A Seminar Report On

SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS

Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering
SUBMITTED BY:

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING

PAGE INDEX

SN

Topic

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE 1.2 MOBILE DATABASE 1.3 MOBILE SECURITY 1.4 DATABASE SECURITY 1.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE

2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast

3. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY 3.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS 3.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTION

4. CONCLUSION

5. REFERENCES

1. INTRODUCTION
The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.
1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.
1.2 MOBILE DATABASE

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

processes. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. With the advent of mobile databases. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. including: becoming increasingly smaller. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. such as printers. 1. 1.An example of this is a mobile workforce. Although viruses are a key concern.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. . Applications must provide significant interactivity. mobile Apple-related products and applications. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). Database security is more critical networks have become more open.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. Users don't require access to truly live data. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. only recently modified data. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). bar code scanners. information security. 1. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

installations in fixed locations. portable Redwood Shores. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. If your application meets any of those requirements. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. and base stations. mobile units. or wireless routers.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices.. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. mobile-database field. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers.) Base stations are two-way radios.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. portable phones. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. Calif. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. of Lake Worth. Fla. . SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc.

EPOC.server-based relational database management management system designed for small.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. . session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources.system (RDMS).  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. manages data on a handheld device.DB2e stores. Windows CE smart phones. organizes and administration environments. retrieves. zero. Neutrino. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database.mechanism. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.

versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. mobile. and so on). Delphi. Windows CE. and EPOC database clients. focusing only on application specific problems. and Web server applications. C++. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. Table encryption for version 8. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database.1 scalability. programming APIs. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . and delivers the performance. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. PalmOS. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance.1. It includes support for Win32. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity).

and wired and wireless systems (PCS.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. Cellular system.2.  Some node can process information.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability. and GSM) . MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems.

Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. and in any form. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. since every person.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. every organization. BS: Base Station. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983.2. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. could be equipped. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand.. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. From 1974 to 1978. VLR: Visitor Location Register. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . etc. MS: Mobile Station. AC: Access Chanel. HLR: Home Location Register. EIR: Equipment Identify Register.

The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. In a GSM base station. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. Thus. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA.95 Kbps.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. the successor to IS-54. In AMPS. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. that is. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. there are about 50 channels per cell. Cellular (ADC). IS-136. With TDMA.25 MHz. except that no large scale trial was conducted. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. American Digital supported. Cordless Telephone.reuse scheme. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. For a user. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). and has been operating in USA since 1996. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. and has been available since 1989. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. In the call setup procedure.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users.

PHS uses TDMA. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. In FDD mode. and the band 1895-1906. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks.1 MHz band. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. similar to cellular systems.global acceptance of DECT. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. or 150 hours of standby time. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. a private standardization organization in Japan. offices. and outdoor environment. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power.1-1918. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). DECT also supports seamless handoff. The band 1906. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). .

Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. or medium. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. .4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. signaling. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. and diagnostics. Other functions of BS are call processing. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. maintenance. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link.

which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. However. Within their geographical region. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). Ideally. These are transmitted upon power on. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). which consists of a display. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). cell initiated sampling. The greater the number of hexagons. The user interface exists only at MU. and (c) user interface. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. or a cell phone. Thus. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. Each of this cell has a Base Station. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). Wireless component . It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. a keypad for entering information. and cell origination. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). or any other mobile device.Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). (b) antenna. This can be a laptop. a palmtop.

Low density Small cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. High density Smaller cells.Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. MSC PSTN . The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations.

 New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell.  Limited battery life. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. Needs some standard. .  Deregistration. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. or residential). When an MU is switched on.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. Call transfer charges.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. Subscription agreement. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. private. Administrative constraints      Billing. it registers. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. For example. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. Any other policy constraints.  Mobile station constraints. Needs some standard.  Power-down registration. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. it sends a registration message. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. User profile and database sharing.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Power-up registration. Opposite to power-down registration.  Integration of a new service provider into the network.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network.

)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. etc. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . under certain circumstances. force all MUs to register. 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. Forced registration: A network may. medical.

A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. Thus. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. This can be achieved through data access history. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. . frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. City area.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. etc. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax.

Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. Thus. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. etc. Thus. The database distribution (replication. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. However. Thus. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . etc. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. Needs location binding or location mapping function. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. partition. Example: Person name. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. account number.) must take into consideration LDD.

one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. CommitL}. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. L = {l1. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. flm2. en} is a set of execution fragments. . The management of the transaction moves with MU. ln} is a set of locations. L. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. Ojk {read. …. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. e2. …. FLM>.2. Two types of processing modes are allowed.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j.SC M and Nj {AbortL. l2. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. and FLM = {flm1. …. where F = {e1. write}.

The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. e5) MU1 T1(e1. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. e2. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. Serialization of concurrent execution. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently.

 Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. which uses minimum number of messages.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. New schemes based on timeout.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. estimates timeout. during processing no communication is required. is desirable.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. A scheme which uses very few messages.  MU extract its fragment.. At the end of timeout. Serialization of concurrent execution. Thus. may work. A scheme.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database. each node commit their fragment independently. etc. especially wireless. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. multiversion. . Transaction commit. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). especially wireless messages is required. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. Database update consistency. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol.

and in a right format. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e... Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints.g. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node. Thus. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources.g.  Log carrier. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. which are essential for recovery. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. at the right location.g. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e. .. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies.

Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. web. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. An integration of mobility. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question.5 Query Processing 2.that is. GPS can do this. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. . identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. so they are not discussed.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced.Customer trust A time consuming activity. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. every time the answer is different but correct. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. However. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. (a) location managementthat is. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently.

The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication.9. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. In location update. (b) location lookup. (b) doze mode. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. In some situations. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. or (c) power down mode. which is initiated by the mobile unit. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. and (c) paging. remote cells may be included in these areas.or picocell clusters. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. The presence of frequent cell crossing. 151. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. . A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. Motivated by these issues. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. further adds to the cost. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances.

Fig. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. registration area. There are initiated. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. then the call is dropped. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also .  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. Cell overlap region.

The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally.10 illustrates the scenario. play any role in handoff detection.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. and so on.13 In this scheme. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. Some initiates a handoff. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. In is used. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. initiated.12 illustrates the scenario. [ 101.used in PCS. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. In this registration area. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. and in details can be found in Ref. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. Figure 3. Figure 3. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. responsible for detecting a handoff. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. Figure situation for more than one handoff.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC.taking too long to process a handoff. In this approach. or base station controller (BSC). then it 3. around 0. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. [lo].1 1 illustrates the scenario. 0. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station.5 inter-BS handoff.

Fig.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC.Fig.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. . 3. 3.

handoff. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. conversation (occurrence of silence). to MU that the handoff process has started. 2. Fig. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. . and 0.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs.05 inter-MSC handoff. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. 3. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff.

.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. 3. Fig. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. In the former channel. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. 6. and the new BS. then two cases arise: different BSCs.4. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. the BS must complete some security check. On the command of the network. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. since it is between two request message.

Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. it is becoming an information management system as well. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. PDAs. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. surrogates. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). Thus. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. Initially. that is. other new devices. provided terminal and personal . but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. push and pull. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. information about airline schedule. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. can be downloaded from the broadcast. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). discussed in preceding chapters. In reality..2. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. stock quotes. data broadcast. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. etc. and so on. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. The mobile database systems. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. For example. This is an ideal scenario. data staging. for incorporating transactional facility. weather.

Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. Therefore. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. these activities must be disabled whenever possible. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I .5 W. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000.96 Whour). that is. and the power dissipation for display is around 2.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. The available power source is likely to last for 2. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets.2 V (0. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W.7 hours and to preserve battery power. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel.

and so on. It also. download the required data. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. For example. season. and so on. landscape.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. if necessary. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. buying an airline ticket.4 W with the transmitter powered on. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. but actually it is not so. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. For example. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. etc. rain. renting a movie with a particular title.. a Wavelan card consumes 1. In day-today activities. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. . the height and kind of trees. A number of factors like the terrain. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. foliage. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. some as spam but some quite useful. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. if necessary. For example. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. transmission could reach tens of watts.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. This facility is called selective tuning. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. renting a movie or music CD. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives.

The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. mutual funds costs. In fact. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. Clients. For example. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. large graphics. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. etc. since then. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. traffic information on another channel. etc. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. For example. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information.. Push Application In the push process. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. are pushbased. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. depending upon their data requirements. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. tune the appropriate channel. or short video clips. it can push weather information on one channel. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. and so on. after receiving the request. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. real state costs and inflation status. the pull approach is resource-intensive. caching can be used to reduce data miss. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. The server. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . radio. cable television broadcast. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. news. and so on. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc.

In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. then they will appear on consequently. there is a difference in them. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. dining information appears in the broadcast. This facility the ideal scheme. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. It guarantees identical message delivery. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. client. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. However. at the same time. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. This setup significantly reduces the search time. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. Data are dropped in the channel. the burden of acquiring data. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. if interested only i n dining information. A immediate attention. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). business. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. traffic information. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. especially for providing transactional facility. focus. Advantages one at a time. especially from a or services. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. and In a wireless platform. the waiting time for information faster and. to all employees. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. It has. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. bandwidth viewpoint. even though push applications are not really push.. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. data in the broadcast.g. however. that is.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. reduce or access is zero. For example. which is highly desirable. or commercial) to identify. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . places information.

develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. IntraExpress. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. Marimba. however. For example. during a song broadcast. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. randomly.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption.  Push applications are complex.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. multicast solutions. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. as well as individually. to name a few. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. Pointcast. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. Berkeley Systems. while it is useful event. bandwidth problems. Although users get the information. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. Many vendorsAir Media. for example. Alpha Microsystems.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. has a number of interruption. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. .  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. allow it to scale. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy.

For example. highly needed. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. . in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. model. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. Both users and in the push technology.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . No conjunction with their latest browsers. a server.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. and Microsoft Corp. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. This becomes more expensive with number of users. and Netscape development tools. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. are the two leading supplied. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. The proprietary client is required. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. defining push updates.

and so on. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. In a similar manner. Latency Figure 9. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. traffic. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. a set of different types of information such as weather. can be transmitted on different speed channels. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. Fig. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). C and D in that order. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). news flashes. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. airline schedule. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. 9. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. B. . stock quotes.

TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). the client slips into doze mode intermittently. tunes selectively (selective tuning). This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. Client information requirement is highly random. An efficient broadcast scheme. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. therefore. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. If. The access time depends on broadcast size. must balance this trade-off. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. In some client population. therefore. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user.TL)+ (TI. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. that is.Ts)+ (Ts . . geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes.2'0). This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan.Time: Similar to conventional disk access.4 illustrates access and tuning time.T5).T4) + (Ts . The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. This increase in size affects access time. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . on the other hand. In the push approach. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. The task. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. Unfortunately. Figure 9. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. and so on. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data.

Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. These components are discussed in detail below. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. access delay. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. However. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. (b) reaching active . D2. It may provide yellow pages services. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. and so on. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created.Thus. for example. the relationship among data popularity. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. and geographical domain becomes very complex. Figure 9. with the help of popularity computation. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. dictionary. stock. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. In (b). etc. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. and broadcast them. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. if not impossible. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. client samples. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. entertainment. where users initiate all kinds of transactions.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. traffic. encyclopedia. which makes it very hard. broadcast indexing. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics.

(b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. Thus. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. . The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. (c) studying the market trends. and (d) channel tunability.1 1. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. and so on. static and dynamic approaches can be used. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. In reality the client population is very large. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. as is the database to support their requests. (c) user movement. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). and the surrogate where data is to be staged.clients to look at their data access history. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. Based on the information stored in the log file. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. a PF queue with these operations. The server also records the corresponding time. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. PT. and T .

For this. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. So. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. Based on the amount of storage available. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. . Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . number of pages by the base station.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. but it is fixed for this calculation). Thus.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. Figure 9. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes.Fig. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. Tbound. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. 9. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n.27 Data staging in DAYS. So. Figure 9. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. Thus. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. we calculate a time bound. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. for the user to access a data. Since the public data is staged in the machine. It consists of a surrogate. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data.27 shows the data staging architecture. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. Thus. on an average.

Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. anywhere and anytime possible. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. roles. con dentiality. In this section. This is threats.3. and restrictions detailed. and bandwidths. Context information comprehends further . integrity and accountability. 1998].and software (mobile site and network characteristics. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. where and when the data are used based on user aims. preferences. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). time and device. The or demand new ones. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing.e. i. respectively. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. which people and objects in the environment stay. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. knowledge and skills. their tasks. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. In Lubinski. costs and duration of connections. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. hard. persons  location (and changing location in 3.available mobile resources.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. other restricting or dismissing security measures. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. especially in connection with position searching tools. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. This meta-information is models. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. applicable on special whereabouts. size) them.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). connectivity. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software.

The body of the table illustrates the special problems. threats or desired security characteristics. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated.and integrity rules. 3. Database systems manage object types. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. 1998]).E. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. Moreover. management. databases. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. Transfer creatable.. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner.g. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. Metadata include 1999]. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. a protection items gets the following table. respectively.whereas metadata are communication security. addresses of messages. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. Our approach additionally used for their protection.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies.

A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. Additionally. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. . vertical and horizontal. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. too. But the separation. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. users. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. However.

make flight reservation. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. . open bank account. and so on. It approach but assure a minimal security. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. However. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. E-commerce.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. attend lectures.. such as web. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. workflow systems. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. etc.

ACM SIGMOD Conf.. and Imielinski. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. 1998. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference. el. Dhawan.. McGraw-Hill. 5-8. Bjorn T. April 1994. Artech House. San Jose. 13. Pitoura. D. DC. H. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. R. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. Sep.E. Proc. 1994. T. May. and Korth. 3rd. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on management of Data. E.. conf. 2000. Turban. Proc. Proc.. on Information and Knowledge Management. 6. Dunham. Int. 12. 1996. George and Zahorjan. Chrysanthis. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. Prague. 1997. October 1993. Alonso. Proc. Divesh Srivastava. 14. Franklin. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. 3. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2000. M. 9. Barbara.E.. and Bhargava. and Balakrishnan. S. H. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems.. Pitoura.. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. 10. Prentice Hall. Loeb.5. and Michael Tan. M. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. B. R. 1994. K. 2. H. A. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. 11. May. S. 5. Acharya. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. Proc. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. P. Mobile Computing. and Bhargava.. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. No. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. C. REFERENCES 1. 4. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖.. E.. Helal.. Alonso. Johnsson. 1997. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖. . 1995. May 1993. B. Vol. 1998. Samaras. Michael Franklin..Shaul Dar. and Zdonik. IEEE Computers.. 27.Vijay Kumar.. 8. 4. Pitoura and G. No. India. 1995. J. Mumbai..L. at. S. Washington. Minneapolis. 7. Forman. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing.

) .Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst. (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept. Pro.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful