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Introduction to Collisions

Learning Goal: To understand how to find the velocities of particles after a collision.

There are two main types of collisions that you will study: elastic and perfectly inelastic. In

an elastic collision, kinetic energy is conserved. In a perfectly inelastic collision, the particles

stick together and thus have the same velocity after the collision. There is actually a range

of collision types, with elastic and perfectly inelastic at the extreme ends. These extreme

cases are easier to solve than the in-between cases.

In this problem, we will look at one of these in-between cases after first working through

some basic calculations related to elastic and perfectly inelastic collisions.

Let two particles of equal mass collide. Particle 1 has initial velocity , directed to the

right, and particle 2 is initially stationary.

Part A

If the collision is elastic, what are the final velocities and of particles 1 and 2?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

separated by a comma. Express each velocity in terms of .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Now suppose that the collision is perfectly inelastic. What are the velocities and of

the two particles after the collision?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

separated by a comma. Express the velocities in terms of .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

Now assume that the mass of particle 1 is , while the mass of particle 2 remains . If

the collision is elastic, what are the final velocities and of particles 1 and 2?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

separated by a comma. Express the velocities in terms of .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Note that in both the conservation of momentum equation and the conservation of

energy equation, cancels out. This is a general feature of many collision situations:

The ratio of the two masses is important, but the absolute masses are not.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part D

Let the mass of particle 1 be and the mass of particle 2 be . If the collision is

perfectly inelastic, what are the velocities of the two particles after the collision?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

separated by a comma. Express the velocities in terms of .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

This applet shows two disks colliding. The orange disk has always the same initial velocity.

You can change the ratio of the masses of the two disks and the elasticity of the

collision. You should try the four different settings corresponding to Parts A through D. An

elastic collision has elasticity , and a perfectly inelastic collision has elasticity .

Part E

What qualitative change takes place as the ratio of the mass of the blue disk to the mass

of the orange disk, , increases from 0.3 to 4.0? Set the elasticity to 1.0 for a perfectly

elastic collision.

ratio of masses increases.

As the ratio increases past 1.0, the final velocity of the

orange disk changes direction.

The difference in final velocities between the disks

decreases.

The difference in final velocities between the disks

increases.

Correct

Most real collisions are somewhere between elastic and perfectly inelastic. This is

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

indicated by the elasticity of the collision, which measures the difference in the

velocities of the particles after the collision compared with the difference in velocities

before the collision. For instance, in a perfectly inelastic collision, the two particles stick

together after colliding. The elasticity of such a collision is , because the difference

in velocities between the particles is 0 after they collide.

Technically, the elasticity is defined by the relation , where

and are the initial and final velocities of particle 1, and and are the initial and

final velocities of particle 2. In this problem, the formula is simplified by our definition of

and the hypothesis . So, using for the final velocity of particle 1 and

for the final velocity of particle 2, we obtain the simpler formula .

This final form will be most useful to you in solving Part F.

Part F

If the two particles with equal masses collide with elasticity , what are the

final velocities of the particles? Assume that particle 1 has initial velocity and particle 2 is

initially at rest. Look at the applet to be sure that your answer is reasonable.

Hint not displayed

separated by a comma. Express the velocities in terms of .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Notice that if you look back at your answers to Parts A and C, the diference between

and is always , as you would expect from setting in the definition of

elasticity. It is possible, though it takes some algebra, to prove that the definition of

elasticity with implies conservation of energy.

This applet is the same as the previous one, but now you are given a graph of the

momentum for each disk at the bottom. Run a few of the collisions that you have

studied in this problem so that you can see how the momenta of the two disks change

with differing elasticities and mass ratios.

Also in this applet you can have the two disks collide off-center. While this looks

much more complicated, the law of conservation of momentum still always applies.

With a modification to make it more precise for two- and three-dimensional collisions,

the definition of elasticity still applies as well.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Protecting his nest, a 600- peregrine falcon rams a marauding 1.5- raven in midair. The

falcon is moving at 20.0 , and the raven at 9.00 at the moment of impact. The

falcon strikes the raven at right angles to the raven's direction of flight and rebounds straight

back with a speed of 5.00 . By what angle does the impact change the raven's direction

of motion?

IDENTIFY the relevant concepts:

First, decide whether momentum is conserved – that is, whether the vector sum of the

external forces acting on the system is zero. If it isn't, you can't use conservation of

momentum.

SET UP the problem using the following steps:

1. Define a coordinate system. Often it's easiest to point the x axis in the direction of one of

the initial velocities. Make sure you are using an inertial frame of reference.

2. Draw "before" and "after" sketches, treating each body as a particle. Draw vectors for

known velocities, and indicate all other given information. We usually use capital letters to

label each particle and subscripts 1 and 2 for initial and final velocities, respectively.

3. Identify your target variable(s).

EXECUTE the solution as follows:

1. Write an equation in symbols equating the total initial x component of momentum (i.e.,

before the interaction) to the total final x component of momentum (i.e., after the

interaction), using for each particle. Do the same for the initial and final y

components, if needed. Be careful with signs!

2. Solve your equation(s) for the desired unknown variables. You may need to convert

from velocity components to magnitudes and directions, or vice versa.

3. In some problems, energy considerations give additional relationships among the

various velocities.

EVALUATE your answer:

Does your answer make physical sense?

Each bird is acted on by four external forces: The air exerts lift, thrust, and drag forces on

the wings and body, and the earth exerts weight. The forces that the birds exert on each

other are internal to the system. During the collision, the forces that the birds exert on

each other are much larger than any net external force on either bird. Since external

forces acting on the birds are negligibly small compared to the internal forces of the

collision, you can treat the birds' momentum as conserved during the collision.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

You must define your coordinate axes. Which of the choices shown in the figure is the

most convenient set of axes for this problem?

ANSWER:

Set B

Correct

Part B

Now, use the diagram below to draw before-and-after sketches for the collision. The dots

represent the raven (R) and the falcon (F). Assume that the raven is initially flying in the

x direction.

Add vectors representing the initial and final velocities of both birds (four vectors total).

You will have to estimate the raven's final velocity; any reasonable guess will be accepted.

Draw the vectors starting at the appropriate black dots. The location,

orientation and length of the vectors will be graded.

ANSWER:

View

All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

When you draw an actual sketch for a problem like this, you should include known

values (in this case, the birds' masses and speeds) and the quantities you may need,

including any components. Your real diagram might look like this:

Note that and are the x and y components of the raven's final velocity.

Part C

By what angle does the falcon change the raven's direction of motion?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint C.3 Find an expression for the x component of the raven's final

velocity

Hint not displayed

Hint C.4 Find an expression for the y component of the raven's final

velocity

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 48.0

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part D

Your answer says that the raven is deflected through 48 by a falcon that weighs a bit less

than half as much but that is moving roughly twice as fast before the collision. Is this

answer physically plausible? To decide, classify the following idealized collisions

according to the angle by which particle A would be deflected.

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.

ANSWER:

View

Correct

We see that your answer is physically reasonable. The magnitude of the falcon's

initial momentum is actually slightly less than that of the raven, so if the birds stuck

together, the deflection would be less than 45 . The raven's actual deflection is

greater than 45 because the falcon bounces back.

Learning Goal: To learn about the impulse-momentum theorem and its applications in

some common cases.

Using the concept of momentum, Newton's second law can be rewritten as

, (1)

where is the net force acting on the object, and is the rate at which the object's

momentum is changing.

If the object is observed during an interval of time between times and , then integration

of both sides of equation (1) gives

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

. (2)

The right side of equation (2) is simply the change in the object's momentum . The

left side is called the impulse of the net force and is denoted by . Then equation (2) can

be rewritten as

.

This equation is known as the impulse-momentum theorem. It states that the change in an

object's momentum is equal to the impulse of the net force acting on the object. In the case

of a constant net force acting along the direction of motion, the impulse-momentum

theorem can be written as

. (3)

Here , , and are the components of the corresponding vector quantities along the

chosen coordinate axis. If the motion in question is two-dimensional, it is often useful to

apply equation (3) to the x and y components of motion separately.

The following questions will help you learn to apply the impulse-momentum theorem to the

cases of constant and varying force acting along the direction of motion. First, let us

consider a particle of mass moving along the x axis. The net force is acting on the

particle along the x axis. is a constant force.

Part A

The particle starts from rest at . What is the magnitude of the momentum of the

particle at time ? Assume that .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

The particle starts from rest at . What is the magnitude of the velocity of the

particle at time ? Assume that .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

The particle has momentum of magnitude at a certain instant. What is , the

magnitude of its momentum seconds later?

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part D

The particle has momentum of magnitude at a certain instant. What is , the

magnitude of its velocity seconds later?

ANSWER:

=

Correct

A particle of mass is moving in the positive x direction at speed . After a certain

constant force is applied to the particle, it moves in the positive y direction at speed .

Part E

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

the numerical coefficient.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part F

Which of the vectors below best represents the direction of the impulse vector ?

ANSWER: 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part G

What is the angle between the positive y axis and the vector as shown in the figure?

30 degrees

60 degrees

63.4 degrees

Correct

Part H

If the magnitude of the net force acting on the particle is , how long does it take the

particle to acquire its final velocity, in the positive y direction?

coefficient, use three significant figures.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

So far, we have considered only the situation in which the magnitude of the net force

acting on the particle was either irrelevant to the solution or was considered constant. Let

us now consider an example of a varying force acting on a particle.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part I

A particle of mass kilograms is at rest at seconds. A varying force

is acting on the particle between seconds and

seconds. Find the speed of the particle at seconds.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 43.0

Correct

A ball of mass moving with velocity strikes a vertical wall. The angle between the ball's

initial velocity vector and the wall is

as shown on the diagram, which

depicts the situation as seen from

above. The duration of the collision

between the ball and the wall is ,

and this collision is completely

elastic. Friction is negligible, so the

ball does not start spinning. In this

idealized collision, the force exerted

on the ball by the wall is parallel to

the x axis.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the final angle that the ball's velocity vector makes with the negative y axis?

Relate the vector components of the ball's initial and final velocities. This will allow you to

determine in terms of .

What is , the component of the final velocity of the ball?

Hint not displayed

introduction and/or and , the and components of the ball's initial

velocity.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

What is , the component of the ball' final velocity?

Hint not displayed

introduction and/or and , the and components of the ball's initial

velocity.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

The wall exerts a force on the ball in the direction. However, because energy is

conserved in this collision, the final speed of the ball must be equal to its initial

speed. Since there is no force on the ball in the y direction, the magnitude of the

component of the ball's velocity is constant. Therefore, the magnitude of the

component of the velocity must be constant as well. However, the sign of the

velocity will change as the ball moves first toward, then away from, the wall.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Once you find the vector components of the final velocity in terms of the initial velocity,

use the geometry of similar triangles to determine in terms of .

introduction.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

What is the magnitude of the average force exerted on the ball by the wall?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

and/or .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Chuck and Jackie stand on separate carts, both of which can slide without friction. The

combined mass of Chuck and his cart, , is identical to the combined mass of Jackie

and her cart. Initially, Chuck and Jackie and their carts are at rest.

Chuck then picks up a ball of mass and throws it to Jackie, who catches it. Assume

that the ball travels in a straight line parallel to the ground (ignore the effect of gravity). After

Chuck throws the ball, his speed relative to the ground is . The speed of the thrown ball

relative to the ground is .

Jackie catches the ball when it reaches her, and she and her cart begin to move. Jackie's

speed relative to the ground after she catches the ball is .

When answering the questions in this problem, keep the following in mind:

1. The original mass of Chuck and his cart does not include the mass of the ball.

2. The speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity. An object's speed will always be a

nonnegative quantity.

Part A

Find the relative speed between Chuck and the ball after Chuck has thrown the ball.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Make sure you understand this result; the concept of "relative speed" is important. In

general, if two objects are moving in opposite directions (either toward each other or

away from each other), the relative speed between them is equal to the sum of their

speeds with respect to the ground. If two objects are moving in the same direction,

then the relative speed between them is the absolute value of the difference of the

their two speeds with respect to the ground.

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the speed of the ball (relative to the ground) while it is in the air?

Hint not displayed

Hint B.2 Initial momentum of Chuck, his cart, and the ball

Hint not displayed

Hint B.3 Find the final momentum of Chuck, his cart, and the thrown

ball

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

What is Chuck's speed (relative to the ground) after he throws the ball?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part D

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find Jackie's speed (relative to the ground) after she catches the ball, in terms of .

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part E

Find Jackie's speed (relative to the ground) after she catches the ball, in terms of .

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

A Girl on a Trampoline

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A girl of mass kilograms springs from a trampoline with an initial upward velocity of

meters per second. At height meters above the trampoline, the girl grabs a

box of mass kilograms.

For this problem, use

meters per second per second for

the magnitude of the acceleration

due to gravity.

Part A

What is the speed of the girl immediately before she grabs the box?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 4.98

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the speed of the girl immediately after she grabs the box?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 3.98

Correct

Part C

Is this "collision" elastic or inelastic?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: elastic

inelastic

Correct

In inelastic collisions, some of the system's kinetic energy is lost. In this case the

kinetic energy lost is converted to heat energy in the girl's muscles as she grabs the

box, and sound energy.

Part D

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the maximum height that the girl (with box) reaches? Measure with

respect to the top of the trampoline.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 2.81

Correct

An Exciting Encounter

An atom of mass is initially at rest, in its ground state. A moving (nonrelativistic) electron

of mass collides with the atom. The atom+electron system can exist in an excited state

in which the electron is absorbed into the atom. The excited state has an extra, "internal,"

energy relative to the atom's ground state.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part A

Find the kinetic energy that the electron must have in order to excite the atom.

Hint not displayed

Hint A.2 Find the final kinetic energy in terms of the initial kinetic

energy of the electron

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

Part B

We can use the result from Part A to study a process of interest in atomic physics: a

collision of two atoms that causes one of the atoms to ionize (lose an electron). In this

case, is the energy needed to ionize one of the atoms, called the ionization energy. The

most efficient way to ionize an atom in a collision with another atom is for the collision to

be completely inelastic (atoms stick together after the collision). If the collision were

perfectly elastic, then translational kinetic energy would be conserved, and there would be

no energy left over for exciting the atom. If the collision were partially elastic, then some of

the initial kinetic energy would be converted into internal energy, but not as much as in a

perfectly inelastic collision. In practice, interatomic collisions are never perfectly inelastic,

but analyzing this case can give a lower bound on the amount of kinetic energy needed for

ionization.

Is it possible to ionize an atom of , initially at rest, by a collision with an atom of

that has kinetic energy of 4.0 electron volts? The ionization energy of the cesium

atom is 3.9 electron volts.

You can take the mass of the oxygen atom to be 16 atomic mass units and that of the

cesium atom to be 133 atomic mass units. It doesn't matter what mass units you choose,

as long as you are consistent. For this question, it is most convenient to use atomic mass

units, since these are the numbers you are provided with.

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: yes

no

Correct

Part C

What is the least possible initial kinetic energy the oxygen atom could have and still

excite the cesium atom?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: 4.4

= All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

As shown in the figure , a superball with mass equal to 50 grams is dropped from a

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

a table, then bounces up to a height

of . The duration of the

collision (the time during which the

superball is in contact with the table)

is . In this problem, take

the positive y direction to be upward,

and use for the

magnitude of the acceleration due to

gravity. Neglect air resistance.

Part A

Find the y component of the momentum, , of the ball immediately before the

collision.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= -0.27

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find the y component of the momentum of the ball immediately after the collision, that is,

just as it is leaving the table.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 0.22

Correct

Part C

Find the y component of the time-averaged force , in newtons, that the table exerts

on the ball.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 33

Correct

Part D

Find , the y component of the impulse imparted to the ball during the collision.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 0.49

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part E

Find , the change in the kinetic energy of the ball during the collision, in

joules.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= -0.25

Correct

Ballistic Pendulum

In a ballistic pendulum an object of mass is fired with an initial speed at a pendulum

bob. The bob has a mass , which is suspended by a rod of length and negligible mass.

After the collision, the pendulum and object stick together and swing to a maximum angular

displacement as shown .

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

and the acceleration due to gravity, .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

The ballistic pendulum was invented during the Napoleonic Wars to aide the British

Navy in making better cannons. It has since been used by ballisticians to measure

the velocity of a bullet as it leaves the barrel of a gun. In Part B you will use your

expression for to compare the initial speeds of bullets fired from 9- and .44-

caliber handguns.

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

An experiment is done to compare the initial speed of bullets fired from different handguns:

a9 and a .44 caliber. The guns are fired into a 10- pendulum bob of length .

Assume that the 9- bullet has a mass of 6 and the .44-caliber bullet has a mass

of 12 . If the 9- bullet causes the pendulum to swing to a maximum angular

displacement of 4.3 and the .44-caliber bullet causes a displacement of 10.1 , find the

ratio of the initial speed of the 9- bullet to the speed of the .44-caliber

bullet, .

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 0.847

Correct

Police officers in the United States commonly carry 9- handguns because they

are easier to handle, having a shorter barrel than typical .44-caliber guns. Not only

does the .44-caliber bullet have more mass than the 9- one, its passage through

a longer gun barrel means that it also moves faster as it leaves the barrel, which

makes the .44-caliber Magnum a particularly powerful handgun. A .44-caliber bullet

can travel at speeds over 1000 (1600 ).

Colliding Cars

In this problem we will consider the collision of two cars initially moving at right angles. We

assume that after the collision the cars stick together and travel off as a single unit. The

collision is therefore completely inelastic.

Two cars of masses and collide at an intersection. Before the collision, car 1 was

traveling eastward at a speed of , and car 2 was traveling northward at a speed of .

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

together and travel off in the

direction shown.

Part A

First, find the magnitude of , that is, the speed of the two-car unit after the collision.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part B

Find the tangent of the angle .

Express your answer in terms of the momenta of the two cars, and .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

Suppose that after the collision, ; in other words, is . This means that

before the collision:

The masses of the cars were equal.

The velocities of the cars were equal.

Correct

Collision at an Angle

Two cars, both of mass , collide and stick together. Prior to the collision, one car had

been traveling north at speed , while the second was traveling at speed at an angle

south of east (as indicated in the figure). After the collision, the two-car system travels at

speed at an angle east of north.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part A

Find the speed of the joined cars after the collision.

Hint not displayed

Hint A.2 The component of the final velocity in the east-west direction

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the angle with respect to north made by the velocity vector of the two cars after

the collision?

Hint not displayed

trigonometric function.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Block 1, of mass , moves across a frictionless surface with speed . It collides

elastically with block 2, of mass , which is at rest ( ). After the collision, block 1

moves with speed , while block 2

moves with speed . Assume that

, so that after the collision,

the two objects move off in the

direction of the first object before the

collision.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

This collision is elastic. What quantities, if any, are conserved in this collision?

Hint not displayed

momentum only

kinetic energy and momentum

Correct

Part B

What is the final speed of block 1?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

A boat of mass 250 is coasting, with its engine in neutral, through the water at

speed 3.00 when it starts to rain. The rain is falling vertically, and it accumulates in the

boat at the rate of 10.0 .

Part A

What is the speed of the boat after time 2.00 has passed? Assume that the water

resistance is negligible.

Hint not displayed

Hint A.2 Find the momentum of the boat before it starts to rain

Hint not displayed

Hint A.3 Find the mass of the boat after it has started to rain

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

2.78

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Now assume that the boat is subject to a drag force due to water resistance. Is the

component of the total momentum of the system parallel to the direction of motion still

conserved?

ANSWER: yes

no

Correct

The boat is subject to an external force, the drag force due to water resistance, and

therefore its momentum is not conserved.

Part C

The drag is proportional to the square of the speed of the boat, in the form .

What is the acceleration of the boat just after the rain starts? Take the positive axis

along the direction of motion.

Hint not displayed

Hint C.2 Find the time rate of change of momentum of the boat

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

−1.80×10−2

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A glob of very soft clay is dropped from above onto a digital scale. The clay sticks to the

scale on impact. A graph of the clay's velocity vs. time, , is given, with the upward

direction defined as positive.

The experiment is then repeated, but instead of using the clay glob, a superball with

identical mass is dropped from the same height onto the scale.

Both the clay and the superball hit the scale 2.9 after they are dropped. Assume that the

duration of the collision is the same in both cases and the force exerted by the scale on the

clay and the force exerted by the scale on the superball are constant.

Part A

Sketch the graph of the superball's velocity vs. time, , from the instant it is dropped

( ) until it bounces to its maximum height ( ). Assume that the superball

undergoes an elastic collision with the scale, and that the scale's recoil velocity is

negligible. The light colored graph already present in the answer window is .

Hint not displayed

Hint A.2 Find the speed of the ball as it leaves the scale

Hint not displayed

Hint A.3 Determine the sign of the ball's velocity after the collision

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint A.5 Find the time of the ball's collision with the scale

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

View

All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

Part B

Based on your graph, is the change in velocity of the superball during its collision with the

scale greater than, less than, or equal to the change in velocity of the clay during its

collision with the scale?

the change in velocity of the clay.

The change in velocity of the superball is less than the

change in velocity of the clay.

The change in velocity of the superball is equal to the

change in velocity of the clay.

Correct

Part C

Is the force exerted by the scale on the superball greater than, less than, or equal to the

force exerted by the scale on the clay?

Hint not displayed

greater than the force exerted by the scale on the clay.

The force exerted by the scale on the superball is less

than the force exerted by the scale on the clay.

The force exerted by the scale on the superball is

equal to the force exerted by the scale on the clay.

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Six automobiles are initially traveling at the indicated velocities. The automobiles have

different masses and velocities. The drivers step on the brakes and all automobiles are

brought to rest.

Part A

Rank these automobiles based on their momentum before the brakes are applied, from

largest to smallest.

Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.

ANSWER:

View

Answer Requested

Part B

Rank these automobiles based on the magnitude of the impulse needed to stop them,

from largest to smallest.

The impulse applied to an object is equal to the object’s change in momentum.

Therefore, the impulse needed to stop them should be equal to the difference between

the initial momentum and the final momentum. (The final momentum is zero since the

car is brought to a stop.)

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

All of the cars are brought to rest. What is the final momentum of each automobile?

Hint not displayed

figures.

ANSWER:

=0

Correct

ANSWER:

View

Answer Requested

Part C

Rank the automobiles based on the magnitude of the force needed to stop them, from

largest to smallest.

You know the impulse needed to stop the cars. However, this impulse could be a very

large force exerted over a fraction of a second, a very small force exerted over several

minutes, or any situation in between, so long as the force multiplied by the time gives the

proper impulse. You must know the time intervals over which the stopping forces are

exerted to determine the magnitudes of the stopping forces from the impulses.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

View

Answer Requested

The more momentum an object has, the more impulse is needed to stop it. However,

this impulse can be provided via a large force acting over a short time interval or a

relatively small force acting over a relatively long time interval. If you are driving down

the highway at 55 , you can stop your car by either lightly pressing on the brakes

and traveling a long time before stopping, or pressing more firmly on the brakes and

stopping more quickly. In both cases, your braking system has applied the same

amount of impulse to your car.

Rocket Car

A rocket car is developed to break the land speed record along a salt flat in Utah. However,

the safety of the driver must be considered, so the acceleration of the car must not exceed

(or five times the acceleration of gravity) during the test. Using the latest materials and

technology, the total mass of the car (including the fuel) is 6000 kilograms, and the mass of

the fuel is one-third of the total mass of the car (i.e., 2000 killograms). The car is moved to

the starting line (and left at rest), at which time the rocket is ignited. The rocket fuel is

expelled at a constant speed of 900 meters per second relative to the car, and is burned at

a constant rate until used up, which takes only 15 seconds. Ignore all effects of friction in

this problem.

Part A

Find the acceleration of the car just after the rocket is ignited.

the exhaust speed. To use this equation, first find an expression for the rate of mass loss

of the car.

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER: 20

= Answer

Requested

The driver of this car is experiencing just over , or two times the acceleration one

normally feels due to gravity, at the start of the trip. This is not much different from the

acceleration typically experienced by thrill seekers on a roller coaster, so the driver is

in no danger on this score.

Part B

Find the final acceleration of the car as the rocket is just about to use up its fuel

supply.

What has changed from the time of the initial ignition of the rocket to the moment when

the fuel is used up?

the total mass of the car (including the fuel)

the rate of mass change of the car

Correct

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: 30

= Answer

Requested

The driver of this car is experiencing just over , or three times the acceleration one

normally feels due to gravity, by the end of the trip. This is the maximum acceleration

achieved during the trip, and it is still very safe for the driver, who can easily

withstand over with training.

Part C

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find the final velocity of the car just as the rocket is about to use up its fuel supply.

Write an expression for the change in speed of the car from start to finish: .

You will need to make use of the differential equation for rocket motion

,

Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of the exhaust speed , the initial mass of

the car (plus fuel) , and the final mass of the car .

ANSWER: 360

= Answer

Requested

At the end of the trip, the driver is going a bit over Mach 1, or one times the speed of

sound. This problem was based loosely on the breaking of the sound barrier by the

ThrustSSC team in October 1997.

A mortar fires a shell of mass at speed . The shell explodes at the top of its trajectory

(shown by a star in the figure) as designed. However, rather than creating a shower of

colored flares, it breaks into just two pieces, a smaller piece of mass and a larger piece

of mass . Both pieces land at exactly the same time. The smaller piece lands perilously

close to the mortar (at a distance of zero from the mortar). The larger piece lands a distance

from the mortar. If there had been no explosion, the shell would have landed a distance

from the mortar. Assume that air resistance and the mass of the shell's explosive charge are

negligible.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part A

Find the distance from the mortar at which the larger piece of the shell lands.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Express in terms of .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Jeanette is playing in a 9-ball pool tournament. She will win if she sinks the 9-ball from the

final rack, so she needs to line up her shot precisely. Both the cue ball and the 9-ball have

mass , and the cue ball is hit at an initial speed of . Jeanette carefully hits the cue ball

into the 9-ball off center, so that when the balls collide, they move away from each other at

the same angle from the direction in which the cue ball was originally traveling (see

figure). Furthermore, after the collision, the cue ball moves away at speed , while the 9-

ball moves at speed .

For the purposes of this problem,

assume that the collision is perfectly

elastic, neglect friction, and ignore

the spinning of the balls.

Part A

Find the angle that the 9-ball travels away from the horizontal, as shown in the figure.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

= 45.0

Correct

Note that the angle between the final velocities of the two balls is . It turns

out that in any elastic collision between two objects of equal mass, one of which is

initially at rest, the angle between the final velocities of the two objects will be ninety

degrees.

Two particles move perpendicular to each other until they collide. Particle 1 has mass

and momentum of magnitude ,

and particle 2 has mass and

momentum of magnitude . Note:

Magnitudes are not drawn to scale

in any of the figures.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Suppose that after the collision, the particles "trade" their momenta, as shown in the

figure. That is, particle 1 now has magnitude of momentum , and particle 2 has

magnitude of momentum ; furthermore, each particle is now moving in the direction in

which the other had been moving. How much kinetic energy, , is lost in the collision?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

Consider an alternative situation: This time the particles collide completely inelastically.

How much kinetic energy is lost in this case?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Consider the following two-car accident: Two cars of equal mass collide at an

intersection. Driver E was traveling eastward, and driver N, northward. After the collision, the

two cars remain joined together and slide, with locked wheels, before coming to rest. Police

on the scene measure the length of the skid marks to be 9 meters. The coefficient of

friction between the locked wheels and the road is equal to 0.9.

Each driver claims that his speed was less than 14 meters per second (50 mph). A third

driver, who was traveling closely behind driver E prior to the collision, supports driver E's

claim by asserting that driver E's speed could not have been greater than 12 meters per

second. Take the following steps to decide whether driver N's statement is consistent with

the third driver's contention.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Let the speeds of drivers E and N prior to the collision be denoted by and ,

respectively. Find , the square of the speed of the two-car system the instant after the

collision.

In general, you can find either by using conservation of energy or by finding the

individual components of the velocity using conservation of momentum, depending on

which quantity is conserved. What is conserved in this collision?

momentum only

both energy and momentum

Correct

Note: Conservation of momentum yields two equations, one for each component of

the velocity. Furthermore, the condition that the two velocities after the collision are

equal yields two constraints (one for each component). So you have four equations

in four variables. However these latter constraints are trivial, so practically speaking

you only have to write the conservation of momentum equations.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Answer

Requested

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the kinetic energy of the two-car system immediately after the collision?

The kinetic energy of an object of mass and speed is given by the formula

.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Answer

Requested

Part C

Write an expression for the work done on the cars by friction.

For a constant applied linear force , the work required to move an object through a

between the direction of the force and the direction of the displacement.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity , the coefficient of sliding

friction , and the distance through which the two-car system slides

before coming to rest.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

= Answer

Requested

Part D

Using the information given in the problem introduction and assuming that the third driver

is telling the truth, determine whether driver N has reported his speed correctly.

Specifically, if driver E had been traveling with a speed of exactly 12 meters per second

before the collision, what must driver N's speed have been before the collision?

Use the work-energy theorem, , to relate the kinetic energy of the

two-car system immediately after the collision (now for this part of the motion), to

the nonconservative work done by friction in bringing the two cars finally to rest.

Hint not displayed

integer. Take , the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity, to be 9.81

meters per second per second.

ANSWER: 22

= Answer m/s

Requested

If you believe the report by the third driver that the speed of driver E's car was less

than or equal to 12 meters per second, then driver N's speed just obtained is the

minimum speed that driver N could have had before the collision. So, even if you do

not know that driver E's car was traveling at exactly 12 meters per second before the

collision, it is still evident that the driver of car N was not reporting his speed

accurately. Also, we have assumed that neither driver brakes before or during the

collision. Including this factor makes the analysis somewhat more involved in real

situations.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Two balls, A and B, with masses and are connected by a taut, massless string, and

are moving along a horizontal frictionless plane. The distance between the centers of the

two balls is . At a certain instant, the velocity of ball B has magnitude and is directed

perpendicular to the string and parallel to the horizontal plane, and the velocity of ball A is

zero.

Part A

Find , the tension in the string.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Note that your answer is "symmetric" between the parameters and . This is as

it should be: The tension should be the same regardless of whether or initially

moves. Only their relative velocity matters.

On a frictionless horizontal air table, puck A (with mass 0.255 ) is moving toward puck B

(with mass 0.371 ), which is initially at rest. After the collision, puck A has velocity 0.124

to the left, and puck B has velocity 0.648 to the right.

Part A

What was the speed of puck A before the collision?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 0.819

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part B

Calculate , the change in the total kinetic energy of the system that occurs during the

collision.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= −5.62×10−3

Correct

Part A

The figures below show bird's-eye views of six automobile crashes an instant before they

occur. The automobiles have different masses and incoming velocities as shown. After

impact, the automobiles remain joined together and skid to rest in the direction shown by

. Rank these crashes according to the angle , measured counterclockwise as

shown, at which the wreckage initially skids.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

View

All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

Learning Goal: To learn the definition and applications of angular momentum including

its relationship to torque.

By now, you should be familiar with the concept of momentum, defined as the product of an

object's mass and its velocity:

.

You may have noticed that nearly every translational concept or equation seems to have an

analogous rotational one. So, what might be the rotational analogue of momentum?

Just as the rotational analogue of force , called the torque , is defined by the formula

the rotational analogue of momentum , called the angular momentum , is given by the

formula

,

for a single particle. For an extended body you must add up the angular momenta of all of

the pieces.

There is another formula for angular momentum that makes the analogy to momentum

particularly clear. For a rigid body rotating about an axis of symmetry, which will be true for

all parts in this problem, the measure of inertia is given not by the mass but by the

rotational inertia (i.e., the moment of inertia) . Similarly, the rate of rotation is given by the

body's angular speed, . The product gives the angular momentum of a rigid body

rotating about an axis of symmetry. (Note that if the body is not rotating about an axis of

symmetry, then the angular momentum and the angular velocity may not be parallel.)

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

An object has rotational inertia . The object, initially at rest, begins to rotate with a

constant angular acceleration of magnitude . What is the magnitude of the angular

momentum of the object after time ?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

A rigid, uniform bar with mass and length rotates about the axis passing through the

midpoint of the bar perpendicular to the bar. The linear speed of the end points of the bar

is . What is the magnitude of the angular momentum of the bar?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

=

Correct

You may recall that, according to Newton's 2nd law, the rate of change of momentum of

an object equals the net force acting on the object:

.

Similarly, the rate of change of angular momentum of an object equals the net torque

acting on the object:

Therefore, if the net torque acting on an object (or a system of objects) is zero (i.e., the

system is "closed"), then the rate of change of angular momentum is also zero. In other

words, the net angular momentum of a closed system is constant (conserved).

This statement is known as the law of conservation of angular momentum. Just like the

laws of conservation of energy and momentum, the law of conservation of angular

momentum plays a major role in mechanics.

Part D

The uniform bar shown in the diagram has a length of 0.80 m. The bar begins to rotate

from rest in the horizontal plane about the axis passing through its left end. What will be

the magnitude of the angular momentum of the bar 6.0 s after the motion has begun?

The forces acting on the bar are shown.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 4.8

Correct

Part E

Each of the four bars shown can rotate freely in the horizontal plane about its left end. For

which diagrams is the net torque equal to zero?

Type in alphabetical order

the letters corresponding to

the correct diagrams. For

instance, if you think that

only diagrams A, B, and C

answer the question, type

ABC.

ANSWER: BC

Correct

If the sum of the forces on a body is zero, then the net torque is independent of the

point about which the torque is calculated. If the net force on the body is not zero, as

is true for most of the beams in this part, then the torque will depend on the point

about which you calculate the torque.

Part F

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Consider the figures for Part E. For which diagrams is the angular momentum constant?

Hint not displayed

instance, if you think that only diagrams A, B, and C answer the question,

type ABC.

ANSWER: BC

Correct

Angular momentum is conserved when the net torque is zero. This is analogous to

the statement from linear dynamics that momentum is conserved when the net force

is zero.

Part G

Each of the disks in the figure has radius . Each disk can rotate freely about the axis

passing through the center of the disk perpendicular to the plane of the figure, as shown.

For which diagrams is the angular momentum constant? In your calculations, use the

information provided in the diagrams.

Type alphabetically the

letters corresponding to the

correct diagrams. For

instance, if you think that

only diagrams A, B, and C

answer the question, type ABC.

ANSWER: AD

Correct

Part H

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Three disks are spinning independently on the same axle without friction. Their respective

rotational inertias and angular speeds are (clockwise); (counterclockwise); and

(clockwise). The disks then slide together and stick together, forming one piece

with a single angular velocity. What will be the direction and the rate of rotation of the

single piece?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of one or both of the variables and and

appropriate constants. Use a minus sign for clockwise rotation.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

A Toy Gyroscope

The rotor (flywheel) of a toy gyroscope has mass 0.140 kilograms. Its moment of inertia

about its axis is kilogram meters squared. The mass of the frame is 0.0250

kilograms. The gyroscope is supported on a single pivot with its center of mass a horizontal

distance 4.00 centimeters from the

pivot. The gyroscope is precessing

in a horizontal plane at the rate of

one revolution in 2.20 seconds.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part A

Find the upward force exerted by the pivot.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 1.617

Correct

Part B

Find the angular speed at which the rotor is spinning about its axis, expressed in

revolutions per minute.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

= 1802

Correct

A merry-go-round of radius , shown in the figure, is rotating at constant angular speed.

The friction in its bearings is so small that it can be ignored. A sandbag of mass is

dropped onto the merry-go-round, at a position designated by . The sandbag does not slip

or roll upon contact with the merry-go-round.

Part A

Rank the following different combinations of and on the basis of the angular speed of

the merry-go-round after the sandbag "sticks" to the merry-go-round.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

View

Correct

A hockey stick of mass and

length is at rest on the ice (which

is assumed to be frictionless). A

puck with mass hits the stick a

distance from the middle of the

stick. Before the collision, the puck

was moving with speed in a

direction perpendicular to the stick,

as indicated in the figure. The

collision is completely inelastic, and

the puck remains attached to the

stick after the collision.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find the speed of the center of mass of the stick+puck combination after the collision.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

After the collision, the stick and puck will rotate about their combined center of mass. How

far is this center of mass from the point at which the puck struck? In the figure, this

distance is .

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Note that if , the previous expression approaches D; that is, for a very

massive stick, the center of mass of the combination is at the center of the stick.

Part C

What is the angular momentum of the system before the collision, with respect to the

center of mass of the final system?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

This is why, in the previous part, we were interested in the distance from the center of

mass to the point of impact.

Part D

What is the angular velocity of the stick+puck combination after the collision? Assume

that the stick is uniform and has a moment of inertia about its center.

Hint not displayed

and velocity

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part E

Which of the following statements are TRUE?

2) Linear momentum is conserved.

3) Angular momentum of the stick+puck is conserved about the center of mass of the

combined system.

4) Angular momentum of the stick+puck is conserved about the (stationary) point where

the collision occurs.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: 1 only

2 only

3 only

4 only

1&2

1&4

2&4

12&3

23&4

Correct

Note that there are no external torques on the system, so angular momentum is

conserved about all points. However, typically we consider conservation of about

the center of mass of the whole system because it is useful to talk about the future

motion as the linear motion of the center of mass (of the new system)+ rotation about

the center of mass (of the new system).

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A gyroscope consists of a flywheel of mass , which has a moment of inertia for rotation

about its axis. It is mounted on a rod of negligible mass, which is supported at one end by a

frictionless pivot attached to a vertical post, as shown in the diagram. The distance between

the center of the wheel and the pivot is . The wheel rotates about its axis with angular

velocity , where positive refers to counterclockwise rotation as seen by an observer

looking at the face of the wheel that is opposite the pivot. The rod is tilted upward, making

an angle with respect to the horizontal. Gravity acts downward with a force of magnitude

.

Adopt a coordinate system with the z axis pointing upward and the x and y axes in the

horizontal plane. The gyroscope is moving, but at , the rod is in the yz plane.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Assuming that the only significant contribution to the angular momentum comes from the

spinning of the flywheel about its center, what is the angular momentum vector about

the pivot at ?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

, , =

Correct

Part B

At , what is the torque acting on the wheel about the pivot?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

commas.

ANSWER:

, , =

Correct

Part C

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

The gyroscope is observed to precess about the vertical axis, with an angular velocity of

precession , defined as positive for counterclockwise precession as seen from above.

Find in terms of the given quantities.

Hint not displayed

Hint C.2

A relation between and

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Thus the rate of precession is independent of ! The reason for this is that varying

changes both and the torque due to gravity by the same factor, .

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