A Seminar Report On

SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS

Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering
SUBMITTED BY:

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING

PAGE INDEX

SN

Topic

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE 1.2 MOBILE DATABASE 1.3 MOBILE SECURITY 1.4 DATABASE SECURITY 1.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE

2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast

3. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY 3.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS 3.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTION

4. CONCLUSION

5. REFERENCES

1. INTRODUCTION
The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.
1.1 SECURITY IN MOBILE DATABASE

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.
1.2 MOBILE DATABASE

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

including: becoming increasingly smaller. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. 1. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware.4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. . 1.An example of this is a mobile workforce. such as printers. more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. Although viruses are a key concern. the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. With the advent of mobile databases. outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions". information security. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. mobile Apple-related products and applications. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. only recently modified data. bar code scanners. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). Applications must provide significant interactivity. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. 1. processes. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. Users don't require access to truly live data.

) Base stations are two-way radios. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. Fla. portable phones.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY.. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. of Lake Worth. or wireless routers. mobile units. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. Calif. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors. . SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. If your application meets any of those requirements. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. mobile-database field. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. portable Redwood Shores. installations in fixed locations. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. and base stations. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost.

server-based relational database management management system designed for small. organizes and administration environments.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications.DB2e stores. manages data on a handheld device. retrieves. . The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database.mechanism. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable.system (RDMS). Neutrino. EPOC. zero. Windows CE smart phones. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed.

and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. focusing only on application specific problems. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance.1 scalability. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. PalmOS. and delivers the performance.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. and EPOC database clients. programming APIs. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. mobile. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. Table encryption for version 8. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. and so on). It includes support for Win32.1. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. C++. Delphi. and Web server applications. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. Windows CE. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio.

MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems.2. and wired and wireless systems (PCS. and GSM) .1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability. Cellular system.  Some node can communicate through voice channel.  Some node can process information.

which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab.2. VLR: Visitor Location Register. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. MS: Mobile Station. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). AC: Access Chanel. could be equipped. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency . HLR: Home Location Register. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system.. From 1974 to 1978. BS: Base Station. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). and in any form. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. since every person. every organization. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). etc. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand.

the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. IS-136. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. except that no large scale trial was conducted. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. there are about 50 channels per cell. This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies. and has been operating in USA since 1996. the successor to IS-54. In AMPS. Thus. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels.25 MHz. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). In the call setup procedure. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. In a GSM base station. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI).95 Kbps.reuse scheme. that is. American Digital supported.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. With TDMA. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. Cordless Telephone. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. and has been available since 1989. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). Cellular (ADC). IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. For a user. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS.

the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time.global acceptance of DECT. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). . a private standardization organization in Japan.1 MHz band. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore).1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. In FDD mode. offices. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. DECT also supports seamless handoff. and outdoor environment. and the band 1895-1906.1-1918. PHS uses TDMA. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. The band 1906. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. similar to cellular systems. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. or 150 hours of standby time.

. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal. maintenance.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0. or medium. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. Other functions of BS are call processing. signaling.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface. and diagnostics. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks.

Within their geographical region.Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). which consists of a display. and cell origination. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). This can be a laptop. However. MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). cell initiated sampling. each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. or a cell phone. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. Ideally. a palmtop. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). or any other mobile device. Each of this cell has a Base Station. Thus. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. The user interface exists only at MU. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. and (c) user interface. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). Wireless component . which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). The greater the number of hexagons. These are transmitted upon power on. a keypad for entering information. (b) antenna.

High density Smaller cells.Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. MSC PSTN . Low density Small cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells.

European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world.  Deregistration. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met.  Power-down registration.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. it registers. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. Subscription agreement. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. Needs some standard. or residential). Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch.  Mobile station constraints.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. When an MU is switched on.  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. Call transfer charges.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. For example. . it sends a registration message. private. Any other policy constraints. Administrative constraints      Billing.  Limited battery life. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider.  Power-up registration. Opposite to power-down registration.  Integration of a new service provider into the network. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. User profile and database sharing. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. Needs some standard.

medical. force all MUs to register.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. under certain circumstances. 2. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police. etc. Forced registration: A network may.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc.

A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. Thus. . the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. This can be achieved through data access history. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency. City area. etc.

account number. etc. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. etc.) must take into consideration LDD. Thus. The database distribution (replication. Example: Person name. Thus. Thus. Needs location binding or location mapping function. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. However. partition.

Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. CommitL}. where F = {e1. L = {l1.2. …. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. Two types of processing modes are allowed. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. The management of the transaction moves with MU. ln} is a set of locations. …. e2. FLM>. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. …. en} is a set of execution fragments. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. . Ojk {read. write}. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. l2.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j. flm2. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. L.SC M and Nj {AbortL. and FLM = {flm1.

Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. e5) MU1 T1(e1. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . Serialization of concurrent execution. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. e2.

 Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations. . Transaction commit.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. may work. estimates timeout. which uses minimum number of messages.  MU extract its fragment. multiversion. etc. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. At the end of timeout. Database update consistency.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. A scheme. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database.. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. Serialization of concurrent execution. Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. is desirable.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. An efficient commit protocol is necessary.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. Thus. especially wireless. each node commit their fragment independently.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. especially wireless messages is required. during processing no communication is required. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. New schemes based on timeout. A scheme which uses very few messages. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol.

Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities. . Thus. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision..g.  Log carrier. which are essential for recovery. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints.. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e. BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e.g. at the right location. Important gain: Making information available at the right time. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. and in a right format.g.. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node.

However. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2.that is. Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. GPS can do this. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained.5 Query Processing 2.Customer trust A time consuming activity. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage. . every time the answer is different but correct. web. (a) location managementthat is. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously. An integration of mobility. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system. so they are not discussed. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable.

A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. or (c) power down mode.or picocell clusters. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. Motivated by these issues. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment.9. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. further adds to the cost. then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. In some situations. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. and (c) paging. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. The presence of frequent cell crossing. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. which is initiated by the mobile unit. 151. which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. In location update. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. (b) location lookup. remote cells may be included in these areas. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. (b) doze mode.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. .

processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . There are initiated. then the call is dropped. Fig. Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area. Cell overlap region. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . registration area. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process.

12 illustrates the scenario. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. [lo]. 0. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. Some initiates a handoff.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC. around 0. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. and so on. and in details can be found in Ref. Figure 3.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. [ 101. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed.taking too long to process a handoff.5 inter-BS handoff. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. initiated. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref.10 illustrates the scenario. play any role in handoff detection. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. then it 3.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. responsible for detecting a handoff. Figure situation for more than one handoff. In this registration area. In is used. or base station controller (BSC). and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel.13 In this scheme. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel. the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. In this approach. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC.1 1 illustrates the scenario. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3.used in PCS. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. Figure 3. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs.

3.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC. 3. .Fig.10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff. Fig.

Fig. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence. to MU that the handoff process has started. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process.05 inter-MSC handoff. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. conversation (occurrence of silence). This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. and 0. The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. 3. It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. .handoff. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. 2. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff.

In the former channel. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. since it is between two request message. On the command of the network.4. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. then two cases arise: different BSCs. 3. the BS must complete some security check. Fig. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. 6. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. and the new BS. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. . When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case.

PDAs. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones. other new devices. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. In reality. Thus. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost. that is. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. information about airline schedule. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. For example. can be downloaded from the broadcast.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. it is becoming an information management system as well. This is an ideal scenario. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. The mobile database systems. push and pull. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information).2. discussed in preceding chapters. Initially. etc. stock quotes. weather. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. surrogates. for incorporating transactional facility. and so on. data broadcast. data staging. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space).. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. provided terminal and personal .

the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I .7 hours and to preserve battery power.2 V (0. The available power source is likely to last for 2. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. that is. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. and the power dissipation for display is around 2. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. Therefore. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast.5 W. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. these activities must be disabled whenever possible. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric.96 Whour). The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel.

Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. buying an airline ticket. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory. if necessary. season. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. For example. . The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. rain. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. some as spam but some quite useful. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. This facility is called selective tuning. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. In day-today activities. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. the height and kind of trees..4 W with the transmitter powered on. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. For example.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. and so on. a Wavelan card consumes 1. transmission could reach tens of watts. and so on. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. It also.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. renting a movie with a particular title. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. if necessary. renting a movie or music CD. but actually it is not so. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. etc. A number of factors like the terrain. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. landscape. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. download the required data. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. foliage. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. For example.

These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. news. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. For example. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. Push Application In the push process. and so on. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. or short video clips. The server. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. caching can be used to reduce data miss. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. depending upon their data requirements.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. it can push weather information on one channel. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. and so on. since then. radio. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. real state costs and inflation status. For example. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. large graphics. the pull approach is resource-intensive. tune the appropriate channel. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. etc. are pushbased. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. In fact.. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. after receiving the request. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. cable television broadcast. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. Clients. etc. mutual funds costs. traffic information on another channel. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval.

or commercial) to identify.. that is. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. Advantages one at a time. data in the broadcast. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. It guarantees identical message delivery. then they will appear on consequently. It has. This facility the ideal scheme. bandwidth viewpoint. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. traffic information. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. reduce or access is zero. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data. which is highly desirable. places information. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. business. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. focus. however. However. the burden of acquiring data. to all employees. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. at the same time. client. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). This setup significantly reduces the search time. especially from a or services. Data are dropped in the channel. For example. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. even though push applications are not really push. if interested only i n dining information. the waiting time for information faster and. especially for providing transactional facility. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client.g. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. A immediate attention. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. there is a difference in them. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. and In a wireless platform. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. dining information appears in the broadcast.

machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. multicast solutions. For example. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. during a song broadcast. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. has a number of interruption. while it is useful event. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. . allow it to scale. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. IntraExpress.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems. however. Many vendorsAir Media. Alpha Microsystems.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources. Although users get the information. Pointcast. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. Marimba. randomly. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. bandwidth problems. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time. to name a few. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. for example.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service. as well as individually.  Push applications are complex. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. Berkeley Systems.

are the two leading supplied.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. defining push updates. highly needed. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. This becomes more expensive with number of users. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. model. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. . Both users and in the push technology. and Netscape development tools. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. and Microsoft Corp. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users. No conjunction with their latest browsers. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. For example.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. The proprietary client is required.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. a server.

The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. Latency Figure 9. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity. Fig. . The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). news flashes. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. In a similar manner. then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. stock quotes. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A. C and D in that order. and so on. 9. airline schedule. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. traffic. a set of different types of information such as weather. B.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. can be transmitted on different speed channels.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration.

The access time depends on broadcast size.4 illustrates access and tuning time. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. tunes selectively (selective tuning). the client slips into doze mode intermittently. In some client population. An efficient broadcast scheme. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. In the push approach.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation.Time: Similar to conventional disk access.TL)+ (TI. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel.T5). Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . .2'0). Client information requirement is highly random. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population.Ts)+ (Ts . Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. If. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. therefore. that is. therefore. This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. The task. This increase in size affects access time. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To). is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. Unfortunately.T4) + (Ts . and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning. on the other hand. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast. and so on. must balance this trade-off. Figure 9.

The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. access delay. which makes it very hard. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. the relationship among data popularity. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created.Thus. (b) reaching active . In (b). if not impossible. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. However. D2. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. broadcast indexing. etc. encyclopedia. and broadcast them. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. where users initiate all kinds of transactions.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. Figure 9. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. for example. and so on. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. and geographical domain becomes very complex. traffic. with the help of popularity computation. client samples. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. It may provide yellow pages services. These components are discussed in detail below. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. entertainment. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious. stock. dictionary. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics.

It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. a PF queue with these operations.1 1. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. In reality the client population is very large. Based on the information stored in the log file. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations. and (d) channel tunability. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. Thus. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. (c) studying the market trends. and T .clients to look at their data access history. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. . and the surrogate where data is to be staged. The server also records the corresponding time. and so on. Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). as is the database to support their requests. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. PT. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. static and dynamic approaches can be used. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. (c) user movement. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability.

total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . Thus. number of pages by the base station. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. on an average. Tbound.27 shows the data staging architecture. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M . Figure 9. 9. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps. So. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. Figure 9. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. Based on the amount of storage available. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. Since the public data is staged in the machine. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. Thus. . for the user to access a data. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. Thus. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access.27 Data staging in DAYS. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. we calculate a time bound. For this.Fig. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. So. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. but it is fixed for this calculation). the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)).1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. It consists of a surrogate. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate.

and software (mobile site and network characteristics. In Lubinski. applicable on special whereabouts. con dentiality. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). costs and duration of connections. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. which people and objects in the environment stay. Context information comprehends further .For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. roles.3. Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. This meta-information is models.available mobile resources. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. This is threats. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. size) them. time and device. The or demand new ones. hard. application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. especially in connection with position searching tools. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. and bandwidths. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. integrity and accountability. i. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. knowledge and skills. anywhere and anytime possible. preferences. where and when the data are used based on user aims. other restricting or dismissing security measures. connectivity. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. their tasks. In this section.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. respectively. and restrictions detailed. persons  location (and changing location in 3.e. 1998].

Metadata include 1999]. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. Our approach additionally used for their protection. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. Database systems manage object types. Moreover. 1998]). items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. Transfer creatable. 3. databases.whereas metadata are communication security. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on.E. addresses of messages. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims.g. respectively.and integrity rules. threats or desired security characteristics.. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. management. consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. a protection items gets the following table.

meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. But the separation. too. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. users. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. vertical and horizontal. However. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. . sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. Additionally.

It approach but assure a minimal security. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. workflow systems.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. . make flight reservation. such as web. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform.. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. etc. open bank account. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. However. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. attend lectures. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. E-commerce. fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. and so on.

No. Proc. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. 3. Mobile Computing. M. Minneapolis. R. S. ACM SIGMOD Conf. on Information and Knowledge Management. DC. McGraw-Hill. Michael Franklin. Int. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference.E. Acharya.. and Imielinski. 2000. The Challenges of Mobile Computing.. October 1993. Alonso. Proc. 5. . A. Sep.. May. Franklin. at. No. H. Chrysanthis.Shaul Dar. J. P. H. ―Secure Electronic Transactions‖. 10. S.. Pitoura and G. India. ―Semantic Data Caching and Replacement‖. Divesh Srivastava. Artech House. Samaras. May. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing.. Proc. 1995. 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems.. 13. Mumbai. George and Zahorjan. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Prentice Hall. T.E. Dunham.. A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior. Loeb. 1997. E. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. IEEE Computers. Prague. and Korth. 4. Proc. San Jose. Alonso. Vol. and Bhargava. 9. Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment. April 1994. 4. 1998. 7. REFERENCES 1. ―Data Management for Mobile Computing‖. on management of Data. K.5. conf. 1998. and Zdonik. 2000. B. Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments. and Balakrishnan.L. Dhawan. and Michael Tan. el. Bjorn T. 14. 1994. May 1993. 1994.Vijay Kumar. 6. 3rd. Proc. Turban.. 2. E.. M. ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications. 1995.. ACM SIGMOD Conf... Helal. Johnsson. Washington. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. H. in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems. D.. and Bhargava.. C. 8. R. 5-8. 12. 1997. Forman. Pitoura. 27.. 1996. 11. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. ―Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol‖. Barbara. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. B. S. ―Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective‖. Pitoura.

) . Pro. (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept.Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful