A Seminar Report On


Submitted By :Pankaj Menaria

Yash Vyas
Kamlesh Jain

A Seminar Report On
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Pankaj Menaria Yash Vyas Kamlesh Jain

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Ajay Prasad





2. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.1 Fully Connected Information Space 2.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS) 2.4 Transaction Management 2.5 Query Processing 2.6 Location and Handoff Management 2.7 Wireless Information Broadcast




The importance of databases in modern businesses and governmental institutions is huge and still growing. Many missioncritical applications and business processes rely on databases. These databases contain data of different degree of importance and confidentiality, and are accessed by a wide variety of users. Integrity violations for a database can have serious impact on business processes; disclosure of confidential data in some cases has the same effect. Traditional database security provides techniques and strategies to handle such problems with respect to database servers in a non-mobile context.

developing mobility support in database context. The confidentiality of missioncritical data must be ensured, even though most mobile devices do not provide a secure environment for storage of such data. Security requirements that apply to a central company database should apply similarly and in an appropriate manner to the parts of the database replicated on mobile devices in the field. A mobile database security infrastructure is needed to accomplish this goal. When developing such an infrastructure we can benefit from the results of traditional database security work. But we also need to adapt the existing techniques and strategies to the mobile context, and we need to develop new ones that attack certain issues specific to use of database systems in a mobile environment.

With the rise in popularity of smartphones has come an increasing need to secure them. Since their introduction mobile phones have becoming increasingly smaller, more powerful with increasing storage capacity and have remained expensive items. With the rise of their popularity so has the need to secure the devices from theft, as well as traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices.

A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. A database is a structured way to organize information. This could be a list of contacts, price information or distance travelled.

The use of laptops, mobiles and PDAs is Database security is also a specialty within increasing and likely to increase in the the broader discipline of computer security. future[citation needed] with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. While those same analysts can’t tell us For many businesses applications are going exactly which applications will be the most mobile that means using enterprise data in a popular, it is clear that a large percentage mobile context, thus using a mobile DBMS. will require the use of a database of some With these new developments the business sort. Many applications such as databases data of an enterprise can be made available would require the ability to download to an even larger number of users and a information from an information repository wider range of applications than before. and operate on this information even when To work on business data anytime and out of range or disconnected. anywhere is the major goal pursued by

outlines the company’s concerns about the changing ―threats landscape‖ thanks in part to increases in malware sophistication and targeting and how they relate to seven areas — including social media.An example of this is a mobile workforce. and procedures that protect a database from  Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. such as printers. including: becoming increasingly smaller. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange missioncritical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. mobile Apple-related products and applications. With the  Authentication rise of their popularity so has the need to  Encryption secure the devices from theft. Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse. Although viruses are a key concern. as well as  Integrity controls traditional threats that effect computers such as malware and the need to back and protect the data on the devices. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. Users don't require access to truly live data.5 NEED FOR MOBILE DATABASE A recent report from McAfee titled" 2011 Threats Predictions".4 DATABASE SECURITY     Database security is the system. Applications must provide significant interactivity. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). 1. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. 1. only recently modified data. Additional network security devices that detect and alert on malicious database protocol traffic include network intrusion detection systems along with host-based intrusion detection systems. . more  Access control powerful with increasing storage capacity  Auditing and have remained expensive items. With the advent of mobile databases.3 MOBILE SECURITY unintended activity. information security. as With the rise in popularity of smartphones Databases provide many layers and types of has come an increasing need to secure them. typically specified in Since their introduction mobile phones have the data dictionary. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). the actual number of viruses targeting mobile phones in the wild has not been widespread. bar code scanners. 1. malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. Database security is more critical networks have become more open. processes. Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware.

Calif. the chances are good that you 2) Products will be required to build a mobile database Sybase Inc. Fla. and base stations. things to be enterprise synchronization server that considered are: extends enterprise applications to mobile devices.) Base stations are two-way radios. such as  Mobile computing devices: low-power. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. . SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of low-cost. Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. IBM’s DB2 Mobile database system architecture Everyplace is a relational database and For any mobile architecture. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for 3) Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. or wireless routers. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and  Users are not attached to a fixed Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases.  Limited life of power supply(battery) The changing topology of network the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station.. They are typically lowpower devices such as mobile phones. might serve your needs 1) Three parties equally well. geographical location Products from lesser-known vendors.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the application with synchronization. portable phones.and  Mobile computing constraints Database Viewer Plus from Cellica Corporation NY. HanDBase from  Wireless networks DDH Software Inc. If your application meets any of those requirements. installations in fixed locations. mobile-database field. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. mobile units. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. portable Redwood Shores. of Lake Worth.

retrieves.SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that 4) SQL Anywhere Technologies allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing databases using a file or message transfer and embeddable relational database.system (RDMS). and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. zero. organizes and administration environments. Windows CE smart phones. .DB2e stores. management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server 5) IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. session-based synchronization technology for  IBM DB2 Database Engine exchanging data among relational databases  IBM Sync and other non-relational data sources. Neutrino. manages data on a handheld device. EPOC. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a Ultralite: UltraLite is a database.server-based relational database management management system designed for small.  Query By Example (QBE) QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-andforward mobile messaging applications.mechanism. DB2e is currently available footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and for Palm OS.

allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. and so on). MobiSnap will be based on SQL. and server database the JDataStore database features a very small Mobile Device Administration Center footprint. which:     called Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. 7) Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. C++. mobile. and synchronization capabilities Java ME Sync Client for cell phones of a full-power database. Windows CE. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. PalmOS. requires practically zero (MDAC) maintenance. focusing only on application specific problems. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. It includes support for Win32. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. 8) Others Borland's JDataStore . and pagers MobiSnap MobiSnap. and Web server applications. programming APIs. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. and EPOC database clients.1. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly[citation needed] powerful. 6) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops.1 scalability.DB2e includes a component Synchronization Server. Allows synchronization between DB2e Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. Table encryption for version 8. Delphi. and delivers the performance. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems.

2. and GSM) .  Some node can do both Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems. Cellular system.1 Fully Connected Information Space  Each node of the information space has some communication capability.  Some node can communicate through voice channel.  Some node can process information. and wired and wireless systems (PCS. MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS 2.

Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service. etc. From 1974 to 1978. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. AMP was designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency .. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand.2 Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication. Two of the most popular PCS systems are:  Cellular telephony  Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:  Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)  Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)  EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System  EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was the first cellular system. It is based on frequency division multiple access (FDMA). EIR: Equipment Identify Register. Commercial AMPS service has been available since 1983. every organization. VLR: Visitor Location Register. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office).2. HLR: Home Location Register. PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place. AC: Access Chanel. Business opportunities (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous. a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. and in any form. BS: Base Station. could be equipped. PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt M SC (M TSO) M SC (M TSO) PSTN: Public Switched Network. since every person. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). MS: Mobile Station. which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab.

except that no large scale trial was conducted. Cordless Telephone.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4. CT2 also supports data transmission EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular rates of up to 2. An existing AMPS system can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis. 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. In AMPS. every pair of radio transceiverreceiver supports eight voice channels. CT2 moves a call path from one radio channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. Generation (CT2) Second Developed in Europe. Digital European Cordless Telephone supports a TDMA air interface similar to that (DECT) of GSM. Thus. In a GSM base station. EIA/TIA System IS-95 Digital Cellular GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate.reuse scheme. The GSM development process was similar to that of AMPS. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice channel. and has been available since 1989. the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12group frequency cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster using three sectors per base stations. IS-95’s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS. For a user. IS-136. CT2 does not support handoff and in a This system is also referred to as public CT2 system. IS-136 capacity is around three Enhanced Cordless Telephone to denote . and has been operating in USA since 1996. GSM combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. call delivery is not digital AMPS (DAMPS). IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. With TDMA. In GSM the frequency carrier is divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. American Digital supported.8 Kbps with an increased System rate. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. both baseptop handset signals and handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. the successor to IS-54. that is.95 Kbps. Global System Communication (GSM) for Mobile times that of AMPS. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. A total of 50 MHz in the 824849 MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS. Cellular (ADC).25 MHz. the radio hardware in the base station can be shared among multiple users. there are about 50 channels per cell. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1. where the speech coding rate is Telephone has been replaced by Digital 7. It supports three voice The Digital European Cordless channels. which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA proposal. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA). In the call setup procedure.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies.

The band 1906. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. offices.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems. TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications. and outdoor environment. using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks. DECT also supports seamless handoff. each with 300 KHz bandwidth. PHS uses TDMA. a private standardization organization in Japan. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five hours of talk time. the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers.global acceptance of DECT. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77 channels. PHS operates in the 1895-1918. In FDD mode. similar to cellular systems. and the band 1895-1906.1-1918. Low-tier PCS telephony overview Personal (PHS) Handy Phone System PHS is a standard developed by the Research and Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR). Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). .1 MHz band. or 150 hours of standby time.

Other functions of BS are call processing. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface.4-22 mile) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300’) Cordless Small (30-60’) User speed High ( 160 mph) Large/Continuous macrocell High Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. signaling. or medium. and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. and diagnostics. maintenance. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. . picocell Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use Speech coding rate Delay or latency Low High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs) High ( 600 ms) Low (10 ms) Low ( 20 ms) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface. for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. Micro and picocell Low Low ( 30 mph) Small/Zonal.Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview System Cell size High-tier Cellular Large (0.

MSC (MTSO) BS MS MS Cell Mobile cell Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. The greater the number of hexagons. the system has a large number of very small hexagons (cell). (b) antenna. This can be a laptop. Ideally. These are transmitted upon power on. a keypad for entering information. and (c) user interface. There are six PCS service providers authorized to provide mobile service in each of these areas. and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. However. Thus. larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. or a cell phone. Within their geographical region. and cell origination. Wireless component .Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN). or any other mobile device. cell coverage is a dynamic activity. It consists of three components: (a) transceiver. a palmtop. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN). which is constantly changing in response to increases in demand. which consists of a display. Each of this cell has a Base Station. and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). The user interface exists only at MU. cell initiated sampling. the more simultaneous calls the system can handle.

High density Smaller cells. Low density Small cells. Higher density The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells.Metropolitan area Metropolitan area BS Base Station Coverage area in one cell BS BS Coverage area in three cells Large cells. MSC PSTN . The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations.

 Integration of a new service provider into the network. or residential).  A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers.  Mobile station constraints. Call transfer charges. Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell.  Limited battery life.  Deregistration. Administrative constraints      Billing. Technical constraints  Bandwidth mismatch. which allows a  subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space.  Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to periodically register with the network.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public. Needs some standard. Needs some standard. Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility. it sends a registration message. Any other policy constraints. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world.Problems with cellular structure  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff  How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming  How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management Roaming  Roaming is a facility. . Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.  Power-down registration.  Power-up registration. Opposite to power-down registration. it registers. User profile and database sharing. private.  New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes. Subscription agreement. Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met. For example. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming. When an MU is switched on.  Quick MU response to a service provider’s availability.  Service providers must be able to communicate with each other.

etc. 2.3 Mobile Database Systems (MDS)  Vulnerable to physical activities  Hard to make theft proof. under certain circumstances. Forced registration: A network may. MDS Limitations     Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured  Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored  Can process special types of data efficiently  Not subjected to connection restrictions  Very high reachability  Highly portable To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)? MDS Issues  Data Management  Data Caching  Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)  Data Classification  Transaction Management     Query processing Transaction processing Concurrency control Database recovery . medical.)  Traffic control  Taxi dispatch  E-commerce  Etc. force all MUs to register. MDS capabilities A system with the following structural and functional properties  Distributed system with mobile connectivity  Full database system capability  Complete spatial mobility  Built on PCS/GSM platform  Wireless and wired communication capability MDS Applications  Insurance companies  Emergencies services (Police.

Thus. A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air. Mobile Units can tune to this Examples: City tax. etc. the value of Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is the location determines the correct value of made available by continuously the data. The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. This can be achieved through data access history.A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model) PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR M SC BSC MDS Data Management Issues How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth? Possible schemes  Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. City area. The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units.  Data Broadcast on wireless channels Semantic caching How MDS looks at the database data?  Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache Data classification instead of maintaining a list of pages  Location Dependent Data (LDD) or tuples. . For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method.  Location Independent Data (LID)  The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are Location Dependent Data (LDD) cached at the client. frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache. broadcasting it on some fixed radio Location Data value frequency.

the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system.Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells. Example: Person name. account number. Thus. which is referred to as ―Data region‖. Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells. etc. etc. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry.) must take into consideration LDD. Thus. Concept Hierarchy in LDD In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion. Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table. LDD must be processed under the location constraints. the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Pune’s finance rule. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. City data County 1 data County 2 data County n data Subdivision 1 data Subdivision data Subdivision m data . the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. Thus. Needs location binding or location mapping function. The database distribution (replication. partition. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database. However.

…. then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk.SC M and Nj {AbortL. flmi (ei) = li  For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x. Ojk {read. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. flm2. en} is a set of execution fragments. Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. ln} is a set of locations. one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level. BSC DB DBS DB DBS HLR M SC BSC Fixe d host Fixe d host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU Transaction fragments for distributed execution Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. j} where  i = OSj  {Ni} where OSj = kOjk. and FLM = {flm1. …. This creates a Distributed mobile execution. CommitL}. Two types of processing modes are allowed. . …. L. write}. where F = {e1. FLM>. L = {l1. l2.4 Transaction Management Transaction fragments for distribution PSTN An execution fragment eij is a partial VLR order eij = {j.2. e2. flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. The management of the transaction moves with MU. A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti is a triple <F.

If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects. The decomposition is done based on the  Timestamping consistency requirement. e5) MU1 T1(e1. Mobile Transaction execution DBS1 DBS2 T2(e4. which can be forced to wait by other transaction. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. Clustering: A mobile transaction isdecomposed into a set  Two-phase locking based (commonly used) of weak and strict transactions. The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and cotransactions which can execute anywhere. A cotransaction is a special class of reporting transaction. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. The read and write  Optimistic operations are also classified as weak and strict.Reporting and Co-Transactions: Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. Serialization of concurrent execution. e3) MU2 DBS4 DBS3 MU3 . e2.

2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. Serialization of concurrent execution. may work.. An efficient commit protocol is necessary. Transaction and database recovery Complex for the following reasons  Some of the processing nodes are mobile  Less resilient to physical use/abuse  Limited wireless channels  Limited power supply  Disconnected processing capability Desirable recovery features  Independent recovery capability  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility  Log duplication facility Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database.  Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations.  MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS.Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily  Wired and wireless message overhead. Thus. to maintain global Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout Requirements Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout  MT arrives at Home MU. each node commit their fragment independently. A scheme which uses very few messages. multiversion. especially wireless messages is required. is desirable. One possible scheme is ―timeout‖ based protocol. In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. At the end of timeout. etc. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary. New schemes based on timeout. A scheme. estimates timeout.  Coordinators commits or aborts MT. and send rest of MT to the coordinator. during processing no communication is required. which uses minimum number of messages. especially wireless. Transaction commit. .  MU extract its fragment.  DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. Database update consistency.  Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations.  Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set.

and in a right format. MU)  Logging at a centralized location (e. Mobile Agent Technology Requirements for a mobile E-system A mobile agent is an independent software  Security module capable of  Reliability  Efficient  Migrating to any node on the network  Customer trust  Capable of spawning and eliminating  Quality of service itself  Capable of recording its own history These requirements are difficulty and A mobile agent can be used for the following complex to achieve activities.g.  Log carrier. Possible approaches  Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel  Pool of agents at every processing node  Agent migration to a required node. which are essential for recovery.g.. Important gain: Making information available at the right time.  Transaction commit or abort Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. at a designated DBS)  Logging at the place of registration (e. at the right location. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases. . BS)  Saving log on Zip drive or floppies. Security  Centralized and distributed logging Conventional key approaches needs revision. Why mobile E-commerce? To make business activity free from spatial constraints. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent Reliability recovery Hard to provide mainly because of the  Log processing for database recovery unreliability and limitations of resources. Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead.. Thus.. MUs can recover without any help from DBS  Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power  Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme Possible approaches  Partial recovery capability  Use of mobile agent technology Possible MU logging approaches  Logging at the processing node (e.g. Mobile E-commerce What is E-commerce? Mapping of business activity on the network.

Quality of service Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service.Customer trust A time consuming activity. but none of them have been implemented in any commercial system.5 Query Processing 2. every time the answer is different but correct. (a) location managementthat is. web. . so they are not discussed. Location dependent query Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. transferring (handing off) the current (active) communication session to the next base station. Its movement is random and therefore its geographical location is unpredictable. This situation makes it necessary to locate the mobile unit and ecord its location to HLR and VLR when a call has to be delivered to it. It first explains how these processes work and then discusses their relevance to transaction management in mobile database systems. Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the Thus. which seamlessly resumes the session using its own set of channels. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service. The entire process of location management is a kind of directory management problem where locations are current locations are maintained continuously.that is.6 Location and Handoff Management The handoff process is provided and the topic of location management is introduced. However. system is responsible for two tasks: Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for ―here‖. The working of existing handoff and location mechanisms given in IS-41 is explained. Quite a few location management schemes have been proposed recently. GPS can do this. the entire process of the mobility geographical location of the origin of the management component of the cellular query. An integration of mobility. data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities 2. identification of the current geographical location or current point of attachment of a mobile unit which is required by the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to route the calland (b) handoff. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. Location Management MDS Query processing Query types  Location dependent query  Location aware query  Location independent query In cellular systems a mobile unit is free to move around within the entire area of coverage.

which is a common scenario in highly commuting zones.9. When it moves to a different cell in doze or power down modes. which becomes quite significant for finer granularity cells such as micro. the location management procedure is invoked to identify the new location. further adds to the cost. The cost of update and paging increases as cell size decreases. recently a number of innovative location management schemes have appeared in the research world [ 141. The system creates location areas and paging areas to minimize the cost. but as soon as both or any one of the units moves to a different cell. The current point of attachment or location of a subscriber (mobile unit) is expressed in terms of the cell or the base station to which it is presently connected. and in most commercial systems they are usually identical. or (c) power down mode. A number of neighboring cells are grouped together to form a location area. The other related issue is the distribution of HLR to shorten the access path. and new schemes continue to emerge as cellular technology advances. and in power down mode the unit is not functional at all. These two tasks are initiated by the MSC. Location lookup is basically a database search to obtain the current location of the mobile unit and through paging the system informs the caller the location of the called unit in terms of its current base station. In location update. The presence of frequent cell crossing. The unrestricted mobility of mobile units presents a complex dynamic environment. and the second tier 4earch is initiated only when the first tier search fails. It is useful to keep the same set of cells for creating location and paging areas. In some situations. A mobile unit can freely move around in (a) active mode. This arrangement reduces location update frequency because location updates are not necessary when a mobile unit moves in the cells of a location area. which is initiated by the mobile unit. (b) location lookup. . then it is neither possible nor necessary for the location manager to find the location. The location management module uses a two-tier scheme for locationrelated tasks. 151. The location management performs three fundamental tasks: (a) location update.One of the main objectives of efficient location management schemes is to minimize the communication overhead due to database updates (mainly HLR) [6. remote cells may be included in these areas. and the paging area is constructed in a similar way. In active mode the mobile actively communicates with other subscriber. and the location management component must be able to identify the correct location of a unit without any noticeable delay. which is similar to data distribution problem in distributed database systems. and it may continue to move within the cell or may encounter a handoff which may interrupt the communication. In doze mode a mobile unit does not actively communicate with other subscribers but continues to listen to the base station and monitors the signal levels around it. The first tier provides a quick location lookup. (b) doze mode. A large number of schemes to achieve low cost and infrequent update have been proposed. the current location of the unit is recorded in HLR and VLR databases. Motivated by these issues. The mobile units (called and calling subscribers) can continue to talk and move around in their respective cells. It is the task of the location manager to find the new location and resume the communication. and (c) paging.or picocell clusters.

This implies that the handoff must not take more than the degradation interval to complete he process. If it happens within a for continuous connectivity. registration areas where two MSCs are involved in handoff processing. A handoff may happen within or outside a identifies new channels to be assigned registration area.Handoff Management This section discuses how a handoff is managed to provide continuous connectivity. In each of Handoff Detection these cases the handoff processing is completed in three steps: Handoff processing is expensive. Cell overlap region. The duration a mobile unit stays in this area is called the degradation interval . three approaches for detecting handoff effectively and accurately. A mobile unit may spends some time in this overlap area and the value of this duration depends upon the movement speed of the mobile unit. so the detection process must correctly detect a  Handoff detection: The system detects genuine and False Handoff which also when a handoff process needs to be occurs because of signal fading. The objective is to complete a handoff process while the mobile unit is still in the overlap area. then it is referred to as intra-system handoff where the same MSC  Transfer of radio link: The identified manages the entire process. An intersystem channels are allocated to the mobile handoff occurs between two separate unit. Fig. processing the system which are applied on GSM system but also . Figure illustratesthe presence of an overlap region between Cell 1 and Cell 2. registration area. then the call is dropped. If for some reason the process fails to complete in this area or within degradation interval. There are initiated.  Assignment of channels: During handoff A brief description of these approaches.

Mobile Unit (MU) does not illustrates the situation. the system is This scheme is implemented in second. from surrounding base stations and notifies the strength data to the serving base station. These two BSCs are connected to Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO): two different MSCs. Radio Link Transfer The strength of these signals are analyzed. The BS monitors the signal strength used by MUs As discussed in Ref. Figure situation for more than one handoff. and a handoff is initiated when the strength The last phase of handoff is the transfer of of a neighboring base station exceeds the the radio link. The MAHO scheme shares some detection steps of NCHO. the MU is highly mobile and has Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO): requested too many handoffs.taking too long to process a handoff. If it finds the BSC is connected to one MSC. In this scheme the Mobile Unit (MU) is Figure 3. link transfer takes place between two BSs which are connected to two different BSCs. They are collaboration with BSs the handoff situation called: is detected. during a handoff the destination BS may not have any free channel. play any role in handoff detection.10 illustrates the scenario.5 inter-BS handoff. selects the base station with strongest signal  Intersystem or Inter-MSC handoff The for initiating a handoff. In this registration area.1 1 illustrates the scenario. Some initiates a handoff. [lo]. responsible for detecting a handoff. initiated. In case the  Intracell handoff Link or channel Mobile Unit (MU) moves to a different transfer occurs for only one BS. The cellular system (PCS and GSM) presents the handoff decision is made jointly by base following five-link transfer cases for which station and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handoff has to be processed. around 0. and in details can be found in Ref.13 In this scheme. The hierarchical structure of strength of the serving base station. the BS holding time is around 60 seconds. Figure 3. or base station controller (BSC). Figure 3. Necessary  Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) resources for setting up a call or to process a  Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) handoff request may not always be available. In this approach.  Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) For example. In this scheme also BS real-life data indicates that there could be and MSC are involved in handoff detection. 0. every mobile unit any of these cases the handoff is terminated continuously measures the signal strength and the mobile unit loses the connection.12 illustrates the scenario. [ 101. is presented here and further signal strength occasionally. and so on. In is used. then it 3.  Intercell or Inter-BS handoff The link transfer takes place between two BSs Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO): which are connected to the same BSC.used in PCS. The MU  Inter-BSC handoff: The link transfer continuously monitors the signal strength takes place between two BSs which are from neighboring base stations and identifies connected to two different BSCs and the if a handoff is necessary. typical call and if it falls below a threshold value.1 inter-BSC In fact the MSC instructs BSs to monitor the . the link generation systems where TDMA technology transfer suffered some problem. an intersystem handoff is handoff a MU only switches channel.

10 Channel transfer in intracell handoff.Fig. . 3. 3. Fig.11 Channel transfer between two BSs with one BSC.

The steps of the handoff for MCHO link transfer 3. The new BS then sends a ―handoff acknowledgement― message and marks the slot busy. . It is quite obvious that efficient processing of handoff is quite important for minimizing the call waiting time. The data also indicate that the failure rate of inter-MSC handoff is about five times more than inter-BS handoff. to MU that the handoff process has started. There are two ways to achieve link transfer. One way is referred to as Hard Handofland the other as Soft Handoff. 3. and 0. MS sends a ―link suspend‖ message to the using and resumes voice communication old BS which temporarily suspends the while network process the handoff. 2.05 inter-MSC handoff. This acknowledgment message indicates is described below. Hard Handoff: In this handoff process the user experiences a brief silence or discontinuity in communication which occurs because at any time the MU is attached to only one BS and when the link is transfer the connection is broken temporarily resulting in a silence.handoff. and so MU returns to the old channel it was 1. Fig. The MS sends a ―handoff request message― to the network through the new BS.72 Channel transfer between two BSs connected to two BSCs. This message indicates the initiation of the handoff process. conversation (occurrence of silence).

. 3.13 Channel transfer between two BSs with two BSCs connected to two MSCs. Fig. then two cases arise: different BSCs. It gets the cypher key from (a) It is an intra-BS handoff or the old BS and associates it with the new (b) it is an inter-BS handoff. case the BS sends a handoff acknowledgment message and proceeds with 6. A detailed discussion on hard handoff for other kinds of link transfer. On the command of the network. 6. since it is between two request message. the MS processes the handoff where it releases the old channel by sending an ―access release‖ message to the old BS. The MSC bridges the conversation path handoff. In the former channel. the BS must complete some security check. In this rocess the voice communication is briefly interrupted again. and the new BS.4. The MU sends a ―handoff complete‖ message through the new channel and resumes the voice communication. When the new BS receives the handoff In the later case.

data broadcast. PDAs. The data dissemination discipline gives an illusion that the space is an infinite size persistent data storage from where a user can download desired information. it is becoming an information management system as well. then servers can continue to push all data users can ever need on these channels and users can pull whatever they require. For example. data dissemination system appeared as an information dissemination tool similar to radio broadcast. This is an ideal scenario. Manufacturers continue to develop increasingly powerful mobile devices while decreasing their size and cost.2. Some examples can help to identify its usefulness and limitations. it is not general enough for many different types of applications. provided terminal and personal . The mobile database systems. and so on. The users are passive in that they can only read what is contained in a broadcast. data staging. push and pull. the task of data dissemination technology is to develop ways for satisfying users’ data demand with limited wireless resources. Thus. surrogates. This chapter discusses data dissemination technology and development of schemes such as indexing. information about airline schedule. for incorporating transactional facility. It also discusses in detail the architecture and working of a reference data dissemination and processing system called DAYS (DAta in your Space).. The discipline of data dissemination through wireless channel. wireless channels are always less than the number required to satisfy users’ demands. can be downloaded from the broadcast. Data broadcast is predominately userindependent. and the wireless data dissemination took mobile systems one step further and allowed the user to tune and access and process desired information from anywhere in the world. weather. has added another dimension in the area of mobile computing. but with advances in wireless and satellite communication. etc. Initially. Accessing data from wireless channel is a very useful facility because it allows users to get desired data through many computationally enabled devices such as cellular phones.6 Wireless Information Broadcast mobility in information management. While this model fits well into some types of data dissemination (such as local traffic information). In reality. other new devices. stock quotes. that is. If it is assumed that there is an abundance of wireless channels. discussed in preceding chapters. The discussion in this chapter is based mostly on research reports because a truly data broadcast system has not been developed and deployed for commercial use.

96 Whour).7 hours and to preserve battery power. the capacity of the transfer of data from the server to the mobile client downstream communication is significantly larger than the client or mobile user to the server upstream communication. A typical AA cell is rated to give 800 mA/hour at I . especially if it has to be active to examine all incoming buckets. The Hobbit chip from AT&T allows the operation in two modes: (a) active mode – the full operational mode where CPU and all other components are in running state and (b) doze mode . these activities must be disabled whenever possible. The ratio of power consumption in the active mode to doze mode is 5000. and the power consumption in doze mode is 50 pW. These modes are motivated mainly by limited power consideration. When the mobile unit (palmtop) is listening to the channel. The lifetime of a battery is expected to increase only 20% over the next 10 years 1221. The power consumption in the active mode is 250 mW.5 W. The available power source is likely to last for 2. The CPU consumes more power than some receivers. Therefore. the CPU must be in the active mode for examining data buckets in the broadcast. The effectiveness of a data dissemination system is evaluated by its ability to provide a user his required data ubiquitously.Data Broadcast Mode The mode of data transfer is essentially asymmetric.2 V (0. that is.the power conserving mode where the CPU is inactive. it will be beneficial if the CPU can be switched to the doze mode . and the power dissipation for display is around 2. There are two basic modes of data dissemination. The constant power dissipation in a CDROM (for disk spinning itself) is about 1 W.

broadcasts on-demand data if its popularity matches the popularity of broadcast data. season. This facility is called selective tuning. play an important role in determining the power required in data dissemination. The server allows individual data requests from clients through uplink channel and allows data broadcast through downlink channel. An intelligent pull technique such as a semantic web has yet to be fully developed. renting a movie or music CD.. It also. and so on. if necessary. For example. Broadcast Mode: In this mode the broadcast server periodically broadcast most popular data on some wireless channels from which users can listen and. Transmitting and accessing data also consumes power. renting a movie with a particular title. Using an e-mail facility may appear to follow pull process. download the required data. The client sends the query for the required data through an uplink channel. broadcast and on-demand modes are combined. but actually it is not so. purchasing a ticket for a particular destination. On-Demand Mode: This mode allows a client to request specific data which is not available in the current broadcast or may never appear in the broadcast. The wireless bandwidth varies from 1. A user assumes that the desired information is available in the wireless space. The server is not concern with the individual user’s access. Simple filtering of broadcast data stream according to a user specified filter [6] is applied to access data. some as spam but some quite useful. The effective bandwidth of wireless network is only a fraction of the bandwidth that is available in wired networks. rain. It is also clear that what a user intends to pull may or may not be present in the pulled information. and so on. Data broadcast can be managed with three different modes to satisfy user needs. a Wavelan card consumes 1. pulling information from Google with some condition brings quite a lot of trash along with the desired information. the height and kind of trees. A number of factors like the terrain. A recipient of an e-mail does not select the e-mails he receives. foliage. buying an airline ticket. These modes are further elaborated later in this chapter as Push and Pull technology. Pull Process Pull process is user (client)-oriented. The current ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards are designed to yield a bandwidth of up to 622 Mbps.2 kbps for slow paging channels to about 2 Mbps of the wireless LAN. etc.4 W with the transmitter powered on. This bandwidth is projected to go up to gigabits [20]. For large cells the energy required for Hybrid Mode: In this mode. For example. With distance the power requirement increases significantly 1261. and he pulls it by tuning the channel. It is clear from these examples that in pull the user initiates a conditional information flow where the condition is defined by the user with an understanding that the condition is likely to be satisfied-for example. There is no uplink channel involved in this mode. It is also immaterial whether the user finds the desired data or encounters an error or delay occurs in downloading the data. rather they are dropped in the user’s space without his knowledge and they just appear on his e-mail directory.7 W with the receiver powered on and 3. transmission could reach tens of watts. In day-today activities. pull process is frequently applied: borrowing a book from a library. landscape.whenever it is not being used and switched back to active mode when the data of interest arrives on the broadcast channel. a user keys in a URL on the web browser and pulls the desired information. For example. if necessary. .

The push technology was introduced somewhere around April 1996 by an internet company called PointCast Inc. The main objective of push technology was to handle the problem of information overload due to low bandwidth which restricted users to receive multimedia contents. the pull approach is resource-intensive. The company started push scheme by broadcasting selected news and stock quotes to a client’s machine at predefined intervals [ 141. traffic information on another channel. then each user will occupy two channels with identical data on all back channels. composes the result and must send it to the user on a back channel (downstream) known to the user. the smart-pull approach can assist users to get specific information. The server. For example. If there are a large number of users and they need identical information. after receiving the request. or short video clips.. are pushbased. Nearly all software manufacturers use push to broadcast application and system updates and fixes to clients’ machines. Developers and researchers found the push scheme quite useful. This was the beginning of an effective way of reaching a larger number of customers. Disadvantages of Pull: In wireless data dissemination platform. message indexing can be implemented to speed up broadcast search. real state costs and inflation status. For example. These topics are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. The user does not need to search in the wireless information space by tuning several channels. news. most of the commercials on broadcast media such as television. It appears from these limitations that pull is good for special cases of data retrieval. caching can be used to reduce data miss. depending upon their data requirements. radio. and so on. data staging can be augmented to enhance data availability. it can push weather information on one channel.Advantages of Pull: It is user-friendly and provides interactive capability to users for accessing the information through query. The push scheme provided an effective means to pre-deliver much larger packages of audio. Many companies use this technology for advertisement. personalization of channel contents can help to satisfy specific user. large graphics. Companies are at a great advantage for making use of the push technology which allows them to make instant changes in the . The client tuned The push technology has been deployed for sometime in many real-world activities such as in the financial world to broadcast stock quotes. it was deployed on the internet in many ways such as webcasting or netcasting. Clients. mutual funds costs. nor is the server broadcast client-specific. Thus every pull needs two channels for completing the process successfully. tune the appropriate channel. cable television broadcast. In fact. Sometimes it is also called PointCusting to honor the company which invented it. Push Process and downloaded information at these intervals. etc. since then. The push technology can be augmented with a number of mechanisms to increase its scope and effectiveness. the server broadcasts data (pushes data) on one or multiple channels. In a push system a client cannot send a specific query to the server. and so on. This cannot be easily afforded because of narrow bandwidth available for wireless communication. A user requires a separate channel to send the request as a SQL query or in some other form to the server for the desired information. etc. Push Application In the push process.

if interested only i n dining information. At the client’s end the Fimplest way to access the information is sequentially. even though push applications are not really push. and dining broadcasting it on a regular interval.g. However. There are a couple of true push technology applications-for example. any waiting-let alone reach those users with precision who are waiting for information to appear-is quite more likely to benefit from their products resource-expensive. Clients can access and download required information in a variety of ways. This can be viewed as a string  In a large information flow it minimizes of different categories of data. It has. which is highly desirable. there is a difference in them. products like AirMedia Live and Wayfarer (INCISA). however. The client will broadcast channel carrying the receive the broadcast in the order sent by the information and the exact location of the server. then they will appear on consequently. Such arrangements actually create a notion of smart-pull where client can pull exactly the information he wanted with minimum redundancy. client. the waiting time for information faster and. the burden of acquiring data. In a channel the push is strictly sequential. the user always has the the broadcast sequentially in the order they latest information. The difference is the automation of the process both for the server and the client. In  Sends the user the time-critical data for most cases this access is time consuming. bandwidth viewpoint. has to tune and wait until the  Helps organizations (academic. that is. which depends upon how the broadcast was composed and pushed on the channel by the server. especially for providing transactional facility. For example. Push Advantages and Disadvantages Push technology has been a favorite choice of data dissemination because of its several advantages. to all employees. The push technology is especially useful in the intranet market. data in the broadcast. A user is aware of the were dropped in the channel. reduce or access is zero. focus. traffic information. The push technology applies to entertainment and leisure equally effectively. This facility the ideal scheme. at the same time. This setup significantly reduces the search time. Companies can push on their intranet corporate information to employees using a predefined schedule. The server if the broadcast is composed of weather can keep the information up to date by information. or commercial) to identify. An ideal scheme is to tune when the desired information appears  Automatically delivers directly to clients’ (e. A immediate attention. but the access time can be requires a mechanism to check clients’ . selective tuning) and download the machines software upgrades and fixes data.broadcast or refresh it entirely based on users’ feedback to increase their effect on consumers. It is impossible to implement eliminate the shipping cost. Data are dropped in the channel. It guarantees identical message delivery. Accessing Information from Broadcast significantly minimized through efficient indexing and carefully composing the broadcast. especially from a or services. and In a wireless platform. It is not now necessary for them to rely on a human operator to search a site for outdated material. dining information appears in the broadcast. several disadvantages which makes it unsuitable. Advantages one at a time. business.. places information.

Marimba. while it is useful event. multicast solutions. Pointcast. as well as individually. and the development cost (time and resource) are generally high compared to creating static pages. in a number of situations and does conserve they may have to live with constant resources and energy. Such interruptions cannot be limitations and disadvantages [ 141. during a song broadcast. still confined to organizations that have a good customer base. The Identifying the location of the desired information in the broadcast and downloading the multimedia contents require a huge amount of disk storage. Problems arise due to the enormous bandwidth that push  Helps server to reserve more processing technologies can require when feeding time for data production by avoiding to data to thousands of end users. information about the client’s behavior are stored on the client’s computer. has a number of interruption. for example. Some providers allow users to choose when the information is  Easily protects user privacy because push downloaded. but the push system requires specific tools and applications. Some preplanned because they may occur important ones are given below. however. Although users get the information. Many vendorsAir Media. Static pages can be viewed by any browser on any operating system. to name a few. IntraExpress. the  Enables intelligent information filtering emergence of music P2P systems has based on personalized user profiles made it quite popular. will likely solve many of the bandwidth problems of push and  Shortens response time. allow it to scale. For example. so users can schedule it for applications run mostly at the client times that they will be away from their machine and client’s profile and the log computer.  In multiple push a user can get frequent interruption.machines for software and configuration and then modify these configurations. develop application software with minimum portability and scalability. Competition to dominate the information space in this technology is growing fast and vendors are unable to develop software compatible to all systems.  It requires more powerful hardware and specialized software to provide push service.  Uses incremental updates where only new and changed information has to be sent to the computer which significantly reduces  It suffers a number of unresolved access and download time.  Satisfies a large client base using few resources.  Push system software may suffer with incompatibility problem.  The push scheme is still not that useful for individual users. Its usefulness is describing required information needs. .  Push applications are complex. Caching handle numerous client requests proxy servers. randomly. some urgent message can Disadvantages appear to notify user of some serious The push technology. Alpha Microsystems. Berkeley Systems. bandwidth problems.

.  Platform provider: The products of this category-for example.  Creating and maintaining user profiles is time-consuming. Both users and in the push technology. BackWeb-are similar to content aggregators. the push vendor directs feedback Marimba Inc. of this category such as Marimba’s Castanet provide automatic delivery of  Client Agent Model: This model uses a application software to end users.  Push information delivery models can be  Standards are currently lacking in this categorized at least into three main area (competing de facto industry categories : standards are pushed by companies) . and Netscape development tools. such as ChannelManager  Application Distributor: The products and InfoBeat. and Microsoft Corp. Netscape is using the Meta-Content Format (MCF). No conjunction with their latest browsers. The proprietary client is required.  Push Server Model: It is the most common Push Server Model which Market for Push Technology provides a client. Microsoft and Netscape each have external server. in a consistent wrapper and push it to users’ workstations. except they are actually infrastructure to deploy content delivery systems. model. ―client agent‖ to retrieve the information from the web. For example. a server. are the two leading supplied. Some examples of this model are based Channel Definition Format (CDF) for BackWeb and Marimba’s Castanet. It is expensive to  There is no reliable solution to achieve implement. so that information can be created their own push clients for use in retained by the push vendor. but they guarantee timely secured broadcast.  Real-time data transfer: The products of this category-for example. This becomes more expensive with number of users. which was  Web Server Extension Model: In this invented by Apple Computer. TIBCO and Wayfarer (1NCISA)-offer the advantage of multicasting. Each agent is designed to  Content aggregator: The products of this provide different search results and allows category-for example. has begun cooperation with and demographic information to an Netscape. Microsoft is pushing content providers have control over the the Extensible Markup Language (XML)content. These run push market can be divided into four basic within the user’s installed browser. such categories : as Pointcast or the server delivers content using e-mail. A proprietary client is Communications Corp. One of the main reasons is that users’ information needs are constant to some degree only. and the applications may use a competitors proprietary protocol. PointCast Business us to establish an anonymous relationship Network-gather and format the contents between the vendor and the subscriber.push technology is not good for the typical knowledge worker who mines information from a variety of sources and then draws conclusions by digesting that information [ 141. defining push updates. Security safeguards are delivery of information possible. highly needed.

C and D in that order. The oval represents a broadcast disk (channel) which if accessed (tuned) by a few mobile devices. The speed can be tweaked to satisfy a variety of information needs of users. traffic. The broadcast data on a faster disk are pushed (repeated) more frequently than the dataon slower disks channel). news flashes.The user is responsible for deployment and the search type extensibility. 9.3 illustrates a simple broadcast set up using broadcast disk approach. In an ideal schedule the latency time and tuning time are minimum. stock quotes. This arrangement can be compared with radio broadcast where different programs are transmitted over different stations (frequencies). then each channel can be used ac a differentsize disk. BROADCAST DISK In this section a novel broadcast scheme called broadcast disk is discussed. The main idea of this scheme is to efficiently use the available bandwidth to push data to a majority of users. Latency Figure 9. can be transmitted on different speed channels. B. and so on. In a similar manner. If the broadcast station has a number of channels with different capacity.3 A simple broadcast disk setup. a set of different types of information such as weather. Bandwidth Allocation The way a set of information is arranged and pushed on to the broadcast channels is called schedule. This approach created the notion of multiple disks spinning at different speeds on a single broadcast channel to create an effect of a fine grained storage hierarchy. Fig. The relative speed of these disk3 in the air (airdisks) significantly affects the broadcast configuration. . Users tune to these disks (channels) and download their desired data . airline schedule. The broadcast station has a channel on which it continuously broadcasts (pushes) data items A.

This time becomes important for fast changing data such as stock quotes. and the tuning time depends on the identification of exact data location in the broadcast which is achieved through selective tuning.4 illustrates access and tuning time. If DM > 7T then the tuning time saves energy and the saving will be highest only if the client has accurate information about the tuning time for accessing data. An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is directly linked with data popularity among the client population.T4) + (Ts . an increase in length of the broadcast can lead to an unacceptably long access time for the user. The task. geographical information may be highly important and accessed most frequently while some population may frequently access stock quotes. Different samples of client populations may have orthogonal data requirements. This time becomes important especially in interactive applications such as video games which require fast scan. This is quite difficult because there is a trade-off between these two times. then the actual tuning time will be 7T = (T7 . tunes selectively (selective tuning). The access time depends on broadcast size. Figure 9. An efficient broadcast scheme. In the push approach. therefore. is to find optimal points in the 2D space of access and tuning times. must balance this trade-off. .T5).2'0). Access Time: Another parameter which is called access time is the total time to download the desired data from the broadcast channel to a client's local storage. Client information requirement is highly random.TL)+ (TI. This increase in size affects access time. In some client population. it is the total time for (a) a client request to arrive at the server and (b) the time when the desired data is available in the broadcast channel. the client slips into doze mode intermittently.Time: Similar to conventional disk access. and so on. that is. If. A client submits a request at To and receives the desired response at time T7. The broadcast program can be addressed in terms of bandwidth allocation. The client must be able to quickly tune to the right channel to get the data. Tn selective tuning the mobile unit will be in doze mode (DM) for (TL. on the other hand. selective tuning requires extra information to be appended to the broadcast data which increases the size of the broadcast.TI ) + (T4 ~ Tj) + (TG . Unfortunately. If the client listens continuously from the time the query was submitted and until the response is received. then the access and tuning times can be expressed as AT = TT = (T7 ~ To).Ts)+ (Ts . therefore. Tuning Time: It is the total time required to tune to the channel which is broadcasting the desired data.

client samples. Schedule (a) is a flat schedule where data items set D1. arrange them in a specific order considering the size of broadcast channel. and D3 continuously appear in the broadcast. encyclopedia. Schedule (c) is a regular broadcast where the interarrival time of each page is the same. BROADCAST INFRASTRUCTURE The usefulness of data dissemination system lies in its ability to broadcast a huge amount of data on a number of topics such as weather. (b) reaching active . entertainment. It may provide yellow pages services. The access frequency identification can be done in many ways. to develop an optimal schedule for all situations. broadcast indexing. for example. stock. This makes it necessary that the server must first identify a high demand set of data. The main components of such a system are (a) data access frequency. Data Access Frequency The aim of the broadcast server is to achieve the highest hit rate for every type of data it pushes. the relationship among data popularity.5 presents three broadcast samples [4]. dictionary. and so on. In (b). Figure 9. So far a data broadcast has been seen as a push-based system while a mobile database has been seen as pull-based. etc. traffic. and geographical domain becomes very complex. A new generation of data management system is thus capable of disseminating data for universal access and at the same time efficiently process all types of transactions with full database support as we are used to. The trend now is to integrate both facilities into one infrastructure. The benefit of a particular broadcast (b) broadcast schedules. which makes it very hard. The future broadcast systems are likely to be used as a large data warehouse storing (pushing) a large amount of data on all topics.Thus. where users initiate all kinds of transactions. access delay. D2. with the help of popularity computation. data item D1 is treated as more frequently accessed than other items on the broadcast. and schedule can be understood by thcir expected (c) data access from the broadcast. These components are discussed in detail below. and broadcast composition an efficient schedule can be created. However. This will require not only efficient broadcast schedules but also a faster way to reduce the search space of requested data. and broadcast them. if not impossible. Schedule (b) is a skewed broadcast where data item D1 appears twice one after another followed by D2 and D3. by (a) monitoring current access pattern by some means. The difference between schedule (a) and (b) is quite obvious.

PF: Popularity factor of a data set D at time T identifies the number of clients in the cell at time T who are interested in D. it is able to store the information of the user access pattern without using much cache area.1 1. All these approaches essentially identify the access probability. The proxy continuously maintains and upgrades this routine. and the surrogate where data is to be staged. A data item’s EDT from a broadcast can be computed by adding the item’s entry into the broadcast and data’s RL. and T . For achieving the highest data hit rate and highest channel utilization. The client proxy continuously monitors the data access operation of the mobile user. one way to implement them is through an abstract data type-for example. The popularity of D goes down after its RL value. Since it is working internally and does not need to log on to the wirelesq channel continuously. In the dynamic approach the data requirements will be identified using (a) Residence latency (RL) and Expected Departure Time (EDT) [8]. . it also needs to decide the length of time the item will remain in its broadcast set. PT. static and dynamic approaches can be used. and a corresponding decrement of 1 is performed on the value of PFn at time (Th + RL). It maintains a log file into which it stores the three types of control information of each page: BT. In the static approach a user notifies the broadcast server regarding its present and future data pull and approximate duration for their use. as is the database to support their requests. (b) Popularity Factor (PF) and Ignore Factor (IF). Data Staging with Surrogates Staging data in a surrogate allows users to extend their limited caching capacity. the file server in the base station (broadcast tower). The RL value for a specific data set is the average length of time a mobile user resides in a cell. The routine contains the control information about the pushed data which is requested and the information about a particular pulled data which has been frequently accessed by the user. Let the timestamp of the ith increment to PFD be denoted by Th. It is only a single wireless hop away from the mobile unit and connected by wireless technologies such as 802. This is done by borrowing storage space from the surrogate and by joint operation of the client proxy of the mobile user. Thus. (c) user movement. Since the increment and decrement are frequently invoked operations.clients to look at their data access history. and (d) channel tunability. The server also records the corresponding time. and it can be computed a priori based on the advanced knowledge of user movement patterns and cell geography. This reflects the anticipated departure of the client whose request caused the 7th increment. a PF queue with these operations. In reality the client population is very large. The control information it stores is for the broadcast and pages which are pulled by the user. The server will continue to broadcast the static data set for the defined period. One way to maintain PF of a data item at the rerver in a cell is to increment it by 1 when a client requests D. To identify the esidency duration of a data item an RL value is associated with each data set. The surrogate is connected to the file server with a high-speed wired network. RL and EDT: When the server decides to include an item in its broadcast. the proxy generates a periodic routine which contains the information about what the mobile user is most likely to access at any time. the power consumption of the mobile unit does not increase. It can be denoted as PFS or just PFn. Based on the information stored in the log file. and so on. (c) studying the market trends.

Figure 9. Since the public data is staged in the machine. Thus. For this. So. Let time required for a broadcast = n minutes. . the average wait for any page in the broadcast is ((N x M)l(2 x B)).27 shows the data staging architecture. Let the size of an index page be I kbytes where I << M .27 Data staging in DAYS. where n: << ( N x M)IB is total time for each broadcast. total number of broadcasts in a day is 24 x 601n. 9. The time of dispatch of the periodic routine is arbitrary. The overall aim of data staging is to allow the user to access data at a minimum latency. which is connected to the mobile user by wireless technologies such as 802. on an average. Thus. and thus the overall latency time can be reduced. for the user to access a data. The client proxy present in the mobile user has a periodic routine which contain information about the data the user is most likely to access at any point of time. Figure 9. the surrogate allows the user to use a certain amount of space for staging data. the number of pages broadcast per second = B / M pages. So. The channel bandwidth for broadcast is B kbps.28 shows accesses of data from the surrogates by a mobile user.1 1 and to the file server with a high speed wired network. Based on the amount of storage available. Let the time bound for getting the index be Ttndcz = 5. Let size of the data pages = M kbytes. There is a time bound for accessing the index which is interleaved in the broadcast so that the user does not have to wait for the entire broadcast to access the index. Let approximate number of pages in a broadcast be N ( N may vary. we calculate a time bound. the index should be broadcasted after every (B/M) x:l. we believe that proper handling of data storage in a surrogate can significantly increase the efficiency of data access. Thus. number of pages by the base station. but it is fixed for this calculation).Fig. Tbound. It may send it periodically or at the time the user requests a data. The user sends the periodic routine to the surrogate. the user has to wait for Tindez/2 units of time to receive the index. Total time taken for a broadcast is N/(B/M) = ( ( N x M ) / B ) . It consists of a surrogate.

the special problems of database systems in such a These mobile circumstances. where and when the data are used based on user aims. and mobile environment are described more especially their dynamics.available mobile resources. These requirements occur for network components as well as database systems. In Lubinski. their tasks. This is threats. respectively. time and device.1 MOBILE CONDITIONS time). applicable on special whereabouts. mobile infrastructure restricts the available volume and type of data and the data transfer. i. Mobile work is characterized by infrequent and temporary short connections to the fixed network (low connectivity) and by a variety of access types (register and query data). application characteristics characteristics and the relationships between (like type. preferences. The mobile user accesses data that are also accessed by other users or itself on different locations and devices. 1998]. anywhere and anytime possible.e. con dentiality. integrity and accountability. The mobility requires suitable hardware and software. The goal is the protection of mobile users and their data. Security measures must take into The mobile context includes mobile account the distribution of data and their work and communication attending metadata heterogeneous handling regarding to security to support users. Mobile devices like handhelds connected via wireless networks support mobile users. connectivity. The or demand new ones.For this purpose we require di erent information regarding the current infrastructure. but their access must be mobile work and for requiring a new location transparent. Context information comprehends further . Supporting mobile work involves providing access to interesting data at the appropriate location. Determined tasks are viewpoint to well known security measures. other restricting or dismissing security measures. hard. we summarize the like frequent disconnections make a mobile main mobile circumstances causing various work with database systems di cult. and bandwidths. persons  location (and changing location in 3. New risks and challenges for security and privacy occur in this environment. Applications and required data are the reason for various di culties in securing location dependent. and restrictions detailed. size) them.3. equipment Mobile work is context-sensitive work and tools) with contexts describing environmental  information. Scarce mobile resources make covered in four parts of the mobile context: insecure communication necessary to replicate used data and increase the risk of  human factors. knowledge and skills. This meta-information is models. Mobile work including mobile database access makes ubiquitous computing. which people and objects in the environment stay.and software (mobile site and network characteristics. costs and duration of connections. MOBILE DATABASE SECURITY Mobile work using mobile devices and wireless links comprehends a row of problems concerning security issues like availability. roles. In this section. especially in connection with position searching tools.

Attacks and security for mobile components need at least receiver and sender communication are described in[ Federrath. a protection items gets the following table.2 PROTECTION OBJECTS AND ACTIONS . consists in three main tasks to keep mobile work secure (see also[ Lubinski. are predestinated to be eavesdropped on. for the particular combinations of actions and items appearing in the special mobile environments. databases. Database systems manage object types. 1998]).g. The horizontal and vertical separation of first row and column shows the possible metadata and an adaptation of security. we must take into account mobile systems are characterized by very protection of the main action types mobile hardware. Transfer creatable.whereas metadata are communication security. addresses of messages. the distribution and heterogeneity leads to typical distributed security problems including data exchange between systems Assuming distributed and/or replicated with differing models and aims. respectively.. Our approach additionally used for their protection. Profiles of communicating users are simply keys. the Combining possible actions with restriction of database transparencies. necessarily mobile context data and security relevant information like security policies. The body of the table illustrates the special problems. Moreover. 3. accesses and transfer to protection objects data and metadata. Wireless links Metadata are used on di erent levels. We focus in this paper database related Data and metadata are the items which must mobile security issues and ignore be protected. management. The thread of lost confidence by loss of devices is often underrated. Metadata include 1999].E. items and actions to be protected and characterize them in a short manner. threats or desired security characteristics.and integrity rules.

Inner-database-communication Because of the opportunity to misuse context information. sensitive aggregation of user identifying data  Adapt security: and other contexts must be avoided.  Separate metadata: Vertical separation supports confidentiality requirements by protecting users from tracing their movement. However. Additionally. The (encrypted) as well as by underlying services. It allows only a view to a (role dependent) section or a facet of mobility patterns and behaviour. But the separation. . A powerful access control realize this type of There are a few papers which focus separation. undesired information flow between different system layers outside the controlled area. audit data should be anonymized or pseudonymized. This requirement concerns transparent security management and control. Restrict transparencies: Database transparencies like distribution and replication transparency is soften to allow user's participation. Separated physical context security in heterogeneous database systems management improves the acces control. every Horizontal separation represents a transparency must be remain controlled by layered view and constitutes a prevention of the system to avoid insecure system states. a useful protection lies has to be unobservable by intruders in separation or anonymization of it. vertical and horizontal. The essential criterion in mobile environments is accessed and as a rule location dependent their dynamics due to possibly very dynamic data gives information to the whereabout of mobile contexts. meeting requirements of integration and We distinguish two kinds of data access to data of various policies. users. too.

attend lectures. However. Conclusions environment characteristics decides about suitable choice of applicable security Wireless network is becoming a mechanisms. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping. It approach but assure a minimal security. such as web. We enforce a resource aware commonly used communication platform. it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. E-commerce.A flexible adaptation to the changing 4. . fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. This is what the wireless technology driving us to. open bank account. workflow systems. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches. etc. The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines. make flight reservation.. and so on.

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Pro.Approved by (Signature): Guide : Mr Ajay Prasad Asst.) . (CSE) Mr Arun Kumar HOD (CSE Dept.

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