A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

bar code scanners. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. only recently modified data. Applications must provide significant interactivity. 1. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items.An example of this is a mobile workforce. such as printers. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. Although viruses are a key concern. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. 1. With the advent of mobile databases. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. Users don't require access to truly live data. mobile Apple-related products and applications. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. including: becoming increasingly smaller. 1. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. . information security. processes. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems).

) Base stations are two-way radios. mobile units. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. of Lake Worth. or wireless routers. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. installations in fixed locations. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. portable Redwood Shores.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. . that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. If your application meets any of those requirements. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. Fla. and base stations.. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. portable phones. mobile-database field. Calif.

EPOC.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications. organizes and administration environments.mechanism. zero. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. Windows CE smart phones.DB2e stores.server-based relational database management management system designed for small. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. retrieves. Neutrino. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS.system (RDMS). . manages data on a handheld device.

It includes support for Win32. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. Windows CE. and Web server applications. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments.1 scalability. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. mobile. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. Table encryption for version 8. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. focusing only on application specific problems. and so on). MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). C++. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection.1. Delphi.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. PalmOS. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. and delivers the performance. and EPOC database clients. programming APIs.

2.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems. and wired and wireless systems (PCS. Cellular system.  Some node can process information.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2. and GSM) .

Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. etc. could be equipped. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. and in any form. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. BS: Base Station. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH).. From 1974 to 1978.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. VLR: Visitor Location Register. every organization.2. since every person. MS: Mobile Station. HLR: Home Location Register. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . AC: Access Chanel. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. EIR: Equipment Identify Register.

both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. Cordless Telephone. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. that is. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. Thus.95 Kbps. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. and has been operating in USA since 1996. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. Cellular (ADC). EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). the successor to IS-54. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. In AMPS. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. In the call setup procedure. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. except that no large scale trial was conducted. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. In a GSM base station. and has been available since 1989. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW.reuse scheme. American Digital supported. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. IS-136. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks.25 MHz. For a user. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. With TDMA. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. there are about 50 channels per cell.

DECT supports high user density with a picocell design.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. and the band 1895-1906. similar to cellular systems. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. PHS uses TDMA. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. or 150 hours of standby time. The band 1906. and outdoor environment. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR).1 MHz band. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. offices. DECT also supports seamless handoff. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier.global acceptance of DECT. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks.1-1918. In FDD mode.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. . PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. a private standardization organization in Japan.

. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. maintenance. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. Other functions of BS are call processing. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. or medium. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. signaling. and diagnostics. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell.

However. The greater the number of hexagons. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. Ideally. Wireless component . or a cell phone. and cell origination. (b) antenna. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. a palmtop. which consists of a display. Within their geographical region. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. Thus. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). Each of this cell has a Base Station. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. and (c) user interface. This can be a laptop.Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). These are transmitted upon power on. a keypad for entering information. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). cell initiated sampling. The user interface exists only at MU. or any other mobile device. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM).

The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. Low density Small cells. MSC PSTN .Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. High density Smaller cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells.

Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. Call transfer charges.  Deregistration. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility.  Mobile station constraints.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. Subscription agreement. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming.  Power-down registration. When an MU is switched on. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met.  Limited battery life.  Power-up registration. or residential). it registers.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. Needs some standard.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. User profile and database sharing.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. Opposite to power-down registration. Administrative constraints      Billing. Needs some standard. Any other policy constraints. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public. it sends a registration message.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. .  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. For example. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. private.

3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. medical. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. under certain circumstances. Forced registration: A network may. etc.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. force all MUs to register. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . 2.

The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. Thus. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. This can be achieved through data access history.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. etc. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. City area. .

However. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. Example: Person name. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. Thus.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. The database distribution (replication. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. Needs location binding or location mapping function. account number. Thus.) must take into consideration LDD. etc. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. etc. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. Thus. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. partition. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule.

e2. ln} is a set of locations.SC M and Nj {AbortL. L. …. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. flm2. Ojk {read. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. The management of the transaction moves with MU. where F = {e1. and FLM = {flm1.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. Two types of processing modes are allowed. …. write}. CommitL}. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. FLM>. …. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. . j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. L = {l1. en} is a set of execution fragments. l2. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution.2. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk.

e2. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. e5) MU1 T1(e1. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. Serialization of concurrent execution. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects.

may work.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. which uses minimum number of messages. especially wireless. especially wireless messages is required.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. during processing no communication is required. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). .Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. Serialization of concurrent execution. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database. A scheme.  MU extract its fragment.. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol. is desirable. multiversion. each node commit their fragment independently. Database update consistency. An efficient commit protocol is necessary.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. A scheme which uses very few messages. New schemes based on timeout. Transaction commit.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. At the end of timeout. Thus. and send rest of MT to the coordinator.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. estimates timeout. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. etc.

Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. .g. which are essential for recovery. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision.g. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. Thus. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases.. at the right location. and in a right format. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e.  Log carrier. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node.g.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints..

data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2.that is. However. web. every time the answer is different but correct.Customer trust A time consuming activity. so they are not discussed. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. (a) location managementthat is. GPS can do this. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖.5 Query Processing 2. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. . Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. An integration of mobility.

The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. remote cells may be included in these areas. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. . In some situations. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. (b) doze mode. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. Motivated by these issues. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. which is initiated by the mobile unit. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. 151. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. or (c) power down mode. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. In location update. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. The presence of frequent cell crossing. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication.9. further adds to the cost.or picocell clusters. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. (b) location lookup. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. and (c) paging. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems.

If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. then the call is dropped.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. There are initiated. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. Fig. Cell overlap region. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. registration area. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2.

In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed.taking too long to process a handoff. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. [lo].5 inter-BS handoff. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref.1 1 illustrates the scenario. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. In this approach. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. [ 101. or base station controller (BSC). play any role in handoff detection. responsible for detecting a handoff. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. initiated. In is used.used in PCS. then it 3. and so on.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. Figure 3. and in details can be found in Ref. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. around 0. Some initiates a handoff. 0. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. In this registration area. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. Figure situation for more than one handoff.10 illustrates the scenario. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. Figure 3. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary.13 In this scheme.12 illustrates the scenario. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs.

3.Fig.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. Fig. . 3.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC.

It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. to MU that the handoff process has started. There are two ways to achieve link transfer.handoff. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. conversation (occurrence of silence). Fig. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. 2.05 inter-MSC handoff. and 0. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. 3. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. .

3. then two cases arise: different BSCs. and the new BS. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. the BS must complete some security check.4. since it is between two request message. Fig. On the command of the network. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. . 6. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. In the former channel.

The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. data broadcast.. stock quotes. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. discussed in preceding chapters. for incorporating transactional facility. push and pull. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). Thus. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast.2. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). data staging. The mobile database systems. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. and so on. it is becoming an information management system as well. For example. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. can be downloaded from the broadcast. information about airline schedule. In reality. Initially. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. that is. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. surrogates. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. etc. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. weather. other new devices. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. provided terminal and personal . This is an ideal scenario. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. PDAs.

especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. that is. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. The available power source is likely to last for 2.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. Therefore.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W.7 hours and to preserve battery power. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I .5 W. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode .2 V (0. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. these activities must be disabled whenever possible. and the power dissipation for display is around 2.96 Whour). The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW.

Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. renting a movie with a particular title. For example. foliage. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data.4 W with the transmitter powered on. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. renting a movie or music CD. landscape. but actually it is not so. For example. the height and kind of trees. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks.. season. This facility is called selective tuning. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. etc. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. .whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. rain. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. download the required data. a Wavelan card consumes 1. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. some as spam but some quite useful. buying an airline ticket. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. if necessary. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. transmission could reach tens of watts. It also.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. For example. and so on. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. A number of factors like the terrain. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. if necessary. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. In day-today activities. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. and so on.

It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. depending upon their data requirements. Push Application In the push process. Clients. For example. caching can be used to reduce data miss. real state costs and inflation status. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. traffic information on another channel. tune the appropriate channel. etc. since then. and so on. mutual funds costs. it can push weather information on one channel. the pull approach is resource-intensive.. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. are pushbased. news. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. radio. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. or short video clips. For example. cable television broadcast. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. etc. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. In fact. The server.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. and so on. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. large graphics. after receiving the request.

The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. if interested only i n dining information. especially from a or services. to all employees. or commercial) to identify. bandwidth viewpoint. especially for providing transactional facility. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data.. It has. business. the waiting time for information faster and. and In a wireless platform. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. that is. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. reduce or access is zero. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. even though push applications are not really push. however. at the same time. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. This setup significantly reduces the search time. traffic information. data in the broadcast. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. focus. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. there is a difference in them.g. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). client. then they will appear on consequently. It guarantees identical message delivery. which is highly desirable.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. However. This facility the ideal scheme. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. A immediate attention. places information. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. Data are dropped in the channel. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. dining information appears in the broadcast. the burden of acquiring data. For example. Advantages one at a time. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example.

 In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. Alpha Microsystems. . develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. however.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. Pointcast. to name a few.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. randomly. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. Berkeley Systems. Many vendorsAir Media. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. during a song broadcast. multicast solutions. Although users get the information. bandwidth problems. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. Marimba. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. For example. has a number of interruption. allow it to scale. while it is useful event. as well as individually. for example.  Push applications are complex. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. IntraExpress. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers.

which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. highly needed. . Security safeguards are delivery of information possible.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. Both users and in the push technology.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. This becomes more expensive with number of users. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. No conjunction with their latest browsers. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. a server.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. are the two leading supplied. defining push updates. and Microsoft Corp.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. The proprietary client is required. For example. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. model. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. and Netscape development tools. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. A proprietary client is Communications Corp.

If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. 9. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . Latency Figure 9. B. news flashes. Fig. can be transmitted on different speed channels. traffic. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. . This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. stock quotes. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. and so on. In a similar manner. C and D in that order. a set of different types of information such as weather. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. airline schedule. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility.

In the push approach. on the other hand.Time: Similar to conventional disk access.T4) + (Ts . then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . the client slips into doze mode intermittently. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. This increase in size affects access time. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. Client information requirement is highly random. An efficient broadcast scheme. Unfortunately.4 illustrates access and tuning time.2'0). A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning.Ts)+ (Ts . If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. . and so on. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. If. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. The access time depends on broadcast size. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. must balance this trade-off. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. that is.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . The task. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user.T5). An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. therefore. Figure 9. tunes selectively (selective tuning). then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). therefore.TL)+ (TI. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. In some client population.

Figure 9. access delay. client samples. It may provide yellow pages services. dictionary. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. stock. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. These components are discussed in detail below. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. if not impossible. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. In (b). A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. However. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. and broadcast them. broadcast indexing. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. entertainment. and geographical domain becomes very complex. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. encyclopedia. D2. with the help of popularity computation.Thus. the relationship among data popularity. for example. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. and so on. which makes it very hard. etc. traffic. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. (b) reaching active . and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast.

Based on the information stored in the log file. and T . Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. (c) user movement. and (d) channel tunability. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. and so on. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. PT.clients to look at their data access history. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. as is the database to support their requests.1 1. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. Thus. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. a PF queue with these operations. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. . The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. static and dynamic approaches can be used. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. In reality the client population is very large. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. The server also records the corresponding time. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. (c) studying the market trends.

It consists of a surrogate. Since the public data is staged in the machine. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. on an average. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). for the user to access a data. So. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. number of pages by the base station. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. Figure 9. So. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. Thus. . Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . but it is fixed for this calculation).27 shows the data staging architecture. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. Tbound. we calculate a time bound.27 Data staging in DAYS.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. Thus. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . Based on the amount of storage available.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. Thus. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. Figure 9. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. 9. For this.Fig.

The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. especially in connection with position searching tools. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems.available mobile resources. their tasks. knowledge and skills. which people and objects in the environment stay. persons  location (and changing location in 3.3.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. and restrictions detailed.e. applicable on special whereabouts. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. time and device. 1998]. This is threats.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. In this section. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. connectivity. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. preferences. size) them. roles. Context information comprehends further . Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. integrity and accountability. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. con dentiality. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). respectively. i. hard. This meta-information is models. anywhere and anytime possible. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. costs and duration of connections. and bandwidths. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). The or demand new ones. where and when the data are used based on user aims. other restricting or dismissing security measures. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. In Lubinski.

necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. Database systems manage object types.E. a protection items gets the following table. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. Our approach additionally used for their protection. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski.. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. databases. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. management. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. 3. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata.g. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on.and integrity rules. respectively. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. Moreover. 1998]). the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. addresses of messages. Transfer creatable. Metadata include 1999]. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. threats or desired security characteristics.whereas metadata are communication security.

audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. too. . users. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. However. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. Additionally. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. But the separation. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. vertical and horizontal.

such as web.. workflow systems. attend lectures. etc. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. It approach but assure a minimal security. E-commerce. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. . The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. However. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. open bank account. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. and so on. make flight reservation.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people.

10. Turban.. Forman. Johnsson. T.. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. and Zdonik. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. H. Prentice Hall. Sep. and Balakrishnan. C. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖.. Prague. and Imielinski. Proc. 1995. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖.L. 11. No. on Information and Knowledge Management. April 1994. and Korth. San Jose. 13. Pitoura and G. Proc. Acharya. 6.. 12. 1998. 9. Alonso. Franklin. Int. at. Kluwer Academic Publishers. B. H. DC. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. Loeb. 5.. Barbara. 1994. P. Artech House.. E. October 1993. Mumbai. Proc. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. May. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. McGraw-Hill. S. Michael Franklin. Vol. and Michael Tan. J. 3rd. May 1993. 1997. 8.. M..E. on management of Data. E.. 1995. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. K.Vijay Kumar. George and Zahorjan. S. S. REFERENCES 1. H. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. 3. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference. 1996. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. R.E. 2000. Bjorn T. Dhawan. May.. Dunham. B. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Mobile Computing. 1994. Divesh Srivastava. 7. M. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. 2000. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment.Shaul Dar. Proc. 2. A. 14. and Bhargava. 4. Pitoura. Alonso. Helal. R. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. conf.. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments.. Minneapolis. D. Proc. . Samaras. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. 1997.. Washington. and Bhargava. 1998. Chrysanthis.. 27. el. India. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Pitoura.. 4. IEEE Computers.5. 5-8. No.

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