A Seminar Report On

SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS

Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering
SUBMITTED BY:

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING

PAGE INDEX

SN

Topic

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE 1.2 MOBILE DATABASE 1.3 MOBILE SECURITY 1.4 DATABASE SECURITY 1.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE

2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast

3. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY 3.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS 3.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTION

4. CONCLUSION

5. REFERENCES

1. INTRODUCTION
The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.
1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.
1.2 MOBILE DATABASE

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

information security. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. bar code scanners. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. 1. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. With the advent of mobile databases.An example of this is a mobile workforce. 1. processes. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). only recently modified data. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. Although viruses are a key concern.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. Applications must provide significant interactivity. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. . Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. Users don't require access to truly live data. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. such as printers.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. mobile Apple-related products and applications. 1. including: becoming increasingly smaller. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse.

the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. or wireless routers.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. Calif. If your application meets any of those requirements. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture..’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. Fla. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. mobile-database field. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. mobile units.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. portable phones. of Lake Worth. installations in fixed locations. . and base stations. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. portable Redwood Shores.) Base stations are two-way radios. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc.

manages data on a handheld device. .SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. EPOC. Neutrino. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. organizes and administration environments. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database.mechanism.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications.server-based relational database management management system designed for small. Windows CE smart phones.DB2e stores. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. retrieves. zero.system (RDMS).

a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. Delphi.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. It includes support for Win32. and delivers the performance. mobile. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. programming APIs. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. Table encryption for version 8. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. C++. and EPOC database clients. and so on).1. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. and Web server applications. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. Windows CE.1 scalability. PalmOS. focusing only on application specific problems. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance.

2.  Some node can process information.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems. and wired and wireless systems (PCS. Cellular system.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability. and GSM) . MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.  Some node can communicate through voice channel.

PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. could be equipped. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. AC: Access Chanel. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency .. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. since every person. MS: Mobile Station.2. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. and in any form.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. BS: Base Station. etc. From 1974 to 1978. HLR: Home Location Register. VLR: Visitor Location Register. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. every organization.

Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote .25 MHz.95 Kbps. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. and has been operating in USA since 1996. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. In the call setup procedure. With TDMA.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. In AMPS. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C.reuse scheme. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. For a user. the successor to IS-54. Thus.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. and has been available since 1989. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. In a GSM base station. that is. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. there are about 50 channels per cell. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. Cellular (ADC). Cordless Telephone. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). IS-136. American Digital supported. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. except that no large scale trial was conducted. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA.

Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. similar to cellular systems. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. PHS uses TDMA.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. and outdoor environment. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. or 150 hours of standby time.1-1918. DECT also supports seamless handoff.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. In FDD mode. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. .1 MHz band. a private standardization organization in Japan. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. offices.global acceptance of DECT. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). The band 1906. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). and the band 1895-1906. PHS operates in the 1895-1918.

and diagnostics.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. or medium. . Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. Other functions of BS are call processing. maintenance. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. signaling. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface.

which consists of a display. These are transmitted upon power on. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. or a cell phone. The greater the number of hexagons. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). It consists of three components: (a) transceiver.Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). cell coverage is a dynamic activity. a keypad for entering information. Ideally. Thus. Within their geographical region. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. and (c) user interface. and cell origination. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. (b) antenna. or any other mobile device. This can be a laptop. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. The user interface exists only at MU. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). Wireless component . cell initiated sampling. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. a palmtop. However. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. Each of this cell has a Base Station.

Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. High density Smaller cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. MSC PSTN . Low density Small cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells.

This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. Opposite to power-down registration.  Power-down registration. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. Any other policy constraints. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU.  Power-up registration.  Integration of a new service provider into the network.  Limited battery life.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. or residential). private.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. it registers. Call transfer charges. Needs some standard. .  Deregistration. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. it sends a registration message. Administrative constraints      Billing. Needs some standard. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. When an MU is switched on.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Subscription agreement.  Mobile station constraints. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. User profile and database sharing. For example.

force all MUs to register. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery .)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. 2. under certain circumstances. etc. medical. Forced registration: A network may.

A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. Thus. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. etc. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. City area. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. This can be achieved through data access history. .  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples.

Needs location binding or location mapping function. Thus. The database distribution (replication. etc. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. partition. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. Thus. etc. However. account number. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. Thus. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. Example: Person name.) must take into consideration LDD. which is referred to as ―Data region‖.

j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. L = {l1. write}. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. …. Two types of processing modes are allowed.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. flm2. ln} is a set of locations. L. en} is a set of execution fragments. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. where F = {e1. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. CommitL}. . l2. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. and FLM = {flm1. ….SC M and Nj {AbortL. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU.2. …. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. Ojk {read. e2. FLM>. The management of the transaction moves with MU.

which can be forced to wait by other transaction. e2. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. Serialization of concurrent execution. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. e5) MU1 T1(e1.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere.

Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. which uses minimum number of messages. is desirable. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU.  MU extract its fragment. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. etc. multiversion. each node commit their fragment independently. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs).  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. A scheme. may work. especially wireless. especially wireless messages is required. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. . To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. Thus. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database.. Database update consistency.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. New schemes based on timeout. A scheme which uses very few messages. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol. Serialization of concurrent execution. At the end of timeout. estimates timeout. during processing no communication is required. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. Transaction commit.

 Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network.g. . Important gain: Making information available at the right time. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead.g. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. and in a right format.g.. Thus. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node. which are essential for recovery. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors.  Log carrier. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases.. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e.. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. at the right location. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.

web. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. An integration of mobility. GPS can do this. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. . (a) location managementthat is. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. However. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2.5 Query Processing 2. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. every time the answer is different but correct. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable.Customer trust A time consuming activity. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. so they are not discussed.that is.

The first tier provides a quick location lookup.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. and (c) paging. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. In location update.or picocell clusters.9. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. The presence of frequent cell crossing. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. . In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. (b) doze mode. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. (b) location lookup. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. or (c) power down mode. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. which is initiated by the mobile unit. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. 151. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. In some situations. Motivated by these issues. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. further adds to the cost. remote cells may be included in these areas.

then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. then the call is dropped. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. There are initiated. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. Cell overlap region. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. registration area. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. Fig.

12 illustrates the scenario. [lo]. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. play any role in handoff detection. then it 3.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. Some initiates a handoff.used in PCS. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. [ 101. initiated.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the .  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS.1 1 illustrates the scenario. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. Figure 3.10 illustrates the scenario. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO.13 In this scheme. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. In this registration area. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. Figure 3. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. In this approach. or base station controller (BSC). In is used. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. around 0. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. and in details can be found in Ref. Figure situation for more than one handoff. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. responsible for detecting a handoff. 0. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem.5 inter-BS handoff. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation.taking too long to process a handoff. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. and so on. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3.

11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC. 3.Fig.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. Fig. 3. .

to MU that the handoff process has started. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. 2. Fig. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. and 0. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. 3. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. .handoff.05 inter-MSC handoff. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. conversation (occurrence of silence).72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs.

since it is between two request message. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. . 6. Fig. In the former channel. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. On the command of the network.4. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. and the new BS. the BS must complete some security check. 3. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. then two cases arise: different BSCs.

it is not general enough for many different types of applications. for incorporating transactional facility. can be downloaded from the broadcast. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). surrogates.2. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. In reality. it is becoming an information management system as well. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. other new devices. discussed in preceding chapters. and so on. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). provided terminal and personal . data broadcast. information about airline schedule. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. etc. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. push and pull. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. This is an ideal scenario.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. that is. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations.. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. stock quotes. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. The mobile database systems. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. PDAs. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. Thus. Initially. For example. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. weather. data staging.

The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I .5 W. and the power dissipation for display is around 2.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode .96 Whour). the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast.2 V (0. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. these activities must be disabled whenever possible.7 hours and to preserve battery power. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. Therefore. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. that is.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. The available power source is likely to last for 2. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW.

The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. a Wavelan card consumes 1. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. renting a movie or music CD. and so on. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. This facility is called selective tuning. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. download the required data. rain. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. but actually it is not so. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. renting a movie with a particular title. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. transmission could reach tens of watts. if necessary. For example. . if necessary. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data.4 W with the transmitter powered on. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. For example. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. landscape. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. foliage. the height and kind of trees. For example.. and so on.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. season. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. In day-today activities. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. It also. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. etc. some as spam but some quite useful. buying an airline ticket. A number of factors like the terrain.

message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. news. cable television broadcast. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. The server. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. Push Application In the push process. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. radio.. large graphics. real state costs and inflation status. In fact. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. after receiving the request. tune the appropriate channel. mutual funds costs. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. traffic information on another channel. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. the pull approach is resource-intensive. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. etc. since then. For example. Clients. are pushbased. or short video clips. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. depending upon their data requirements. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. and so on. etc. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. caching can be used to reduce data miss. For example. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. it can push weather information on one channel. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. and so on. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio.

It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. to all employees. data in the broadcast. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. A immediate attention. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. traffic information. It guarantees identical message delivery. However. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. client. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. bandwidth viewpoint. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. and In a wireless platform. Advantages one at a time. For example. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. business. the waiting time for information faster and. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. then they will appear on consequently. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. reduce or access is zero. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. at the same time. focus. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. dining information appears in the broadcast. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. especially from a or services. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). there is a difference in them. especially for providing transactional facility. however.g. or commercial) to identify. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. that is. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. It has.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. This facility the ideal scheme. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. if interested only i n dining information. Data are dropped in the channel. This setup significantly reduces the search time. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server.. even though push applications are not really push. places information. the burden of acquiring data. which is highly desirable.

however.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. Many vendorsAir Media. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. during a song broadcast. as well as individually. but the push system requires specific tools and applications.  Push applications are complex. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. . Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. Berkeley Systems. to name a few. allow it to scale. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Marimba. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. For example. Pointcast. while it is useful event. randomly. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. has a number of interruption.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. IntraExpress. Although users get the information.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. Alpha Microsystems. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. multicast solutions. for example. bandwidth problems.

For example. . and Microsoft Corp.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) .  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF).  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. and Netscape development tools. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. highly needed. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. are the two leading supplied. defining push updates. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. Both users and in the push technology. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. The proprietary client is required. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. This becomes more expensive with number of users. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. No conjunction with their latest browsers. model. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. a server.

This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. 9. . and so on. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. news flashes.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. In a similar manner. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. airline schedule. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. traffic. stock quotes. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. Fig. B. C and D in that order. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. Latency Figure 9. a set of different types of information such as weather.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. can be transmitted on different speed channels.

Figure 9. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. The task. Unfortunately. An efficient broadcast scheme. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population.T4) + (Ts . then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . This increase in size affects access time. If. therefore. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. that is.Ts)+ (Ts . The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan.2'0).TL)+ (TI. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). and so on. The access time depends on broadcast size. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. must balance this trade-off. In some client population. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. on the other hand. Client information requirement is highly random. In the push approach. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements.4 illustrates access and tuning time. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel.T5). therefore. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. tunes selectively (selective tuning). If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. . The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . the client slips into doze mode intermittently.

These components are discussed in detail below. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. It may provide yellow pages services. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. (b) reaching active . stock. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. etc. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. access delay. and so on. for example. Figure 9. entertainment. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. traffic. and geographical domain becomes very complex. broadcast indexing. However. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. if not impossible. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to.Thus. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. the relationship among data popularity. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. with the help of popularity computation. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. which makes it very hard. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. encyclopedia. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. and broadcast them. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. client samples. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. dictionary. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. D2.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. In (b).

the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. Thus. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). (c) user movement. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. and T . To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). (c) studying the market trends. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. .1 1. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. PT. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. In reality the client population is very large. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. and (d) channel tunability. The server also records the corresponding time. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. static and dynamic approaches can be used. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously.clients to look at their data access history. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. and so on. as is the database to support their requests. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. a PF queue with these operations. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. Based on the information stored in the log file.

It consists of a surrogate. on an average. number of pages by the base station. Figure 9. Thus. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. we calculate a time bound. Based on the amount of storage available. Since the public data is staged in the machine. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . Thus. Figure 9. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Thus. but it is fixed for this calculation). which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. for the user to access a data.27 shows the data staging architecture. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast.Fig. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. 9. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. Tbound. So. So. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes.27 Data staging in DAYS. For this. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. . The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data.

The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. 1998]. In Lubinski. anywhere and anytime possible. time and device.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. connectivity. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. In this section. costs and duration of connections. and bandwidths.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. especially in connection with position searching tools. knowledge and skills. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. respectively. applicable on special whereabouts. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. preferences. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. persons  location (and changing location in 3. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. The or demand new ones.available mobile resources. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. con dentiality. hard. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. roles.e. This meta-information is models. size) them. which people and objects in the environment stay. and restrictions detailed.3. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. i. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. where and when the data are used based on user aims. This is threats. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. Context information comprehends further . Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. other restricting or dismissing security measures. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). their tasks. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. integrity and accountability.

we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. a protection items gets the following table. management. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. threats or desired security characteristics. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. respectively.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS .E. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. addresses of messages.g. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. Database systems manage object types.and integrity rules. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. Our approach additionally used for their protection. 3. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. Moreover.whereas metadata are communication security. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. 1998]).. Transfer creatable. Metadata include 1999]. databases. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels.

Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. users. . every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. Additionally. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. However. But the separation. vertical and horizontal. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. too.

make flight reservation. such as web. However. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. It approach but assure a minimal security. . workflow systems. etc. open bank account. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. attend lectures. E-commerce. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. and so on. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping..

. 1998. 14. B. and Balakrishnan. 1997. J. 10. 13. May. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. C. Minneapolis. 4. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. Dunham. Bjorn T. No. S. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. 9. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. ACM SIGMOD Conf. el. H.. 12. Pitoura and G. Forman.. S.. R. conf. Michael Franklin. REFERENCES 1. R. 4.. Loeb. at. Vol. and Bhargava. Barbara. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems.Vijay Kumar. Franklin. 7. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. 11. and Michael Tan. H. 3. Samaras. Prague. George and Zahorjan.L. K. H.. DC. E. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 5-8. Johnsson. 2. 6. India. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. and Korth. No. 2000. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. May. 1995. 5..E. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Alonso. and Bhargava. Divesh Srivastava. Dhawan.. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments.5. Turban. McGraw-Hill. B.. on Information and Knowledge Management. 1994.. May 1993. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference. and Imielinski. Mobile Computing... E. and Zdonik. M. 27. Proc.Shaul Dar. Acharya. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. M. IEEE Computers. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. Artech House.. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments.. 2000. Proc.E. 1997. Alonso. S. Pitoura. Mumbai.. T. Proc. Int. Helal. 1996. 3rd. P. 1995. D. October 1993. Washington. A. April 1994. Sep. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. 1998. 1994. 8. Pitoura. Prentice Hall. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. on management of Data. San Jose. Proc. Chrysanthis. Proc. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖..

Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst. Pro.) . (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful