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Bevelacqua Dissertation

Bevelacqua Dissertation

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Sections

  • 1.1. Overview
  • 1.2. Literature Survey
  • II. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ANTENNA ARRAYS
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Antenna Characteristics
  • 2.3. Wireless Communication
  • 2.4. Antenna Arrays
  • 2.5. Spatial Processing Using Antenna Arrays
  • III. WEIGHTING METHODS IN ANTENNA ARRAYS
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Phased-Tapered Weights
  • 3.3. Schelkunoff Polynomial Method
  • 3.4. Dolph-Chebyshev Method
  • 3.5. Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) Weighting
  • 3.6. The LMS Algorithm
  • IV. METHODS OF ANTENNA ARRAY GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Linear Programming
  • 4.3. Convex Optimization
  • 4.4. Simulated Annealing
  • 4.5. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Interference Environment
  • 5.3. Optimization for Interference Suppression
  • 5.4. Planar Array with Uniform Interference at Constant Elevation
  • 5.5. Using Simulated Annealing to Find an Optimal Array
  • 5.6. Evaluating the Performance of the Optimal Arrays
  • 5.7. Summary
  • VI. MINIMUM SIDELOBE LEVELS FOR LINEAR ARRAYS
  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Problem Setup
  • 6.3. Determination of Optimum Weights for an Arbitrary Linear Array
  • 6.4. Broadside Linear Array
  • 6.5. Array Scanned to 45 Degrees
  • 6.6. Array of Dipoles Scanned to Broadside
  • 6.7. Mutual Coupling
  • 6.8. Conclusions
  • VII. MINIMIZING SIDELOBES IN PLANAR ARRAYS
  • 7.2. Two-Dimensional Symmetric Arrays
  • 7.3. Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Two-Dimensional Arrays
  • 7.4 Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Scanned Two-Dimensional Arrays
  • TABLE XIX OPTIMAL WEIGHTS WITH ASSOCIATED POSITIONS
  • 7.5. Symmetric Arrays of Omnidirectional Elements
  • 7.6. Symmetric Arrays of Patch Antennas
  • 7.7. Wideband Weighting Method
  • 7.8. Optimal Wideband Arrays of Omnidirectional Antennas
  • 7.9. Optimal Wideband Arrays of Patch Antennas

ANTENNA ARRAYS: PERFORMANCE LIMITS AND GEOMETRY

OPTIMIZATION
by
Peter Joseph Bevelacqua

























A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy

























ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY

May 2008
ANTENNA ARRAYS: PERFORMANCE LIMITS AND GEOMETRY
OPTIMIZATION
by
Peter Joseph Bevelacqua




has been approved

March 2008













Graduate Supervisory Committee:

Constantine A. Balanis, Chair
Joseph Palais
Abbas Abbaspour-Tamijani
James Aberle
Cihan Tepedelenlioglu













ACCEPTED BY THE GRADUATE COLLEGE

iii
ABSTRACT
The radiation pattern of an antenna array depends strongly on the weighting method
and the geometry of the array. Selection of the weights has received extensive attention,
primarily because the radiation pattern is a linear function of the weights. However, the
array geometry has received relatively little attention even though it also strongly
influences the radiation pattern. The reason for this is primarily due to the complex way
in which the geometry affects the radiation pattern. The main goal of this dissertation is
to determine methods of optimizing array geometries in antenna arrays.
An adaptive array with the goal of suppressing interference is investigated. It is
shown that the interference rejection capabilities of the antenna array depend upon its
geometry. The concept of an interference environment is introduced, which enables
optimization of an adaptive array based on the expected directions and power of the
interference. This enables the optimization to perform superior on average, instead of for
specific situations. An optimization problem is derived whose solution yields an optimal
array for suppressing interference. Optimal planar arrays are presented for varying
number of elements. It is shown that, on average, the optimal arrays increase the signal-
to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) when compared to standard arrays.
Sidelobe level is an important metric used in antenna arrays, and depends on the
weights and positions in the array. A method of determining optimal sidelobe-
minimizing weights is derived that holds for any linear array geometry, beamwidth,
antenna type and scan angle. The positions are then optimized simultaneously with the
optimal weights to determine the minimum possible sidelobe level in linear arrays.

iv
Results are presented for arrays of varying size, with different antenna elements, and for
distinct beamwidths and scan angles.
Minimizing sidelobes is then considered for 2D arrays. A method of determining
optimal weights in symmetric 2D arrays is derived for narrowband and wideband cases.
The positions are again simultaneously optimized with the weights to determine optimal
arrays, weights and sidelobe levels. This is done for arrays with varying number of
elements, beamwidths, bandwidths, and different antenna elements.



v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work would not have been possible without my adviser, Dr. Constantine
Balanis. Dr. Balanis let me into his research group and gave me funding to research array
geometry, which ultimately led to the work presented here. His guidance and helpfulness
were paramount in producing successful research; without this the work would not have
been completed due to my youthful impatience and wavering trajectory.
I would like to thank Dr. Joseph Palais, Dr. Abbaspour-Tamijani, Dr. James
Aberle and Dr. Cihan Tepedelenlioglu for taking the time to be on my research
committee and for helpful suggestions along the way, specifically during my qualifying
and comprehensive examinations. Thanks also to Dr. Gang Qian and Dr. Andreas
Spanias for helping with my qualifying exam and in understanding Fourier Transforms.
My thanks go to my colleagues at ASU, including Zhiyong Huang, Victor
Kononov, Bo Yang, and Aron Cummings. The presence of these people increased the
quality of my research and life in various ways during my time at ASU.
This work is the culmination of approximately 10 years of college education. I am
indebted to many people for academic, personal, and financial assistance along the way.
Of these, I would like to thank Dr. Shira Broschat and Dr. John Schneider from
Washington State, Dr. Lee Boyce from Stanford, and my parents. Many other people
have in some way contributed to my education, but they are too numerous to list here.

vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix
LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Literature Survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
II. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ANTENNA ARRAYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
2.2 Antenna Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 Wireless Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.4 Antenna Arrays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.5 Spatial Processing Using Antenna Arrays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.6 Aliasing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
III. WEIGHTING METHODS IN ANTENNA ARRAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
3.2 Phase-Tapered Weights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.3 Schelkunoff Polynomial Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.4 Dolph-Chebyshev Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.5 Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) Weighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
3.6 The LMS Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
IV. METHODS OF ANTENNA ARRAY GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION. . . . . . . . 38

vii
CHAPTER Page
4.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
4.2 Linear Programming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.3 Convex Optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.4 Simulated Annealing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.5 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
V. ARRAY GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION FOR INTERFERENCE
SUPPRESSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
5.2 Interference Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.3 Optimization for Interference Suppression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.4 Planar Array with Uniform Interference at Constant Elevation. . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.5 Using Simulated Annealing to Find an Optimal Array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5.6 Evaluating the Performance of Optimal Arrays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.7 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
VI. MINIMUM SIDELOBE LEVELS FOR LINEAR ARRAYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
6.2 Problem Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.3 Determination of Optimum Weights for an Arbitrary Linear Array. . . . . . . . 81
6.4 Broadside Linear Array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
6.5 Array Scanned to 45 Degrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.6 Array of Dipoles Scanned to Broadside. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
6.7 Mutual Coupling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

viii
CHAPTER Page
6.8 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
VII. MINIMIZING SIDELOBES IN PLANAR ARRAYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
7.2 Two-Dimensional Symmetric Arrays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
7.3 Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Two-Dimensional Arrays. . . . . . . . . . . . 105
7.4 Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Scanned Two-Dimensional Arrays. . . . . 110
7.5 Symmetric Arrays of Omnidirectional Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
7.6 Symmetric Arrays of Patch Antennas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
7.7 Wideband Weighting Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
7.8 Optimal Wideband Arrays of Omnidirectional Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
7.9 Optimal Wideband Arrays of Patch Antennas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
7.10 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
VIII. SUMMARY, CONLUSIONS, AND FUTURE WORK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
8.1 Summary and Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
8.2 Future Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151




ix
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
I. OUTPUT POWER COMPARISON AMONG DIFFERENT ARRAYS . . 73
II. RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
III. RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
IV. RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
V. NUMBER OF PARTICLES REQUIRED FOR CONVERGENCE FOR
VARYING ARRAY SIZE WITH SIMULATION TIME. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
VI. OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 (BW=
° = ° 90 , 30
d
θ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
VII. OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 (BW= ° = ° 90 , 60
d
θ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
VIII. OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 2 (BW=
° = ° 90 , 30
d
θ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
IX. OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 (BW= ° = ° 90 , 30
d
θ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
X. OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 (BW=
° = ° 45 , 60
d
θ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
XI. OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 (BW= ° = ° 45 , 60
d
θ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
XII. OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 2

(BW= ° = ° 45 , 30
d
θ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

XIII. OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 (BW= ° = ° 45 , 60
d
θ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

XIV. OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 WITH

DIPOLES (BW= ° = ° 90 , 60
d
θ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

x

Table Page
XV. OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 WITH DIPOLES

(BW= ° = ° 90 , 60
d
θ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

XVI. OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) AND SLL FOR CASE 2

WITH DIPOLES (BW= ° = ° 90 , 30
d
θ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

XVII. OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 WITH DIPOLES (BW= ° = ° 90 , 30
d
θ
). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \97
XVIII. OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR 7-ELEMENT HEXAGONAL ARRAY. . . .110
XIX. OPTIMAL WEIGHTS WITH ASSOCIATED POSITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . 114
XX. NUMBER OF REQUIRED PARTICLES FOR PSO AND
COMPUTATION TIME FOR N=4-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
XXI. OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 1 (DIMENSIONS

IN λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

XXII. OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

XXIII. OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 2 (DIMENSIONS

IN λ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

XXIV. OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

XXV. OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 1 OF PATCH

ELEMENTS (UNITS OF λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

XXVI. OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 WITH PATCH ELEMENTS . . . . .126

XXVII. OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 2 OF PATCH

ELEMENTS (UNITS OF λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

xi
Table Page
XXVIII. OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 WITH PATCH ELEMENTS . . . . .128

XXIX. OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL

ELEMENTS (UNITS OF
c
λ , FBW=0.5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

XXX. OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL ELEMENTS

(FBW=0.5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

XXXI. OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR PATCH ELEMENTS

(UNITS OF
c
λ , FBW=0.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141

XXXII. OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR PATCH ELEMENTS (FBW=0.2). . . . . . . .141



xii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1. Elevation (a) and azimuthal (b) patterns for a short dipole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2. Arbitrary antenna array geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3. Spatial processing of antenna array signals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4. Magnitude of array factor for N=5 elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5. Magnitude of the array factor (dB) for 2-d array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6. Array factor of steered linear array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7. Array pattern with weights from Schelkunoff method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8. Dolph-Chebyshev array for N=6 with sidelobes at -30 dB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9. Array factor magnitudes for MMSE weights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
10. MSE at each iteration, along with the optimal MSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11. Symmetric linear array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
12. Array factor for optimal weights found via linear programming. . . . . . . . . . . . 48
13. Examples of convex sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
14. Examples of non-convex sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
15. Illustration of a convex function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
16. Optimum N=4 element array (measured in units of λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
17. Optimum N=5 element array (measured in units of λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
18. Optimum N=6 element array (measured in units of λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
19. Optimum N=7 element array (measured in units of λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
20. Basic setup of a linear N-element array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
21. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91

xiii
Figure Page
22. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
23. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
24. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
25. Magnitude of the total radiation pattern for optimal arrays of dipoles (N=6). . . 98
26. Magnitude of the total radiation pattern for optimal arrays of dipoles (N=7). . . 98
27. Arbitrary planar array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
28. Suppression region for two-dimensional arrays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
29. Array factors for optimal weighted and phase-tapered array ( ° = 0 φ ). . . . . . . 109
30. Array factors for optimal weighted and phase-tapered array ( ° = 45 φ ). . . . . . 110
31. |AF| for phase-tapered weights; (a) elevation plot, (b) azimuth plot. . . . . . . . . 112
32. Suppression region for an array scanned away from broadside. . . . . . . . . . . . 113
33. Azimuth plot of array factors with optimal and phase-tapered weights. . . . . . 114
34. Elevation plot of array factors with optimal and phase-tapered weights. . . . . .115
35. Optimal symmetric array locations for Case 1 (dimensions in λ ). . . . . . . . . .
118
36. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuthal angles (Case 1), N=7. . . . . . . . . . . . 119

37. Optimal symmetric array locations for Case 2 (dimensions in λ ). . . . . . . . . .
121
38. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuthal angles (Case 2), N=7. . . . . . . . . . . . 121
39. Magnitude of patch pattern (in dB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
40. Optimal symmetric patch array locations for Case 1 (units of λ ). . . . . . . . . . 125

xiv
41. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (Case 1), N=7 (patch). . . . . . . 126
42. Optimal symmetric patch array locations for Case 2 (units of λ ). . . . . . . . . . 127
Figure Page
43. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (Case 2), N=7 (patch). . . . . . .
128
44. Suppression region for two-dimensional arrays over a frequency band. . . . . . 132
45. Optimal symmetric array locations for FBW=0.5 (units of
c
λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . 134
46. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
L
f f = . . . . . . . . . .
.136
47. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
c
f f = . . . . . . . . . . .137
48. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
U
f f = . . . . . . . . . . 138
49. Optimal symmetric patch array locations for FBW=0.2 (units of
c
λ ). . . . . . . 140
50. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
L
f f = . . . . . . . . . .
.142
51. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
c
f f = . . . . . . . . . . .143
52. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
U
f f = . . . . . . . . . . 144






I. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Overview
On December 12, 1901, Guglielmo Marconi successfully received the first trans-
atlantic radio message [1]. The message was the Morse-code for the letter ‘S’ – three
short clicks. This event was arguably the most significant achievements in early radio
communication. This communication system, while technically functional, clearly had
significant room for improvement.
A century of improvement in the field of wireless communication has occurred.
The envelope has been pushed in every imaginable direction, with no letup in progress
likely in the foreseeable future. Development in the fields of electronics, information
theory, signal processing, and antenna theory have all contributed to the ubiquity of
wireless communication systems today. However, despite the tremendous advances since
the days of Marconi in each of these fields, the desire for improved wireless
communication systems has not been quenched.
The concept of an antenna array was first introduced in military applications in the
1940s [2]. This development was significant in wireless communications as it improved
the reception and transmission patterns of antennas used in these systems. The array also
enabled the antenna system to be electronically steered – to receive or transmit
information primarily from a particular direction without mechanically moving the
structure.
As the field of signal processing developed, arrays could be used to receive energy
(or information) from a particular direction while rejecting information or nulling out the
energy in unwanted directions. Consequently, arrays could be used to mitigate



2
intentional interference (jamming) or unintentional interference (radiation from other
sources not meant for the system in question) directed toward the communication system.
Further development in signal processing led to the concept of adaptive antenna
arrays. These arrays adapted their radiation or reception pattern based on the
environment they were operating in. This again significantly contributed to the capacity
available in wireless communication systems.
While there has been a large amount of work on the signal processing aspects (and
in conjunction, the electronics used to implement the algorithms), the physical geometry
(or location of the antenna elements in the array) has received relatively little attention.
The reason for this lies in the mathematical complexity of dealing with the optimization
of the element positions for various situations. As shown in Chapter 2, understanding the
influence of the element weighting (which is a major component of the signal processing
involved in antenna arrays) is significantly simpler than understanding the effect of
varying the positions of the elements.
Thanks to the tremendous advances in numerical computing, optimization of the
element positions in an antenna array (for various situations) is now tractable. The
primary goal of this dissertation is to study the influence of array geometry on wireless
system performance. It will be shown that performance gains can be obtained via
intelligent selection of the array geometry. Array geometry optimization can therefore be
hoped to contribute to the continuing advancement of wireless communication system
performance.



3
This dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter 2 introduces the main ideas and
terminology used in understanding antenna arrays. Chapter 3 discusses various
optimization methods used in this work. Chapter 4 discusses methods of choosing the
weighting vector applied in the antenna array. Chapters 2-4 are primarily a collection of
other’s work.
Chapters 5-7 represent the author’s original research for this dissertation. Chapter 5
deals with a specific problem in a wireless communication system, namely interference
suppression in an adaptive array. An optimization problem is derived whose solution
yields an optimal array for a given interference environment, as defined in that chapter.
Solutions of this optimization problem (that is, array geometries) are presented for a
specific situation and the gains in performance are illustrated.
Chapter 6 deals with the minimum possible sidelobe level for a linear antenna array
with a fixed number of elements. A method of determining the optimal sidelobe-
minimizing weight vector is determined that holds for an arbitrary antenna type, scan
angle, and beamwidth. This method of weight selection, coupled with a geometrical
optimization routine, yield a lower bound on sidelobe levels in linear antenna arrays. The
minimum sidelobe levels of arrays with an optimized geometry are compared to those
with a standard (or non-optimized) geometry. The methods are employed on arrays of
varying size and beamwidths, and with different types of antenna elements.
Chapter 7 deals with the determination of minimum sidelobe levels in planar or
two-dimensional arrays. The method of weight selection is extended from the linear to
the planar case along with the geometrical optimization routine. Two-dimensional arrays



4
are optimized of varying sizes and beamwidths, and made up of different antenna types.
The narrowband assumption is then discarded and optimal weights are derived for the
wideband situation. Optimal geometries are then presented for the wideband case for
arrays made up of both omnidirectional and patch antenna elements.
Chapter 8 summarizes the important results and presents conclusions based on the
solutions. Finally, future problems of interest are discussed. The remainder of this
chapter presents a literature survey of previous research on array geometry optimization.
1.2. Literature Survey
The first articles on improving array performance via geometry optimization dates
back to the early 1960s. Unz [3] studied linear arrays in 1960 and noted that performance
improvement could be obtained by holding the weights constant and varying the element
positions. In 1960, King [4] proposed eliminating grating lobes via element placement
in an array. In 1961, Harrington [5] considered small element perturbations in an attempt
to synthesize a desired array pattern.
The concept of ‘thinned arrays’ was introduced in the early 1960s as well. It was
noted that in large, periodically spaced antenna arrays, removing some of the elements
did not noticeably degrade the array’s performance. This method of altering an array’s
geometry was introduced by Skolnik et al. [6] and was first studied deterministically –
attempting to systematically determine the minimum number of elements required to
achieve a desired performance metric. For large arrays, the problem was tackled in a
statistical fashion to avoid the excessive amount of computation time required to
determine an optimal thinned array [7].



5
Stutzman [8] introduced a simple method of designing nonuniformly spaced linear
arrays that is based on Gaussian-quadrature that involves fairly simple calculations. In
addition, he showed that by appropriate scaling of the element spacings, some of the
elements will lie in the region where the ideal source has a small excitation, and thus can
be omitted from the array (another method of array thinning).
Array geometry plays a critical roll in the direction-finding capabilities of antenna
arrays. Pillai et al. [9] shows that for linear aperiodic arrays, there exists an array that has
superior spatial-spectrum estimation ability. Gavish and Weiss [10] compared array
geometries based on how distinct the steering vectors are for distinct signal directions;
they proposed that larger distinctions lead to less ambiguity in direction finding. Ang et
al. [11] also evaluated the direction-finding performance of arrays by varying the
elements’ positions based on a genetic algorithm.
Antenna arrays are also used for diversity reception, or comparing signal power at
spatially distinct locations and processing the signals based on their relative strength. A
textbook proof analyzing uniformly distributed multipath components suggest arrays will
exhibit good diversity characteristics if the antennas are separated by at least 0.4λ [12].
An analytical method of choosing a linear array geometry for a given set of weights
is presented in [13]; this method was also extended to circular and spherical arrays [14].
This method requires a specified array pattern and set of weights; it then attempts to
determine an array geometry that closely approximates the desired array pattern. The
method does not guarantee a global optimum for the element positions. In [15] the
weights are optimized and then linear array scaled to find an optimal geometry. A



6
method of perturbing element positions to place nulls in desired directions is described in
[16].
Due to the large increase in the computational capability of computers, array
geometry optimization has been under investigation recently using biologically inspired
algorithms, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA). Khodier and Christodoulou [17] used the
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method to determine optimal sidelobe-minimizing
positions for linear arrays assuming the weights were constant. In [18], PSO methods
were used for planar array synthesis in minimizing sidelobes, along with null-placement.
Tennant et al. [19] used a genetic algorithm to reduce sidelobes via element position
perturbations. In [20], the authors demonstrate sidelobe minimization by choosing a
geometry based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) method.
In addition to geometry considerations, the minimum possible sidelobe level for an
array is of interest. For linear, equally spaced arrays, the problem of determining the
optimal weights was solved by Dolph and published in 1946 [21]. This method is known
as the Dolph-Chebyshev method, because Dolph uses Chebyshev polynomials to obtain
the excitation coefficients. The method returns the minimum possible null-to-null
beamwidth for a specified sidelobe level (or equivalently, the minimum possible sidelobe
level for a specified null-to-null beamwidth). This method has an implicit maximum
array spacing for a given beamwidth [22]. Riblet [23] showed that for arrays with
interelement spacing less than 2 / λ , there exists a set of weights that give a smaller null-
to-null main beam than Dolph’s method. However, Riblet only derives the results for
arrays with an odd number of elements. The Dolph-Chebyshev method produces



7
sidelobes that have equal amplitudes. A more generalized version of Dolph’s algorithm
(called an equiripple filter) is also frequently used in the design of Finite Impulse
Response (FIR) filters in the field of signal processing [24].
In 1953, DuHamel extended the work of Dolph to endfire linear arrays with an odd
number of elements [25]. Dolph’s work was also considered for the case of non-isotropic
sensors; the problem was not solved for the general case [26]. The optimum sidelobe-
minimizing weights for broadside, non-uniformly spaced symmetric linear arrays with
real weights can now be found using linear programming [27]. The general case of non-
uniform arrays with arbitrary scan angle, beamwidth and antenna pattern is derived in
Chapter 6. In [28], the authors attempt to simultaneously optimize the weights and the
positions of a 25-element linear array using a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm. They
make no claim that their results are optimal, but do show the sidelobes lowered via the
optimization method. Adaptive antenna arrays began with the work of Bernard Widrow
in the 1960s [29]. Optimizing an adaptive antenna array’s geometry was performed in
[30] with regards to suppressing interference; this work is the subject of Chapter 5.
The effect of array geometry on wireless systems in urban environments using
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) channels has been studied [31]. The array
geometry is shown to have a significant impact on the MIMO channel properties,
including the channel capacity. Because of the difficulty in examining array geometry
and determining an optimal array, the impact of geometry on performance was studied by
considering standard arrays such as the uniform linear array. The effect of array
orientation on MIMO wireless channels was investigated in [32].

II. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ANTENNA ARRAYS

2.1. Introduction
An antenna array is a set of N spatially separated antennas. Put simply, an array of
antennas does a superior job of receiving signals when compared with a single antenna,
leading to their widespread use in wireless applications.
Arrays in practice can have as few as N=2 elements, which is common for the
receiving arrays on cell phone towers. In general, array performance improves with
added elements; therefore arrays in practice usually have more elements. Arrays can
have several thousand elements, as in the AN/FPS-85 Phased Array Radar Facility
operated by U. S. Air Force [33].
The array has the ability to filter the electromagnetic environment it is operating in
based on the spatial variation of the signals present. There may be one signal of interest
or several, along with noise and interfering signals. The methods by which an antenna
array can process signals in this manner are discussed following an elementary discussion
of antennas.
2.2. Antenna Characteristics
Throughout this dissertation, a Cartesian coordinate system with axis labels x, y,
and z will be used along with spherical coordinates θ (polar angle ranging from 0 to π ,
measured off the z-axis) and φ (azimuth angle ranging from 0 to π 2 , measured off the
x-axis). The coordinates are illustrated in Figure 1.
A physical antenna has a radiation pattern that varies with direction. By reciprocity,
the radiation pattern is the same as the antenna’s reception pattern [34], so the two can be
discussed interchangeably. The radiation pattern is also a function of frequency;



9
however, except where noted, it will be assumed a single frequency is of interest
(described by the corresponding wavelengthλ ). The radiation pattern takes different
shapes depending on how far the observation is from the antenna – these regions, in order
of increasing distance from the antenna, are commonly called the reactive near-field
region, the radiating near-field (Fresnel) region and the far-field (Fraunhofer) region [22].
For an antenna of maximum length D, the far-field region occurs when the following two
conditions are met:

λ
2
2D
R > (2.1)
λ >> R . (2.2)
For a modern cellular phone operating at 1.9 GHz with an antenna length of roughly D=4
cm, both inequalities are achieved for R>2 meters. In practice, antennas communicate in
the far-field region, and this is assumed throughout.
The radiated far-zone field of an antenna will be described by the function
) , , ( φ θ R F . For example, the far-zone field radiated by a short dipole of length L with
uniform current I is given by [33]:
θ
η
φ θ sin
2
) , , (
0
R
e jIL
R F
jkR −
= (2.3)
where 1 − = j ,
0
η is the impedance of free space, and λ π / 2 = k is the wavenumber.
The normalized field pattern will be of frequent interest in this work. This function,
denoted by ) , ( φ θ f , describes the angular variation in the reception pattern of the
antenna. For the short dipole, the normalized field pattern is expressed as
θ φ θ sin ) , ( = f . (2.4)



10
This field pattern is plotted in Figure 1. The horizontal axis in Figure 1(a) can be the x-
or y-axis; due to symmetry the elevation pattern will not change.

