six senseorgans: the eye.. two types of transparent rūpa-kalāpa mixed together like rice....... nose. life-faculty and sex-materiality....... If it impinges on the transparent-element........ it has been considered safer to say ‘sense-organ’ here..... to tangible objects..and tongue transparent-element) as well as the body transparent-element there. fire-.... ear... The body transparent-element ....... ear. you have completed the discernment of all the elements in rūpa-kalāpas: earth.(sota pasāda) It is sensitive to sound. referring to the actual physical entity.... Discern a transparent-element in the ear... 2.. 4...... 2. and tongue have.. tongue..... wind...... you need to analyse the transparent rūpa-kalā pas in the five sense-organs......

.. with altogether sixty-three elements.. (3) lifefaculty-. So far...4 ....... you will have analysed all five types of transparent element. nose. (3) nose-.. altogether twenty-four (3 x 8 = 24).1 The life nonad-kalāpas you discern in another way later. Once you have analysed the two types of transparent-element in each of the five sense-organs...... Please see also Table 2.. the transparent-element is a tongue transparent-element (of a tongue decad-kalāpa)... nose. They are the three types of nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas. which includes nutritive essence as the eighth..(kāya dasaka-kalāpa) It is sensitive to tangible objects (earth-. The sex decad-kalāpa2 . (7) nutriment-produced octad-kalāpas (eight elements) (10 + 10 + 10 + 9 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 63 Please see further next page 161 162 . (4) consciousness-produced-. 3.. for example... (6) nutriment-produced materiality... And then there are three more types of rūpa-kalāpa..xviii... (3) sex decad-kalāpas (ten elements). Nevertheless.. Fifty-Four Elements in the Eye organ. And since one of the six types of rūpa-kalāpa is (as you just saw) the body decadkalāpa... Body decad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements & (9) life-faculty & (10) body transparent-element...fire 4-wind 5-colour 6-odour 7flavour 8-nutritive essence] & (9) life-faculty & (10) eye transparent-element... include them at this point..2 But when analysing the materiality of each sense1 (1) eye-.... which are opaque: elements) The same equation applies for the ear..... with eight types of materiality each. (jivhā pasāda) It is sensitive to taste......... 2. Having done that. nose. tongue.. nose.. 3...1 and two of the six types of opaque element......... a seven types of rūpa-kalāpa....... Now you need to analyse the remaining opaque elements in each sense-organ. and that also the opaque sex-element (in sex decad-kalāpas) is found in all six sense-organs........ Let us then look at the said fifty-four types of materiality of. The decad-kalāpas of each of the six sense-organs (the eye. tongue. you can analyse only five types of rūpa-kalāpa. (cakkhu dasaka-kalāpa) It is sensitive to colour............. (2) ear-. as we have now seen.. (1) heart-.. and produced by kamma... body and heart)...... The body decad-kalāpa2 ... Nutritive-essence octadkalāpas: (8) the basic eight elements. altogether thirty types of materiality: 1. ear.. fire-...... 2 Taking the eye as example: (1) eye decad-kalāpas (ten elements).... (bhāva dasaka-kalāpa) It is opaque.. The tongue transparent-element ......... and produced by kamma.. ‘Mentality-materiality Definition Explanation’ B664/Ñ6).. Discern the body decad-kalāpa as you did in the eye and ear. the eye............ and heart)... The life nonad-kalāpas... and produced by kamma. The octad-kalāpas. and wind-elements).. is transparent... p.. Discern a transparent-element in the tongue...... we have discussed three basic types of rūpa-kalāpa: 1. (5) consciousness-produced octad-kalāpas (eight elements)....9 = 54). The eye decad-kalāpa2 . 2 Eye decad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements [1-earth 2-water 3. (2) body decad-kalāpas (ten elements).. tongue. Only then (following the Texts) does the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw instruct the yogi to discern the life nonadkalāpas. transparent-element (of a nose decad-kalāpa).. only forty-four types of materiality (54 – 10 = 44).. The six types of rūpa-kalāpa in the eye are first the three types of rūpa-kalāpa you just discerned and analysed. ear and nose... tongue. ear. The body has only (63 10) fifty-three elements... you need also to see that the body transparent-element (in body decad-kalāpas) is found in also the heart... (4) life nonad-kalāpas (nine elements).... (5) body transparent-element... ear... the Pāë i Texts say you should look at only six types of rūpa-kalāpa (not the life nonad-kalāpas): you should concentrate on only fifty-four types of materiality (63 .... Then taste the flavour of a group of rūpa-kalāpas nearby..... (6) temperature-produced octad-kalāpas (eight elements)...How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing 5. (2) sex-.. If it impinges on the transparent-element.. if he so wishes. (5) temperature-produced-.. Discern the body decad-kalāpa as you did in the eye..... (4) tongue-.171 The eye.. when you analyse the materiality of the body itself (outside the eye.... the yogi can... Sex decad-kalāpa: (8) the basic eight elements & (9) life-faculty & (10) sex-materiality. and heart comprise.. 2. 1 The life nonad-kalāpas are included in only the analysis of what is called the forty-two parts of the body (Vs........ is transparent.... and heart...

.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing How You See Temperature– Produced Materiality 4. They themselves contain the fire-element..136ff 3 The fire-element (tejo) of a kamma-produced (kammaja) rūpa-kalāpa produces temperatureproduced (utuja) rūpa-kalāpas through five generations: kammaja 1st utuja 2nd utuja 3rd utuja 4th utuja 5th utuja 4 For a brief discussion (with examples) of nutriment-produced materiality.138ff As mentioned above.. You need to see that this process takes place in all the types of rūpa-kalāpa in each sense-organ.2 every single consciousness that arises dependent on heart-materiality (apart from the rebirth-linking consciousness) produces a great number of consciousness-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas (cittaja ojaññhamakakalāpa). namely. You will then see a large number of rūpa-kalāpas being produced because the mind wants to wiggle the finger. 1 As mentioned in the introduction. for example.. And the body’s digestive heat 1 For a brief discussion (with examples) of temperature-produced materiality.. or nutrimentproduced. which produces further temperature-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas.. How You See Nutriment-Produced Materiality For a brief discussion of the four origins of materiality (kamma. pus. If it is not clear. As discussed in the beginning of this talk.. 5... (utuja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa) The nutriment-produced kalāpa .. please see above p... consciousness-.. and see that it too reproduces: that is the second generation.4 four parts of the body. Then see that it produces temperature-produced nutritiveessence octad-kalāpas: that is the first generation.. please see above p. and urine.. 6. many consciousnesses dependent on heart-materiality producing rūpa-kalāpas. How You See Consciousness-Produced Materiality As also mentioned in the introduction. please see above p. and again wiggle one of your fingers. That is why.... temperature and nutriment) please see above p. consciousness. are nothing but inanimate temperature-produced nutritive-essence octadkalāpas (utuja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa).1 Since you have by now discerned the kamma-produced rūpa-kalāpas. whereas the last three types of rūpa-kalāpa (octad kalāpas) are either temperature-.3 You need to see that this process takes place for each type of rūpa-kalāpa in each sense-organ.... and need yourself to see how many generations of temperature-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas each type of rūpa-kalāpa produces.. please see above p.135ff 2 For a brief discussion (with examples) of consciousness-produced materiality.139ff 2 For a brief discussion (with examples) of kamma-produced materiality... They are opaque and spread throughout the body...4 .... The consciousness-produced kalāpa ....140ff 163 164 . In this way.1 the fire-element (tejo) is also called ‘temperature’ (utu)... there are four origins of materiality.. digested food (faeces)... The fire-element of all rūpa-kalāpas produces temperature-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas (utuja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa).. an eye-decadkalāpa...... Then discern the fire-element in a rūpa-kalāpa of that first generation of temperature-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas.. undigested food. and is found in all rūpa-kalāpas.... First discern the fire-element in.. And you will see that such rūpa kalāpas can arise anywhere in the body. concentrate again on the bhavaï ga. see that the temperature in the eye decad-kalāpa (which is itself kammaproduced)2 reproduces through four or five generations.(āhāraja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa) The first three types of rūpa-kalāpa (the decad-kalāpas) are kamma-produced...... if you concentrate on the bhavaï you will see ga..... we will discuss how to discern which type of octad kalāpa is which... (cittaja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa) The temperature-produced kalāpa.

four or five generations of nutriment-produced nutritive-essence octad kalāpas are produced. temperature or nutriment) reproduces only when it is supported by digestive heat. and temperature-produced rūpa-kalāpas. there are two types of nutriment-produced nutritiveessence octad-kalāpas: preceding and succeeding. the temperature reproduces through many generations. when the nutriment-produced nutritive essence meets the nutritive essence of the eye’s consciousness-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpa (cittaja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa) two or three generations of nutriment-produced nutritive-essence octadkalāpas are produced. consciousness-. during which time it also supports the nutritive essence in kamma-. And again. and the intestines.2 Divine nutriment reproduces for up to one or two months. and contain the eight types of materiality. in those four or five generations of rūpa-kalāpas. and see that their nutritive essence is nutrimentproduced nutritive essence. When the preceding nutriment-produced nutritive-essence meets the succeeding nutritive-essence of nutriment-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas and the digestive heat. and the nutritive-essence of the eye decad-kalāpas is the generating cause. the throat. See that they are opaque. Then see what happens when it meets 1 2 the kamma-produced nutritive essence of the eye decad-kalāpas: together with the digestive heat. namely. Again.166. from the entire alimentary canal: the mouth. Furthermore. there is temperature. which spread throughout the body. You can also see these things after you have eaten. The nutriment-produced nutritive-essence and digestive heat are the supporting cause.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing (which is most powerful in the alimentary canal) is just the fireelement of life nonad-kalāpas (jīvita navaka-kalāpa). many generations of nutriment-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas are produced. and reach. the nutritive essence of any rūpa-kalāpa (produced by either kamma. At that time the nutriment-produced rūpa-kalāpas can be seen to spread throughout the body. the eye. and in also these generations. as well as preceding nutriment-produced rūpa-kalāpas. In also these many generations.and sex decad-kalāpas. To see these things you meditate when eating. Next. First you discern the four elements in the newly eaten food in those places. please see above p. They have themselves nutritive-essence (nutriment-produced nutritive essence (āhāraja ojā)) which reproduces in the same way through many generations. Try also to discern that when the nutriment-produced nutritive essence meets the nutritive essence of the eye’s kamma-produced body. the temperature reproduces through many generations.136 ff preceding nutriment-produced rūpa-kalāpas please see below p. consciousness.4 . ten to twelve generations of nutriment-produced nutritive-essence octadkalāpas are produced: the temperature also there reproduces through many generations. the stomach. further materiality is produced. Discern the eight types of materiality in them there. Continue to look until you see that when the digestive heat (the fire-element of the life nonad-kalāpas) meets the nutritive essence of the newly eaten food (temperature-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas). In every case.1 The number of generations produced depends on the strength of both the nutritive essences. for example. 1 For a brief discussion (with examples) of kamma-produced materiality. in which case you analyse the undigested food in the stomach and intestines. nutriment-produced nutritiveessence octad-kalāpas (āhāraja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa). it causes the nutritive essence of the eye decad-kalāpas (cakkhu dasaka kalāpa) to produce four or five generations of nutriment-produced nutritive-essence octad kalāpas. Try again to discern that at its standing phase it too reproduces through many generations. and see the rūpa-kalāpas there. which are kamma-produced. 165 166 . you need to discern these nutriment-produced nutritiveessence octad-kalāpas as they spread out through the body. Nutriment taken in one day reproduces like this for up to a week.1 When the nutritive essence of the temperature-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas meets with the digestive heat.

tongue.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing Having discerned all the types of nutritive-essence octad kalā pas in the eye.1 ‘Anupada Sutta’ (‘One-by-One Sutta’). mentioned below at Answer 4.g. two. the so-called detailed method. For example. suffering and non-self. colour. water. Please see Vs.1 But if. and What Is Not the Path’ Ñ704). the Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality (nāma-rūpa pariccheda ñāõa). p. going from element to element. you are still unable to see them all at a glance. but the actual practice involves much more. 1 2 For details. We shall summarize the discernment of materiality (rūpakammaññhāna): To see the rūpa-kalāpas. please see ‘Knowledge of Comprehension’. body and heart.xx B606 ‘Maggāmagga Ñāõadassana Visuddhi Niddesa’ (‘Description of Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What Is the Path.ii. In the next talk we shall discuss how to discern mentality (nāmakammaññhāna). By practising systematically. 256. four etc. and eye transparent-element. We may look at them individually. you should approach a proper teacher. even after completing the discernment of materiality. nutritive-essence. for example: in one eye decad-kalāpa. four aspects of the fire-element. and try to see them all at a glance. With the complete discernment of materiality. and then from sense-organ to sense-organ: from the easier to the more difficult. you will be skilful enough to see all the elements of all six sense-organs at a glance. consciousness. up to ten. at a glance.10 ‘Dhātuvibhaïga Sutta’ ‘Elements Analysis Sutta’ 167 168 . and nutriment.1 If you wish to know how to develop this. flavour. and six aspects of the wind-element. and we may look at all ten at once. we have discussed very briefly how to analyse rūpa-kalā pas. and then do the same for the remaining five sense-organs. Summary • • With the brief method you must discern fifty-four of the elements in one sense-organ. water. and wind. do it again and again.4 . you must see earth. you must analyse them • to see all the elements in single rūpa-kalāpas. as one.6. temperature. fire. life-faculty. It is like looking at ten banisters that support a hand-rail. This was what you were aiming at as you progressed through the meditation. you take them individually. twelve water-element parts.III. how they reproduce. 1 When you have completed the discernment of materiality (rūpakammaññhāna). which are produced by the four causes: kamma. Please see also e. nose. There are two ways of discerning: As a group (kalāpa sammāsana) and one-by-one (anupada). you will have discerned all fifty-four types of element in the eye. With the detailed method you must discern all the types of materiality in all forty-two parts of the body. one-by-one.iv. odour. M. and how the elements in the rūpa-kalāpas that they produce also reproduce. p.2 This completes our discussion of the discernment of materiality (rūpakammaññhāna).186ff. fire. involves analysing what are called ga the forty-two parts of the body mentioned in the ‘Dhātuvibhaï Sutta’ of the Majjhima Nikāya: twenty earth-element parts. When you can see the rūpa-kalāpas. you will have finished the first part of the first insight-knowledge. Today.III. You should then do the same for all the types of element in the remaining five sense-organs: the ear. When you are able to see all types of element at a glance. three. M. you will gradually become proficient in the discernment of rūpa-kalāpas. they become your object for Vipassanā: you see all the elements as impermanence. and see also all forty-two parts of the body at a glance. wind. you must develop concentration up • to access concentration by concentrating on the four elements: earth.

...... Please see below p................ 4...... 3....................... 3........ (ghāna pasāda) Tongue transparent-element .................................................................. 2........ 9................ (cakkhu pasāda) Ear transparent-element ..............................(ākāsa-dhātu) Bodily Intimation ......... 2....................... and nutriment-produced materiality............................... (purisa bhāva-rūpa) Female sex-materiality .. (sota pasāda) Nose transparent-element ......................... (kāya pasāda) 5 Colour............................................ (āpo-dhātu) Fire-element .......................................................................... (vāyo-dhātu) 4 Eye transparent-element ................................... (lahutā) Softness of Real Materiality1 ......................................1 The eighteen types of real materiality are: Four Great Elements (mahā bhūta): 1.......... temperature-....................................................(kāyaviññatti) Verbal Intimation .......................................... Four Types of Sense-field Materiality (gocara rūpa): 1.............................................229ff 169 170 ........................................ (gandha) Flavour .................... (sadda) Odour ...................(hadaya-rūpa) 1 Two Types of Sex-materiality (bhāva-rūpa): 1........................... (kammaññatā) Growth of Real Materiality.............................. It brings to completion the faculties of the foetus in the womb................................................... (mudutā) Wieldiness of Real Materiality1 ....................................... 1 Space-element ....................... 10........ 4....... 4.......... 3........(aniccatā) These exist only in consciousness-.................................................... the yogi will have examined the eighteen types of real materiality and nine of the ten types of not-real materiality................. 2.......................... 5.. Nutritive essence ............................................... (tejo-dhātu) Wind-element ....... (jaratā) Impermanence of Real Materiality ........................... 8....... 3....................................... (ojā) 1 Life-faculty ....................4 ....................................................................... 4................... 2.. (vacīviññatti) Lightness of Real Materiality1 ...... Five Types of Transparent Materiality (pasāda rūpa): 1............................. (rasa) 4 1............... 2........ 5.....................(santati) Ageing of Real Materiality ............. (itthi bhāva-rūpa) 2 18 The ten types of not-real materiality are: 1 They yogi will not have examined Growth of Real Materiality because it refers only to the initial generation of materiality in one life.....How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing Table 1: The Twenty-Eight Material Elements At the end of discernment of materiality........... 7.... (jivhā pasāda) Body transparent-element ............(jīvitindriya) 1 Heart-materiality ........ Total Earth-element ........................... This materiality the yogi discerns first when he discerns dependent origination.. 6..................(vaõõa) Sound .... (pathavī-dhātu) Water-element..................................... Male sex-materiality ............. (upacaya) Continuity of Real Materiality ....................

+ type quality LIFE NONAD-KALĀPA OCTAD–KALĀPA + type quality LIFE NONAD-KALĀPA OCTAD–KALĀPA opaque opaque opaque origin kamma consciousness temperature 1 earth earth earth 2 water water water 3 fire fire fire 4 wind wind wind 5 colour colour colour 6 odour odour odour 7 flavour flavour flavour 8 nutritive essence nutritive essence nutritive essence 9 life-faculty The life nonad-. please read ear-. b. With due changes. and octad-kalāpas are the same throughout the six sense-organs. For the ear-. For the body and heart. and octad-kalāpas are the same throughout the six sense-organs.and wind) 1 earth earth 2 water water 3 fire fire 4 wind wind 5 colour colour 6 odour odour 7 flavour flavour 8 nutritive essence nutritive essence 9 life-faculty life-faculty 10 body transparent-element sex-element These two types of decad-kalāpa are found in all six sense-organs. c. opaque nutriment earth water fire wind colour odour flavour nutritive essence opaque opaque opaque origin kamma consciousness temperature 1 earth earth earth 2 water water water 3 fire fire fire 4 wind wind wind 5 colour colour colour 6 odour odour odour 7 flavour flavour flavour 8 nutritive essence nutritive essence nutritive essence 9 life-faculty The life nonad-.and tongue-door. For the ear. please read EAR DECAD-KALĀPA. nose. please read the same for the ear. NOSE DECADKALĀPA and TONGUE DECAD-KALĀPA respectively. and flavour respectively. nose. odour.4 .How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing Table 2: The Basic Elements of the Eyea EYE DECAD-KALĀPA b Table 3: The Basic Elements of the Body BODY DECAD-KALĀPA SEX DECAD-KALĀPA (3 types of decad-kalāpa [3 x 10 = 30]+ nonad kalāpas [9] + 3 types of octad-kalāpa[3 x 8= 24] = [63 elements]) (2 types of decad-kalāpa [2 x 10 = 20] + nonad kalāpas [9] + 3 types of octad-kalāpa [3 x 8= 24] = 53 elements) type quality origin property c BODY DECAD-KALĀPA b SEX DECAD-KALĀPA b type quality transparent kamma sensitive to lightc earth water fire wind colour odour flavour nutritive essence life-faculty eye transparent-elementd transparent kamma sensitive to touchc (earth. d. fire. transparent opaque origin kamma kamma property sensitive to touch determinative of sex (earth.and tongue transparent-element respectively. nose and tongue. fire. nose and tongue.and tongue-door.and wind) earth water fire wind colour odour flavour nutritive essence life-faculty body transparent-lementd opaque kamma determinative of sexc earth water fire wind colour odour flavour nutritive essence life-faculty sex-elementd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 d a. opaque nutriment earth water fire wind colour odour flavour nutritive essence 171 172 . For the ear-. please see Tables 3 and 4. please read sound. nose.

tenth element of heart decad-kalāpas.and wind) earth water fire wind colour odour flavour nutritive essence life-faculty body transparent-element opaque kamma determinative of sex earth water fire wind colour odour flavour nutritive essence life-faculty sex-element Eye-. ear-.133ff + type quality LIFE NONAD-KALĀPA OCTAD–KALĀPA opaque opaque opaque origin kamma consciousness temperature 1 earth earth earth 2 water water water 3 fire fire fire 4 wind wind wind 5 colour colour colour 6 odour odour odour 7 flavour flavour flavour 8 nutritive essence nutritive essence nutritive essence 9 life-faculty The life-nonad-. tenth element (the door) of respectively the eye-. and octad kalāpas are the same throughout the six sense-organs. tongue. fire.How You Discern Materiality Knowing and Seeing Table 4: The Basic Elements of the Heart a (3 types of decad-kalāpa [3 x 10 = 30] + nonad kalāpas [9] + 3 types of octad-kalāpa [3 x 8= 24] = 63 elements) type quality origin property HEART DECAD-KALĀPA BODY DECAD-KALĀPA a SEX DECAD-KALĀPA a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 a opaque kamma supporting the mindand mind-consciousness element earth water fire wind colour odour flavour nutritive essence life-faculty heart-element transparent kamma sensitive to touch (earth.and body-consciousnesses arise dependent upon the transparent.and body decad-kalāpas.4 . opaque nutriment earth water fire wind colour odour flavour nutritive essence 173 174 . ear-. Please see also p. tongue. nose-. whereas all other consciousnesses (which comprise the mind element and mind-consciousness element) arise dependent upon the opaque. nose-.

.......... they do not provide the supramundane benefit that is Nibbāna happiness........... he too had enjoyed sensual pleasures..V....... what is the difference between the conditions for him to become a Buddha and for us?1 Answer 4.. because enjoyment of sensual pleasures is the practice of a worldling.. practised the middle way....... even though he is enjoying sensual pleasures. How? When he was sixteen 1 The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw’s audience was almost only Buddhists of the Mahāyana tradition. but was surrounded by twenty thousand princesses............................................. deva happiness and brahma happiness... he too was a worldling............Knowing and Seeing Questions and Answers 4 Question 4. This is not only for our bodhisatta......... he became prince Siddhattha and married princess Yasodharā............ After he had renounced those sensual pleasures.................. 4......... anariyo................(khantī) Truthfulness .... he was a worldling............ for whom the goal is not arahantship but Buddhahood......... There may be many bodhisattas here among the present audience...... a worldling (puthujjana)? If Arimetteyya Bodhisatta is a worldling like us.......... 222...................... (sacca) Resolution ......... After six years of that futile practice............. gammo. According to the Theravāda Tipi aka.................... 7......... He did not have five hundred female deities on his left....... is reborn after his Parinibbāna..... In his last life..... it is his last life. puthujjaniko... 3...and Fruition Knowledge... then at the time for him to come down to become Metteyya Buddha......... 8.. He declared:1 Kāmesu kāmasukhallikanuyogo hīno............... When he was still a bodhisatta........... And sensual pleasures are unbeneficial because although they provide mundane benefit such as human happiness..... before his enlightenment............... S.. At that time..... (adhiññhāna) Lovingkindness ....... So........... He enjoyed sensual pleasures for more than thirteen years......1 The difference is that his pāramī s have matured...................................... (dāna) Virtue ............... he abandoned it.. (mettā) Equanimity ................................................ 10..................... He will not be reborn anywhere..... (This enjoyment of sensual pleasures is inferior (hīno)................................2 Take our Sakyamuni Bodhisatta: in his last life.. We forget the names of Metteyya Bodhisatta’s wife and son.................................. including Arimetteyya Bodhisatta...................(vīriya) Patience. 2. Generosity.......) This means that the enjoyment of sensual pleasures is not the practice of enlightened ones.... (nekkhamma) Wisdom.. After His enlightenment...................................1 Is a bodhisatta............................... as they had for our Sakyamuni Buddha as the bodhisatta Prince Siddhattha..... (sīla) Renunciation .......................... in His first sermon The Buddha declared that anyone who enjoys sensual pleasures is a worldling... and before long attained enlightenment.......1 ‘Dhamma-Wheel Rolling Sutta’ 175 176 ..... in His first sermon.. It is the practice of unenlightened ones (anariyo).........................................(upekkhā) years old............ His Parinibbāna is the end of his round of rebirths.... 5...... they push the bodhisatta to renounce the world..........................ii.. because no arahant. which can be enjoyed only by Path..... 1 When these ten pāramī s are mature......... Such bodhisattas will for many lives have been cultivating their pāramī s... They had a son......... There are ten pāramī s: 1.................................. he practised self-mortification in the Uruvela forest... a bodhisatta marries and has a son...... 9........................ the practice of worldlings (puthujjaniko)........XII............................. but for every bodhisatta..... anatthasa§hito...................... 6.... the ‘Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta’.. this is a law of nature..................... It is unbeneficial (anatthasa§hito)..... with Yasodharā in the palace..... the practice of villagers (gammo)..... 2 Please see also The Buddha’s words quoted below p........ indulgence in sensual pleasures.......... This is kāmasukhallikanuyogo: enjoyment of sensual pleasures............ that is............ (paññā) Energy .. and five hundred female deities on his right............. including The Buddha...

... his pāramī s would mature only then........... which is the Noble Truth of Suffering...... For example.......II..2 In the same way. 4.......................................... The four analytical knowledges they attained are: Question 4......................... (pañibhāna pañisambhidā ñāõa) The insight-knowledge that knows the above three analytical knowledges.......... this is a law of nature.........1 He practised SamathaVipassanā up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa) in the time of Kassapa Buddha’s dispensation............ all ordinary arahants............... (adhigama) The attainment of the Arahant Path and Fruition.... can a yogi attain Path (magga ñāõa) and Fruition Knowledges (phala ñāõa) and? If not. who attained the Four Analytical Knowledges (pa isambhidā ñāõa) in this Sakyamuni Buddha’s dispensation...... After finishing the meditation course................Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing You should consider this carefully: are the bodhisattas here worldlings (puthujjana) or noble ones (ariya)? We think you may know the answer................... Hence.......... which is the Noble Truth of the Cause for Suffering....... but did not attain any Path and Fruition Knowledges...... (dhamma pañisambhidā ñāõa) The insight-knowledge of cause...... It was that he was to be the khippābhiñña... during Dī paï kara Buddha’s time... Inquiry ...... other disciples (sāvaka)...................... had also practised Samatha-Vipassanā up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations in the dispensation of previous Buddhas...... 5. (pubbayoga) The practice of Samatha-Vipassanā up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa) during the dispensations of former Buddhas................. there were two thousand bhikkhunī s.........................XIV.......(paripuccha) Discussing the difficult passages and explanations in the texts and commentaries........................ They had.......................xiv ‘Paññāpabhedakathā’ B429 (‘How Many Kinds of Understanding Are There? [Ñ’s title]’ Ñ28) 177 178 ........ or have made an aspiration to escape from the round of rebirths (sa§sāra) in a future dispensation such as Arimetteyya Buddha’s.. Mastery of scriptures .... The analytical knowledge of enunciation of language...)‘Bāhiyatthera Apadāna’ (Bāhiyatthera’s Heroic Deed’) AA.......... or any other Path and Fruition..... 3... The reason may also be that they have received a definite prophecy from a previous Buddha.. The analytical knowledge of the kinds of knowledge ...2 Maybe he can...........(savana) Listening to Dhamma explanations attentively and respectfully.....................2 1.. The analytical knowledge of meaning .. Hearing . Achievement . it depends on his pāramī s... especially Pāë i grammar..... made an aspiration to escape from the round of rebirths (sa§sāra) in the dispensation of Sakyamuni Buddha.................. the case of Bāhiya Dāruciriya.6 (&A...........................I............. which would be four incalculables and one hundred thousand aeons later.................................... for example... the quickest to attain arahantship in Sakyamuni’s dispensation....(attha pañisambhidā ñāõa) The insight-knowledge of effect...... because he had received a definite prophecy from Padumuttara Buddha.. 3.... 2..........iii ‘Bāhiya Dārucīriyattheravatthu’B216 (The Case of Bāhiya Dārucīriyatthera’) Vs....... it is because their pāramī s have not yet matured........ (nirutti pañisambhidā ñāõa) Knowledge of grammar.........................................................liv....... Prior effort .............. 2..... If those who practise in this dispensation do not attain Nibbāna............... To become an ordinary arahant does not require that one cultivate one’s pārāmis for 1 1 2 Apadāna... There are five causes for attaining these four analytical knowledges:1 1.. 4..... (pariyatti) Learning the Dhamma scriptures.... The analytical knowledge of dhamma .... He had about twenty thousand years of practice..... Take... why not? Answer 4......... who attained Parinibbāna on the same day as Yasodharā..................

A yogi who has finished the meditation course. take me as an example. Then pointing to a tree. by listening to a short stanza by Dī paï kara Buddha about the Four Noble Truths. you laugh on seeing me. and the single yellow loin-cloth he wore hitched up was also smeared with ashes. The remaining three types are: (1) a bodhisatta. your uncle!’ and laughed as they went along. Our bodhisatta had the eight attainments (samāpatti) and five mundane psychic powers during Dī paï kara Buddha’s time. The man said to the Mahāthera: ‘Bhante. however. so that he seemed like a charcoal stump.3 Maybe his insight-knowledge will also drop. old age and death.1 ‘Suttantabhājanīyavaõõanā’ (‘By Sutta Comment’) khu’s life just on account of your robes. ‘Sitting under that tree I would touch with these very hands the moon and the sun. Be strenuous. There are four types of person who attain Nibbāna. and as they were coming down the forest track on to the main road.Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing that long. Had he really wanted to attain Nibbāna. that is your grandfather. so he made an aspiration to be a Buddha in the future. not because of a definite prophecy. when they saw him. will his insight-knowledge also drop? Can he be reborn in a woeful state (apāya)? Answer 4. Having done his day’s work. joked with each other.3 1 VbhA. The first type is a Paccekabuddha. The force of kamma. If he does not practise for a long time. but they vanished through negligence. There is an example of this in the Pāë i Texts. he had picked up a bundle of halfburnt wood and was coming along a by-path with his hair hanging down his back. and do not neglect practising Samatha-Vipassanā wholesome dhammas. he said further. if his concentration drops. putting down his bundle of wood and arranging his clothes. But you have not attained so much as mental one-pointedness. and I was mighty with the psychic powers and powerful in this dispensation. saying. his body was smeared with ashes. remains as latent energy. Impelled by the urgency of his words. I treated the far like the near and the near like the far. but the force of kamma remains. But those who live strenuously make an end of birth. But he did not want only to attain Nibbāna. He had in past lives also practised Samatha-Vipassanā up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa). but not yet attained the Path Knowledge (maggañāõa) and Fruition Knowledge (phalañāõa). but it is very rare. 1. and he stood facing the bhikkhus. On being asked his name. but the novices came up and laughed even in front of the Mahāthera. I treated the air like the earth and the earth like the air. Some thirty bhikkhus and novices (sāmaõeras) had paid homage at the Great Shrine at Kalyāõī . Through negligence people reach ruin such as this. he did obeisance to the Mahāthera in order to detain him for a while. standing in that place. after which he received a definite 180 179 . Such were my psychic powers. Do not be negligent. his Samatha-Vipassanā may slowly weaken. they saw a man coming in the opposite direction.’ Thus. (2) a chief disciple (agga sāvaka) or great disciple (mahā sāvaka).1 It takes place in Sri Lanka. which we shall not discuss. The bhikkhus waited. The novices.viii. he admonished and warned them. Venerable Sirs. thirty Bhikkhus practised Samatha-Vipassana and attained Arahantship. I penetrated in a moment the one hundred thousand worlds systems. I would sit with the moon and the sun as the ground on which to rub these very feet. but these two thousand bhikkhunis had remained in the round of rebirths for that long period because of their aspiration only. and (3) an ordinary disciple (pakati sāvaka). the man was remorseful and. he could have attained it quickly. He had been working in a charcoal burner’s field beside the road. You think you fulfill the bhikQuestion 4. Then they asked ‘What is your name. lay follower?’. So SamathaVipassana may drop temporarily because of negligence (pamāda). I was once a recluse like you. ‘That is your father. Therefore. You see my hands now? Now they are like the hands of a monkey.

..... for example. (tipiñaka§ Buddhavacana§ ugga§hitvā) Purification in the four types of morality3 .. the Commentary mentions it separately for reasons of emphasis. our bodhisatta was ordained as a bhikkhu in nine lives. please see above Answer 4.. In other contexts... that is.... he has found a secure place.. from the time of his definite prophecy till his birth as Prince Siddhattha... our bodhisatta was sometimes reborn in the animal kingdom because of previous unwhole1 3. that is from Dī paï kara Buddha’s time to Kassapa Buddha’s time... During the four incalculables (asaïkhyeyya) and one hundred thousand aeons (kappa) which followed. 2... MA......... 5.. or the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa).... sometimes together with our bodhisatta...... from the time of their definite prophecy till the time of our Buddha.92 4 Although the forest-dweller practice is included in the thirteen ascetic practices.......... the Venerables Kassapa and Ānanda had received one from Padumuttara Buddha...... samaõa dhamma (recluse practices) refers to all these seven practices... he has a sure.........177 Vs.... and 2-7 are Vipassanā dhura (Insight burden/obligation).. (pañca abhiññā) Vipassanā meditation up to. 5 This is the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa) some kamma.... 6. (arañña§ pavisitvā) The eight attainments .......... this is a law of nature. and going back to the dwelling from alms........2 As for ordinary disciples.... 7. even though they may not have attained Path and Fruition in this life. 2 This is gantha dhura (book burden/obligation)........ the Venerables Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallāna had received one from Anomadassī Buddha. In each life as a bhikkhu. The lives as a bhikkhu....xiv ‘Paññāpabhedakathā’ B429 (‘How Many Kinds of Understanding Are There? [Ñ’s title]’ Ñ28) 181 182 .) 1 2 For the Four Analytical Knowledges.... 4.....1 ‘Ghañikāra Sutta’ (‘Ghañikāra Sutta’)... This text lists only 1.. (vipassana§ vaóóhatvā yāva anulomañānā§) These pāramī s must be fulfilled for the attainment of Omniscient Knowledge (sabbaññuta ñāõa)..... because of unwholesome kamma. if they have practised Samatha-Vipassanā thoroughly up to the Knowledge of Cause and Condition (paccaya-pariggaha ñāõa) or the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away (udayabbaya ñāõa).. 3 and 4.......... (catu pārisuddhi sīle supatiññhāya) The thirteen ascetic practices .... Also great disciples will sometimes have received a definite prophecy... Please see above.........6 & 7... each time under the guidance of a Buddha. good destination.... and the lives as an animal. which is also called pariyatti (learning). some of them were sometimes reborn in one of the four woeful states....... p.. this fifth one may be understood specifically to be 5.......Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing prophecy from Dī paï kara Buddha... Some chief disciples will also have received a definite prophecy......... however............iv. which is also called pañipatti (practice) .. Knowledge of Conformity5..... so he is called a Lesser Stream-Enterer (cūëa sotāpanna)...2... however.II.... also when going out for alms...... This is explained in the Visuddhi Magga as: …laddhassāso laddhapatiññho niyatagatiko cū¬asotāpanno nāma hoti (…he has found relief in the Buddha’s Dispensation. with a fifth being: gata-paccāgata-vatta§ pūrayamānā samaõadhamma§ karontā (practising the ‘going &going-back duty recluse practice’). 2. But before his pāramī s had matured.... This is the nature of a bodhisatta.... (terasa dhutaïgāni samādāya) Always the forest-dweller ascetic practice4 ....... (aññha samāpattiyo) The five mundane psychic powers ...... please see above Answer 2... Even so...... In our Buddha’s time....xxi 3 For the four types of purification of morality.. p..... 2............... our bodhisatta’s training included seven practices:1 1. From sources that explain the Bodhisatta’s practice.. were very far apart.......1 This type of arahants will also have been skilful in Samatha-Vipassanā up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa)......... Study of the Three Piñ akas by recitation2 . This is the nature of a chief or great disciple... p.. in times of many previous Buddhas..... which refers to full-time meditation (Samatha and Vipassanā).. they will not be reborn in one of the four woeful realms (apāya) after death.......3......... all these disciples became arahants possessed of the Four Analytical Knowledges. 3............

He died while practising. If. Can a yogi who has finished the course. he may get the chance to meet friends who were fellow yogis in his past human life in a dispensation. 2. Death may take place with that good nimitta as object. is the Venerable Samaõa-devaputta. he will definitely reach a good place. and can in there attain Nibbāna. because he did not want to be a deva. When the female devas in his mansion saw him. and then there are four things that can happen. 1 A. he can attain Nibbāna by listening to a bhikkhu who has psychic powers. If he does not get the opportunity to listen to the Dhamma from a bhikkhu. he will be of the first type of person mentioned in the ‘Sotānugata Sutta’. 3.6 ‘Accharā Sutta’ (‘Deva Sutta’) & SA. He did not know he had died. and continued meditating in his mansion in the deva realm.IV. The Buddha taught which four:1 1.Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing Lesser Stream-Enterers may thus be reborn in the deva realm.’ He may then remember the Dhamma. the Lesser Stream-Enterer reflects on the Dhamma. mentioned also p. he can attain Nibbāna very quickly. etc.I.I.1 ‘Sotānugata Sutta’ (‘One Who Has Heard Sutta’).4 Yes. After listening to the Dhamma. so they put a mirror in front of him and made a noise. If. the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away. Question 4.and attain Nibbāna by listening to them. (The Knowledge Standing on Phenomena (dhammaññhiti ñāõa) comes first. and even attains the Knowledge of Cause and Condition. He opened his eyes. as soon as he attains rebirth in the deva realm. although he may not attain a path and fruition in this life. The Buddha was teaching Dhamma about the Four Noble Truths. So immediately he went down to The Buddha to listen to the Dhamma. Those fellow yogis may say. or the Knowledge of Equanimity towards Formations. and he can attain Nibbāna quickly. when an ordinary disciple practises Samatha and Vipassanā very hard. but because of the powerful Samatha-Vipassanā meditation wholesome kamma. but not yet attained Nibbāna.ibid. and saw his image 1 Pubbe kho Susīma dhammaññhitiñāõa§ pacchā nibbāne ñāõa§. a good nimitta appears at his minddoor. attain the Knowledge Standing on Phenomena (dhammaññhiti ñāõa)? If so. he may get the opportunity to listen to it from Dhamma-teaching devas (Dhamma-kathika deva).4 An example of a Lesser Stream-Enterer who was reborn in the deva realm. Samaõa-devaputta attained the Stream-Entry Path Knowledge (sotāpatti maggañāõa) and Stream-Entry Fruition Knowledge (sotāpatti phalañāõa). please remember this and that Dhamma which we practised in the human world. for example: ‘Oh friend.v.124 . he can attain that knowledge.. like Sanaï kumāra Brahmā.). He was very disappointed. and was reborn in the deva realm. 183 184 . and who attained Nibbāna very quickly afterwards. and has come to the deva realm to teach the Dhamma. In the ‘Sotānugata Sutta’. and if he practises Vipassanā. He was a bhikkhu who practised Samatha-Vipassanā earnestly.IV. At the time of death. it will be clear to his insight-knowledge. he practises Vipassanā up to the moments of the near-death impulsion (maraõāsanna javana). however. 4. can it regress? Answer 4. and p. the Path Knowledge that takes Nibbāna as object comes next. and because of this wholesome kamma.v. in the mirror. 248 S. a yogi may not have strong Samatha or Vipassanā. he wanted only Nibbāna. the practice he has done does mean that he will very likely attain them in one of his future lives. they realized he must have been a bhikkhu in his previous life.1 Thus. If he does not attain Nibbāna by reflecting on the Dhamma with insight-knowledge. If he does not get the chance to listen to the Dhamma from Dhamma-teaching devas. which we just discussed.

who ordained to ‘steal’ the Dhamma. Question 4.10 ‘Susīma Sutta’ (‘Susīma Sutta’) Here. Susī ma had heard that many arahants went to The Buddha and reported that they had attained arahantship. With that light. If he is an ordinary disciple. But The Buddha saw that he would attain Nibbāna within a few days. One can then continue with Vipassanā meditation stage by stage. we are free from defilements.32 For a discussion of the different types of concentration.5 Yes. one can discern the rūpa-kalāpas. Momentary concentration (a type of preparatory concentration) Access concentration Absorption concentration S.1 When the teaching was finished.5 Can one attain supramundane states with only access 2 concentration? Answer 4. The Buddha gave a Teaching on the Three Rounds2 (teparivañña Dhamma-desanā). and the Path Knowledge that takes Nibbāna as object comes next. So the Path Knowledge can occur only after the insight-knowledges have occurred. and their causes. 2.I. What is momentary concentration? There are two types of momentary concentration: 1. If a yogi attains the Knowledge Standing on Phenomena. practise mindfulness of feeling (vedānānupassanā satipaññhāna) to Question 4. all insight-knowledges are referred to as the Knowledge Standing on Phenomena. and their causes. suffering and non-self nature of all formations. At that time he understood clearly the meaning of The Buddha’s discourse.Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing This was The Buddha’s explanation to Susī ma. friend Susī ma. ‘If you do not have the eight attainments and five psychic powers. 2. The Knowledge Standing on Phenomena is the insight-knowledge of the impermanent. it is the result of insight-knowledges. brilliant and radiant light. Afterwards.1 Susī ma was a wanderer (paribbājaka). 1 2 S. mentality. Susī ma attained arahantship. and non-self. So Susī ma asked them whether they had the eight attainments and five psychic powers. and attained arahantship by the pure-Vipassanā vehicle (suddha-vipassanā yānika). ultimate materiality. then although he does not attain Nibbāna in this life. the three rounds refer to the three characteristics: impermanence.) What does this mean? The Path Knowledge is not the result of the eight attainments and five psychic powers. ultimate mentality. so He accepted him. The Buddha said: Pubbe kho Susīma dhammaññhitiñāõa§ pacchā Nibbāne ñāõa§.I. quoted ‘Introduction’ p.i. (The Knowledge Standing on Phenomena comes first. even though he did not have the eight attainments or five psychic powers. This is how the Knowledge Standing on Phenomena comes first. conditioned things (saïkhāra dhamma).II. one can.III. materiality. Momentary concentration in Samatha meditation Momentary concentration in Vipassanā meditation In Samatha meditation there are three types of concentration: 1.II. that is. He too became a pureVipassanā -vehicle person. In the ‘Susī ma Sutta’. Can one with only momentary concentration (khaõika samādhi). They answered ‘No’. his insight-knowledge will not decrease. please see also 115 185 186 .vii. he may attain Nibbāna in his next life. suffering.6 attain supramundane states?2 Answer 4.7. At access concentration there is also bright. which is like the ‘Anattalakkhaõa Sutta’ 1 2 ‘Non-self Characteristic Sutta’.’ He did not understand. 3. so he asked The Buddha the same question. how did you attain arahantship?’ Then they answered ‘Paññāvimuttā kho maya§ āvuso Susī ma’: ‘Oh. His latent Vipassanā kammic force is still powerful. the Path Knowledge that takes Nibbāna as object comes next.6 Here we need to define momentary concentration.

1 Here you should know that Vipassanā momentary concentration is seeing thoroughly the impermanent. one cannot attain jhāna using them as object. not real access concentration. suffering or nonself by seeing the arising and passing-away nature of those jhāna formations (jhāna dhamma). and discerns the thirty-four mental formations of the first jhāna. he should cultivate one of the Samatha meditation subjects. But the sub-commentary to the Visuddhi Magga says it is only a metaphor. This is Samatha. it is of course not necessary for him to practise Samatha meditation. and non-self nature of ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes. At the time of discerning there is still concentration. suffering. He emerges from it. and then impermanence. and see the rūpa-kalāpas. Even so. like the ānāpānā pañ ibhāga-nimitta. He concentrates on the impermanent. because the object is momentary. To see the four elements in individual rūpa-kalāpas is to see ultimate materiality (paramattha rūpa). and the four elements in one kalāpa. when a yogi is practising Vipassanā to see either the impermanent. then usually his mind does not leave the object. without having done any Samatha meditation. One cannot attain jhāna with ultimate reality as object. When a Samatha-vehicle yogi wants to practise Vipassanā. In the same way. we may understand that the access concentration which takes the four elements in individual rūpa kalāpas as object is not real access concentration. or non-self nature of those jhāna formations. Without seeing ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes. That means the object is always changing. This is momentary concentration. If a yogi can see ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes thoroughly and clearly. it passes away. The Visuddhi Magga says that is access concentration. but momentary concentration. because real access concentration is close to jhāna concentration. There are two reasons for this: 1. It is discussed in the section on ānāpānasati (mindfulness-ofbreathing) of the Visuddhi Magga. who has attained ānāpānā jhāna enters the first jhāna. But jhāna cannot be attained with four-elements meditation. etc.viii ‘Ānāpānasati Kathā’B235 (‘Mindfulness-of-Breathing Explanation’ Ñ232) 187 188 . or non-self nature of ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes. One cannot concentrate deeply on the four elements in individual rūpa-kalāpas because the rūpa-kalāpas pass away as soon as they arise. as soon as it arises. Thus. Then let us discuss the momentary concentration in Vipassanā. and does not go to other objects. This is also called momentary concentration. He does the same with the second jhāna. One cannot attain jhāna with an object that is always changing.Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing The momentary concentration in Samatha refers in particular to the concentration that takes a pañ ibhāga-nimitta as object. suffering. When one is able to see the four elements in individual rūpakalāpas there is deep concentration. suffering. and develop sufficient concentration so as to be able to see ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes. since four-elements meditation does not produce jhāna. This is for a Samatha vehicle person (samatha yānika). A pure-Vipassanā vehicle yogi must usually begin with four-elements meditation in order to attain access concentration or momentary concentration. and to see ultimate materiality is deep and profound. His mind has sunk into one of the characteristics. If not. It is the concentration before access concentration. 2. His concentration is at that time deep and profound. 1 Vs. how can there be Vipassanā momentary concentration? It is impossible. There is another type of momentary concentration for a pureVipassanā vehicle yogi (suddha-vipassanā yānika).

.2 Now. The teaching in those two suttas. without knowing the Four Noble Truths with insight-knowledge and Path Knowledge.. bhikkhave. he cannot attain Nibbāna..IV..1 In the same way. 2 ‘Samādhi Sutta’ (‘Concentration Sutta’) of the ‘Sacca Sa§yutta’ (‘Section on the Truths’) S. They are the insight-knowledges that know all ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes.......... Also in the ‘Samādhi Sutta’ of the Sacca Sa§yutta.... he should be aware of the following facts explained by The Buddha: Sabba§... quoted above.. The Buddha says one should cultivate concentration. ‘Samādhi Sutta’ (‘Concentration Sutta’) of the ‘Khandha Sa§yutta’ (‘Section on the Aggregates’) S.. suffering.. you should cultivate concentration to know their nature of impermanence.. (tīraõa pariññā) This is the Knowledge of Comprehension (sammasana ñāõa). the ‘Aparijānana Sutta’ and ‘Kūñ āgāra Sutta’.. 3. (Bhikkhus. Discerning feeling alone is not enough: he must also discern the mental formations associated with feeling in the six-door cognitiveprocesses.V... bhikkhus..XII quoted above..I.Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing But in the ‘Samādhi Sutta’ of the ‘Khandha Sa§yutta’ The Buddha says:1 Samādhi§ bhikkhave bhāvetha.V. if a yogi wants to practise Vipassanā beginning with mindfulness of feeling. he should remember the following: • • He must have discerned ultimate materiality.. and non-self nature of ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes. and nonself.. 1 2 S... materiality.) So. These two insight-knowledges comprehend clearly the impermanent.. Having developed concentration. bhikkhus.....) 1 This is from the ‘Aparijānana Sutta’ in the ‘Saë āyatana Vagga’ of the Sa§yutta Nikāya.. who know them with the three types of full understanding can attain Nibbāna.. Their cessation you will be able to see at the time of the arahant path and Parinibbāna....... and Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition (paccaya-pariggaha ñāõa).. you should cultivate concentration to know the five aggregates. bhikkhus... materiality..4 ‘Pinnacled House Sutta’... abhijāna§ parijāna§ virājaya§ pajaha§ bhabbo dukkhakkhayāya. What are the three types of full understanding? They are: 1.XII.v... if a yogi wants to discern only feeling. he must try to know all mentality. p.. 2.. (ñāta pariññā) This is the Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality (nāma-rūpa pariccheda ñāõa). bhikkhave. samāhito bhikkhave bhikkhu yathābhūta§ pajānāti. and their causes with the three types of full-understanding (pariññā). quoted ‘Introduction’ p.2 So if a yogi wants to attain Nibbāna.. (Develop concentration....I.2 189 190 . suffering. The Buddha says in the ‘Kūñ āgāra Sutta’ of the ‘Sacca Vagga’ that..III. one cannot reach the end of the round of rebirths (sa§sāra).. is very important. a bhikkhu understands dhammas as they really are (yathābhūta§ pajānāti).. to know the Four Noble Truths. p.14. and Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away (udayabbaya ñāõa).. So... anabhijāna§ aparijāna§ avirājaya§ appajaha§ abhabbo dukkhakkhayāya … Sabbañca kho...29.4 ‘Pañhama-aparijānana Sutta’ (‘First Non-Understanding Sutta’) S... The Full Understanding as the Known .. The Full Understanding as Abandoning ..iii.. and their causes with the three types of full understanding..... Only those. The Full Understanding as Investigation .... their causes and cessation. (pahāna pariññā) This is the higher insight-knowledges from the Knowledge of Dissolution (bhaïga ñāõa) to the Path Knowledge (magga ñāõa)......... if a bhikkhu does not know all mentality.

...3 At this time.... It is.... without a teacher..7 1. 4 Both Ways Liberated (ubhatobhāga vimutta): this refers to those who escape first from the material sphere with the attainment of the immaterial jhānas......5 But it is never associated with Omniscient Knowledge (sabbaññuta ñāõa)....219 For the Four Analytical Knowledges..... (aggasāvaka bodhi) Great Disciple Enlightenment .. the Venerable Sāriputta attained arahantship. Here ‘it is not enough’ means he will not attain Nibbāna.(mahāsāvaka bodhi) Ordinary Disciple Enlightenment . but also all the other knowledges. it is in fact possible to become enlightened by discerning only one dhamma.7 A Buddha’s Arahant Path is always associated with Omniscient Knowledge (sabbaññuta ñāõa).201 3 M....iii....177 (1) various kinds of supernormal power (iddhi-vidhā).... on the other hand. 5 Wisdom Liberated (paññā vimutta): this refers to pure-insight arahants.4 We shall repeat: The Buddha said that if a bhikkhu does not know all mentality-materiality and their causes with the three types of full-understanding. When he heard the Venerable Assaji utter one sentence of Dhamma. is not only associated with Omniscient Knowledge.... example.. Take for. and Omniscient Knowledges by themselves.. Another thing is that Buddhas have.2 sometimes with the three Direct Knowledges (tevijja).. explaining one dhamma: feeling (vedanā)....... the Venerable Sāriputta was standing behind The Buddha fanning Him.. A Buddha’s Arahant Path. the Venerables Sāriputta’s and Mahāmoggallāna’s Arahant Paths were not associated with Omniscient Knowledge.. and his nephew attained stream-entry..2.4 ‘Dīghanakha Sutta’ (‘Dīghanakha Sutta’) 4 For details regarding the past practice of those who attain... and second.1 ‘Anupada Sutta’ (‘One-by-one Sutta’) 2 For details about how to discern the individual mental formations of one’s jhāna attainments.. (2) divine ear (dibba sota)... (3) knowledge of the minds of others (parassa ceto-pariyañāõa).4 or Wisdom Liberated (paññā vimutta))... the Venerable Sāriputta.. he became a stream-enterer. p. Fruition.. But a disciple can only attain 1 M.II... please see Answer 4.. Then one day.... please see ‘How You Discern Jhāna Cognitive-Processes’. (5) recollection of past lives (pubbe nivāsānussati)... not enough if a yogi tries to discern feeling alone. (6) of the Direct Knowledges just mentioned.... He attained arahantship by reflecting on only one dhamma....3....... please see Answer 4. but that was because he had meditated on all five aggregates beforehand.. 2 191 192 .. p. In the ‘Anupada Sutta1 The Buddha describes how the Venerable Sāriputta was very skilled in discerning the individual mental formations of his jhāna attainments. but the Arahant Path of disciples is not. At the end of the teaching..III. he cannot attain Nibbāna. 3. (4) divine eye (dibba cakkhu). but that is only so long as all the other dhammas have been discerned before: either in this life or in a past life.180... escape also from the immaterial sphere with the attainment of arahantship. therefore. as well as all special qualities of a Buddha.... and does not discern ultimate mentalitymateriality thoroughly.. Thus.. for example..... p.. 1 The Buddha was a great arahant. p... 2......Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing Nevertheless. (pakatisāvaka bodhi) The Arahant Path of disciples is sometimes associated with the Four Analytical Knowledges (pañisambhidā ñāõa). The Buddha taught the ‘Dī ghanakha Sutta’ to the Venerable Sāriputta’s nephew. Chief Disciple Enlightenment .ii. Then he became a bhikkhu and practised meditation. attained the Path.3 or is sometimes a pure Arahant Path: either Both Ways Liberated (ubatobhāga vimutta).2 But even though the Venerable Sāriputta meditated hard.. and disciples like the Venerables Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallāna who were also arahants? Answer 4. (6) destruction of the taints (āsavakkhaya)... 3 (4). The Arahant Path of disciples comprises the enlightenment (bodhi) of the three types of disciples: Question 4...2.. such as unpleasant feeling..1 sometimes with the Six Direct Knowledges (abhiññā).... and Answer 5... he did not attain arahantship... (5). because of their matured pāramī s. and listening to the teaching. What was the difference between Him...

When we analyse those rūpa-kalāpas. Question 4. except rebirth-linking consciousnesses.10 193 194 . the methods are not the same. the brighter is the colour. They cannot practise by themselves. It is better to practise four-elements meditation with deep concentration like the fourth ānāpānā jhāna. The idea of an intermediate life usually arises when someone dies. As soon as death takes place. then this misbelief would disappear. In Vipassanā you must discern materiality and mentality. So we should like to suggest that you discern dependentQuestion 4. rūpaQuestion 4. a human rebirth-linking consciousness arose again. and he took a human rebirth-linking consciousness again. He would go to hell directly after death. there would be no such thing as an intermediate life. flavour. or a Buddha’s disciple. inhabits the peta world for a short time.8 Answer 4. In the same way. The more powerful the Samatha and Vipassanā meditation-consciousnesses are. nothing like an intermediate life. he always taught four-elements meditation.9 Could the Sayadaw please explain the light experienced in meditation scientifically? Answer 4. These are the differences. We discussed this in a previous question. Of the heart-base-dependent consciousnesses.9 No. fire-. without a teacher. then between his death-consciousness and the deva’s rebirth-linking consciousness. and nutritive essence. ultimate mentality.10 What is the light seen in meditation? Every consciousness (citta). Between a death consciousness (cuti citta) and its subsequent rebirth-linking consciousness (pañisandhi citta). either in brief or in detail. after the peta death-consciousness had passed. the deva rebirth-linking consciousness arises. because it helps us see ultimate materiality. they produce very many rūpa-kalāpas. there would be no consciousness moment or anything like an intermediate life. So if you want to discern materiality. The kammic force of that unwholesome kamma finished after only a short time. because of wholesome kamma that had matured. They are: the earth-. in fact. What is the ‘intermediate life’ (antara bhava)? According to the Theravāda Piñ aka there is no such thing as an intermediate life (antara bhava). But if you do not want to practise Samatha meditation like ānāpānasati. odour. Since. there are no consciousness moments. If a person were to reach the deva world after death. He may think his peta life was something like an intermediate life. What really happened is this: after the human death-consciousness had passed. you can practise the four-elements meditation directly: no problem. colour. Then the question about an intermediate life will disappear from your mind. water-. and is then reborn as a human being again. then between his death-consciousness and the rebirth-linking consciousness in hell. The materiality of colour is bright. you must practise according to The Buddha’s instructions. and their causes clearly. Samatha meditation-consciousnesses (samatha bhāvanā-citta) and Vipassanā meditation-consciousnesses (vipassanā bhāvanā-citta) are very strong and powerful.8 origination with your own insight-knowledge. which arises dependent upon the heart-base (hadaya-vatthu) produces consciousness-produced materiality (cittaja rūpa). and wind-elements. if a person were to reach hell after death. One consciousness produces many consciousness-produced rūpakalāpas. we see the eight types of materiality. The short life in the peta world is mistaken for an intermediate life by those who cannot see the reality of the round of rebirths or dependent-origination.Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing the Path and Fruition Knowledges by listening to Dhamma related to the Four Noble Truths from a Buddha. even though it was. When The Buddha taught discernment of materiality. Are the methods for ānāpānasati (mindfulness-ofbreathing) and four-elements meditation the same? Why must we practise four-elements meditation only after ānāpānasati? Answer 4. the peta rebirth-linking consciousness arose. or anything resembling an intermediate life. also called rūpa-kalāpas. which is why there are two types of meditation: discernment of materiality and discernment of mentality. If they could discern dependent-origination with insight-knowledge. The person suffered in the peta world because of his unwholesome kamma. and their causes.

On the way. He always practised internal skeleton meditation as repulsiveness up to the first jhāna. Again. there is the fire-element. attained the first jhāna. I saw only a skeleton going this way. be able to see another’s skeleton with his eyes open. They can see the internal parts only with their insight-knowledge eyes. he met a woman who tried to attract his attention with loud laughter. I saw neither man nor woman. but temperature-produced colour-materiality arises both internally and externally and spreads in all directions up to the whole world system or universe (cakkavāëa) or farther. and windelements.i ‘Indriyasa§varasīla§’ B15 (‘Sense Restraint Morality’ Ñ55) 196 . odour. because they are produced by the fireelement. fire-. and also met Mahā Tissa Mahāthera. like in an electric bulb. etc. A Buddha’s Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality produces light in up to ten thousand world systems. which also produces many new rūpa-kalāpas. If you want to know this scientifically. Usually many yogis realize that this light is a group of rūpakalāpas.Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing kalāpās arise simultaneously as well as successively. That is the most scientific way to understand the light experienced in meditation. and not as a woman. who was an expert in skeleton meditation. This was his usual practice. Because of his previous constant practice he saw her as a skeleton. Can those who have discerned the thirty-two parts of the body see them in someone else. two leagues. It is not easy to understand. They are called temperatureproduced materiality. When we analyse these rūpa-kalāpas we see the same eight types of materiality: the earth-. Then he concentrated on his own skeleton. may because of previous practice. because the rūpa-kalāpas are very subtle.in every direction depending on the power of their Samatha and Vipassanā meditation-consciousnesses. Consciousnessproduced colour-materiality arises internally only. please try to see it yourself with your insight-knowledge. water-. When he heard the sound. he looked her way. One day he went for alms (piõ apāta). in each rūpa-kalāpa produced by Samatha and Vipassanā meditation-consciousnesses. The Venerable Anuruddha’s divine-eye consciousness (dibba-cakkhu citta) produced light in up to one thousand world systems. however. and had left home to go to her parents’ house. and nutritive essence. Other disciples’ insight-knowledge produces light going up to one league (yojana). like the Venerable Mahā Tissa. While practising Samatha meditation. lay-supporter (dāyaka). and then Vipassanā. Her husband followed her. He asked him. ‘Oh. and then used them for skeleton meditation. So the brightness of one colour. The light of consciousness-produced materiality and temperature-produced materiality appear simultaneously. did you see a woman go this way?’ The Mahāthera answered.. colour. and the brightness of another colour arise closely together. A Mahāthera. Because of the power of the Samatha and Vipassanā meditation-consciousnesses. their causes. from Anuradhapura to Mahāgāma village. He discerned mentalitymateriality.11 It depends. and practised Vipassanā quickly. saw only her teeth. ‘Bhante. the colour of one rūpa-kalāpa and the colour of another rūpa-kalāpa arise closely together like in an electric bulb: that is why light appears. Beginners can with their eyes open see only the external parts. Colour is again one of them.11 1 Vs. they do not yet understand that it is a group of rūpa-kalāpas. He attained the arahant path standing in the road. that colour too is bright. you should try to acquire the 195 Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away. depending on the power of the Samatha and Vipassanā meditation-consciousnesses. This occurs externally as well as internally. and see the rūpa-kalāpas when practising only Samatha meditation. which is temperature (utu). flavour. He saw only a skeleton. and nature of impermanence. The woman had quarrelled with her husband. when they have reached the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away. If you want to know with certainty.’ This story is mentioned in the Visuddhi Magga in the Morality Chapter. and non-self.1 Question 4. with their eyes open? Answer 4. suffering.

like Mahā Tissa Mahāthera. practised skeleton meditation thoroughly may be able to see another’s skeleton with his eyes open.odd page 197 198 .Questions and Answers 4 Knowing and Seeing This is an example of how someone who has.

6 The Four Stages to Discerning Mentality Mentality is discerned in four stages: 1. If you want to discern mentality. we discussed how to develop four-elements meditation. smells. 5 These are the immaterial jhānas. The ‘process-freed’ (vīthi mutta) consciousness outside the cognitive-process: at rebirth and death.1 There are a total of eighty-nine types of consciousness. fine-material realm (rūpāvacara). you must see them as they occur in that natural order.3 We may.211 For the mind-faculty’s taking of all objects. speak of just two basic types of consciousness: 1. before he starts on discernment of mentality (nāma kammaññhāna). one-pointedness (ekaggatā).12 For the four realms of existence. life-faculty (jīvitindriya).12. please see footnote 1. perception (saññā). please see p. As is explained in the Abhidhamma. or four-elements meditation. the sensual realm (kāmāvacara). (Vs. and Tables 4&5 p. immaterial realm (arūpāvacara).xviii ‘Diññhi Visuddhi Niddesa’ D664 (‘Description of Purification of View’) 199 200 . we shall discuss briefly about how to discern mentality (nāma kammaññhāna). To discern all the types of consciousness (citta) that occur internally. 6 VsTi. please see Answer 3. p. There are fifty-two such associated mental factors.3 Each cognitiveprocess comprises a series of different types of consciousness. tastes. and attention (manasikāra). which is the next stage in Vipassanā meditation. 127. and body-door cognitive-processes.213 4 These are the four jhānas. or indeterminate. The consciousnesses in any one cognitive-process occur according to the natural order of consciousness (cittaniyāma). please see quotation p. intention (cetanā).Knowing and Seeing Talk 5 How You Discern Mentality Introduction In our last talk. however. Let me begin by explaining briefly the basic facts of the mind necessary to understand the discernment of mentality.127 For details regarding the bhavaïga. In this talk. or according to their realm of existence. The first five are the eye-door-.xviii ‘Diññhi Visuddhi Niddesa’ B663 (‘Description of Purification of View’) Ñ3-4). whose respective objects are visible forms. ear-door-.2 and they can be classified according to whether they are wholesome. another Samatha meditation subject. p. p. or supramundane realm (lokuttarā). unwholesome. the mind consists of a consciousness (citta) that knows its object. They are together called the ‘five-door cognitive-process’ (pañcadvāra vīthi). feeling (vedāna). To do so. There are six types of cognitive-process. but not the Base of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception. nose-door-.8 (‘Uõõābha Brahmin Sutta’) 3 Please see also Table 6. The consciousness of the cognitive-process (citta vīthi). and also how to analyse the particles of materiality called ‘rūpa-kalāpas’. tongue-door-.1 The sixth type of cognitive-process has all objects2 as its objects. Although to discern sensual realm mentality. or first discern the mentality of the jhānas he has attained (fine-material4/immaterial mentality5). 1 2 1 2 3 4 Mentality consists thus of 1 consciousness + 52 mental factors = 53 types of mentality For the eighty-nine types of consciousness. for example: contact (phassa). Please see also Table 5. he too needs first to have finished the discernment of materiality. A Samatha-vehicle yogi. A pure-Vipassanā -vehicle yogi must also have finished the discernment of materiality (rūpa kammaññhāna). however. can choose: he can first discern materiality. 2. and in the bhavaï 4 ga. and associated mental factors (cetasika) that arise with that consciousness. and tangibles.173ff. you must first have developed concentration with either ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing). sounds. and is called the ‘mind-door cognitive-process’ (manodvāra vīthi). p.

add one more......... add one more.....5 ...... (manodvārāvajjana) (12 mental formations) Applied thought .. The five jhāna factors are: 1.. to discern the mentality of jhāna you begin by re-establishing the first jhāna with................... 4............. until eventually you see all thirty-four types of mental formation in each first-jhāna impulsion-consciousness.. Emerge from it and discern the bhavaï (mind-door).i.... After this.. The first reason is that when developing jhāna.... and its thirty-three mental factors: (The five in italics are the jhāna factors...... for example........... for example.... If you have attained jhāna with..... you need to discern the remaining twenty-nine mental formations...) (1) consciousness (2) contact (3) feeling [bliss] (4) perception (5) volition (6) one-pointedness (7) life faculty. Having discerned the five jhāna factors in this way.. The second reason is that the jhāna impulsion-consciousnesses (jhāna javana-citta) occur many times in succession.....................1 You begin with either consciousness (viññāõa). ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing)........... There are two reasons for this... Then add one mental formation at a time: discern first one type............ and easy to discern.. 201 202 ... The thirty-four mental formations of the first jhāna are the jhāna consciousness.........… This is not the psychic power of penetrating the mind of others (ceto-pariya-ñāõa)........ which means you have some experience in discerning those associated mental factors............................. tors according to their individual characteristic... When the nimitta appears in the bhavaï discern the mental formations that are the five jhāna facga.. that is.. Hence.......... (ekaggatā) One-pointedness of mind on the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta......... This is in contrast to a sensual-realm cognitive-process (kāmāvacara vīthi).... in which impulsion (javana) occurs only seven times before a new cognitiveprocess occurs.. 3............. and are therefore prominent........ 4.How You Discern Mentality Knowing and Seeing 2.............. or he abides contemplating mind as mind externally. To discern external mentality (bahiddha nāma) generally........ then add one...(sukha) Happiness about the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta.. it is usually not possible to discern external mentality in detail........................ so you discern two types of mental formation.... so you see three.................. the cognitive-processes (vīthi) that occur at the six sense-doors (dvārā)..... Joy .... 5.......... and the ānāpāna pañ iga bhāga-nimitta together. (8) attention (9) applied thought (10) sustained thought (11) decision (12) energy (13) joy (14) desire (15) faith (16) mindfulness (17) shame of wrongdoing (18) fear of wrongdoing (19) non-greed (20) non-hatred (21) neutrality of mind (22) tranquillity of mental body (23) tranquillity of consciousness (24) lightness of mental body (25) lightness of consciousness (26) malleability of mental body (27) malleability of consciousness (28) wieldiness of mental body (29) wieldiness of consciousness (30) proficiency of mental body (31) proficiency of consciousness (32) rectitude of mental body (33) rectitude of consciousness (34) wisdom faculty........... A mind-door adverting-consciousness ..........5 2 Jhāna cognitive processes are fine-material realm cognitive processes (rūpāvacara)....................... Practise until you can discern these five mental formations (mental factors) all at once in each first-jhāna impulsion-consciousness (javana-citta).. so you see four etc...... contact (phassa).......... whichever is most prominent.. To discern each and every mental formation (nāma dhamma) in all the types of consciousness.. The six types of consciousness are first: 1..... To discern the sequences of consciousnesses.. but Vipassanā power.... Please see also quotation ‘Aggregates Sutta’ p. (vicāra) Maintaining the mind on the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta......... or feeling (vedanā)...1 2.......... 1 1 M....................... (vitakka) Directing and placing the mind on the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta..........10 ‘Satipaññhāna Sutta’ (‘Mindfulness Foundations Sutta’) In this way he abides contemplating mind as mind internally.. How You Discern Jhāna Cognitive-processes Sustained thought .......... the best place to start to discern mentality is the jhāna consciousnesses and associated mental factors...... 3... you discerned the five jhāna factors............................... Bliss........ ānāpānasati.......I.......2 So...........(pīti) Liking for the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta. One-pointedness ................... discern all the types of mental formation in the sequence of six types of consciousness that comprises a mind-door cognitive-process (manodvāra vīthi) of the first jhāna......

... and fourth ānāpānā -jhānas.. you then move on to discern the different mental formations of a cognitive-process of the sensual realm (kāmāvacara vīthi).. You need..... 3.. and to give you an understanding of mentality (nāma) as a whole..... to all thirty-four mental formations.. some time.. emerge from it..... If you look at an object and see it as a concept............... woman.... or see it as permanence.... in this case.... where the transparent form of your body sparkles and emits light. the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta....(parikamma) (34 mental formations) An access-consciousness ....... and discern the mentality of that concentration... (3) The immaterial realm (arūpavacara).... with four-elements meditation.1 How You Discern Sensual Realm Cognitive-processes To discern all these mental formations........... If. however.... (anuloma) (34 mental formations) A change-of-lineage consciousness . in the same way.(upacāra) (34 mental formations) A conformity-consciousness .....How You Discern Mentality Knowing and Seeing 2... In exceptional cases..... or self.... or repulsiveness.. and their twelve or thirty-four types of mental formation... (2) The fine-material realm (rūpāvacara). (gotrabhu) (34 mental formations) An uninterrupted sequence of jhāna impulsion-consciousnesses (jhāna javana-citta) (34 mental formations).. If you look at an object and know it as materiality............. an impulsion-consciousness connected with a concept may be wholesome..... After this. be it access or jhāna concentration. then your attention is unwise attention. and the impulsionconsciousness is wholesome..... Having now discerned the different cognitive-processes in all your previous Samatha practice... when practising lovingkindness and making offerings..... white kasiõa-.... cause or effect. mind-door cognitive-process that just occured.... for example.. then your attention is wise attention...... man.... You will see the difference when you discern those cognitive-processes. ga When the nimitta appears in the bhavaï discern the jhāna ga.. 1 The three realms: (1) The sensuous realm (kāmāvacara)......... you must begin your discernment of mentality there: you cannot discern the mentality of a jhāna-consciousness without jhāna... non-self..... which you have by now already discerned....... turn to Vipassanā with a refreshed and clear mind.. silver.. as well as any other jhānas of other meditation subjects that you have attained..... foulness-. You discern each of the different consciousnesses in the first-jhāna mind-door cognitive-process. to discern and analyse the mentality of also the second.. and again discern the bhavaï and pañ ibhāga-nimitta together... In that case. however..... such as a person... where there is only mentality. you must again re-establish the first jhāna.... which is the characteristic of bending towards (namana) and adhering to the object. and the impulsion-consciousness is unwholesome..5 .... impermanence... 6..... you have only access concentration. mentality...... suffering. being......... 5.. Attention determines whether a sensual-realm consciousness is wholesome or unwholesome. happiness... After resting there for Wise and Unwise Attention A cognitive-process of the sensual realm is either wholesome or unwholesome: it depends on wise attention (yoniso manasikāra) or unwise attention (ayoniso manasikāra)... discern the characteristic common to all mentality (nāma). the hells and the deva-worlds............ and lovingkindnessjhāna.... where the materiality is very subtle. gold... 203 204 . third. such as the first ānāpānā -jhāna.......... for example. which includes the Brahma worlds... 4. A preparatory-consciousness ... you must with four-elements meditation re-establish access concentration.... which includes the human world..

..... please see ‘Table 1’ p......... teriality (rūpa-rūpa).. 3......... add one more....... cognize it as ‘This is colour’...169 205 206 ........... 3.......How You Discern Mentality Knowing and Seeing How You Discern Mind-Door Cognitive-processes To discern sensual-realm cognitive-processes. and see how there occurs a mind-door cognitive-process............. 1........... (javana-citta) (34/33/32 mental formations) Two registration-consciousnesses ... you cause an eye-door cognitiveprocess to occur.................5 ... and ten types of artificial materiality... 7..... transparent element’....(pañcadvārāvajjana) (11 mental formations) An eye-consciousness . so you see four etc................... starting with the eye-door cognitive-process... (santīraõa) (11/12 mental formations) A determining-consciousness .... and see how there occurs first an eye-door cognitive-process... First...... (voññhapana) (12 mental formations) Seven impulsion-consciousnesses .... 2.... The eye-door cognitive-process will consist of a sequence of seven types of consciousness.. until eventually you see all thirty-four.... you then do as you did with the jhāna mind-door cognitive-process: begin with either consciousness. so you see three.. First....... and ten types of artificial materiality (arūpa-rūpa) examined when you discerned materiality (rūpa kamaññhāna).. (mano-dvārā-vajjana) (12 mental formations) Seven impulsion-consciousnesses ... or ‘This is materiality’ (or impermanent......(cakkhuviññāõa) (8 mental formations) A receiving-consciousness . so you discern two types of mental formation........... You may start with a wholesome mind-door cognitive-process. For a list of the eighteen types of real materiality...... 6..... and then the ga eye transparent-element (cakkhu pasāda) in a rūpa-kalāpa in the eye......... you discern the bhavaï (mind-door)... non-self or repulsive)...... you should start by discerning a mind-door cognitive-process.. (javana-citta) (34/33/32 mental formations) Two registration-consciousnesses .. (tadārammaõa-citta) (34/33/32/12/11 mental formations) To discern all this..(sampañicchana) (11 mental formations) An investigating-consciousness . 4....... all with the same object................... 2...... A wholesome mind-door cognitive-process of the sensual realm consists of a sequence of three types of consciousness: 1..... suffering.... you first discern the eye-door........ then add one.... add one more......... You need to thus discern the mind-door cognitive-processes that take place when you look at each of the eighteen types of real ma- Once you have finished discerning the mind-door cognitiveprocesses.......... then the bhavaï (mind-door). Then add one mental formation at a time: discern first one type...... (tadārammaõa-citta) (34/33/32/12/11 mental formations) 1 When discerning materiality......... you should go on to discern the five-door cognitiveprocesses... because there the types of consciousness are fewer........................1 How You Discern Five-Door Cognitive-processes A mind-door adverting-consciousness .............. you cause a mind-door cognitive-process to occur................... Then................... To discern the mental formations of each consciousness in an eye-door cognitive-process......................... When it appears in the bhavaï you cognize it as: ‘This is eyega..... 5. You should do this again and again until you are satisfied......... A five-door adverting-consciousness . Then concentrate ga on the colour of a nearby group of rūpa-kalāpas as it appears in both doors................. and then both at once. to discern the different types of mental formation in the consciousnesses of that mind-door cognitive-process.. and then (in accordance with the natural order of the mind (citta niyāma)) many mind-door cognitive-processes............... feeling...... Talk 4 ‘How You Discern Materiality’ explains only how to discern . or contact: whichever is most prominent.... thirty-three or thirty-two types of mental formation in each consciousness of a wholesome mind-door cognitive-process of the sensual realm... all these types of materiality need to be discerned........

A mind-door adverting-consciousness Seven impulsion-consciousnesses Two registration-consciousnesses As mentioned earlier. and ga then the three types of consciousness of the mind-door cognitiveprocess. 2. For details regarding temperature-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas etc. you will see also animate materiality (transparent materiality. 3. You will see that your clothes break down into rūpa-kalāpas. In summary. etc. including the trees. and body.213f It is understood that the supramundane types of consciousness are as yet out of reach. By this stage. They are temperature-produced nutritive-essence octad-kalāpas (utuja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa). gradually expand your field of discernment to the materiality in the building in which you are sitting.2 You have discerned each and every mental formation (nāma dhammā) in all the types of consciousness. You are discern only their materiality. you then discern the cognitiveprocesses of the other four doors: the ear. As you did for the eye-door.139 207 208 . This is merely a brief explanation. and then with the light of concentration discern external materiality a little farther away. In this way. or a being: only materiality. and then externally in the clothes you are wearing. a person. that is.5 .1 You should alternate between the internal and external materiality three or four times. You have discerned the sequences of consciousnesses. You begin by discerning the four elements internally. the cognitive-processes (vīthi) that occur at the six sense-doors.1 Here again. please see p. external materiality that has consciousness. add one at a time. and see that they are not a man. Discern all 1 1 2 For details. please see Tables 5 & 6.. you will have developed the ability to discern mentality associated with wholesome consciousnesses. 2. you simply take the same objects as you did for the wholesome consciousnesses. there is also a fourth stage to discerning mentality. The fourth stage is to discern mentality also externally. until you discern all inanimate materiality externally. and should again alternate between the internal and external three or four times. or feeling. contact. tongue. you have so far completed the first three stages of discerning mentality: 1. etc. you begin with the most prominent of either consciousness. the area around it. but the examples given here should be sufficient for you at least to understand what is involved in discerning mentality internally. p. As before. You have discerned all the types of consciousness (citta) that occur internally. nose. etc. and the temperature they arise from is the temperature in rūpa-kalāpas. you now go on to discern all animate materiality: the materiality of other living beings. Once you have discerned all inanimate materiality externally.How You Discern Mentality Knowing and Seeing 3. until you see all the different types of mental formation in each consciousness. How You Discern External Mentality Having discerned the above two series. and that you are able to discern the eight types of materiality in each. To do this.) in the inanimate objects: it is the insects and other small animals in the trees. and now need to discern mentality associated with also unwholesome consciousnesses.. While doing this. buildings. You will also there be able to discern the eight types of materiality in each rūpa-kalāpa. you then discern all the remaining types of mental formation of the mind-door cognitiveprocesses: the mind-door cognitive processes that with the same object (colour) follow the eye-door cognitive process. other buildings. as described before: 1. and instead pay unwise attention to them. such as the floor. a woman. After this follows a sequence of bhavaï -consciousnesses.

the Knowledge of Analysing MentalityMateriality (nāma-rūpa pariccheda ñāõa). Lastly. you should first see the six basic types of rūpakalāpa1 in your own eye. Our next talk will be about the next stage of insight: the discernment of dependent-origination (pañiccasamuppāda). Then you should discern them together throughout the infinite universe. when the colour of a group of rūpa-kalāpas appears in both doors. and the many mind-door cognitive-processes that occur. p.161f. p. please see p.162f. men. and then in an external eye.5 . you do as you did internally. If you have jhāna. 209 210 . discern also here the eye-door cognitive-process that occurs.169 For the fifty-three types of mentality. 2 Although you have in fact discerned sixty-three types of materiality. Six basic types of rūpa-kalāpa: (1) eye decad-kalāpas. all with the same object. then all the different types of materiality both internally and externally. you should (if you can) also discern external jhāna mind-door cognitive-processes. and then five-door cognitive-processes.and Brahma-worlds. although jhāna concentration is now very.How You Discern Mentality Knowing and Seeing external materiality at once. you proceed to discern mentality internally and externally. To do this. Following the same procedure as before. Having now discerned materiality completely. discern the fiftyfour types of materiality. That concludes the discernment of mentality (nāma kammaññhāna). Then. you define all that mentality and materiality with wisdom to see no beings. you will have developed concentration.199. and will have used it to discern all twentyeight kinds of materiality. That may be in another meditator. discerning all their wholesome and unwholesome mental formations. another being’s eye. To do this externally. or women: only mentality and materiality throughout the infinite universe. (3) sex decadkalāpas. You should do this again and again. Please see also p. But you will find beings in jhāna in the deva. until you are satisfied. (2) body decad-kalāpas. you do here discern only fifty-four. As when you analysed materiality. you should gradually extend your range of discernment until you can see materiality throughout the infinite universe. Even page 1 2 For the twenty-eight types of materiality.2 Do the same for the remaining five sense-bases. but now do it both internally and externally. (5) temperature-produced octad-kalāpas. and remaining types of materiality. (4) consciousness-produced octad-kalāpas. (6) nutriment-produced octad-kalāpas. Why you do this is explained in detail. Having reached this stage in your meditation. and can see mentality throughout 1 the infinite universe. internally and externally. very rare in the human world. You discern mentality internally by again starting with the mind-door. please see above footnote 1. and again for each of the other four sense-doors. but discern the eye-door and bhavaï (mind-door) of other beings in genga eral.1 and all fifty-three kinds of mentality throughout the infinite universe:2 you will have completed the first insight-knowledge.

a standing stage (ñhiti) (). 212 .1 1 Please see above Table 6. and Tables 2-4 (p. The ‘knowing’ of the colour and the object is performed by subsequent mind-door cognitive-process. please see Talk 4 ‘How You Discern Materiality’ (p. It is the object of the last impulsion-consciousness of the previous life.131ff).213.127. tongue.PañcaCakkhu.1 Eye-door Cognitive Process Cakkhu-Dvāra Vīthi Material Base Vatthu ⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒ Object Ārammaõa 1⇒ Heart Hadaya 2⇒ 3⇒ 4⇒ Eye Cakkhu 5⇒ 6⇒ 7⇒ 8⇒ 9⇒ 10⇒ 11⇒ Heart Hadaya 12⇒ 13⇒ 14⇒ 15⇒ 16⇒ 17⇒ ⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒ Kamma. 1 For further details. Each consciousness (citta) has a rising stage (uppāda) (↑). only cognizes that there is colour. BPS. 211 Knowing and Seeing • • The cognition of the object is performed by the seven impulsion consciousnesses. The five-door cognitive-process only ‘picks up’ the object.and body-door) have the same structure. The duration of one consciousness is a consciousness-moment (cittakkhaõa). Bhikkhu Bodhi. The life-span of materiality is equal to 17 consciousness-moments. A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma. nose-. does not ‘know’ the colour or the object yet.SampañicBhavaïga Bhavaïga Calana upaccheda Dvārāvajjana viõõāõa chana Santīraõa Voññhapana Javana Javana Javana Javana Javana Javana Javana Tadārammaõa Tadārammaõa Bhavaïga ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ • • • • • • Five-door cognitive processes of either door (eye-. Colour Object Kamma.g. p. Talk 5 ‘How You Discern Mentality’ (p. ear-. The constituents and sequence of five-door cognitive-processes are the same for all: according to the natural law of the mind (citta-niyāma).171ff) and the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha (e. Rūpārammaõa kamma sign (kamma-nimitta) or kamma sign or rebirth sign.199ff).12.Table 5 The Five-Door Cognitive Process (pañcadvāravīthi) with eye-door cognitive process as example. Ed.) 2 Please see also Answer 3. A Buddha has very few life-continuum consciousnesses between each cognitive-process. The object of the life-continuum consciousnesses is the same throughout one life. rebirth sign (gati-nimitta) Past Trembling Arrest Five-door Eye Receiving Investigation Determining 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 1st 2nd Consciousness LifeLifeLifeLifeImpulsion Impulsion Impulsion Impulsion Impulsion Impulsion Impulsion Registration Registration LifeAdverting Citta Continuum Continuum Continuum Continuum Continuum Atīta Bhavaïga Bhavaïg. depending on the person. p. with their respective object. and a passing-away stage (bhaïga)(↓).2 In between each cognitive-process arise any number of life-continuum consciousnesses.

—"— —"— knows which colour it is. 4. as we perceive the object to be permanent (nicca). The constituents and sequence of cognitive-processes are the same for all: according to the natural law of the mind (citta-niyāma). property etc.199ff). Bhikkhu Bodhi.2 In between each cognitive-process arise any number of life-continuum consciousnesses. 6.Table 6 Material Base Vatthu Object Ārammaõa The Mind-Door Cognitive Process (manodvāravīthi) with colour object as example. Answers 3. A Buddha has very few life-continuum consciousnesses between each cognitive-process. LifeMind-door Continuum Adverting Bhavaïga ManoDvārāvajjana 2⇒ 3⇒ 4⇒ 5⇒ 6⇒ Rūpārammaõa 7⇒ 8⇒ 9⇒ 10⇒ Colour Object 1st Impulsion Javana 2nd Impulsion Javana 3rd Impulsion Javana 4th Impulsion Javana 5th Impulsion Javana 6th Impulsion Javana 7th Impulsion Javana 1st Registration Tadārammaõa 2nd Registration Tadārammaõa ⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒ Kamma. and non-self (anatta)). and the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha (e. Mind-door cognitive process that judges and feels.g. Five-door cognitive process that ‘picks-up’ the object. 7. re-inforcing the cognition. After the first cognitive process (the five-door cognitive process). respect for and worship of one’s teacher. The object of the life-continuum processes is the same throughout one life. kamma. The ‘knowing’ of each cognitive-process is performed by the seven impulsion consciousnesses. ‘a sarong’. BPS.12. and a passing-away stage (bhaïga) (↓). p. attachment to one’s husband. sees the whole image. A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma. compares the present colour with a past colour. 2. The whole procedure is: For further details. LifeContinuum Bhavaïga ↑↓ • • • • • • • 1 ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ Mind-door cognitive processes may arise with a preceding 5-door cognitive process. ‘a pot’. This is the beginning of true cognition. depending on the person. It is the object of the last impulsion-consciousness of the previous life. 7. or unwholesome mind-states arise from unwise attention (ayoniso manasikāra). 3. 214 . determined by past experience (perception (saññā)). kamma sign or rebirth sign. 1 Please see Table 5 above.211. And it is from that cognitive process onwards that wholesome mind-states arise from wise attention (yoniso manasikāra).5.1 Mind-door cognitive process that perceives the colour. a Buddha-statue or a bhikkhu.9. —"— —"— knows the ‘meaning’ of the object. a standing stage (ñhiti) (). they may arise with another preceding mind-door cognitive process. knows the past colour. with. suffering (dukkha). follows a series of mind cognitive-processes.) 2 Please see also Answer 3. This process continues until again the mind adverts towards a new object. Ed. Each consciousness has a rising stage (uppāda) (↑). ‘a woman’. in the case of the eye and a colour object. a concept.11. for example. wife. knows the colour’s name. 3.1 Heart Hadaya Consciousness Citta ⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒ 1⇒ Kamma. It is from the fifth cognitive process onwards that there is the knowing of the conceptual reality: ‘a man’. ‘gold’. children.12. 213 Knowing and Seeing 1. with. 7. happiness (sukha).or rebirth sign. for example. (The Vipassanā mind-door cognitive process sees the object as impermanent (anicca). With this same object arise countless cognitive-processes (mental formations (saïkhārā)). 5. ‘silver’ etc. Talk 5 ‘How You Discern Mentality’ (p. it cognizes only that there is colour. when mental proliferation takes place (papañca) and kamma is performed. and self (atta). please see.127.11. p.

and nonself. bright. Fruition. please see p. strong and powerful. The second benefit of jhāna concentration is the benefit of insight (vipassanānisa§sa): Jhāna concentration is a support for insightknowledge. when a yogi has been practising Vipassanā for a long time.151 Please see p. Vis. suffering. Even though pure Vipassanā arahants naturally possess the supramundane jhānas (lokuttāra jhāna). It is another support for the attainment of the Path.201ff 215 216 .xi ‘Samādhi Niddesa’ B362 (‘Description of Concentration’ Ñ120ff) The hindrances are removed already at the attainment of Non-Return (anāgāmi). bright. and four immaterial jhānas. and included in the discernment of mentality. Are there. other benefits to the eight attainments? 2 Answer 5. materiality and their causes clearly. so as to become disgusted with them. because those eight attainments are themselves mentality. to rest the mind. and to see their subtle arising and passing-away. they may still want to develop the mundane jhānas (lokiya jhāna). because they want to enjoy the blissful abiding of jhāna. Samatha protects Vipassanā and vice-versa. or the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa). They practise jhāna concentration for no reason other than the enjoyment of jhāna bliss (jhāna sukha) in this very life. When it happens again he can again rest in jhā na. because with jhāna. A bhikkhu’s duty is to learn the scriptures (pariyatti). to practise Vipassanā meditation (pañipatti). especially up to the Path Knowledge (maggañāõa) and Fruition Knowledge (phalañāõa). Vipassanā in its turn destroys the defilements that hinder concentration. he can thereafter keep his discernment of the jhāna formations to only one of the eight attainments. They make the insightknowledge clear. suffering.Knowing and Seeing Questions and Answers 5 The eight attainments (samāpatti)1 make it possible to attain the Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality (nāma-rūpa pariccheda ñāõa).1 So. This is yoking (yuganaddha) Samatha and Vipassanā together. Since they are arahants. Then again. the concentration of the eight attainments is not only a support for the discernment of mentality-materiality and their causes. Then he should go into jhāna for long.2 And if a yogi has discerned mentality-materiality and their causes (including the eight attainments) as impermanence. it is very easy for them to develop jhāna. and well protected. Furthermore. The third benefit of jhāna concentration is psychic powers (abhiññānisa§sa): If one wants to master the mundane psychic powers. Refreshed he can then switch back to Vipassanā. also protects the jhānas from falling down. This refers to arahants. and can discern their impermanent. When a yogi has practised Vipassanā thoroughly. the divine eye (dibba cakkhu). Vipassanā is clear. and attain the Path Knowledge (maggañāõa). and keeps it stable. with all defilements removed by Path Knowledge (which means also their hindrances have been removed3). and Nibbāna. apart from this. That is what arahants have done. the divine ear (dibba sota). tiredness may occur. knowing the mind 1 2 For a more detailed explanation. like two bullocks pulling one cart. so there is no more work for them to do. because of concentration. like the recollection of past lives (pubbenivāsānussati abhiññā). jhānas are usually stable. That strong and powerful insight-knowledge in its turn. strong and powerful. Another reason why they will usually develop jhāna is that they want to attain cessation (nirodhānisa§sa): it requires mastery of the eight attainments.1 There are five benefits to jhāna concentration: The first benefit of jhāna concentration is a blissful abiding here and now (diññhadhamma sukha vihāra): enjoying jhāna happiness in this very life. and non-self nature.1 1 2 3 The four mundane jhānas. and to attain the four paths and four fruitions (pañivedha). up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa). one can see ultimate mentalityQuestion 5.

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of others (paracitta vijānana), and the supernormal powers (iddhividha), flying, walking on water, etc.,one must develop the ten kasiõas and eight attainments (samāpatti) in fourteen ways.1 The fourth benefit of jhāna concentration is what is called ‘a specific existence’ (bhavavisesāvahānisa§sa). That is, if one wants rebirth in a brahma realm at death, one must develop concentration such as the ten kasiõa-, ānāpānā -, or lovingkindness-jhāna. But to be sure of rebirth in a brahma realm means the jhāna must be maintained up to the moment of death. The fifth benefit of jhāna concentration is cessation (nirodhānisa§sa): the attainment of cessation (nirodha samāpatti), which is the temporary cessation of consciousness (citta), associated mental factors (cetasika) and consciousness-produced materiality (cittaja rūpa). ‘Temporary’ means usually for a day up to seven days, depending on one’s prior determination (adhiññhāna). Only non-returners (anāgāmi) and arahants can attain cessation. And for arahants, apart from when they are asleep, and apart from when they pay attention to concepts, they never stop seeing the arising and passing-away, or just the passing-away of mentalitymateriality and their causes: all day, all night, for days, months, and years.2 Sometimes they get disenchanted and ‘bored’, and just do not want to see those ‘phenomena of passing-away’ (bhaïga dhamma) anymore. But, because their life span is not over, it is not yet time for their Parinibbāna. Therefore, to stop seeing those phenomena of passing-away, they enter cessation. Why do they never stop seeing those phenomena? Because, with arahantship, they have destroyed the hindrances opposite the jhāna factors, and have therefore concentration. The concentrated mind sees ultimate phenomena (paramattha dhamma) as they really are, so it sees always ultimate mentality-materiality as they really
1 2

are, which are the ‘phenomena of passing-away’. When one enters cessation, let’s say for seven days, one does not see the phenomena of passing-away, because (for as long as the attainment lasts) the consciousness and associated mental factors that would have known those phenomena have ceased. Although arahants are able to abide in Nibbāna-attainment, they may still prefer to abide in cessation, because although the Nibbāna-attainment takes the Unformed as object, there remains the mental formation of feeling. But in the attainment of cessation the only formation that remains is the material formation of kamma-, temperature- and nutriment-produced materiality: no consciousness-produced materiality, and no consciousness. To enter cessation, one must establish the first jhāna, emerge from it, and discern the first-jhāna dhammas as impermanence, suffering, or non-self. One must do the same progressively up to the base of boundless consciousness, which is the second immaterial jhāna (viññāõañcāyatana jhāna). Then one must enter the base of nothingness, the third immaterial jhāna (ākiñcaññāyatana jhāna), emerge from it and make four determinations:
1.

2. 3. 4.

To reflect on the limit of one’s life-span, and then within that to determine a period for the attainment of cessation (for example, seven days), at the end of which one will emerge from the attainment. To emerge from the attainment of cessation should one be wanted by a Buddha. To emerge from the attainment of cessation should one be wanted by the Saï gha. That one’s requisites not be destroyed by, for example, fire.

For details, please see Vs.xii ‘Iddhividha Niddesa’ (‘Description of Direct Knowledge’) For related details, please see below, ‘Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away’ p.264ff. Details regarding the path to arahantship, and thence the arahant’s ‘permanent dwelling’ (seeing only the continuous rising and pasing-away of formations) are described by The Buddha in S.III.II.i.5 ‘Sattaññhāna Sutta’ (‘Seven Cases Sutta’).

Then one enters the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, the fourth immaterial jhāna (nevasaññā-nāsaññāyatana jhāna). After only one or two consciousness-moments in that attainment, one enters cessation for the determined period, for example, seven days. One does not see anything while in the attainment, because all consciousness and associated mental factors have ceased.1
1

Vs.xxiii ‘Nirodhasamāpatti Kathā’ B879 (‘Cessation-Attainment Explanation’ Ñ43)

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Question 5.2 Which

is easiest and quickest for the attainment of Nibbāna: using theory to perceive impermanence, suffering, and non-self, or using concentration to discern ultimate phenomena (paramattha dhamma)? Answer 5.2 What is impermanence? Impermanence is the five aggregates.1 This definition is mentioned in many commentaries. If a yogi sees the five aggregates clearly, he can see impermanence, suffering, and non-self: no problem. But without seeing the five aggregates, how can he see impermanence, suffering and nonself? If he tries to do so without seeing the five aggregates, his Vipassanā will be only reciting Vipassanā; not true Vipassanā. Only true Vipassanā produces the Path and Fruition Knowledges. What are the five aggregates? They are the materiality-aggregate, the feeling-aggregate, the perception-aggregate, the formations-aggregate and the consciousness-aggregate. The materialityaggregate is the twenty-eight types of materiality (rūpa). The feeling-, perception- and formations-aggregate are the fifty-two associated mental factors (cetasika). The consciousness-aggregate is the eighty-nine types of consciousness (citta). The twenty-eight types of materiality are what is called materiality, and the fifty-two associated mental factors and eighty-nine types of consciousness are what is called mentality. So, the five aggregates and mentality-materiality are one and the same thing. These are all ultimate mentality-materiality. If a yogi sees these ultimate mentality-materiality, he can practise Vipassanā, and see the impermanent, suffering, and non-self nature of these mentality-materiality. But if he cannot see ultimate mentalitymateriality, how can he practise Vipassanā, since they and their causes are the necessary objects of insight-knowledge? This is true Vipassanā. Only true Vipassanā produces the Path and Fruition Knowledges.
1

In the ‘Mahāsatipañ ñ hāna Sutta’1 The Buddha taught that to attain Nibbāna there is only one way (ekāyana): no other way. What is the way? The Buddha said to practise concentration first, because a concentrated mind can give rise to the seeing of ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes. Again, a concentrated mind can give rise to the seeing of impermanence, suffering, and nonself nature of ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes. But we cannot say which is the quickest way to attain Nibbāna: it depens on one’s pāramī s. For example, the Venerable Sāriputta needed about two weeks’ hard work to attain the arahant path and fruition, whereas the Venerable Mahāmoggallāna needed only seven days. And, Bā hiya Daruciriya needed only to listen to a very short discourse: ‘Diññhe diññhamatta§…’ (In the seeing there is only the seeing.)2 The speed with which they each attained arahantship was because of their individual pāramī s. The Venerables Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallāna had developed their pāramī s for one incalculable (asaïkhyeyya) and a hundred thousand aeons (kappa), and Bāhiya Daruciriya for about one hundred thousand aeons. The Venerables Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallānas’ arahant paths were associated with the Knowledge of Enlightenment of a Chief Disciple (aggasāvaka bodhi ñāõa), whereas Bāhiya Daruciriya’s arahant path was associated with only the Knowledge of Enlightenment of a Great Disciple (mahāsāvaka bodhi ñāõa). The Knowledge of Enlightenment of a Chief Disciple is higher than the Knowledge of Enlightenment of a Great Disciple.3 Since there is only one way to attain Nibbāna, these disciples did not attain arahantship because of a wish: they attained arahantship through present effort supported by their past effort, their pāramī s.
1

Aniccanti khandapañcaka§… Pañcakkhandhā aniccanti. (VbhA.ii.1‘Suttantabhājaniya Vaõõanā’ (‘By Sutta Comment’)). Quoted also above Answer 2.3, p.92

D.ii.9 ‘Great Sutta on the Foundations of Mindfulness’ U.i.10 ‘Bāhiya Sutta’ (‘Bāhiya Sutta’) 3 For the four types of person who attains Nibbāna, please see p.180; for the four types of arahant path, please see Answer 4.7, p.192.
2

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The round of rebirths (sa§sāra) is without beginning or end. Beings are also infinite in number, so those who have been our mother are infinite too. How can we develop lovingkindness by contemplating that all beings have been our mother? Can we attain lovingkindness jhāna (mettā jhāna) by contemplating that all beings have been our mother? Answer 5.3 Lovingkindness meditation does not concern the past and future. It concerns only the present. Only an object of the present can produce lovingkindness jhāna (mettā jhāna), not one of the past or future: we cannot attain jhāna by extending lovingkindness to the dead. In the endless round of rebirths (sa§sāra), there may very well be no one who has not been our father or mother, but lovingkindness meditation is not concerned with the endless round of rebirths. It is not necessary to consider that this was our mother, this our father. In the ‘Karaõī yamettā Sutta’, The Buddha said:
Question 5.3

Mātā yathā niya§puttamāyusā ekaputtamanurakkhe; evampi sabbabhūtesu, mānasa§ bhāvaye aparimāõa§. This means that just as a mother with an only son would give up even her life for him, so a bhikkhu should extend lovingkindness to all beings. This is The Buddha’s instruction. But the attitude of a mother cannot alone lead to jhāna. If we extend lovingkindness with the thought, ‘May this person be well and happy’ it will produce jhāna.
Question 5.4 (The

One can change one’s mind before attaining a path or fruition, but not afterwards. In many suttas, The Buddha taught that the path occurs according to a law of nature (sammatta niyāma). The law of nature says: • The Stream-Entry Path (sotāpatti magga) produces the StreamEntry Fruition (sotāpatti phala), after which one can progress to the once-returner (sakadāgāmi) stage, but one cannot regress to the worldling (puthujjana) stage. • A once-returner can progress to the non-returner (anāgāmi) stage, but cannot regress to the stream-enterer or worldling stages. • A non-returner can progress to arahantship, but cannot regress to the once-returner, stream-enterer or worldling stages. • An arahant attains Parinibbāna at death, and cannot regress to the lower noble stages, the worldling stage, or any other stage. Arahantship is the end. This is a law of nature (sammatta niyāma). Referring to arahantship, The Buddha said many times:1
Answer 5.4

Ayamantimā jāti, natthidāni punabbhavoti. (This is the last rebirth, now there is no new rebirth.) This means that one cannot change one’s mind, and decide to become a bodhisatta after having attained a path or fruition. Moreover, one cannot change one’s mind after having received a definite prophecy from a Buddha or arahant. But one may wish to wait, and become an arahant some time in the future, and then change one’s mind, and attain arahantship in this life. The Visuddhi Magga gives an example of a Mahāthera, the Venerable Mahāsaï gharakkhita, who did this.2 He was expert in the four foundations of mindfulness, had practised SamathaVipassanā up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations, and had never performed a bodily or verbal action without
1 2

following questions are all covered by the same

answer.)
• • • •

Was there a bodhisatta during The Buddha’s time? If so, did he attain a path or was he just a worldling (puthujjana)? Why can a noble one (ariya) not become a bodhisatta? Can a disciple (sāvaka) change to become a bodhisatta? If not, why not? When by following the Sayadaw’s teaching one is able to attain the Path and Fruition Knowledges of Stream-Entry (sotāpatti maggañāõa and sotāpatti phalañāõa), can one choose to not do so, because of a desire and vow to practise the bodhisatta path?
221

For example, D.iii.6 ‘Pāsādika Sutta’ (‘Delightful Sutta’) Vs.i ‘Pañhamasīlapañcaka§’ B20 (‘First Morality Pentad’ Ñ135)

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But if there is a large assembly. Question 5. and because he had in his past lives not received a definite prophecy. you will also escape from the round of rebirths at your Parinibbāna. The way to attain the arahant path is the final path to liberation (vimuttimagga). Is this method [of meditation] for liberation only. concentration (samādhi). I had wanted to see Arimetteyya Buddha. he very soon attained arahantship. a large number of people gathered. so we cannot say how many bodhisattas there were during The Buddha’s time. In each of those lives his skull was crushed.’ And he practised Vipassanā.6 It is for both. if he attained arahantship now. He must choose either one or the other. If you want liberation you can choose to go to Nibbāna. he escapes from the round of rebirths at his Parinibbāna. what is the method? Answer 5. if you want to become a bodhisatta you can choose the bodhisatta way: no problem. and are lapsed kamma (ahosi kamma). try to attain arahantship and succeed. including his skull. but they both escape from the round of rebirths when they attain arahantship. But. ‘Oh.5 son cannot become a Buddha as well as a disciple. A per1 The Venerable Pa-Auk Sayadaw’s audience was almost only Buddhists of the Mahāyana tradition. and thought he was going to attain Parinibbāna. every bone in his body was crushed. then let me meditate. When his disciple told him many people had gathered. In one of his past lives he had tried unsuccessfully to kill his blind parents. If you. and Vipassanā up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations.7 Not all. because they thought he was going to attain Parinibbāna. When a bodhisatta becomes a Buddha. Do all the good and bad kammas of an arahant mature prior to his Parinibbāna? Answer 5.7 1 Please see p. he would not be able to see Arimetteyya Buddha. although he was in fact still a worldling. Is it possible to practise the path to liberation (vimuttimagga) and the path of bodhisatta [path to Buddhahood]1 at the Question 5. you can choose either way.5 Liberation (vimutti) means escape from defilements or the round of rebirths. because he wanted to see Arimetteyya Buddha. as a disciple (sāvaka). For example. The bodhisatta was able to practise the eight attainments. he suffered in hell for many thousands of years. he was killed in about two hundred lives. Some good and bad kamma may mature and produce their results. During The Buddha’s time there was no mention of a definite prophecy to a bodhisatta except for Arimetteyya Bodhisatta. and when he escaped from hell. Now you too are developing Samatha-Vipassanā meditation based on virtuous conduct. But. because they thought he was an arahant. Question 5. we see the three trainings: morality (sīla). and wisdom (paññā).Questions and Answers 5 Knowing and Seeing mindfulness.1 If we look at his practice in those nine lives. who was a bhikkhu named Ajita. for whom the path is not towards arahantship (liberation) but the bodhisatta path towards Buddhahood (saving all beings). Now that he had changed his mind. According to the law of nature we just mentioned. When you have practised the three trainings up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations.6 same time? If so. we mentioned that Sakyamuni Buddha was a bhikkhu in nine of his past lives as a bodhisatta. the unwholesome kamma of one of the Venerable Mahāmoggallāna’s past lives produced its results just before his Parinibbāna. he had decided to wait. In his last life too. and become an arahant only in that dispensation. or is it also for the bodhisatta path? Answer 5. In a previous talk. at the time near his death. kamma that no longer bear any fruit. five mundane psychic powers. the Mahāthera said.181 223 224 . And he had developed sufficient SamathaVipassanā pāramī s to be able to attain arahantship if he wanted to. The Tipiñ aka does not say either when the next Buddha after Arimetteyya Buddha will arise. Due to that unwholesome kamma. If they do not mature they do not produce a result.

A few suttas are said to be taught by disciples like the Venerable Sāriputta. not as a new experience.1 Since we cannot see The Buddha while in concentration.10 Answer 5.8 Now you have accepted that Sakyamuni Buddha attained enlightenment. Just like the path is called the void liberation. Unless unwholesome and wholesome kammas have matured. there will be only old questions and answers. in the ‘Mahākaccāyana Bhaddekaratta Sutta’. When a yogi knows formations (saïkhāra dhamma) as non-self. you cannot. they do not produce any results. and met a Buddha in one of his past lives. especially in yourself. If a yogi possesses this psychic power. It is good (sādhu). which is Nibbāna. there cannot be new questions and answers. and if at that time he sees Nibbāna. Are all suttas taught by The Buddha only? Most of the suttas in the Tipiñ aka are taught by The Buddha.33.11 No. p. They are kamma by name only. for example. did The Buddha say. Here the void liberation means the escape from defilements by seeing the non-self nature of formations. If Dhamma was discussed. This is Question 5. of the Majjhima Nikāya. One of the psychic powers is called recollection of past lives (pubbenivasānussati). and the three entrances to Nibbāna.iv.3 ‘Mahākaccāyana-Bhaddekaratta Sutta’ (‘Mahākaccāyana One-Good-Attachment Sutta’) 2 Please see further the end of ‘Recollection of The Buddha’.1 Question 5. also called voidness. ‘Originally all beings have the Tathāgata’s wisdom and other qualities’? Answer 5. You should consider whether the Tathā gata’s qualities of enlightenment are present in all beings. the Venerable Mahākaccāyana. Nibbāna was given the name voidness (suññatā) because of the path. his Path Knowledge is called the void liberation (suññatā vimokkha).69 225 226 . can we see Him by psychic powers to discuss Dhamma with Him?2 Answer 5. p.11 1 Is the arahant’s perception of voidness (suññatā) in his own five aggregates the same as his perception of voidness in outside inanimate things? Is Nibbāna the same as entering voidness? Answer 5.III. please see also p.8 evident when The Buddha in some of the suttas gives his approval by uttering. Even page Question 5.10 1 Further to Nibbāna as the perception of voidness.110.9 The perception of voidness in one’s five aggregates and in outside inanimate things is the same. he can see that as a past experience only.Questions and Answers 5 Knowing and Seeing Why? The unwholesome kamma had matured. so is the object of the path.9 M. Do you possess any of the Tathāgata’s qualities? Question 5. and the Venerable Ānanda. After His enlightenment. But the suttas taught by disciples have the same meaning as had they been taught by The Buddha.

. 227 228 .. The Fifth Method In our last talk........ pleasure and pain etc... (kammabhava) The results round .......1 It would take some time to explain the many methods in detail....Knowing and Seeing Talk 6 How You See the Links of Dependent-Origination Introduction them is cause and which is effect............ (5) six sensebases.......xvii ‘Paññā Bhūmi Niddesa’ B653 (‘Description of the Soil of Understanding’) Ñ284ff 2 ‘Mahānidāna Sutta’ (‘Great Causation Sutta’ D........... 1 (1) ignorance...... (upadāna) The kamma round . (viññāõa) • Mentality-materiality........ (SA... (kammavañña): • Volitional formations ................. you can also learn how to discern dependent-origination in the other ways taught in the suttas and commentaries.... the ‘Mahānidāna Sutta’ in the Dī gha Nikāya............ ‘Mahānidāna Sutta’ (‘Great Causation Sutta’ D.... 2.... lamentation... and future............. according to the character of his listeners.......... how to discern materiality (rūpa).......... (phassa) • Feeling .......25 2 Please see footnote 1.. (salāyatana) • Contact .226................ and in the talk before that.......... (10) becoming (also translated as existence)... This means discerning dependent-origination (pañiccasamuppāda)..... (7) feeling.................... (9) clinging. recorded in the Pañ isambhidāmagga.. so we shall look at only the two methods we at the Pa-Auk monasteries teach most often to yogis... Please see e................... present..............7 ‘Khajjanīya Sutta’ (‘Being Consumed Sutta’)....... five in the deva/human world) of beings who have attained one of the four path consciousnesses and four fruiPlease see further next page tion consciousnesses. suffering and despair....... taught by The Buddha......1 They can be said to comprise three rounds (vañña).................. Please see also Vs...........II..... in for example.1) quoted ‘Introduction’ p........... Dependentorigination is about how causes and effects operate over the three periods of past..........................4 Dhammaññhitiñāõa Niddeso (‘Standing-on-Phenomena Knowledge Description’)..viii.....ii.............. When you can do this..................... (saïkhārā) • Kamma-process becoming ...... which are the aggregates (four/five in the Brahmā world.. discerning which of 1 The Three Rounds of Dependent-Origination Dependent-origination (pañiccasamuppāda) consists of twelve factors. (4) mentality-materiality....... of the past...... and of the future3....ii..... which enables you to see: 1) The aggregates (khandhā) associated with supramundane states (lokuttaradhamma).......... (kilesavañña): • Ignorance .............. 3) Clan..2)...........................2)........ and then what we call the first method.. and there is a fifth method taught by the Venerable Sāriputta. (taõhā) • Clinging ............ii...... food....... and the‘Nidāna Vagga’ in the Sa§yutta Nikāya...I. you will also be able to discern their causes......... (6) contact.g... The Buddha taught four ways to discern dependent-origination........ we discussed how to discern mentality (nāma).. 2) The aggregates of clinging (upādānakkhandhā)..... (11) birth...... (avijjā) • Craving ...2 Both methods involve discerning the five aggregates (khandha) of the present........I....... (vedāna) Ps.. 4) Concepts such as names and race.......III....... (nāmarūpa) • Six sense-bases . He is not speaking of the psychic power........ appearance. p...... sorrow............ and one round of results (five results):2 1.......II) 3 The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw is here speaking of insight (Vipassanā) power. (vipākavañña): • Consciousness ... pain..................................................... They are what we call the Venerable Sāriputta’s fifth method.........i.... 3. (12) ageing and death...... (8) craving...... (2) volitional formations..................................... Recollection of Past Lives (pubbenivāsānussati abhiññā)... (3) consciousness......... ‘Nidāna Vagga’ (‘Causation Section’ S... If you are able to discern mentality and materiality in the way then described... two rounds of causes (five causes)........................ which enables you to see only the five aggregates of clinging........ or ‘Titthāyatana Sutta’ (‘Sectarian Doctrines Sutta’ A..... The defilements round.......III.

one month ago. flowers. one year ago. because if you cannot discern external mentality-materiality. Let us illustrate with a practical example: the case of making an offering of candles. If. discern all the material elements of the six doors. How You Discern Your Past cognitive-process (manodvāra vīthi) with thirty-four mental formations in each impulsion consciousness-moment. and clinging is the attachment to life as a monk. craving would be the desire and longing for life as a woman. ‘How You Discern Materiality’. in other words. That is because the discernment of past mentality-materiality is similar to the discernment of external mentality-materiality. In the examples. you had instead made a wish to be reborn to become a woman. volitional formations (saïkhāra) are the wholesome intentions (kusala cetanā) of the offering. you discern the mentality-materiality of one day ago. and clinging. and in the same way discern the mentality-materiality. flowers. When the image breaks into rūpa-kalāpas. or to a Buddha image. and starts with discernment of the past. Then you should discern the mentality-materiality that occurred when you made the offering at the pagoda or Buddha image. ignorance. especially the fifty-four elements in the heart-base. You should look among those many minddoor cognitive-processes. two years ago. The discernment of dependent-origination involves seeing this sequence of rounds. or deva. Afterwards. develop concentration. which is the cause for the results round. or incense to a Buddha image. an image of yourself at the time of offering will appear: you should discern the four elements in that image. one week ago. to become a monk. man. Both are found in the consciousnesses that make up the kamma round (kamma vañña) of dependent-origination. and the many mind-door cognitive-processes that arise in-between. This is necessary.How You See the Links of Dependent Origination Knowing and Seeing The defilements round is the cause for the kamma round. are all found in the consciousnesses that make up the defilements round (kilesa vañña). searching backwards and forwards. 229 230 . When you are thus able to discern the mentality-materiality of the defilements round and kamma round of the recent past. In this case. craving. until you find the defilements round (kilesavañña) mind-door cognitiveprocess with twenty mental formations in each impulsion consciousness-moment. craving is the desire and longing for life as a monk. ageing and death (the eleventh and twelfth factors). nun.1 You will then be able to discern the bhavaï ga consciousnesses. you begin by making an offering of either candles. you will have great difficulty discerning past mentality-materiality. or incense at a pagoda. • • • To discern the past. and kamma is their kammic force. When doing this. for example.6 . These three. and clinging would be the attachment to life as a woman. You should make a wish for the rebirth you desire. In this way. to some time previous to the offering. please see above Talk IV. as if they were external objects. Then go back a little further again. and repeat the process. three years ago and so on. Eventually you will be able to discern right back to the mentality-materiality of the rebirth-linking conscious- For how you do this. which is. and kamma-round (kammavañña) mind-door 1 ignorance is to deludedly think that ‘a monk’ truly exists. birth. woman. and discern in turn internal and external mentalitymateriality (nāma-rūpa). you should go back to the more distant past. then • • • ignorance would be to deludedly think that a woman truly exists. you should go and sit in meditation. and making a wish to be reborn to become a monk.

.... 3...... the desire and longing for life as an educated woman is craving (taõhā).. there were four competing kammas....... In this case.... and the preceding ignorance.............. beginning with the four elements. which is not the product of kamma. flowers.. Please see p..... who had reflected on her state of suffering................ an offering or killing............. you will be able to discern also the volitional formations and kamma that produced the resultant (vipāka) aggregates of this life. she examined further the mentality-materiality of that woman...6 2 Please see also Answer 3. and is usually red like a red carpet...... Examples What a Female Yogi Discerned 2.. (gati nimitta) The place where you will be reborn (your destination).. In the five-aggregates realm... When she discerned the mentality-materiality at the time near death......... and had made an offering to the monk.... the attachment to life as an educated woman is clinging (upādāna)..... (kamma nimitta) For example.. Rebirth sign .. a pagoda.... the wholesome intentions (kusala cetanā) to offer fruit to a Buddhist monk are volitional formations (saïkhārā)....... a monk. • • • • • The object appears because of the kammic force that produced the rebirth-linking consciousness (pañisandhi citta).... mentality-materiality arises dependent on consciousness.........1 When looking for the causes of conception.......2 When you discern this.......... and see either the mentality-materiality of the time near death in your previous life..... with the wish for life as an educated woman in a large town.............127 3 There are also so-called non-resultant (avipāka) aggregates: they are the product (phala) of a cause (hetu).. To make this clearer.......... she saw the kamma of a woman offering fruit to a Buddhist monk.. or the object of the near-death impulsion-consciousness (maraõāsanna javana-citta)... Kamma sign ............... She was able (with right view) to discern directly how the kammic force of offering fruit in her past life produced the resultant five aggregates of this life. p..3 After that...... 1 ignorance (avijjā) is to deludedly think that an educated woman in a large town truly exists.. for example..................... another prac231 232 ... Then.... and viceversa.... A man discerned that around the time of the near death impulsion (maraõāsanna javana-citta).. : Again having the thoughts that produced a particular good or bad action in the past..... Kamma... for example.. as in.............. another teaching dhamma........... you should discern the other mental formations of that kamma round and defilements round.... What a Male Yogi Discerned Here is a slightly different example. you go back even further..... The ability to discern causes and effects in this way is called the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition (paccaya-pariggaha ñāõa)........ and clinging.... let us give an example of what one yogi was able to discern........... craving. or an object offered...6 .12... For a human rebirth it is the future mother’s womb.... consciousness-produced materiality. In this life the yogi is an educated woman in a large town in Myanmar. She found that the woman was a very poor and uneducated villager............How You See the Links of Dependent Origination Knowing and Seeing ness (pañisandhi citta) that arose at the conception of your present life. There are three possible objects for the near-death impulsionconsciousness: 1.... and the kamma is their kammic force.... One was the kamma of teaching Buddhist texts.

1 2 For how the future can change. ignorance.How You See the Links of Dependent Origination Knowing and Seeing tising meditation. Then either the kamma. How You Discern More Past Lives When you are able to discern your immediate past life in this way. When he investigated which of the four kammas had produced the resultant five aggregates of this life. cease without remainder. and kamma. With further investigation. discern the causes and effects in future lives. you will see only three sense-bases. When he investigated further (to discern which meditation subject had been practised) he saw it was Vipassanā meditation. at your own Parinibbāna. mentality-materiality cease. and also discerning their causal relation. no further rebirth. a monk. and future. he found it was the kamma of practising meditation.xvii ‘Paññā Bhūmi Niddesa’ (‘Description of the Soil in Which Understanding Grows’ Ñ218ff) 233 234 . present. the one taught by The Buddha. and non-self (anatta) in mentality-materiality. The future you will see. impermanence (anicca). or rebirth sign will appear. and then look into the future until the time of death in this life. Having completed it. please Vs. mentality-materiality. you can now learn what we call the first method. and be a monk who disseminates The Buddha’s teachings. third. and their five results in the present life. because of the force of a particular kamma you performed in this life. you need in the same way to discern progressively back to the second. For details. • • • • • How You Discern Your Future ignorance is to deludedly think that a man. that is. kamma sign. You will have seen the complete cessation of phenomena (dhamma). and feeling. the five aggregates of the past. craving. fourth. eye. until you see that the five aggregates. craving is the desire and longing for it. volitional formations are the acts of practising Vipassanā meditation. In this case. This happens with the attainment of the arahant path (arahatta magga).1 To discern the future. and deva realms. you begin by discerning the present mentality-materiality. which is also mentality-materiality. mentality-materiality. to become a monk. your own attainment of arahantship. in the same way. and which may still change. in this way. is what we call the fifth method. clinging. he had made the wish to be reborn as a human male. in contrast to the six sense-bases that you see in the human-.or future life in the brahma realm. and as many lives back as you can. you can. that is. suffering (dukkha). the six sense-bases. You will then be able to discern the rebirth-linking mentality-materiality (pañisandhināmarūpa) that will be produced in the future life. at the end of the arahant life. You will thus have seen that with the cessation of ignorance. Discerning. please see further p. volitional formations. taught by the Venerable Sāriputta. is the result of both past and present causes. ear and mind. one of which is the meditation you are doing. Should you discern a past. You should then continue discerning into the future. he saw that before and after each meditation sitting. and are able to see the five causes in the past life.6 . contact. and clinging is the attachment to it. seeing the three characteristics.30f Rebirth (jāti) is the manifestation of the aggregates. or a monk who disseminates The Buddha’s teachings is an ultimate reality. Once the power of this insight-knowledge has been developed (by discerning the causes and effects through those past lives). the rebirth-linking consciousness (pañisandhi citta). and finally one teaching meditation. and the kamma is their kammic force. that is.2 You must discern as many lives into the future as it takes till ignorance ceases without remainder.

and becoming. When you have fully discerned the causes of mentalitymateriality in the past. present.6 . and all forms of suffering in the future life. the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw mentions The Buddha’s back-pain (painful body-consciousness). They cause the results in the present life: the resultant consciousnesses (beginning with the rebirth-linking consciousness). which cause the results of birth. you will have completed the second insight-knowledge. which arose from past unwholesome kamma: please see below p. the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition (paccaya-pariggaha ñāõa). and feeling. 1 Please see ‘Mahānidāna Sutta’ (‘Great Causation Sutta’ D. ageing. ‘Nidāna Vagga’ (‘Causation Section’ S. and in forward order. ignorance and volitional formations. You have to look for ignorance. the six sense-bases. and in the course of existence. that is. and future.297.2). craving and clinging in the defilement round. There are then the causes in this life. There are many more details that you can learn by practising with a proper teacher. 235 236 . contact. It begins with the causes in the past life. see how it causes the kamma round. death.How You See the Links of Dependent Origination Knowing and Seeing The First Method The first method1 of discerning dependent-origination (pañiccasamuppāda) goes over three lives. and how the kammic force of the kamma round in turn causes the five aggregates at conception.ii.and first methods.2 mentality-materiality. clinging.II) 2 As an example of this. That concludes our brief explanation of how to discern dependent-origination according to the fifth. craving.

The Venerable Sāriputta was expert in the attainment of cessation (nirodha samāpatti).viii ‘Ānāpānasati Kathā B215’ ‘Mindfulness-ofBreathing Explanation’). When one sees the space.4 One cannot enter an immaterial jhāna attainment directly from the fourth ānāpānā jhāna. before accepting their offerings. Without a nimitta. Thus they were able to enter an attainment while in the standing posture.1 The Venerable Subhūti was expert in lovingkindness meditation. standing or sitting. They knew that if they did this. The Venerable Sāriputta and the Venerable Subhūti are examples of this. are attained by removing a kasiõa object. So they can go into jhāna sitting on a stool or chair. Why not? Immaterial jhānas.Knowing and Seeing Questions and Answers 6 How should a yogi who practises ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing). After emerging from the lovingkindness jhāna he accepted the offerings.2 1 Can one enter an immaterial jhāna attainment (arūpa jhāna samāpatti). They had such lovingkindness for the donors to want to do this. immeasurable and superior wholesome kamma would occur in the donor’s cognitive-process. He entered the lovingkindness jhāna also at every house before accepting the offerings. Question 6. He accepted the offerings only after having emerged from the attainment of cessation. especially the base of boundless-space jhāna (ākāsānañcāyatana jhāna). Question 6. This is why the object is still the in-and-out-breath (assāsa-passāsa).3 There is still a pañ ibhāga-nimitta in the fourth ānāpānā jhāna. If you try continuously in this way.1 Constant practice is necessary in all types of meditation. But those who have enough pāramī s in ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing) can enter jhāna in any posture. what are the conditions needed to have a nimitta? Answer 6. please see p.217 In this case.2 The sitting posture is best for beginners. and enter jhāna? There are many yogis who sit on a small stool to meditate. and when it extends in every direction. the ānāpāna-nimitta which arises depending on the ordinary. After removing the kasiõa object and concentrating on the space (ākāsa) left behind. your concentration will slowly improve.4 ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing)? Answer 6. the kasiõa object will have disappeared. That ānāpānā pañ ibhāga-nimitta arose from the ordinary. the object of the base of boundless-space jhāna will appear. he always entered the attainment of cessation at every house. Why did they do this? They wanted the donor to get the maximum benefit. one must extend it gradually. Walking. although there is no in-and-out-breath. can they enter jhāna? Answer 6. strong and powerful concentration can produce a nimitta. In ānāpānasati you should be mindful of the breath in every bodily posture. try to stop talking. One must extend the space further out to the boundless universe. because the ānāpānā jhāna’s object is the ānāpānā pañ ibhāga-nimitta. A skilled yogi too can enter jhāna in any posture. Only deep. What is the object of the fourth ānāpānā jhāna? If there is no breath in the fourth jhāna. 237 238 . Try to stop thinking. especially the pañ ibhāga-nimitta. You should think about ānāpānā jhāna in the same way.1 Question 6. take no objects apart from the breath: you should watch only the breath. natural breath. so that he can improve and enter jhāna? In other words. and be so with respect. (Assāsa-passāsa nissāya uppannanimittampettha assāsa-passāsa sāmaññameva vutta§. It is explained in the Visuddhi Magga sub-commentary. That is the object of the base of boundless-space 1 For details regarding this attainment. check himself physically and mentally. natural breath is also said to be as assāsa-passāsa (in-and-out breath). how can there be a nimitta? Answer 6. one cannot attain jhāna.3 Does the sitting posture affect the ability for beginners to concentrate. That was his nature.) (VsTi. but who cannot see a nimitta.1 When he went for alms in the village. or practise lovingkindness meditation directly from Question 6.

that is. But that is exceptional. With those powers you can escape from danger.2 Question 6. they do not want to waste time. maybe only the period in which they will die.Questions and Answers 6 Knowing and Seeing jhāna. That is why the bandits were able to crush his bones to the size of rice grains.. kālañca pañikaïkhāmi. If after the fourth kasiõa jhāna. and it happened exactly as he had said.) To die when one has desired to do so is called ‘death by desire’ (adhimutti maraõa).1002)‘Sāriputtattheragāthā’ (‘Venerable Sāriputta Verses’): For details. he practises lovingkindness he may succeed quickly.2 (v. nābhinandāmi maraõa§. There is a stanza uttered by the Venerable Sāriputta:1 Nābhinandāmi jīvita§. where there is no opportunity to develop their pāramī s. especially the fourth white kasiõa jhāna. which is finally the object of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception jhāna (neva-saññā-nā-saññāyatana jhāna). but on the day when his unwholesome kamma matured he could not enter jhāna. nibbisa§ bhatako yathā. That is why we teach white kasiõa meditation before lovingkindness meditation. This can usually be done by matured bodhisattas only.6 The degree of concentration required is that of the psychic power of supernormal powers (iddhividha abhiññā).XVII. choose the time of one’s death? Answer 6. and its object. If his light is not strong enough it may be a little bit problematic. This was not because of defilements or hindrances: it was only because of his matured unwholesome kamma.6 1 2 can one decide when to die. Without removing the kasiõa one cannot go to the immaterial jhānas. and then wants to go to immaterial jhānas. You should remember the case of Venerable Mahāmoggallāna. p. like a government servant who waits for pay-day. which in its turn is the object of the base of boundless consciousness jhāna (viññāõañcāyatana jhāna). so sometimes they decide to die. But these people do not die and attain Parinibbāna according to their own wish: it is according to the law of kamma. So the four immaterial jhānas are based on a fourth kasiõa jhāna.2 Thinking he was Question 6. be without fear at that time. The Visuddhi Magga mentions a Mahāthera who attained Parinibbāna while walking. He was expert in psychic powers. The absence of the base of boundless-space jhāna is the object of the base of nothingness jhāna (ākiñcaññāyatana jhāna). but not exactly like the Mahāthera just 1 2 3 For details regarding how you develop the immaterial jhānas. no problem. you can know the exact time of your Parinibbāna. They do not know the exact time. depending on the power of one’s meditation. please see p. (I do not love life. and then told his fellow-bhikkhus that he would attain Parinibbāna when reaching that line. present and future. please see Answer 2. he should first practise the ten kasiõas up to the fourth jhāna. but not if you have a matured unwholesome kamma ready to produce its result.90 Vs. So if a yogi practises ānāpānasati up to the fourth jhāna. I do not love death.5 How mentioned. to develop their pāramī s. for example in an air crash.2. Only then can he go on to the immaterial jhāna. If one day we were to die in an accident. the relationship between causes and effects of the past.3 First he drew a line on his walking path.79ff For details in this regard.5 If you have practised ānāpānasati (mindfulness-ofbreathing) up to the arahant path. and take rebirth in the human world. and be liberated? What degree of concentration is required? Answer 6. could our mind at that time ‘leave’ so that we would not have any bodily pain? How? Can one. Those who are not arahants can also know their life span if they have practised dependent-origination (pañiccasamuppāda). I await the time of Parinibbāna.viii ‘Ānāpānasati Kathā B238’ ‘Mindfulness-of-Breathing Explanation’ Ñ244 Theragāthā. Why do they do so? When they are reborn in the celestial realms. He must see the person who is the object of lovingkindness with the light of the fourth ānāpānā jhāna. please see 224 239 240 .1 If he wants to practise lovingkindness meditation (mettā bhāvanā) from the fourth ānāpānā jhāna he can do so.

the tongue-base. and non-self (anatta) nature of formations (saïkhāra dhamma). nor be able to practise Vipassanā. and regain his psychic powers. if you have no unwholesome kamma about to mature. and attained Parinibbāna there. you attain Parinibbāna. and only then could he regain his psychic powers. If you enter jhāna at the time of danger. and wholesome kammas (kusala kamma) produce good results. you should at the time of danger quickly enter jhāna. this is a law of nature (sammatta niyāma).6 The Buddha did not say: ‘Everything is impermanent’. Do you understand? Wholesome kammas produce good results and unwholesome kammas produce bad results. however. But ordinary jhāna concentration and insight-knowledge. That means you need to have fully developed the mastery of entering jhāna. Should you. That is their nature. suffering (dukkha). Does that mean that the wholesome and unwholesome kammas are permanent (nicca)? Please think about it. the body-base and the heart-base. Is it permanent? Please think about it. the nose-base. This too is a natural law. Thus. they are impermanent. If it were permanent. The law of kamma says unwholesome kammas (akusala kamma) produce bad results. cannot save you from such danger. After swimming for seven days and seven nights. This is called wholesome kamma of listening to Dhamma (Dhammasāvana kusala kamma). This is a natural law. there may also be a chance to escape from this danger. and reach a happy realm after death. due to good kamma alone. If the wholesome kammas are permanent then consider this: Now you are listening to Dhamma concerning The Buddha Abhidhamma. then during your whole life you would have only this kamma. The six-bases are the eye-base. and only then could he enter jhāna again. nor jhāna. As soon as they arise they pass away. you may go up to one of the brahma realms. Question 6. you can escape from an air crash. If you are in jhāna at the moment of death. which ensures a long life. just like Mahājanaka bodhisatta. He made a determination (adhiññhāna) that his body should become whole again. then that wholesome kamma may save you. Then he returned to his Kalasī la Monastery. v. You should discern the impermanent (anicca). (Dhp. He said: All formations are impermanent. not have 1 psychic powers. he was eventually saved by a deva. and have psychic powers. you may attain one of the paths (magga) and fruitions (phala). please see also p. the ear-base. If you are skilled at Vipassanā. But if you attain arahantship. no other.277 ) 241 242 .7 1 For the dependence between mind and body (mentality-materiality).Questions and Answers 6 Knowing and Seeing dead. but it does not mean that the kammas are permanent. These six bases are in your body. He was the only person to survive a shipwreck. The mind cannot leave the body. the bandits left. Similarly.1 We can. however. This is the natural law of kamma (kamma niyāma). after which it lost its power. Wholesome intentions (kusala cetanā) and unwholesome intentions (akusala cetanā) are kamma. one who has received a definite prophecy cannot abandon his bodhisatta practice. Are these fixed laws in accordance with the law of impermanence? Answer 6. A mind cannot arise in this human world without a base. because the mind arises dependent upon one of the six-bases. but we cannot say for sure. After attaining the path and fruition. If you have good enough kamma. If you can practise Vipassanā thoroughly before death takes place. His matured unwholesome kamma first produced its result. We can in fact say that the reason why one meets with this type of accident in the first place may be that one’s unwholesome kamma is about to mature. But The Buddha declared that everything is impermanent1. a noble one (ariya) does not regress to become a worldling (puthujjana). you may still escape. That is why the mind cannot leave the body. then you should practise it at the time of danger. and then went to request The Buddha for permission to attain Parinibbāna.7 Here you should understand what is fixed and what is permanent. suggest that if you have jhāna.

Satthāradassana§ (sight of the Master): he meets a Buddha. adhikāro ca chandatā. he became a worldling (puthujjana) again. in his last life our Sakyamuni bodhisatta practised very hard (for over six years) to attain arahantship associated with Omniscient Knowledge (sabbaññuta ñāõa). This is also a law of nature. This is a natural law. Now there is no fruit on the tree. Here you should think about this: to attain arahantship is not easy. he must have practised Vipassanā thoroughly up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa). but the force of Path Knowledge exists in the mentality-materiality process of those who have attained a path. but it is certain that one day it will bear fruit. but we do not say they are permanent (nicca).ii. but that does not mean it does not exist. when the force matures. Adhikāro (extreme dedication): he has sufficient pāramī s to receive a definite prophecy from a Buddha. Liïgasampatti: he is a male. and has a natural result. the future prince Siddhattha had made the wish to attain (and the future princess Yasodharā had made the wish for him to attain) Omniscient Knowledge in the presence of many billions of Buddhas. Hetu (cause or root): he has sufficient pāramī s to attain arahantship while listening to a Buddha utter a short stanza related to the Four Noble Truths. it produces its result. Let us now discuss the natural fixed law. They are also impermanent (anicca). According to the ‘Yasodharā Apadāna’. And one way in which he developed his pāramī s was to make a bridge of himself for Dī paï kara Buddha and a hundred thousand bhikkhus to cross. branches. Suppose there is a mango tree. and Nibbāna. the law of nature (sammatta niyāma). and that one day. In this connection. bark and stems we cannot see it. Pabbājjā guõasampatti. We say path and fruition dhammas are dhammas of a natural law. because one day that tree will produce fruit. 6.Questions and Answers 6 Knowing and Seeing But the force of kamma. still exists in the mentality-materiality process. But it cannot result in lower fruits. You can imagine how hard it was. hetu satthāradassana§. 1 Buddhava§sa. That force exists because of a natural fixed law. let us look at when a bodhisatta can receive a definite prophecy. We say the force of kamma exists in the mentality-materiality process as a capacity. So if after attaining arahantship with enormous difficulty. Pabbājjā (going forth): he has gone forth as a hermit or bhikkhu. Guõasampatti (possession of qualities): he has acquired the eight attainments (samāpatti) and five mundane psychic powers (abhiññāõa). knowing that this act would cost him his life. and is a contributing cause for higher and higher fruits. he must have sowed the seeds of knowledge (vijjā) and conduct (caraõa) for Omniscient Knowledge in a previous Buddha’s dispensation. 7. what would be the fruit of the practice? You should think about this carefully. the force of the Stream-Entry Path (Sotāpatti magga) results in the Stream-Entry Fruition (Sotāpatti phala). and has strong and firm faith in the law of kamma.59 ‘Sumedha-patthanā Kathā’ (Chronicle of Buddhas: ‘Sumedha’s Aspirations Explanation’) 243 244 . 2. Aññhadhammasamodhānā abhinīhāro samijjhati. For example. You have to practise with great effort: strong and powerful perseverance is necessary. That means.1 Manussatta§ liïgasampatti. For example. 5. and had developed all the pāramī s under their guidance. fruition. 4. 3. He can receive a definite prophecy when the following eight conditions are fulfilled: 1. In other words. Manussatta§: he is a human being. What is that capacity? If we study the leaves. the capacity to produce the results of kammas. In the same way we do not say wholesome and unwholesome kammas are permanent. You could say the capacity to produce fruit exists in the tree. That means he must in previous lives have practised the pāramī s necessary for attaining Omniscient Knowledge (sabbaññuta ñāõa).

but the force of kamma. Making an aspiration or wish alone is not enough to attain Omniscient Knowledge. That does not mean it is permanent. also could not be changed. he would be able to tell you that the tree was going to bear fruit in four months. at the time of Dī paï kara Buddha. Now. Even after the definite prophecy. the eight conditions must already be fulfilled. our Sakyamuni Bodhisatta was the hermit Sumedha. could not perish so long as he has not attained Omniscient Knowledge. Here fixed law means that the result of that arahant path cannot change. before attaining enlightenment he was still a worldling. and he saw flowers and small leaves growing out from the tree. In the same way. that is the definite prophecy. especially the kammic force of his pāramī s. namely that a Buddha would have uttered false speech. Dī paï kara Buddha’s mentality-materiality were impermanent. Moreover. when someone has fulfilled the eight conditions. then if just from Taiwan to Pa-Auk it were all burning charcoal. Here we ask you: Would you go across that burning charcoal? If not the whole world. This is a fact.Questions and Answers 6 Knowing and Seeing 8. What does this mean exactly? It means that it is certain the arahant path will produce arahant fruition. Only after his enlightenment did he become Sakyamuni Buddha. and shall bear the name of Gotama. After attaining the arahant path associated with Omniscient Knowledge. If someone told him that he would attain Omniscient Knowledge by crossing the burning charcoal from one end to the other. which is why he makes a definite prophecy. A Buddha gives a definite prophecy only when he sees that the above eight condi1 tions have been fulfilled. If these eight factors are present in a bodhisatta he will certainly receive a definite prophecy from a Buddha. and could not be false. this is a natural fixed law (sammatta niyāma). Here again. would you go across it? If it were certain that one could attain Omniscient Knowledge that way. When bodhisattas receive a definite prophecy. Dī paï kara Buddha’s words. That is why he received a definite prophecy from Dī paï kara Buddha with the words:1 You shall attain Omniscient Knowledge after four incalculables (asaïkhyeyya) and a hundred thousand aeons (kappa). As Prince Siddhattha. and certain that it will destroy all the defilements. a worldling (puthujjana). all the unwholesome kamma and all the wholesome kamma. he could not change his arahant path. 245 246 . They were present in our Sakyamuni bodhisatta. the bodhisatta would go across that burning charcoal. then there would be another problem. a definite prophecy alone cannot produce Buddhahood. if a person skilled in agriculture saw a banana tree that was under the right conditions. a further comment is necessary. If those words were changed so that the definite prophecy was not true. That is the strength of his desire for Omniscient Knowledge. For example. This law of kamma is called a natural fixed law and cannot be changed. when he was the hermit Sumedha. they must continue to develop the ten pāramī s on the three levels: ibid. Why? Because he was skilled in agriculture. Chandata (strong desire): he has a sufficiently strong desire to attain Omniscient Knowledge. How strong is that desire? Suppose the whole world were burning charcoal. At the time of Dī paï kara Buddha. he would go across the burning charcoal without hesitation. This does not mean that the arahant path is permanent. a Buddha can see that he will attain the fruit of Omniscient Knowledge. what does it mean that the prophecy is ‘definite’? It is definite because it cannot be changed. which would otherwise have produced their result after the Parinibbāna. It means that its result comes because of a force of kamma that cannot change. Sumedha’s mentality-materiality were also impermanent. So a natural fixed law and a definite prophecy are not contrary to the law of impermanence.

......8 1 Vipassanā due to negligence... The ten superior pāramī s ..... They are superior wholesome kammas....... The ten basic pāramī s1. So you should remember: making an aspiration or wish alone........... This is a law of nature....... our Sakyamuni Bodhisatta had to continue cultivating his pāramī s for four incalculables and a hundred thousand aeons.......................... wives and external property... (paramattha pāramī) Giving up their life........... be reborn in a woeful state?2 In which sutta is this mentioned? Answer 6.... he will not be reborn in any of the four woeful realms.. And for how long must they perfect their pāramī s? After he had received his definite prophecy. the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away.. is not enough to become a Buddha.. see Nibbāna... 1 2 A...179 For a list of the ten pāramīs. (bhāvanā) Samatha and Vipassanā............ who have attained the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition....IV...... and ordinary disciple way are not the same....8 This is because the bodhisatta way.. Altogether there are thirty pāramī s.... If we summarize them we have just: 1.. in the Question-and-Answer session of June 2nd. or the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations..1 So..... At this time he is still unable to totally destroy that unwholesome kammic force. such as eyes and hands....... Between the definite prophecy and the penultimate life...... For this reason.... the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away.. Giving ... The ‘Sotānugata Sutta’ says also that he will attain Nibbāna quickly.......... The ten medium pāramī s ................... that is.. 3.... they attain path and fruition. 3........... why did the Sayadaw.............. But according to the Theravāda teachings..................... in this life or in their subsequent future life... When an ordinary disciple has practised SamathaVipassanā up to the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition............ Mentioned p............ because of previous unwholesome kamma............... 124 and 183 Please see Answer 4...... He must cultivate his pāramī s further...... then you shall one day attain Omniscient Knowledge... only one Buddha can appear at one given time................ a bodhisatta is sometimes reborn in the animal kingdom. 2.... p. their limbs....175 247 248 ................. (upapāramī) Giving up their limbs and organs....v.. 2.......3.... You can find this in The Buddhava§sa and Cariyapiñ aka Pāë i Texts.. after receiving the definite prophecy from Dī paï kara Buddha....................... For example..... (pāramī) Giving up their sons..... But ordinary disciples..... even if he has practised meditation up to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations....... (sīla) Mental cultivation ...... Bodhisattas must perfect them by giving up animate and inanimate property... Even if he loses his SamathaQuestion 6.1 ..... (dāna) Morality . So when those unwholesome kammas mature............Questions and Answers 6 Knowing and Seeing 1.... If you believe you are a bodhisatta.............. This is also a law of nature....... daughters. his pāramī s have at that time not yet matured for him to attain Omniscient Knowledge.. please see Answer 4... How are the two ways different? Although a bodhisatta has received a definite prophecy from a Buddha.... But we cannot say exactly how long it takes prior to the definite prophecy......... and their lives.............. and if you also have received a definite prophecy from a Buddha........... or the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations. the kamma of having practised Samatha-Vipassanā still exists.p.......1 ‘Sotānugata Sutta’ (‘One Who Has Heard Sutta’)....... our Sakyamuni Bodhisatta developed the pāramī s for four incalculables and a hundred thousand aeons...IV. have pāramī s mature enough to attain the Path Knowledge and Fruition Knowledge...... he cannot escape their results...... can you and will you perfect these pāramī s? If you can.... This is the shortest time....... say that a bodhisatta who has received a definite prophecy from a Buddha can.....

But when he reached the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.9 For that please refer to The Buddhava§sa Pāë i (Chronicle of Buddhas) and Apadāna Pāë i (Valorous Deeds).A.and passing-away stages. has schizophrenia. and many sittings.10 1 its associated mental factors. the second and fourth immaterial jhānas.1 Also. And they can see only a limited number of lives into the future. suffering. and not many incalculables (asaïkhyeyya). one by one. please see above p.1 ‘Anupada Sutta’ (‘One by One Sutta’). the object of the ānāpāna-jhānas is the ānāpāna pañ ibhāga-nimitta: a concept. He emerged from it. or kasiõa-nimitta). for example. The Venerable Sāriputta entered. the thirty-four mental formations of the first jhāna. and the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception is a jhāna.ii. the thirty-one mental formations of the third. and nonself.2 Only after having emerged from the jhāna can one practise Vipassanā meditation on. p. fourth and immaterial jhanās).III. Question 6. This is Vipassanā of Individual dhammas (anupadadhamma vipassanā). Why? Because in developing Vipassanā.2 Can a person who is mentally abnormal.11 Such people can practise this type of meditation. Because they are extremely subtle. what is the definition of definite prophecy here? In which sutta or other source can this information be found? Answer 6. practise this type of meditation? If he can.9 An arahant can also give a definite prophecy. static.10 One cannot practise Vipassanā while in any jhāna attainment. when you concentrate on the consciousness of the preceding immaterial jhāna (not a concept). This is a problem. For details. or aeons (kappa). M. This is Vipassanā of Comprehension in Groups (kalāpa sammasana vipassanā).g. whereas Vipassanā we develop by examining different objects. mentioned also in connection with insight into only feeling. it is ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes. by seeing their arising-. it must be maintained for many hours. Only a Buddha can discern the mental formations of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception one by one. hears voices. in which the mental formations are discerned one by one. not ultimate reality.1 There The Buddha describes in detail the Venerable Sāriputta’s meditation in the fifteen days after he had attained stream-entry. a brain disease. stroke or malfunction of the brain and nerves. the thirty-two mental formations of the second jhāna. They may succeed. For example. Answer 4.Questions and Answers 6 Knowing and Seeing Question 6. By ‘long enough’ is meant that when one’s concentration is strong and powerful. and discerned the thirty-four first-jhāna mental formations.g. he could discern only the mental formations as a group.201. if they can maintain their concentration over many successive sittings. the jhāna-consciousness and Question 6.6. can give a definite prophecy. He discerned in this manner up to the base of nothingness jhāna. the ānāpāna-. for example. 249 250 .186. we do usually not use the same objects as we use for developing jhāna. over many days or many months. 2 ibid.11 1 Exceptions are. a power secondary to the divine eye (dibba cakkhu). including the jhāna dhammas (e. jhāna we develop by concentrating on one and the same object (e. what kinds of precaution should he take? Answer 6. Usually. such people’s concentration is inconstant. please see above ‘The Four Immaterial Jhānas’. for example. even a Chief Disciple like the Venerable Sāriputta cannot discern them one by one. p. But only arahants who possess particularly the Knowledge of Discerning the Future (anāgata§sa ñāõa). But the object of Vipassanā is not a concept. It is mentioned in the ‘Anupada Sutta’ in the Majjhima Nikāya. as can a Buddha. but usually they do not succeed. Can one practise Vipassanā while in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception attainment (nevasaññā-nāsaññāyatana samāpatti)? In which sutta or other source can the answer be found? Answer 6.79. because they cannot concentrate long enough. as impermanence. the first jhāna. in this case the thirty-one mental formations. 2 For how you discern jhāna cognitive processes.

complete chastity is observed. when he renounced the world. and learnt it by heart. The Buddha told the Venerable Ānanda to mete out the noble punishment (brahmadaõ a) on the Venerable Channa. even if he wanted to. and one day her meditation matured. she was first. in the palace of King Suddhodana in Kapilavatthu. Komāri brahmacariya is to observe the five precepts. she was able to listen to the Dhamma with respect. Her husband. but in place of the ordinary precept of abstinence from sexual misconduct. She became an arahant with the five mundane psychic powers. She observed the rule very strictly. At that time she was the daughter of a King Kikī . He was born on the same day as our bodhisatta. No one else did. the Venerable Mahāmoggallāna and others. This gave later rise to much conceit in him.12 These problems occur usually because of hatred (dosa). he can attain not only jhāna. p. will this improve his skill in communicating with others? Can attaining jhāna correct such problems? Answer 6. He thought things like: ‘This is my King. A famous example is the Venerable Channa Thera. Slowly her mind became quiet. two children. five months after The Buddha’s Parinibbāna. Proper medicine and proper food also helps. etc.Questions and Answers 6 Knowing and Seeing There is a famous example: the case of Pañ ācārā. which is good teachers. he always used harsh language. He became one of the bodhisatta prince Siddhattha’s playmates.1 Of the bhikkhunī s who were expert in the monastic rule. She ordained as a bhikkhunī . Her pāramī s of previous lives were ready to mature. and Four Analytical Knowledges. and wisdom (paññā). concentration (samādhi). He was the son of one of King Suddhodana’s female slaves. This act of the Saï (saïgha kamma) took place in the Ghositārāma gha monastery in Kosambī . such people need kalyāna mitta. his conceit and hatred disappeared.12 For the Four Analytical Knowledges. She could maintain her concentration and insight-knowledge. So. but also the paths and fruitions up to arahantship. I followed him up to the bank of the Anomā River. when they were young. He did not show respect to Mahātheras like the Venerable Sāriputta. including the commentaries. He could not attain jhāna or path and fruition in The Buddha’s lifetime. She had been developing her pāramī s from Padumuttara Buddha’s dispensation till Kassapa Buddha’s dispensation. But if he can remove this attitude. Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallāna etc. as well as to the lovingkindness and compassion of The Buddha.’ Because of this. She went mad with grief. succeeds in attaining the fourth jhāna. because he was unable to remove his conceit and hatred. On the night of The Buddha’s Parinibbāna. From our experience. and continued her meditation. Due to this. When nobody talked with the Venerable Channa. parents. One day she came to the Jetavana monastery in Sāvatthi where The Buddha was teaching Dhamma.2. She cultivated the three trainings. and particularly during Kassapa Buddha’s dispensation. and spiritual friends. She practised komāri brahmacariya for twenty thousand years. and she understood the Dhamma. he cannot attain jhāna. When they practise meditation. she was able to regain her mind. Those pāramī s matured in Gotama Buddha’s dispensation. morality (sīla). and became an arahant. practise the three trainings well. As long as a person is unable to change this attitude. Usually they do not succeed. So no one had friendly relations with him. If a person. although she had gone mad.are flowers that blossomed later. and brothers all died on the same day. Very soon she became a stream-enterer (sotāpanna). and wandered about with no clothes on. It is one of the hindrances. as a lay devotee. The Buddha was my playmate. the Dhamma is our Dhamma.177 251 252 . for twenty-thousand years. who does not have good human relations. please see Answer 4. Question 6. It means that no one was to talk to the Venerable Channa. we 1 know that most of them cannot maintain their concentration for a long time. good friends.

not successful. and S. 1 S. He worked hard on meditation but was.1 After listening to the Venerable Ānanda’s Dhamma talk. and practise Samatha-Vipassanā in the right way. in spite of great effort. and went to the Isipatana monastery in the deer park near Benares. So the Venerable Ānanda taught him how to discern dependent-origination. and taught him the ‘Kaccānagotta Sutta’. the Venerable Channa attained stream-entry.ix.Questions and Answers 6 Knowing and Seeing The Venerable left Ghositārāma. he went to the Venerable Ānanda and asked him to help him. Why was he not successful? He discerned the impermanent. but did not discern dependent-origination (pañiccasamuppāda).I. he can attain jhāna.II.III. So one day. suffering.1.8 ‘Channa Sutta’ (‘Channa Sutta’) 253 254 . and non-self nature of the five aggregates. path and fruition.5‘Kaccānagotta Sutta’ ‘Kaccānagotta Sutta’.ii. So if a person can change his bad character. He continued his practice and very soon became an arahant.

.... (9) clinging.. as mentality and materiality Five categories. (5) six sense-bases.... 3.. Now let us look briefly the remaining knowledges... you need to complete them. consciousness). (11) birth.. as the twelve factors of dependent-origination4 Eighteen categories. we discussed briefly how to discern dependentorigination according to the fifth and first methods.... (12) ageing and death. ‘This is not my self’ is a reflection on non-self.......i..... Please see p. Two categories... (2) volitional formations.xx ‘Maggāmagga Ñāõadassana Visuddhi Niddesa’ B694 (‘Description of Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is the Path.I. and mind-consciousness (12 + 6 = 18). and consciousness) with right understanding in three ways.2) explains that ‘This is not mine’ is a reflection on impermanence.. 5 The twelve bases and their respective six types of consciousness: eye-. ear/sounds (2x2).....6 6 S.. It is not really possible to explain this in a brief way....v. M. After you have developed those two knowledges............... (na meso attā)7 1 VsTi...II.. function... For example. formations..... To develop it you divide formations into categories:1 • • • • • In the last talk.. This knowledge was explained when we discussed how to discern mentality and materiality.. and non-self (anatta) in each category......6ff 4 twelve factors of dependent origination: (1) ignorance..... feeling. 2. ‘This is not mine’ ..... all materiality. nose-. we shall discuss briefly how to develop the insight-knowledges to see Nibbāna. and all the factors of dependent-origination.. when we discussed how to discern the causes of mentality-materiality in the past...... please see p.. Please see also p. lamentation.... The Buddha teaches in the ‘Anatta Lakkhaõa Sutta’6 to discern the five aggregates ( all materiality..... formations... tongue/flavours (4x2)... and future...... and proximate cause....III..31 7 The commentary to the ‘Channovāda Sutta’ (‘Advice to Channa Sutta’.. quoted ‘Introduction’ p. and What Is Not the Path’ Ñ9 2 five aggregates (materiality.. nose/odours (3x2)... ‘This I am not’ is a reflection on suffering.. by again discerning all mentality.. (6) contact...... as the eighteen elements5 You then see the three characteristics.... present.. pain....... suffering and despair... There are sixteen insight-knowledges (ñāõa) that need to be developed progressively in order to see Nibbāna... which is to comprehend formations by categories...... manifestation.... tongue-.... so it is best to learn the details at the time of actually practising... 255 256 . (7) feeling. in the case of the five categories.. sorrow...III. which is to discern dependent-origination.. mind/dhammas (6x2).......Knowing and Seeing Talk 7 How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbā na Introduction How You Develop the Knowledge of Comprehension The third insight-knowledge is the Knowledge of Comprehension (sammasana ñāõa). Today..... (neta§ mama) ‘This I am not’.... This knowledge was explained in our last talk.. as: 1.... feeling.7 ‘Anattalakkhaõa Sutta’ (‘Non-self Characteristic Sutta’).... and Vs. (nesohamasmi) ‘This is not my self’ . (3) consciousness... according to their individual characteristic...... perception..... (10) becoming (also translated as existence).. The second insight-knowledge is the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition (paccaya-pariggaha ñāõa)... body-.. (4) mentality-materiality........... as the five aggregates2 Twelve categories. ear-. as the twelve bases3 Twelve categories......xiv ‘Paññā Kathā’ (‘Understanding Explanation’)..4 3 twelve bases: eye/sights (1x2)... impermanence (anicca). The first insight-knowledge is the Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality (nāma-rūpa pariccheda ñāõa). perception.. suffering (dukkha).. body/touches (5x2). (8) craving.

The next category in which you need to see impermanence. up to the attainment of arahantship. suffering. stage by stage. have developed only the four-elements meditation. p. please see Table 1. you see the three characteristics one at a time. suffering and non-self of the materiality and mentality of this entire life. You follow the procedure is the same as with materiality. from the rebirth-linking consciousness up to the death-consciousness. gross and subtle. and know it as suffering (dukkha). sorrow. (6) contact. again and again. (5) six sense-bases. internal and external. and future. in the past. suffering and non-self is mentality. you discern the real materiality2 of each of the six sense-doors. in all materiality and mentality of the past. you may find that you develop the higher insightknowledges quickly. Here again. see the materiality as devoid of a permanent self. At this stage. see the pain and suffering one has to constantly experience because of that materiality’s arising and passing-away.7 .6.235 3 Vs. and nonself of mentality and materiality. as a pure-insight individual. present and future. to the infinite universe. and non-self of the past. there are several exercises to increase your insight.169. Having seen these two categories (the materiality and mentality of the six sense-doors of the present). (9) clinging. far and near. pain. that is. lamentation.1 To develop this knowledge. and present. (8) craving.168 The twelve factors of dependent origination: (1) ignorance. you should gradually extend your range of perception from near to far. He explains. both internally and externally. If you. 2 For the first method of dependent origination.III. present. You need to do this internally and externally.3 see its arising and passing-away. you re-establish concentration until the light is bright and strong. (10) becoming (also translated as existence). so we call them the forty ‘to’. according to the first method of dependent origination:2 one at a time. and know it as impermanence (anicca).3 In Pāë i they all end with the suffix ‘to’. you first re-establish the fourth jhāna. suffering. and What Is Not the Path’ Ñ18 257 258 . (2) volitional formations. the consciousness and associated mental factors in each consciousness-moment of each sense-door cognitive-process (vīthi). again and again. (4) mentality-materiality. following the same procedure. and the bhavaï -consciousnesses that ga occur between them. suffering and non-self of each of the twelve factors of dependent origination1 for the past. future. internally and externally. How You Increase Your Insight Knowledge The Forty Perceptions The first exercise is to see the impermanent.xx ‘Maggāmagga Ñāõadassana Visuddhi Niddesa’ B697 (‘Description of Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is the Path. internally and externally. please see above p. inferior and superior. and know it as non-self (anatta). Then.I. present. you need now to see the impermanence.5 For a list of real materiality. you see the three charac1 2 3 teristics one at a time. alternately. There are ten different perceptions of impermanence: 1 ‘Khandha Sutta’ (‘Aggregates Sutta’) S. you need to see the impermanence. (11) birth.How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing And in the ‘Khandha Sutta’. again and again. Here too. again and again. For how you do this. That is. internally and externally. (7) feeling. If not. you take materiality as your first category. After doing this life. quoted ‘Introduction’ p.v. First discern all the mentality at the six sense-doors. (3) consciousness. ‘all’ as past. please see p. suffering and despair. and future according to forty different perceptions (cattārīsākāra anupassanā). present and future lives that you discerned when discerning dependent-origination. While doing this externally. (12) ageing and death. In either case. And then you need also to see the impermanence. Lastly.

........................................................... and do the same................................................................... 6.................. twenty-five periods of four years..... (‘Material Septad-Group Explanation’ Ñ46ff)... 25............................................................................. (gaõóato) A dart ..................... (dukkhato) A disease ........................................... (vadhakato) The root of calamity ....................... please see above p........... Divide the hundred years of this lifetime into: ten periods of ten years................. (mārāmisato) Subject to birth..... (rittato) Vain .......................................(sokadhammato) Cause of lamentation ........ ‘Arūpasattakasammasana Kathā’B717ff.................................................................................................................................................... (saïkhatato) There are five perceptions of non-self: 1......... 22..................................... (sa§kilesikadhammato) The Seven Ways for Materiality The materiality you discern in the seven ways for materiality the four types according to origin (kamma-.................................................................................................................................................... (addhuvato) Subject to change .. (bhayato) A plague .......... 7................................ (parato) Empty .....................(jātidhammato) Subject to ageing......................... 4................. 19.. and the seven ways for mentality (arūpa sattaka)...... (vibhavato) Subject to death ............................. some people’s insight progresses to the attainment of arahantship......................... Impermanence ................... If not.. in the past........................ (‘Immaterial Septad-Group Explanation’ Ñ76ff) 2 For details on these four types of materiality............................ (upaddavato) A terror.................................................................................... You consider this lifetime to be a hundred years................................................................ temperature-..... there are then the exercises called the seven ways for materiality (rūpa sattaka)...........................(aghamūlato) A danger ..................................................................................................................................... 3.................................................................................................1 Suffering................... 9....... and does not pass on to the next period.............. (vipariõāmadhammato) Coreless ........................................ suffering and non-self of the materiality of this entire lifetime..... which means it is impermanent................................................ thirty-three periods of three years............................ 18... 15............................................... (sallato) An affliction ....... 16.................................. and future.......................................................... Then see that the materiality in one period arises and ceases there...................................................... 11.................................................................................................... present..... (aghato) A boil . 24........................................... suffering and non-self............................ (jarādhammato) Subject to illness ... 6............How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing 1......................................................................... (byādhidhammato) Cause of sorrow.................. fifty periods of two 1 Vs. suffering and non-self of the materiality of different periods in this lifetime... 10................................ 20.... (ādīnavato) Subject to taints .................................................................................................................................................. Non-self .......................135ff 259 260 ................ 4.....................(ītito) A menace ........... consciousness-....................................... While seeing the forty ‘to’ in mentality and materiality.... (asārakato) Subject to annihilation .............. you see the impermnence... You then divide this lifetime into progressively smaller periods................................(asaraõato) Murderous...... 3................. and divide it into three periods of thirty-three years.. and nutriment-produced materiality).... internally and externally............................ (palokato) Fickle ............................................................2 (1) (2) In the first of the seven ways for materiality............. In the second way for materiality you see the the impermanence................................. 12...(paridevadhammato) Cause of despair .......................................................................... (maraõadhammato) Formed ...... (calato) Perishable......... 2................................................. 9.......(pabhaïguto) Unenduring... twenty periods of five years.(atāõato) No shelter ................................... 17.................... 21...7 ... 23................................................................................. (aleõato) No refuge ...................... both internally and externally.......................................... 2................................... 14............................................... 8.. (upasaggato) No protection .............. (suññato) Independent ........................... 2..................................................................... 5..................xx ‘Rūpasattakasammasana Kathā’B706ff.................... both internally and externally..... (tucchato) There are twenty-five perceptions of suffering: 1................................................................ (upayāsadhammato) Subject to defilement. from rebirth-linking to death....... (rogato) A calamity ................................................ 4.......................................(anattato) Void.......................... 5....................... 3........................... (aniccato) Disintegrating ....... 13....... 10...... 8................................. (sāsavato) Mara’s bait.................................................................................... 7.............................. (ābādhato) A disaster ...................................................................................................................... 5.............................

In the second way for mentality you see the impermanence. you see them in the materiality of the periods when hungry. That means. and see that it does not pass on from a period of hunger to a period of satiety (and vice-versa). In the seventh way for materiality you see the impermanence. These are the seven ways for materiality. every day in this hundred-year lifetime. suffering and non-self of the mentality that saw this. then three hundred periods of four months. marble.1 That is. and two thousand four hundred periods of half-a-month. Please see also Table 6. In each case see that the materiality in one period arises and ceases there. and see that it does not pass on from a period of feeling hot to a period of feeling cold (and vice-versa). placing and pressing. suffering and non-self of temperature-produced materiality. raising. and in each impulsion consciousness.7 . You then see the impermanence. suffering and non-self of present inanimate materiality: materiality with none of the six internal sense-bases. plastic. In the mind-door adverting-consciousness there are twelve mental formations. Then you divide each footstep into six periods: lifting. suffering and non-self of kamma-produced materiality.213. pearls. 1 insight-mind insight mind-door cognitive-process: one mind-door adverting consciousness and seven impulsions. In the sixth way for materiality you see the impermanence. and when cold. That is. such as iron. every day in this hundred-year lifetime. and when satisfied. and does not pass on to the next period. you see them in the materiality of the periods when hot. This means your object is in each case an insight-mind. there are thirty-four. but see the materiality as a group. You do the same with the material- 1 This means that you discern all the four types of materiality that have arisen owing to the support of nutriment-produced materiality. p. moving forward. suffering and non-self in the materiality of each period every day in this hundred-year lifetime. In the third way for materiality you see the impermanence. suffering and non-self of the consciousness-produced materiality. you see the materiality in each of the seven ways for materiality as impermanence. looking ahead and looking away. concrete and plants. In the fifth way for materiality you see the impermanence. That type of materiality is found only externally. gold. and finally divide each day into two periods. and bending a limb and stretching a limb. six hundred periods of two months. and when unhappy and sad. In the fourth way for materiality you see the impermanence. suffering and non-self. steel. That is. This principle applies also to the discernment of kamma-. you see that the materiality of each of the six sense-doors arises and ceases there. That is. and does not pass on to another door. sometimes followed by two registering consciousnesses. and then see the impermanence. Again see the impermanence. you see them in the materiality of the periods when happy and (7) pleased. silver. and then see the impermanence. suffering and non-self of nutriment-produced materiality. you see the grouped materiality as impermanence. soil.1 (1) (2) In the first of the seven ways for mentality you see the impermanence. and one hundred periods of one year. copper. That means. The Seven Ways for Mentality In the seven ways for mentality. and then six periods. every day in this hundred-year lifetime. consciousness-. and temperature-produced materiality. You reduce the periods further to the duration of each movement of the body: the periods of going forth and going back. coral. thirty-three or thirty-two mental formations.How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing (3) (4) (5) (6) years. suffering and non-self of the materiality of the seven ways for materiality. every day in this hundred-year lifetime. suffering and non-self of that insight-mind itself with in each case a subsequent insight-mind. rocks. You do the same with the grouped materiality seen as suffering and non-self. which you see with a subsequent insight-mind. which means it is impermanent. suffering and non-self of the mentality for each of the seven ways for materiality. lowering. shells. suffering and nonself of that insight-mind itself with in each case a subsequent insight-mind. suffering and non-self of the insight-minds (the mentality) that saw those three characteristics in the seven ways for materiality. you see the impermanence. 261 262 . gemstones.

. according to the fifth method of dependent origination. You see: 1 Passing-way is here used for vaya....) These are the seven ways for mentality... suffering and non-self of the mentality for each of the seven ways for materiality. (khaõato) (Momentary arising and passing-away of formations.......2 This knowledge consists. 2. In the third way for mentality you see again the impermanence.. in the present.. to have done these exercises for the materiality and mentality of the present.. In the seventh way for mentality you see the impermanence....... There are two methods for developing the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away: the brief method (seeing only the momentary nature of formations).. How You Develop the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away1 Introduction The Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away (Udayabbaya ñāõa) is to know the arising and passing-away of formations: mentalitymateriality... In the fifth way for mentality you see the impermanence. so as to overcome attachment.... and the detailed method (seeing both the causal and momentary nature of formations). but continue until you with an eleventh insight-mind see the impermanence. Here again. Knowledge of the causal.. but intensify the perception of suffering........) Knowledge of the momentary . That means.. suffering and non-self of mentality for the removal of views..... past and future. especially the view of self...xx ‘Maggāmagga Ñāõadassana Visuddhi Niddesa’ B723 (‘Description of Purification by Knowledge and Vision of What is the Path. please see p. you see again the materiality in each of the seven ways for materiality as impermanence. of two knowledges: 1...... past and future.. the eighteen elements. 2 Vs. In the sixth way for mentality you see the impermanence.. the Four Noble Truths. internally and externally.. In the fourth way for mentality you do as before.228ff.. It is best.. suffering and non-self of mentality for the ending of attachment...3 To see the momentary arising and passing-away of formations you see how the five aggregates arise and pass away in every consciousness-moment from rebirth to death of every life you have discerned...... With the exercises completed.. in fact. and dependent origination.. the five aggregates. Again you see the insight-minds of the seven ways for materiality.. for example... but do so four times in succession... but intensify the perception of non-self. Now the explanation of how to develop the knowledge of formations in categories is complete. and What Is Not the Path’ Ñ93 3 For the ‘fifth method’. suffering and non-self of the tenth insight-mind. I shall explain only the detailed method....until you with a fifth insight-mind see the impermanence. The detailed method is developed in three stages.. you see it.... suffering and non-self of mentality for the removal of conceit. suffering and nonself of that first insight-mind with a second insight-mind......... suffering and non-self of the fourth insight-mind.......... materiality and mentality will have become very clear to you. cessation for nirodha... so as to overcome views. internally and externally. Again you see the insight-minds of the seven ways for materiality.. and then see the impermanence. so let us discuss how to develop the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away of formations. so as to overcome conceit. 263 264 . you see the insight-minds of the seven ways for materiality.7 .... To see the causal arising and passing-away of formations............ as described in our previous talk...How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) ity seen as suffering and non-self. the twelve bases. although the two Pāëi terms are (as are the English) synonymous.. but intensify the perception of impermanence. although not strictly necessary... and do it with each of the insightminds for the given periods in each day of this hundred-year lifetime. (paccayato) (Causal arising and passing-away of formations. and the second with a third etc.............

...... you now see again and again only their passing-away (vaya).. and of nutriment-produced materiality....How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing 1..... 2... you see how the arising (1) of ignorance. (udaya) (causal and momentary arising of formations) Only the passing-away ..3 You see how: • How You Develop the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away According to the Fifth Method of Dependent Origination • • Consciousness caused the arising of consciousness-produced materiality. however.. (3) of clinging.139ff 4 There is...... also the causal arising of temperature-.. p..... The Observation of the Nature of Passing-Away For example.. of consciousness-....7 . each caused the arising in this life of kamma-produced materiality. 3 For a brief explanation of materiality produced by consciousness...... in the same way. the causal and momentary arising of mentality... you see the momentary arising of kamma-produced materiality in every consciousness-moment from rebirth to death....... The passing-away of ignorance..2 You need then to see. and then looks at past and future lives... and the cessation of the five aggregates takes place at 1 2 For a brief explanation of materiality produced by kamma (with examples).. 265 266 .. This is the Observation of the Nature of Passing Away (vayadhammānupassi).. so we shall pass them over... (2) of craving. and in each instance explain the details for only materiality.... Temperature caused the arising of temperature-produced materiality.... one after the other... you see the causal arising of materiality according to the fifth method of dependent-origination.... as just mentioned.... please see above p... The Observation of the Nature of Arising To begin the detailed method for developing the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away..... Please see also above.......... This means you look back again to the near-death moments of your past life........ still the kammic force that underlies the present five aggregates: the arahant still feels pleasure and pain owing to past kamma.. After this you have to see......... 3... you see also the momentary arising of the particular type of materiality. and the kammic force4 takes place when you attain arahantship........... and see the arising of materiality and mentality in the next life..... (4) of volitional formations. by temperature..... to produce new kamma...... please see p.136f For a brief explanation of process-freed consciousnesses etc......199 In some cases... volitional formations....1 One by one. however.... and then their momentary arising. take some time to list the details. Only the arising ........ and by nutriment (with examples).... craving...... bhavaï -consciousness and ga death-consciousness (cuti citta).... the yogi begins with this life alone. In each case... Nutriment caused the arising of nutriment-produced materiality.. Afterwards.1 You see this in every past life that you have discerned... (udayabbaya) (causal and momentary arising and passing-away of formations) ing six sense-door cognitive-processes (vīthi)... (vaya) (causal and momentary passing-away of formations) Both the arising and passing-away ... clinging.... please see p. This means you see the five aggregates at the arising (udaya) of the process-freed consciousnesses (vīthi-mutta citta): the rebirthlinking consciousness (pañisandhi citta).... you should see again and again the causal arising of formations.. and (5) of kamma.... to see the five past causes that caused the arising (udaya) in this life of kamma-produced materiality..................... though....... and in all the future lives up to your Parinibbāna..27. It would.. You see also the arising of the five aggregates of each consciousness-moment in any of the interven1 After seeing the causal and momentary arising (udaya) of materiality and mentality..... There is no kammic force in the present volitional formations.... This is the Observation of the Nature of Arising (samudayadhammānupassi)..

you now see only its momentary passingaway. after which no new materiality or mentality arises or passes away.. all defilements cease. For a brief explanation of process-freed consciousnesses etc. and that at the end of that life all formations cease: it is directly seeing your Parinibbāna. actual Nibbāna and the Arahant Path is not evident to us.How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing your Parinibbāna. Whereas the causal arising is the individual type of ignorance.1 That is when you look forward to the time when you become an arahant. you see that the cessation (nirodha) (1) of ignorance. you see the causal cessation (nirodha) of materiality. please see above p. and (5) of kamma respectively. The cessation of temperature causes the cessation of temperatureproduced materiality. volitional formation and kammic force that you discern at each life where it takes place. it will be in the future: should you attain arahantship in one of your future lives. This is the Observation of the Nature of Arising And Passing-Away (samudayavayadhammānupassi).2 This means you see the five aggregates at the arising (udaya) of the process-freed consciousnesses (vīthi-mutta citta): the rebirth-linking consciousness (pañisandhi citta). 3. each cause the cessation of kamma-produced materiality. you now see again and again both their arising and passing-away.234 2 Sometimes the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw instructs the yogi to start by looking at this life. the causal passingaway of consciousness-. again according to the fifth method of dependent-origination. the cessation is always in the same life: when the five aggregates at Parinibbāna no longer arise. For example. please seee p. For example. You see how: • • • The cessation of consciousness causes the cessation of consciousness-produced materiality.1 You need then to see. In each case. craving. One by one. because we have not yet realized the Four Path-Knowledges (magga ñāõa) and Four Fruition Knowledges (phala ñāõa): we understand that our Parinibbāna has taken place. and see that when you attain the Arahant Path and Fruition (arahattamagga and arahattaphala). (3) of clinging. You see each one in three ways successively: 1. It involves seeing first their causal arising and passing-away. The passing-away of the cause and its result. (2) of craving. After this you have to see the causal and momentary cessation of mentality. The impermanence of the cause and its result. 2. But. one after the other. of temperature-. Should you attain arahantship in this very life.7 . The Observation of the Nature of Arising And Passing-Away Once you have seen both the causal and momentary cessation of materiality and mentality. it will also be in the future. bhavaï -consciousness and deathga consciousness (cuti citta). Having in that way seen the causal cessation of kammaproduced materiality. The arising of the cause and its result. Afterwards. (4) of volitional formations. 199 267 268 . in every past and future life that you have discerned. and then to look at past lives and the future. and of nutrimentproduced materiality. You see also the arising of the five aggre1 gates of each consciousness-moment in any of the intervening six sense-door cognitive-processes (vīthi). and then their momentary arising and passing-away. clinging. The cessation of nutriment causes the cessation of nutrimentproduced materiality. you see the momentary passing-away of kammaproduced materiality in every consciousness-moment from rebirth to death. you see also the momentary cessation of the particular type of materiality. you see one by one how: 1 For causal cessation according to fifth method of dependent origination. because there is no more arising of the aggregates.

This is how you see both the causal and momentary arising and passing-away of materiality. consciousness causes mentality-materiality [4]. and despair [12]. birth causes ageing. 3. Each cause and the materiality it produced is impermanent. Please see also p. mentality-materiality cause the six sense-bases [5]. you have to see the causal and momentary arising and passing-away of mentality. with the cessation of mentality-materiality the six sense-bases [5] cease. So. to see the casual arising 1 With the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance [1] volitional formations [2] cease. and consciousness-produced materiality is impermanent. volitional formations cause consciousness [3]. you see one by one how: 1. To see the causal cessation of formations at arahantship. physical pain. contact causes feeling [7]. with the cessation of consciousness mentality-materiality [4] cease. 3. And you see the same for temperature-. (4) volitional 2. (2) craving.1 In that case. lamentation. and see the three characteristics of impermanence. and see that:1 • • • • • • • • • • • Likewise. The arising of each cause ((1) ignorance. After that. with the cessation of volitional formations consciousness [3] ceases. in the way just outlined. causes the cessation of kamma-produced materiality.I. you need to develop this insight with also the first method of dependent-origination. Consciousness causes the arising of consciousness-produced materiality. the five external aggregates. suffering. with the cessation of the six sense-bases contact [6] ceases. and the five aggregates of the past. to see that:2 • • • • • • • • • • 1 2 Next. of formations. with the cessation of contact feeling [7] ceases.How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing 1. (3) clinging. becoming causes birth [11]. The cessation of each same cause. You should do this for the five internal aggregates. (5) kamma) causes the arising of kammaproduced materiality. you see the causal and momentary arising and passing-away of also the five aggregates.7 .iv. M. and future.8 ‘Mahātaõhāsaïkhaya Sutta’ (‘Great Craving-Destruction Sutta’) ibid. mental pain. with the cessation of feeling craving [8] ceases. craving causes clinging [9]. you see the factors of dependent-origination oneby-one in forward order. with the cessation of craving clinging [9] ceases. death. Consciousness is impermanent. How You Develop the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away According to the First Method of Dependent Origination Ignorance [1] causes volitional formations [2]. present. sorrow. and the resultant Parinibbāna. clinging causes becoming [10]. with the cessation of becoming birth [11] ceases. 2. formations.235 269 270 . and nutriment-produced materiality. you see the factors of dependent-cessation one-by-one in forward order. and non-self in them. with the cessation of clinging becoming [10] ceases. feeling causes craving [8]. The cessation of consciousness causes the cessation of consciousness-produced materiality. the six sense-bases cause contact [6].

........ 1... 5... and thus know it too is impermanent...... death.. by seeing it as impermanence. Mindfulness ..... ageing..... Attachment .. but also in the dissolution of those insight-minds that saw this... That is your first insight mind..7 .... you see both the causal and momentary arising and passing-away of formations.(sukha) Confidence. and are as such not imperfections.. The ten imperfections are:1 1. 2........... (ñāõa) Joy.................How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing • with the cessation of birth.. You see the factors of dependent origination and dependent cessation one-by-one in forward order.. How You Overcome the Ten Imperfections of Insight After you have developed the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away........ and dissolution of formations.... (upekkhā) 10..... to see their impermanence....... you see the dissolution of materiality and know it is impermanent.. volitional formations cease.. the ten imperfections of insight (dasa upakkilesa) may arise. with a second insight-mind you see the dissolution of the first insight-mind.. You see the destruction.. Ignorance is impermanent.. 4.... Equanimity ... nor the occurrence (pavatta) of the origination of formations........ and future............ you see only the dissolution of formations........ As before. For example.... You do the same for mentality.............xx ‘Vipassanupakkilesa Kathā’ B634 (‘Insight Imperfection Explanation’ Ñ107). and non-self: that way. You see the continuous dissolution of formations as fearful.... That means. (paggaha) 8. mental pain........ How You Develop the Knowledge of Dissolution Ignorance causes volitional formations... Then. nor the standing (ñhiti) of formations.... 3.(passaddhi) Bliss . 7......... and your insight becomes stronger.. lamentation............. Using the power of your insight-knowledge. Light .... your insight concerning formations is steadfast and pure. (nikanti) 6... 2.. physical pain.. You see each of the factors of dependent-origination in the same way. Then you have to develop the Knowledge of Dissolution (bhaïga ñāõa)... to see the suffering in them. in the case of ignorance. (obhāsa) Insight ........ in the past..... It is in this way that all forms of suffering cease.. volitional formations are impermanent.. (pīti) Tranquillity ... the imperfections are wholesome states... and then 272 271 .... (adhimokkha) Effort . With the exception of light and attachment. to see non-self...... you can continue to make progress........ and perceive them as impermanence. (upaññhāna) 9...... sorrow.. and despair [12] cease. It is at this stage that. suffering and non-self... you need to ovecome the attachment and desire that may arise........ You have to see the impermanence. 3.. To do this. which is why they are called imperfections.. you concentrate on only the momentary passing-away (vaya) and dissolution (bhaïga) of formations... Should you experience one of the ten imperfections of insight... 2. You see neither the arising (uppāda) of formations. 1 Please see also Vs.. suffering and non-self in not only the dissolution of mentality-materiality........ present........ With the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance. suffering. 3.... nor the signs (nimitta) of individual formations. This is a very brief explanation of how you develop the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away of formations......... you see: 1..... You see the absence of any permanent essence in formations.............. But they can become the objects for unwholesome state (you may become attached to them)... as you apply these methods.. internally and externally... fall..........

.. At this stage. (saïkhārupekkhā ñāõa) 6.......... and resultant mental formations............ Knowledge of the Path ............................. 4 Please see above ‘How You Develop the Knowledge of Comprehension’.......227ff................................264ff.....................................(muñcitukamyatā ñāõa) 10............................... and nutriment-produced materiality (please see p.... Your mind knows and sees Nibbāna directly: it is fully aware of the (unformed) Nibbāna as object.... Knowledge of Reviewing ................................................................................. There are a few instructions for them.........7 ............. 273 274 ..256ff....................(pañisaïkhā ñāõa) 11......... consciousness-.............. Knowledge of Fruition ................................... feeling............. you will have developed the first eleven of the sixteen knowledges..... temperature-.............................. your strong and powerful insight will progress through the next six insight-knowledges................ p........... ‘How You Develop the Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away’.... You repeat these exercises again and again............. contact................. The Knowledge of Danger ....... The resultant formations are kamma-.......................... The Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality2 ...... present and future......... (paccaya-pariggaha ñāõa) The Knowledge of Comprehension4 .. You Know and See Nibbāna And the next six knowledges that you will progress through are: 1 After realizing these knowledges................... 2 Please see Talk 4 ‘How You Discern Materiality’ (p. The remaining five knowledges are: 12......... these six knowledges develop quickly................................ with a wish for release from them. you will find that eventually all formations cease............................................... 6 Please see above.......volitional formations.... p... as you continue to see the passing-away and vanishing of each formation....... six sense bases..... becoming.........(magga ñāõa) 15.....................................................(bhaya ñāõa) 7. 5 Please see above..... alternating between internal and external........................................... (ādīnava ñāõa) 8....135ff)......... The Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations ........ (nibbidā ñāõa) 9......................................... The Knowledge of Reflection ................................ ‘How You Develop the Knowledge of Dissolution’............. p...(bhaïga ñāõa) Since you developed the first five insight-knowledges thoroughly............. 2..................... (phala ñāõa) 16.. and Talk 5 ‘How You Discern Mentality’...... Knowledge of Conformity.............................................. (udayabbaya ñāõa) The Knowledge of Dissolution6 ........131ff).................... 5.. Knowledge of Change-of-lineage ............................ (nāma-rūpa pariccheda ñāõa) The Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition3 .. p. consciousness.....199ff................. materiality and mentality........... you go through the remaining five knowledges with the arising of the path cognitive-process (magga vīthi)............... p..... mentality-materiality.... The Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance ................ (paccavekkhaõa ñāõa) The causal formations are the factors of dependent origination ignorance....... (anuloma ñāõa) 13. The Knowledge of Terror ........ The Knowledge of Disenchantment ..............272f.......................... craving........ but we do not have time to explain.. (sammasana ñāõa) The Knowledge of Arising and Passing-Away5....... (gotrabhu ñāõa) 14. You Know the First Eleven Knowledges As you continue to discern the passing-away and ceasing of formations in this way.........................How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing again for materiality and mentality to know them as suffering and non-self................ The first five knowledges that you have already developed are: 1........ clinging.. 4.................................................................... When your mind sees Nibbāna.... 3.............. 3 Please see Talk 6 ‘How You See the Links of Dependent Origination’.... causal formations and resultant formations:1 past..

........ This is the thirteenth knowledge: Knowledge of Change-of-Lineage ... 4.. 4.302ff.... (3) clinging to rule-&-rite). 2 If no ‘preliminary work’ (parikamma) consciousness arose......... For a brief explanation.... (anuloma ñāõa).....3 1 For example.... 3 1.. 6.213.. (magga ñāõa).. and cuts of lust.. this consciousness does not arise. 2. (phala ñāõa).... 5.... and 5 you need to do deliberately... follows the last and sixteenth knowledge... which also sees formations in the same way... which destroys the appropriate defilements:1 Knowledge of the Path.2 3...... A first impulsion consciousness (javana) arises (‘preliminary work’ (parikamma)).. p... p.. and to what will come after. with Nibbāna as object........ which sees formations in the same way. You Review Your Knowledge After this..... with Nibbāna as object... it does not destroy the defilements: its function is to change the lineage from worldling to noble.... in fact. the Reviewing Knowledge (paccavakkhaõa ñāõa). if the yogi’s insight is very strong.... Stream-Entry destroys the first three fetters (sa§yojana) ((1) personality view (sakkāya diññhi).. It conforms to the functions of truth in the eight insight knowledges that came before (from the Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away to the Knowledge of Equanimity Towards Formations).... and it conforms to the thirty-seven dhammas of the Path Consciousness3 that partake of the enlightenment that will come after..... 7.. depending on how the Knowledge of Equanimity towards Formations1 arose...... and the first impulsion consciousness is ‘access’ (upacāra).. with Nibbāna as object.How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing The Path Cognitive-Process by which the last five knowledges arise has seven stages: A mind-door adverting consciousness arises that sees formations as impermanence... Please see also Table 6. Conformity to what? To what came before........ the four roads to power.....(gotrabhu ñāõa).... 2... and Vs... the four right efforts. Complete destruction of the defilements is achieved only at Arahantship.. They are the fifteenth knowledge: Knowledge of Fruition . It is a reviewing of five things: 1. The Knowledge of Conformity is the last knowledge that has formations as its object....... 11 2 In some cases.. and the Noble Eightfold Path. A fifth impulsion consciousness arises........ This is the fourteenth knowledge. A third impulsion consciousness arises (‘conformity’ (anuloma)).. the twelfth knowledge: Knowledge of Conformity ... Reviewing the defilements that have yet to be destroyed. which also sees formations in the same way. 2. sixth and seventh (three) to complete the necessary seven impulsion consciousnesses. (The three impulsion-consciousnesses comprise.. A fourth impulsion consciousness arises... the five faculties.. Reviewing Nibbāna. 3 These are the thirty-seven factors of enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiyadhamma): the four foundations of mindfulness.......... (2) doubt about The Buddha. 1 5... which in this case is number three. hatred and delusion powerful enough to lead to a rebirth lower than a human one. 275 276 . 4.xxii ‘Ñāõadassana Visuddhi Niddesa’ (‘Description of Purification by Knowledge and Vision’ Ñ32) Reviewing the Path Knowledge.7 ....... Please see also Table 6. the seven enlightenment factors....... suffering or non-self..... Knowledge No.... the five powers......... these consciousnesses will be a fifth.. Reviewing the defilements that have been destroyed.... Although this consciousness knows the (unformed) Nibbāna.. 3. 1. It maintains the continuity of consciousness.. A sixth and seventh2 impulsion consciousness arises. and require that you know how to do it......213. Dhamma and Saïgha.. Reviewing the Fruition Knowledge... please see below p.. A second impulsion consciousness arises (‘access’ (upacāra)).............

The best way to learn about this practice is by undertaking a meditation course with a competent teacher.1 1 For contact addresses.7 .How You Develop the Insight-Knowledges to See Nibbāna Knowing and Seeing Then you will have attained true knowledge of the Four Noble Truths. but we have had to leave them out. There are many more details about this development of insight. please see Appendix 2. so as to make this explanation as brief as possible. your mind will have become purified and free from wrong views. and will for yourself have realized Nibbāna. With this realization.345. 277 278 . step by step. p. you will be able to attain arahantship and Parinibbāna. If you continue in this way. because then you can learn in a systematic way.

Question 7. BPS 279 280 . All five aggregates should be understood in the same way.2 1 sciousness and associated mental factors are the subject. Different groups of consciousness and associated mental factors take different objects. but not when it produces unwholesome dhammas (akusala dhammā).4 1 ‘Khandha Sutta’ (‘Aggregates Sutta’) quoted p. they are also the four mentality aggregates. the Saï gha. which together are the four mentality aggregates (nāmakkhandha).1 The eleven types of perception (saññā) together are called the perception-aggregate (saññākkhandha). ārammaõika is the dhamma or phenomenon that takes an object. But a sensual-realm consciousness (kāmāvacara citta) takes different objects.4 In many suttas The Buddha criticizes bhikkhus who practise the following: Question 7. then there is no dhamma that knows. A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma. suffering (dukkha).3 To which associated mental factors do memory. present. Nibbāna. this is also right mindfulness (sammā sati). If you want to know in detail. they are subject to constant arising and passing-away.5 e. ConAnswer 7. external. internal.3 Which associated mental factor does ‘Taking an object’ involve? All consciousnesses (citta) and associated mental factors (cetasika) take an object. good or bad. Question 7.and fruition-consciousnesses and associated mental factors (magga-citta cetasika and phala-citta cetasika) take only one object. present. ārammaõika dhamma. When the remembering of actions produces wholesome dhammas (kusala dhammā). Remembering The Buddha. the Dhamma. There are eighty-nine types of consciousness (citta). the path. which is why they are suffering.1 tion of the Abhidhammattha Saï Does work for the Saï affect one’s meditation? gha Does it depend on the individual. gross. If you can see past.g. As soon as they arise.2 What is memory? If you remember Samatha meditationobjects. after which work has no effect? Answer 7.or ānāpāna-nimitta is right mindfulness(sammā sati). superior. the ānāpānā pañ ibhāga-nimitta. but how do they become suffering (dukkha)? Answer 7. or can one achieve a certain degree of concentration. they pass away. cannot arise without an object (ārammaõa). subtle. you should study the Abhidhamma. near. and fifty-two types of associated mental factor (cetasika).1 The wholesome and unwholesome mentality aggregates are impermanent. the dhamma that knows an object. more exactly the Ārammaõa secgaha. The subject.Knowing and Seeing Questions and Answers 7 What is the difference between perception (saññā) and the perception-aggregate (saññākkhandha). Question 7. and offerings made in the past is also right mindfulness (sammā sati). and non-self (anatta). Without an object they cannot occur. The eleven types of feeling (vedānā) together are called the feeling-aggregate (vedānākkhandha). Ed. This mindfulness is associated with thirty-three mental formations. What are the eleven? Past. it is also right mindfulness. In other words. the mindfulness associated with insight-knowledge. future. perceptions associated with unwholesome dhammas. If there is no object to be known. and future ultimate mentality-materiality (paramattha nāma-rūpa) and their causes. the earth-kasiõa jhāna takes only the earth-kasiõa pañ ibhāga-nimitta as object. inference and creativity belong? They are part of the five aggregates. and between feeling (vedāna) and the feeling-aggregate (vedānākkhandha)? Answer 7. Please refer to the ‘Khandha Sutta’1 of the ‘Khandha Vagga’ in the Sa§yutta Nikāya for the explanation. These are unwholesome perceptions (akusala saññā). and far. They are supramundane and fine-material sphere consciousnesses. such as a kasiõa. and see them as impermanence (anicca). Bhikkhu Bodhi. they all take their respective object. an ānāpānā jhāna-consciousness and associated mental factors take only one object. For example. inferior.

.2 But if they purify their conduct while meditating. for example.. Then he should confess his offence in front of the Saï gha. he was a notorious murderer........... 281 282 . After the meal The Buddha gave a Dhamma-talk...... try to do it as quickly as possible.. and fruition.I.... (jāgariye ananuyuttā) Laziness in Samatha-Vipassanā practice . (niddārāmatā) Pleasure in company .......... because strong and powerful mindfulness on the meditation object can then not be attained: enjoying work does not produce good concentration.......................... (bhassārāmatā) Pleasure in sleeping .Questions and Answers 7 Knowing and Seeing • • • • • • • • Pleasure in working .. Khujjuttarā helped the florist give the almsfood. DhA........... That means he must pay it back with requisites of equal value to the allowable requisites he used. that is. and so the offence was in fact not an offence....... That means he should do a confession of offence (āpattipañidesanā). After correct1 ing his fault..... But as a bhikkhu.......(kammārāmatā) Pleasure in talking . while meditating..1 ‘Sāmāvatī Vatthu’ (‘Sāmāvatī Case’) In other words...... Question 7.. For example. For lay-people. and decided not to steal any more...... unless he corrects that offence (āpatti).................... (indriyesu aguttadvāratā) Not knowing the proper amount of food to take .. and then return to your meditation with a peaceful mind............. spent the money of a Saï 1for his personal use..........(kusita [or] kosajja) So if there is any work you have to do for the Saï or yourgha self... their conduct is pure. If a bhikkhu has committed an offence (āpatti).... If you enjoy working too much...1 She was a servant of King Udena’s wife Queen Sāmāvatī ......... For example....... On that day she did not put four coins in her pocket........... during which Khujjuttarā developed shame at having stolen the money.. it is not gha easy for him to attain jhāna. (bhojāne amattaññutā) Not trying to practise Samatha-Vipassanā with vigilance (moderate sleep) ............ That way................ When she gave the flowers to Queen Sāmāvatī .... So he was able to attain arahantship................ and every day Khujjuttarā put four of the coins into her pocket........ receive........ purification of conduct is also necessary...... or to another bhikkhu.. or handle money... no one would be able to jhāna.................... if he practises Samatha-Vipassanā.. and it is better if they purify their conduct before meditating.... if he has appropriated the allowable requisite of a Saï for his personal use.......... There is no one who is free from bad actions.. path. possess.. If.......... although they were evil before meditation. and bought flowers with only the other four....... he purified his conduct and strove hard in meditation. Khujjuttarā became a stream-enterer (sotāpanna)............ and they can attain jhāna. but bought flowers for all eight coins.. The Buddha came with the Saï for almsfood at gha the florist’s house... without correcting his fault he really did attain jhāna..5 In this case you should distinguish between a layman and a bhikkhu.... When he attains jhāna up to the fourth jhāna..... it is a hindrance to meditation......... Before he became a bhikkhu.. he can attain jhāna....... This prohibition is observed by the Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw......... With meditation.... gha and does not think it is wrong.. the queen was surprised because there were more flowers than usual. if bad actions in the past made it impossible to attain jhāna....5 Can a person who develops the jhānas with evil intent benefit from attaining them? And how about a person who has......(saïghaõikārāmatā) Not controlling the faculties ............ Then Khujjuttarā confessed....ii... in the Dhammapada Commentary... it is a hindrance to attain jhāna... One day..... if they undertake either the five or eight precepts... Every day King Udena gave her eight coins to buy flowers for the queen.... there is a story about the servant Khujjuttarā. then 1 2 The Buddha made it a serious offence against the monastic rule (Vinaya) for a monk to accept..... Consider also this fact: in the round of rebirths everybody has done good and bad actions....... does his mind or view change? Answer 7...... Consider also the case of the Venerable Aï gulimāla.............. Her decision is an example of morality purified while listening to the Dhamma........ then maybe he is not a real bhikkhu.....

It could be that your experience is genuine. as they can help you attain real Nibbāna.g.’ too soon. because of a similarity in experiences.’. then within that hour the hindrances do not occur. Why? If it is real jhāna and real Vipassanā. If any of these evil actions has been done one cannot attain jhāna. rebirth in Pureland. Rebirth there is obtained by reciting his name. the hindrances may recur because of unwise attention. if they enter jhāna for about an hour.6 1 Please see e. A. however.7. but it could also be false like with Mahānāga Mahāthera. and fruition. ‘A long time’ mean. With evil intention shedding the blood of a Buddha. 152 283 284 . sometimes misunderstandings occured in his mind. etc.2 ‘Fruits of Recluseship Sutta’ 3 Regarding jhāna and Vipassanā and views. ‘I have attained the first jhāna. He was also a meditation teacher (kammaññhānācariya). as all who go there will become Buddhas.V. it did not happen. or one of its minor hells.2 But because he had killed his own father. that you do not say to others. So we cannot say for certain whether such a person’s mind will change with jhāna.xx ‘Vipassanupakkilesa Kathā’ B733 (‘Insight Imperfection Explanation’ Ñ110-113) Pureland The so-called ‘Western Land’. he thought he was an arahant. Please see ‘supramundane realm’ (lokuttara bhūmi) explained Answer 3. on the whole. the hindrances do not occur. 5. So if you think to yourself. etc. just like King Ajātasattu. p. where a Buddha called Amitabbha Buddha is waiting. because of his strong.1 The five immediate kammas are: 1. So we should like to suggest. only as long as those previous bad actions are not any of the five immediate kammas (anantariya kamma). with the Mahāthera Mahānāga. King Bimbisāra. 3. he practised Vipassanā. 2. You asked whether after attaining jhāna. as for example. But one of his disci1 ples. Causing a schism in the Saï gha. Jhāna can remove the hindrances for a long time. But this is a most exceptional case. and helped him realize indirectly that this was so. no defilements appeared in those sixty years. as was the case for King Ajātasattu.9 4 Vs. and many months. and Answer 7.3 ‘Parikuppa Sutta’ (‘Festering Sutta’). ‘I have attained the first jhāna. like Dhammadinna. then they are beneficial to you. The aim in the Mahāyāna tradition is. King Ajātasattu had enough pāramī s to become a stream-enterer (sotāpanna) after listening to the ‘Sāmaññaphala Sutta’. and there were many arahants who. which is the ‘Pureland’1 of Theravāda Buddhism. Killing an arahant. because there may be someone who does not believe you. powerful Samatha and Vipassanā practices. When Mahānāga Mahāthera discovered that he was still a worldling. You should remember another thing too: he was expert in the scriptures (pariyatti) as well as practice (pañipatti). 4. and within a few minutes attained arahantship. path. That is. Do you want the real benefit or the artificial benefit? You should ask yourself this question. were his disciples. Even so. Due to this. please see further p. 2 D. knew he was still a worldling. because they will definitely ripen in the present life. the arahant Dhammadinna. ‘Land of Ultimate Bliss’ in Mahāyāna teaching. and give rise to rebirth in the big hell of Avīci. You should be aware of this problem. such people’s mind or view changes.12. But artificial jhāna and artificial Vipassanā cannot give rise to this benefit. 127 2 For details between rūpa-kalāpas and ultimate materiality. he was still a worldling (puthujjana).These five kammas are called ‘immediate’. please see also Answer 7. Killing one’s mother. and then go and save all beings of all world systems. or in any way to be compared with the ‘Western Land’ etc. When they emerge from jhāna.4 Although he had practised Samatha and Vipassanā meditation for more than sixty years.Questions and Answers 7 Knowing and Seeing previous bad actions cannot prevent them from attaining jhāna. you should examine your experience thoroughly over many days. Killing one’s father. Although he was expert in Samatha and Vipassanā.ix. What is the difference between rūpa-kalāpas and ultimate materiality (paramattha rūpa)?2 Question 7.3 There are exceptions. We can say only that so long as he is in jhāna. The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw speaks here of ‘the “Pureland” of Theravāda Buddhism’ only as a metaphor for Nibbāna that will suit his Mahāyāna audience: he is not suggesting that Nibbāna is a place.

water. When a yogi analyses those little particles. These eight types of materiality are ultimate materiality. a Question 7. wrong view recurs because of unwise attention (ayoniso manasikāra). These eight. such as. this wrong view again disappears. In this way. his mind and views change. and is a associated mental factor (cetasika). suffering. etc. which is their nature of impermanence. Insightknowledge also removes defilements such as attachment and conceit. and non-self. Access. colour. When he reaches the path and fruition. his Path Knowledge (magga ñāõa) will destroy those wrong views and other defilements completely. their causes.10 Answer 7. their causes. when he goes back to Vipassanā meditation.Questions and Answers 7 Knowing and Seeing Rūpa-kalāpas are small particles. this wrong view is removed temporarily.5. please see ‘How You Attain Jhāna’. however. They are always subject to arising and passingaway. and Answer 7. please see Answer 3. because when he stops meditating. there are at least eight types of materiality: earth. He again perceives: ‘this is a man. stage by stage. please see also Answer 7. a self.1 What is the difference between citta and diñ ñ hi? means mind. Fourth-jhāna concentration removes bliss (sukha). a woman. a father. Third-jhāna concentration removes joy (pīti). fire. because insight-knowledge removes wrong views and other defilements only temporarily. ‘This is a man. but in citta visuddhi (purification of mind).1. Why is it removed? He sees that there are only ultimate mentality-materiality and their causes.. right view is present.9 Before seeing ultimate mentality-materiality. p.9 1 2 Regarding jhāna and Vipassanā and views.7 Regarding the different kinds of concentration etc. a mother. It arises together with the four Question 7. wind. a self. suffering.1 How does concentration purify the mind (citta visuddhi)? What kinds of defilement (kilesa) are removed by concentration? Answer 7. and nature of impermanence. It is right view (sammā diññhi). and in others a tenth: sex-materiality (bhāva rūpa) or transparentelement materiality (pasāda rūpa).. which is their nature of nonself. the mind is purified by concentration and that is called purification of mind (citta visuddhi).8 yogi may have wrong views or wrong perceptions. a mother. This is insight-knowledge (vipassanā ñāõa). he sees ultimate materiality (paramattha rūpa). please see also Answer 7. nine or ten types of materiality are all ultimate materiality. It is the noble path (ariyamagga) that stage by stage destroys wrong views and other defilements totally.7 When he with insight-knowledge sees ultimate materiality in each rūpa-kalāpa.and first-jhāna concentration remove the five hindrances for a long time. and nutritive essence. So insight-knowledge removes wrong views and other defilements only temporarily. they pass away. flavour.10 Citta 1 2 How does Vipassanā purify views (diññhi visuddhi)? What kinds of defilement (kilesa) are removed by Vipassanā? Answer 7. a woman. which is their nature of suffering. a father.’ But when he sees ultimate mentality-materiality. But. p. will also recur. conceit. and non-self clearly. and anger. In some rūpa-kalāpas there is a ninth too: life-faculty materiality (jīvita rūpa). it refers especially to a consciousness: an access-concentration consciousness (upacāra-samādhi citta) or absorption-jhāna consciousness (appanā-jhāna citta).115 285 286 . which are ‘partners’ to wrong view.6 Question 7.7 When a yogi is able to see rūpa-kalāpas or ultimate materiality.8 Concentration practice is directly opposite the five hindrances. Answer 7.2 Question 7. In a rūpa-kalāpa. and nature of impermanence.9 For details regarding the different jhānas.2 Diñ ñ hi means wrong view. etc. and Answer 7. He sees also that as soon as they arise. But it is only temporary. and removes wrong views (micchā diññhi). odour.’ and the associated defilements such as attachment. So while a yogi is practising Vipassanā.5. will his mind (citta) and views (diññhi) change? Answer 7. but only temporarily. Second-jhāna concentration removes applied thought (vitakka) and sustained thought (vicāra). There is no self in these mentality-materiality and causes.55ff Regarding jhāna and Vipassanā and views.

.... • • • • • • Jhāna right view ........ There are also many types of right view.. all sixty-two types of wrong view that exist are discussed. which is also called ‘personality wrong view’ (sakkāya diññhi).................. If you practise up to the Vipassanā level.......... So what we have is in fact three types of view: 1...... p..................................... (kammassakatā sammā diññhi) Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition. such as the right views called ‘Right Views about the Four Noble Truths’ (catusacca sammā diññhi): 1 D..........11 How should a yogi practise wise attention (yoniso manasikāra) in his daily life...... Answer 7... To know this is wise attention........ One wrong view is the perception of self (atta saññā).......... Wrong view of self. Path right view.......................1 They all go under wrong view of self...................................... mother.... please see also ‘Wise and Unwise Attention’....... it will produce good results. You should practise it in your daily life....... (micchā diññhi) Vipassanā right view .... You can also sometimes reflect on the effects of unwise attention.i..... Vipassanā right view .. woman.......11 1 Wrong view.. which is path right view (magga sammā diññhi).. you will have the truly best wise attention.... 2..... so personality wrong view is to see the five aggregates as self. You can also practise the four sublime abidings (brahma vihāra). (nāma-rūpa-pariggaha sammā diññhi) Knowledge of Ultimate Mentality-Materiality......... father.. Personality (sakkāya) is the five aggregates...................... destroys wrong view completely............... Outside the thirty-one realms there is no self either.... and only second-hand.... That is superior wise attention..... (vipassanā sammā diññhi) Insight-knowledge of the impermanent... (magga sammā diññhi) which is supramundane (lokuttara)... which may include the perception that the indestructible self is created by a creator (paramatta)...... Fruition right view .... etc........... This insight-knowledge is Vipassanā right view (vipassanā sammā diññhi).. but very weak.. If you then practise Vipassanā in your daily life. only mentality-materiality and their causes............. But if you cannot practise up to the Vipassanā level... 1.............. Path right view ........... The world’s general perception of self ... such as path and fruition that see Nibbāna....... you should consider the fact that all conditioned things are impermanent (sabbe saïkhārā aniccā)....... 204.... Kamma and kamma-result right view ..... (vipassanā sammā diññhi) which is mundane (lokiya).. They are always impermanent............ Discernment-of-mentality-materiality right view.......... (magga sammā diññhi) Knowledge of Nibbāna.. This is also wise attention............... and how in his Samatha-Vipassanā practice?1 The best wise attention is Vipassanā.. and non-self... because to practise the sublime abiding of equanimity is to see the law of kamma in ‘sabbe sattā kammassakā’: ‘All beings are the owners of their kamma’...... 3.. and especially the sublime abiding of equanimity (upekkhā brahmavihāra)............... (atta diññhi) This is wrong view as a consequence of craving (taõhā): the perception of an indestructible self (atta).............. Unwise attention causes many unwholesome kammas to come one by one.... (loka samañña attavāda) This is wrong view as a consequence of convention: the perception that there is a man................. But the Path Knowledge (magga ñāõa). including wrong view of self....... In the thirty-one realms there is no self..... In the ‘Brahmajāla Sutta’.....Questions and Answers 7 Knowing and Seeing consciousnesses rooted in greed....... These unwholesome kammas will produce much suffering in the four woeful realms (apāya)........ (phala sammā diññhi) Knowledge of Nibbāna................ It destroys wrong view (micchā diññhi) temporarily..... 287 288 .... 2.............................. and non-self nature of mentality-materiality and their causes......... (jhāna sammā diññhi) Jhāna knowledge associated with the jhāna factors.. A consciousness rooted in greed (lobhamūla citta) is associated with either wrong view or conceit..... suffering... Question 7....... suffering....... There are two types of perception of self.....1 ‘Brahmajāla Sutta’ (‘Supreme Net Sutta’) For details regarding wise/unwise attention.............

Attention as the basic cause for the impulsion .. a concentrated mind can see ultimate dhammas • • (paramattha dhamma) as they really are. they are usually at the head of thirty-four mental formations that include attention.13 We as the basic cause for the object .. to practise the more than thirty types of meditation subject (kammaññhāna)? What are the benefits in doing so? Question 7..... in this system of meditation. which will disturb their concentration and Vipassanā meditation. and p. The Buddha gives them in the ‘Meghiya Sutta’:1 • Attention as the basic cause for the object is the associated mental factor of attention. (You should practise lovingkindness meditation (mettā bhāvanā) to remove hatred or anger (dosa). because the thirty-fourth mentalformation. When it is unwise attention.12 When you practise the seven enlightenment factors. there may sometimes be hindrances such as lust (rāga).1 and A...) Mettā bhāvetabbā byāpādassa pahānāya. we teach kasiõa meditation too. so to those who want to practise the eight attainments thoroughly. If you want to understand the 1 2 U.I.. If it is wise attention. (You should practise ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing) to remove discursive thought (vitakka).) Furthermore. Its function is to enable all five-door cognitive-processes to take their respective object. the impulsion is always unwholesome..13 Asubhā bhāvetabbā rāgassa pahānāya..2 Of the concentration practices.. the eight attainments (samāpatti) are very high and powerful. In Pa-Auk we teach many types of Samatha meditation to those who want to practise them. It is based on a diagram drawn by a school teacher. systematically.. the impulsion (javana) is for worldlings (puthujjana) and learners (sekkha) wholesome.. If they do not want to practise all of them. but only one.. While practising Samatha-Vipassanā. It is either wise attention or unwise attention... Its function is to make the impulsion (javana) occur. Attention Answer 7.IX.. we take them straight to Vipassanā. The following meditation subjects are the best weapons to remove those hindrances. then we teach only that Samatha meditation.. Attention as the basic cause for the impulsion is the mind-door adverting-consciousness (manodvārāvajjana) in the mind-door cognitive-process (manodvāra vīthi). and cannot occur in arahants. (You should practise repulsiveness meditation (asubha bhāvanā) to remove lust (rāga). Could the Sayadaw please explain the diagram? Is it necessary. Its function is to make the object clear to the yogi’s mind. Attention as the basic cause for the cognitive-process is the five-door adverting-consciousness (pañcadvārāvajjana) in the fivedoor cognitive-process (pañcadvāra vīthi).i.. In this connection. Sometimes the thirty-four mental formations are called ‘insight-knowledge’. you should know the three types of attention: Question 7. and for arahants only functional (kiriya).IV. anger (dosa). 14. stage by stage. are quoted above p..(javana pañipādaka manasikāra) are not interested in diagrams..) Ānāpānasati bhāvetabbā vitakkupacchedāya. (vīthi pañipādaka manasikāra) 3. who is very interested in diagrams....Questions and Answers 7 Knowing and Seeing What is the difference between attention (manasikāra) and practising the seven enlightenment factors (bojjhaïga)? Answer 7...12 1...3 ‘Meghiya Sutta’ These. and discursive thought (vitakka)... When they have jhāna.. Attention as the basic cause for the cognitive-process . 29 289 290 .. and determining-consciousness (voññhapana) in the five-door cognitive-process. such as ānāpānasati (mindfulness-ofbreathing).. wisdom (paññā) is the main factor. The Buddha’s words. (ārammaõa pañipādaka manasikāra) 2.

194 2 For details in this regard. Vipassanā right view.15 ‘The known’ means the five aggregates and their causes. ‘Knowledge’ means the insight-knowledge that knows the impermanent.15 Yes. suffering.16 This type of mind state is called indolence (kosajja). Usually. please see also Answer 4. Furthermore. It says in the Visuddhi Magga:3 Question 7. self or non-self. Vipassanā right view arises together with thirty-three or thirty-two mental formations. please see ‘The Seven Ways for Mentality’. which gives thirty-four or thirty-three mental formations respectively. To overcome this mind state you should sometimes recall that our Sakyamuni Bodhisatta’s success was due to his perseverance. Can a hating mind produce many generations of temperature-produced octad-kalāpas (utuja ojaññhamaka-kalāpa). apart from the rebirth-linking consciousness (pañisandhi citta). We have explained the whole system in more than three thousand six hundred pages in Burmese: one page is not enough. or think about whether insight-knowledge itself is permanent or impermanent. If a person’s unwise attention is changed to and replaced with wise attention. They are called ‘insight-knowledge’.) 1 For a discussion of consciousness-produced materiality. How to overcome the uninterested and bored mind state that occurs during long periods of meditation. etc. (We must practise Vipassanā on both the known (ñāta) and knowledge (ñāõa). Why are we not interested in diagrams? Because it is not enough to show the whole system on one page. which are all formations (saïkhāra dhamma). because they incline towards the object of the impermanent. It is also to remove and prevent these defilements that you need to see the insight-knowledge. then he may succeed in his meditation. suffering or non-self nature of formations.14 To say ‘a consciousness produces light’ is only a metaphor. because they can practise Vipassanā well and successfully. You can see it at all the stages of Vipassanā. and in relation to the light produced by Samatha and Vipassanā consciousnesses. suffering. and non-self. and is usually a weak unwholesome dhamma associated with greed or hatred. 3 Vs. p. please see p. Insight-knowledge is wisdom. headed by that insight-knowledge. which should be known with insight-knowledge.1 Among these rūpa-kalāpas there is always colour (vaõõa).14 Is the seeing mind that sees mentality-materiality itself included in mentality-materiality? Is it included in wisdom? 2 Answer 7. and ‘How You Develop the Knowledge of Dissolution’. Why do you need to see the insight-knowledge itself as impermanence. or Vipassanā -consciousness. But it does not say that consciousness-produced materiality produced by a hating mind also produces light. Only then will you fully understand the diagram. all consciousnesses that arise dependent upon the heart-base (hadaya-vatthu) produce consciousness-produced rūpa-kalāpas (cittaja kalāpa). and make the eyes flash? Answer 7. it is.xxi ‘Bhaïgānupassanāñāõa Kathā’ B742 (‘Dissolution-Contemplation Knowledge’ Ñ13) 291 292 . and non-self nature of the five aggregates and their causes. Question 7. Question 7. and Sub-commentaries. especially the thirty-four mental formations in each impulsion moment. especially at the stage of Knowledge of Dissolution (bhaïga ñāõa). suffering. and non-self? Because some yogis may ask. p. happiness or suffering.10. because in fact. They may become proud. and non-self. p. you need to see the Vipassanā cognitive-process itself as impermanence. This is discussed in the Pāë i Texts.262ff.163. It is brighter if the consciousness is a Samatha-. suffering. you need to practise Samatha-Vipassanā up to the Path and Fruition Knowledges. or Vipassanā cognitive-process itself as impermanence.Questions and Answers 7 Knowing and Seeing diagram thoroughly. Commentaries. They are mentality dhammas. To answer this question. some yogis may become attached to their insight-knowledge. or staying alone in the forest? Is this kind of mind state an unwholesome dhamma? Answer 7.16 Ñātañca ñāõañca ubhopi vipassati.272f. This type of mind state occurs because of unwise attention.

). we cannot speak of a relationship between it and the five aggregates. a father. scorpions. ‘Are rabbit horns long or short?’. suffering.’ Question 7.. And if he said the five aggregates and the self are not related.IV. no Sayadaw. suffering. how should you answer? If the self does not exist at all.17 Question 7.19 1 A. and non-self in conditioned things. It is necessary especially in meditation to persevere. And if you said rabbit horns are short. with four legs (elephants. or non-self nature of those wholesome kammas. Again. how should you answer? Or if they asked. no father. or mother etc. etc. The five aggregates and their causes are called formations. that would mean you accept that rabbits have horns. mother. This you can see if you have strong enough insight-knowledge. it would mean he accepted that there is a self.II.19: What is a mantra? What is the Snake Mantra? We do not know whether mantras have been handed down from Hinduism.18 If the five aggregates are non-self. If you said tortoise hair is white. human beings. if the five aggregates are non-self. formations are talking about formations. If you do like this. the five aggregates. There is no self. then who.1 The Buddha taught this proQuestion 7. which are the five aggregates. father. it would also mean he accepted that there is a self. No one can have great success without striving. 294 . and non-self. Could the Sayadaw please give an example of a wish that is not associated with ignorance (avijjā). if you said a tortoise has black body hair.7 ‘Ahirāja Sutta’ (‘Snake Kings Sutta’). suffering. no Sayadaw is giving a Dhamma talk. That is why The Buddha did not answer this type of question. ‘Is the body hair on a tortoise black or white?’.with insight-knowledge.ii. There is no self at all. a mother. You should try to pay attention to the nature of impermanence. Only then can you remove this view of self. They are impermanent. there is no Buddha. So how can we speak of a relationship? For example. craving (taõhā) and clinging (upādāna)? Answer 7. So is there a relationship between the five aggregates and the self? Answer 7. birds). If you cannot practise Vipassanā. no mother. with two legs (devas. But in the Theravāda Texts there is a protective sutta (paritta sutta) called the ‘Khandha Paritta’. then ignorance (avijjā). Wise attention too is very important. sometimes about Nibbāna. Even The Buddha did not answer this type of question. then make the following wish: ‘Ida§ me puñña§ Nibbānassa paccayo hotu’: ‘May this merit be a contributing cause for the realization of Nibbāna. that would mean you accept that a tortoise has hair. craving (taõhā) and clinging (upādāna) do not arise. But according to ultimate truth. to eventually attain arahantship. and non-self.). a Sayadaw. In the same way.18 There are two types of truth: conventional truth (sammuti sacca) and ultimate truth (paramattha sacca). Sayadaw. if someone were to ask you. that too would mean you accept that they have horns. If you look at The Buddha with insight-knowledge. there is no Buddha. Why? Suppose you said rabbit horns are long. is giving a Dhamma talk? In other words. worms. There is 293 no self. etc. you see only ultimate mentality-materiality. lizards etc. suffering. and with many legs (ants.Questions and Answers 7 Knowing and Seeing You should also recall the stories of arahants who had striven hard and with great difficulty to succeed in their meditation. fish etc.). you may one day succeed. So we should like to suggest that you try to practise meditation up to the Vipassanā level. Sayadaw. Is chanting the Snake Mantra the same as loving-kindness? Is chanting a mantra a Brahmanic tradition brought into Buddhism? Answer 7. that too would mean you accept it has hair. In the same way if you look at me. In other words. which are impermanent. you see ultimate mentality-materiality. called the Khandha (Group) Paritta (Protective Chant) because mettā is extended to all beings in groups: the four types of snake. or at a father. beings with no legs (leeches. and also see the impermanence. spiders etc.17 If you practise Vipassanā when performing wholesome kammas. So. etc. if The Buddha said the five aggregates and the self are related. centipedes. The Buddha taught the Snake Mantra to bhikkhus. According to conventional truth there is a Buddha. dogs. You should differentiate clearly between these two types of truth.

When they chant this protective sutta many times. If a bhikkhu recites this protective sutta with respect. There is a disciplinary rule (Vinaya) which says that if a forest-dwelling bhikkhu or bhikkhunī fails to recite this protective sutta at least once a day. Once.Questions and Answers 7 Knowing and Seeing tective sutta for bhikkhus to recite every day. He died. It is effective. Usually. if he also observes the monastic code. and the qualities of The Buddha and arahants. We shall recite this protective sutta tonight. he or she will have committed an offence. Because of this. The Buddha taught this protective sutta to prevent bhikkhus from being bitten by venomous snakes. Some bhikkhus in Myanmar use this protective sutta for those who have been bitten by a venomous snake. The purpose of this protective sutta is similar to lovingkindness meditation. The Buddha taught the ‘Khandha Paritta’. and extends lovingkindness to all beings. and when the victims drink the protective water. In that sutta there are different ways of extending lovingkindness to different types of snake or dragon. You can call it whatever you like. including snakes. 295 296 . a bhikkhu was dwelling in the forest when a venomous snake bit him. It is very powerful. You may call it the ‘Snake Mantra’. no harm will come to him. the venom slowly decreases in them. But the effect is not the same in every case. The name is not important. There is also an assertion of truth concerning the Triple Gem. he will meet with no danger. Usually they recover. in The Buddha’s time.

and instructed the Saï as follows: gha 1 2 DA. Here The Buddha declared His wishes for His teachings. should cultivate them.3 ‘Mahāparinibbāna Sutta’ 164 (‘Great Parinibbāna Sutta’) For the Seven Ways for Materiality/Mentality. the bodhisatta. On the fullmoon day of Asā ë ha. First The Buddha entered the Arahant-Fruition Attainment (arahattaphala samāpatti) based on the Seven Ways for Materiality (rūpa sattaka vipassanā) and Seven Ways for Mentality (arūpa sattaka vipassanā).260ff 3 For details with regard to these The Buddha’s practices and attainments. and then He entered the arahant fruition-attainment. ‘From today until the day of my Parinibbāna. having thoroughly learnt them. (Bhikkhus.II. The Buddha announced that He had relinquished the will to live. Such an affliction is called ‘feeling ending at death’ (maraõantika vedāna). and eventually reached Vesālī .II. In one of his past lives. Arahant fruitionattainment means that the arahant fruition-consciousness. Because of the 1 2 effort of the Vipassanā and the effort of the fruition-attainment the affliction did not occur in the ten months that were left until the day of The Buddha’s Parinibbāna.3 ‘Mahāparinibbāna Sutta’ 184 (‘Great Parinibbāna Sutta’) 297 298 . (From today until the full-moon day of Vesākha I shall practise this fruition attainment. on the full-moon day of February. Once he threw down an opponent and broke the opponent’s back. He said to the Bhikkhu Saï 3 gha: Tasmātiha bhikkhave ye te mayā dhammā abhiññā desitā. please see endnote. p. But He had to enter that fruition-attainment every day until then. te vo sādhuka§ uggahetva āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā. may this affliction not occur’.314 DA. a sharp and deadly back pain came upon Him. was a wrestler.3 ‘Mahāparinibbāna Sutta’ 169 (‘Great Parinibbāna Sutta’) D. What does that mean? On that day He decided:2 Temāsamattameva pana samāpatti§ samāpajjitvā tato para§ na samāpajjissāmīti citta§ uppādesi. with Nibbāna as object. p. in the assembly hall of the Mahāvana monastery. the arahant fruition-attainment too was strong and powerful.ii.) The Buddha taught only the Dhamma about which He had direct experience. When mature. that unwholesome kamma (akusala kamma) produced its result.Knowing and Seeing Talk 8 The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings (Talk given on Vesākha Day) The Buddha’ Relinquishes the Will to Live The Buddha spent His last rains (vassa) in the village of Veë uva. which was ten months before Sakyamuni Buddha’s Parinibbāna. at the Cāpāla Cetiya. develop them. and frequently practise them. please see above. At that time there arose in Him a severe affliction. occurs continuously for a long time.) The Buddha Declares His Wishes So on that day. Then I shall no longer practise it. to whom I have made known the Truths about which I have direct knowledge. you. The effect of that kamma was so powerful that it would last until death. The Buddha decided to relinquish the will to live (āyusaïkhāra ossajjana). The Buddha determined. in front of the assembled Bhikkhu Saï gha. because of previous kamma. It ceases only when death occurs.1 After the vassa. The Buddha wandered from place to place.2 After those Vipassanā practices and just before entering the arahant fruition-attainment. who was to become Sakyamuni Buddha. Three months before Vesākha fullmoon day.1 The Buddha prevented that affliction from arising through entering an Arahant Fruition and making a determination (adhiññhāna). Because the Vipassanā practices were strong and powerful.

it can be said that we breathe according to The Buddha’s instructions. When we cultivate. (So that the pure Teaching may be established and last long. (For the welfare and happiness of the multitude. We will try to learn The Buddha’s Teachings thoroughly by heart. What does that mean? When we practise the Dhamma. This was The Buddha’s first wish. These are the duties of all Buddhists. Why should we do so?1 Tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna§. In Pāë i it is called āsevitabbā. This was The Buddha’s second wish. We will try to practise The Buddha’s Teachings until arahantship. To reach arahantship we must practise again and again. Finally. and means that we must try to know this Dhamma in practice again and again. which means we must practise frequently. 2. ibid. only wholesome dhammas (kusala dhamma) must occur in our cognitiveprocesses. Our Duty as Buddhists It is very important that every Buddhist maintains the pure Teaching. then one is a real Buddhist. Why?1 Yathayida§ brahmacariya§ addhaniya§ assa ciraññhitika§.The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings Knowing and Seeing 1. He instructed them to develop (bhāvetabbā) the Truths. We will try to practise The Buddha’s Teachings so as to know them through personal experience. If a disciple (sāvaka) of The Buddha attains arahantship. growth and progress are necessary. 299 300 . so that it is not lost. We should try to practise The Buddha’s Teachings so as to know them through personal experience. out of compassion for the world. He instructed them to cultivate His Teachings (Dhamma). So a disciple of The Buddha must practise The Buddha’s Teachings until he attains that goal: the cultivation must be developed until arahantship. We should try to practise The Buddha’s Teachings until arahantship. They should learn His Teachings (Dhamma) thoroughly by heart. wholesome morality dhammas (sīla kusala dhamma).) That is. 3. 3. If one follows these three instructions thoroughly. We must try. What should we try to do? We repeat: 1.) 1 ibid. for the welfare and happiness of devas and human beings. If one does not follow them then one is a Buddhist in name only: not a real Buddhist. These wishes occured in The Buddha’s cognitive-processes. but learning by heart alone is not enough. his practice (bhāvanā) is over. 2. 2. For that reason The Buddha gave the instruction of bahulī kātabbā. We should try to learn The Buddha’s Teachings (Dhamma) thoroughly by heart. This was The Buddha’s third wish.8 . It is translated as cultivation. If one is a Buddhist one must follow these three instructions. wholesome concentration dhammas (samādhi kusala dhamma) and wholesome wisdom dhammas (paññā kusala dhamma). 1 How We May Benefit the World If we do that. to maintain the pure Teaching so that it can last for a long time. That is. These wholesome dhammas must occur without a break until arahantship. 3. So you can today determine: 1.

. But if we do not learn the Teachings by heart.. according to the inclination of his listeners............. we cannot say that he or she is a real devotee........ how can we control our mind? Then we must learn how to cultivate wisdom..... If we do not know about Samatha meditation.. up to the attainment of Nibbāna.......... those devas and human beings will receive benefits and happiness in this world......... The teachings in the Pāë i Canon can be reduced to just the ThirtySeven Requisites of Enlightenment...3 ‘Mahāparinibbāna Sutta’ 184 (‘Great Parinibbāna Sutta’) MA.. so as to know them through personal experience...... These are important words of The Buddha before He passed away.... In the same way we should obey our Father’s words.... To practise The Buddha’s Teachings.... there is only the Noble Eightfold Path... how can we cultivate concentration? If we do not practise concentration....... there are only the three trainings: morality. If we have faith 1 We must first learn the training of morality to practise........ Do you have strong enough faith in the teachings of The Buddha? It is said in the ‘Ghañ ī kāra Sutta’ Commentary:1 Pasanno ca pasannākāra§ kātu§ sakkhissati.. What We Must Learn and Practise To try to learn The Buddha’s Teachings thoroughly by heart.. 2............ and wisdom..... If we do not know the training of morality..) The Buddha taught the Thirty-Seven Requisites of Enlightenment in different ways...... If it is condensed..... how can we teach devas and human beings to learn the Teachings of The Buddha...II. how can we cultivate wisdom? 1 D...... To practise The Buddha’s Teachings until arahantship. If we have faith in The Buddha we should obey those words... we will be able to give the Dhamma to future generations as an inheritance.........(cattaro sammappadhānā) The Four Bases of Success ..... If they are condensed..........ii...... we cannot purify our conduct....... you should learn those teachings thoroughly.............. (True devotees of the Triple Gem can show their devotion through practice.. concentration....... How We May Show Our Faith The Four Foundations of Mindfulness .... Then we must learn Samatha meditation to control and concentrate our mind... practise them.. in our parents we should obey their instructions.......... If we do not know the training of wisdom.. (cattaro iddhipādā) The Five Controlling Faculties.. Let us discuss them briefly........ what are those Teachings? They are:1 • • • • • • • By doing that......... we Buddhists should try to learn those Teachings by heart.. (pañcindriyāni) The Five Powers . (satta bojjhaïgā) The Noble Eightfold Path.1 ‘Ghañīkāra Sutta’ (‘Ghañīkāra Sutta’) 301 302 .The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings Knowing and Seeing If we practise according to The Buddha’s instructions.......... . (cattaro satipaññhānā) The Four Right Efforts .......... cultivate them in practice...................... 3........... (pañca balāni) The Seven Factors of Enlightenment............... So........iv. if we have strong enough faith (saddhā) in the Teachings of The Buddha... (ariyo atthaïgiko maggo) There are altogether Thirty-Seven Requisites of Enlightenment (bodhipakkhiyadhamma).. and not stop before attaining arahantship. since we have no knowledge of them? So...... and develop them until arahantship......... The Basis for Practice If a man or woman cannot show devotion......... and teach them how to practise those Teachings.. If you have real faith in The Buddha’s Teachings........8 ..... our Father is The Buddha. We will be able to teach devas and human beings the following: 1.. In the Pāë i Canon..... and do not practise those teachings.

then the power of that concentrated mind is wonderful. 1 Everybody has a mind. such is wisdom. This insight-knowledge is called wisdom.8 . in the ‘Mahāparinibbāna Sutta’. appear in one’s mind. becoming. For laypeople. iti paññā. The concentrated mind and wisdom are will-power. samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisa§sā. not only to attain Nibbāna. They are smaller than atoms. They are: 1. we must first learn the Dhamma by heart. If one’s conduct is not purified. The Buddha urged His disciples many times:1 Iti sīla§. the destruction of all attachment. This wisdom progresses because of concentration based on morality. They must not use possessions acquired by killing. by lies. usually one goes to one of the four woeful realms after death. The mind that is fully developed in wisdom is utterly free from the taints of lust. those misdeeds usually stick to one’s mind.The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings Knowing and Seeing So. and to develop our wisdom. to control our mind. Morality is also important to find happiness and peace in the present life. If one breaks any of these five precepts. by harsh speech. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisa§so. by theft. By taking one of those misdeeds as the object of the mind. great is the result. materiality. the wisdom. Buddhists must also abstain from wrong livelihood. So morality is very important for all Buddhists. based on morality. it is not easy to reach a happy state after death. to purify our conduct. When the mind is fully developed through concentration. The concentrated mind can penetrate into the nature of arising and passing-away of mentality.) We all have a mind. Great is the result. we must cultivate and develop it up to arahantship. we can control our mind. e. Secondly. The concentrated mind can analyse those rūpa-kalāpas. all defilements and all suffering. 3. This will-power can lead to the attainment of Nibbāna. (Such is morality. can free one from the taints of lust and the round of rebirths completely.g. One’s refuge in the Triple Gem has been made invalid. To abstain from killing any beings To abstain from stealing To abstain from sexual misconduct To abstain from telling lies To abstain from taking intoxicants These five precepts are necessary for all lay-Buddhists. the five precepts are necessary. 4. ibid. and their causes. in animals for slaughter. The concentrated mind can also penetrate into the ultimate reality of mentality. but also to reach a happy state after death. wrong views and ignorance. If. iti samādhi. 2. in intoxicants. by sexual misconduct. the insight-knowledge. They must not engage in the five types of wrong trade: trading in weapons. one cannot find happiness or peace. Someone with a bad character is naturally surrounded by enemies. That mind can penetrate into ultimate materiality. Without purification of conduct. One who has many enemies cannnot find any happiness. seyyathida§ kāmāsavā bhavāsavā diññhāsavā avijjāsavā. The concentrated mind can penetrate into their causes. great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed based on concentration. 5. or by frivolous speech. great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed based on morality. Therefore. because at the time of death. Materiality arises as rūpa-kalāpas. by slander. such is concentration. in humans. Our body is made of those rūpa-kalāpas. or in poisons. But that concentration must be based on morality. one is automatically not a real lay-Buddhist (upāsaka/upāsikā).186 303 304 . Paññāparibhāvita§ citta§ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati.

If we analyse those rūpa-kalāpas. and sound. This is the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition (paccaya-pariggaha ñāõa)... present...... the end of the round of rebirths.. feeling. you change to Vipassanā meditation. Mindfulness of the body . In other words... All those Samatha practices go under contemplation of the body. sīlavantassa jhāyino. one’s life is not worthy of praise. breath is a group of rūpa-kalāpas produced by consciousness.. ‘Emphasize’ does not mean you should discern one state only.. water-... when you will have reached Vipassanā. 2. At the time of practising discernment of mentality (nāma kammaññhāna).. and see the twenty-eight types of materiality.. consciousnesses. After the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition.. the two bodies are the five aggregates (khandha): materiality.172 Dhp........viii.8 . 3... we must discern their causes in the past.. After having discerned mentality and materiality... (cittānupassanā satipaññhāna) Mindfulness of dhammas .... and the four-elements are also called body. You can emphasize materiality.. you are practising contemplation of the body.... and wind-element. It is better to live a single day with the practice of virtue and concentration. if you are practising ānāpānasati.10 ‘Sahassa Vagga’ (‘Thousands Chapter’) 305 306 ..... For example.152. The mentality-body is a group of consciousnesses and their associated mental factors. and contact is not enough to attain the insight-knowledges......... If we analyse those rūpa-kalāpas. and can destroy all defilements and suffering.. (vedanānupassanā satipaññhāna) Mindfulness of consciousness .. The Buddha taught two types of meditation: Samatha and Vipassanā..) Why? Because the mind that is fully developed through concentration can produce great wisdom. which can see Nibbāna.. when you discern consciousnesses. p.. perception.. it is contemplation of feelings. After you have succeeded in Samatha practice...... feelings..... the thirtytwo parts of the body as foulness (asubha)...... dussīlo asamāhito.1 Under mindfulness of the body (kāyānupassanā)... flavour...... and future. consciousnesses or contact.. When we practise Samatha and Vipassanā meditation...... we see that there are forty-four types of materiality. there are a total of five types of rūpa-kalāpa. formations. The materiality-body is a group of twenty-eight types of materiality.. nutritive essence. If the skeleton is alive.. and consciousness. But Samatha meditation objects such as the breath. you can emphasize either materiality... So we must practise Samatha and Vipassanā meditation based on morality. The skeleton too is compactness of rūpa-kalā pas.. So.... 4. But discerning only feelings... when you discern feelings. but you must not 1 For details. we must practise the Four Foundations of Mindfulness (cattāro satipaññhānā): 1. So we must discern the remaining associated mental factors... Under contemplation of the body... when you discern contact it is contemplation of dhammas........ fire-. He included ānāpānasati (mindfulness-of-breathing).. odour. and Table 3...... (dhammānupassanā satipaññhāna) What is ‘the body’ (kāya)? There are two types of body in Vipassanā: the materiality-body (rūpa-kāya) and the mentality-body (nāmakāya). we see that there are nine types of materiality in each one: earth-. colour.. p..........The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings Knowing and Seeing Samatha and Vipassanā Meditation Then The Buddha taught the following:1 Yo ca vassasata§ jīve... That is also practising contemplation of the body. (Though one should live a hundred years without virtue and without concentration. please see ‘How You Analyse the Rūpa-Kalāpas’.. it is contemplation of consciousnesses. and the thirty-two parts of the body etc... Why? They are also compactness of materi1 ality. (kāyānupassanā satipaññhāna) Mindfulness of feeling .. Ekāha§ jīvita§ seyyo.

....... example. That is... Desire.....(vīriya) We must have strong and powerful energy to reach Nibbāna.......... Energy . suffering......... 4....2 So here........ They are oppressed by constant arising and passingaway...... If we have strong enough consciousness we will attain our goal..... The effort to prevent unwholesome states from arising........... is called Vipassanā meditation.. 1 3.............. and non-self nature of mentality-materiality... When you practise the Four Foundations of Mindfulness you must arouse enough of the Four Right Efforts (cattāro sammappadhāna)........... permanent and immortal.. because each one includes all the others... There is nothing we cannot achieve if we have enough wisdom...... To fully understand the Noble Eightfold Path is also to fully understand the Seven Factors of Enlightenment........................ The five sense-bases and their objects are materiality..8 .. and non-self nature of mentality-materiality and their causes..... If we have strong enough insight-knowledge we will attain our goal. and Four Noble Truths....... There is nothing we cannot achieve if we have enough desire.... (citta) We must have strong and powerful consciousness to reach Nibbāna..... Consciousness ..............50ff 307 308 ...... consciousness........ please see p........... It is in fact not possible to separate these many aspects of the Dhamma.. and the twelve bases etc............ The effort to produce wholesome states that have not yet arisen (concentration wholesome-dhammas...... You must also discern their associated mental formations........ There is nothing we cannot achieve if we have a strong and powerful mind.... leaving bones and sinews only....... twelve bases..... we can say you are practising the Four Foundations of Mindfulness.. all thirty-seven factors of enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiyadhamma) need to be fully understood for enlightenment to take place.... 2 The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw discusses Vipassanā by way of discerning only feelings in Answer 4...’ When you practise you should have the Four Bases of Success (cattāro iddhipādā): 1......... suffering.......... For... Those dhammas pass away as soon as they arise.. The Buddha explains dhammas also as the five aggregates.... and dhammas too. you must discern feeling...... Hence... 186.......... It is also to fully understand mentality-materiality... and their causes and effects.... If we have strong enough desire we will attain our goal.. we should also have the Five Controlling Faculties1 (pañcindriyāni).............. Vipassanā is contemplating the impermanent.6 above.... path wholesome-dhammas.... It is the same for the consciousnesses and dhammas....1 You may emphasize feelings instead... When we practise Samatha and Vipassanā based on morality. Investigation ... The effort to develop those wholesome states up to arahantship.. They are: 1... There is nothing we cannot achieve if we have enough energy... I will not give up my meditation..... so they are non-self... The effort to eradicate unwholesome states that have arisen.......... When practising you must arouse enough of the four types of effort just mentioned: ‘Even if my flesh and blood were to dry up...... seven enlightenment factors... so they are impermanent............. five hindrances........... How should you practise? You should practise according to the Four Foundations of Mindfulness........ Vipassanā wholesomedhammas........ etc.The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings Knowing and Seeing omit mentality.. and their objects. 2. Discernment of the impermanent. to fully understand the Four Noble Truths is to fully understand the Noble Eightfold Path...... p... their sense-bases.. There are four foundations of mindfulness: (1) body (2) feeling (3) consciousness (4) dhammas. When you practise Samatha and Vipassanā meditation.. and the five aggregates.. If we have strong enough energy we will attain our goal.................... (chanda) We must have strong and powerful desire to reach Nibbāna...... 2.. 4. so they are suffering....). Dhammas are the remaining constituents of the mentality body (nāma-kāya). In those dhammas there is no soul. 3. But feelings alone are not enough....... They are: 1 For a discussion of the Five Controlling Faculties.... nothing is stable..(vima§sa) We must have strong and powerful insight-knowledges to reach Nibbāna......

........... 2..................... Faith .. (sati) Investigation of Phenomena ............................... up to the attainment of Nibbāna.. It was The Buddha’s wish that His disciples learn these Thirty-Seven Requisites of Enlightenment by heart................. If you do not have any of these controlling faculties.............. (sammā ājīva) Right Effort ............................................. (samādhi) Equanimity ..... (sammā samādhi) These five controlling faculties control the yogi’s mind..(upekkhā) Formations are always impermanent. so it does not go away from the Noble Eightfold Path.................. we and future generations will receive benefits and happiness in this world............ it must be mentality... 7............... Altogether. which leads to Nibbāna... and their causes..................... it must be an object like the ānāpānanimitta or kasiõa-nimitta....... (sammā sati) Right Concentration... (paññā) We must have sufficient understanding about Samatha and Vipassanā objects............ 5.. materiality................. (sati) We must have sufficiently strong mindfulness on the meditation object.... 5. concentration (samādhi).............. 3.... and wisdom (paññā): the three trainings.................... Right View ................................................. 2................................... because they are produced by their respective causes............................ (Bhikkhus. (sammā diññhi) Right Thought . 8.............. We must practise these three trainings systematically... we can give this inheritance to future generations........................(vīriya) We must make sufficiently strong effort.............................................. 6.. You cannot control your mind..................... (sammā kammanta) Right Livelihood ....... Effort.............................. Mindfulness ........ vayadhammā saïkhārā appamādena sampādetha.................8 ................................ there is the Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo aññhaïgiko maggo): 1............................................. It is.. there are Thirty-Seven Requisites of Enlightenment (bodhipakkhiyadhamma)................................................... 7.................................................................. the Five Controlling Faculties are called the Five Powers (pañca balāni).. 4........ 5.............. If it is a Vipassanā object.... The Buddha’s Exhortations to the Saï gha The Buddha said further:1 Handa dāni bhikkhave āmantayāmi vo..................................................... so that it does not go away from your meditation object.................................................................................. therefore strive with diligence....... (sammā saïkappa) Right Speech...... morality (sīla)................ Finally..................................................... 6. which are very important.................The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings Knowing and Seeing 1........................................................... They are: 1........ If we do that.................... These controlling faculties have the power to control your mind............ in other words.................. From the point-of-view of willpower.. Wisdom... 1 D........(dhamma vicaya) (This is insight-knowledge.............................3 ‘Mahāparinibbāna Sutta’ 185 (‘Great Parinibbāna Sutta’) 309 310 .......... 2......................... This power is also called will-power (bala)............. (saddha) We must have sufficiently strong faith in The Buddha and His teachings.......... Mindfulness ........................................................................... If it is a Samatha object.........................................................(vīriya) Joy ................................ all formations are subject to dissolution..........) All mentality-materiality and their causes are called formations (saïkhāra)............................................ you cannot reach your goal.. 3....) Effort................................................... 4.......... and practise them until arahantship......................................... Doing so.......... (sammā vāyāma) Right Mindfulness ..........................................(pīti) Tranquillity.............. 3............ 4....................... Apart from the Four Foundations of Mindfulness...................ii............... (sammā vācā) Right Action ......................................................... there are also the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (satta bojjhaïgā)..(passaddhi) Concentration ..................................... (samādhi) We must have sufficiently strong concentration on the Samatha and Vipassanā objects..................................................... Concentration ......

I leave you. and depart from them. the life span left is short. with the Dhamma as his island. (The time of the Tathāgata’s Parinibbāna is near. Ānanda. the Dhamma as his refuge. The Buddha’s Advice to Bhikkhus That is why The Buddha also said:2 Therefore. So you should not forget how The Buddha exhorted us: Bhikkhus. therefore strive with diligence. family. O bhikkhus. Ito tinna§ māsāna§ accayena Tathāgato parinibbāyissati. Ānanda. 1 2 The Buddha said further:1 Pahāya vo gamissāmi. 1 2 3 ibid. old.) Susīlā hotha bhikkhavo. only when the Tathāgata. Three months from now the Tathāgata will attain Parinibbāna.) That means He would attain Parinibbāna.) He described His old age to the Venerable Ānanda:1 Now I am frail. then. You should try to be bhikkhus who have complete purification of conduct. With firm resolve. so the body of the Tathāgata is kept going only with supports. attains to and abides in the signless concentration of mind. that is. (My years are now full ripe. seeking no other refuge. The Buddha said also: Paripakko vayo mayha§.The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings Knowing and Seeing You should not forget about the nature of impermanence. refuges unto yourselves. It is. with the cessation of certain feelings. Ānanda. all formations are subject to dissolution. Even as an old cart. right action and right livelihood.ii. seeking no external refuge. then throughout your life you would try to escape from it.3 ‘Mahāparinibbāna Sutta’ 185 (‘Great Parinibbāna Sutta’) ibid. that you aspire for yourself. for sons. Ānanda. is a bhikkhu an island unto himself. daughters. be islands unto yourselves. far gone in years.’ This means we must cultivate the training of morality. etc. disregarding external objects. seeking no other refuge? The Buddha’s answer was as follows:3 Appamattā satimanto susīlā hotha bhikkhavo: Susamāhitasaïkappā sacittamanurakkhatha. This is my eightieth year. The Buddha then said: Na cira§ Tathāgatassa Parinibbāna§ bhavissati. aged.314 D. ‘Bhikkhus. 165 ibid. If you knew anything of the nature of impermanence.) That means He would pass away completely. guard your minds. Those words were really sad words to hear. seeking no external refuge. paritta§ mama jīvita§. be mindful and of virtue pure. It is because you forget about the nature of impermanence. is held together with much difficulty. Please see endnote 1 below. relying on myself alone. p. a refuge unto himself. and my life is spent. 185 311 312 . He had made His own refuge up to arahantship. 165 Arahant Fruition-Attainment with the Signless object of Nibbāna as object. right speech.8 . the Dhamma as your refuge. (Departing. And how. kata§ me saraõamattano. you should try to purify your conduct. (Be diligent. Ānanda. means. with the Dhamma as your island.2 that His body is comfortable.

...8 .. (Whoever earnestly pursues the Dhamma and the Discipline shall go beyond the round of births..... Mindful of what? Mindful of the Four Foundations of Mindfulness.. please see p.. and wisdom. May all beings be happy.. ‘Saï dom..... of mentality-materiality.. (āyusaïkhāra phala-samāpatti) Post-Path Fruition Attainment: This arahant fruition-attainment comes immediately after the Noble Arahant-Path wholesome-kamma: it has the characteristic of immediate fruition. we must have enough mindfulness. So we must be mindful and diligent. and is also referred to as a momentary fruition-attainment (khaõika phala-samāpatti)... and is referred to as a momentary fruition-attainment (khaõika phala-samāpatti). The difference between the momentary fruition-attainments and the lifespan maintenance fruition-attainment is the preceding Vipassanā.. resolve.. and then resume the Vipassanā to afterwards enter the arahant fruition-attainment. 3 For details on the Seven Ways for Materiality and Seven Ways for Mentality. the Noble Eightfold Path... concentration.. Lifespan-maintenance Fruition Attainment: This arahant fruitionattainment always follows Vipassanā with the Seven Ways for Materiality and Seven Ways for Mentality:3 they were practised by the Bodhisatta on the threshold of Enlightenment under the Mahābodhi Tree..II.. About to complete the Vipassanā.. The momentary arahant-fruition attainment that is just the enjoyment of the peaceful bliss of Nibbāna is preceded by an ordinary mode of entering into Vipassanā.............. Resorting Fruition Attainment: This is the sustained arahant fruitionAttainment that an arahant may enter at will.The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings Knowing and Seeing Susamāhitasaïkappā: ‘Susamāhita’ means we must practise the training of concentration.... 3.. we must follow The Buddha’s teachings.... Let us strive with effort before death takes place. Pahāya jātisa§sāra§ dukkhassanta§ karissati........ Finally... during a discourse.. 3. suffering... The Buddha would enter this attainment at all times.... which is right thought and right view..260ff 2 313 314 . Appamattā means to see with insight-knowledge the nature of impermanence. that is. 1.... Endnote Gotama Buddha had three kinds of Arahant Fruition-Attainment:1 1. 2..(maggānantra phala-samāpatti) Resorting Fruition-Attainment . which is right effort.. Sādhu’... The Buddha said: Yo imasmi§ dhamma-vinaye appamatto vihessati.. The Buddha would emerge. (vaëañjana phala-samāpatti) Lifespan-Maintenance Fruition-Attainment2. right mindfulness kappā’ means the training of wisand right concentration... and daily by The Buddha from the day his back pain arose at Veë uva village until His Parinibbāna. and non-self in formations.. whereas the lifespan maintenance arahant-fruition attainment is preceded by a higher 1 DA... and make an end of suffering...) So. or in other words... Post-Path Fruition-Attainment . may this affliction not occur’. if we want to reach the end of the round of rebirths.. Satimanto means that when we practise the three trainings of virtuous conduct.......... The three fruition consciousnessmoments that arise immediately after a Buddha’s Noble Arahant Path consciousness are of this kind. ‘From today until Mahāparinibbāna day.. even when..... is the Fruition-attainment that is the enjoyment of the peaceful bliss of Nibbana... we must be mindful of formations..3 ‘Mahāparinibbāna Sutta’ B164 (‘Great Parinibbāna Sutta’) The life-span maintenance fruition-attainment (āyusaïkhāra-phala-samāpatti) is also called āyupālaka-phala-samāpatti (life-span protection fruition-attainment) and jīvitasaïkhāra-phalasamāpatti (life-faculty maintenance fruition-attainment). 2.. and enter this arahant fruition-attainment.. the audience applauded by saying ‘Sādhu..

8 . after which the waterweeds return again.The Buddha’s Wishes for His Disciples and His Teachings Knowing and Seeing mode of Vipassanā that requires greater effort. which would not return for a considerable time. 315 316 . the Seven Ways for Materiality (rūpasattaka) and the Seven Ways for Mentality (arūpasattaka). But the lifespan maintenance arahant-fruition attainment can suppress an affliction for a determined period (here ten months): as if a strong man were to descend into a lake and clear away the water-weeds. namely. The difference in effect is that the momentary arahant-fruition attainment suppresses an ailment for only as long as the attainment lasts: like a stone that falls into water clears the water for only as long as the impact of the stone lasts.

and by providing the four requisites. rising up for him. regarding offering in this dispensation. Organizers and Helpers)1 Introduction There are two kinds of offering: 1. Bhante. An anumodana talk is thus a rejoicement-talk meant to elevate the minds of the givers. and that she possesses the virtue loved by noble ones (ariya). according him reverential salutation and polite services. Then Venerable 1 Ānanda said to The Buddha: ‘Bhante.III. She asked The Buddha in the same way three times. the offering will be made both to Me and to the Saïgha. 2 M. Ānanda. So The Buddha too has been very helpful towards Mahāpajāpatigotamī .. and The Buddha answered in the same way three times. Let us look at The Buddha’s wishes for His disciples (sāvaka). and the Saï gha. from taking what is not given.. The offering with full fruition The offering with no fruition Which kind of offering do you prefer? Please answer our question. has gone for refuge to The Buddha. at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha’s Park. It is owing to The Buddha that Mahāpajāpatigotamī has gone for refuge to The Buddha. liquor and intoxicants.2 ga Once The Buddha was living in the Sakyan country. she sat down to one side and said to The Buddha: ‘Bhante. let The Buddha out of compassion accept it from me.’ The Buddha then said: Give it to the Saïgha.Knowing and Seeing Talk 9 The Most Superior Kind of Offering (Rejoicement Talk to Donors. She suckled The Buddha when The Buddha’s own mother died. is in Pāëi called an anumodana talk: modana means rejoicing. and woven by me... After paying homage to The Buddha..iv. Let us look at the ‘Dakkhiõāvibhaï Sutta’. and from wine. I say that it is not easy for that disciple to repay the teacher by paying homage to him. from false speech. specially for The Buddha. which are the basis of negligence. Although she was Your mother’s sister. the Dhamma. and anu means repeatedly. owing to the teacher. such as is the case here. that is so. When a disciple. (Evameta§ Ānanda.. about the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering (samudaya sacca). the Dhamma and the Saï gha. this new pair of cloths has been spun by me. Gotamī.. the Dhamma and the Saïgha. and about the Noble Truth of the Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering (magga sacca). It is owing to The Buddha that Mahāpajāpatigotamī is free from doubt about the Noble Truth of Suffering (dukkha sacca). thereby increasing the good kamma and merit of their action. and the one who gave You milk.. which she had had made by skilled weavers. and imprinting it on the mind. she was Your nurse. Then Mahāpajāpatigotamī went to The Buddha with a new pair of cloths. 2.. about the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (nirodha sacca)...) When a disciple.. please accept the new pair of robes from Mahāpajāpatigotamī .. It is owing to The Buddha that Mahāpajāpatigotamī possesses perfect confidence in The Buddha... It is owing to The Buddha that Mahāpajāpatigotamī abstains from killing living beings. Mahāpajāpatigotamī has been very helpful to The Buddha. Your wish and The Buddha’s wish may be the same or different.’ The Disciple’s Debts to His Teacher Then The Buddha replied as follows: • A talk given after an offering. evameta§ Ānanda. Your foster mother. ‘The Buddha has been very helpful towards Mahāpajāpatigotamī . 317 318 .. owing to a teacher. When you give it to the Saïgha. .12 ‘Offerings Analysis Sutta’ • That is so. has come to abstain from killing living beings. from misconduct in sensual pleasures..

and by providing the four requisites. and by providing the four requisites. Again. What are the Four Noble Truths that the disciple has understood? 1 DhA. because the escape from the round of rebirths. I say that it is not easy for that disciple to repay the teacher by paying homage to him. and death is more valuable. about the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (nirodha sacca). if a disciple knows the Four Noble Truths through the Arahant Path (arahatta magga) and Arahant Fruition (arahatta phala). and about the Noble Truth of the Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering (magga sacca).1 ‘Cakkhupalatthera Vatthu’ (‘Venerable Cakkhupala Case’) 319 320 . Here. This result is wonderful. and Non-Return Fruition Knowledge (anāgāmi phalañāõa). if a disciple knows the the Four Noble Truths through Once-Return Path Knowledge (sakadāgāmi maggañāõa) and OnceReturn Fruition Knowledge (sakadāgāmi phalañāõa). and providing of the four requisites to the teacher. no woman. But if he knows the Four Noble Truths through Non-Return Path Knowledge (anāgāmi maggañāõa). There is no one who can spoil their happiness. which are the basis of negligence. Again.i. if they do not attain arahantship. If he knows the Four Noble Truths through Stream-Entry Path Knowledge (sotāpatti maggañāõa). But they are subject to decay. according him reverential salutation and polite services. decay. Brahma bliss is far superior to sensual pleasure. and providing of four requisites to the teacher. and to possess the virtue loved by noble ones (ariya). about the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering (samudaya sacca). no more rebirth. no son. It is not necessary to take any food. then that insight-knowledge will help him escape from the four woeful realms (apāya). usually wander the four woeful realms. They are free from all dangers. according him reverential salutation and polite services. • When a disciple.1 They only sometimes visit good realms. There is no fighting and quarrelling. no family. I say that it is not easy for that disciple to repay the teacher by paying homage to him. • When a disciple. and he will have no more suffering at all. After his Parinibbāna he will definitely attain Nibbāna. subject to death. he will come back to this human world once only. and from wine. and by providing the four requisites. It cannot be compared to the disciple’s acts of respect. has come to possess perfect confidence in The Buddha.I. He will definitely be reborn in a brahma realm. He will never return to this sensual realm. So it is a great opportunity to be able to escape from the four woeful realms. So these benefits are more valuable than the disciple’s acts of respect. his insightknowledge will help him escape from the eleven sensual realms. death. according him reverential salutation and polite services. his insight-knowledge will lead to his escape from the round of rebirths. and Stream-Entry Fruition Knowledge (sotāpatti phalañāõa). If a disciple knows the Four Noble Truths through the guidance of a teacher. In the brahma realm there is no man. subject to rebirth again. owing to the teacher. owing to the teacher. etc. that offering is not enough to repay his debt. Their lifespan is very long. rising up for him. rising up for him. let us discuss what The Buddha means. Those who neglect to perform wholesome deeds. no daughter. decay.The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing from taking what is not given. has become free from doubt about the Noble Truth of Suffering (dukkha sacca). liquor and intoxicants. from false speech.9 . Even if a disciple offers a pile of requisites as high as Mount Meru. disease. I say that it is not easy for that disciple to repay the teacher by paying homage to him. the Dhamma and the Saïgha. and providing the four requisites to the teacher. disease. his insight-knowledge of the Four Noble Truths is comparatively more beneficial than his acts of respect. from misconduct in sensual pleasures. rising up for him. or the escape from rebirth. The four woeful realms are like their home: Pamattassa ca nāma cattāro apāyā sakagehasadisā.

If a disciple knows dependent-origination dependent upon a teacher.. This is a unique opportunity for Buddhists... he fully understands the relationship between cause and effect... in the five aggregates are included also the four mentality-aggregates (nāmakkhandha). dependent upon a teacher. this insightknowledge is also more valuable than acts of respect. Again. (nirodha sacca): This is Nibbāna. If a disciple knows the Noble truth of Suffering.. But if a disciple of this Sakyamuni Buddha practises hard and systematically. Offering the four requisites can.... and providing the four requisites to the teacher. there is no creator to create an effect.. If you discern many past lives. you gain the insight-knowledge of knowing which type of unwholesome kamma produces rebirth in the woeful realms.. He knows that within the three periods.9 . past.. and providing the four requisites to the teacher.... (samudaya sacca): This is dependent-origination.. the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering. Opportunities Not to Be Missed Here again we should like to explain further.. these insight-knowledges are more valuable than acts of respect.... and providing the four requisites to the teacher. he can discern these mental formations clearly.. this insight-knowledge is more valuable than acts of respect... You should not miss this opportunity either.. When they are analysed. and he taught how to discern and classify them.. and providing the four requisites.... he sees past lives and future lives. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering . 2.... The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering. whereas acts of respect.. The Noble Truth of Suffering . If a disciple knows Nibbāna dependent upon a teacher.. (dukkha sacca): This is the five aggregates... Please consider this problem.. there is no teacher who can teach about these types of materiality.. The Buddha also taught his disciples how to discern dependent-origination.... this is insightknowledge (vipassanā ñāõa) and Path Knowledge (maggañāõa). 3... This knowledge can also be gained in only a Buddha’s dispensation...... these mental formations arise ga according to cognitive-processes..... The Noble Truth of the Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering ...... and how to classify them. 322 321 .. bhavaï -.... Materiality (rūpa) arises as rūpa-kalāpas (small particles). There is no teacher outside a Buddha’s dispensation who can show and teach these mental formations clearly..... He can gain the insight-knowledge which knows that the past cause produces the present effect... and which type of wholesome kamma produces rebirth in good realms. according to the instructions of The Buddha..... this insight-knowledge is also more valuable than acts of respect. and that the present cause produces the future effect. Outside a Buddha’s dispensation....... (magga sacca): This is the Noble Eightfold Path.. because there is no other teacher who fully understands.. In other words.......... cannot be a direct cause for escape from the round of rebirths. The five aggregates are the first Noble Truth.. and providing the four requisites to the teacher..... dependent-origination is the second Noble Truth. Again..The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing 1.... however.. In the five aggregates is included the materiality-aggregate (rūpakkhandha). When a disciple of The Buddha discerns dependent-origination according to the instructions of The Buddha... the Noble Truth of Suffering.... one sees that there are generally twenty-eight types of materiality... Again. You should not miss this opportunity.. and that there is nothing which occurs without a cause... because these insight-knowledges lead to one’s escape from the round of rebirths... present and future.. Apart from the rebirth-linking consciousness..... If a disciple possesses insight-knowledge and Path Knowledge dependent upon a teacher.. The Buddha taught exactly how many associated mental factors (cetasika) are associated with one consciousness (citta) in a consciousness-moment (cittakkhaõa)..... and teach how to classify them. 4......... and death-consciousness... when a disciple discerns dependent-origination. Only a Buddha and his disciples can discern these types of materiality..... be an indirect contributing cause for one who is practising Samatha-Vipassanā to attain Nibbāna.

The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing Knowledge of the thirty-one realms. [11] One makes an offering to one outside the dispensation who is free from lust for sensual pleasures due to attainment of jhāna: this is the eleventh kind of personal offering. and the Law of Kamma. To practise Vipassanā we must have Samatha concentration. You should not miss this opportunity either. that produces rebirth in each realm. Application of the mind to the Four Noble Truths is right thought (sammā saïkappa). This is the third Noble Truth. [12] One makes an offering to a virtuous ordinary person (puthujjana): this is the twelfth kind of personal offering. [13] One makes an offering to an immoral ordinary person: this is the thirteenth kind of personal offering. we should have purification of morality. [8] One makes an offering to one who has entered upon the way to the realization of the fruit of once-return: this is the eighth kind of personal offering. and right concentration (sammā samādhi). The Buddha explains the fourteen kinds of personal offering (pāñipuggalika dakkhiõa): Ānanda. the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering. and the Law of Kamma. and right livelihood (sammā ājīva). he also sees the cessation of mentality-materiality. Samatha-Vipassanā means the Noble Eightfold Path. The Buddha also taught the way. To cultivate Samatha-Vipassanā based on morality (sīla) is to cultivate the Noble Eightfold Path. [2] One makes an offering to a Paccekabuddha: this is the second kind of personal offering. a disciple of The Buddha: this is the third kind of personal offering. [10] One makes an offering to one who has entered upon the way to the realization of the fruit of stream-entry: this is the tenth kind of personal offering. The Knowledge of Analysing Mentality-Materiality and the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Condition are right view (sammā diññhi). [3] One makes an offering to an arahant. Right view and right thought are Vipassanā. [4] One makes an offering to one who has entered upon the way to the realization of the fruit of a arahantship: this is the fourth kind of personal offering. [6] One makes an offering to one who has entered upon the way to the realization of the fruit of non-return: this is the sixth kind of personal offering. In the ‘Dakkhiõāvibhaï Sutta’. This Noble Eightfold Path can be found in only a Buddha’s dispensation. [9] One makes an offering to a stream-enterer (sotāpanna): this is the ninth kind of personal offering. can be found in the teachings of only a Buddha. this escape can be assisted by the disciple’s acts ga of offering. This knowledge can be gained in only a Buddha’s dispensation. right mindfulness (sammā sati). which is right effort (sammā vāyāma). there are fourteen kinds of personal offering: One makes an offering to a Buddha: this is the first kind of personal offering. You should not miss this opportunity either. Again. there is no one who can come to know the thirtyone realms. The Knowledge of the Cessation of Mentality-Materiality is also right view. mentioned in the 323 324 . He knows fully when his mentality-materiality will cease. that is right speech (sammā vācā). right action (sammā kammanta). the fourth Noble Truth. The Knowledge of the Noble Eightfold Path is also right view. When we cultivate Samatha-Vipassanā. [5] One makes an offering to a non-returner (anāgāmi): this is the fifth kind of personal offering.9 . to reach the state of cessation. if a disciple discerns cause and effect in future lives. [7] One makes an offering to a once-returner (sakadāgāmi): this is the seventh kind of personal offering. Again. You should not miss this opportunity either. Outside a Buddha’s dispensation. that is Samatha-Vipassanā. [1] As mentioned. The Fourteen Kinds of Personal Offering beginning of this talk. Why? Insight-knowledge of the Four Noble Truths leads to a disciple’s escape from the round of rebirths.

the offering may be expected to repay a hundred-thousand times a hundred-thousandfold. there are no words to describe the benefits of those offerings. [1] [2] • • By making an offering with a pure mind to an immoral ordinary person. That means it can produce its result in a hundred lives. with a pure mind. saying: ‘Appoint so many bhikkhus to me from the Saïgha’: this is the sixth kind of offering made to the Saïgha. The Buddha explained further: • • • The Buddha then explained to the Venerable Ānanda: There are. The Buddha then explained the benefits of these fourteen kinds of offering: • way to the realization of the fruit of non-return. seven kinds of offerings made to the Saïgha (Saïghika Dāna). this is the third kind of offering made to the Saïgha. One makes the offering only to accumulate wholesome kamma. or to a Paccekabuddha. By making an offering to one outside the dispensation who is free from lust for sensual pleasures. or to one who has entered upon the way to the realization of the fruit of once-return. By making an offering to a virtuous ordinary person. the offering may be expected to repay a hundred-thousandfold. Ānanda. the offering may be expected to repay a hundredfold. such as pigeons.9 . if a person offers requisites to a bhikkhu. What then should be said about making an offering to a stream-enterer. an offering means one offers food enough for one meal only. This kind of offering does not produce superior benefits. such as help from the receiver. saying: ‘Appoint so many bhikkhus and bhikkhunis to me from the Saïgha’: this is the fifth kind of offering made to the Saïgha. Such a thought is not a pure mind state. Suppose someone feeds a dog with the thought: ‘This is my dog’. or to one who has entered upon the way to the realization of the fruit of arahantship. For example. One makes an offering. One makes an offering. or to an arahant. or to one who has entered upon the 325 [3] [4] [5] [6] One makes an offering to a Saïgha of both bhikkhus and bhikkhunis headed by The Buddha: this is the first kind of offering made to the Saïgha. immeasurably. with strong enough faith in the Law of Kamma. 326 . By making an offering to one who has entered upon the way to the realization of the fruit of stream-entry. These are the different kinds of personal offering (pāñipuggalika dakkhiõa). But if someone gives food to the birds. Here ‘pure mind’ means offering without expecting anything in return. One makes an offering to a Saïgha of bhikkhunis: this is the fourth kind of offering made to the Saïgha. or to a non-returner.The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing [14] One makes an offering to an animal: this is the fourteenth kind of personal offering. such as. over many days or many months. If a giver offers many times. The Seven Kinds of Offering to the Saï gha By making an offering to an animal. One makes an offering to a Saïgha of both bhikkhus and bhikkhunis after The Buddha has attained Parinibnibbāna: this is the second kind of offering made to the Saïgha. This applies also to the instances mentioned later. with the thought that it will bring about success in his business it is not offering with a pure mind. or to a Buddha. because he does not expect anything from the birds. the offering may be expected to repay a thousandfold. a Fully Enlightened One? Here. or to a once-returner. the offering may be expected to repay incalculably. then the offering is pure. due to attainment of jhāna. One makes an offering to a Saïgha of bhikkhus.

327 With no expectations. MA. of evil character. but not the giver? Here the giver is immoral. immoral. The giver’s virtue purifies the offering.12 ‘Dakkhiõāvibhaïga Sutta’ (‘Offerings Analysis Sutta’) 328 . [2] There is the offering that is purified by the receiver. and the receiver too is immoral.2 Our bodhisatta in a past life as Vessantara. Because then. the offering is purified by the giver. anger. of evil character. With clear and taintless mind1 a gift that has been righteously obtained. of good character. but not the receiver. [3] There is the offering that is purified by neither the giver nor the receiver. the offering is purified by the receiver. To get superior benefits. of evil character. and the receiver too is virtuous. there will be members of the clan who are ‘yellow-necks’. Even then. So The Buddha urged her to offer them to the Saï too. but not the receiver? Here the giver is virtuous. Ānanda. [2] and the receiver is immoral. The Buddha then compared personal offerings to offerings to the Saï gha: In future times. If Mahāpajāpatigotamī offered the robes to the Saï headed by gha The Buddha it would be far more beneficial. of good character. of evil character. anger. Thus. who was immoral. of evil character. the giver should fulfil the four conditions. What is the offering that is purified by the receiver. an offering made to the Saïgha is incalculable. of good character. What are the four? They are: [1] There is the offering that is purified by the giver. and the receiver is virtuous.III. but not the giver. 1 2 There are four kinds of purification of offering. the offering is purified by both the giver and the receiver. immeasurable. This means that offerings made to the Saï (saïghika dāna) are gha more beneficial than personal offerings (pāñipuggalika dakkhiõa). saying: ‘Appoint so many bhikkhunis to me from the Saïgha’: this is the seventh kind of offering made to the Saïgha. attachment. What is the offering that is purified by both the giver and the receiver? Here the giver is virtuous. Placing faith in that the fruit of kamma is great. but not the giver. Thus. but not the receiver. [1] What is the offering that is purified by the giver.iv. The Buddha explained further: When a virtuous person to an immoral person gives. the offering is purified by the giver.9 . of evil character. although the receiver is an immoral person. etc. of good character. [4] There is the offering that is purified by both the giver and the receiver. I say. What is the offering that is purified by neither the giver nor the receiver? Here the giver is immoral.The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing [7] One makes an offering. Thus. These are the seven kinds of offering to the Saï gha. That offering was the final one. ever have greater fruit than an offering made to the Saïgha. The result would be incalculable and immeasurable. offered his son and daughter (the future Rāhula and Uppalavaõõā) to Jūjaka Brāhmaõa. Thus.ith no attachment. gha The Buddha also explained the four kinds of purification of offering: The Four Kinds of Purification of Offering [3] [4] These are the four kinds of purification of offering. etc. People will make offerings to those immoral persons on behalf of the Saïgha. And I say that in no way does an offering to a person individually. The commentary mentions the case of Vessantara. the offering is purified by neither the giver nor the receiver.

full of attachment.’ Then she offered almsfood to a virtuous bhikkhu. as the wife of a hunter. ‘An immoral person has three times stolen my wealth. of good character.. because she had. please note the next kind of offering. 4. full of attachment.’ After death he went to a deva realm. makes an unrighteously obtained offering to an immoral person. you should also be virtuous. She offered almsfood in the same way three times. the offering could be purified by neither giver nor receiver. In this case the fisherman was immoral and of bad character. the fisherman remembered his offerings to that Mahāthera. So we can say that the offering was a support for his attaining enlightenment. At that time the peta could call out ‘It is good’(Sādhu!). Furthermore. to a bhikkhu who was immoral. You must be virtuous. (Here we should like to say to the audience. Why? This kind of offering can produce better results for the giver. At the time near death. 1. ‘It is good (sādhu)’. After fulfilling this last pāramī . if you are the receiver. It was purified by Vessantara. because he had only one desire: to attain enlightenment. An offering is purified by both the giver and the receiver. hatred. Also. Since the receiver too was immoral. Your mind must be clear and taintless. Good signs of a deva realm appeared in his mind. When he died. An offering is purified by neither the giver nor the receiver. she would not have accompanied her husband. whose mind is unclear. and escape from the peta realm.) Now.who has no faith in the Law of Kamma. accompanied him when he killed animals. her offering had been unrighteously obtained. ‘That Mahāthera saved me. as it was acquired through killing animals. The giver’s offering has been righteously obtained. If your virtue is accompanied by jhāna and insightknowledge. of bad character. who then purified the offering. A fisherman living near the mouth of the Kalyāõī River in Sri Lanka. because had she had enough faith in the Law of Kamma. At that time Vessantara was virtuous. 4.9 . The commentary mentions the case of a fisherman.. and not virtuous. whose mind is unclear. 2. Her mind was unclear because had it been clear 329 and understanding. so before he died he said to his relatives. it is much better. so the peta shouted. if you want good results from offering you should fulfil the following four conditions: 1. You must have strong enough faith in the Law of Kamma and its results. He had strong enough faith in the Law of Kamma and its results. 2. The giver has strong enough faith in the Law of Kamma and its results. Because of this generosity pāramī . So the offering was purified by the giver. she would never have killed beings. when an immoral person.The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing for Vessantara’s generosity pāramī s to be fulfilled. of bad character. Your offering must have been righteously obtained. Then his wife offered almsfood on his behalf. 330 . he went to the peta realm. and other previous pāramī s. so the peta could not call out. had three times offered almsfood to a Mahāthera who was an arahant. 4. he was ready to attain enlightenment: He had only to wait for the time to mature. His offering had been rightly obtained. who has no faith in the Law of Kamma. The commentary mentions the case of a hunter. etc. etc. hatred. when the giver has fulfilled the four conditions: The giver is virtuous. So the offering was purified by the receiver. but the receiver was virtuous. She did not have enough faith in the Law of Kamma and its results. 3. when an immoral person. the fourth kind of purification of an offering. His mind was clear and taintless. Why? The giver too was immoral. and your loving-kindness and compassion for the giver is strong enough. The giver’s mind is clear and taintless. he was now certain to attain Omniscient Knowledge (sabbaññuta ñāõa). makes an unrighteously obtained offering to a virtuous person. An offering is purified by the receiver. and no good result occured. 3.

Her mind was clear and taintless. Bhikkhus. or is trying to destroy anger. immeasurable. ripening to happiness. or is trying to destroy delusion. I say. leading to heaven. immeasurable. Altogether there are six qualities. insight-knowledge. and the receiver also should be endowed with three qualities. [3] The receiver is either free from delusion. Her offering had been righteously obtained. These are the three qualities of the receiver.The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing and the receiver too is virtuous. even so bhikkhus. so many hundreds of thousands of pailfuls’. How. and addressed the monks thus: Bhikkhus. If the offering is endowed with these six qualities. [1] The receiver is either free from attachment. so many hundreds of pailfuls. then the virtue of the offering is superior.9 . What are the giver’s three qualities? Bhikkhus. If the receiver’s virtue is accompanied by jhāna. Why? The giver was endowed with the four qualities mentioned ga in the ‘Dakkhiõāvibhaï Sutta’: 1. headed by the Venerables Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallāna. Her offering was endowed with six qualities. ga Here let us look at another sutta: the ‘Chaë aï dāna Sutta’ in guttara Nikāya. The Buddha said: Ānanda. or is trying to destroy attachment. 2. who lived in Velukandaka.’ Verily the great mass of merit. is just reckoned unreckonable. The Buddha saw the offering with his divine eye. [2] The receiver is either free from anger. [which is] headed by Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallāna. accumulated for wholesome kamma hereafter. and to say: ‘There are so many pailfuls. This offering can produce incalculable. The Six Qualities of an Immeasurable Offering What are the three qualities of the receiver? Bhikkhus. These are the three qualities of the giver. it is not easy to grasp the measure of merit in an offering endowed with the six qualities. it is not easy to grasp the measure of merit of such an offering by saying: ‘This much is the yield in merit.VI.7 ‘Six-Qualities Offering Sutta’ ga The giver’s three qualities. for that great mass of water is reckoned unreckonable. leading to happiness. just as it is not easy to grasp the measure of water in the great ocean. offered almsfood. Then Nanda’s mother. A. immeasurable. wholesome kamma. at Jetavana in Anāthapiõ ika’s Park. and the receiver was the Bhikkhu Saï gha. 3. immeasurable results. ‘Chakka Nipāta’.1 Once The Buddha was the Aï living near Sāvatthi. the lay disciple of Velukandaka has prepared an offering endowed with six qualities to the Saïgha. the yield in goodliness. the giver should be endowed with three qualities. is an offering endowed with six qualities? Bhikkhus. Verily the great mass of merit is reckoned unreckonable. [3] After giving the giver is joyful. 1 She was virtuous. She had strong enough faith in the Law of Kamma and its results. [2] While giving the giver’s heart is satisfied. [1] Before giving the giver is glad at heart. were also fulfilled: 331 332 . longed for and loved. a lay disciple of The Buddha. it produces immeasurable and noble results. bhikkhus. so many thousands of pailfuls. or Path and Fruition Knowledges. The Buddha explained further: Bhikkhus. this kind of offering will come to full fruition.iv. 4. As for this kind of offering. mentioned in the ‘Chaë aï dāna Sutta’.

ga But according to the ‘Dakkhiõāvibhaï Sutta’. So we may say: • • • • • If he wants to become a Buddha. the receiver too ga must be virtuous. And were satisfied while giving.5 ‘Almsgiving Rebirth Sutta’ 333 334 . 2. The givers too may be virtuous. it means that before.The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing 1. and delusion (moha). he or she should try to fulfil them. If he wants to become a Great Disciple (mahāsāvaka). They are also virtuous. Now there are worthy receivers here. If he wants to go to the brahma realm after death. The Giver’s Wishes If the givers expect good results in the future. What they have offered has been righteously obtained. he can get human happiness in the human realm. whether male or female. Again: • • • • • • If he wants human happiness after death. If he or she expects incalculable and immeasurable good results. If he wants to become a Paccekabuddha he can become a Paccekabuddha. and delusion totally. But this is only when his pāramī s have matured. he can become a Chief Disciple. anger (dosa). Why? The Buddha said in the ‘Dānūpapatti Sutta’:1 Ijjhati bhikkhave sīlavato cetopaõidhi visuddhattā. If he wants to become a Chief Disciple (aggasāvaka).I. a virtuous person’s wholesome kamma can make his wish come true: • • • • • It is very important that these conditions are present in a giver. he can become a Ordinary Disciple. he can become a Buddha. (Bhikkhus. While giving her heart was satisfied. Wishing alone is not enough to attain one of those types of enlightenment (bodhi). or who is cultivating Samatha-Vipassanā meditation to destroy greed (lobha). After giving she was joyful. If he wants to go to the deva realm. it should be a bhikkhu or bhikkhunī who either has practised Samatha-Vipassanā meditation up to arahantship. How? If his offering fulfils the previously mentioned conditions.) So. Before giving she was glad at heart. in Yi-Tung Temple. he can become a Great Disciple.VIII. They were joyful after giving. and the Law of Kamma and its results. They may have strong enough faith in the Triple Gem. They were glad before giving. a virtuous person’s wish will certainly be fulfilled by purification of conduct. Offerings at Retreat There are now. certainly this wholesome kamma will fulfil their expectation. So we can say that the offerings made in these two months have been in accordance with The Buddha’s wishes. According to the ‘Chaë aï dāna Sutta’. 3. many bhikkhus and bhikkhunī s who are practising Samatha and Vipassanā meditation to destroy attachment.iv. his mind 1 A. If he wants to become an Ordinary Disciple (pakatisāvaka). anger. he can go to the deva realm. They are noble offerings. Their minds may be clear and taintless. while and and after offering.9 . this wholesome kamma can be a support for him to go to the brahma realm.

In this way his offering is a support for him to go to the brahma realm. In the same way. In this case. He has no expectation of a future life. his wholesome kamma will be a superior and very powerful support for him to go to the brahma realm. offers to an arahant what is righteously obtained. craving. and no craving (taõhā).) In this case. The Buddha taught the following stanza:1 Khīna§ purāõa§ nava natthi sambhava§ Virattacittā’yatike bhavasmi§ Te khīõabījā avirūëhichandā Nibbanti dhīrā yathāya§ padīpo Idampi sanghe ratana§ paõīta§ Etena saccena suvatthi hotu.ii. It is the most superior happiness in the thirty-one realms. that is volitional-formations (saïkhāra). you should also practise lovingkindness meditation up to jhāna. with clear and taintless mind. namely.1 ‘Jewel Sutta’ The seeds of rebirth: ignorance. and brahma happiness. They have exhausted the seeds of rebirth. human happiness. Why? The giver has destroyed delusion and all attachment to life. an arahant’s offering cannot produce any result. The giver’s mind is clear and taintless. 336 . In the ‘Ratana Sutta’. There is no mundane happiness higher than brahma happiness. volitional-formations means good actions like making an offering to the receiver. If he at that time practises lovingkindness meditation (mettā bhāvanā). If the root of a tree is totally destroyed. But a fifth quality is necessary. brahma happiness is the highest. 3. he should practise lovingkindness meditation up to jhāna. are the main causes for kamma. and offers almsfood. if the giver wants to go to the brahma realm after death. The Most Superior of All Worldly Offerings 2. The receiver too must be an arahant. because there are no supporting causes: there is no ignorance (avijjā). His loving-kindness for the receiver is strong. 335 Sn. and takes the offerings and receivers as object: the receiver becomes his mind’s object for the lovingkindness meditation. Why? This offering has no result. 4. then please listen to the following ga stanza from the ‘Dakkhiõāvibhaï Sutta’: Yo vītarāgo vītarāgesu dadāti dāna§ Dhammena laddha§ supasannacitto Abhisaddaha§ kammaphala§ uëhāra§ Ta§ ve dāna§ āmisadānānamagganti. if you want good results in the future. his loving-kindness jhāna will take him to the brahma realm after death. one arahant giving to another arahant. So.The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing is full of joy. the four qualities present in the giver are: 1. (Bhikkhus. ignorance and craving. then that offering indeed is the most superior of all worldly offerings. He praised this kind of offering as the most superior. the tree cannot produce any fruit. because he has totally destroyed those roots. New wholesome and unwholesome kamma do not occur in them.9 . But this kamma does not produce any result. So. placing faith in that the fruit of kamma is great. The giver has strong enough faith in the Law of Kamma and its results. Do you prefer this kind of offering? If you do. and force of kamma. The giver’s offering has been righteously obtained. deva happiness.2 1 2 The giver is an arahant. is clear. Ignorance (avijjā) and craving (taõhā). is the most superior kind of worldly offering. (Arahants have exhausted all old wholesome and unwholesome kamma. Among the three kinds of happiness. namely: 5. I say that when an arahant. the offering with full fruition. That was the first kind of offering mentioned in the beginning of this talk. taintless and happy. If he has practised lovingkindness jhāna. The Buddha taught that this kind of offering.

he sees the rūpa-kalāpas easily. If he discerns the impermanent. and delusion. anger. physical suffering. he will experience sorrow.The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing They have no expectation of a future life. odour.) This is an assertion of truth. If the giver is still attached to sensual objects. and He taught them the ‘Ratana Sutta’ Paññhāna (Conditional Relations) (fifth book of the Abhidhamma) ‘Kusalattika’(‘Wholesome Triads’ §423 337 338 . no physical suffering. decay. death. water-. no decay. and despair? Please consider also this question: Can we say that an offering is superior when it produces no result: no rebirth. then when those objects are destroyed or have died. mental suffering. colour. and non-self (anatta) nature. flavour and nutritive essence. or is trying to destroy attachment. mental suffering. This is the most superior. By this truth may all beings be happy and free from all dangers. anger. and non-self nature of the ultimate materiality of the offerings. disease. subject to disease. pro1 Vesālī was a city visited by drought. The Buddha taught that there are two ways he can do this: when the receiver either is free from attachment. how can he then make the ga second kind of offering? In the ‘Chaë aï dāna Sutta’ mentioned before. suffering. subject to decay. When he analyses the rūpa-kalāpas. The offering with no fruition. anger. suffering. and delusion. no lamentation. and no despair? This is why The Buddha praised the second kind of offering as the most superior. This is the second kind of offering mentioned at the beginning of this Dhamma talk: an offering with no fruition. fire-. the offering with result.1 An arahant’s offering is the most superior because it has no result in the future. and non-self nature of external mentality-materiality. The people of Vesālī asked The Buddha to help them. no sorrow. evil yakkhas (lower devas). no death. such as happiness in the human realm. sorrow. suffering (dukkha). and despair. disease and death. there is still suffering. When he looks at the four elements in the offerings. and epidemic diseases. But in the case of the first kind of offering mentioned. famine. At the beginning of this Dhamma talk were mentioned the two kinds of offering: 1 1. decay. If there is no future life. when the oil and wick are exhausted. Which kind of offering do you prefer? Now you know the answer. or happiness in the brahma realm. suffering. and subject to death. and discerns their impermanent (anicca). If he discerns the impermanent. 2. If he discerns the impermanent. if he at the time of offering practises Vipassanā:1 • • • • If he discerns his own mentality-materiality. physical suffering. Please consider this question: Can we say that an offering is superior when it produces rebirth. lamentation. he discerns the eight elements: earth-. no disease. Now you may understand the meaning of this Dhamma talk. By the assertion of this truth all the people in Vesālī became free from dangers. lamentation. no mental suffering. All their mentality-materiality will cease like an oil lamp. animate and inanimate. if the giver too is trying to destroy attachment. How You Make a Most Superior Offering But if the giver is not an arahant. there will be no rebirth. happiness in the deva realm. no result.9 . You can say that the offering is also most superior. and wind-element. which arise in him while offering. and non-self nature of wholesome mentality dhammas. The rūpa-kalāpas are generations of temperature-produced materiality (utuja-rūpa). The offering with full fruition. The very least is that the giver is still subject to rebirth. especially the receiver’s mentalitymateriality. and delusion.

when the oil and wick are exhausted. The giver can do this type of Vipassanā before.) May all beings be well and happy. please see p. after or while offering. and also. We should not miss this opportunity either.228 339 340 .139 The seeds of rebirth: ignorance. how can we make this kind of offering if we have no insightknowledge? We should like to suggest that you then make your offering with the thought: ‘May this offering be a contributory cause to attaining Nibbāna. New wholesome and unwholesome kamma do not occur in them. Please see the three rounds of dependent origination. This opportunity exists only in a Buddha’s dispensation. suffering. By this truth may all beings be happy and free from all dangers.9 .’ This is because The Buddha many times taught to make offerings with the wish for Nibbāna. But his Vipassanā must be strong and powerful. his attachment. If the giver is able to do this type of Vipassanā. we can say that also this kind of offering is most superior. He must have practised up to the stage of at least Knowledge of Dissolution (bhaïga ñāõa). For details regarding the regeneration of temperature-produced materiality. anger and delusion are suppressed at the time of offering. That way. and non-self nature. We should like to conclude our Dhamma talk by repeating the stanza from the ‘Ratana Sutta’: Khīna§ purāõa§ nava natthi sambhava§ Virattacittā’yatike bhavasmi§ Te khīõabījā avirūëhichandā Nibbanti dhīrā yathāya§ padīpo Idampi sanghe ratana§ paõīta§ Etena saccena suvatthi hotu. p.2 1 2 They have no expectation of a future life. But you may ask. and force of kamma. (Arahants have exhausted all old wholesome and unwholesome kamma. Only then can he practise this type of Vipassanā.The Most Superior Type of Offering Knowing and Seeing duced by the fire-element in each rūpa-kalāpa. All their mentality-materiality will cease like an oil lamp. his offering will usually produce no result.1 Then he discerns their impermanent. craving. They have exhausted the seeds of rebirth.

visible in light of concentration. (cf. (cf. Abhidhamma third of what are called the Three Baskets (Tipiñaka) of Theravāda Canon. and has eradicated all defilements. Parinibbāna) deva inhabitant of realm just above human realm. the object is that of near-death consciousness in past-life. there is at His death (Parinibbāna) no further rebirth. (cf. product of the mind. Parinibbāna) brahmā * inhabitant of one of twenty in thirty-one realms very much higher than human realm. e. Samatha) Mahāyāna Buddhist tradition prevalent in China. (cf.e. Nepal. appears at stable perception and concentration. bodhisatta. kasiõa* meditation object that represents a quality in conventional reality. discussed. For more extensive explanations. the cessation element. the smallest unit of materiality seen in conventional reality. The definitions have been kept as concise as at all possible. invisible to human eye. jhāna* eight increasingly advanced and subtle states of concentration on a specific object. at some time or other. practical teachings of The Buddha that deal with only ultimate reality. all Theravāda texts are in Pāë i. in Theravāda bhikkhunī lineage no longer extant. Nibbāna* (Sanskrit: Nirvana) final enlightenment. image upon which yogi concentrates. the reader is referred to the text itself. which depends on perception and level of concentration. i. • pa ibhāga-nimitta purified and clear version of uggaha-nimitta. at his or her death (Parinibbāna) there is no further rebirth. nimitta* sign. state. Paccekabuddha. Samatha) arahant* person who has attained ultimate in meditation. Mongolia. the ideal in Mahāyāna tradition. enlightenment. (cf. (cf.g. bhavaï ga* continuity of identical consciousnesses. being also an arahant. and hundreds of lesser precepts to observe. brahmā. attained after discerning and surpassing the ultimate realities of mentality-materiality. in some way or other. who has by Himself re-discovered and teaches the Four Noble Truths. bhikkhu with two hundred and twenty-seven main precepts. (An asterisk indicates which of the terms are discussed in the text itself. seen in Vipassanā meditation.Knowing and Seeing Appendix 1 Glossary of Untranslated Pā ë i This glossary contains the Pā ë i terms left untranslated in the text. force from volition that makes good actions produce good results. an ultimate reality. 342 341 . as in for example. and bad actions produce bad results. until He in that life attains Parinibbāna. mind-object. kamma* (Sanskrit: karma) action. but have been retained in the Pā ë i when in compounds. Japan. but does not teach. and Bhutan. he is a bodhisatta for innumerable lives prior to his enlightenment.) (cf. (cf.) Some of the terms in this glossary do have an adequate translation. (cf. Parinibbāna) Bhante Venerable Sir. been considered awkward or inadequate. the Noble Truth. Theravāda) Mahāthera Buddhist monk of twenty years standing or more. They have been left untranslated because the English translation has. and refer to the meaning of the terms as they are used in the text of this book: according to the Theravāda tradition. broken only when cognitive-processes occur. language is otherwise dead. where most of the terms are. it is seen after the insight knowledges have matured. Paccekabuddha person enlightened without a teacher. dhamma* (uncapitalized) phenomenon. Abhidhamma) bhikkhu / bhikkhunī Buddhist monk / nun. rather than ‘in-and-out-breath jhāna’. visible in light of concentration. invisible to human eye. Buddha. Samatha) kalāpa* small particle. space and light. and Tibet. Korea. arahant. peta) Dhamma* (capitalized) the Teachings of The Buddha. visible in light of concentration. (cf. with mind aware and increasingly pure. used for Samatha meditation. after which he is a Buddha. Buddha) Pāë i ancient Indian language spoken by The Buddha. Taiwan. peta) Buddha* a person fully enlightened without a teacher. if not misleading. bodhisatta* a person who has vowed to become a Buddha. deva. (cf. • uggaha-nimitta taken-up sign. (cf. it is non-self and uniquely permanent and peaceful: not a place. (The majority of the listeners at these talks were Mahāyāna monks and nuns. for obvious reasons. who has by Himself discovered the Four Noble Truths. earth. subject for Samatha meditation and later Vipassanā. kamma. image that is exact mental replica of object of meditation. invisible to humaneye. ‘ānāpānā -jhāna’. sutta) ā nā pā na* in-and-out-breath. (cf. kasiõa) • parikamma-nimitta preparatory sign in meditation. colour.

(The Pa-Auk Sayadaw is a Theravāda monk. (cf. (cf. bhikkhus of past. renunciation. visible in light of concentration. Myanmar (Burma). and no more mentality. Theravā da Buddhist tradition prevalent in Sri-Lanka. bhikkhu) sī la morality. Cambodia.g. Samatha* serenity. although the pāramī is distinguished from merit in that the aim is Nibbāna. present and future. Abhidhamma.). (cf. and non-self. causes and results. jhāna. to be observed and cultivated by all Buddhists to varying degrees. 344 . worldwide.) (cf. morality. and equanimity. parikamma-nimitta please see nimitta Parinibbā na death of a Buddha. patience. right livelihood. Thailand. separate group of bhikkhus. Laos. Nibbāna) pā tibhā ga-nimitta please see nimitta peta inhabitant of realm lower than human realm. 500 A. as a group.A1 . after which there is no further rebirth. (cf. qualities developed always for the benefit of others. dating back to the time of The Buddha and the First Council). wisdom. discernment of specific characteristics of materiality and mentality. right action.C. truthfulness. and their general characteristics of impermanence. compiled from ancient. (cf. (cf. moral factors of the Noble Eightfold Path: right speech. mī = reach) ten pāramī s: generosity. bhikkhu) sutta single discourse in second basket of what is called the Three Baskets (Tipiñaka) of Pāë i Canon. arahant. Vipassanā ) saï gha multitude. e. a Paccekabuddha.Glossary of Untranslated Pāë i Terms Knowing and Seeing pā ramī (pāra = other shore = Nibbāna. arahant. loving-kindness. in ultimate reality. teachings of The Buddha on a general and conventional level. orthodox Sinhalese translations of the even earlier Pāë i Commentaries (predominantly ‘The Ancients’ (Porāõā). and translated back 343 into Pāë i by Indian scholar monk Venerable Buddhaghosa (approx. rūpa / arūpa* materiality / immateriality. epithet used by The Buddha when referring to Himself. whereby the mind becomes increasingly serene. assembly. Nibbāna) Visuddhi Magga (Purification Path) authoritative and extensive instruction manual on meditation. Abhidhamma) Tathā gata one who has gone thus. Mahāyāna) uggaha-nimitta please see nimitta Vipassanā insight. determination. practice of concentrating the mind on an object to develop higher and higher states of concentration. and all other Arahants. invisible to human eye. bhikkhus in one monastery. suffering. no more materiality. energy. but higher than animals. as well as later Sinhalese Commentaries.

com) 345 346 .. please contact: Myanmar The Venerable Pa-Auk Tawya Sayadaw Pa-Auk Forest Monastery c/o Major Kan Saing (Rtd........ (Tel: (01) 650-994-3750) 15 Palmdale Avenue (Fax: (01) 650-994-6091) Daly City CA 94015 (e-mail: Rolandkwin@aol..Knowing and Seeing Appendix 2 Contact Addresses For information regarding Pa-Auk Centres........................................................................................sg) Blk 10 Pandan Loop #01-152 Singapore 128228 Contact persons: Lu Ah Lian Esq...................... . (e-mail: cakkavala_sg@yahoo...................... Yankin Post Office Yangon Singapore Cakkavala Meditation Centre . (Tel: (95) 1-661-235) 2 Thazinmyaing Lane Parami Avenue...................) 653 Lower Main Road Mawlamyine Mon State U Nay Tun .............................................Win Esq............... (Tel: (65) 65-64-5030) Ms Ng Pei Fuen ...............com...... Ariyadhamma Mahāthera Sri Gunawardāna Yogasramaya Galduwa Kahawa 80312 United States of America Roland K................ (Tel: (65) 98-52-8046) Sri Lanka The Venerable N................

A1 .Glossary of Untranslated Pāë i Terms 347 .

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