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Rtfi Class

Rtfi Class

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Radiographic Interpretation

PART 2

Duties of a Radiographic Interpreter
Mask of any unwanted light from viewer Ensure the background light is subdued Check the radiograph for correct identification Assess the radiographs density Calculate the radiographs sensitivity Check the radiograph for any artifacts Assess the radiograph for any defects present State the action to be taken, acceptable, rejectable or repair

Radiographic Films

Radiographic Film Base cellulose triacetate / polyester Base must be :• Transparent .To allow white light to go through • Chemically inert • Must not be susceptible to expansion and contraction • High tensile strength • Flexibility .

Radiographic Film Subbing Base Subbing Subbing layer the adhesive between the emulsion and base The material for this is gelatine + a base solvent .

Radiographic Film Supercoat Subbing Base Subbing Supercoat .

The Emulsion • Consist of millions of silver halide crystal (silver bromide) • The size usually 0. such as potassium bromide • The rate & temperature of mixing governs its grain size • Size & distribution of the crystal effect the quality / appearance of final radiograph (large grain more sensitive to radiation) .0 µm suspended in gelatin binding medium • Is produced by mixing solution of silver nitrate & salt.1 & 1.

Pre-exposure

After Exposure

Un-sensitised : Stable

Sensitised : Unstable

During exposure a “latent image” is formed by “sensitised” Silver Halide crystals

LATENT IMAGE

• Silver Bromide crystals are not perfect, they contain “interstitial” silver ions • When an interstitial silver ion accepts a free electron, it becomes a silver atom • The silver atom is larger than the ion and exerts a stress on the crystal lattice • In the presence of developer this stress causes instability and the crystal breaks down

• The interstitial silver atoms nucleate silver crystals • A single interstitial silver atom is sufficient to cause an entire silver bromide crystal to convert to metallic silver • The typical size of a silver bromide crystal in a typical photographic film emulsion is about 1μm • Sensitisation of a silver bromide crystal can be caused by just a single photon of x-ray energy .

Radiographic Film What are the advantages of Double Coated Film? • Improve contrast • Reduce the exposure time .

The silver halide crystals are partially converted into metallic silver to produce the latent image 2.Image formation When radiation passes through an object it is differentially absorbed depending upon the materials thickness and any differing densities The portions of radiographic film that receive sufficient amounts of radiation undergo minute changes to produce the latent image (hidden image) 1. the developer completely converts the affected crystals into black metallic silver 3. The affected crystals are the amplified by the developer. The radiograph attains its final appearance by fixation .

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Finest grain structure 2. Rapid mixing at low temperature .Large grain structure .Slow Quality Poor Medium Good V.Film Types Grain Size Coarse Medium Fine Ultra Fine Speed Fast Medium Slow V. • The rate and temperature determine the grain structures 1. Slow mixing at high temperature .Good Film factor 10 35 90 200 Film emulsion produced by mixing solutions of nitrate and salt such as potassium bromide.

faster the film speed Example • Film factor of 10 will be twice as fast compared to a film factor of 20. • A film factor of 20 took 4min. to expose. 2min will require for a film factor of 10 to gives the same density .Film Factor • Is a number relates to the speed of particular film • Is obtained from a films characteristic curve • SCRATA scale often used for film factors : Smaller film factor .

0 0.5 5.0 1.0 50 30 14.9 .1 210 150 155 2.0 1.0 100 45 75 55 75 95 5.6 410 255 260 0.100kV Film Type KODAK R (single) FUJI IX25 KODAK R (double) AGFA D2 FUJI IX29 FUJI IX50 AGFA D3 FUJI IX59 FUJI IX80 KODAK M KODAK B AGFA D4 KODAK T AGFA D5 FUJI IX100 KODAK AA AGFA D7 FUJI IX150 KODAK CX AGFA D8 200kV Pb Screens 20 30 35 40 45 55 45 75 100 75 95 70 115 115 190 200 180 340 250 260 100 60 100 65 100 105 210 150 170 400 200 265 50 40 35 Iridium 192 PB Screens 20 R Factor Cobalt Pb Screens R Factor No Screens 20 35 35 30 35 60 55 60 100 90 105 70 140 120 200 200 220 370 300 315 25 5.0 2.

An extra fine grain film with average speed and high contrast. homogeneity. D3 D4 D5 D7 D8 D6R . Designed for exposures with or without metal screens. If a higher speed is required. moderate speed film with high contrast. The ideal standard film for high quality applications. C. D7 is a high speed film used for high energy applications. The colorless back coating prevents curling to guarantee a film that remains flat under all conditions. D3 meets the requirements of the nuclear industry. a pleasant image tint and shiny surface. An ultra fine-grained film with low speed and high contrast that obtains a high detail perceptibility. an extra-fine grain film. maximum perceptibility. Ideal for exposures where the finest possible detail is required. The ideal film for sharp enlargements. flourometalic (RCF).Characteristics D2 D3 S. pleasant image tint and a shiny surface. cycle and in a short 2 min. The ideal standard film for those applications where the emphasis is on short exposure time. A fine grain. Single-emulsion film with very high image quality. and fluorescent screens (bivalent type). Extremely fine-grained film with low speed and high contrast. with moderate contrast designed for exposures with or without metal screens. D6R. High image quality. can be processed both in a standard 8 min. D8 also can be used with fluorometallic (RCF) or fluorescent screens (bivalent type). cycle. with particularly good consistency. high contrast and pleasant image tint. Ultra-high speed fine grain film./90 sec. excellent consistency and homogeneity. A fine grained film with excellent image quality and high contrast. The fastest film for fine detailed applications.

such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics. lx25 is recommended for automated processing only. IX 50 is generally used in direct exposure techniques or with lead screens. A very fine grain. It is suitable for use with any low atomic number material where fine image detail is imperative. ceramic products. It is applicable to the inspection of low atomic number material with low kilovoltage X-ray sources as well as inspection of higher atomic number materials with high kilovoltage X-ray or gamma ray sources. high contrast ASTM Class 2 film suitable for inspection of a large variety of specimens with low-to-high kilovoltage X-ray and gamma ray sources. An ultra-fine grain. Wide exposure latitude has been demonstrated in high contrast subject applications. It is particularly useful when gamma ray sources of high activity are unavailable or when very thick specimens are to be inspected. An extremely fine grain. lx 50 lx 80 lx 100 lx 150 . it is suitable for use with fluorescent or fluorometallic screens. Wide exposure latitude has been demonstrated in high subject contrast applications.Film lx 25 Features Fuji's finest grain. Although IX 100 is generally used in direct exposure techniques or with lead screens. high contrast ASTM Class 1 film having maximum sharpness and discrimination characteristics. Wide exposure latitude has been demonstrated in high subject contrast applications. low subject contrast applications where high curie isotopes or high output X-ray machines permit its use. IX 150 is used in direct exposure techniques or with lead screens. It is also useful in X-ray diffraction work. IX 80 is generally used in direct exposure techniques or with lead screens. high contrast ASTM E94 Class 1 film having excellent sharpness and high discrimination characteristics. and micro electric parts. fine grain. higher density specimens with high kilovoltage X-ray or gamma ray sources. Its ultra-fine grain makes it useful in high energy. lx25 is generally used in direct exposure techniques or with lead screens. high contrast ASTM Class 1 film suitable for detection of minute defects. It is suitable for new materials. high contrast ASTM Class 2 film suitable for the inspection of light metals with low activity radiation sources and for inspection of thick. A high speed.

Processing Film .

Processing Systems Developer Stop Manual System bath Fixer Running water .

Main Constituents Developing agent metol-hydroquinone Accelerator keeps solution alkaline Restrainer ensures only exposed silver halides converted Preservative prevents oxidation by air Replenishment Purpose – to ensure that the activity of the developer and the developing time required remains constant Guideline – 1. After 1m2 of film has been developed.Processing Systems Development •Metallic Silver converted into Black metallic silver 3-5 min at 20OC •The developer supplies a source of electrons (-ve ions) which cause the chemical changes in the emulsion. about 400 ml of replenisher needs to be added .

Prevents the formation of scale. Sodium sulphate. Hesametaphosphate. Prevents oxidation of the developer. Controls the level of development fogging. Sodium. Preservative Restrainer Sequestering agent • The film are agitated for approximately 20 seconds and then for approximately 10 seconds every minute. Sodium hydroxide. Sodium carbonate. Phenidone Borax. A chemical which gives an alkaline reaction which speeds up development. . • Agitation allows for fresh developer to flow over the film and prevents the possibility of bromide streaking. Hydroquinone. Potassium bromide.Developer Constituents Developing agent(s) Accelerator Action Preferentially reduces the exposed silver halide crystals (+ve ions) to black metallic silver. Chemicals in common use Metol.

Processing Systems Stop Bath 3% Acetic acid .neutralises the developer .

Twice the clearing time .1. Hardens the emulsion gelatin 3. Removes all unexposed silver grains 2. then readily dissolved or removed at the final wash stage. Convert the unwanted unexposed halides into water soluble compounds. Fixing time . • Clearing time .Processing Systems Fixer • Sodium thiosulphate or ammonium thiosulphate Functions:.The time taken for the radiography to loose its milky appearance.

Processing Systems Washing • Films should be washed in a tank with constant running water for at least 20 minutes. . • Usually followed by dipping in a clean water bath containing a wetting agent which helps to promote even drying. • Insufficient washing the film can caused the yellow fog appears. • Overwashing will cause swelling and excessive softening of the film emulsion. a major cause of “drying marks”.

SENSITOMETRY .

Characteristic Curves • Increasing exposures applied to successive areas of a film • After development the densities are measured • The density is then plotted against the log of the exposure Characteristic curve Sensitometric curve Hunter & Driffield curve .

0 Average gradient .0 2.Characteristic Curves 4.5 1.0 .Straight line 1.5 Base fog 0.0 Toe portion 0.5 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.5 2.3 0 0.0 1.5 Shoulder Density 3.5 1.

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Characteristic Curves The relationship between exposure time and resultant film density is non-linear The gradient of the film characteristic curve is a measure of film contrast .

Characteristic Curves Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve • The position of the curve axis gives information about the films speed • The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast • The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the density axis will show the density range within which the film contrast will be at its highest. • New exposure time can be determined for a change of film type .

Characteristic Curves Density obtained in a photographic emulsion does not vary linearly with applied exposure Density (Log) The steeper the slope the greater the contrast Log Relative Exposure .

Characteristic Curves Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve •The position of the curve axis gives information about the films speed A B C D E Density Film A is faster than Film B Film B faster then C Log Relative Exposure .

• Film A is coarse grain & is faster than Film B & C • Film B is fine grain and it’s speed is intermediate between Film A & C • Film C is ultra-fine grain and is the slowest of the three • A “fast” film requires a shorter exposure time than a “slow” film .

• New exposure time can be determined for a change of film type .Characteristic Curves Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve • The position of the curve axis gives information about the films speed • The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast • The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the density axis will show the density range within which the film contrast will be at its highest.

3 1.6mA mins Log Relative Exposure .5 2.8 .5 1.16 (measured density is lower than the required density) 1.Changing Density Density achieved Density required 1.3 = 0.5 Antilog of 0.8 Original exposure 10 mA mins New exposure 31.16 Therefore multiply exposure by 3.5 = 3.1.5 Density Determine interval between logs 1.5 2.

31 = 0.5? .1.32 = 2.5 was achieved using an exposure of 10 mAmin What exposure is required to achieve a density of 2.1 X 10 = 21 mAmin density of 1.1 Original Exposure = 10 mAmin Using D7 Film a New Exposure = 2.63 .1.32 Antilog 0.

• New exposure time can be determined for a change of film type .Characteristic Curves Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve • The position of the curve axis gives information about the films speed • The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast • The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the density axis will show the density range within which the film contrast will be at its highest.

42 Original exposure = 10 mA mins New exposure = 10mAmins. X 1.1 Antilog of 0.85 Log Relative Exposure .Changing Film Obtain Logs for Films A and B at required density Interval between logs 1.85 – 1.2 mA mins 1.7= 0.7 1.5 Multiply exposure by 1.42 Density A B 2.42 = 14.15 = 1.

63 = 0.75 X 10 = 27.5 mAmin Using D7 Film a density of 2.2.5 using MX film? .44 Antilog 0.07 .44 = 2.1.5 was achieved using an exposure of 10 mAmin What exposure is required to achieve a density of 2.75 Original Exposure = 10 mAmin New Exposure = 2.

.Characteristic Curves BASE FOG LEVEL (AFFECTS FILM CONTRAST) National standards generally limit the base fog level of unexposed radiographic film to 0. Fog level can be checked by processing a sample of the unexposed film. If the base fog level exceeds this value film contrast can be quite severely affected.3.

5 respectively.5 and a film density of 2.7. The average gradient with a base fog level of 0. This decrease in average gradient is indicative of a reduction in film contrast.5 for film having a base fog level of 0.1 is about 3.6 while that for a base fog level of 0.BASE FOG LEVEL (AFFECTS FILM CONTRAST) Effect of film fogging on the film characteristic curve Characteristic Curves (The dotted lines show the average gradient between a film density of 1.) .1 and 0.5 is about 2.

normally assessed subjectively • Measured by the use of Duplex type III IQI (Bs EN 462:P5) .RADIOGRAPHIC DEFINITION DEFINITION • Is the sharpness of the dividing line between areas of different density • Usually is not measured exclusively.

Q.Radiographic Definition Definition measured by the use of a type III I.I. Alternative terms given •Duplex type •Cerl type B •EN 462 part 5 Consists of pairs of parallel platinum or tungsten wires of decreasing thicknesess The gap same as the thickness wire EN 462-5 .

Radiographic Definition Geometry Unsharpness ( Ug) • Also known as Penumbra is the unsharpness on the radiograph caused by the geometry of the radiation in relation to the object/subject • Always exists & borders all density fields Inherent unsharpness (Ui) • Unsharpness of the radiographs caused by stray electrons transmitted from exposed crystal which have affected adjacent crystal • Always exists. depending on grain size. distribution & energy used • Increases with a reduction in wavelenght .

Inherent Unsharpness Stray electrons from exposed crystals Exposed radiograph with crack like indication - Adjacent crystals affected by stray electrons .

OFD Film ug ug .25 mm is often used.82mm Typical maximum penumbra of 0.Calculation of geometric unsharpness (Ug 2mm dia. Focal / Source SIZE 2mm length FOD / SOD FFD / SFD S = 2² + 2² = 2.

Two circular objects can be rendered as two separate circles A or as two overlapping circles B depending on the direction of the radiation .

Long OFD Short OFD Lack of parallelism Short FFD Long FFD .

Changes in specimen Inherent unsharpness • Coarse grain film • Salt screens • Radiation quality • Development .DEFINITION Radiographic Definition Geometric unsharpness • FFD/SFD too short • OFD too large/screen film contact • Source size too large • Vibration/movement • Abrupt thick.

Geometry of Image Formation .

25mm) ofd . F Ug= F x ofd fod fod ffd (Ug = 0.Penumbra Ug) Focal spot size.

Penumbra (Ug) To minimise penumbra Source size as small as possible Source to object distance as long as possible Object to film distance as small as possible .

OFD .Penumbra Calculations Penumbra = S = 4mm OFD = 25mm FFD = 275mm S x OFD FFD .

Penumbra Calculations Min FFD = S x OFD Penumbra + OFD S = 4mm OFD = 25mm FFD = 275 Penumbra = 0.25 .

Inherent Unsharpness Large film grain size increased inherent Unsharpness Short wavelength increased inherent Unsharpness Loose film crystal distribution increased inherent Unsharpness .

Geometric Unsharpness .

Geometric Unsharpness Long Film to Focal Distance .

Geometric Unsharpness Short Focal to Object Distance .

Geometric Unsharpness Small Focus .

Geometric Unsharpness Large Focus .

Geometric Unsharpness Short Object to Film Distance .

Geometric Unsharpness Long Object to Film Distance .

Intensifying Screens Radiographic film is usually sandwiched between two intensifying screens There are three main types of intensifying screens • Lead screens • Fluorescent screens • Fluorometallic screens .

02mm to 0.Lead Intensifying Screens Film placed between 2 intensifying screens Intensification action achieved by emitting particulate/beta radiation (electrons) Generally lead of 0.15mm Front screen shortens exposure time and improves quality by filtering out scatter Back screen acts as a filter only .

high speed or rapid screen .Salt Intensifying Screens Intensification action achieved by emitting Light radiation (Visible or UV-A) Intensification action twice that of lead screens No filtration action achieved Salt used calcium tungstate Film placed between 2 intensifying screens 2 types – 1. high definition (fine grain screen) 2.

Type 1 – x-rays up to 300kV 2. Ir 192 3.Fluorometallic Intensifying Screens Film placed between 2 intensifying screens Intensification action achieved by emitting light radiation (Visible or UV-A) and particulate radiation electrons) High cost Front screen acts as a filter and intensifier Salt used calcium tungstate Screen type 1. Type 3 – Co60 . Type 2 – x-rays 300-1000kV.

Film Latitude Latitude – Range of thickness Wide latitude radiographic films meet the applications for a variety of multi-thickness subjects. (fuji IX 29 & 59) Wide latitude Poor contrast Good definition Low latitude Good contrast Poor definition .

poorer definition and .poorer contrast .create spurious indications • It may also cause radiological protection problems .Scatter • Radiation emitted from any other source than that giving the primary desired rectilinear propagation (straight line) • Scatter will lead to .

Scatter • Internal scatter originating within the specimen • Side scatter walls and nearby objects in the path of the primary beam • Back scatter materials located behind the film .

Scatter • Internal scatter originating within the specimen .

Scatter • Side scatter walls and nearby objects in the path of the primary beam .

Scatter • Back scatter materials located behind the film .

If the image of this symbol records as a lighter image on the radiograph. If the symbol is darker or invisible the radiograph is acceptable and demonstrates good protection against scattered radiation. . it shall be rejected.Back Scatter Notification The presence of back scattered radiation must be checked for each new test arrangement by a lead letter B placed immediately behind each cassette.

SCATTER .

Control of Scatter • • • • • • • Collimation Diaphragms Beam filtration Masking or Blocking Grids Filters Increased beam energy .

• X-ray equipment is always to some extent selfcollimated • which is turn results in radiographs with better sensitivity. • In gamma radiography collimators consisting of hollowed out blocks of lead weighing around 2.COLLIMATION • provide radiation safety to the operating personnel and general public by directing the emerging radiation beam to the useful area of exposure.5 kg are common. • collimators for gamma radiography are made from tungsten or tantalum. . • The principle of collimation is if there is less radiation then there will be proportionally less scatter.

Diaphragms • They consist of a sheet of lead which has a hole cut in it the same shape as the object which is being radiographed. • Diaphragms are therefore more likely to be seen where a fully automated technique is in use that allows for a very high degree of repeatability in the set up accuracy. the set up for radiography must however. • shield out all unwanted radiation. . be extremely accurate if the use of a diaphragm is to be successful.

• limit the radiation beam as it is directed toward the part. . • Shutters are usually mounted on the front of the image intensifier and help keep radiation not passing through the part from impinging on image intensifier screen and causing phosphor blooming.Shutters and masks • consists of placing sheets of lead. thereby decreasing scatter radiation by narrowing and decreasing beams to a specific location. bags of lead shot or barium putty or any other radiation absorbing material around the object which is being radiographed in order to reduce the undercutting effect of side scatter.

• effective method of reducing the effects of side scatter. • In order to be effective the grid must be placed as close as possible to the film. • A grid consists of a matrix of parallel metal bars which is set in oscillation during exposure such that the grid itself does not produce a radiographic image.GRIDS • limited to medical radiography. but grids are very rarely a practical option for industrial situations. . • In microfocus x-radiography it may be placed between the film and the object.

Sensitivity Sensitivity • Defined as the smallest indication or detail can be seen on the radiographs. . • A general term of sensitivity can be determine as an overall assessment of the quality on a radiographic image which relates to the ability radiographic techniques to detect fine discontinuities. • Image quality is determined by a combination of variables: radiographic contrast and definition. . • It is a function of the contrast and the definition of the radiographic image.

Sensitivity IQI sensitivity The image on a radiograph which is used to determine the quality level Defect sensitivity Ability to assist the sensitivity and locate a defect on a radiograph (Depend on the defect orientation) .

IQI Sensitivity
Ideally IQI should be placed on the source side IQI sensitivity is calculated from the following formula

Sensitivity % = Thickness of thinnest step/wire visible x 100 Object Thickness

Image Quality Indicators
Thickness (mm) 0.050 0.063 0.08 0.10 0.125 0.15 0.16 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.32 0.35 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.63 0.75 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.20 1.25 1.50 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.20 4.00 5.00 6.30 BS 3971 1-6 STEP 7-12 13-18 4-10 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 WIRE 9-15 15-21 DIN 54 109 WIRE (DIN 62) 1-7 6-12 10-16 H1 BS EN 462-2 STEP/HOLE H5 H9 H 13 W1 BS EN 462-1 WIRE W6 W 10 W 13 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

6 5 4 3 2 1

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

IQI Sensitivity
A Radiograph of a 16mm thick but weld is viewed under the correct conditions, 5 wires visible on the radiograph IQI pack 6-12 Din 62, what is the IQI sensitivity? Sensitivity = Thickness of thinnest wire visible X 100 Total weld thickness

IQI Sensitivity Using the same IQI pack 6-12 Din 62. How many IQI wires must be visible to give an IQI sensitivity of 2 %. thickness of material 16mm .

Image Quality Indicator .

They are not used to measure the size of defects detected Standards for IQI’s include: BS EN 462-1 – Wire Type BS EN 462-2 – Step/wedge Type BS EN 462-3 – Classes for ferrous mat.Image Quality Indicators IQI’s / Penetrameters are used to measure radiographic sensitivity and the quality of the radiographic technique used. BS EN 462-4 – IQI values & tables BS EN 462-5 – Duplex WireType BS 3971 DIN 54 109 ASTM E747 .

‘W10’. wires 1 to 7. wires 13 to 19. ‘CU’.BS EN 462-1 wire type IQIs each consist of 7 wires taken from a list of 19 wires. Each of these groupings is available in any of 4 types of material. ‘W6’. wires 6 to 12. for Steel or stainless steel for copper. Four standard wire groupings are available. tin. designation designation designation designation ‘W1’. ‘AL’ ‘TI’. zinc and their alloy for Aluminium for Titanium . wires 10 to 16 ‘W13’. ‘FE’.

EN 462-1 wire type IQIs .

25 1. .8 0.05 BS EN 462-1 wire diameters Easy to remember the wire diameters: Remember the diameters of the first three.6 1.63 0.08 0. 3.125 0.2 2.4 0.0 0.2.2 0.1 0.Designation W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17 W18 W19 Diameter 3. 2.0 mm divide by halve from the remaining value.16 0.063 0.32 0.5 and 2.0 1.5 2.5 0.25 0.

ASTM E 747 The series consists of 21 wires ranging from 0.81 2.3 0.6 5.5 1. B.5 WIRE DIAMETERS 0.2 0.0 6.25 0.08 mm to 8.2 0.4 1.08 0. C or D) IQI type A B C D 0.33 1.63 2. each designated by a letter (A.81 2.27 4.25 0.1 0.0 3.16 0.1 0.5 8.0 0.13 0.1 mm in diameter.1 . there are 4 overlapping groups of 6 wires.

BS EN 462-2 Step-hole IQIs .

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The loss of sensitivity shall be compensated by an increase of minimum density to 3.0 or by the choice of a higher contrast film system. .Classification of radiographic techniques The radiographic techniques are divided into two classes: — class A: basic techniques. for technical reasons.1. the test specimen may be regarded as tested within class B.5 are used. Class B techniques will be used when class A might be insufficiently sensitive. Because of the better sensitivity compared to class A. f.6 for test arrangements 6. such as type of radiation source or the source-to-object distance. The choice of radiographic technique shall be defined by specification.1. it may be defined by specification that the condition selected may be that specified for class A.4 and 6. — class B: improved techniques. Better techniques compared to class B are possible and may be defined by specification of all appropriate test parameters. it is not possible to meet one of the conditions specified for class B. If. This does not apply if the special SFD reductions as described in 6.

