PREFACE I acknowledge the abundant blessing and Grace of God almighty which enabled me to complete this work.

I express my sincere thanks to Dr. N. Gnana Dhas (Principal) and Dr. A Devanesan, HOD and other teachers of the History Department for this timely help. It is my privilege to express my heartfelt thanks to Dr.A.Rajathankam, Reader in History, Nesamony Memorial Christian College, Marthandam, for his guidance and encouragement to complete my project work. I wish to record my sincere thanks to Librarian of N.M.C.C. Marthandam. My heart brims with joy in acknowledging my gratitude to Mohan, Nishad, Mohanakani Research scholors and my friends, who has been inspiring supporter in various ways. I am thank Netfeast, Rajan.A.L, for their help in shaping the manuscript of my project and also the neat erecution of the work on time. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION SOURCES FOR INFORMATION 11- 12 CHAPTER I EDUCATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT I.1. Adult Education Programme I.2. Community Development Education I.3. Educational Awareness I.4. Summer School. I.5. Free Note Books to School Students I.6. Award Distribution Programme. I.7. Sponsorship Programme I.8. Student Camps. I.9. Typewriting Institute. I.10. Nutrition Training Programme I.11. Library and Reading Clubs. I.12. YMCA Institute of Development Studies. I.13. Sericulture Course. I.14. Bee Keeping Course. I.15. Training Course. I.16. Institute of Rural Development. CHAPTER II II.1. II.2. II.3. II.4. II.5. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE Poultry Keeping Bee Keeping Kitchen gardening Vegetable seed farm and Nursery Sericulture 1 Page.No - 10

13-14 15 15-16 16-18 18-19 19-20 20 20-21 21 21-22 22 22-23 24-25 25-28

24 28-30

31-32 32-35 35-37 38-39 37-38

CHAPTER

III HEALTH AND RURAL SANITATION III.1. Health Education Programme 40-41 III.2. Health care measures. 42-44 III.3. Medical Aid schemes. 44-45 III.4. Sports and Games. 45-47 III.5. Child Survival and child Development Programme.48-49 III.6. Mahalir Mantam 49-50 III.7. Conservation of water programme. 50-51

III.8. CHAPTER IV IV.1. IV.2. IV.3. IV.4. V V.1. V.2. V.3. V.4. V.5. V.6.

Family Welfare Programme.

51-52 53-58 61-62

SELF EMPLOYMENT SCHEMES Cottage Industries. Tailoring Diesel and Electric Pump maintenance. Spinning WELFARE ACTIVITIES Extension works in the Villages. Boys Home. Youth Meeting. Anti-Dowry Movement Village Development Council. Flood Relief. 71-76 82

59-61 62

CHAPTER

65-67 67-68 68 68-69

63-65

69-70

CONCLUSION BIBILIOGRAPHY LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS INTRODUCTION

77-81

Muzhucode is situated in Kanyakumari District. Kanyakumari District is situated at the southern end of the sub-continent of India, surrounded by seas on three sides. It occupies a conspicuous place in the country’s history. It formed the southern most part of the then princely state of Travancore. With the linguistic state reorganization of 1st November 1956 in the name of Kanyakumari. A new revenue Taluks viz; Vilavancode, Kalkulam, Agastheeswaram and Thovalai. Since then it stands as the southern most district of Tamilnadu1. This state formerly known as the Madras state is endowed with organized panchayat system2. Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of Panchayatraj came to be realised through the Congress administration. It took bold steps to establish Panchayat Unions in all the districts. Accordingly the Melpuram panchayat union consisting of six town panchayats and ten village panchayats. The Muzhucode panchayat is one of the village panchayat of Melpuram panchayat union. 1. V.S. Abraham, Kanyakumari District special Record (Tamil), Viramangalam, 1998, p.3. 2. K.Rajayan, Modern Tamilnadu, Madras, 1986, p.193. Location of the Panchayat Muzhucode panchayat is bordered by Manchalumoodu on the north, Vellamcode on the south, Arumanai on the east, and Edaicode on the west3. Population Muzhucode panchayat covers an area of 3.5 square km with a population 9571. Muzhucode panchayat consist of a spectrum of castes and communities. Among the total population 510 are scheduled castes, 8760 are backward castes and other castes come about 3004. With a total population more than 70 percent are poor. The services of Y.M.C.A is commendable. It is a servicing centre for the downtrodden people of India. In the early 20th century India had nearly 7,50,000 villages with a total population of more than 250,000,000. Most of 3. Map of Muzhucode Village panchayat. 4. Table of Melpuram Panchayat union showing panchayat wise population particulars as per 2001 census, pp.8-9. these people were poor and 85 percent of them were illiterate5. The level of

poverty of the people was so worst that “Scarcely one in fifty of them could boast of more than one full meal a day as regular thing even in times of plenty”6. The women of the villages were involved in their traditional household duties and they were mostly illiterates7. The Protestant Christian Missionary Societies which followed the colonial flag started their work in South India in such a situation and generally functioned in the socio-religious, medical and educational fields8. Several attempt towards helping the depressed class were taken up by the missions. Preachers and teachers were recruited and there by started thousands of Christian primary schools and village schools. The youths in the village especially from among the outcastes were given opportunity for 5. Y.M.C.A of India and Cylone – Rural work – 1920, (Booklet),p.3. 6. Ibid. 7. Alice.B.VanDoren., “The Women in India”, 1931,p.54. 8. C.B.Firth., An Introduction to Indian church History, p.p.154-159. leaving the village and to have better exposure. But all these things of the missionary enterprise could not solve the problems of the village and to have a real impact on the social and economic conditions9. Origin of the Y.M.C.A The Young Men’s Christian Association (Y.M.C.A) is a world wide voluntary organization of young men which renders yeomen service to the people, irrespective of caste or creed. It was founded by George Williams, born at Ashburg in England in 1821. At the age of 23, while he was working in Hitchcock and Royers, he noticed the weak spiritual life of the workers and wanted to help to them grow spiritually10. Hence on 6th June 1844 with the help of his 12 friends he organized, “The Society for improving spiritual condition of the Young Man Engaged in Drapery and other Traders”. Of the 12 members11 enrolled on that day three were Anglicans, 9. Kenyan.L.Butterfield., The Christian missions in Rural India, Report and Recommendations, International missionary council, New York, 419, Fourth Avenue, London, 1930.,p.43. 10. Gaius Jackson. Slosser., Christian Unity, New york, 1929. p.144. 11. A. Kanakaraj., “The Light Houses of Rural Reconstruction” Delhi – 2000, p.12. three Baptists, three Congregationalists and three methodists12. Later the name was changed as “Young Men’s Christian Association” with Red Equilateral Triangle standing on one angle and its emblem symbolising equal development of body, mind and spirit. With in 10 years of its origin the association spread all over Europe, the United States of America and Canada. It convened a conference in Paris on 22nd August 1855 in which 99 representatives participated13. In the conference the fundamental principle on which the movement would function; known as the ‘Paris Basis’ was unanimously adapted14. Functions of the Y.M.C.A in India The Y.M.C.A movement which spread out in various continents reached India in the 2nd half of the 19th Century. It was mainly by the voluntary actions of the British and American missionaries who had 12. Gaius Jackson Slosser., op.cit., p.145.

13. J.H. Dunderadle., The Y.M.C.A in India 100 Years of service with youth, New Delhi,1 1962, p.9. 14. A.Kanakaraj., op.cit, p.18. experience of Y.M.C.A in their home land15. Their interest and commitment resulted in the formation of Y.M.C.A units as small prayer groups. Thus the first unit of the Y.M.C.A was started in India by the young Europeans at Calcutta on 1st August 185416. However the National Council of Y.M.C.A came into existence only in February 1981. The entry of David Mcconaughy opened a new era in the history of Indian Y.M.C.A in 189017. He started a new path of service for the development of young men of India. Madras Association established in 1890, became a model for the other Urban Y.M.C.A.s. Its membership was open to all Indians irrespective of race, caste or creed18. The executive committee of the National council of Y.M.C.A is accepted the Rural scheme of K.T. Paul on 15th December 1913, which marked the birth of rural Department of the Y.M.C.A of India19. Thus 15. C.S. Peterson., ‘Early History of the Calcutta Y.M.C.A’ Calcutta, 1929, p.55. 16. “A Hundred and Twenty years ago” Y.M.I., Vol. LIV, May 1942, p.110. 17. M.D.David., The Y.M.C.A. and the making of modern India. NewDelhi, 1992, p.4. 18. Ibid., P.28. 19. Gram Sevak., Monthly magazine.,1961, p. 132. K.T.Paul came to be called as the father of the Y.M.C.A Rural Work20. The appointment of K.T.Paul as the Y.M.C.A in 1916, marked the process of indigenization21. He gave the movement a new vision and stressed the urgent need for extending genuine service to the rural areas. Paul gave a new direction to the movement in India and Asia22. By launching the rural work programme Paul had infact opened a new campaign against Indian poverty. He introduced the co-operative Banks23. His aim was to eradicate the poverty of the masses as well as ignorance and illiteracy. The slogan 5Ds [Viz Debt, Dark, Disease, Darkness and Devil] supposed to be the enemies of the villages was adopted24. Formation of Y.M.C.A in south Travancore Upto 1956, the present Kanyakumari District was the part of former Travancore–Cochin State25. The Travancore state is a land of literacy 20. M.D. David., op.cit., p.98. 21. Ibid., p.110. 22. Gram Sevak., Monthly, 1961, p.132. 23. M.D. David., op.cit., p.113. 24. Ibid., p.117. 25. N. Subramanian., ‘History of Tamilnadu’ (1336-1984) Udumalpet, 1991, p.248. and education of women when compared to other part of India. During the beginning of the 20th century, it was a fact that “only one person out of seven could read or write26. Most of the learned people were unemployed and contributed discontent ratherthan a help to the resources of the country. Jaggery making was the chief cottage vocation of the area. The Juice brought in by the women. In addition to it, a few persons were engaged in the cottage vocations like smithery, making of baskets and mats, beedies, fiber, Pottery and brassware27. But none of these products were of superior quality and no possibility giving more employment to the people in these vocations. In such a life situation, to escape from the attack of famine, poverty and unemployment, some people went to Ceylon and other distant places in search of a livelihood in the plantations. Others sold their land, houses, cattle, Jewellery

and in some cases, famine was so severe that the parents sold their children in slavery to Muslims for quarter rupee. Some people even migrated to the plantations of Permudu, in North Travancore28. Due to 26. D. Spencer Hatch., Towards freedom from want, Bombay 1938, p.46. 27. Ibid., p.48. 28. Dick Kooiman., “Mass movement Famine and Epidemic”, Indian Church review, Vol.XXII, December 1988, pp.120 -125. all these reasons, the people of south Travancore were in a condition of utter hopelessness having lost the backbone of self existence and collapse of total economic condition. Knowing the work of the Rural Department of Y.M.C.A in Malabar, Salem, Coimbatore and Ceded Districts, the mission and the church in south Travancore requested the national council of Y.M.C.A. s to extend their service to this area29. The request was considered immediately and sympathetically by K.T.Paul, the founder of Rural Department and General Secretary of the national council, as he knew personally the need of this area and the plight of the people. Towards meeting the expansion of the rural work in south Travancore the mission was not in a position to pay the salary of the rural secretary. Hence K.T.Paul contacted one of his friends, Daniel Hamilton, who agreed to pay Rs.300/- per month to the Y.M.C.A for which the Y.M.C.A under took the responsibility of supervising one of his estates in south Travancore, about fifteen mile from Marthandam30. Then in January, 29. A brief survey of the Rural work of the Y.M.C.A Association Men (special Rural Number), Vol.3, No. 10, August 1952, p.136. 30. The Association Men, Vol.3, August 1952, p.136. 1916, he deputed S. Manuel the first trained secretary working at Malabar to commerce rural work activities in south Travancore with Marthandam as the centre. Rural Services at Muzhucode It started it work at Muzhucode through a rural serving centre. This was an extension centre of Marthandam at a distance of Eight Kilometers north east Kuzhithurai in Arumanai road. The land for the centre nearly 10.5 acres was purchased in 1955 on the recommendation of the commission appointed by the council of Y.M.C.A.s. The purpose of the purchase was started “to serve as a base for agricultural demonstration for young men and women” trained at Marthandam for rural service31. Unlike the other centers–Paraniyam and oolanoor which had separate managing committees, Muzhucode centre functioned under the same managing committee of Marthandam and as a direct project of the national council. An amount donated by spencer Hatch to the Marthandam centre was also utilized for the purchase of the land at Muzhucode32. 31. 18th Triennial convention Report, 1955-57, p. 20. 32. Ibid., p.16. SOURCES FOR INFORMATION

In the preparation of this project I have consulted the primary sources such as Annual reports and project reports of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A. These are the main source of information, and these annual reports supply information about the various activities of the Y.M.C.A. Minutes of the committee of Management belonging to Muzhucode Y.M.C.A through much light on certain activities and aspects of the Y.M.C.A.

Jubilee issues, Pamphlets, Articles, Magazines booklets and other Y.M.C.A publications constitute materials. Various publications by eminent authors like Spencer Hatch, D., Singh.K., Garg.V.K., Agur.C.M., Rajayan.K., Vasant Desai., Hacker.T.A., Kanakaraj.A., Firth.C.B., and a host of other highlight the rural conditions and also the activities of Christianity in the subcontinent. Marthandam Y.M.C.A publication of “Grama Jothi”, “Chathunavu” and “Gram Sevak” help to know about the various past activities of the Y.M.C.A. Personal Interview with V.Sam Chandrabose, Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A and some of them who are in authority now like. R.B. James Raj., Saroja Francis.C.P., Susanna Sundarababy.B., Lisi.Y., M. Biju., helped me to get more information about the activities of the Y.M.C.A

CHAPTER – I EDUCATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT 1. Adult Education Programme The year 1980 was noted for certain definite advancements in the growth of Y.M.C.A. It was so glaring in the case of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A. In the year 1981 this YMCA took a different phase to widen its activities1. The non-formal education scheme of Central Government offered the field. Accordingly the YMCA has applied for thirty centres of non-formal education to the Government of India and got the sanction for the same2. Adult education is an important factor for the educational and cultural development of a nation. In a country like India whose literacy rate is only3 61.3% it is the duty of every one to eradicate illiteracy by all means. Based 1. 2. 3. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1981, p.5. Ibid.,p.6. K.Singh., Rural Socialogy, Lucknow, 1987, p.3.

on the need of the hour the Y.M.C.A have started adult education centres4. Of which education were sponsored by the national Adult education progress of the Government of India5. This programme could function to the benefit of Sixty learners during the year 1984- 856. Through the adult education scheme Y.M.C.A was able to achieve something for the rural masses. In recognition of service that the centre rendered in the field of education they were honored with awards and certificates. As the year 1990 was the national Literacy year7, they have jointly taken efforts with other organizations for the complete eradication of illiteracy from Kanyakumari district. Evening literacy centers to the benefit of ten villages in Melpuram Block could be conducted under the auspices of the Y.M.C.A8. Books and periodicals were distributed to the learners through the centre. This programme was helpful to make the people read and write in mother tongue as well as to create an awareness among them.

4. Minute of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1982, p.16. 5. Ibid.,p.18. 6. Annual report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1984-85, p.3. 7. Ibid., 1990-91, p.3. 8. Ibid.,p.5 2. Community Development Education The primary object of education is character formation. However it is meant for the promotion of socio-political awareness among the villagers. But in the strict sense the nature of education needed for the said purpose is community development education9. It has been devised to make the villagers understand their place in the society, Politics and economy. The learning process will be by demonstration. Field visits, Role plays, Educational tours, Cultural activities and by communication in various medias10. Organization of youth clubs, Programme for school dropouts and women Sangams formed part of development education. All worked together for the total development11. 3. Educational Awareness In mids of the 20th century India stands first in illiteracy among the under developed countries. It is noted that illiteracy throughout India is 48.7% 9. O.P. Dhama., O.P. Bhatnagar., Education and communication for development, New Delhi, 1985, p.284. 10. Community development project report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1988-89, p.5. 11. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1989-90, p.5. where as it is 80% in the villages. This is mainly because of poverty and exploitation12. As a matter of fact the growth of a country is calculated in terms of its educational standard. Under such circumstance awareness education is highly essential for the rural masses. But it cannot be exercised single handedly by a state. Hence the other agencies have to come for its rescue. To this effect YMCAs started to give education awareness to the people to drive them out of the clutches of illiteracy and exploitation. Muzhucode YMCA started three centres at Mathoorkonam, Punniyam and Vandalamthottam to give education awareness13. Poverty position of nation, social ailments and economic inequalities were thought to the people to keep them aware of nations condition 4. Summer School Muzhucode YMCA arranged a summer school programme for the school going students in its Training centre for a week. It was started in the 12. 13. K. Singh., op.cit., p.240. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1990-91, p.3.

year 198514. General knowledge, Spoken English, kitchen garden, Bee-Keeping and sericulture training were some of the useful subjects thought to the students. Morethan twenty two students participated and gained a lot from this programme15. In the latter years subjects like Home Science, Scientific Inventions and Politics are also thought. An average of seventy to seventy five students participated and benefited by this training programme in every year16. This YMCA had the tradition of conducting summer training camps17. Morethan thirty students participated every year. Summer camps were conducted with the following aims. 1. To create, maintain and extend high standard of character in accordance with the basic principles of YMCA. 2. To provide opportunity for exposition of their hidden talents.

14. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1985-86, p.2. 15. Ibid., 1990-1991,p.3. 16. Ibid., 2006-2007,p.5. 17. Personal Interview with V. Sam Chandrabose, Secretary Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode, dated,18-01-2008. 3. 4. Give vocational guidance. Inculcate in them a sense of social awareness to become useful citizens18.

Education imparted to the poor children and the vocational training offered to the youth, to seek self employment made the YMCA a house hold term in the region. In addition to this, It undertook many endeavors to get more and more access with the poorest of the poor. To work along that line the organization started classes for the benefit of the poor school going children. 5. Free Note Books to school students Poor parents find it difficult to provide educational aids to their children such as notes and books. Many parents had to discontinue the studies of their children for the same reason. But its aim is to educate more children by all means. In view of this the Muzhucode YMCA distributed 18. M.D.David., The Y.M.C.A and the making of modern India, New Delhi, 1992, p.314. free note books to sixty two economically poor students19. Books and cloths provided to the students enabled them to continue their studies. But these students in general lacked the spirit of competition to come first in studies. To achieve the same the Association set up awards to be distributed among industrious students. 6. Award Distribution Programme Muzhucode YMCA stands for the higher value of education. Hence it is its duty to encourage the really talented and promising students. To this affect the first rank holder among the boys and the girls from among eight to twelve, higher secondary schools of Muzhucode area were honored with awards20. On this occasion the Head masters of different schools and local dignatories came together to felicitate the award winners. The word of appreciation expressed by them appeared really encouraging to both the association and the students to proceed along their lines. In the year 200619. Minutes of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 2007, p.15. 20. Ibid., 1984, p.40. 2007 the best two students from high schools in Muzhucode Panchayat were selected for this award21. The sponsorship programme promulgated by the YMCA became a further encouragement to the poor students to come up in their educational life. 7. Sponsorship Programme Partial assistance offered by association for the education of the poor students did not encourage all the students to pursue their studies. Some of them could not continue their education without an agency to meet their entire expenses. To over come this difficulty the YMCA attempted to find out some sponsoring agencies and succeeded in it. This scheme came to be implemented in 198422. The sponsored students are provided with uniform, note books, fees and other necessary things at free of cost23.

8. Student Camps Poor Village children do not have facilities for relaxation in summer. 21. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 2006 - 2007, p.4. 22. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1984-85, p.7. 23. Ibid.,p,9. To their benefit the Muzhucode YMCA arranged the practice of conducting summer camps. During the year 2005 three residential camps were arranged for children24. Along with the summer camps, special short training programmes were also conducted for the welfare of students25. 9. Typewriting Institute The unit at Muzhucode started a small Institute with three machines in its campus. It could attract an average of ten students to attend the class. Typewriting class continued to grow slowly and in 2006 it could accommodate twenty five students26. 10. Nutrition Training Programme The activities of the organization for the promotion of education and sanitation go hand in hand. A special nutrition demonstration course was arranged in Muzhucode YMCA, in Co-operation with Nehru Yuvakendra for one month. 24. 25. 26. Chathunavu, Monthly, April 1984, p.18. Ibid., p.20. Institute of Rural Development, (a booklet) Muzhucode 2006, p.2.

A ten days nutrition course also found place in the list of annual summer course27. The library and reading clubs of the YMCA proved an improvement over the other activities towards the cultural progress. 11. Library and Reading Clubs The post Literacy programme popularized by the YMCA attained fame in the region. As an auxiliary for the acceleration of the programme it implemented the library and reading club scheme. A free library and reading room put up in the premises of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A helps the villages to acquire basic education and general knowledge28. It also helps them to utilize their leisure time usefully. 12. Y.M.C.A Institute of Development studies An Institute for the development studies was started by the Muzhucode unit in 1984 under the auspices of this institute the training 27. Personal Interview with V. Sam Chandra Bose, Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode, dated , 18-01-2008. 28. Ibid. programmes were arranged29. Unemployed and undergraduates were enrolled for this progrmme30. After the obtainment of their academic qualifications they do not know how to proceed further in life. To enlighten them with vocational guidance and training in various aspects such as self employment schemes and job oriented courses were introduced to the trainees. The duration of the training is three months and is likely to be extended in the coming years. This is a unique programme and highly appreciated by the people around this area31. A music class was started in the year 198532. Students are called three days on every week. It could attract an average of fifteen students to attend the class. 29. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1984-85, p.6.

30. 31. 32.

Ibid., p.8. Ibid., p.11. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1985-86, p.4.

13. Sericulture course Sericulture thrives well in rural areas where there is large number of small farmers33. A six months sericulture training course conducted in Muzhucode with thirty four trainees in 199034 formed and such programmes. Another two groups of about twenty trainees underwent sericulture training during 2001. In the next year hundred and thirty five students attend this course35. This self employment scheme started in 1990 is now made permanent in Muzhucode Y.M.C.A. 14. Bee-keeping course Muzhucode Y.M.C.A conducts the Bee-Keeping course every year36. A minimum of thirty boys and girls complete this course every year through this centre. In the year 2006, two batches of students completed this Bee-Keeping training and in 2007 seventy students participated37, this 33. A.R. Patel., D.P. Khankoje., Rural Economics, New Delhi 1985.,p.201. 34. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1990-91, p.4. 35. Ibid., 2001-02. p.3. 36. Institute of Rural Development,Pamplets, Muzhucode, 1976, p.3. 37. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 2006-2007, p.5. programme, and on the strength of that few of them appeared for the Government Technical Examination. It is interesting to see that the success of Bee-keeping undertaken by the Y.M.C.A instigated it go conduct short term training course on Bee-keeping and other subjects. 15. Training courses Under the department of training, short and long ter courses in integrated rural development for rural workers and sponsored trainees, ranging from two days to ten months were conducted38. But the regular training programme was have qualified S.S.L.C or equivalent were given admission and English was used as the medium of instruction. The subject thought were (i) Agriculture (ii) Animal Husbandry and Dairying (iii) Poultry keeping (iv) Bee - keeping (v) Food and nutrition 38. “Yesterday – Today – Tomorrow” – Report of Y.M.C.A Rural Development Muzhucode , dated.16.11.1985. (vi) Rural Sociology (vii) Leadership training (viii) Extension methods (ix) Rural Health and sanitation39. Centers and Institute of

On successful completion of the course a certificate was issued. This course was conducted twice in a year during May to June and September to November40. As part of long term training programme the institute conducted a ten months Diploma course in Rural Development Technology. The minimum qualification for the diploma course was S.S.L.C. In this, few more subjects: Youth Welfare, Rural Economic, Civic and Community Activities and Gandhiyan thought were added to the syllabus of three months course41. The trained L.K.K Workers educated the villages how to keep the houses and surroundings clean; the uses of composite pits and smokless 39. Indian Y.M.C.A. in Rural Development, Report of Dr.V.S. Lal Yuvak, March-

April 1981, p.8. 40. Report of Institute of Rural Development, Muzhucode by K.C. Mathew (Director). 1980-1981.p.10. 41. The Y.M.C.A Institute of Rural Development, Muzhucode Handbook, 1977, p.7. chulas the importance of five year plan, Co-operation, first aid, home nursing, child care, home science, small savings, the benefits and profit of bee-keeping, poultry keeping, fodder grass, banana fiber etc42. They also conducted cultural programmes like dramas, dialogues, songs and dances once every month in each village and educated people of various kinds like litigation, drinking, dowry and untouchability43. While patronizing the course of boys of the area the centre never discharged women. To their benefit the unit has undertaken different types of training programmes. Major schemes such as mat making, Palmyra leaf work, Soap making, juice making, straw craft etc44. A special training programme in soap making was held in August 200445. There are fifty students participated in this training. Another training in Juice and Jam making was arranged in September 200446. Training craft subjects like Palmyra leaf works and plastic works are also arranged for their needs47 42. L.K.K. Muzhucode, Monthly Report by Sahayogi of May, 1963, dated.11.07.1964.p.2. 43. Annual Report of 1963 – 64 L.K.K. Unit of RDCM at Muzhucode, dated. 11.07.1964.p.3 44. Rural Development centre, Muzhucode (Booklet) 1974, p.2. 45. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A 1990-91, p.3. 46. Ibid., 2003-04, p.4. 47. Ibid.p.6. Trysem training courses such as tailoring, embroidery, nutrition and bee-keeping were also conducted by the centre. Every year some of trainees attend the government technical examination48. Government gave stipends to these self – employment programmes. The Government Trysem scheme was proposed to train about two lakh rural youth every year in various skills49. 16. Institute of Rural Development On 3rd January 1977, the ‘National Y.M.C.A Institute of Rural Development’ was inaugurated at Muzhucode by K.M.Philip the president of world Alliance of Y.M.C.As50. It was according to the national plan for rural development approved by the convention held at Madras. a) Objectives (i) To train rural development workers from Y.M.C.A s of India, Church workers, from other developing countries, and also from various other non-governmental organizations. (ii) To conduct short term training courses to meet the needs of the youth. 48. Institute of Rural development,Booklet, Muzhucode, 1976, p.3. 49. Vasant Desai., A Study of Rural Econamics, Bombay, 1983, p.689. 50. Chathunavu (Monthly), Vol.1, January 1977, p.27. (iii) To organize extension service in the neighboring villages in collaboration with Rural Demonstration centre Marthandam. (iv) To offer technical guidance to Y.M.C.A s in their rural work. (v) To experiment and develop new methodologies in extension works. (vi) To publish bulletins and brochures in order to promote rural development work. (vii) To conduct surveys for preparing problem oriented programmes. (viii) To plan rural development programmes for Y.M.C.A s and other nongovernmental agencies. (ix) To conduct case studies of successful adopters or improved practice in agriculture health etc.

(x) To conduct case studies on the impact of Y.M.C.A.s rural work on the community served. (xi) To conduct evaluation of non-going programmes and to provide feed back data for programme improvement51. Thus 51. Rural Centers and Institute of Rural Development, Marthandam (Leaflet), Y.M.C.A. institute of Rural Development, Muzhucode, 1999, p.11. the institute was envisaged as an Institute for higher and advanced training for rural workers with highly qualified staff. b. Activities The activities were carried on by three departments of the institute namely: (i) Department of Training (ii) Department of Extension (iii) Department of Evaluation and Rural studies. The charge of the Institute was given to the director who was appointed by the National council. R.S. Daniel was appointed as the first director. The Marthandam centre and the Institute had their own programmes of training and extension, collaborating and supporting each other in programme activities52.

52. Report of Y.M.C.A Centers and Institute of Rural Development, Marthandam by K.J. Abraham, dated.12.01.1981.,p.3. CHAPTER – II DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1. Poultry Keeping The credit of taming the wild fowls was due to the Indians. But they did nothing to improve its quality and so it grew in their houses just like a bird. Their hens had a very poor egg laying capacity ranging from fifteen to twenty five in a year1. At the same time the western traders took the Indian hens to European countries and improved it scientifically so as to give eggs ranging from 200 – 250 per year2. Thus the poultry keeping became a profitable cottage vocation in the European countries; while in India it remained as quite unproductive and uneconomic. In such situation knowing the potentiality of poultry keeping and egg production towards the economic development of the poor villagers3. 1. A.Kanakaraj., ‘The Light Houses of Rural Reconstruction’, The History of the Y.M.C.A’s Integrated Rural development in South India, Delhi,2000, p.226. 2. P.K. Karuth., “Y.M.C.A and Rural Development” Trivandrum ,1987..20. 3. A. Kanakaraj., op.cit, p.227. As the first enterprise at Muzhucode, a model poultry unit started with the financial aid Indian council of Agriculture Research (I.C.A.R)4. It supplied high breed poultries like Australian Ordinations, white Leghorn, Australops, Rhode Island Reds and Black Minorcas5 for this, poultry sheds were constructed at Muzhucode, and 5050 two months old white Leghorn chickens were brought from Katpadi as foundation stock. The poultry unit at Muzhucode maintained improved breeds of Minorcas, Rhodes, Anconer, Plymouth Rocks, white Rocks and naked neck also for distribution to the interested poultry farmers6. The poultry line breeding was also added to this unit with the help of Indian Y.M.C.A7. 2. Bee – Keeping Muzhucode centre too conducts the Bee- keeping course every year8. In 1980 there are thirty boys and girls complete this course from this centre. In the year 1990, two batches of students completed this Bee-keeping. 4. The foundation stone of this poultry unit was laid by prof.Jerry Paton of California, U.S.A. on 30-05.1956.

5. 18th Triennial convention report, 1955-57, p.20. 6. Report of R.D.C.Muzhucode, 1963 – 64. p.2. 7. The Association Men, Vol. IX, July 1957, p.122. 8. Institute of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1990-92, p.5. Training and in 1992 seventy students particiapted9 this programme, and on the strength of that few of them appeared for the Government Technical examination. It is interesting to see that the success of Bee-keeping undertaken by the Y.M.C.A instigated it to conduct short term training course on Bee-keeping and other subjects. The purpose of training and education was “to teach scientific and up to date bee-keeping and to popularize it”. Keeping the objective in mind 12 lessons was prepared as follows to teach the students of bee-keeping. (i) Oppurtunity of greater income through improved bee-keeping as a subsidiary industry. (ii) Nature of honey bee; how to work with it. (iii) The improved hive; its parts and use how to obtain it other equipments. (iv) Making new home (hive) acceptable to bees. 9. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1990 – 91, p.5.

(v) Transferring wild bees from pots, rocks, trees and caves to improved hives10. (vi) Pests, diseases, bad seasons, scarcity of flowers, how to guard against them? (vii) Removing honey where how, what percent? (viii) Doubling production by extracting encouraging Indian bees to work harder; the process and equipment. (ix) Bee pasturage, adding to the natural supply. (x) Sale, bottling, Labeling, Comb-honey, cortons, markets. (xi) The Co-operative bee-keepers society for production, marketing and mutual improvement. (xii) The Italian bee for larger production. These lessons were handled by experts of bee keeping with the help of bee hives and other equipments. The classes were mostly practical demonstration rather than theoritical presentation. It made the learner able to transfer his bees from pots or beehives or caves into modern hives to multiply production and to market his honey profitably11. 10. Hatch. D. Spencer., Up From Poverty, Bombay, 1932, p.97. 11. Ibid., p.98. Planned courses on bee-keeping were also conducted to promote the villagers towards this industry. Thus one month intensive bee-keeping course to one hundred representatives of the Y.M.C.A was arranged with organization. Five batches of training with twenty participants in each batch was conducted and at the end of their training each one was given one modern bee – hive to begin and practice the work in their home12. 3. Kitchen Gardening The Y.M.C.A has deep involvement in the field of kitchen gardening for many years. It helps the villagers to propagate and promote home gardens in the villages. It is a very important developmental activity and it helps to solve problems of mal-nutrition and food storage. It also gives a feeling of achievement and dignity of labour13. Development of agriculture was also carried on in the surrounding villages. For this, demonstration of better farming practices of agriculture

12. A short report about the developments at the Y.M.C.A RDC Muzhucode, The Chairman’s file, No.26, 1973, p.7. 13. Chathunavu, Monthly magazine, April 1978, p.23. was done at Muzhucode. An agricultural school was started here to give training to young men, with the help of ‘world neighbor’s organization’. This organization provided the service of an agricultural at graduate in the school. More than 400 kitchen gardens were promoted in the villages and several ‘Young Farmer’s Clubs’ were organized14. The promotion of school gardening was the other important function initiated by the centre in the field of agriculture. It had four important features: (i) Instruction in the fundamental principles of gardening and plants life. (ii) The demonstration of these principles in the school garden. (iii) Their application at the pupils home, involving productive work in the home garden and (iv) The giving of definite credit for supervised work both at school and at home towards the promotion of the pupil15. The Y.M.C.A should have kitchen garden, tomato plantain, radish, cabbage and other varieties. 14. 15. 18th Triennial Convention report, 1955-57, p.21. Hatch. D. Spencer., op.cit., p.42.

The important object of the centre towards the school and home garden work was “to improve the food supply of the community and increase the income, intelligence and efficiency of the farmers and other rural people of the present and future16. The agriculture development work was brought under the ‘freedom from Hunger’ Campaign started under the project financed by Christian aid, London. The aim of the project was “to demonstrate the villagers food production through better agricultural techniques, better seeds, manure etc17”. 4. Vegitable Seed Farm and Nursery In doing so, It established a name by supplying good quality vegetable seeds. In the matter of distributing vegetable seeds the Muzhucode unit stood in the fore-front most of the seeds required are produced in the seed farms. Coconut, Arecanut, Pepper seeding and vegetable seed are supplied to the people of rural areas at nominal coast18. 16. Hatch, D.Spencer., Towards Freedom from Want, Oxford university Press, Bombay. 1949, p.30. 17. A. Kanakaraj., op.cit, p.197. 18. The Y.M.C.A, R.D.C.M, Muzhucode (leaflet), August 1970, p.9. The Y.M.C.A involvement in agriculture did not end with the vegetables and fruits. In addition to them it cultivated fodder grasses like Guinea, Napier papaya and resistant grasses are popularized long stapled cotton, arrow root growing, compost manure making etc were also demonstrated on a smaller scale in the centre good quality seeds and seeding of vegetables, fruit plants and cuttings of tapioca sticks, sweet potatoes and leafy vegetables are popularized in villages. During the Green revolution period the Government also introduced the high yielding of seeds and fertilizers19. The Y.M.C.A conducted a short term training course on agriculture in 2007. There were thirty students participate in the same course. The duration of the course is one month20. 5. Sericulture The silk industry can be maintained in a place where there is abundance of mulberry. Hence mulberry growing is demonstrated to raise

19. V.K. Garg., Rural Economics, New Delhi. 1988, p.72. 20. Personal Interview with V.Sam Chandrabose Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode dated, 18 -01-2008. silk worms21. The silk worm raising and silk reeling are taught as a subsidiary industry. In Kasmir and Mysore the sericulture forms one of the main occupations of the people22. Muzhucode Y.M.C.A introduced sericulture in so many villages and mulberry cuttings were distributed to the villagers23. They are found useful to function a sericulture unit in the Muzhucode centre. A six month course on sericulture is also conducted in this centre24.

