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Problem 14.70

A vertical cylindrical tank of cross-sectional area water to a depth Part A Derive an equation for the depth poked. of the water as a function of time

, ,

is open to the air at the top and contains in the bottom of the tank.

. A worker accidentally pokes a hole of area

after the hole is

Express your answer in terms of the variables constants.

and appropriate

ANSWER: =

Correct

Part B How long after the hole is made does it take for the tank to empty out?

Express your answer in terms of the variables constants. , , and appropriate

ANSWER: =

Correct

Exercise 14.7

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A hollow cylindrical copper pipe is 1.50 . an inside diameter of 2.20 Part A How much does it weigh? ANSWER: = 98.6 Correct

long and has an outside diameter of 3.80

and

Exercise 14.14

You are designing a diving bell to withstand the pressure of seawater at a depth of 250 Part A What is the gauge pressure at this depth? (You can ignore changes in the density of the water with depth.) ANSWER: = 2.53×106 Correct .

Part B At this depth, what is the net force due to the water outside and the air inside the bell on a circular glass window 31.0 in diameter if the pressure inside the diving bell equals the pressure at the surface of the water? (You can ignore the small variation of pressure over the surface of the window.) ANSWER: = 1.91×105 Correct

Exercise 14.28

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You are preparing some apparatus for a visit to a newly discovered planet Caasi having oceans of glycerine and a surface acceleration due to gravity of 4.15 Part A If your apparatus floats in the oceans on earth with 21.0 of its volume submerged, what percentage will be submerged in the glycerine oceans of Caasi? ANSWER: = 17.2 Correct .

**Exercise 14.43: Lift on an Airplane
**

Air streams horizontally past a small airplane's wings such that the speed is 68.5 the top surface and 60.0 Part A If the plane has mass 1360 and a wing area of 16.3 , what is the direction of the net past the bottom surface. over

vertical force (including the effects of gravity) on the airplane? The density of the air is . ANSWER:

upward downward

Correct

Part B What is the magnitude of the net vertical force on the airplane? ANSWER: 2650 = All attempts used; correct answer displayed

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Problem 17.90

A steel rod 0.350 long and an aluminum rod 0.250 long, both with the same diameter, are placed end to end between rigid supports with no initial stress in the rods. The . temperature of the rods is now raised by 60.0 Part A What is the stress in each rod? (Hint: The length of the combined rod remains the same, but the lengths of the individual rods do not. If the length is permitted to change by an when its temperature changes by the stress is equal to amount .)

Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.

ANSWER:

−1.15×108,−1.15×108 = All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Exercise 17.63

A vessel whose walls are thermally insulated contains 2.10 of water and 0.400 of ice, . The outlet of a tube leading from a boiler in which water is all at a temperature of 0.0 boiling at atmospheric pressure is inserted into the water. Part A How many grams of steam must condense inside the vessel (also at atmospheric pressure) to raise the temperature of the system to 21.0 ? You can ignore the heat transferred to the container. ANSWER: = 137 Correct

Problem 17.83

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You are making pesto for your pasta and have a cylindrical measuring cup 12.0 made of ordinary glass to a height of 1.10 that is filled with olive oil

high

below the top of the cup. Initially, the cup

). You get a phone call and forget about the olive and oil are at room temperature (22.0 oil, which you inadvertently leave on the hot stove. The cup and oil heat up slowly and have a common temperature. Part A At what temperature will the olive oil start to spill out of the cup? ANSWER: 36.2 = Answer Requested

Problem 17.101

For your cabin in the wilderness, you decide to build a primitive refrigerator out of Styrofoam, planning to keep the interior cool with a block of ice that has an initial mass of 22.0 . The box has dimensions of 0.550 . Part A If the top of the empty box is never opened and you want the interior of the box to remain for exactly one week, until all the ice melts, what must be the thickness of the at 7.00 Styrofoam? ANSWER: = 3.50 Correct 0.800 0.550 . Water from melting ice collects in the and the outside temperature is 25.0 bottom of the box. Suppose the ice block is at 0.00

Problem 17.107

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A worker pours 1.300

of molten lead at a temperature of 327.3

into 0.5050

of

water at a temperature of 75.00 Part A

in an insulated bucket of negligible mass.

Assuming no heat loss to the surroundings, calculate the mass of lead and water remaining in the bucket when the materials have reached thermal equilibrium.

Express your answer using four significant figures.

ANSWER:

= 1.797 Correct

Problem 17.115

A rustic cabin has a floor area of 4.00 made of wood (thermal conductivity 0.0600 insulated with 1.60 . Part A Calculate the thermal conductivity of the insulating material. Neglect the heat lost through the ceiling and floor. Assume the inner and outer surfaces of the wall have the same termperature as the air inside and outside the cabin. ANSWER: = 0.148 Correct found necessary to heat the room at a rate of 1.40 3.00 . Its walls, which are 2.50 1.90 tall, are , it is thick and are further

of a synthetic material. When the outside temperature is 2.00

to maintain its temperature at 19.0

Problem 17.117: A Thermos for Liquid Helium

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A physicist uses a cylindrical metal can 0.210 helium at 4.22

high and 0.090

in diameter to store liquid .