33% 3.94% 2.5% 0.07% 0.5 > 1.8 1.2 > 1.98% 0.25 0.67% 1.1 0.5 > 2.CLASS ‘A’ RADIOGRAPHY 1.53% < 0.08 0.5 ≤ 5 >5≤7 > 7 ≤ 12 > 12 ≤ 18 > 18 ≤ 30 > 30 ≤ 40 > 40 ≤ 50 > 50 ≤ 60 > 65 ≤ 85 > 85 ≤ 120 > 120 ≤ 220 > 220 ≤ 380 > 380 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 0.5 0.5 > 3.125 0.5 ≤ 2.0 1.05 0.063 0.0% 0.46% 2.16 0.36% .91% 0.67% 2.68% 0.4 0.63 0.4 0.79% 1.14% 1.11% 1.14% 1.6 2.2 0.6% 1.0 1.0% 1.15% 2.1 0. Single Wall Technique Source Side IQI Thickness Required wire Wire diameter Average Sensitivity CLASS ‘B’ RADIOGRAPHY 1.25% 5% 3.0% 0.32 0.53% ≤ 1.74% 0.0 > 5.2 0.125 0.98% 1.08 0.063 0. Single Wall Technique Source Side IQI Thickness Required wire Wire diameter Average Sensitivity ≤ 1.2 ≤ 2 > 2 ≤ 3.5 ≤ 4 >4≤6 >6≤8 > 8 ≤ 12 > 12 ≤ 20 > 20 ≤ 30 > 30 ≤ 35 > 35 ≤ 45 > 45 ≤ 65 > 65 ≤ 120 > 120 ≤ 200 > 200 ≤ 350 > 350 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 0.1% 1.63 0.25% 1.64% 2.32 0.25 0.16 0.25 1.25 > 3.33% 1.36% < 0.5 0.8 1.

Image Quality Indicators EN 462-5 7FE12 Step / Hole type IQI Wire type IQI .

Image Quality Indicators IQI wire thickness = Subject thicknes 100 x 2 .

0mm 2.ASME Image Quality Indicators Penetrmeter Design Minimum Penetrmeter Thickness (2% of the weld thickness) Minimum Diameter for 1T Hole Minimum Diameter for 2T Hole Minimum Diameter for 4T Hole 0.5mm 4T dia T dia 2T dia 17 0.00mm 38mm 12mm T IQI Sensitivity 1 Hole visible = 4T 2 Holes visible = T 3 Holes visible = 2T .5mm 1.

Image Quality Indicators It is important that IQIs are placed Step/Hole Type IQI Wire Type IQI .

• IQI material chosen should have similar radiation absorption/transmission properties to the test specimen . letter ‘FS’ should be placed beside the IQI.Placement of IQI • IQI must be placed on the maximum thickness of weld • Thinnest required step or wire must be placed at the extreme edge of section under test • IQI must be placed at the source or film side and at a position within the diagnostic film length (DFL) in accordance with the requirements of the contract specification. • In case of access problem . IQI has to placed on the film side of the object.

Radiographic Techniques .

source outside Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) panoramic .film outside.film outside. source outside (superimposed) Parallax / Tube shift method .film outside.Radiographic Techniques Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) .film outside. source inside (internal exposure) Double Wall Single Image (DWSI) .to determine the distance/depth of the defect . source outside (external exposure) Double Wall Double Image (DWDI) .film inside. source outside (elliptical exposure) Double Wall Double Image (DWDI) .

Single wall single image SWSI Film Film IQI’s should be placed source side .

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Single wall single image SWSI panoramic Film • IQI’s are placed on the film side • Source inside film outside (single exposure) .

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Double wall single image DWSI Film • IQI’s are placed on the film side • Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) • This technique is intended for pipe diameters over 100mm .

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Double wall single image DWSI Identification • Unique identification • IQI placing • Pitch marks indicating readable film length A ID MR11 Radiograph EN W10 B .

Double wall double image DWDI elliptical exposure • • • • Film IQI’s are placed on the source side Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) A minimum of two exposures This technique is intended for pipe diameters less than 100mm .

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Double wall double image DWDI Identification • Unique identification • IQI placing • Pitch marks indicating readable film length 1 ID MR12 4 EN W10 3 2 Shot A Radiograph .

Double wall double image (DWDI) perpendicular exposure Film • • • • • IQI’s are placed on the source side Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) A minimum of three exposures Source side weld is superimposed on film side weld This technique is intended for small pipe diameters .

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0 Density 1.2 Density 3.0 Density unacceptable .2 Density requirement 2.0 Density 1.0 to 3.Sandwich Technique It may be used on components where there are substantial thickness differences Density 3.

0 to 3.0 acceptable .Thicker section FILM B: Slow film .Thinner section Density 2.Sandwich Technique FILM A FILM B LEAD SCREENS FILM A FILM B Density 3.0 Density 2.0 Density 3.0 FILM A: Fast film .0 Density 2.

over 50mm. eg. • It is a technique more applicable to thick specimens.Parallax technique • The parallax radiographic technique may be used to determine the depth of defects below the surface • This may be useful to know for repair purposes. but is rarely used • Also known as a Tube Shift Method .

Parallax technique

Alignment of beam
The beam of radiation shall be directed to the centre of the area being inspected and should be normal to the object surface An appropriate alignment of the beam can be permitted if it can be demonstrated that certain inspections are best revealed by a different alignment of the beam Between the contracting parties other ways of radiographing may be agreed upon.

Interpretation conditions

acceptable.Duties of a Radiographic Interpreter Mask of any unwanted light from viewer Ensure the background light is subdued Check the radiograph for correct identification Assess the radiographs density Calculate the radiographs sensitivity Check the radiograph for any artifacts Assess the radiograph for any defects present State the action to be taken. rejectable or repair .

Viewing conditions • Darkened room • Clean viewer • Minimum adequate illumination from the viewer is 3000cd/m2 • Eyesight must be adjusted to the darkened conditions • Comfortable viewing position and environment • Avoid fatigue .

relates to the overall quality of the radiograph .relates to the degree of difference in density between adjacent areas on a radiograph Definition .relates to the degree of sharpness Sensitivity .Radiographic Quality Density .relates to the degree of darkness Contrast .

Factors Influencing Sensitivity Sensitivity Contrast Definition .

Radiographic Quality • Density • Contrast The ability to differentiate areas of different film density .

Contrast Radiographic contrast :.Contrast arising from variation in opacity within an irradiated area :.The slope of characteristic curve of the film at specified density.The density difference on a radiography between two areas.usually subject and the background (overall) Subject contrast :. fine grain or large grain) Film contrast . ( Type of film being used.

Radiographic Contrast Subject contrast is governed by the range of radiation intensities transmitted by the specimen.screen combination Excessive Contrast • kV too low • Incorrect developer . A flat sheet of homogeneous material of nearly uniform thickness would have very low subject contrast. Insufficient Contrast • kV too high • Over exposure compensated for by shortened development • Incorrect film .

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Factors Influencing Sensitivity Sensitivity Contrast Definition Density Film Energy Object contrast Processing Time Temperature Type Strength Agitation .

Radiographic Contrast Film Contrast Subject Contrast Film type Density Processing Scatter Wavelength Screens .

Factors Influencing Sensitivity Sensitivity Contrast Definition Film speed Screens Energy Vibration Geometry Processing Time Temperature Type Strength Agitation .

Radiographic Contrast Poor contrast Poor contrast High contrast .

Film Density is a logarithmic unit: Where I1 is the incident light intensity and I2 is the transmitted light intensity Thus if Film Density = 2. the incident light intensity is 100x greater than the transmitted intensity * Greater contrast is achieved at higher density .Radiographic Density The DEGREE OF DARKENING of a processed film is called FILM DENSITY.

The minimum density in the area of interest.5. 10 times more light passes through the radiograph for a density of 1.0.0 or 3.0 is a factor of 10. .Radiographic Density The ratio of transmitted light for densities of 1.5 and 2. The maximum density stated in a specification will typically be 3.0 and 2.e. required by specifications is typically between 1.0 than for a density of 2. i.5.

Radiographic Density Lack of Density Under exposure Developer temp too low Exhausted developer Developer too weak Insufficient development time Excessive Density Over exposure Excessive development Developer temp too high Too strong a solution .

0 .0 1.0 2.5 2.Measuring Radiographic Density Density is measured by a densitometer A densitometer should be calibrated using a density strip A strip of film containing known densities on the same viewer which is to be used for interpreting the radiograph.5 3.5 1.0 3. 4.

What is a good radiograph? .

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