21. A.R. Patel, D.P. Khankhoje., op.cit., p.203. 22. Gram Sevak, Monthly, 1996, p.72. 23. Personal Interview with V. Sam Chandra Bose Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode dated, 18 -01-2008. 24. Ibid.

CHAPTER – III HEALTH AND RURAL SANITATION SERVICES 1. Health Education Programme Health is the primary need for the development of humanity. Due to the joint family system and unawareness of the sources of health many people suffer from ill-health. Mal-nutrition, unhygienic environment and lack of proper conveyance facilities are some of the factors to affect the health of the rural people1. To avoid this, the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A unit started two health education centre in and around Muzhucode. The families are grouped into four groups in a centre. They are Anducode, and Mathoorkonam2. Each group consists of twenty five family members are conducted to the family groups3. 1. O.P.Dhama, O.P. Bhatnagar.,.Educational and communication for development, New Delhi, 1985, p.341 2. Minutes of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1985, p.39. 3. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1985 – 86, p.12. A health education training was organized for the village women in 19914 with the help of the health department. Also health talks were arranged in the villages5 and it is the special programme of the Y.M.C.A. Health and nutrition play a vital role in the community. Even though the Government has many schemes and programmes to promote health and sanitation, most of the rural people live in very unhygenic and unsanitary surroundings. The deficiency of pure water to drink and insufficient facilities to attend the first and second call of nature most of the villagers suffer from common diseases6. People suffering from Leprosy, T.B and serious diseases will be referred to concerned Government and mission hospitals7. It largely depended upon the availability of medical care and the medical awareness of the people. As these were found very poor in the villages8, the Y.M.C.A started concentrating its attention upon this along with the other

activities. 4. Ibid., 1990 – 91, p.5. 5. K.Singh., op.cit ., p.289. 6. O.P.Dhana., O.P, Bhatnagar., op. cit., p.343. 7. Personal Interview with V. Sam Chandra Bose, Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode dated,18-01- 2008. 8. Ibid. 2. Health care measures The primary object of this programme is the attainment of “Health for all by 2000 AD”9. It is to be made known to the village mass. Even among the educated, the health status is very much neglected due to ignorance and selfishness. During the past one year attention was focused on five villages. The programme gave special attention for the education of rural people and made them aware of owing Latrine10. In each village two hundred houses have been selected by the health workers11. The health workers were trained to study the attitude of people carefully and to render service according to the need. In each village twenty Latrine slabs have been distributed12. People’s participation calculated as ten percent in the first batch was raised to fifty percent in the second batch. The beneficiaries have been identified after several group meetings. Apart from this, medical camps assisted by local public health centers 9. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1987-88, p.5. 10. Ibid., p.6. 11. Minutes of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1986, p.26. 12. Ibid., 1990, p.4. and mini health centers were arranged. These activities taught the people to make use of cheaply available food stuffs through nutrition demonstration classes. The health centers of Y.M.C.A have demonstrated nutrition food preparation with locally available food materials13. The primitive practices of the villages like open air defection affected their health. To overcome the situation, special attention was given in the educational programme on health. Three remote villages in Melpuram Block namely Muzhucode, Vellamcode, Manchalumoodu have been chosen for the extension health programme14. A programme for fifty rural Latrines was launched in all the centres15. An attempt was made to popularize the installation of sanitary toilets in as many houses as possible in the largest villages. This attempt had its culmination in the formation of rural latrine scheme. It had to promote a better and a healthy living condition among the people of the rural areas16. 13. 14. 15. 16. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1990-91., p.5. Ibid., 1991-92, p.5. Project report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1992, p.8. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1992-93, p.4. Apart from the education programmes thirty five latrines have been constructed at a low cost to twenty five families. The beneficiaries have contributed a part of the expenses in instalments17. This could have a very good impact on the villagers. 3. Medical Aid Schemes Free medical aid in ten villages could be made possible in the Muzhucode area with the help of the ‘Y’ care international18. All these villages are provided with a health guide. Two health workers went round in meeting the people

of the villages and helped them with first aid and guidance19. This unit started one clinics in this area20. It also made arrangements for a part time doctor to check the village patient coming to the clinics and give free medicines once in a week21. 17. Institute of Rural Development (Booklet) Muzhucode, Marthandam, 1976, p.3. 18. Ibid., p.8. 19. Ibid.,p.9. 20. Chathunavu, Monthly magazine, July 1983, p.21. 21. Ibid., p.23. Health camps and get together are often arranged for the village women and they are educated for better living conditions with the available resourses22. 4. Sports and Games Sports and Games are important for the improvement of health. Y.M.C.A aims to promote a healthy spirit in man23. To materialize the same sports and games are organized. It encouraged a good number of young men to take an active part in sports, games and arts. It is in the habit of conducting competitions in the same items under the auspices of its anniversary and distributing prizes to the winners of various competitions24. It is interesting to note that separate games and sports were conducted for boys and girls and certificates were also given to the winners. Usually, district level or block level officials were invited to given away the prizes to the winners of numerous competition25. 22. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 2006-‘07, p.3. 23. Grama Sevak, Monthly,1961, p.27. 24. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1985-86, p.8. 25. Ibid. (i) Sports Club The young men of surrounding villages have been organized and formed into a sports club26. Every day they play Khabadi, Cricket, Badminton and Hocky. The sports materials were provided by the concerned unit. About forty youths are actively participating in each clubs27. In 2005 the Muzhucode unit spent an amount of Rs. 1000/- and also arranged for a picnic on 21-09-2006. The programme, co-ordinator and the president also accompanied the twenty two youths on their picnic28. This type of cultural activities enabled the youths to develop leadership quality among them. For the further development of this quality in youth, certain units started leadership training programme. (ii) Leadership Training programme An important object of this international association is to train young men to become leaders of the nation. With this in mind they arranged a leadership training programme29. It was 26. Personal Interview with V. Sam Chandra Bose, Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode dated,18-01- 2008. 27. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1991-92, p.2. 28. Ibid., 2005 – ’06. p.3. 29. Minutes of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1984, p.28. inaugurated by the Melpuram Panchayat union Agricultural extension officer. Eminent leaders from different departments came as resource persons in the training programme. The Kanyakumari mobile unit of the Soil Research centre demonstrated soil research to the trainees30. Local dignitaries of they are attend the valedictory function of the programme. The chief guest distributed certificates to the trainees31. To later the need of university students the Y.M.C.A arranged leadership training programme in the month of May. Twenty five students from different colleges participated and benefited of it32. This training appeared helpful to bring out the hidden leadership qualities of the youth and the better utilization

of the same. The talents of the participates were exhibited in oratory, singing, speeches, acting etc33. The programme could witness positive effect. 30. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1984-85, p.2. 31. Ibid. 32. Personal Interview with Selvi. Susanna Sundara Baby Tuition teacher of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A. Boys Home, aged -32, Residing at Muzhucode dated – 23 January 2008. 33. Ibid. 5. Child Survival and Child-Development Programme Today’s children are the better citizens of tomorrow and the future leaders of the nation. Also, the future of the nation depends on the health of the children34. Therefore children should be brought up in good health from the childhood level. Aiming the same the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A started a programme of child survival and development at Arumanai co-operation with the Christian Medical Association of India, New Delhi35. The main thrust of this programme is to give special service for the mother and child of two years old36. It covers Anti natal care, natal care and post Natal care. Also periodical medical check-up and vaccination have been arranged to the mother and child with the help of a medical practioner37. The Christian Medical Association of India (CMAI) has sanctioned a project to Y.M.C.A Muzhucode for child survival and child development 34. K. Singh., op.cit., p.297. 35. Minutes of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1999, p.70. 36. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1999 - 2000, p.7. 37. Ibid., p.8. programme in Vellamcode village38. This programme has been implemented in the village from 1st May 1999. With the assistance of a full time Coordinator and two health workers. They have to survey the whole village and concentrate their work among pregnant women, feeding mothers and children below two years39. Later on this CMAI programme came to be implemented in Arumanai village from 1st January 200340. 6. Mahalir Mantam Mahalir Mantams are functioning under the auspices of different Y.M.C.A units. Family Welfare Camps and Health Education are the main features of the organization41. Monthly meetings and work camps are being organized by the Mahalir Mantam. These associations help the people to know and study about health and hygienic, family welfare, prevention of 38. Minutes of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1988, p.74. 39. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1999 - 2000, p.6. 40. Ibid., 2003 - 2004, p.5. 41. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1985-86, p.6. diseases etc. The Y.M.C.A also received the assistance of CASA under food for community development programme42. 7. Conservation of Water Programme The problem of water mainly drinking water is a grave one every where in the district. There was no plan or programme to conserve the rain water in the seasons. But the water is an important factor in the development of rural community43. As a solution to this problem the Y.M.C.A have constructed model water tanks by conserving rain water during the rainy season44. The important of

this programme was explained to the villagers through seminars, public meetings and workshops. Assistance was given to thirty four families to construct rain water harvesting tanks45. The demand for water tanks increased. To cope with the increasing demand they planned to construct more than hundred water tanks46. The 42. Personal Interview with T. Lisi, Teacher of Mahalir Mantam Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -45, Residing at Muzhucode dated – 4 February 2008. 43. K.Singh., op.cit., p.95. 44. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; 1985 – 86, p.9. 45. Ibid, p.10. 46. Ibid., 2005 – ‘06, p.6. panchayat union started digging a well in Muzhucode near this Y.M.C.A. It is to be made clear that the water problem is not completely solved. But this became an improvement over the existing situation. 8. Family Welfare Programme Family is the first instruction of the socialization process47. Welfare of a family stands for the overall development of physical, mental, social, economical and spiritual well – being of the persons in the family. “Healthy family will produce healthy children”. To control the growth of population and make the mother and child healthy, family welfare camps have been arranged in association with the Family Welfare Bureu, of the District48. The camps were held in the rural areas. The programme mainly constituted family based education, health and hygene, home science and agriculture49. married women in large number attended and benefited of it. 47. 48. 49. K.Singh op.cit., p.137. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1887 – 88.p.8. Ibid., p.11.

In 2001, two camps were conducted at Muzhucode and Mathoorkonam respectively50. The Government Family Welfare Bureau supported this programme. It sent resource persons and met other expenses to make the meeting a success.

50.

Ibid., 2001 - 2002, p.4.

CHAPTER – IV SELF EMPLOYMENT SCHEMES 1. Cottage Industries Self–employment scheme and programmes offered by the organization bring employment to many and solve the problems of employment in the villages in a

silent manor. But these activities cannot expect much in the line of industrial development of the region and the nation in a wider perspective. Towards this goal the Y.M.C.A came forward to start and encourage the cottage industries movement. The catering areas of the Y.M.C.A activities offer chance for the formation of many a cottage industry with a redeeming future1. On the 27th April, 1957, Rasmussens, the general secretary of Y.M.C.A, cleaveland visited Muzhucode and put the foundation stone for the “cottage Industries Institute”. 1.D.Spencer hatch., Towards freedom from want, Bombay 1949, p.66. (i) Soap and Candle Making It is a simple self employment scheme. The Muzhucode Y.M.C.A conducts classes for soap making. Some of the village people who attend the class are now making washing soaps. The products are pure and low priced and helpful for the people to earn a small amount of income2. Candle making is a also taught to the villagers and a few families are making candles for their use and sale. (ii). Pickle and Jam Making Promotion of standard of living of the villagers is the goal of the Y.M.C.A. Towards this goal a large number of self-employment schemes were introduced. Pickle and Jam Making is one among them. The rural women are very much interested in the nutrition camps3. Mather sangams also conduct this nutrition scheme. They make onion pickle and tomato Jam. Y.M.C.A provides loans for this small selfemployment scheme4. The 2. Grama Sevak, Monthly, May 1999., p.24. 3. Chathunavu , Monthly magazine, May 1999, p.21. 4. Ibid., p.24. village women make these items at a cheaper cost and sell the finished items on a profitable basis. (iii). Fiber Craft Fiber craft formed another self employment schemes to be offered to the poor villagers by the Y.M.C.A units. This became a boon to the illiterate villagers of Muzhucode. Fiber training cum production unit started in the Y.M.C.A premises attracted many village girls with a nominal monthly stipend of Rs.15/- per head5. Banana fiber bags and fancy things are the products of this unit. The trained workers could get a daily wage of Rs.15 to 18. This self employment scheme could be a source of help to nearly thirty poor families. The Y.M.C.A conducts a six month Banana fiber craft training every year6. The trainees are taught fiber making and doll making. This center runs a craft school with a qualified craft teacher7. 5. Institute of rural development, pamplets, Muzhucode, 1957, p.4. 6. Chathunavu, Monthly magazine, April 2001, p.22. 7. Ibid ., 2002, p.18. (iv) Jaggery Making Palm-gur making formed a major industry of south Travancore8. The areas in and around the Y.M.C.A centers contain five hundred of palm trees. But the villagers have no knowledge about the process of making high quality Jaggery and sold the Jaggery at the lower price. To come for their rescue the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A started scientific methods of palm Gur Industry9. The Y.M.C.A introduced and popularized zinc sheet pans for boiling the juice

to save fuel, time and avoid smoke10. The palm-gur development programme of the unit availed the financial assistance of the Khadi and village industries commission11. It also helped in organizing the palm-gur co-operative society Marthandam and Kuzhithurai. The pal gur expert to Government of India worked in Co-Operation with the Y.M.C.A12. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. D. Spencer Hatch., op.cit., p.66. Ibid., p.68. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1980 -81, p.5. Ibid., p.6. Ibid.,p.8.

Year by Year new technological improvements could be evolved for stabilizing and expanding the scope of the industry in the coutry13. 1. The introduction of aerial rope ways system came to simply the palm-tree climbing hazard. 2. The Harnessing of Solar Heat for Evaporating neera for producing Jaggery helped to solve the problem of high consumption of fuel14. 3. The hotting and freezing of neera developed it into a whole some drink. 4. Planting the palm-trees in rows and colonization of the tappers became an incentive to the industry. 5. Organization of village tappers through primary Jaggery societies helped them to be linked with the district and state federations and finally with the All India Fedaration15.

13. Minutes of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1982. p.6. 14. Ibid.,p.7. 15. Ibid., p.9. Having associated with the Madras state palm-gur co-operative federation and the Madras state Khadi and Village Industries Board the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A could very well revive the promotional activities to the maximum possible extent16 . By all means the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A rendered yeoman service in piloting the promotion of the palm-gur industry on modern scientific lines. Besides its Jaggery production and processing activity, the Y.M.C.A taught the young village girls and women the art of making palmyrah leaf articles through a demonstration class of one month17. A large number of village girls and women attended this class. The villagers used the palmyrah leaf as fire wood but the Y.M.C.A taught them to utilize the palmyrah leaves for making attractive articles such as bags, baskets and mats, instead of using them for fuel purpose18. They would sell these finished goods to confessional rates. Still it is a small self employment scheme and hundreds of villagers are benefited of the program. 16. Personal Interview with V. Sam Chandra Bose, Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode dated , 18 -01-2008. 17. Ibid. 18. Ibid. 2. Tailoring Economically poor girls after finishing their high school studies and dropouts do not know how to proceed forward in their life. To the benefit of there poor girls a Tailoring Institute as a training cum production centre was started on 29th November 1982 in a rented building of Muzhucode19. As an outcome of this project seventeen girls came out of this institute as trained tailors in 198720. Many others were trained in handicrafts such as basket making and chair winding. The success of the tailoring institute raise it to the status of “Training

school”. This school conducted a vocational training centre for women of Melpuram area. Twenty four young women of this school who were enrolled as trainees appeared for the technical exmination21. Another out come of the Muzhucode units effort was the establishment of “Technical Training cum Production Centre”at Manchalumoodu in 1987. In this centre village women 19. Personal Interview with C.P.Saroja Francis, Teacher of the Tailoring Institute Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -45, Residing at Muzhucode dated, 21-01-2008. 20. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1987 – 88, p.4. 21. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1990 – 91, p.4. were given training in serving and training in readymade garments and embroidery cloths were produced in the centre. Fifteen women enrolled their names as trainees in the centre to work and learn. The women engaged in this programme had their own problems which were discussed in the weekly meetings. A loan of Rs.500/- has been issued for the purpose of cloth and other raw materials22. Altogether the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A through its two centres at Muzhucode and Manchalumoodu, produced twenty five trained tailors in a year23. The embroidery unit is producing house decorate items such as Bed Cover, Table Cover and Sofa Cover in cross stiching24. The finished embroidery goods are being sold in different parts of our districts. During 1994-95 the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A centre has identified three villages of most backward nature and devoid of any embroidery work like smoke 22. Minutes of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1987, p.63. 23. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1991 – 92, p.2. 24. Personal Interview with C.P. Saroja Francis, Teacher of the Tailoring Institute, Muzhucode, Y.M.C.A, aged -45, Residing at Muzhucode dated,21-01- 2008. stitching and cross stitching. In all villages embroidery units were installed to the benefit of sixty women25. The Y.M.C.A unit started a lace work in 1995. With twenty eight workers. There are a lot of designs in lace work expressing neatness and perfection. Thus the works of tailoring Embroidery and lace work improved in different manner with cross stitch and smoke stitching stand as specialities26. Irrespective of caste or religion women of all the communicative are absorbed in the training programme. 3. Diesel and Electric Pump Maintenance The schemes and projects launched by all the Y.M.C.A units are similar to that of each other. As an improvement over the existing system the Muzhucode unit to the benefit of the employed youth of the area attemted in the trade of diesel and electric pump maintenance27. Those who have 25. 26. 27. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1994 – 95, p.5. Ibid., p.7. Chathunavu, Monthly magazine, September 1983, p.22.

