A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

1. bar code scanners.An example of this is a mobile workforce. processes. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. information security. Users don't require access to truly live data. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. . With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media. 1. Database security is more critical networks have become more open.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. only recently modified data. mobile Apple-related products and applications. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. Although viruses are a key concern. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). 1. Applications must provide significant interactivity.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions".4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. including: becoming increasingly smaller. such as printers. With the advent of mobile databases. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly.

HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. mobile units. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors..) Base stations are two-way radios. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. portable Redwood Shores. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. installations in fixed locations. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. .  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. If your application meets any of those requirements. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. of Lake Worth. and base stations. Fla. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. Calif. portable phones. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. or wireless routers. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. mobile-database field. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well.

DB2e stores.server-based relational database management management system designed for small. Neutrino. retrieves. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources.mechanism. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. manages data on a handheld device. EPOC. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications. . Windows CE smart phones. zero. organizes and administration environments.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database.system (RDMS).

1. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. Table encryption for version 8. and so on). The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. Delphi. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. and Web server applications. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server.1 scalability. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. and EPOC database clients. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. C++. and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. Windows CE. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. programming APIs. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. and delivers the performance. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . mobile. PalmOS. focusing only on application specific problems. It includes support for Win32.

Cellular system.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability. and wired and wireless systems (PCS.  Some node can process information.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.  Some node can communicate through voice channel. and GSM) .2.

etc. and in any form. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand.. AC: Access Chanel. HLR: Home Location Register. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). From 1974 to 1978. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. could be equipped. VLR: Visitor Location Register. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. MS: Mobile Station. since every person. every organization. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. BS: Base Station. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency .2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication.

Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . and has been operating in USA since 1996. that is. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. Cordless Telephone. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. and has been available since 1989. Cellular (ADC). It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels.25 MHz. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. IS-136. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. the successor to IS-54.reuse scheme. For a user. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. In a GSM base station. American Digital supported.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. Thus. In AMPS. there are about 50 channels per cell. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology.95 Kbps. With TDMA. except that no large scale trial was conducted. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. In the call setup procedure.

TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. similar to cellular systems. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. PHS uses TDMA. offices. and the band 1895-1906. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. The band 1906. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). a private standardization organization in Japan. DECT also supports seamless handoff. or 150 hours of standby time. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes.1-1918. .global acceptance of DECT. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design.1 MHz band. In FDD mode. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore).1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. and outdoor environment.

and diagnostics. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. or medium. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. maintenance. . and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. signaling. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. Other functions of BS are call processing. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it.

However. This can be a laptop. Each of this cell has a Base Station. Wireless component . and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. These are transmitted upon power on. Within their geographical region. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). or a cell phone. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). a palmtop. and cell origination.Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. which consists of a display. The user interface exists only at MU. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). The greater the number of hexagons. or any other mobile device. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. a keypad for entering information. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. Ideally. Thus. (b) antenna. cell initiated sampling. and (c) user interface.

Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. Low density Small cells. High density Smaller cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. MSC PSTN . The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations.

Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Needs some standard. Needs some standard. Subscription agreement.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers.  Deregistration.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. it registers. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. or residential). When an MU is switched on.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability. User profile and database sharing. For example. .  Power-down registration. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. Any other policy constraints.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. Call transfer charges. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public.  Power-up registration. Administrative constraints      Billing. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. it sends a registration message.  Limited battery life. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met.  Mobile station constraints. private.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network. Opposite to power-down registration.

etc. Forced registration: A network may.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. force all MUs to register. 2. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . medical. under certain circumstances.

frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. This can be achieved through data access history. . A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. City area. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. etc. Thus. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method.

) must take into consideration LDD. Thus. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. Thus. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. etc. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. etc. Thus. Example: Person name. account number. The database distribution (replication. Needs location binding or location mapping function. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. partition. which is referred to as ―Data region‖.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. However.

SC M and Nj {AbortL. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. …. FLM>. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. . L. Two types of processing modes are allowed. This creates a Distributed mobile execution.2. …. …. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. l2. en} is a set of execution fragments. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. and FLM = {flm1. write}. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. CommitL}. L = {l1. The management of the transaction moves with MU.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. flm2. e2. ln} is a set of locations. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. Ojk {read. where F = {e1. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU.

The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. e2. e5) MU1 T1(e1.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. Serialization of concurrent execution. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction.

A scheme. especially wireless messages is required. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. Transaction commit.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. At the end of timeout. . Serialization of concurrent execution. each node commit their fragment independently.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. may work. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). especially wireless..  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database.  MU extract its fragment. during processing no communication is required. which uses minimum number of messages. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. Database update consistency.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. etc.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. estimates timeout. is desirable.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. multiversion. A scheme which uses very few messages. Thus. New schemes based on timeout. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol.

A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources.  Log carrier. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. Thus..  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints.g. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. which are essential for recovery.. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e.g.. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. at the right location.g. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. and in a right format. . Important gain: Making information available at the right time. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.

However. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. so they are not discussed. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage.5 Query Processing 2. every time the answer is different but correct. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. web. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced.that is.Customer trust A time consuming activity. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. An integration of mobility. GPS can do this. (a) location managementthat is. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. . system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service.

then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. In location update. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. and (c) paging. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. (b) location lookup.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. In some situations. . which is initiated by the mobile unit.or picocell clusters. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. 151. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. Motivated by these issues. remote cells may be included in these areas. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. further adds to the cost. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. (b) doze mode. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell.9. or (c) power down mode. The presence of frequent cell crossing. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way.

A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. then the call is dropped. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also .  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. There are initiated.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. registration area. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. Cell overlap region. Fig.

the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. In this registration area. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. 0. In is used. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link.used in PCS. then it 3. Figure 3.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed.12 illustrates the scenario. responsible for detecting a handoff. [lo]. Figure situation for more than one handoff.taking too long to process a handoff. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. Figure 3. or base station controller (BSC). play any role in handoff detection.13 In this scheme. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. [ 101. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. and so on. initiated. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. Some initiates a handoff. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection.10 illustrates the scenario. In this approach. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. and in details can be found in Ref. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO.1 1 illustrates the scenario. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally.5 inter-BS handoff. around 0. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3.

3. Fig. .Fig.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC. 3.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff.

handoff. . conversation (occurrence of silence). 3. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. Fig. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. to MU that the handoff process has started.05 inter-MSC handoff. 2. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. and 0. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time.

When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case. Fig. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. In the former channel.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. On the command of the network. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6.4. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. since it is between two request message. then two cases arise: different BSCs. 3. 6. and the new BS. . the BS must complete some security check.

6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. weather. stock quotes. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. In reality. surrogates. For example. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. can be downloaded from the broadcast. it is becoming an information management system as well. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. and so on. etc.. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. provided terminal and personal . PDAs. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. discussed in preceding chapters. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. This is an ideal scenario. The mobile database systems. data staging. Initially. for incorporating transactional facility. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). push and pull. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space). The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. other new devices. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. data broadcast. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. Thus.2. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. that is. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. information about airline schedule.

5 W. The available power source is likely to last for 2. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. and the power dissipation for display is around 2. Therefore. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication.96 Whour). especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . There are two basic modes of data dissemination. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. that is. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers.2 V (0. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW.7 hours and to preserve battery power.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric. these activities must be disabled whenever possible.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221.

For example. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. a Wavelan card consumes 1. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. but actually it is not so.. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. renting a movie with a particular title. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. For example. rain. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. some as spam but some quite useful. and so on. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. etc. the height and kind of trees. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. This facility is called selective tuning. season. In day-today activities.4 W with the transmitter powered on. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. It also. if necessary. A number of factors like the terrain. renting a movie or music CD. buying an airline ticket. download the required data. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. For example. foliage. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. . It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. if necessary. transmission could reach tens of watts. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. landscape. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. and so on. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information.

the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. traffic information on another channel. In fact. radio. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. etc. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. it can push weather information on one channel. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. For example. news. etc. and so on. real state costs and inflation status. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. large graphics. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. The server.. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. and so on. cable television broadcast. or short video clips. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. the pull approach is resource-intensive. mutual funds costs. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. since then. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. depending upon their data requirements. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. Clients. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. after receiving the request. Push Application In the push process. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . are pushbased. caching can be used to reduce data miss. For example. tune the appropriate channel.

the waiting time for information faster and.. or commercial) to identify. that is. places information. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . bandwidth viewpoint. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. This setup significantly reduces the search time. A immediate attention. Data are dropped in the channel. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA).g. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. especially from a or services.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. and In a wireless platform. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. business. however. the burden of acquiring data. at the same time. client. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. However. It guarantees identical message delivery. Advantages one at a time. This facility the ideal scheme. focus. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. traffic information. there is a difference in them. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. reduce or access is zero. to all employees. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. For example. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. dining information appears in the broadcast. which is highly desirable. then they will appear on consequently. It has. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. data in the broadcast. even though push applications are not really push. if interested only i n dining information. especially for providing transactional facility. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e.

so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. during a song broadcast. Many vendorsAir Media. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. bandwidth problems. to name a few. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. allow it to scale.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. .  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Berkeley Systems. as well as individually.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. randomly. for example. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem.  Push applications are complex. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. For example.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. IntraExpress. Although users get the information. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. Marimba. Pointcast.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. while it is useful event. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. multicast solutions. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. has a number of interruption. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. Alpha Microsystems. however. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy.

the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . model. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. . has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. A proprietary client is Communications Corp.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. and Netscape development tools. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. This becomes more expensive with number of users. a server. For example. The proprietary client is required. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. and Microsoft Corp. Both users and in the push technology.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. No conjunction with their latest browsers. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). highly needed. defining push updates. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. are the two leading supplied. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor.

Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . and so on.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. can be transmitted on different speed channels. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). traffic. stock quotes. . Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. news flashes. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. B. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. In a similar manner. C and D in that order. a set of different types of information such as weather.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). airline schedule. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. 9. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. Latency Figure 9. Fig. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration.

and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user.TL)+ (TI.T4) + (Ts . tunes selectively (selective tuning). therefore. and so on. Unfortunately. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population. The access time depends on broadcast size. Figure 9. must balance this trade-off. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements.T5). The task. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. that is. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7.2'0). Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. An efficient broadcast scheme.Ts)+ (Ts . If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. In some client population. on the other hand. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. If. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 .4 illustrates access and tuning time. This increase in size affects access time. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). therefore. the client slips into doze mode intermittently. Client information requirement is highly random. . In the push approach.

to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. if not impossible. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. broadcast indexing. dictionary. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. the relationship among data popularity. stock. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. for example. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. encyclopedia. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. client samples. which makes it very hard. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. and broadcast them. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. with the help of popularity computation. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. and so on. etc. Figure 9. and geographical domain becomes very complex. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. access delay. In (b). traffic. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast.Thus. It may provide yellow pages services. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. These components are discussed in detail below. However. D2. (b) reaching active . entertainment. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics.

(c) studying the market trends. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). and T . A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. a PF queue with these operations. (c) user movement. In reality the client population is very large. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. Based on the information stored in the log file. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. and (d) channel tunability. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. Thus. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. and so on. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. as is the database to support their requests. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. PT. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. static and dynamic approaches can be used. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. The server also records the corresponding time. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT.clients to look at their data access history. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. . The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user.1 1.

for the user to access a data. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data.Fig. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. but it is fixed for this calculation). Since the public data is staged in the machine. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. Figure 9. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. . The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . It consists of a surrogate.27 Data staging in DAYS. For this. 9. number of pages by the base station. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. So. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. Thus. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . So. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)). The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast.27 shows the data staging architecture. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. we calculate a time bound. Thus.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. Tbound. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. Based on the amount of storage available. on an average. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. Thus. Figure 9.

3. knowledge and skills. Context information comprehends further .available mobile resources. and restrictions detailed. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time).and software (mobile site and network characteristics. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. This meta-information is models. integrity and accountability. preferences. applicable on special whereabouts. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. their tasks. other restricting or dismissing security measures. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. connectivity. where and when the data are used based on user aims. costs and duration of connections. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. 1998]. especially in connection with position searching tools. In Lubinski. persons  location (and changing location in 3. roles. respectively. and bandwidths. hard. This is threats. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. time and device. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures.e. In this section. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. anywhere and anytime possible. con dentiality. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. size) them. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. i. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. The or demand new ones. which people and objects in the environment stay.

whereas metadata are communication security. Our approach additionally used for their protection. respectively. Database systems manage object types. a protection items gets the following table. Metadata include 1999]. Transfer creatable. threats or desired security characteristics. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. management. addresses of messages.E. Moreover. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies.g. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated.. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. 1998]). necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. The body of the table illustrates the special problems.and integrity rules. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. databases. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . 3. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments.

However. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. users. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. too. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. vertical and horizontal. Additionally. . The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. But the separation. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control.

such as web. . make flight reservation. It approach but assure a minimal security. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping.. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. etc. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. open bank account. attend lectures. and so on. However. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. workflow systems. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. E-commerce. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform.

on management of Data. 1994. India. Chrysanthis. 13. Proc. on Information and Knowledge Management. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. Divesh Srivastava. Artech House. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. 5. E. Turban. 2000. J. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. H. DC.5.. 27. P. Samaras. E.Shaul Dar. May. No. Pitoura. Proc. 2000. 3. Forman. Sep. Pitoura and G. May. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. and Zdonik. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. Proc. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 7. H. 1996. Vol. REFERENCES 1. Int. April 1994.. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. Alonso. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. 1995. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference.. el. ACM SIGMOD Conf. R. and Michael Tan. 3rd. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. Helal. 5-8. Prague.. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments.. T. Acharya.E. S. Johnsson. McGraw-Hill. 9. 1997. B. Michael Franklin. and Korth. A. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. D. 1995.. H. Loeb. 14. 4. B. S. K. M. ACM SIGMOD Conf. M. Barbara. R. No.. Bjorn T.. George and Zahorjan..Vijay Kumar.. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. conf. The Challenges of Mobile Computing. 1997. .. Washington.L. and Bhargava.. and Bhargava. San Jose. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. 1994. Dunham. C.E. 11. 10. IEEE Computers. 6. S.. 1998. Franklin. Prentice Hall.. 12. 8. and Balakrishnan. Minneapolis. Alonso. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. Proc. May 1993. Mumbai. Proc. 2. 4. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. October 1993. Mobile Computing. Dhawan. at.. 1998. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. Pitoura. and Imielinski.

) . Pro. (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept.Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst.

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