A Seminar Report On

SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS

Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering
SUBMITTED BY:

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING

PAGE INDEX

SN

Topic

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE 1.2 MOBILE DATABASE 1.3 MOBILE SECURITY 1.4 DATABASE SECURITY 1.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE

2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast

3. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY 3.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS 3.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTION

4. CONCLUSION

5. REFERENCES

1. INTRODUCTION
The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.
1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.
1.2 MOBILE DATABASE

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. including: becoming increasingly smaller. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. With the advent of mobile databases.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". . Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. only recently modified data. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. 1. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. processes. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. 1.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. 1. Users don't require access to truly live data.An example of this is a mobile workforce. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). Although viruses are a key concern. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. such as printers. information security. bar code scanners. Applications must provide significant interactivity. mobile Apple-related products and applications. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread.

. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. mobile units.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY.) Base stations are two-way radios. portable Redwood Shores. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. and base stations. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. mobile-database field. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. of Lake Worth. installations in fixed locations. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. Fla.. If your application meets any of those requirements. Calif. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. or wireless routers. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. portable phones.

The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database. manages data on a handheld device.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications. Neutrino. organizes and administration environments.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. EPOC. zero. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS.system (RDMS). and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.server-based relational database management management system designed for small. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. Windows CE smart phones. .mechanism.DB2e stores. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. retrieves.

6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database.1 scalability. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. C++. focusing only on application specific problems. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. and so on). It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. programming APIs. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. and delivers the performance. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. mobile.1. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. and Web server applications. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. Delphi. Windows CE. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. and EPOC database clients. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. It includes support for Win32. PalmOS. Table encryption for version 8. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems.

 Some node can communicate through voice channel. and wired and wireless systems (PCS. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability.2.  Some node can process information.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems. and GSM) . Cellular system.

MS: Mobile Station. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. and in any form. etc. every organization.. BS: Base Station. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency .2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. AC: Access Chanel. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. HLR: Home Location Register.2. since every person. could be equipped. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. From 1974 to 1978. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. VLR: Visitor Location Register.

With TDMA. American Digital supported. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. For a user.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). and has been operating in USA since 1996. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. In the call setup procedure. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. there are about 50 channels per cell. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. In AMPS. except that no large scale trial was conducted. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. the successor to IS-54. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. IS-136. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe.reuse scheme. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission.25 MHz. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. Cordless Telephone. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C.95 Kbps. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. In a GSM base station. Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. and has been available since 1989. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). Cellular (ADC). that is. Thus.

Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). and the band 1895-1906.1-1918. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. DECT also supports seamless handoff.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. In FDD mode. offices. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. similar to cellular systems. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. . a private standardization organization in Japan. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. or 150 hours of standby time. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems.1 MHz band.global acceptance of DECT. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. and outdoor environment. The band 1906. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. PHS uses TDMA.

and diagnostics. or medium. maintenance. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. signaling. . for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. Other functions of BS are call processing. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks.

The user interface exists only at MU. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell).Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). Ideally. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. which consists of a display. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). and (c) user interface. Each of this cell has a Base Station. cell initiated sampling. or a cell phone. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. a keypad for entering information. This can be a laptop. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). Within their geographical region. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. These are transmitted upon power on. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. Thus. The greater the number of hexagons. Wireless component . or any other mobile device. a palmtop. and cell origination. However. (b) antenna. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs).

The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. Low density Small cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. High density Smaller cells. MSC PSTN .Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells.

private. Subscription agreement.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. Needs some standard. Needs some standard. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. When an MU is switched on. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Power-down registration. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. it sends a registration message. For example. Opposite to power-down registration.  Power-up registration.  Limited battery life. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. Any other policy constraints. or residential). They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. .  Mobile station constraints. Administrative constraints      Billing. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. User profile and database sharing.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. Call transfer charges.  Deregistration. it registers. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider.  Integration of a new service provider into the network.

3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. 2. under certain circumstances. force all MUs to register. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . Forced registration: A network may. medical. etc.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc.

 Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. . frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. This can be achieved through data access history. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. Thus. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. etc. City area. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units.

Thus. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. Thus. partition. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. However. Thus. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. account number. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule.) must take into consideration LDD. Example: Person name. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. etc. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. etc. The database distribution (replication. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. Needs location binding or location mapping function.

2. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. L = {l1. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. FLM>. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. ln} is a set of locations. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. Ojk {read. e2. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. en} is a set of execution fragments.SC M and Nj {AbortL. L. l2.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. flm2. Two types of processing modes are allowed. and FLM = {flm1. …. CommitL}. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. . …. …. The management of the transaction moves with MU. where F = {e1. write}. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. This creates a Distributed mobile execution.

e2. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. Serialization of concurrent execution. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. e5) MU1 T1(e1. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. which can be forced to wait by other transaction.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects.

may work.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. New schemes based on timeout. each node commit their fragment independently. especially wireless messages is required.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead.. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. is desirable. At the end of timeout. .  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. A scheme which uses very few messages. etc. Thus.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database. which uses minimum number of messages. A scheme. Transaction commit. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. especially wireless.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. multiversion. Database update consistency.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. during processing no communication is required. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). An efficient commit protocol is necessary. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. estimates timeout. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol.  MU extract its fragment. Serialization of concurrent execution. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement.

MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. Thus.. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. at the right location.. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node.g. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e.  Log carrier. which are essential for recovery. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. and in a right format. . This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.g.. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints.g.

Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. so they are not discussed. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. GPS can do this. . the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query.5 Query Processing 2. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. (a) location managementthat is.that is.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. every time the answer is different but correct. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. web. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. However. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station.Customer trust A time consuming activity. An integration of mobility. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained.

A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. (b) doze mode. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. (b) location lookup. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. In some situations. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. The presence of frequent cell crossing.9.or picocell clusters. further adds to the cost. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. which is initiated by the mobile unit. . It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. In location update. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. 151. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. Motivated by these issues. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. remote cells may be included in these areas. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. or (c) power down mode. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. and (c) paging.

If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. registration area. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. There are initiated. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. Cell overlap region.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. then the call is dropped. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. Fig.

typical call and if it falls below a threshold value.1 1 illustrates the scenario. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the .used in PCS. then it 3. and in details can be found in Ref. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. play any role in handoff detection. In this registration area. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. Some initiates a handoff. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected.5 inter-BS handoff. 0. initiated.12 illustrates the scenario.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed.taking too long to process a handoff. Figure situation for more than one handoff. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. In this approach.13 In this scheme. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. and so on. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. around 0. [ 101.10 illustrates the scenario. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. or base station controller (BSC). Figure 3. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. [lo]. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. In is used. responsible for detecting a handoff. Figure 3.

.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. 3.Fig.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC. Fig. 3.

The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs.05 inter-MSC handoff. 3.handoff. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. to MU that the handoff process has started. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. and 0. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. 2. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. Fig. . The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. conversation (occurrence of silence). This acknowledgment message indicates is described below.

the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6.4. the BS must complete some security check. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. since it is between two request message.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. 3. . On the command of the network. 6. and the new BS. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. Fig. In the former channel. then two cases arise: different BSCs.

Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. Initially. for incorporating transactional facility. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. In reality. provided terminal and personal . If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. push and pull. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). other new devices. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. PDAs. it is becoming an information management system as well. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. it is not general enough for many different types of applications.. that is. weather. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. etc. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. stock quotes. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. This is an ideal scenario. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require.2. For example. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. Thus. can be downloaded from the broadcast. The mobile database systems. surrogates. discussed in preceding chapters. data staging. data broadcast. information about airline schedule. and so on.

Therefore. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode .2 V (0.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. these activities must be disabled whenever possible. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I .7 hours and to preserve battery power. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode .96 Whour).Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. that is. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. The available power source is likely to last for 2. and the power dissipation for display is around 2. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000.5 W. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W.

broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. renting a movie or music CD. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. In day-today activities. This facility is called selective tuning. For example. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. download the required data. and so on. if necessary.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. rain. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. if necessary. a Wavelan card consumes 1. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. some as spam but some quite useful. but actually it is not so. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. For example. and so on. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261.. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. transmission could reach tens of watts.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. buying an airline ticket. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. It also. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. etc.4 W with the transmitter powered on. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. landscape. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. foliage. season. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. the height and kind of trees.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. A number of factors like the terrain. For example. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. renting a movie with a particular title. . A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data.

. The server. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. it can push weather information on one channel. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. mutual funds costs. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. radio. and so on. For example. Push Application In the push process. In fact. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. depending upon their data requirements. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. cable television broadcast. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. news. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. For example. Clients. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. large graphics. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. tune the appropriate channel. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. traffic information on another channel. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. or short video clips. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. caching can be used to reduce data miss. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. the pull approach is resource-intensive. are pushbased. and so on. since then. etc. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. etc. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. real state costs and inflation status. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. after receiving the request.

to all employees. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. traffic information. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . client. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. This facility the ideal scheme. dining information appears in the broadcast. the waiting time for information faster and. Data are dropped in the channel. focus. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. reduce or access is zero. there is a difference in them. data in the broadcast. It guarantees identical message delivery. then they will appear on consequently. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. the burden of acquiring data. especially for providing transactional facility. business.g. at the same time. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. which is highly desirable. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. A immediate attention. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. In a channel the push is strictly sequential.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. Advantages one at a time. This setup significantly reduces the search time. For example. or commercial) to identify. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. However. however. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. especially from a or services. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. bandwidth viewpoint. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. places information. that is. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. and In a wireless platform. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable.. It has. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). if interested only i n dining information. even though push applications are not really push. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data.

develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. Berkeley Systems.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. for example. Marimba. has a number of interruption. allow it to scale. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. while it is useful event. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. bandwidth problems. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. Pointcast. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. to name a few.  Push applications are complex. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. randomly. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. For example. Many vendorsAir Media. Alpha Microsystems. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. however.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. as well as individually.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. .  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. during a song broadcast. multicast solutions. IntraExpress. Although users get the information. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users.

and Netscape development tools. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. defining push updates. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. This becomes more expensive with number of users. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. a server. Both users and in the push technology. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. For example.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. and Microsoft Corp. highly needed. No conjunction with their latest browsers. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. are the two leading supplied. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. . model. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. The proprietary client is required.

Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). B. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. can be transmitted on different speed channels.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. and so on. C and D in that order. traffic. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. . then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. stock quotes. Fig. Latency Figure 9. In a similar manner. a set of different types of information such as weather. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. news flashes. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. 9. airline schedule. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users.

therefore. Figure 9. In some client population. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. must balance this trade-off. If.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. . then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. tunes selectively (selective tuning). This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements.T4) + (Ts . it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. that is.2'0).TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times.T5).TL)+ (TI. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. Unfortunately. and so on. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. on the other hand.4 illustrates access and tuning time. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. Client information requirement is highly random. The task. This increase in size affects access time. the client slips into doze mode intermittently. An efficient broadcast scheme. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. The access time depends on broadcast size. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. In the push approach.Ts)+ (Ts . therefore. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation.

The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. stock. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. the relationship among data popularity. Figure 9. with the help of popularity computation. These components are discussed in detail below. dictionary. and broadcast them. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. In (b).Thus. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. and geographical domain becomes very complex. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. if not impossible. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. D2. client samples. (b) reaching active . It may provide yellow pages services. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. which makes it very hard. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. for example.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. etc. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. and so on. However. encyclopedia. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. entertainment. broadcast indexing. traffic. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. access delay.

It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. PT. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. static and dynamic approaches can be used. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. (c) user movement. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. . Based on the information stored in the log file. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example.clients to look at their data access history. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. as is the database to support their requests. a PF queue with these operations. and (d) channel tunability. Thus. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8].1 1. (c) studying the market trends. and so on. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. In reality the client population is very large. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. The server also records the corresponding time. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. and T .

The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. Based on the amount of storage available.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. for the user to access a data. Thus. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. Figure 9. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. number of pages by the base station. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. Tbound. Thus. Since the public data is staged in the machine. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. we calculate a time bound. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. So. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. on an average.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. but it is fixed for this calculation). which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. .27 Data staging in DAYS. So. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. Thus. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. It consists of a surrogate. 9. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . Figure 9.Fig. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access.27 shows the data staging architecture. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. For this.

integrity and accountability.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. applicable on special whereabouts. In this section. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. persons  location (and changing location in 3.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). connectivity. 1998]. Context information comprehends further . the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. time and device. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software.e.available mobile resources. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. other restricting or dismissing security measures. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. and restrictions detailed. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. This is threats. knowledge and skills. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. size) them. This meta-information is models. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. con dentiality. In Lubinski. respectively. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users.3. especially in connection with position searching tools. where and when the data are used based on user aims. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. their tasks. hard. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. i. anywhere and anytime possible. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. which people and objects in the environment stay. roles. preferences. and bandwidths. The or demand new ones. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. costs and duration of connections.

Moreover. databases. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies.whereas metadata are communication security. threats or desired security characteristics. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. 3. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. 1998]). necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. a protection items gets the following table. Transfer creatable. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. Metadata include 1999]. Our approach additionally used for their protection.E. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. addresses of messages. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security..g.and integrity rules.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . management. Database systems manage object types. respectively. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. The body of the table illustrates the special problems.

The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. But the separation. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. Additionally. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. vertical and horizontal. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. users. too. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. However. . A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it.

fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place.. and so on. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. make flight reservation. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. etc. such as web. E-commerce.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. It approach but assure a minimal security. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. open bank account. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. . workflow systems. However. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. attend lectures.

4. H. Johnsson. Loeb. D. Forman. Franklin. 27. Proc. DC. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖.L. E. Pitoura and G. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference. Samaras. 1998. 8. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. Michael Franklin.. Int. M. 11.. 13. 12. 10. Dhawan. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing.. REFERENCES 1. ACM SIGMOD Conf. 4. 2000. Barbara. 1995.. J. 14. S. Vol.5.. conf. Divesh Srivastava. and Bhargava.. E. K. and Imielinski. IEEE Computers. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. M. Kluwer Academic Publishers.. Proc. 1994. and Michael Tan. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. Proc.E. S. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. 6. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. George and Zahorjan. October 1993. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. Mobile Computing. at. May. Pitoura. Prague. 2. T. B. C. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. 2000. 7. 1996. Prentice Hall. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖.. Chrysanthis. 1998. Bjorn T. 1997. India. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. Pitoura. Turban. el. A. 3. and Balakrishnan. R. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on management of Data. Acharya. 1995. R. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. Alonso. Sep... S. 5-8. on Information and Knowledge Management. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. Washington.Shaul Dar. No. 1994. May. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. and Bhargava. Helal.. McGraw-Hill. .. Proc. B. 1997.Vijay Kumar.. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. P. Dunham. and Zdonik. May 1993. Minneapolis. April 1994.E. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications.. H. Proc. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. San Jose. 3rd. Alonso.. 5. and Korth. Artech House. Mumbai. H. No. 9.

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