completed their X and XII standard studies were declared eligible for a technical course of pump maintenance which was commenced on 15th December 1982. This six month Job oriented practical course offers instruction and training to fifty boys28, every year. During the period of study the students are provided with hostel facilities. 4. Spinning The Muzhucode unit found it necessary to start a textile unit to avert the pitiable condition of the villagers in and around Muzhucode. Towards this end the

rural textile spinning centre was started on 26th June 1983, with the assistance of Khadi and village industries board29. Twenty to thirty poor young girls and women could seek employment in this unit with a daily salary of twenty rupees30. On the strength of their employment position they could avoid bank loans also. 28. Personal Interview with V. Sam Chandra Bose, Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode dated,18-01- 2008. 29. Chathunavu, Monthly magazine, June 1983, p.19. 30. Personal Interview with V. Sam Chandra Bose, Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode dated,18-01-2008. CHAPTER- V WELFARE MEASURES 1. Extension Work in the Villages In 1963 the Government of India allowed a Public co-operation Centre-Lok Karya Kshethra (L.K.K) to Marthandam.1 “The pupose was to organize the systematic use of man power resourses particularly in rural areas,for works of benefit to the community as a whole.”It was planned to achieve through inducing local participation in the construction of village roads,development of plantations,tanks, watersupply,drainage and maintenance of minor irrigation works and to enable the local people to benefit by the large expenditure incurred and improve their economic position”. Three persons –C.Devadhasan, P.Rajamoni and M.George were appointed under this programme to do the extension works in the nine villages2, including Muzhucode .They organized (i) Volley ball teams (ii) Nursery schools 1. Dr. A. Kankaraj., “The Light House of Rural Reconstruction” Delhi - 200 p.189. 2. Ibid., 190. (iii) Day Care Centers (iv) Awareness programme (v) Mahalir Sangams (vi) Village Reading Room (vii) Adult Literacy Programme (viii) Young Farmers Clubs (ix) Formation of Rural Youth Clubs etc in addition to sinking of wells and promotion of kitchen gardens3. These activities were supervised by a committee of six persons ,mostly from the staff of Marthandam.4 Several community development and social service activities were implemented in the nine villages by the L.K.K. workers following the model of Marthandam Rural Demonstration Centre .Distribution of pure white leghorn hatching eggs ,adult education centers at Moodode, Edaicode and Mathoorkonam ,digging of well at Muzhucode, construction of an approach road from Metappancode to Anducode nearly 3. 4. Report of R.D.C.Muzhucode, 1963, p.2. Dr. A. Kanakaraj., op.cit., p.190.

Four furlongs long ,thatching of houses, chlorination of wells ,making of trench latrines and pit latrines, composite pit digging ,distribution of seedlings like coconut ,mango, sapota , bread fruit, mulberry cuttings, etc. were some of them .5 In all these activities special care was giving on securing local people’s participation. 2. Boy’s Home India, a country of villages contains large number of orphans and distitutes6 . They are ill-clothed ,ill-fed ,unsheltered and uneducated without any way of hope in life most of them are left as street boys. To the benefit of

this gloomy and uncared section the YMCA started a Boy’s Home in Muzhucode in 1982.7 Firstly ,thirty boys such as orphan and destitute children were admitted in this home. The financial help comes from M.Adolf Klain of West Germony8. All the boys receive food, cloth, shelter, education and training in a trade to earn their bread in future. The admission of the inmates is restricted 5. Annual Report of Y.M.C.A Muzhucode 1964, p.12. 6. Vasanth Desai., A Study of Rural Economics, Bombay,1983, p.366. 7. Yuvak, National Council of India, New Delhi, 1982, p.12. 8. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A 1983 – 84, p.3. to the age group of six to sixteen9. All the boys of the home go to school and at free time they take care of the Vegetable and Flower gardens Bee-keeping, Poultry keeping, Goats raring and Sericulture10. The boys are given special care in their studies. They are encouraged in games and sports. They are trained in various self-employment schemes also. They attend the “summer school” every year. Occasionally they are taken out on short and long tour11. It is interesting to know that many inmates of past are doing very well in life. On enquiry it is brought to light that, there are three Mechanics and police among them. In addition to this there are a lot of pastors, properties of small business concerns and Government servants. Those two boys of the home, who scored high marks in X standard examination in 2007, are now supported to their higher studies in a ITI institute of the district12. 9. Rural Development Magazine, 1974, p.7. 10. Chathunavu, Monthly magazine, April 1984, p.18. 11. Personal Interview with Selvi M. Susanna Sundara Baby Tution teacher of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A Boys home. aged -32, Residing at Muzhucode dated, 5-03-2008. 12. Ibid. To keep them homely the home makers arrangements for special food and cloths on important occasions like Christmas13. Self supporting schemes were taught to them to make their future a prosperous one. No doubt, they can come out with flying colours14. The Y.M.C.A has helped a number of boys in getting jobs after they have finished their studies. Some have been given land to start own business15. Some of them have even been helped in finding brides by the Y.M.C.A16. 3. Youth Meeting Modern education system breeds unemployed youths in large number. For the welfare of such youths in villages youth group was organize17. This is mainly for creating in them awareness about the present Indian situation. Seminars on various topics like “India today”, “Cottage Industry”, “Unemployment problem”, “Evils of Dowry”, “Casteism and Drug Abuces,” 13. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 2006 - 2007, p.8. 14. Personal Interview with R.B.James Raj, Warden of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -35, Residing at Muzhucode dated,3-01- 2008. 15. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 2006 – ‘07, p.4. 16. Ibid.,p.5. 17. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 2005 – ‘06, p.5. are conducted in different places. Meetings and conferences are being held periodically as follow up action of these group18. 4. Anti-Dowry Movements Now a days the dowry poses a grave problem to the poverty stricken women. Many girls are left unmarried in villages due to this evil19. As a small attempt,

voice has been raised against the existing dowry problem. Anti dowry rally and campaigns were arranged during the middle of the year 198820. People from all over the Muzhucode region participated in the meetings. The seminars arranged under the auspices of the movement21 were highly useful, as it made them to think and act. The welfare measures of the loan schemes denote its all round developmental activities for the rural uplift. 5. Village Development Council The village development council was intended for the total 18. Personal Interview with Mr. M. Biju, President of the Youth Club of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A aged -28, Residing at Muzhucode dated ,20-03-2008. 19. Singh K., Rural Sociology, Lucknow, 1987, p.185. 20. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1987-1988, p.3. 21. Ibid. development of the village. Responsible persons like Panchayat President, Ward members, Pastors, Priests and Social Activist became members of the council. They used to meet once in a month and discuss plan and take decisions for the welfare of the whole village22. As a part of this programme they honoured village workers in different fields such as agriculture, Carpentary, Tea Petty Shop, Cooli and Handy Crafts. Y.M.C.A give prizes and awards to the village workers in the Annual Day public meeting23. The development of the village required the habit of thrift on the part of its people. 6. Flood Relief The Flood of November 1992 rendered more than one thousand families homeless and damaged a large number of houses24. The people started living in relief camps and near by houses of their friends and relatives. The Muzhucode Y.M.C.A extended relief by distributing rice, edibles, cloths and cooking utensils Volunteers of the Y.M.C.A helped to 22. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 2006 – ’07., p.5. 23. Personal Interview with Mr. V. Sam Chandra Bose, Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode dated, 18-03-2008. 24. Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1992-1993, p.7. remove the debris and put up temporary sheds25. A number of Medical Camps were organized in collaboration with the Indian Medical Association of Marthandam26.

25. 26.

Ibid. Minutes of the Marthandam Y.M.C.A., 1992, p.142.

CONCLUSION Y.M.C.A, is a world wide Christian organization stands for cultural and welfare measures. Its activities in the Kanyakumari District occupy a foremost place in rural development. The rural centers of the Y.M.C.A are highly helpful in

successfully carrying out the rural reconstruction programmes of Mahatma Gandhi. They have been fully dedicated in the cause of all those who suffer from lack of status and deprived of their rights. The rural Y.M.C.A.s plays an effective role in the field of education, Agriculture, Health and Sanitation. Enforcement of Self-employment Schemes and Welfare measures brings better colour to the outstanding image of this Indian movement. Of all the activities of the Y.M.C.A its educational endeavours count much. Attempt of the Y.M.C.A to eradicate illiteracy from the villages forms a bold step for the promotion of rural welfare. The assistance and co-operation extended to the state measures of primary education appear useful for the fight against poverty, superstition, over population, debt, disease and other evils of rural life. The educational activities of the Y.M.C.A among the adult education mark a milestone development in the process of rural upliftment. The adult education programme of the Y.M.C.A is really a fight against illiteracy and deterioration of culture. Many adult education centers of Y.M.C.A started with the help of central Government proved instrumental in enabling the poor village adults to read and write in their mother tongues. The rural educational awareness offered by the Y.M.C.A centres proves an improvement over the other educational activities of the organization. This attempt of the Y.M.C.A is helpful for the poor villages to know the things that are taking place around them. Summer School programme arranged during the summer holidays helped the students to bolsters their general knowledge in different subjects and matters. Y.M.C.A conducted Hindi classes and music classes to bring an allround development in the students life. Free note books, Merit prizes and scholarships made available to the poor children enabled them to pursue their studies without any break. Similarly the educational tours and student camps arranged by the Y.M.C.A could bring changes in the personality of the students. The training course like sericulture and bee-keeping rendered the life of many village youth fruitful and meaningful. Y.M.C.A. s contribution for the promotion of health and sanitation of the rural masses could see solution of to many aggressive problems. Programmes of Health Education, Health Care centres, Health Camps, Health Talks and Seminars arranged under the auspices of Y.M.C.A in the rural areas taught the rural folk how to keep their health to lead a happy life. Child Survival and Child Development schemes sponsored by the Christian Medical Association of India became a solace to the children of two years old and above. Construction and maintenance of wells and tanks benefited poor villages. In like manner free latrine of the Y.M.C.A centers developed the health condition of the rural areas very much. Pioneering work of the Y.M.C.A for the promotion of physical education and leadership training programmes stood to the effect of making mental make up and physical development of the people. The family welfare programmes conducted in the holidays for rural mothers could keep them aware of the state stressed schemes like family planning and child welfare. In the field of agriculture the Y.M.C.A gave much for the village farmers. Scientific method of cultivation with the use of chemical fertilizers and better seeds as introduced and propagated by the Y.M.C.A through its model farms

contributed a lot for the development of kitchen gardening and fruit farming in the region. Poultry farming and goat rearing attained much impetus through the Y.M.C.A. Among these two activities poultry farming became a major concern of many village families. Arrangement made by the Y.M.C.A to purchase the eggs from the villagers at a higher price to sell them in the distant market became an additional incentive to them to progress in life. Bee-keeping and sericulture training obtained by the villagers through the Y.M.C.A centers emboldened many to undertake those activities for their livelihood. Introduction of sindhi cow and saanan goat by the Y.M.C.A in the region has its due-share in the white resolution of the area. The schemes like Tailoring, Spinning, Embroidery and Fiber Craft popularized by the Y.M.C.A centers happened to be the main stay of many young girls and women in life for a long time. The arts of Soap Making, Candle Making, Mat Weaving, Coir Making and Straw Craft offered by the centers could bring a way of hope to many hopeless village families. Relief measures of the organization at times of draught and flood could do much for the social welfare. The relief measures of the Y.M.C.A reached the affected without any delay or exploitation. Similarly, its patronage to the people helps them to get loan from the scheduled banks for self-employment schemes. The Boys Home occupies a unique place in the welfare activities of the Y.M.C.A. The orphan and destitute children admitted in the home came up in life without knowing their degraded position in the society. Some activities stand as valuable contributions towards refinement of culture and rich heritage of our country. Many a measure of the Y.M.C.A mobilizes the people for preservation of peace, equity and concord among people. It gained momentum in serving the youth towards the attainment of cultural and religious renaissance. The multifarious rural programme was aimed at bringing relief to the poverty stricken rural Indian masses. In short the Y.M.C.A is doing excellent service for mankind in various fields especially for the economic and social upliftment of the rural population of Kanyakumari District. In the light of the above said facts along with a host of others it is not surprising to say that no stone in the field of rural development was left unturned by the Y.M.C.A in the district. It may be true to say that the Y.M.C.A activities along the line of rural development are a few drops in the ocean. But for those drops the ocean would have been lesser. By and large the Y.M.C.A activities of the region bear witness to true Christian Service among the uncared and the needy poor of the district.

BIBILIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES INTERVIEWS 1. Personal Interview with V. Sam Chandra Bose, Secretary of Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; aged -55, Residing at Muzhucode dated - 18th , January 2008. 2. Personal Interview with C.P. Saroja Francis, Teacher of Tailoring Institute Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; aged -45, Residing at Muzhucode dated 21st January 2008. 3. Personal Interview with R.B. James Raj, Warden of Boys Home Muzhucode

Y.M.C.A; aged -35, Residing at Muzhucode dated 3rd March 2008. 4. Personal Interview with M. Biju, President of Youth Club of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; aged -28, Residing at Muzhucode dated 20rd March 2008. 5. Personal Interview with T. Lisy, Teacher of Mahalir Mantam Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; aged -45, Residing at Muzhucode dated 14rd February 2008. 6. Personal Interview with Selvi M. Susanna Sundara Baby, Tuition teacher of the Boys Home Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; aged -32, Residing at Muzhucode dated 5th March 2008. LEAFLETS Rural centers and Institute of rural Development. Marthandam, Y.M.C.A Institute of Rural Development Muzhucode. MINUTES Minutes of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; 1982-92. REPORTS (i) Annual Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A, 1964 to 91. (ii) Community development project report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; 1988-89. (iii) Project report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; 1992. (iv) Report on the Administration of travancore, 1924 – 25. (v) Report of R.D.C.M for 1963, dt 21.11.1963. (vi) Report of the Muzhucode Y.M.C.A; 1961 -2007. (vii) Report of Y.M.C.A centers and Institute of Rural Development Marthandm by K.J. Abraham. Dt. 12.01.1981. (viii) Report of the general board 20th convention Hyderabad 1962 tp 65. (ix) Report of the Institute of Rural Development Muzhucode by year 1980 – 81. (x) 18th Trennial Convention Report, 1955 – 57. SECONDARY SOURCES PUBLISHED WORKS 1. Abraham V.S., Kanya Kumari Special Record, Viramangalam, 1998. 2. Alice. B. Van Doren., “The Women in India” Calcutta, 1931. 3. David.M.D., The Y.M.C.A and the Making of Modern India, New Delhi, 1992. 4. Dahama, O.p., Bhatnagar, O.p, Educational and Communication for development, New Delhi, 1985. 5. Firth, C.B., An Introduction to church History, Madras, 1976. 6. Gaius Jackson, Slosser., Christian unity, New York, 1929. 7. Garg.V.K., Rural Econamics, New Delhi, 1988. 8. Hatch.D. Spencer., Toward Freedom from Want, Bombay, 1949. 9. Hatch D. Spencer. Up from Poverty, Bombay, 1932. 10. Kanakaraj. A., “The Light of Rural Reconstruction”, The History of the Y.M.C.A. Integrated Rural development in south India, Delhi-2000. 11. Kenyan.L. Butterfield., The Christian mission in Rural India, Report and Recommendations, International Missionary Council, London, 1930. 12. Patel.A.R., Khankhoje.D.P., Rural Econamics, New Delhi, 1985. 13. Rajayan.K., Modern Tamil Nadu, Madurai, 1992. 14. Subramanian, N., History of Tamil Words (1336 – 1984) Udumalpet, 1991. 15. Singh, K., Rural Sociology, Lucknow, 1987. 16. Vasant Desai., A study of Rural Econamics, Bombay, 1983. JOURNALS 1. Dundardale, J.H., “ That they All May Be One” The Association Men, Vol.3. No.12. October 1952. 2. C.S. Peterson., “Early History of the Calcutta Y.M.C.A” The Association Men, Vol.2, No.8,9, June – July, 1951. 3. Kooimen, Dick, “Mass Movement, Famine and Epidemic”, Indian Church History Review, Vol . XXII, No.2, December 1988. MONTHLY MAGAZINES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The Association of Men., Vol.3, August 1952. Chathunavu Tamil Y.M.C.A RDC Marthandam 76 to 84. Grama Sevak Y.M.C.A Publication Calcutta – 1961-99. Yuvak – April 1981. Young Men of India (Y.M.I)., Vol.IIV, May 1942.

PAMPLETS AND ARTICLES Institute of Rural Development, Muzhucode 1937 Institute of Rural Development, Muzhucode 1976. Institute of Rural Development, (Booklet) Muzhucode, Marthandam, 1986. The Y.M.C.A institute of Rural Development, Muzhucode (Hand Book), 1977. Rural Development Centre Muzhucode, (Booklet) 1974. Rural Development Magazine, 1974. Yuvak., National council of Y.M.C.A.D.S of India, New Delhi, 1982.

LIST OF ABREVIATIONS B.4.B I.C.A.R L.K.K R.D.C.M R.R.C Y.M.C.A Y.M.I Y.W.C.A - Building For Brotherhood - Indian Council for Agricultural Research Lok Karya Kshethra Rural Demonstration Centre Marthandam Rural Reconstruction Centre Young Men’s Christian Association Young Men of India Young Women’s Christian Association

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