/|||! . !||| C| ||C|. /|||! . !||| C| ||C|.

Riohts of the Accuseo Riohts of the Accuseo
\. ÷ \. ÷ ÷|· ÷|· . !÷.·.·÷· | .·| .÷·÷ . !÷.·.·÷· | .·| .÷·÷
.!|C` |. .!|C` |.
í1l Any person unoer investioation for the commission of an offense
shall have the rioht to be informeo of his rioht to remain silent ano
to have competent ano inoepenoent counsel preferably of his
own choice. lf the person cannot afforo the service of counsel. he
must be provioeo with one.
í2l No torture. force. violence. threat. intimioation. or any other
means which vitiate the free will shall be useo aoainst him. Secret
oetention places. solitary. incommunicaoo. or other similar forms
of oetention are prohibiteo.
í3l Any confession or aomission obtaineo in violation of this or
Section 17 hereof shall be inaomissible in evioence aoainst him.
í4l 1he law shall provioe for penal ano civil sanctions for violations of
this section as well as compensation to ano rehabilitation of
victims of torture or similar practices. ano families.
unoer investioation¨ unoer investioation¨
W Vhen a particular suspect is taken in custooy by the
police who carry out the process of investioation ano
interrooation.
W 1he authorities must ensure that the accuseo who has
alreaoy been arresteo or oetaineo íwith or without
warranteol shall be protecteo of his riohts.
W 1he rioht of silence ano to counsel can only be waiveo if
it is expresseo in writino ano in the presence of counsel.
.!|C` | .!|C` |
All persons. except those charoeo with punishable by reclusion
perpetua when evioence of ouilt is strono. shall. before
conviction. be bailable by sufficient sureties. or be releaseo on
recoonizance as may be provioeo by law. 1he rioht to bail shall
not be impaireo even when the privileoe of the writ of habeas
corpus is suspenoeo. Lxcessive bail shall not be requireo.
bail¨ bail¨
W 1o relieve an accuseo from imprisonment until his conviction
ano yet secure his appearance at the trial.
W 1he rioht to bail is oranteo because in all criminal
prosecutions. the accuseo is presumeo innocent
W May be in the form of cash oeposit. property bono. secureo
from a surety company. or recoonizance.
W A person in hioino or at laroe cannot invoke this rioht.
W Not available to persons charoes with capital offense.
especially if the evioence aoainst him is strono
W No bail shall be alloweo after the juooement has become
final. or after the accuseo has commenceo to serve his
sentence
W Lxcept on capital offense. rioht to bail can still be practice
even if the writ of habeas corpus is suspenoeo.
onsioerations on oeterminino the bail onsioerations on oeterminino the bail
W Nature of the offense
W Penalty which the law attacheo to it
W 1he probability of the ouilt
W Financial conoition of the accuseo
Unoer the oiscretion of the juooe
.!|C` |- .!|C` |-
í1l No person shall be helo to answer for a criminal offense
without oue process of law.
í2l ln all criminal prosecutions. the accuseo shall be presumeo
innocent until the contrary is proveo. ano shall enjoy the rioht
to be hearo by himself ano counsel. to be informeo of the
nature ano cause of the accusation aoainst him. to have a
speeoy. impartial. ano public trial. to meet the witness face to
face. ano to have compulsory process to secure the attenoance
of witness ano the proouction of evioence in his behalf.
However. after arraionment. trial may proceeo
notwithstanoino the absence of the accuseo provioeo that he
has been ouly notifieo ano his failure to appear is unjustifiable.
Rioht to oue process of the accuseo Rioht to oue process of the accuseo
W 1rial before a court havino jurisoiction
W Provision of fair ano impartial trial
W Provision of all leoal means ano opportunity to oefeno
himself
W 1he juooment awaroeo aoainst him must be within the
authority of a valio law
Presumption of innocence Presumption of innocence
W No person shall be convicteo of a crime except upon
confession or unless his ouilt is establisheo by proof beyono
reasonable ooubt
W Lvioenceísl must be strono enouoh to convince the court that
the accuseo is clearly ano unmistakably ouilty. not because he
cannot prove that he is innocent. but because the evioenceísl
proveo that the accuseo is ouilty without reasonable ooubt
W lt is better to acquit a person upon the orouno of reasonable
ooubt even thouoh he may in reality be ouilty. than to inflict
imprisonment on one who may be innocent
W 1he State is only requireo to establish a prima facie case after
which the accuseo is oiven an opportunity to present
evioence to rebut it
Rioht to be hearo by himself ano counsel Rioht to be hearo by himself ano counsel
W 1he oefenoant shall be entitleo to be present ano oefeno
in person at every staoe of the proceeoinos. from the
arraionment to the promuloation of juooment
W 1he accuseo must personally enter his plea
W After a plea of not ouilty. the accuseo is entitleo to 2 oays
to prepare for trial unless the court for oooo cause orants
him further time
W Before arraionment. the court shall inform the accuseo
of his rioht to counsel ano provioe him one if he wishes
to
W A hearino is inoispensable even if the ouilt of the
oefenoant is very apparent
Rioht to counsel Rioht to counsel
W 1o avoio instances wherein the accuseo has been
convicteo not because he is ouilty but because he ooes
not know how to establish his innocence
Rioht to be informeo of the nature ano Rioht to be informeo of the nature ano
cause of accusations aoainst him cause of accusations aoainst him
W 1o criminal complaint or information shoulo be
sufficiently clear to a person of oroinary intellioence as to
what the charoe is as to enable him to prepare for his
oefense
W 1here is a violation of the rioht where an accuseo has
been charoeo with an offense ano convicteo of another.
or where no arraionment of the accuseo has taken place
Rioht to have a Rioht to have a speeoy speeoy. impartial ano public . impartial ano public
trial trial
W A trial conoucteo accoroino to fixeo rules. reoulations.
ano proceeoinos of law free from vexatious. capricious
ano oppressive oelays
W A lono oelay in the juoicial process serves as a refuoe of
the accuseo if he is ouilty ano a continuino injustice for
him if he is innocent
Rioht to have a speeoy. Rioht to have a speeoy. impartial impartial ano public ano public
trial trial
W No man can be a juooe of his own case ano no man is
permitteo to try cases where he has an interest in the
outcome
W Lvery proceoure which woulo offer even only a possible
temptation to the juooe to foroet the buroen of proof
requireo to convict the oefenoant. oenies to latter oue
process of law
Rioht to have a speeoy. impartial ano Rioht to have a speeoy. impartial ano public public
trial trial
W lt is open to all íi.e.. the accuseo frienos ano relatives ano
others who may be inclineo to watch the proceeoinos in
oroer to see if justice is intellioently ano impartially if
aoministereo
W However. there may be occasions to excluoe from a trial
those who are inclineo to atteno from iole or morbio
curiosity only. especially when public morals ano
oecency requireo it
Rioht to confrontation of witnesses Rioht to confrontation of witnesses
W 1o oive the accuseo an opportunity to cross-examine
witness aoainst him to test their recollection ano veracity
W 1o oive the juooe an opportunity to see the oemeanour
ano appearance of witnesses while testifyino. in aio of
the juooes trial of facts
Rioht to compulsory proouction of witnesses Rioht to compulsory proouction of witnesses
ano evioence ano evioence
W Subpoenas are offereo to compel the attenoance of
witnesses in his favor. incluoino warrant of arrest. if
neeoeo
W 1he accuseo must provioe reasonable ano oilioent effort
to have the witnesses appear ano testify
W 1he accuseo can also ask the court to oroer a person to
proouce in court certain evioences ano testify with
respect to them
W 1he accuseo has also the rioht to inspect evioences that
mioht be presenteo to prove his ouilty. provioeo that it is
unoer the supervision of the law-investioatino authority
1rial in the absence of the accuseo. provioeo 1rial in the absence of the accuseo. provioeo
that. that.
W He has been arraioneo
W He has been ouly notifieo of the trial
W His failure to appear is unjustifiable
.!|C` | .!|C` |
1he privileoe of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be
suspenoeo except in cases of invasion or rebellion when the
public safety requires it.
Vrit of habeas corpus Vrit of habeas corpus
W An oroer issueo by a court of competent jurisoiction.
oirecteo to the person oetaineo another.
1. commanoino him to proouce the booy of the prisoner at a
oesionateo time ano place. ano
2. to show sufficient cause for holoino in custooy the inoivioual so
oetaineo.
W 1he writ is the proper remeoy of the accuseo in each ano
every case of oetention without leoal cause or authority
W 1he privileoe of the writ is the further oroer from the
court to release an inoivioual if it finos his oetention
without leoal cause or authority
Suspension of the writ of habeas corpus Suspension of the writ of habeas corpus
W 1he oetaineo person can still be presenteo in court. but
the official who oetaineo him may ask the court not to
continue the proceeoinos. 1hus. the juooe may be
preventeo to oetermine whether or not the persons
oetention is authorizeo by law
W an only be oone in case of invasion. rebellion or when
public safety requires it
W Suspension is oone to holo in preventive imprisonment
penoino investioation ano trial of persons who plot
aoainst or commit acts that enoanoer its very existence
.!|C` | .!|C` |
All persons shall have the rioht to a speeoy oisposition of their
cases before all juoicial. quasi-juoicial. or aoministrative booies.
Rioht to a speeoy oisposition of cases Rioht to a speeoy oisposition of cases
W Vhile Section 14 ouarantees the rioht to speeoy trial in
criminal cases. Section 16 covers all phases of any case
before juoicial. quasi-juoicial. or aoministrative booies
from its filino to its oisposition
W All courts íincluoino booes as NLR ano SLl have
appropriate time frames in the oisposition of cases.
which is baseo on the last pleaoino submitteo
.!|C` | .!|C` |
No person shall be compelleo to be a witness aoainst himself.
Rationale Rationale
W A person woulo be tempteo to commit perjury to oefeno
himself
W Prevents extortion of confession by ouress
W An accuseo has also the rioht to silence. implyino that his
refusal to testify may not be useo as a presumption of
ouilt or taken as evioence aoainst him
onoitionalities onoitionalities
W Purely personal ano cannot be oone by a thiro person
W Only in cases of.
testimonial compulsion íi.e.. if a person has to aomit ouilt aoainst
his willl
proouction of evioence that will compel him to make a
statement aoainst him
involuntary affixino of sionature
W Does not apply.
to protect a person from presentino facts that may expose him of
public rioicule or oisorace
lf the testimony may subject a person to a liability that ooes not
arise from any criminal action
1o protect a person from a past criminality. or if the crime has
alreaoy been prescribeo
.!|C` |3 .!|C` |3
í1l No person shall be oetaineo solely by reason of his political
beliefs ano aspirations.
í2l No involuntary servituoe in any form shall exist except as a
punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been ouly
convicteo.
Rioht aoainst oetention solely be reason of Rioht aoainst oetention solely be reason of
political beliefs ano aspirations political beliefs ano aspirations
W People can freely speak of what they think is wrono with
the oovernment ano its leaoers. or seek chanoes to the
oovernment ano its policies which they believe to be
necessary or the removal of public officials unworthy of
their trust
Rioht aoainst involuntary servituoe Rioht aoainst involuntary servituoe
W Protection aoainst slavery ano peonaoe
W Lxceptions.
Vhen it is imposeo as a punishment of a crime where the person
has been ouly convicteo
Vhen personal military or civil service so requires
1o injunctions requirino strikino of laborers to return to work
Military ano naval enlistment
Vhen parents of their authority require their chiloren to perform
reasonable amount of work
Vhen there is a proper exercise of police power
.!|C` |' .!|C` |'
í1l Lxcessive fines shall not be impaireo. nor cruel. oeoraoino or
inhuman punishment inflicteo. Neither shall oeath penalty be
imposeo. unless. for compellino reasons involvino heinous
crimes. the onoress hereafter provioes for it. Any oeath
penalty alreaoy imposeo shall be reouceo to reclusion
perpetua.
í2l 1he employment of physical. psycholooical. or oeoraoino
punishment aoainst any prisoner or oetainee or the use of
substanoaro or inaoequate penal facilities unoer subhuman
conoitions shall be oealt with by law.
Rioht aoainst cruel. oeoraoino or inhuman Rioht aoainst cruel. oeoraoino or inhuman
punishments punishments
W lncluoes punishments that involve torture of linoerino
oeath ano subhuman penal facilities
W Lxcluoes oeath by hanoino ano electrocution ano
banishment
W Punishment is oeoraoino when it brinos shame ano
humiliation to the victim or exposes him of public
rioicule. or lowers his human oionity
W Cravity of punishment must correlate to the oravity of
the offense
.!|C` .J .!|C` .J
No person shall be imprisoneo for oebt or non-
payment of tax
Debt ano poll tax Debt ano poll tax
W Debt refers to civil or contractual oebt or one not arisino
from a criminal offense. A person may be imprisoneo for
failure to pay tax as it is not a oebt.
W Poll tax refers to a tax of fixeo amount imposeo on
inoiviouals resioino within a specifieo territory. whether
citizens or not. without reoaro to their property or the
occupation in which they may be enoaoeo íi.e..
community taxl
.!|C` .| .!|C` .|
No person shall be twice put in jeoparoy of
punishment for the same offense. lf an act is
punisheo by law ano an oroinance. conviction or
acquittal unoer either shall constitute a bar to
another prosecution of the same act.
Double Jeoparoy Double Jeoparoy
W Vhen the person is charoeo with an offense ano the
case is terminateo either by acquittal or conviction or in
any other manner without the express consent of the
accuseo. the latter cannot aoain be charoeo with the
same or ioentical offense.
.!|C` .. .!|C` ..
No ex post facto law or bill of attainoer shall be
enacteo.
Lx post facto law Lx post facto law
W Deprives a persons protection or oefense previously
available
W Operates retroactively
Before passaoe of the law. the person is innocent.
afterwaros. the person is ouilty
Aooravates a crime or makes it oreater than when it is
committeo
hanoes the punishment ano inflicts oreater punishment
what the law annexeo to the crime
Alters the leoal rules of evioence
Bill of Attainoer Bill of Attainoer
W Leoislative act which inflicts punishment without oue trial
W lncluoes trial by leoislature
"UlZ "UlZ
Vhich violates the rioht aoainst oouble Vhich violates the rioht aoainst oouble
jeoparoy clause? jeoparoy clause?
W A person was charoeo with muroer ano was eventually
proven not ouilty. On his way home. he orove a car ano
accioentally hit a peoestrian who eventually oieo. He
was immeoiately arresteo ano helo unoer custooy.
W A person trespasseo a house. rapeo the owner of the
house. stabbeo her to oeath. robbeo her properties. then
burneo her house oown. He was beino charoeo with
multiple crimes at the same case.
W A person burneo his oarbaoe in an open flame. He was
charoeo in violation of a city oroinance ano the clean air
act. Both law stipulates the prohibition of such action.

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