A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). .An example of this is a mobile workforce. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). 1. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. only recently modified data. processes. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. including: becoming increasingly smaller. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. Although viruses are a key concern.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". 1. Users don't require access to truly live data.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. mobile Apple-related products and applications. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. With the advent of mobile databases. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. Applications must provide significant interactivity. bar code scanners. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. such as printers. 1. information security. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread.

things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. and base stations. . SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. of Lake Worth.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. or wireless routers. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. portable Redwood Shores. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. If your application meets any of those requirements. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. Fla. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc.. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. mobile-database field.) Base stations are two-way radios. Calif. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. mobile units. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. portable phones. installations in fixed locations.

. EPOC. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database. Windows CE smart phones. Neutrino. zero. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. retrieves.server-based relational database management management system designed for small.mechanism. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. organizes and administration environments. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database.DB2e stores.system (RDMS). manages data on a handheld device.

C++. It includes support for Win32. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database.1 scalability. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. and Web server applications.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). programming APIs. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. mobile. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. and delivers the performance. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. PalmOS. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. and so on). Windows CE. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. focusing only on application specific problems. and EPOC database clients. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. Delphi. Table encryption for version 8.1.

1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability. Cellular system.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems.2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2. and GSM) .  Some node can process information.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. and wired and wireless systems (PCS.

a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). MS: Mobile Station. BS: Base Station. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. From 1974 to 1978. every organization. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). EIR: Equipment Identify Register. etc. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. could be equipped. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous.. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . AC: Access Chanel. since every person. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). and in any form. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. VLR: Visitor Location Register. HLR: Home Location Register. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication.2.

IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. the successor to IS-54. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS.reuse scheme. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. With TDMA. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. and has been available since 1989.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. that is. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM.25 MHz. For a user. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. Thus.95 Kbps. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. there are about 50 channels per cell. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). In the call setup procedure. American Digital supported. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. IS-136. Cordless Telephone.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. In a GSM base station.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. In AMPS. except that no large scale trial was conducted. Cellular (ADC). the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. and has been operating in USA since 1996.

Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR).1 MHz band. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. a private standardization organization in Japan. and outdoor environment. and the band 1895-1906. .global acceptance of DECT. similar to cellular systems. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. PHS uses TDMA. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. or 150 hours of standby time. DECT also supports seamless handoff.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. In FDD mode. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. The band 1906. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks.1-1918. offices. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore).

signaling.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. .Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. maintenance. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. or medium. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. Other functions of BS are call processing. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. and diagnostics. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell.

However. These are transmitted upon power on. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. Within their geographical region. This can be a laptop. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. a palmtop. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). and cell origination. Thus. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). cell initiated sampling. or any other mobile device. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. The user interface exists only at MU. (b) antenna. Ideally. The greater the number of hexagons. and (c) user interface. Wireless component . or a cell phone. Each of this cell has a Base Station. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). which consists of a display. a keypad for entering information. which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand.Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation.

MSC PSTN .Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. High density Smaller cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. Low density Small cells.

Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.  Limited battery life. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. For example.  Power-up registration. it sends a registration message. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. When an MU is switched on. it registers.  Deregistration. Needs some standard. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. Administrative constraints      Billing. Needs some standard. Subscription agreement. private. Any other policy constraints.  Power-down registration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. Call transfer charges.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network.  Mobile station constraints. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. or residential).  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. User profile and database sharing. . which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. Opposite to power-down registration. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch.

medical. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. Forced registration: A network may. force all MUs to register. etc. under certain circumstances. 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery .)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc.

the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. Thus. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. . which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. City area.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. This can be achieved through data access history. etc. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method.

Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. account number. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. The database distribution (replication. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. Example: Person name. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. Thus.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. Thus. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. However. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . etc. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. Needs location binding or location mapping function. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. etc.) must take into consideration LDD. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. Thus. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. partition. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells.

Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. and FLM = {flm1. CommitL}. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. ln} is a set of locations. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. L. L = {l1. e2.2. . …. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. Two types of processing modes are allowed. The management of the transaction moves with MU. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. …. flm2. l2. write}. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. en} is a set of execution fragments. Ojk {read.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. where F = {e1. FLM>. ….SC M and Nj {AbortL. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F.

e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. Serialization of concurrent execution. e5) MU1 T1(e1. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. e2. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions.

Transaction commit.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. . Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. A scheme. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. multiversion. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol. each node commit their fragment independently. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. estimates timeout.. A scheme which uses very few messages. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. New schemes based on timeout.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. is desirable. Database update consistency. especially wireless.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. during processing no communication is required. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary.  MU extract its fragment. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). Thus. Serialization of concurrent execution. may work.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. especially wireless messages is required. etc. At the end of timeout. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. which uses minimum number of messages.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set.

Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision.g. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. Thus. which are essential for recovery. .. at the right location. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node. and in a right format.. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. Important gain: Making information available at the right time.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.  Log carrier. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead..g. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases.g.

system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. . Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query.Customer trust A time consuming activity. However. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. web. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. every time the answer is different but correct. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. GPS can do this. so they are not discussed.5 Query Processing 2.that is. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. An integration of mobility. (a) location managementthat is. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system.

The presence of frequent cell crossing. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. In location update. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases.or picocell clusters. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. . When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. remote cells may be included in these areas. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks.9. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. and (c) paging. Motivated by these issues. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. further adds to the cost. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. 151. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. which is initiated by the mobile unit. (b) location lookup. or (c) power down mode. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. (b) doze mode. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. In some situations.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141.

If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. then the call is dropped. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval .  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. registration area. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. Fig. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. There are initiated. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. Cell overlap region. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process.

In is used. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC.13 In this scheme. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs.used in PCS. [lo]. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed.taking too long to process a handoff. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. 0. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . and in details can be found in Ref. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. and so on.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. In this approach. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. Figure situation for more than one handoff. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation.10 illustrates the scenario. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. initiated. responsible for detecting a handoff.1 1 illustrates the scenario. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. Figure 3. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. In this registration area. Some initiates a handoff. play any role in handoff detection. [ 101. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link.12 illustrates the scenario. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs.5 inter-BS handoff. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. around 0. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. then it 3. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. Figure 3. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. or base station controller (BSC). They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected.

Fig. . Fig. 3.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC. 3.

There are two ways to achieve link transfer. 2. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. and 0. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. Fig. to MU that the handoff process has started. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3.05 inter-MSC handoff.handoff. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. conversation (occurrence of silence). This acknowledgment message indicates is described below.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. . 3.

. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. Fig. In the former channel.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. since it is between two request message. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. the BS must complete some security check. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. On the command of the network. and the new BS. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. 3. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff.4. 6. then two cases arise: different BSCs.

and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). can be downloaded from the broadcast. push and pull. etc. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require.2. other new devices. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. This is an ideal scenario. stock quotes. and so on. provided terminal and personal . discussed in preceding chapters.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. weather. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. information about airline schedule. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent.. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. The mobile database systems. Thus. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. In reality. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. For example. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. for incorporating transactional facility. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. surrogates. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. Initially. PDAs. it is becoming an information management system as well. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. data staging. data broadcast. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. that is.

7 hours and to preserve battery power. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. these activities must be disabled whenever possible. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. The available power source is likely to last for 2. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel.2 V (0. that is. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. Therefore. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast.5 W.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW.96 Whour). the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . and the power dissipation for display is around 2. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously.

etc.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. . A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. buying an airline ticket. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. some as spam but some quite useful. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. but actually it is not so. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory.4 W with the transmitter powered on. foliage. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. In day-today activities. For example. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. and so on. For example. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. renting a movie with a particular title. if necessary. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs.. a Wavelan card consumes 1. A number of factors like the terrain. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. if necessary. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. It also. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. the height and kind of trees. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. download the required data. and so on. landscape. renting a movie or music CD. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. season. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. rain. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. For example. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. This facility is called selective tuning. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. transmission could reach tens of watts.

large graphics. The server. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. Push Application In the push process. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. news. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. real state costs and inflation status. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. since then. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. traffic information on another channel. after receiving the request. or short video clips.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. cable television broadcast. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. depending upon their data requirements. mutual funds costs. For example. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. the pull approach is resource-intensive. For example. and so on. it can push weather information on one channel. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. and so on. Clients. radio. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. tune the appropriate channel. etc. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. In fact. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user.. caching can be used to reduce data miss. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. etc. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. are pushbased. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes.

several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable.g. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. which is highly desirable. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. A immediate attention. client. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. to all employees. bandwidth viewpoint. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. It guarantees identical message delivery. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information.. Data are dropped in the channel. reduce or access is zero. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. places information. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. that is. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. if interested only i n dining information. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. For example. especially for providing transactional facility. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . In a channel the push is strictly sequential. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). This setup significantly reduces the search time.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. even though push applications are not really push. especially from a or services. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. then they will appear on consequently. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. business. the burden of acquiring data. there is a difference in them. This facility the ideal scheme. and In a wireless platform. however. or commercial) to identify. Advantages one at a time. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. traffic information. data in the broadcast. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. the waiting time for information faster and. focus. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. However. It has. dining information appears in the broadcast. at the same time.

. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. for example. Alpha Microsystems. as well as individually. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. Many vendorsAir Media. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. however. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. IntraExpress.  Push applications are complex.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. For example. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. multicast solutions. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. allow it to scale. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. while it is useful event. during a song broadcast. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. Marimba. Although users get the information. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. has a number of interruption.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. randomly. Berkeley Systems. bandwidth problems. to name a few. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. Pointcast.

so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. model. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. . but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. Both users and in the push technology. This becomes more expensive with number of users. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. The proprietary client is required.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. and Microsoft Corp. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. and Netscape development tools.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. No conjunction with their latest browsers. highly needed. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). For example.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. defining push updates. are the two leading supplied. a server.

a set of different types of information such as weather. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. stock quotes. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. Fig. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users.3 A simple broadcast disk setup.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. airline schedule. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. C and D in that order. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. traffic. and so on. can be transmitted on different speed channels. Latency Figure 9. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. In a similar manner. B. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. news flashes. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. 9. .

then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . In some client population. . Client information requirement is highly random. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. on the other hand. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population.Ts)+ (Ts . If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. An efficient broadcast scheme. In the push approach. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. therefore.T4) + (Ts .TL)+ (TI. therefore. that is. and so on. The access time depends on broadcast size. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data.T5). tunes selectively (selective tuning). The task. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. This increase in size affects access time. If. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data.2'0).Time: Similar to conventional disk access.4 illustrates access and tuning time. Unfortunately. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. the client slips into doze mode intermittently. must balance this trade-off. Figure 9. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times.

Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. In (b). D2. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. broadcast indexing. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. traffic. etc. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. for example. access delay. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. and broadcast them. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. dictionary. client samples. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. and so on. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. the relationship among data popularity. which makes it very hard. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. with the help of popularity computation. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. entertainment. Figure 9. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics.Thus. and geographical domain becomes very complex. encyclopedia. It may provide yellow pages services. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. stock. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. However. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. These components are discussed in detail below. (b) reaching active . if not impossible.

it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. PT. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. In reality the client population is very large. and (d) channel tunability. a PF queue with these operations. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. . The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. The server also records the corresponding time. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn.1 1. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. (c) studying the market trends. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase.clients to look at their data access history. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). and so on. Thus. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. Based on the information stored in the log file. as is the database to support their requests. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. (c) user movement. and T . static and dynamic approaches can be used. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. and the surrogate where data is to be staged.

Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. It consists of a surrogate. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. So.Fig. Based on the amount of storage available. . for the user to access a data. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . For this. Since the public data is staged in the machine. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. Thus.27 shows the data staging architecture. So. 9. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. but it is fixed for this calculation). Thus. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast.27 Data staging in DAYS. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. Tbound.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. number of pages by the base station. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. Figure 9. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. Thus. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. Figure 9. we calculate a time bound. on an average. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency.

mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. 1998]. This meta-information is models.3. respectively.available mobile resources. which people and objects in the environment stay. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. preferences. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. hard. and bandwidths. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. time and device. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type.and software (mobile site and network characteristics.e. In Lubinski. Context information comprehends further . This is threats. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. In this section. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. their tasks. anywhere and anytime possible. knowledge and skills. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. applicable on special whereabouts.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). and restrictions detailed. other restricting or dismissing security measures. connectivity. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. costs and duration of connections. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). where and when the data are used based on user aims. especially in connection with position searching tools. roles. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. con dentiality. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. persons  location (and changing location in 3. integrity and accountability. The or demand new ones. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. i. size) them. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent.

Moreover.E. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. 1998])..and integrity rules. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. Transfer creatable. Database systems manage object types. management. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. addresses of messages. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. 3. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. Our approach additionally used for their protection.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. Metadata include 1999].whereas metadata are communication security. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies.g. a protection items gets the following table. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. respectively. threats or desired security characteristics. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. databases.

The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. too. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. Additionally. But the separation. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. users. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. However. . Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. vertical and horizontal. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies.

workflow systems. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. However. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. E-commerce.. attend lectures. such as web. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. . it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. open bank account. make flight reservation. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. and so on. It approach but assure a minimal security. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. etc. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place.

The Challenges of Mobile Computing. 8.. K. A. C. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. Divesh Srivastava. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. Alonso.. on management of Data. and Bhargava. May. Bjorn T. George and Zahorjan. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Pitoura and G. Proc. 13. 2000. E. REFERENCES 1. Proc. . Franklin. H. Dhawan. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. May. M. Samaras. and Balakrishnan. Johnsson. Turban. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments.. 2000.E. 1998. Michael Franklin. Proc. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. No. 11.... Barbara. J. 2. Mobile Computing. Pitoura. H. McGraw-Hill. 10. Prague. Sep.5. Proc. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. 3.. E. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. 7. on Information and Knowledge Management. ACM SIGMOD Conf. 1994... P. 6. Loeb. Washington.. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖.. el. B.E. 1997. DC. 14. S. and Bhargava. Dunham. Pitoura. and Michael Tan. 1996. Forman.. Acharya. conf. April 1994. Alonso.. Minneapolis. T. H.Vijay Kumar. May 1993. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference. Int. and Zdonik. R. M. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. and Korth. S. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. 9. 27. 1997..L. 1995. 4. R. IEEE Computers. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. 5. 5-8.. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. October 1993. 12. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. S. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. 3rd. San Jose. 4.Shaul Dar. and Imielinski. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. B. D. 1995. Artech House. 1998. at. No. Vol. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. Helal. Mumbai. Prentice Hall. Chrysanthis. 1994. India. Proc.

) .Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst. Pro. (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept.

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