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50928179 Security in Mobile Database Systems

50928179 Security in Mobile Database Systems

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Published by: Nitish Vaishy on May 13, 2011
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  • 1) Three parties
  • 2) Products
  • 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies
  • 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e)
  • 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition)
  • 7) Oracle9i Lite
  • 8) Others
  • MobiSnap
  • 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space
  • 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cellular telephony overview
  • Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
  • Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
  • EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular
  • System
  • EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular
  • Cordless Telephone, Second
  • Generation (CT2)
  • Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT)
  • Low-tier PCS telephony overview
  • Personal Handy Phone System
  • (PHS)
  • Personal Access Communications
  • Systems (PACS)
  • System High-tier Cellular Low-tier PCS Cordless
  • Cell size Large (0.4-22 mile) Medium (30-300’) Small (30-60’)
  • Low ( 30 mph)
  • Small/Zonal, picocell
  • High Low Low
  • High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW)
  • Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs)
  • High ( 600 ms) Low ( 10 ms) Low ( 20 ms)
  • Wireless Components
  • Mobile Units (MU):
  • Mobile cell
  • Roaming
  • Administrative constraints
  • Technical constraints
  • 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)?
  • MDS Applications
  • MDS Limitations
  • MDS capabilities
  • MDS Issues
  • A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model)
  • MDS Data Management Issues
  • Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)
  • Location Dependent Data (LDD)
  • Location Independent Data (LID)
  • Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution
  • Concept Hierarchy in LDD
  • 2.4 Transaction Management
  • Transaction fragments for distribution
  • Transaction fragments for distributed execution
  • Clustering:
  • Semantics Based:
  • Serialization of concurrent execution
  • Mobile Transaction execution
  • Database update to maintain global consistency
  • Transaction commit
  • Requirements
  • Protocol:
  • Transaction and database recovery
  • Mobile Agent Technology
  • Mobile E-commerce
  • 2.5 Query Processing
  • MDS Query processing
  • Location dependent query
  • 2.6 Location and Handoff Management
  • Location Management
  • Handoff Management
  • Handoff Detection
  • Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO):
  • Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO):
  • Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO):
  • Radio Link Transfer
  • 2.6 Wireless Information Broadcast
  • Data Broadcast Mode
  • Pull Process
  • Push Process
  • Push Application
  • Accessing Information from Broadcast
  • Push Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Market for Push Technology
  • Bandwidth Allocation
  • Data Access Frequency
  • Data Staging with Surrogates
  • 4. Conclusions

A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

including: becoming increasingly smaller. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. information security. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. 1.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. only recently modified data. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. . Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). 1. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. such as printers. bar code scanners. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. With the advent of mobile databases. mobile Apple-related products and applications. 1. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. Although viruses are a key concern. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems).An example of this is a mobile workforce. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. Applications must provide significant interactivity. processes. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. Users don't require access to truly live data.

Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases.) Base stations are two-way radios. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. mobile units. Fla. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. of Lake Worth. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. portable phones. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. . SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. or wireless routers. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. and base stations. If your application meets any of those requirements.. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. portable Redwood Shores. mobile-database field. installations in fixed locations. Calif.

EPOC. Neutrino. zero. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.system (RDMS). DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database.server-based relational database management management system designed for small.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications. retrieves.mechanism. Windows CE smart phones. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. organizes and administration environments.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. manages data on a handheld device.DB2e stores. .

and so on).1. programming APIs. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments.1 scalability. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. and delivers the performance. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. Windows CE. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . Table encryption for version 8. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. C++. mobile. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. PalmOS. It includes support for Win32. focusing only on application specific problems. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. and Web server applications. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. Delphi. and EPOC database clients.

 Some node can process information.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2. Cellular system. and wired and wireless systems (PCS.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability. and GSM) .  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems.2.

AC: Access Chanel.. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. BS: Base Station. MS: Mobile Station. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. etc. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). VLR: Visitor Location Register.2. From 1974 to 1978. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. since every person. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. could be equipped. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. every organization. and in any form. HLR: Home Location Register. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication.

Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. Cellular (ADC). 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). that is. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. except that no large scale trial was conducted. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure.25 MHz. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. and has been available since 1989. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). American Digital supported. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. In AMPS. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. there are about 50 channels per cell. IS-136. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. Thus. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. the successor to IS-54. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. For a user. In a GSM base station. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. and has been operating in USA since 1996.reuse scheme. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA).4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. In the call setup procedure. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. With TDMA. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7.8 Kbps with an increased System rate.95 Kbps. Cordless Telephone. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote .

1-1918. . PHS uses TDMA. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). In FDD mode. similar to cellular systems. and the band 1895-1906. The band 1906.global acceptance of DECT. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. offices. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. DECT also supports seamless handoff. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). each with 300 KHz bandwidth. or 150 hours of standby time. and outdoor environment. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications.1 MHz band. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. a private standardization organization in Japan.

Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. signaling.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. . Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. or medium. Other functions of BS are call processing. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. and diagnostics. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. maintenance. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks.

Within their geographical region. and (c) user interface. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. Each of this cell has a Base Station. a palmtop. Thus. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. Ideally. Wireless component . cell initiated sampling. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. These are transmitted upon power on. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). which consists of a display. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). or a cell phone. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). This can be a laptop. (b) antenna. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). and cell origination. or any other mobile device. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. a keypad for entering information. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. The user interface exists only at MU.Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). The greater the number of hexagons. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. However.

High density Smaller cells.Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. MSC PSTN . Low density Small cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations.

Any other policy constraints.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. or residential).  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. it registers. Administrative constraints      Billing. Subscription agreement. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. Opposite to power-down registration. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility.  Mobile station constraints.  Power-down registration.  Power-up registration. Needs some standard. . Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. private. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Deregistration. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. For example. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. Needs some standard. User profile and database sharing. Call transfer charges. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. it sends a registration message.  Limited battery life. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. When an MU is switched on. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.

force all MUs to register. etc. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . 2. medical. under certain circumstances.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. Forced registration: A network may.

A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. City area. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. This can be achieved through data access history. Thus. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. . etc. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units.

Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. etc. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry.) must take into consideration LDD. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. Thus. However. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. The database distribution (replication. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. Example: Person name. Thus.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. Needs location binding or location mapping function. Thus. account number. partition. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. etc. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. which is referred to as ―Data region‖.

…. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. . flm2. L. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. Two types of processing modes are allowed.SC M and Nj {AbortL. write}. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. …. where F = {e1. FLM>. l2. L = {l1. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. The management of the transaction moves with MU. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. e2. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. ln} is a set of locations. en} is a set of execution fragments. Ojk {read.2. CommitL}. and FLM = {flm1. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. ….

The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. Serialization of concurrent execution. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. e5) MU1 T1(e1. e2. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions.

 MU extract its fragment. etc. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. may work. Thus. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs).  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. during processing no communication is required. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. At the end of timeout. Database update consistency. especially wireless messages is required. Transaction commit. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. multiversion.. estimates timeout.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. A scheme. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database. is desirable. each node commit their fragment independently. Serialization of concurrent execution. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol. which uses minimum number of messages.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. especially wireless. .  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. New schemes based on timeout. A scheme which uses very few messages. and send rest of MT to the coordinator.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator.

A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. Important gain: Making information available at the right time.  Log carrier. ..g. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.g. at the right location. which are essential for recovery. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision.g. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. Thus. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e.. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. and in a right format. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases.. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node.

Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. GPS can do this. web. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. every time the answer is different but correct. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. However. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. (a) location managementthat is. An integration of mobility. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it.that is. .5 Query Processing 2. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. so they are not discussed. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station.Customer trust A time consuming activity.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced.

or (c) power down mode. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed.9. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. (b) location lookup. remote cells may be included in these areas. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro.or picocell clusters. which is initiated by the mobile unit. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. Motivated by these issues. 151. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. . The first tier provides a quick location lookup. The presence of frequent cell crossing. and (c) paging. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. In some situations. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. (b) doze mode. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. further adds to the cost. In location update.

registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. then the call is dropped. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. registration area. Fig. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. Cell overlap region.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. There are initiated. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area.

Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link.5 inter-BS handoff.used in PCS.taking too long to process a handoff. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. or base station controller (BSC). They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. and in details can be found in Ref. Figure situation for more than one handoff. Figure 3. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel.12 illustrates the scenario. [lo]. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. In is used. [ 101. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. responsible for detecting a handoff.1 1 illustrates the scenario. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO.10 illustrates the scenario. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. and so on. In this approach. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. 0.13 In this scheme. then it 3. In this registration area. play any role in handoff detection. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. around 0.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . Figure 3. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. initiated.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. Some initiates a handoff.

Fig.Fig. 3.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC. 3.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. .

72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. conversation (occurrence of silence). The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. . This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. 2.05 inter-MSC handoff. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. and 0. 3. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1.handoff. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. to MU that the handoff process has started. Fig.

3.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. . since it is between two request message. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. 6. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. then two cases arise: different BSCs. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. the BS must complete some security check. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. In the former channel. Fig.4. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. On the command of the network. and the new BS.

The mobile database systems. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. for incorporating transactional facility. and so on. data staging. weather. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. Initially. In reality. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use.. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. surrogates. information about airline schedule. etc. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. can be downloaded from the broadcast. Thus. data broadcast. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). PDAs. provided terminal and personal . has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. push and pull. This is an ideal scenario. that is. it is becoming an information management system as well. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. For example. stock quotes.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. discussed in preceding chapters. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. other new devices. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information.2. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing.

The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. Therefore. that is. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets.2 V (0.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive.96 Whour). and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode .7 hours and to preserve battery power. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. and the power dissipation for display is around 2. There are two basic modes of data dissemination.5 W. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . these activities must be disabled whenever possible. The available power source is likely to last for 2. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast.

A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. It also. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. and so on.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. buying an airline ticket. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. some as spam but some quite useful. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. renting a movie or music CD.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. a Wavelan card consumes 1. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. . renting a movie with a particular title. and so on. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. For example. if necessary. foliage. A number of factors like the terrain. For example. This facility is called selective tuning. rain. etc. download the required data. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. transmission could reach tens of watts. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. but actually it is not so. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data.4 W with the transmitter powered on. if necessary. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. the height and kind of trees. landscape.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data.. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. For example. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. In day-today activities. season. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined.

. it can push weather information on one channel. caching can be used to reduce data miss. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. For example. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. after receiving the request. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. traffic information on another channel. cable television broadcast. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. Clients. Push Application In the push process. and so on. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. radio. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. the pull approach is resource-intensive. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. etc. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. The server. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. etc. depending upon their data requirements. or short video clips. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. tune the appropriate channel. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. For example. mutual funds costs. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. news. large graphics. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. In fact. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. since then. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. and so on. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. real state costs and inflation status. are pushbased. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers.

focus. data in the broadcast. A immediate attention. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. that is. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively.g. It has. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. at the same time. however. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . However. there is a difference in them. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. and In a wireless platform. bandwidth viewpoint. even though push applications are not really push. This setup significantly reduces the search time. to all employees. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. For example. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. then they will appear on consequently. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. the burden of acquiring data. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. which is highly desirable. Advantages one at a time. reduce or access is zero. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. the waiting time for information faster and. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive.. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. traffic information. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. especially for providing transactional facility. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. Data are dropped in the channel. especially from a or services. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. places information. This facility the ideal scheme. business.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. or commercial) to identify. dining information appears in the broadcast. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. client. if interested only i n dining information. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. It guarantees identical message delivery.

Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. to name a few. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. IntraExpress. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. as well as individually. Many vendorsAir Media. Pointcast. For example. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. during a song broadcast. Although users get the information. . has a number of interruption.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. however. for example.  Push applications are complex. randomly. bandwidth problems. allow it to scale. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Alpha Microsystems. multicast solutions. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. Marimba.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. while it is useful event. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. Berkeley Systems.

and Netscape development tools. are the two leading supplied. highly needed. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. .  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. The proprietary client is required. defining push updates. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. model. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF).push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. and Microsoft Corp. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. a server.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. No conjunction with their latest browsers. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. For example. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. Both users and in the push technology. This becomes more expensive with number of users. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible.

The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. a set of different types of information such as weather. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. .3 A simple broadcast disk setup. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). 9. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. can be transmitted on different speed channels. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. B. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). traffic. Fig. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. news flashes. Latency Figure 9. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. In a similar manner. C and D in that order. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. and so on. airline schedule. stock quotes.

This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. In the push approach.T4) + (Ts .4 illustrates access and tuning time. . This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received.Ts)+ (Ts . This increase in size affects access time. The task. tunes selectively (selective tuning). This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. If. Unfortunately. that is. and so on.TL)+ (TI. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. Client information requirement is highly random. The access time depends on broadcast size. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. on the other hand. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times.2'0). Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. therefore.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. therefore. In some client population. the client slips into doze mode intermittently.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. Figure 9. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. must balance this trade-off.T5). An efficient broadcast scheme. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To).

D2. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. and broadcast them. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. broadcast indexing. entertainment. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. which makes it very hard. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. However.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. and geographical domain becomes very complex. and so on. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast.Thus. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. Figure 9. access delay. In (b). stock. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. if not impossible. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. with the help of popularity computation. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. dictionary. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. traffic. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. the relationship among data popularity. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. (b) reaching active . encyclopedia. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. for example. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. These components are discussed in detail below. client samples. It may provide yellow pages services. etc. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways.

All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). (c) user movement. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. and (d) channel tunability. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. a PF queue with these operations. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously.clients to look at their data access history. static and dynamic approaches can be used. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. PT. . the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. (c) studying the market trends.1 1. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. and so on. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. The server also records the corresponding time. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. as is the database to support their requests. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). and T . This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. Based on the information stored in the log file. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. Thus. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. In reality the client population is very large. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell.

Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. For this. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. Since the public data is staged in the machine. for the user to access a data. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. on an average.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. It consists of a surrogate. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. number of pages by the base station.27 Data staging in DAYS. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. Figure 9. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. Thus. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. we calculate a time bound.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. Figure 9. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Thus. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. So.27 shows the data staging architecture. 9. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. Based on the amount of storage available. Tbound. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. Thus.Fig. . we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. So. but it is fixed for this calculation). the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes.

costs and duration of connections. This is threats. Context information comprehends further . Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. The or demand new ones. integrity and accountability. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. and bandwidths. This meta-information is models. i. time and device. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. respectively. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems.available mobile resources. other restricting or dismissing security measures. where and when the data are used based on user aims. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. anywhere and anytime possible. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. which people and objects in the environment stay.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). applicable on special whereabouts. In Lubinski. connectivity.3. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. size) them.e. their tasks. persons  location (and changing location in 3. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. In this section. knowledge and skills. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. con dentiality. 1998]. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. roles. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. especially in connection with position searching tools. hard. and restrictions detailed. preferences.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time).

g. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. addresses of messages.and integrity rules. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. respectively. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. threats or desired security characteristics. 1998]).2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . Transfer creatable. Metadata include 1999]. Moreover. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. Database systems manage object types. management. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. 3. a protection items gets the following table. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski.. Our approach additionally used for their protection.whereas metadata are communication security.E. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. databases.

meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. users. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. . every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. But the separation. too. Additionally. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. However. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. vertical and horizontal. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control.

attend lectures. However. E-commerce. open bank account. etc. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches.. . provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. It approach but assure a minimal security. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. such as web. and so on. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. workflow systems.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. make flight reservation. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built.

1995. Dunham.. H. 7. . ACM SIGMOD International Conf. Chrysanthis. and Zdonik. DC. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. Proc. 5-8.5. 1997. May. S. Minneapolis.. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. Turban. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems.E.L. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. 5. Washington. Barbara... No. 27. on management of Data. H. George and Zahorjan. Bjorn T. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. Proc. 6. R. Int..E. 2000. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖. J. 1996. 4. 10. Michael Franklin. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Sep. 9.. Mumbai. October 1993. Kluwer Academic Publishers.. and Bhargava. Loeb. San Jose. India. and Imielinski.. 4. K. and Korth. 1998.Vijay Kumar. D. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. Franklin. Vol. S. Pitoura. Acharya. 1998. Pitoura and G. Alonso. 2.. 8. conf.Shaul Dar. E. Helal. Proc. A. 12. 13. M.. 1994. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference. S. Prentice Hall. April 1994. on Information and Knowledge Management.. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. 3rd. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. P. 1994. Prague. Proc. Forman. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. E. Johnsson. at. Pitoura. IEEE Computers.. REFERENCES 1. Alonso.. ACM SIGMOD Conf. May. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. and Balakrishnan. T. Artech House. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. 2000. 3. and Bhargava. Divesh Srivastava. Dhawan. C. 1995. No. May 1993.. 11. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. Mobile Computing. 1997. H. Samaras. M. and Michael Tan. el. R.. B. McGraw-Hill. Proc. 14. B.

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