; at that temperature the heat of vaporization of helium is

Completely surrounding the metal can are walls maintained at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, 77.3 , with vacuum between the can and the surrounding walls. Part A How much helium is lost per hour? The emissivity of the metal can is 0.200. The only heat transfer between the metal can and the surrounding walls is by radiation. ANSWER: = 5.03 Correct

Problem 18.92

In the troposphere, the part of the atmosphere that extends from the surface to an altitude of about 11 , the temperature is not uniform but decreases with increasing elevation. Part A The temperature variation is approximated by the linear relation the temperature at the earth's surface and , calculate the pressure the pressure at the earth's surface ANSWER: = 0.315 Correct at height . . Take where is and

is the temperature at height . With

Exercise 18.7

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A Jaguar XK8 convertible has an eight-cylinder engine. At the beginning of its compression of air at atmospheric pressure ( ) stroke, one of the cylinders contains 499 and a temperature of 27.0 volume of 46.0 Part A Compute the final temperature. ANSWER: = 522 Correct . At the end of the stroke, the air has been compressed to a .

and the gauge pressure has increased to 2.80×106

Exercise 18.38

Part A Calculate the mean free path of air molecules at a pressure of 6.00×10−13 and a temperature of 293 . (This pressure is readily attainable in the laboratory.) Model the air molecules as spheres with a radius of 2.00×10−10 . ANSWER: = 9.36×104 Correct

Problem 18.55

A cylinder with a height of 1.45 propane gas (molar mass 44.1 and an inside diameter of 0.150 is used to hold ) for use in a barbecue. It is initially filled with gas until

and the temperature is 18.5 . The temperature of the gauge pressure reads 1.30×106 the gas remains constant as it is partially emptied out of the tank, until the gauge pressure . reads 3.60×105 Part A

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Calculate the mass of propane that has been used. ANSWER: = 0.438 Correct

Problem 18.59

An automobile tire has a volume of 1.40×10−2 air in the tire is 7.0 gauge pressure is measured to be 1.60 to 1.55×10−2 Part A What then is the gauge pressure? ANSWER: = 1.68 Correct . on a cold day when the temperature of the . Under these conditions the and the volume has risen

and atmospheric pressure is 1.02

. After the car is driven on the highway for 30

, the temperature of the air in the tires has risen to 47.0

Problem 18.63

A large tank of water has a hose connected to it, as shown in the figure . The tank is sealed at the top and has compressed air between the water surface and the top. When the water height has the value 3.50 , the absolute pressure of the compressed air is . Assume that the air above the water expands at constant temperature, and take the atmospheric pressure to be .

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Part A What is the speed with which water flows out of the hose when ANSWER: = 3.50 ?

= 26.2 Correct

Part B As water flows out of the tank, ANSWER: decreases. Calculate the speed of flow for = 3.10 .

17.5 = Answer Requested

Part C Calculate the speed of flow for ANSWER: =1.90 .

4.20 = Answer Requested

Part D At what value of ANSWER: does the flow stop? = 1.74 Correct

Exercise 19.26

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When a quantity of monatomic ideal gas expands at a constant pressure of the volume of the gas increases from Part A What is the change in the internal energy of the gas? ANSWER: = 360 Correct to .

,

**Problem 19.56: High-Altitude Research
**

A large research balloon containing temperature of 15.0 atmospheric pressure is only 0.900 ideal gas and the balloon's ascent is too rapid to permit much heat exchange with the surrounding air. of helium gas at 1.00 and a

rises rapidly from ground level to an altitude at which the (the figure ). Assume the helium behaves like an

Part A Calculate the volume of the gas at the higher altitude. ANSWER: = 2130 Correct

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Part B Calculate the temperature of the gas at the higher altitude. ANSWER: 3.07 = All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Part C What is the change in internal energy of the helium as the balloon rises to the higher altitude? ANSWER: = −1.25×107 Correct

Exercise 19.39

On a warm summer day, a large mass of air (atmospheric pressure by the ground to a temperature of 29.0 surrounding air. Part A Calculate the temperature of the air mass when it has risen to a level at which atmospheric . Assume that air is an ideal gas, with . (This rate of pressure is only 8.30×104 cooling for dry, rising air, corresponding to roughly 1 dry adiabatic lapse rate.) ANSWER: = 12.5 Correct per 100 of altitude, is called the ) is heated

and then begins to rise through the cooler

Problem 19.49

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Starting with 2.90

of

gas (assumed to be ideal) in a cylinder at 1.00

and 25.0

, a chemist first heats the gas at constant volume, adding

of heat, then

continues heating and allows the gas to expand at constant pressure to twice its original volume. Part A Calculate the final temperature of the gas. ANSWER: = 1100 Correct

Part B Calculate the amount of work done by the gas. ANSWER: = 1.33×104 Correct

Part C Calculate the amount of heat added to the gas while it was expanding. ANSWER: = 4.64×104 Correct

Part D Calculate the change in internal energy of the gas for the whole process. ANSWER: 4.83×104 = All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Problem 19.59

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An air pump has a cylinder 0.280

long with a movable piston. The pump is used to into a very large tank .)

compress air from the atmosphere (at absolute pressure at 4.00×105 Part A gauge pressure. (For air,

The piston begins the compression stroke at the open end of the cylinder. How far down the length of the cylinder has the piston moved when air first begins to flow from the cylinder into the tank? Assume that the compression is adiabatic. ANSWER: = 0.191 Correct

Part B If the air is taken into the pump at 30.0 ANSWER: = 206 Correct , what is the temperature of the compressed air?

Part C How much work does the pump do in order to compress 25.0 ANSWER: = 9.15×104 Correct of air into the tank?

Problem 19.57: Chinook

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During certain seasons strong winds called chinooks blow from the west across the eastern slopes of the Rockies and downhill into Denver and nearby areas. Although the mountains are cool, the wind in Denver is very hot; within a few minutes after the chinook wind arrives, ("chinook" is a Native American word meaning "snow the temperature can climb 20 eater"). Similar winds occur in the Alps (called foehns) and in southern California (called Santa Anas). Part A Explain why the temperature of the chinook wind rises as it descends the slopes. Why is it important that the wind be fast moving? ANSWER: My Answer:

Part B Suppose a strong wind is blowing toward Denver (elevation 1630 ) from Grays Peak (80 west of Denver, at an elevation of 4350 ), where the air pressure is 5.60×104 and the air temperature is -18.0 arrives are 2.0 and . The temperature and pressure in Denver before the wind . By how many Celsius degrees will the temperature

in Denver rise when the chinook arrives? ANSWER: = 8.58 Correct

Problem 20.51

A Carnot engine operates between two heat reservoirs at temperatures inventor proposes to increase the efficiency by running one engine between intermediate temperature and a second engine between expelled by the first engine. Part A and and . An and an

using as input the heat

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**Compute the efficiency of this composite system.
**

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and .

ANSWER: =

Correct

Part B Compare the efficiency of this composite system to that of the original engine. ANSWER: overall efficiency has been reduced overall efficiency has been increased overall efficiency hasn`t been changed

Correct

Exercise 20.20

An ideal Carnot engine operates between 515 cycle. Part A How much heat is delivered to the cold reservoir in each cycle? ANSWER: = 115 Correct and 90.0 with a heat input of 250 per

Part B What minimum number of cycles are necessary for the engine to lift a rock of mass 400 through a height of 110 ? ANSWER: 3200 cycles Correct

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Problem 20.52

A typical coal-fired power plant generates 1000 efficiency of 38%. Part A What is the rate of heat input to the plant? ANSWER: = 2630 Correct of usable power at an overall thermal

Part B The plant burns anthracite coal, which has a heat of combustion of much coal does the plant use per day, if it operates continuously? ANSWER: = 8.58×106 Correct . How

Part C At what rate is heat ejected into the cool reservoir, which is the nearby river? ANSWER: = 1630 Correct

Part D before it reaches the power plant and 18.5 after it has The river's temperature is 18.0 received the plant's waste heat. Calculate the river's flow rate, in cubic meters per second. ANSWER: = 779 Correct

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Part E By how much does the river's entropy increase each second? ANSWER: = 5.60×106 Correct

Problem 20.58

A 6.70×10−2water at 50.0 Part A Calculate the change in entropy of the system. ANSWER: 14.9 = All attempts used; correct answer displayed cube of ice at an initial temperature of -11.0 in an insulated container of negligible mass. is placed in 0.600 of

Problem 20.62

To heat 1 cup of water (250 ) to make coffee, you place an electric heating element in to 60 , the temperature of the

the cup. As the water temperature increases from 15 heating element remains at a constant 120 Part A .

Calculate the change in entropy of the water. (Assume that the specific heat of water is , and ignore the heat that flows into the ceramic coffee cup constant at 4190 itself.)

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

= 150 Correct

Part B

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**Calculate the change in entropy of the heating element. Treat the heating element as a heat reservoir.
**

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

= -120 Correct

**Part C What is the change in entropy of the system of water and heating element?
**

Express your answer using one significant figure.

ANSWER:

= 30 Correct

**Part D Is this process reversible or irreversible? ANSWER: reversible irreversible
**

Correct

Part E Explain. ANSWER: My Answer:

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