A Seminar Report On

SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS

Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering
SUBMITTED BY:

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING

PAGE INDEX

SN

Topic

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE 1.2 MOBILE DATABASE 1.3 MOBILE SECURITY 1.4 DATABASE SECURITY 1.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE

2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast

3. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY 3.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS 3.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTION

4. CONCLUSION

5. REFERENCES

1. INTRODUCTION
The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.
1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.
1.2 MOBILE DATABASE

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. mobile Apple-related products and applications. information security. only recently modified data. Although viruses are a key concern. Users don't require access to truly live data. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. 1. bar code scanners. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. processes. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). 1. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. Applications must provide significant interactivity. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. 1. . With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them.An example of this is a mobile workforce.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. With the advent of mobile databases. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. such as printers. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. including: becoming increasingly smaller. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. Database security is more critical networks have become more open.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system.

things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices.) Base stations are two-way radios. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. If your application meets any of those requirements. mobile units. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. and base stations. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. installations in fixed locations. of Lake Worth. mobile-database field. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. Calif. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments.. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. Fla.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. or wireless routers. portable phones. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. portable Redwood Shores. .

Windows CE smart phones.system (RDMS). session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. manages data on a handheld device.DB2e stores.mechanism. zero. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. Neutrino.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. retrieves. .server-based relational database management management system designed for small. EPOC. organizes and administration environments. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications.

and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. Windows CE. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic.1 scalability. and delivers the performance. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. focusing only on application specific problems. C++. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. It includes support for Win32. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments.1. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. Table encryption for version 8. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . Delphi. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. mobile. programming APIs. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. and EPOC database clients.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). and Web server applications. and so on). 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. PalmOS. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server.

and wired and wireless systems (PCS.  Some node can process information.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems. Cellular system.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability. and GSM) .2.

. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. HLR: Home Location Register. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH).2. since every person. VLR: Visitor Location Register. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. MS: Mobile Station. and in any form.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. AC: Access Chanel. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. could be equipped. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. From 1974 to 1978. etc. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. BS: Base Station. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. every organization.

With TDMA.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. Thus. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). except that no large scale trial was conducted. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS.95 Kbps. In the call setup procedure. For a user. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. Cellular (ADC). every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . Cordless Telephone. and has been available since 1989. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. IS-136. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. In a GSM base station. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate.25 MHz. American Digital supported. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). In AMPS.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. and has been operating in USA since 1996. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. the successor to IS-54. Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. that is.reuse scheme. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. there are about 50 channels per cell. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1.

or 150 hours of standby time. . DECT also supports seamless handoff. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. similar to cellular systems. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. and outdoor environment. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. a private standardization organization in Japan. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. offices. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). PHS uses TDMA.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications.1 MHz band. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). In FDD mode. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. The band 1906. and the band 1895-1906. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier.global acceptance of DECT. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks.1-1918. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time.

and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. and diagnostics. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. or medium. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. maintenance. . The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. signaling. Other functions of BS are call processing.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0.

Wireless component . A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). The user interface exists only at MU. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). Within their geographical region. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. Ideally. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. These are transmitted upon power on. However. (b) antenna. This can be a laptop. Each of this cell has a Base Station. cell initiated sampling. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. or a cell phone. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN).Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). a palmtop. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. and (c) user interface. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). Thus. which consists of a display. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. The greater the number of hexagons. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. and cell origination. or any other mobile device. a keypad for entering information.

Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. Low density Small cells. MSC PSTN .Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. High density Smaller cells.

it registers. private. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell.  Mobile station constraints.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. Subscription agreement.  Power-up registration. . Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Call transfer charges. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. Needs some standard. User profile and database sharing. Any other policy constraints. For example.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. Needs some standard.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. it sends a registration message. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. Opposite to power-down registration. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. or residential).  Power-down registration. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. Administrative constraints      Billing.  Limited battery life. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes.  Deregistration. When an MU is switched on. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility.

3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. force all MUs to register. etc. under certain circumstances. 2. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. Forced registration: A network may. medical.

which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. City area. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. Thus.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. This can be achieved through data access history. . frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. etc.

Thus. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. Thus. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. partition. etc. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system.) must take into consideration LDD. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. etc. Example: Person name. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. The database distribution (replication. Needs location binding or location mapping function. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. However. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. Thus. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. account number. LDD must be processed under the location constraints.

…. L = {l1. and FLM = {flm1. The management of the transaction moves with MU. ln} is a set of locations. e2. l2. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. CommitL}. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. FLM>. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. Ojk {read. L. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. en} is a set of execution fragments. write}. …. …. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. where F = {e1. . flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. Two types of processing modes are allowed.SC M and Nj {AbortL. flm2.2.

Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. e5) MU1 T1(e1. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. Serialization of concurrent execution. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. e2. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently.

etc.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. especially wireless messages is required. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. especially wireless.. Serialization of concurrent execution. . Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). A scheme. is desirable. New schemes based on timeout. multiversion. Database update consistency. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. during processing no communication is required. At the end of timeout. each node commit their fragment independently. Transaction commit. may work. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. which uses minimum number of messages. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU.  MU extract its fragment.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. estimates timeout. A scheme which uses very few messages. Thus.

Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node.  Log carrier.g. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. . and in a right format.g..  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints.g. which are essential for recovery. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e. Thus. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e.. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision. at the right location. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies.. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead.

An integration of mobility. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. web. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. . system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. (a) location managementthat is.that is. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels.Customer trust A time consuming activity. GPS can do this. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced.5 Query Processing 2. However. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. so they are not discussed. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. every time the answer is different but correct.

A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. further adds to the cost. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. which is initiated by the mobile unit. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. . the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro.9. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. (b) location lookup. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. 151. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. The presence of frequent cell crossing. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. In location update. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. remote cells may be included in these areas. In some situations. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. (b) doze mode. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. Motivated by these issues. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. The first tier provides a quick location lookup.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases.or picocell clusters. and (c) paging. or (c) power down mode. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances.

If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval .Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. There are initiated. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. Fig. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. then the call is dropped. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. Cell overlap region. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. registration area. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2.

5 inter-BS handoff.13 In this scheme. Figure situation for more than one handoff. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link.12 illustrates the scenario. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem.used in PCS. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. Figure 3. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. Figure 3. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. In this registration area. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. then it 3. and so on. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. play any role in handoff detection. In this approach. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. 0. responsible for detecting a handoff. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs.taking too long to process a handoff. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. [lo]. In is used.1 1 illustrates the scenario. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. [ 101. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. and in details can be found in Ref.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. initiated. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. around 0. or base station controller (BSC). Some initiates a handoff. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection.10 illustrates the scenario.

11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC. 3.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. Fig. 3.Fig. .

It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. . The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. and 0.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. Fig. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. conversation (occurrence of silence). There are two ways to achieve link transfer. to MU that the handoff process has started. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. 3. 2.handoff.05 inter-MSC handoff. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS.

13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff.4. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. 3. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. 6. Fig. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. since it is between two request message. On the command of the network. In the former channel. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. the BS must complete some security check. and the new BS. then two cases arise: different BSCs. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. .

While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). In reality. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. etc. other new devices. weather. information about airline schedule. data staging. for incorporating transactional facility. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. surrogates. PDAs. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). and so on. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. provided terminal and personal . Initially.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. that is. Thus. This is an ideal scenario. The mobile database systems. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. discussed in preceding chapters. data broadcast. stock quotes. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. it is becoming an information management system as well.2. can be downloaded from the broadcast. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. For example. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent.. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. push and pull. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources.

The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. these activities must be disabled whenever possible. and the power dissipation for display is around 2. that is. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. There are two basic modes of data dissemination.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive.96 Whour).7 hours and to preserve battery power. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode .2 V (0. The available power source is likely to last for 2. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . Therefore. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric.5 W.

Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. and so on. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. transmission could reach tens of watts. In day-today activities. etc. . The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. a Wavelan card consumes 1. renting a movie or music CD. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. For example. This facility is called selective tuning.. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. renting a movie with a particular title. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. some as spam but some quite useful. and so on. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. It also.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. season. if necessary. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. download the required data. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. For example. if necessary. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. A number of factors like the terrain. but actually it is not so. For example. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. foliage. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. the height and kind of trees. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. buying an airline ticket.4 W with the transmitter powered on. landscape. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. rain.

tune the appropriate channel. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. etc. are pushbased. The server. news. the pull approach is resource-intensive. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. it can push weather information on one channel. after receiving the request. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . etc. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. traffic information on another channel. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. In fact. Clients. or short video clips. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. cable television broadcast. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals.. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. mutual funds costs. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. and so on. and so on. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. large graphics. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. Push Application In the push process. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. since then. For example. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. For example. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. depending upon their data requirements. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. real state costs and inflation status. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. radio. caching can be used to reduce data miss. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting.

A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. if interested only i n dining information. however. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. even though push applications are not really push. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. dining information appears in the broadcast. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. data in the broadcast. and In a wireless platform. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. It guarantees identical message delivery. especially for providing transactional facility. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. This setup significantly reduces the search time. bandwidth viewpoint. This facility the ideal scheme. that is. or commercial) to identify. client.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. places information. focus. Advantages one at a time. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . reduce or access is zero. However. at the same time. to all employees. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively.g. Data are dropped in the channel. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. the burden of acquiring data. especially from a or services. then they will appear on consequently. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. the waiting time for information faster and.. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. which is highly desirable. A immediate attention. It has. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. there is a difference in them. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. traffic information. business. For example.

Marimba. Many vendorsAir Media. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. however. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. Alpha Microsystems. For example. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. Pointcast. IntraExpress. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. allow it to scale. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. has a number of interruption. bandwidth problems. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. while it is useful event. randomly. for example. during a song broadcast. to name a few. . and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. Although users get the information. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. as well as individually. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. multicast solutions. but the push system requires specific tools and applications.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. Berkeley Systems.  Push applications are complex.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below.

Both users and in the push technology.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. defining push updates. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. The proprietary client is required. highly needed. No conjunction with their latest browsers.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. are the two leading supplied. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. and Microsoft Corp. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. model. For example. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. This becomes more expensive with number of users. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. A proprietary client is Communications Corp.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . a server. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. and Netscape development tools. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. . Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat.

airline schedule. B. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. and so on.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. Latency Figure 9. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel).3 A simple broadcast disk setup. traffic. C and D in that order. 9. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. .3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. can be transmitted on different speed channels. In a similar manner. stock quotes. Fig. a set of different types of information such as weather. news flashes. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data .

therefore.TL)+ (TI. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. In some client population. The task. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. and so on. that is. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation.T5). If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan.Ts)+ (Ts . . must balance this trade-off. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. The access time depends on broadcast size. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. An efficient broadcast scheme. Figure 9.T4) + (Ts . This increase in size affects access time. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. therefore. on the other hand. In the push approach. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. Client information requirement is highly random.4 illustrates access and tuning time. If.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. the client slips into doze mode intermittently. tunes selectively (selective tuning).2'0). Unfortunately.

and so on. with the help of popularity computation. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. broadcast indexing. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. traffic. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. dictionary. entertainment. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. which makes it very hard. client samples. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data.Thus. and broadcast them. if not impossible. encyclopedia. In (b). Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. However. D2. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. where users initiate all kinds of transactions.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. It may provide yellow pages services. etc. access delay. for example. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. (b) reaching active . the relationship among data popularity. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. and geographical domain becomes very complex. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. Figure 9. stock. These components are discussed in detail below.

It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. The server also records the corresponding time. and T . Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. (c) studying the market trends. (c) user movement. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. Based on the information stored in the log file. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). and the surrogate where data is to be staged. as is the database to support their requests. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment.clients to look at their data access history. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. and (d) channel tunability. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. Thus. PT. In reality the client population is very large. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. and so on. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. a PF queue with these operations. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. . Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL).1 1. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. static and dynamic approaches can be used.

Tbound.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. Since the public data is staged in the machine. 9. Based on the amount of storage available. . It consists of a surrogate. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. for the user to access a data. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . For this. but it is fixed for this calculation). Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. Figure 9. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access.27 shows the data staging architecture. we calculate a time bound. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. Thus.Fig. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. So.27 Data staging in DAYS. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. Figure 9. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). Thus. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. Thus. So. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. number of pages by the base station. on an average. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M .28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user.

knowledge and skills. Context information comprehends further . hard. persons  location (and changing location in 3. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. which people and objects in the environment stay. respectively. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. con dentiality. connectivity. where and when the data are used based on user aims. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. The or demand new ones. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. integrity and accountability. and bandwidths. This meta-information is models.available mobile resources. preferences.3. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. other restricting or dismissing security measures. i. time and device. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. and restrictions detailed. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users.e. This is threats. 1998]. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. applicable on special whereabouts. costs and duration of connections. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). anywhere and anytime possible. In this section. size) them. especially in connection with position searching tools. roles. In Lubinski. their tasks.

management. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. Metadata include 1999]. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. threats or desired security characteristics. Transfer creatable. Our approach additionally used for their protection. Moreover. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. 3. databases. addresses of messages. 1998]). a protection items gets the following table. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata.whereas metadata are communication security. Database systems manage object types. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath.E.. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. respectively.and integrity rules. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys.g. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski.

users. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. vertical and horizontal. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. But the separation. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. too. However. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. . sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. Additionally.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control.

Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. workflow systems. attend lectures. open bank account.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. and so on. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines.. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. It approach but assure a minimal security. E-commerce. make flight reservation. such as web. However. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. . it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. etc.

No. Samaras.. S. conf. Michael Franklin.. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. Johnsson. May 1993. Vol. M. 11.. 13. 27. K. 10. el. B. 7. May. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. 5. George and Zahorjan. Proc.. H.. Dunham. 3. and Imielinski. 2000. April 1994. M. Pitoura and G. Barbara. 1995. Bjorn T. Kluwer Academic Publishers. D. Washington. Helal. Proc. T. B..Vijay Kumar. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. Chrysanthis.E. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. Proc. and Bhargava. and Zdonik. Dhawan. R. 2. H. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. 6. S. E. Divesh Srivastava.Shaul Dar. and Balakrishnan. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Int.. Pitoura. 4. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. 1998. Artech House. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference. J. McGraw-Hill. 3rd. October 1993. Proc. and Michael Tan. REFERENCES 1. S. DC..E. A. Forman.L. 1994. Mobile Computing. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. 1994. 9. Prague. and Bhargava. R..5. C. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. Prentice Hall. Minneapolis. 12. Pitoura. No. Proc. at. H. 1998. Turban.. 5-8. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. . ACM SIGMOD Conf.. Acharya. P. India. Mumbai. 1997. and Korth. 1995. 1996. on Information and Knowledge Management. San Jose. Sep.. Franklin. 8. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. 14. Alonso. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments.. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. May.. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. E. 1997. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖. on management of Data. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. Alonso. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. IEEE Computers. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. 4. 2000. Loeb..

) . Pro. (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept.Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful