A Seminar Report On

SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS

Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering
SUBMITTED BY:

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING

PAGE INDEX

SN

Topic

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE 1.2 MOBILE DATABASE 1.3 MOBILE SECURITY 1.4 DATABASE SECURITY 1.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE

2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast

3. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY 3.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS 3.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTION

4. CONCLUSION

5. REFERENCES

1. INTRODUCTION
The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.
1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.
1.2 MOBILE DATABASE

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

With the advent of mobile databases. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. processes. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). information security. Although viruses are a key concern. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. such as printers.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. Applications must provide significant interactivity. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. bar code scanners. only recently modified data. Users don't require access to truly live data. mobile Apple-related products and applications. including: becoming increasingly smaller. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. . With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft.An example of this is a mobile workforce. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. 1. 1. 1.

SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. Fla. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. Calif. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. installations in fixed locations. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. portable phones. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. portable Redwood Shores. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization.) Base stations are two-way radios. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. of Lake Worth. . things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. or wireless routers. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. mobile units. and base stations. If your application meets any of those requirements. mobile-database field. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones.. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases.

. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database. organizes and administration environments. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed.DB2e stores. Neutrino. retrieves.mechanism.server-based relational database management management system designed for small. EPOC. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. manages data on a handheld device. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. Windows CE smart phones. zero.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources.system (RDMS).

6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. and so on). MobiSnap will be based on SQL. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap.1. It includes support for Win32. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. Windows CE. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. and Web server applications. C++. focusing only on application specific problems. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. and EPOC database clients.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. Table encryption for version 8. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. Delphi. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. mobile. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. and delivers the performance. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. programming APIs. PalmOS.1 scalability. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore .

 Some node can communicate through voice channel. and GSM) .2.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems. and wired and wireless systems (PCS. Cellular system.  Some node can process information. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.

Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). every organization. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. and in any form. since every person. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. VLR: Visitor Location Register. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. AC: Access Chanel. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. BS: Base Station. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). From 1974 to 1978. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. HLR: Home Location Register.. etc. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand.2. could be equipped. MS: Mobile Station. MSC: Mobile Switching Center.

Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM.reuse scheme. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. and has been available since 1989. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. Cellular (ADC). Thus.95 Kbps. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. except that no large scale trial was conducted.25 MHz. that is. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. With TDMA. and has been operating in USA since 1996. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. American Digital supported. In AMPS. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI).This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. the successor to IS-54. IS-136. For a user. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. Cordless Telephone.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. In the call setup procedure. In a GSM base station. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. there are about 50 channels per cell. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal.

Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. each with 300 KHz bandwidth.1 MHz band. DECT also supports seamless handoff. PHS uses TDMA. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. or 150 hours of standby time. and outdoor environment. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. similar to cellular systems. . DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications.global acceptance of DECT.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. In FDD mode. The band 1906. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. offices. a private standardization organization in Japan. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. and the band 1895-1906. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR).1-1918. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore).

picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. signaling. . maintenance.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. or medium. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. and diagnostics. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. Other functions of BS are call processing. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface.

MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. Ideally. Within their geographical region. Each of this cell has a Base Station. Thus. a keypad for entering information. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. However. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). and (c) user interface. a palmtop. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN).Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). or a cell phone. cell initiated sampling. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. Wireless component . which consists of a display. These are transmitted upon power on. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. and cell origination. The greater the number of hexagons. or any other mobile device. This can be a laptop. The user interface exists only at MU. (b) antenna.

Low density Small cells. High density Smaller cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations.Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. MSC PSTN .

Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. Needs some standard. it registers. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. private.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network.  Power-up registration. Call transfer charges.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. . Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. Needs some standard. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. Subscription agreement. Administrative constraints      Billing. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.  Limited battery life.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. Opposite to power-down registration. User profile and database sharing. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. Any other policy constraints. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. it sends a registration message.  Power-down registration.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world.  Deregistration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Mobile station constraints. or residential). For example. When an MU is switched on.

2.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. etc. under certain circumstances. force all MUs to register. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. medical.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . Forced registration: A network may.

City area. etc.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. Thus. This can be achieved through data access history.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. .A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location.

City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. Thus. partition. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. account number. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. Thus. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. The database distribution (replication. Thus. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells.) must take into consideration LDD.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. Needs location binding or location mapping function. However. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. Example: Person name. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. etc. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. etc.

ln} is a set of locations. flm2. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. …. L = {l1. e2. L. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. …. CommitL}. FLM>. and FLM = {flm1. l2. . BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. write}. where F = {e1. Ojk {read. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. This creates a Distributed mobile execution.SC M and Nj {AbortL. The management of the transaction moves with MU. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. en} is a set of execution fragments.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. …. Two types of processing modes are allowed.2. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk.

Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. e5) MU1 T1(e1. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. Serialization of concurrent execution. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. e2. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement.

may work.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol. A scheme which uses very few messages. especially wireless messages is required. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. estimates timeout. . Database update consistency. is desirable.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. Thus. etc.. At the end of timeout. Serialization of concurrent execution. during processing no communication is required. each node commit their fragment independently.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. Transaction commit. especially wireless. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database. An efficient commit protocol is necessary.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. New schemes based on timeout.  MU extract its fragment.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. multiversion. A scheme.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. which uses minimum number of messages.

g. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. at the right location... MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. Thus..  Log carrier. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. and in a right format.g. which are essential for recovery. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. .  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node.g. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.

Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. GPS can do this. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. However.Customer trust A time consuming activity. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. . Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. web. so they are not discussed. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. (a) location managementthat is. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus.5 Query Processing 2. An integration of mobility. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service.that is. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. every time the answer is different but correct.

and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. which is initiated by the mobile unit. and (c) paging. Motivated by these issues. (b) doze mode. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication.9. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. further adds to the cost. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. The presence of frequent cell crossing. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. or (c) power down mode. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. remote cells may be included in these areas. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. In some situations. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. The first tier provides a quick location lookup.or picocell clusters. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. 151. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. (b) location lookup. In location update. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. . The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical.

An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. then the call is dropped. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. Fig. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also .  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. Cell overlap region.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. There are initiated. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. registration area.

1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the .used in PCS. responsible for detecting a handoff. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. initiated.12 illustrates the scenario. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. then it 3. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. 0. [ 101. In this registration area. [lo]. play any role in handoff detection. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. and so on.1 1 illustrates the scenario.taking too long to process a handoff. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. In is used. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. Some initiates a handoff. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. and in details can be found in Ref.5 inter-BS handoff. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. Figure situation for more than one handoff. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected.13 In this scheme.10 illustrates the scenario. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. In this approach. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. around 0. or base station controller (BSC). Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. Figure 3. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. Figure 3. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3.

3. .10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff.Fig.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC. Fig. 3.

05 inter-MSC handoff. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. and 0. conversation (occurrence of silence). . 3. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. to MU that the handoff process has started. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3.handoff. 2. Fig. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff.

then two cases arise: different BSCs.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. Fig.4. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. since it is between two request message. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. On the command of the network. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. the BS must complete some security check. In the former channel. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. . 3. 6. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. and the new BS.

has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. Initially. discussed in preceding chapters. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. for incorporating transactional facility. data broadcast. and so on. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. This is an ideal scenario. For example. PDAs. that is. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands.. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). it is not general enough for many different types of applications. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. surrogates. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. The mobile database systems. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. In reality. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. other new devices. data staging. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. it is becoming an information management system as well. can be downloaded from the broadcast. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). Thus. provided terminal and personal . information about airline schedule.2. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. push and pull. etc. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. stock quotes. weather.

the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. and the power dissipation for display is around 2. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W.96 Whour).Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. Therefore. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode .7 hours and to preserve battery power. these activities must be disabled whenever possible. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. The available power source is likely to last for 2. that is. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration.2 V (0. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000.5 W.

It also. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. foliage. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. transmission could reach tens of watts. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. etc.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. a Wavelan card consumes 1. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. and so on. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. some as spam but some quite useful. buying an airline ticket. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. season. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. if necessary. download the required data. but actually it is not so. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. the height and kind of trees. . It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. renting a movie with a particular title. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. A number of factors like the terrain. For example. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives..2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. For example. if necessary. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. and so on. landscape. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. This facility is called selective tuning. renting a movie or music CD. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. rain. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed.4 W with the transmitter powered on. For example. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. In day-today activities.

the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. it can push weather information on one channel. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. or short video clips. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. caching can be used to reduce data miss. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. since then. the pull approach is resource-intensive. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . depending upon their data requirements.. and so on. are pushbased. Push Application In the push process. traffic information on another channel. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. radio. cable television broadcast. In fact. real state costs and inflation status. tune the appropriate channel. For example. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. and so on. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. after receiving the request. For example. news. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. etc. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. Clients. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. large graphics. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. mutual funds costs. The server. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. etc.

A immediate attention. which is highly desirable. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. if interested only i n dining information. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. For example. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. to all employees. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. business. dining information appears in the broadcast. at the same time.g. especially from a or services. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). or commercial) to identify. traffic information.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. there is a difference in them. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. It has. however. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. the waiting time for information faster and. places information. However. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. reduce or access is zero. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. focus. and In a wireless platform. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . data in the broadcast.. the burden of acquiring data. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. Data are dropped in the channel. then they will appear on consequently. This facility the ideal scheme. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. even though push applications are not really push. It guarantees identical message delivery. especially for providing transactional facility. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. client. that is. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. This setup significantly reduces the search time. bandwidth viewpoint. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. Advantages one at a time.

IntraExpress. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. randomly. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. Alpha Microsystems. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. to name a few. for example. as well as individually. For example. Marimba. Pointcast. .  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. however. bandwidth problems.  Push applications are complex. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. Although users get the information. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. during a song broadcast. has a number of interruption. allow it to scale.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. Berkeley Systems. Many vendorsAir Media. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. while it is useful event. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. multicast solutions. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem.

model.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. This becomes more expensive with number of users. Both users and in the push technology. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. are the two leading supplied. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. defining push updates. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. and Microsoft Corp. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. The proprietary client is required. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. highly needed. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. No conjunction with their latest browsers. and Netscape development tools. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. For example. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. a server. .

. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). Latency Figure 9. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. stock quotes. news flashes. airline schedule. Fig. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. traffic. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . a set of different types of information such as weather. B. In a similar manner. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. 9. and so on. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. C and D in that order. can be transmitted on different speed channels.

Ts)+ (Ts . on the other hand. Unfortunately. Client information requirement is highly random. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. The access time depends on broadcast size. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. An efficient broadcast scheme. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. The task.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast.T4) + (Ts . and so on. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. . the client slips into doze mode intermittently. This increase in size affects access time. In the push approach.TL)+ (TI.4 illustrates access and tuning time. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. therefore.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. therefore. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). If.T5). If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data.2'0). This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. must balance this trade-off. In some client population. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. that is. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. Figure 9. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. tunes selectively (selective tuning). and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes.

The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. D2. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. and so on. In (b). BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. traffic. stock. Figure 9. access delay. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. the relationship among data popularity. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast.Thus. It may provide yellow pages services. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. client samples. if not impossible. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. These components are discussed in detail below. and geographical domain becomes very complex. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. entertainment. and broadcast them. which makes it very hard. broadcast indexing. dictionary. for example. However. etc. with the help of popularity computation. (b) reaching active . where users initiate all kinds of transactions. encyclopedia.

The server also records the corresponding time. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). and so on. a PF queue with these operations. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. static and dynamic approaches can be used. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time.clients to look at their data access history. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. In reality the client population is very large. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. (c) user movement. . Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. as is the database to support their requests. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. and T . In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. PT. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. and (d) channel tunability. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. Based on the information stored in the log file. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). Thus. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use.1 1. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. (c) studying the market trends. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine.

Thus. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M .28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. .27 Data staging in DAYS. Based on the amount of storage available. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). So. Thus. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . we calculate a time bound. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. on an average. It consists of a surrogate. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. Tbound. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. Figure 9. but it is fixed for this calculation). which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. for the user to access a data. So. Figure 9.27 shows the data staging architecture. 9. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency.Fig. Thus. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. number of pages by the base station. For this. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. Since the public data is staged in the machine.

mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. This is threats. applicable on special whereabouts. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. which people and objects in the environment stay.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. The or demand new ones. time and device.e. other restricting or dismissing security measures. their tasks. respectively. especially in connection with position searching tools. i. 1998]. persons  location (and changing location in 3. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. In this section. where and when the data are used based on user aims. con dentiality. costs and duration of connections. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. preferences.3. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. Context information comprehends further . New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. integrity and accountability.available mobile resources. size) them. knowledge and skills. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. and bandwidths.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. hard. roles. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. and restrictions detailed. In Lubinski. connectivity. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. anywhere and anytime possible. This meta-information is models. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics.

The body of the table illustrates the special problems. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies.. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. addresses of messages. Database systems manage object types. databases. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. Moreover.and integrity rules. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments.E. respectively. 3. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. Our approach additionally used for their protection. 1998]). We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. Metadata include 1999].g.whereas metadata are communication security. a protection items gets the following table. Transfer creatable. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. management. threats or desired security characteristics. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys.

But the separation. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. However. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. vertical and horizontal. Additionally. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. . every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. too. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. users. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized.

It approach but assure a minimal security. make flight reservation. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. . such as web. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. open bank account. and so on. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. E-commerce.. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. workflow systems. etc. attend lectures. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. However. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping.

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