A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

such as printers. . 1. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). processes. Database security is more critical networks have become more open.An example of this is a mobile workforce.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. information security. Users don't require access to truly live data. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. Applications must provide significant interactivity.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. 1. 1. mobile Apple-related products and applications. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. including: becoming increasingly smaller. Although viruses are a key concern. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. only recently modified data. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. With the advent of mobile databases. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. bar code scanners. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly.

Fla. and base stations. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. . SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. of Lake Worth. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. portable Redwood Shores. installations in fixed locations. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. mobile-database field. If your application meets any of those requirements. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. mobile units. portable phones. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices.. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. or wireless routers.) Base stations are two-way radios. Calif. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station.

 Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.mechanism. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database. retrieves. manages data on a handheld device. organizes and administration environments. .system (RDMS). DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. Windows CE smart phones.DB2e stores.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. zero. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed.server-based relational database management management system designed for small. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. EPOC. Neutrino.

and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. It includes support for Win32.1 scalability.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. PalmOS. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. and delivers the performance. programming APIs. Windows CE. Delphi. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. and Web server applications. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore .1. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. C++. Table encryption for version 8. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. mobile. and EPOC database clients. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). focusing only on application specific problems. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. and so on). allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments.

MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability.  Some node can process information. and wired and wireless systems (PCS.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. and GSM) .2. Cellular system.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems.

. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. every organization. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. and in any form. MS: Mobile Station. could be equipped. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service.2. BS: Base Station. HLR: Home Location Register. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. since every person. etc. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. AC: Access Chanel. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. From 1974 to 1978. VLR: Visitor Location Register.

CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. American Digital supported. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). IS-136. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. the successor to IS-54. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. Cellular (ADC). and has been operating in USA since 1996. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS).This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. except that no large scale trial was conducted. there are about 50 channels per cell. that is. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. and has been available since 1989. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI).95 Kbps. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. In AMPS. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. Thus. In a GSM base station. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2.8 Kbps with an increased System rate.reuse scheme. Cordless Telephone. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. With TDMA. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS.25 MHz. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. For a user. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. In the call setup procedure. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis.

PHS operates in the 1895-1918. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. and outdoor environment. a private standardization organization in Japan. similar to cellular systems. In FDD mode. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. each with 300 KHz bandwidth.1-1918. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time.1 MHz band. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. offices. and the band 1895-1906. The band 1906. .global acceptance of DECT. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. DECT also supports seamless handoff. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. or 150 hours of standby time. PHS uses TDMA. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design.

and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. or medium. Other functions of BS are call processing. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. signaling. and diagnostics. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. maintenance. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. .

MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). Wireless component . These are transmitted upon power on. However. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). cell initiated sampling. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. or a cell phone. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). The greater the number of hexagons. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. The user interface exists only at MU. This can be a laptop. Ideally. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). which consists of a display. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. cell coverage is a dynamic activity.Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. Within their geographical region. Thus. Each of this cell has a Base Station. and (c) user interface. and cell origination. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). (b) antenna. a keypad for entering information. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. a palmtop. or any other mobile device. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand.

The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. High density Smaller cells.Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. Low density Small cells. MSC PSTN . Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells.

 Integration of a new service provider into the network. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. User profile and database sharing. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. it sends a registration message. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. When an MU is switched on. .  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. it registers. private.  Deregistration. Subscription agreement. Opposite to power-down registration. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Power-down registration. For example. Needs some standard.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. Call transfer charges. Needs some standard. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network.  Limited battery life. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. Any other policy constraints.  Mobile station constraints. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. or residential). Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. Administrative constraints      Billing.  Power-up registration. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space.

 Forced registration: A network may. under certain circumstances.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. etc. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. 2. medical.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. force all MUs to register.

City area. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. . which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. Thus. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. etc. This can be achieved through data access history. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client.

Example: Person name.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Thus.) must take into consideration LDD. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. etc. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. partition. etc. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. The database distribution (replication. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. Thus. However. account number. Thus. Needs location binding or location mapping function. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells.

flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. flm2. Ojk {read. . …. en} is a set of execution fragments. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. Two types of processing modes are allowed. e2. and FLM = {flm1. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. ln} is a set of locations. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. …. L. write}. CommitL}. L = {l1. The management of the transaction moves with MU. where F = {e1. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. FLM>.2. ….SC M and Nj {AbortL. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. l2.

Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. e2. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. e5) MU1 T1(e1. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. Serialization of concurrent execution.

A scheme which uses very few messages. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). which uses minimum number of messages. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. Database update consistency. is desirable. etc. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. A scheme. especially wireless. Serialization of concurrent execution.. may work. estimates timeout. each node commit their fragment independently. Thus. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. especially wireless messages is required.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. multiversion.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. Transaction commit. New schemes based on timeout. At the end of timeout.  MU extract its fragment. .Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. during processing no communication is required. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol.

g.g. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. which are essential for recovery.. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. . Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead.. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. and in a right format. at the right location. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e..g. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision.  Log carrier. Thus.

Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. web. so they are not discussed. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. (a) location managementthat is. An integration of mobility. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. GPS can do this. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. .6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced.that is.Customer trust A time consuming activity. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. every time the answer is different but correct. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. However. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query.5 Query Processing 2. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service.

but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. In some situations. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. In location update. 151.or picocell clusters. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. which is initiated by the mobile unit. further adds to the cost. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. (b) doze mode. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. Motivated by these issues. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems.9. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. . The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. The presence of frequent cell crossing. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. and (c) paging. (b) location lookup. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. or (c) power down mode. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. remote cells may be included in these areas.

processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also .  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. There are initiated. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. registration area. Cell overlap region. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . then the call is dropped. Fig. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2.

The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station.5 inter-BS handoff.1 1 illustrates the scenario.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . responsible for detecting a handoff. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. Some initiates a handoff. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel.10 illustrates the scenario. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. Figure 3. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. and in details can be found in Ref. 0. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. play any role in handoff detection. In this approach.used in PCS. Figure 3. Figure situation for more than one handoff. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. [ 101.taking too long to process a handoff. then it 3. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. or base station controller (BSC). the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. and so on. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection.12 illustrates the scenario. initiated. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC.13 In this scheme. In is used. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. [lo]. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. around 0. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. In this registration area. the system is This scheme is implemented in second.

3.Fig.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. . 3. Fig.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC.

72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. and 0. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. 3. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. to MU that the handoff process has started. There are two ways to achieve link transfer.handoff. . 2. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. conversation (occurrence of silence). Fig.05 inter-MSC handoff. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time.

It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. the BS must complete some security check. . A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. then two cases arise: different BSCs. In the former channel. and the new BS. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. Fig.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. 3. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. since it is between two request message.4. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. 6. On the command of the network.

has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. information about airline schedule. data broadcast. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. stock quotes. For example. weather. PDAs. This is an ideal scenario. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. for incorporating transactional facility. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). Thus. and so on. data staging. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. push and pull. that is. etc. surrogates. In reality.. Initially. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. discussed in preceding chapters.2. can be downloaded from the broadcast. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. The mobile database systems. it is becoming an information management system as well. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. provided terminal and personal . The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. other new devices.

the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric.2 V (0. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. that is. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . and the power dissipation for display is around 2. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. these activities must be disabled whenever possible.5 W.7 hours and to preserve battery power. Therefore.96 Whour).the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. The available power source is likely to last for 2. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication.

broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. etc. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. season. In day-today activities. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. landscape. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space.. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. renting a movie or music CD. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. and so on. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. For example. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. For example. some as spam but some quite useful. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. It also. A number of factors like the terrain. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. renting a movie with a particular title. rain. and so on. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. download the required data. foliage.4 W with the transmitter powered on. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. . play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. but actually it is not so. a Wavelan card consumes 1.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. if necessary. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. transmission could reach tens of watts. if necessary. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20].2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. buying an airline ticket. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. the height and kind of trees. For example. This facility is called selective tuning. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power.

traffic information on another channel. it can push weather information on one channel. news. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. and so on. For example. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. For example. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. real state costs and inflation status. cable television broadcast. radio. since then. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. and so on. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. after receiving the request. or short video clips. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. caching can be used to reduce data miss.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. Push Application In the push process. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. depending upon their data requirements. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. etc. tune the appropriate channel. Clients. In fact. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. the pull approach is resource-intensive. large graphics. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. etc. The server. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. mutual funds costs. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the .. are pushbased.

There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. client. business. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. especially for providing transactional facility. the burden of acquiring data. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. It guarantees identical message delivery. Advantages one at a time. However. A immediate attention. which is highly desirable. reduce or access is zero. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. however. This facility the ideal scheme. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. places information. to all employees. It has. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). then they will appear on consequently. or commercial) to identify. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. traffic information. that is.. For example. dining information appears in the broadcast.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. and In a wireless platform. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. if interested only i n dining information. there is a difference in them. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. data in the broadcast. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. at the same time. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. especially from a or services. even though push applications are not really push. the waiting time for information faster and. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. Data are dropped in the channel. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server.g. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. This setup significantly reduces the search time. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . focus. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. bandwidth viewpoint. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast.

Berkeley Systems. Pointcast. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. as well as individually.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. Although users get the information. randomly. to name a few. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. multicast solutions.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. Marimba. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. . for example.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. IntraExpress. bandwidth problems. however. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. has a number of interruption. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. allow it to scale.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. during a song broadcast. For example. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem.  Push applications are complex. while it is useful event. Alpha Microsystems. Many vendorsAir Media.

but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. Both users and in the push technology. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. For example. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. This becomes more expensive with number of users.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . defining push updates.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. model. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. and Netscape development tools. a server. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. highly needed. The proprietary client is required. and Microsoft Corp. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. No conjunction with their latest browsers. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. are the two leading supplied. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. . One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF).

In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. 9. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel).3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. C and D in that order. stock quotes. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. Latency Figure 9. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). airline schedule. Fig. traffic. a set of different types of information such as weather.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. news flashes. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . can be transmitted on different speed channels. and so on. In a similar manner.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. . The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. B.

is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. tunes selectively (selective tuning).2'0). This increase in size affects access time. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan.TL)+ (TI.T5).T4) + (Ts . selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). and so on. the client slips into doze mode intermittently. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. must balance this trade-off. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. therefore.4 illustrates access and tuning time. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. that is. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. If. The task. therefore. An efficient broadcast scheme. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. In the push approach. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. .Time: Similar to conventional disk access. Figure 9. In some client population. The access time depends on broadcast size. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. Unfortunately. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . Client information requirement is highly random.Ts)+ (Ts . on the other hand.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG .

encyclopedia. access delay. (b) reaching active . The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. D2. broadcast indexing. which makes it very hard. entertainment. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. traffic. and geographical domain becomes very complex. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. It may provide yellow pages services.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. In (b). stock. for example. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. and so on. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. These components are discussed in detail below. client samples. dictionary. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created.Thus. if not impossible. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. Figure 9. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. However. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. the relationship among data popularity. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. etc. with the help of popularity computation. and broadcast them. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data.

All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. . It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. and so on. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. a PF queue with these operations. In reality the client population is very large. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. PT. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. The server also records the corresponding time. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography.clients to look at their data access history. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). and T . The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. (c) studying the market trends. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. (c) user movement. and (d) channel tunability. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. Thus. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell.1 1. static and dynamic approaches can be used. as is the database to support their requests. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. Based on the information stored in the log file. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area.

27 Data staging in DAYS. Based on the amount of storage available. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. It consists of a surrogate. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps.27 shows the data staging architecture. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. Thus. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. Thus. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. So. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. 9. . the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). on an average. but it is fixed for this calculation). number of pages by the base station. Tbound. So. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . for the user to access a data. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . Figure 9.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary.Fig. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. For this. Thus. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. Figure 9. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. we calculate a time bound. Since the public data is staged in the machine. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index.

The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. The or demand new ones. size) them. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. In Lubinski.3. hard. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. and bandwidths.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. other restricting or dismissing security measures. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. 1998]. i. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. persons  location (and changing location in 3. costs and duration of connections. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. This meta-information is models. applicable on special whereabouts. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. Context information comprehends further . time and device. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. which people and objects in the environment stay. and restrictions detailed. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. their tasks. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information.e. This is threats. knowledge and skills. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. connectivity. especially in connection with position searching tools. integrity and accountability.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. roles. respectively. preferences.available mobile resources. where and when the data are used based on user aims. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. anywhere and anytime possible. In this section. con dentiality. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics.

databases. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. 3. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. Our approach additionally used for their protection.E..whereas metadata are communication security. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. 1998]). accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata.g. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. Metadata include 1999]. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. a protection items gets the following table. Moreover.and integrity rules. Database systems manage object types. respectively. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . management. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. threats or desired security characteristics. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. addresses of messages. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. Transfer creatable.

But the separation. too. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. . Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. Additionally. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. users. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. vertical and horizontal. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. However.

make flight reservation. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. such as web.. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. E-commerce. open bank account. attend lectures.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. However. . The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. It approach but assure a minimal security. and so on. workflow systems. etc. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches.

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) . (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept. Pro.Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst.