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50928179 Security in Mobile Database Systems

50928179 Security in Mobile Database Systems

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Published by: Nitish Vaishy on May 13, 2011
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  • 1) Three parties
  • 2) Products
  • 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies
  • 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e)
  • 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition)
  • 7) Oracle9i Lite
  • 8) Others
  • MobiSnap
  • 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space
  • 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cellular telephony overview
  • Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
  • Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
  • EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular
  • System
  • EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular
  • Cordless Telephone, Second
  • Generation (CT2)
  • Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT)
  • Low-tier PCS telephony overview
  • Personal Handy Phone System
  • (PHS)
  • Personal Access Communications
  • Systems (PACS)
  • System High-tier Cellular Low-tier PCS Cordless
  • Cell size Large (0.4-22 mile) Medium (30-300’) Small (30-60’)
  • Low ( 30 mph)
  • Small/Zonal, picocell
  • High Low Low
  • High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW)
  • Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs)
  • High ( 600 ms) Low ( 10 ms) Low ( 20 ms)
  • Wireless Components
  • Mobile Units (MU):
  • Mobile cell
  • Roaming
  • Administrative constraints
  • Technical constraints
  • 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)?
  • MDS Applications
  • MDS Limitations
  • MDS capabilities
  • MDS Issues
  • A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model)
  • MDS Data Management Issues
  • Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)
  • Location Dependent Data (LDD)
  • Location Independent Data (LID)
  • Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution
  • Concept Hierarchy in LDD
  • 2.4 Transaction Management
  • Transaction fragments for distribution
  • Transaction fragments for distributed execution
  • Clustering:
  • Semantics Based:
  • Serialization of concurrent execution
  • Mobile Transaction execution
  • Database update to maintain global consistency
  • Transaction commit
  • Requirements
  • Protocol:
  • Transaction and database recovery
  • Mobile Agent Technology
  • Mobile E-commerce
  • 2.5 Query Processing
  • MDS Query processing
  • Location dependent query
  • 2.6 Location and Handoff Management
  • Location Management
  • Handoff Management
  • Handoff Detection
  • Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO):
  • Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO):
  • Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO):
  • Radio Link Transfer
  • 2.6 Wireless Information Broadcast
  • Data Broadcast Mode
  • Pull Process
  • Push Process
  • Push Application
  • Accessing Information from Broadcast
  • Push Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Market for Push Technology
  • Bandwidth Allocation
  • Data Access Frequency
  • Data Staging with Surrogates
  • 4. Conclusions

A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. .3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. mobile Apple-related products and applications. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. including: becoming increasingly smaller. With the advent of mobile databases. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. 1. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. such as printers. only recently modified data. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. processes. Applications must provide significant interactivity.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". Although viruses are a key concern. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. Users don't require access to truly live data. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred).An example of this is a mobile workforce. bar code scanners. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. information security. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. 1. 1. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary.

portable phones. Calif. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. installations in fixed locations. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. of Lake Worth. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations.. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. . Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. portable Redwood Shores. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. If your application meets any of those requirements. or wireless routers.) Base stations are two-way radios. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. and base stations. mobile-database field. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. Fla. mobile units. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc.

zero.system (RDMS).server-based relational database management management system designed for small.mechanism. retrieves. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed.DB2e stores.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. manages data on a handheld device. . session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database. EPOC. organizes and administration environments. Neutrino. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. Windows CE smart phones.

MobiSnap will be based on SQL. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. Windows CE. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint.1.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . C++. and Web server applications. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. focusing only on application specific problems.1 scalability. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. Delphi. and delivers the performance. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. It includes support for Win32. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. and EPOC database clients. mobile. PalmOS. Table encryption for version 8. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. programming APIs. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. and so on). and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap.

 Some node can communicate through voice channel. and wired and wireless systems (PCS. and GSM) .  Some node can process information. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems. Cellular system.2.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability.

Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. etc. From 1974 to 1978. could be equipped.. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. BS: Base Station.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. VLR: Visitor Location Register. every organization. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). EIR: Equipment Identify Register. MS: Mobile Station.2. since every person. and in any form. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). AC: Access Chanel. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. HLR: Home Location Register. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service.

CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. the successor to IS-54. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations.reuse scheme. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). In the call setup procedure. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. IS-136.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. and has been operating in USA since 1996. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. that is. In a GSM base station. Cordless Telephone. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. In AMPS. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. Cellular (ADC). GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. For a user.25 MHz. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission.95 Kbps. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. there are about 50 channels per cell. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . except that no large scale trial was conducted. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. and has been available since 1989. American Digital supported.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. With TDMA. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. Thus. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS.

The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR).1-1918. or 150 hours of standby time. DECT also supports seamless handoff. The band 1906. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier.1 MHz band. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. a private standardization organization in Japan. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. and outdoor environment. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. offices. . each with 300 KHz bandwidth. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. similar to cellular systems. and the band 1895-1906. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). PHS uses TDMA.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. In FDD mode.global acceptance of DECT. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design.

maintenance. signaling. or medium. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. and diagnostics. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. Other functions of BS are call processing. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. .

or any other mobile device. Within their geographical region. This can be a laptop. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). Wireless component . and cell origination. (b) antenna. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. However. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). Ideally. Thus. a keypad for entering information. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). which consists of a display. The greater the number of hexagons. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). cell initiated sampling. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN).Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. Each of this cell has a Base Station. The user interface exists only at MU. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. These are transmitted upon power on. or a cell phone. a palmtop. and (c) user interface.

Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. Low density Small cells. High density Smaller cells. MSC PSTN .Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells.

Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. or residential).  Mobile station constraints.  Deregistration. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Power-down registration.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. it registers. Subscription agreement. Call transfer charges. Needs some standard. Needs some standard.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. private.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. For example. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell.  Limited battery life. it sends a registration message. . Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. Any other policy constraints. Opposite to power-down registration. When an MU is switched on. User profile and database sharing. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public. Administrative constraints      Billing.  Power-up registration.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider.

2. Forced registration: A network may. medical. force all MUs to register.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. under certain circumstances. etc.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police.

 Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. Thus. This can be achieved through data access history. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. etc. City area. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. . A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache.

LDD must be processed under the location constraints.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. Thus. account number. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. Needs location binding or location mapping function. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table.) must take into consideration LDD. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. Thus. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. The database distribution (replication. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. etc. Thus. partition. However. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. Example: Person name. etc.

…. …. write}. L. where F = {e1. l2.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. Two types of processing modes are allowed. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. en} is a set of execution fragments.2. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x.SC M and Nj {AbortL. L = {l1. . Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. The management of the transaction moves with MU. e2. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. CommitL}. flm2. and FLM = {flm1. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. …. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. Ojk {read. FLM>. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. ln} is a set of locations.

If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. Serialization of concurrent execution. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . e2. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. e5) MU1 T1(e1.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently.

In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). A scheme.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. may work. during processing no communication is required.. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. especially wireless messages is required. Transaction commit.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. is desirable.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. Database update consistency. each node commit their fragment independently. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database.  MU extract its fragment.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. which uses minimum number of messages. New schemes based on timeout. estimates timeout. At the end of timeout. Serialization of concurrent execution. A scheme which uses very few messages. etc. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. especially wireless. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. Thus.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. multiversion. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. . An efficient commit protocol is necessary. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol.

Important gain: Making information available at the right time.. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. . at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. at the right location. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies..  Log carrier. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. Thus. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints.g. and in a right format.. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. which are essential for recovery. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.g. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node.g.

(a) location managementthat is. GPS can do this. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. web. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently.Customer trust A time consuming activity. However. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable.that is. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. . Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system.5 Query Processing 2. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. so they are not discussed. every time the answer is different but correct. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. An integration of mobility.

In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. In some situations. which is initiated by the mobile unit. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. and (c) paging. remote cells may be included in these areas. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station.or picocell clusters.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. or (c) power down mode. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. Motivated by these issues. 151. The presence of frequent cell crossing. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication.9. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. . (b) location lookup. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. (b) doze mode. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. In location update. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. further adds to the cost. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location.

A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. Cell overlap region. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. then the call is dropped. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. Fig. There are initiated. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. registration area.

an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. 0. responsible for detecting a handoff. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example.1 1 illustrates the scenario. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. around 0. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO.used in PCS. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. In this approach. Figure situation for more than one handoff.12 illustrates the scenario.10 illustrates the scenario.5 inter-BS handoff. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. In is used. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. and in details can be found in Ref.taking too long to process a handoff. initiated. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. In this registration area. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . Figure 3. or base station controller (BSC). Figure 3. and so on. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. then it 3. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. [ 101. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. Some initiates a handoff. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel.13 In this scheme.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. [lo]. play any role in handoff detection. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem.

3. 3. Fig.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff.Fig. .

This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process.handoff. 2. 3. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. conversation (occurrence of silence). to MU that the handoff process has started. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. .72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. Fig. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. and 0.05 inter-MSC handoff. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time.

The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. then two cases arise: different BSCs. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. . In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. and the new BS. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. 3.4. the BS must complete some security check. In the former channel. On the command of the network. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. Fig. 6.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. since it is between two request message. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication.

Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. other new devices. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. The mobile database systems.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. it is becoming an information management system as well. discussed in preceding chapters. PDAs. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. provided terminal and personal . has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. Thus. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. for incorporating transactional facility. Initially. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. data broadcast. For example. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. surrogates.. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing.2. and so on. data staging. information about airline schedule. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. can be downloaded from the broadcast. that is. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. In reality. weather. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. etc. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). This is an ideal scenario. push and pull. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. stock quotes. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). it is not general enough for many different types of applications. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels.

The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. and the power dissipation for display is around 2.5 W. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode .Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. that is. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets.96 Whour). The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. The available power source is likely to last for 2.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. Therefore. these activities must be disabled whenever possible. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000.2 V (0. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast.7 hours and to preserve battery power. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode .

An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. season. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. transmission could reach tens of watts. the height and kind of trees. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. if necessary. renting a movie or music CD. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. renting a movie with a particular title. A number of factors like the terrain. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. some as spam but some quite useful. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. buying an airline ticket. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. if necessary.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. and so on. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. and so on. and he pulls it by tuning the channel..whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power.4 W with the transmitter powered on. For example. . pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. It also. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. a Wavelan card consumes 1. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. In day-today activities. etc. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. rain. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. For example. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. download the required data. but actually it is not so. foliage. landscape. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. This facility is called selective tuning.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. For example.

it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . or short video clips. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. For example. The server. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. etc. Clients. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. large graphics. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. depending upon their data requirements. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. and so on.. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. since then. Push Application In the push process. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. are pushbased. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. after receiving the request. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. etc.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. it can push weather information on one channel. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. the pull approach is resource-intensive. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. radio. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. For example. tune the appropriate channel. caching can be used to reduce data miss. and so on. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. mutual funds costs. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. news. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. In fact. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. cable television broadcast. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. real state costs and inflation status. traffic information on another channel.

At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. which is highly desirable. bandwidth viewpoint.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. dining information appears in the broadcast. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. if interested only i n dining information. reduce or access is zero. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. at the same time. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. It guarantees identical message delivery. Data are dropped in the channel. traffic information. It has. A immediate attention. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. client. business. However. This facility the ideal scheme. For example. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. that is. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. the waiting time for information faster and. the burden of acquiring data. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA).g. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information.. there is a difference in them. focus. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . Advantages one at a time. to all employees. however. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. places information. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. This setup significantly reduces the search time. then they will appear on consequently. especially from a or services. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. even though push applications are not really push. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. and In a wireless platform. data in the broadcast. especially for providing transactional facility. or commercial) to identify.

while it is useful event. Berkeley Systems. to name a few. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. Marimba. multicast solutions. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. For example.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. Alpha Microsystems. allow it to scale. for example. Pointcast. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. Many vendorsAir Media.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users.  Push applications are complex. bandwidth problems. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. Although users get the information. however. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. . information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. randomly.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. during a song broadcast. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. has a number of interruption.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. as well as individually. IntraExpress. but the push system requires specific tools and applications.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems.

a server.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. The proprietary client is required. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. are the two leading supplied. model.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. Both users and in the push technology. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. This becomes more expensive with number of users. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. highly needed. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. and Netscape development tools. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. . Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. defining push updates. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. For example. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. and Microsoft Corp. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. No conjunction with their latest browsers.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client.

a set of different types of information such as weather. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. Latency Figure 9. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. . can be transmitted on different speed channels. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. In a similar manner.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. 9. Fig. news flashes.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. and so on. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). airline schedule. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. stock quotes.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. C and D in that order. B. traffic. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule.

An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. the client slips into doze mode intermittently. This increase in size affects access time. . geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. If. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. on the other hand. therefore. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. and so on. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. Client information requirement is highly random. The task. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . therefore.Time: Similar to conventional disk access.2'0). The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation.T4) + (Ts . Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL.TL)+ (TI.Ts)+ (Ts . that is.4 illustrates access and tuning time. tunes selectively (selective tuning). is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast.T5). Figure 9. In some client population. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. Unfortunately. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. The access time depends on broadcast size. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. An efficient broadcast scheme. must balance this trade-off. In the push approach.

It may provide yellow pages services. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. dictionary. However.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. for example. In (b). The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. D2. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. etc.Thus. access delay. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. and geographical domain becomes very complex. the relationship among data popularity. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. and broadcast them. client samples. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. broadcast indexing. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. (b) reaching active . encyclopedia. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. with the help of popularity computation. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. traffic. Figure 9. entertainment. and so on. if not impossible. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. stock. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. which makes it very hard. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. These components are discussed in detail below. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel.

The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. In reality the client population is very large. and (d) channel tunability. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. (c) studying the market trends. . Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. (c) user movement. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. as is the database to support their requests. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). Thus. and so on. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. and T . static and dynamic approaches can be used. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. The server also records the corresponding time. a PF queue with these operations. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. Based on the information stored in the log file. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user.clients to look at their data access history.1 1. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. PT. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine.

The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. So. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. on an average. Based on the amount of storage available. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. but it is fixed for this calculation).1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data.Fig. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . For this. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. Thus.27 shows the data staging architecture. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. Thus. Tbound. Since the public data is staged in the machine. It consists of a surrogate. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. number of pages by the base station.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. . The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. we calculate a time bound. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. Figure 9. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps.27 Data staging in DAYS. So. Figure 9. for the user to access a data. 9. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. Thus. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). Let size of the data pages = M kbytes.

the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. respectively. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). where and when the data are used based on user aims. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. hard. their tasks.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). In Lubinski. and bandwidths. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. con dentiality. roles. This meta-information is models. time and device. connectivity. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. size) them. 1998]. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. This is threats. especially in connection with position searching tools. persons  location (and changing location in 3. knowledge and skills. preferences. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. which people and objects in the environment stay. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. costs and duration of connections. Context information comprehends further . In this section. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. applicable on special whereabouts. anywhere and anytime possible. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. i.3. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. integrity and accountability.available mobile resources. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. and restrictions detailed. other restricting or dismissing security measures. The or demand new ones.e. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices.

items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. 1998]). are predestinated to be eavesdropped on.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . databases. a protection items gets the following table. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. 3. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. addresses of messages. Our approach additionally used for their protection. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath.. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. respectively. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. management. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies.E. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. threats or desired security characteristics. Database systems manage object types.whereas metadata are communication security. Transfer creatable.g. Metadata include 1999]. Moreover. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security.and integrity rules.

It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. But the separation. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. Additionally. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. users. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. . vertical and horizontal. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. However. too.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area.

fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. attend lectures. such as web. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. open bank account. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. make flight reservation. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. . Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. It approach but assure a minimal security. and so on. However.. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. workflow systems. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. etc. E-commerce.

B. 8. 1997. Washington. Int. Turban.E. and Bhargava. and Zdonik. George and Zahorjan. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. Proc. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. el. 1998. Pitoura. India. 1996. 9. B. 2000. K. A. May. P. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. 1994. No..Vijay Kumar. C. 12. May. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. Barbara. Loeb. M. on management of Data. M. McGraw-Hill. 2000.L. 11. Alonso.. IEEE Computers. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. E. Bjorn T. 4. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. 1997. April 1994. at. October 1993. T. and Balakrishnan. Mumbai. Pitoura.5. Chrysanthis. Acharya.. Proc. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment.. Prentice Hall. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. S. D. Divesh Srivastava. . ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. 10.. 1995. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. on Information and Knowledge Management. Vol. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference.. Michael Franklin. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. 1995. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. 2. R. Proc. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. Johnsson. H. Pitoura and G. No. Mobile Computing. and Bhargava. S. Proc. 13. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖.E. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. S.Shaul Dar. and Michael Tan. 1998. conf. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. May 1993. J. Proc. 5. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Franklin. Forman... and Korth. Artech House. San Jose. E. Minneapolis. Alonso. R. 4. Sep.. H. 5-8.. 1994. and Imielinski. 3.. 7. 3rd. 14. 6. H. 27.. Dhawan. Prague. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. Dunham. DC. REFERENCES 1... Helal. Samaras..

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