# MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Problem 6.60

Two blocks are connected by a very light string passing over a massless and frictionless pulley (Figure ). The 20.0- block moves 75.0 to the right and the 12.0- block moves downward. 75.0

Part A Find the total work done on 20.020.0block. = 5.62 Correct block if there is no friction between the table and the

ANSWER:

Part B Find the total work done on 12.020.0block. = 3.38 Correct block if there is no friction between the table and the

ANSWER:

Part C

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Find the total work done on 20.0and the 20.0ANSWER: block. = 2.58 Correct

block if

=0.500 and

=0.325 between the table

Part D Find the total work done on 12.0and the 20.0ANSWER: block. = 1.54 Correct block if and between the table

**Problem 6.78: Pushing a Cat
**

Your cat "Ms." (mass 7.00 ) is trying to make it to the top of a frictionless ramp 2.00 long and inclined upward at 30.0 above the horizontal. Since the poor cat can't get any traction on the ramp, you push her up the entire length of the ramp by exerting a constant 100 force parallel to the ramp. Part A at the bottom of the ramp, If Ms. takes a running start so that she is moving at 2.40 what is her speed when she reaches the top of the incline? Use the work-energy theorem. ANSWER: = 6.58 Correct

Problem 6.94

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Six diesel units in series can provide 13.4 The diesel units have total mass and requires a horizontal pull of 2.8 tracks. Part A

of power to the lead car of a freight train. . The average car in the train has mass to move at a constant 27 on level

How many cars can be in the train under these conditions? ANSWER: = 177 Correct

Part B This would leave no power for accelerating or climbing hills. Show that the extra force needed to accelerate the train is about the same for a 0.10 acceleration or a 1.0% slope (slope angle ANSWER: =arctan 0.010).

My Answer:

Part C With the 1.0% slope, show that an extra 2.9 27 speed of the diesel units. My Answer: of power is needed to maintain the

ANSWER:

Part D With 2.9 less power available, how many cars can the six diesel units pull up a 1.0% ?

slope at a constant 27

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

= 36 Correct

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Exercise 6.6

Two tugboats pull a disabled supertanker. Each tug exerts a constant force of 1.4×106 one an angle 17 west of north and the other an angle 17 east of north, as they pull the tanker a distance 0.90 Part A What is the total work they do on the supertanker?

Express your answer using two significant figures.

,

toward the north.

ANSWER:

2.4×109 = Answer Requested

Exercise 6.31

A child applies a force parallel to the -axis to a 5.00sled moving on the frozen surface of a small pond. As the child controls the speed of the sled, the -component of the force she applies varies with the -coordinate of the sled as shown in figure . Suppose the sled is initially at rest at =0. You can ignore friction between the sled and the surface of the pond.

Part A

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Use the work-energy theorem to find the speed of the sled at 2.0 ANSWER: 1.00 = Answer Requested

.

Part B Use the work-energy theorem to find the speed of the sled at 10.0 ANSWER: 4.69 = All attempts used; correct answer displayed .

Exercise 6.41

A small glider is placed against a compressed spring at the bottom of an air track that slopes upward at an angle of 39.0 above the horizontal. The glider has mass 9.00×10−2 . The and negligible mass. When the spring is released, the glider travels a maximum distance of 1.60 along the air track before sliding back down. Before reaching this maximum distance, the glider loses contact with the spring. Part A What distance was the spring originally compressed? ANSWER: = 5.23×10−2 Correct spring has 650

Part B When the glider has traveled along the air track 0.600 from its initial position against the compressed spring, is it still in contact with the spring? ANSWER: Yes No

Correct

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Part C What is the kinetic energy of the glider at this point? ANSWER: = 0.555 Correct

Problem 6.80

A physics professor is pushed up a ramp inclined upward at an angle 28.0 above the horizontal as he sits in his desk chair that slides on frictionless rollers. The combined mass . He is pushed a distance 2.85 along the incline by a of the professor and chair is 81.0 group of students who together exert a constant horizontal force of 597 speed at the bottom of the ramp is 2.15 Part A Use the work-energy theorem to find his speed at the top of the ramp. ANSWER: = 3.94 Correct . . The professor's

Problem 6.85

On an essentially frictionless, horizontal ice rink, a skater moving at 5.0 rough patch that reduces her speed by 48 weight. Part A Use the work-energy theorem to find the length of this rough patch.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

encounters a of her

due to a friction force that is 23

ANSWER:

4.0 = All attempts used; correct answer displayed

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Exercise 7.36

An object moving in the potential-energy function Part A Derive an expression for the force expressed in terms of the unit vectors and . -plane is acted on by a conservative force described by the , where is a positive constant.

Express your answer in terms of the given quantities.

ANSWER: =

Correct

Problem 7.68

A variable force is maintained tangent to a frictionless, semicircular surface . By slowly varying the force, a block with weight is moved, and the spring to which it is attached is stretched from position 1 to position 2. The spring has negligible mass and force constant . The end of the spring moves in an arc of radius .

Part A

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Calculate the work done by the force

.

, , , and .

Express your answer in terms of the variables

ANSWER: = All attempts used; correct answer displayed

**Test Your Understanding 7.5: Energy Diagrams
**

This graph shows the potential energy of a particle moving along the -axis.

Part A

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Rank the following points along the -axis in order of the -component of force on the particle at that point, from most positive to most negative.

ANSWER:

View All attempts used; correct answer displayed The -component of force is the negative derivative of the potential energy function:

Hence the -component of force is most positive at point A, where the potential energy function has the most negative (downward) slope. The -component of force is also positive at point E, but the curve there is less steep than at point A. At points , D, and , the curve is flat, so the -component of force is zero. At point the curve has a positive (upward) slope, so the -component of force at that point is negative. The curve has an even steeper positive slope at point G, so the component of force is even more negative there.

Exercise 7.19

A spring of negligible mass has force constant Part A How far must the spring be compressed for an amount 3.30 stored in it?

Express your answer using two significant figures.

= 1600

.

of potential energy to be

ANSWER:

6.4×10−2 m Correct

Part B

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You place the spring vertically with one end on the floor. You then drop a book of mass 1.30 onto it from a height of 0.900 above the top of the spring. Find the maximum distance the spring will be compressed.

Take the free fall acceleration to be 9.80 two significant figures. . Express your answer using

ANSWER:

0.13 m Correct

**Problem 7.51: Bungee Jump
**

A bungee cord is 30.0 long and, when stretched a distance , it exerts a restoring force of magnitude . Your father-in-law (mass 90.0 ) stands on a platform 45.0 above the ground, and one end of the cord is tied securely to his ankle and the other end to the platform. You have promised him that when he steps off the platform he will fall a maximum distance of only 41.0 before the cord stops him. You had several bungee cords to select from, and you tested them by stretching them out, tying one end to a tree, and pulling on the other end with a force of 420 . Part A When you do this, what distance will the bungee cord that you should select have stretched? ANSWER: = 0.703 Correct

Problem 7.54

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You are designing a delivery ramp for crates containing exercise equipment. The crates of weight 1520 will move with speed 2.2 at the top of a ramp that slopes downward at an angle 22.0 . The ramp will exert a 569 force of kinetic friction on each crate, and the maximum force of static friction also has this value. At the bottom of the ramp, each crate will come to rest after compressing a spring a distance . Each crate will move a total along the ramp; this distance includes . Once stopped, a crate must not distance of 7.7 rebound back up the ramp. Part A Calculate the maximum force constant of the spring meet the design criteria. ANSWER: 1710 = Answer Requested that can be used in order to

Problem 7.73

A wooden block with mass 1.80 block up the incline. At point is placed against a compressed spring at the bottom of ). When the spring is released, it projects the up the incline from , the block is a slope inclined at an angle of 26.0 (point

, a distance of 7.25

and is no longer in contact with the spring. moving up the incline at a speed of 7.50 = 0.50. The mass of the The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and incline is spring is negligible. Part A Calculate the amount of potential energy that was initially stored in the spring.

Take free fall acceleration to be 9.80 .

ANSWER:

= 164 Correct

Problem 9.80

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A uniform, solid disk with mass and radius is pivoted about a horizontal axis through is glued to the rim of the disk. its center. A small object of the same mass Part A If the disk is released from rest with the small object at the end of a horizontal radius, find the angular speed when the small object is directly below the axis.

Express your answer in terms of the variables constants. , , and appropriate

ANSWER: =

Correct

Problem 9.84

Exactly one turn of a flexible rope with mass is wrapped around a uniform cylinder with and radius . The cylinder rotates without friction about a horizontal axle along mass the cylinder axis. One end of the rope is attached to the cylinder. The cylinder starts with . After one revolution of the cylinder the rope has unwrapped and, at this angular speed instant, hangs vertically down, tangent to the cylinder. Part A Find the angular speed of the cylinder at this time. You can ignore the thickness of the rope. (Hint: Use Equation .)

Express your answer in terms of the variables m, M, R, and appropriate constants.

ANSWER: =

Correct

Part B

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**Find the linear speed of the lower end of the rope at this time.
**

Express your answer in terms of the variables m, M, R, and appropriate constants.

ANSWER: = Answer Requested

Problem 9.86

The pulley in the figure has radius 0.160 does not slip on the pulley rim. and a moment of inertia 0.480 . The rope

Part A Use energy methods to calculate the speed of the 4.00-kg block just before it strikes the floor. ANSWER: = 2.81 Correct

Problem 9.87

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You hang a thin hoop with radius

over a nail at the rim of the hoop. You displace it to the from its equilibrium position and let it

side (within the plane of the hoop) through an angle go. Part A

**What is its angular speed when it returns to its equilibrium position? (Hint: Use Equation .)
**

Express your answer in terms of the variables constants. , , and appropriate

ANSWER: =

Correct

**Problem 9.98: Neutron Stars and Supernova Remnants
**

The Crab Nebula is a cloud of glowing gas about 10 light-years across, located about 6500 light years from the earth (the figure ). It is the remnant of a star that underwent a supernova explosion, seen on earth in 1054 a. d. Energy is released by the Crab Nebula at a rate of about , about times the rate at which the sun radiates energy. The Crab Nebula obtains its energy from the rotational kinetic energy of a rapidly spinning neutron star at its center. This object rotates once every 0.0331 , and this period is increasing by for each second of time that elapses.

Part A

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If the rate at which energy is lost by the neutron star is equal to the rate at which energy is released by the nebula, find the moment of inertia of the neutron star.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

= 1.1×1038 Correct

Part B Theories of supernovae predict that the neutron star in the Crab Nebula has a mass about 1.4 times that of the sun. Modeling the neutron star as a solid uniform sphere, calculate its radius in kilometers.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

= 9.9 Correct

**Part C What is the linear speed of a point on the equator of the neutron star?
**

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

= 1.9×106 Correct

**Part D Compare to the speed of light.
**

Express your answer in terms of .Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER: =

Correct

Part E

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**Assume that the neutron star is uniform and calculate its density.
**

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

= 6.9×1017 Correct

Exercise 9.48

We wrap a light, flexible cable around a thin-walled, hollow cylinder with mass and radius . The cylinder is attached to the axle by spokes of a negligible moment of inertia. The cylinder rotates with negligible friction about a stationary horizontal axis. We tie the free and release the object with no initial velocity at a end of the cable to a block of mass distance above the floor. As the block falls, the cable unwinds without stretching or slipping, turning the cylinder. Part A Find the speed of the hanging mass just as it strikes the floor.

Give your answer in terms of given quantities.

ANSWER: =

Correct

Part B Use energy concepts to explain why the answer to part A is different from the speed found in case of solid cylinder,which is .

ANSWER:

My Answer:

Exercise 9.44

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You need to design an industrial turntable that is 51.0 in diameter and has a kinetic energy of 0.230 when turning at 40.0 ( ). Part A What must be the moment of inertia of the turntable about the rotation axis? ANSWER: = 2.63×10−2 Correct

Part B If your workshop makes this turntable in the shape of a uniform solid disk, what must be its mass? ANSWER: = 0.808 Correct

Exercise 9.42

An airplane propeller is 1.93 at 2300 ( slender rod. Part A What is its rotational kinetic energy? ANSWER: = 1.17×106 Correct in length (from tip to tip) with mass 130 and is rotating ) about an axis through its center. You can model the propeller as a

Part B

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Suppose that, due to weight constraints, you had to reduce the propeller's mass to 75.0 of its original mass, but you still needed to keep the same size and kinetic energy. What would its angular speed have to be, in ? ANSWER: = 2650 Correct

Exercise 9.45

The flywheel of a gasoline engine is required to give up 750 angular velocity decreases from 880 Part A What moment of inertia is required? ANSWER: = 0.226 Correct to 410 of kinetic energy while its .

Exercise 9.49

A frictionless pulley has the shape of a uniform solid disk of mass 2.50 and radius 10 . A 1.10 stone is attached to a very light wire that is wrapped around the rim of the pulley (the figure ), and the system is released from rest.

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Part A How far must the stone fall so that the pulley has 3.30 ANSWER: = 0.576 Correct of kinetic energy?

Part B What percent of the total kinetic energy does the pulley have? . ANSWER: = 53.2 Correct

Problem 9.70

Engineers are designing a system by which a falling mass imparts kinetic energy to a rotating uniform drum to which it is attached by thin, very light wire wrapped around the rim of the drum (the figure ). There is no appreciable friction in the axle of the drum, and everything starts from rest. This system is being tested on earth, but it is to be used on Mars, where the acceleration due to gravity is 3.71 . In the earth tests, when set to 13.0 and allowed to fall of is

through 5.50 , it gives 150.0 kinetic energy to the drum.

Part A

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If the system is operated on Mars, through what distance would the 13.0fall to give the same amount of kinetic energy to the drum? ANSWER: = 14.5 Correct

mass have to

Part B How fast would the 13.0kinetic energy? ANSWER: mass be moving on Mars just as the drum gained 150.0 of

= 9.20 Correct

Problem 9.83

A stick with a mass of 0.170 and a length of 1.00 is pivoted about one end so it can rotate without friction about a horizontal axis. The meter stick is held in a horizontal position and released. Part A As it swings through the vertical, calculatethe change in gravitational potential energy that has occurred. ANSWER: = -0.834 Correct

Part B As it swings through the vertical, calculate the angular speed of the stick. ANSWER: = 5.42 Correct

Part C

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As it swings through the vertical, calculate the linear speed of the end of the stick opposite the axis. ANSWER: = 5.42 Correct

Part D Find the ratio of the speed of a particle that has fallen a distance of 1.00 rest, to the speed from part (C). ANSWER: 0.816 Answer Requested , starting from

Exercise 10.24

A uniform marble rolls down a symmetric bowl, starting from rest at the top of the left side. The top of each side is a distance above the bottom of the bowl. The left half of the bowl is rough enough to cause the marble to roll without slipping, but the right half has no friction because it is coated with oil. Part A How far up the smooth side will the marble go, measured vertically from the bottom?

Express your answer in terms of .

ANSWER: =

Correct

**Part B How high would the marble go if both sides were as rough as the left side?
**

Express your answer in terms of .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

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Problem 10.56

A uniform hollow disk has two pieces of thin light wire wrapped around its outer rim and is supported from the ceiling (the figure ). Suddenly one of the wires breaks, and the remaining wire does not slip as the disk rolls down.

Part A Use energy conservation to find the speed of the center of this disk after it has fallen a distance of 1.20 . ANSWER: = 3.74 Correct

**Problem 10.75: Rolling Stones
**

A solid, uniform spherical boulder starts from rest and rolls down a 50.0-m high hill, as shown in the figure . The top half of the hill is rough enough to cause the boulder to roll

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without slipping, but the lower half is covered with ice and there is no friction.

Part A What is the translational speed of the boulder when it reaches the bottom of the hill? ANSWER: = 29.0 Correct

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