(a) Elevation Pattern (b) Azimuthal Pattern
Figure 1. (a) Elevation and (b) azimuthal patterns for a short dipole.
Directivity (or maximum directivity) is an important antenna parameter that
describes how much more directional an antenna is from a reference source, usually an
isotropic radiator. An antenna with a directivity of 1 (or 0 dB) would be an isotropic
source; all actual antennas exhibit a directivity higher than this. The higher the
directivity, the more pointed or directional the antenna pattern will be. Directivity, D,
can be calculated from
∫ ∫
=
π π
φ θ θ φ θ
π
2
0 0
sin )] , ( [
4
2
d d f
D . (2.5)
The directivity of the short dipole discussed previously is 1.5 (1.76 dB).



11
Antennas are further described by their polarization. The polarization of an antenna
is the same as the polarization of its radiated fields. The polarization of the radiated field
is the figure traced out by the electric field at a fixed location in space as a function of
time. Common polarizations are linear, elliptical and circular polarization. The
polarization of the short dipole is linear.
If an antenna is attempting to receive a signal from an electromagnetic wave, it
must be matched to the polarization of the incoming wave. If the wave is not matched to
the antenna, part or all of the energy will not be detected by the antenna [22]. In this
dissertation, unless otherwise noted, it will be assumed that the antennas are properly
matched in polarization to the desired waves.
Further information on antennas can be found in several popular textbooks [22, 35-
36]. The preceding discussion will be sufficient for the purposes in this work.
2.3. Wireless Communication
The primary purpose of antenna systems is for communication; however, they are
also used for detection [37]. The information to be transmitted or received will be
represented by m(t). The message m(t) will be assumed to be band-limited to B Hz,
meaning almost all the energy has frequency content below B Hz. In the earlier days of
radio, m(t) had the information coded directly into the amplitude or frequency of the
signal (as in AM or FM radio). Information today is primarily encoded into digital form,
and m(t) is a train of a discrete set of symbols representing 1s and 0s. The information is
still encoded into the amplitude and phase of these symbols; however, the amplitudes and
phases now take on a discrete set of values. In the most basic form of digital



12
communication, binary phase shift keying (BPSK), m(t) is either +1 or -1 (representing a
1 or a 0), so that the information is encoded into the phase. Note that m(t) can be
complex, where the real part represents the in-phase component of the signal and the
imaginary part corresponds to the quadrature component [38]. Digital communication is
used because of its high data rate, lower probability of error than in analog
communication (along with error-correcting codes), high spectral efficiency and high
power efficiency [12].
The message m(t) is then modulated up to the frequency used by the antenna
system. The transmitted signal s(t) is given by

t f j
e t m t s
c
π 2
) ( ) ( = (2.6)
where
c
f is the carrier (or center) frequency used by the antenna system. Note that in
general
c
f B << . Typically, the energy then lies within the frequency spectrum in a very
narrow band around
c
f , so that the transmitted signal is assumed to be a monochromatic
plane wave. If the signal is sufficiently broadband that the narrowband assumption
cannot be applied, the signal can be processed by filtering it into distinct narrow bands
and processing each separately.
In the far field the narrowband signal will have the characteristics of a
monochromatic plane wave. Assume that the wave is traveling in the direction defined
by ) , ( φ θ relative to a reference point (for instance, a receiving antenna). The wavevector
k is defined to represent the magnitude of the phase changes along the x-, y-, and z-
directions:



13
) cos , sin sin , cos (sin
2
) , , ( θ φ θ φ θ
λ
π
= =
z y x
k k k k . (2.7)
The spatial variation of the signal can then be written as
) (
) ( ) , , , (
z k y k x k j
e t s t z y x S
z y x
+ + −
= . (2.8)
Defining the position vector as R=(x,y,z), (2.8) can be written more compactly as
R k
R
⋅ −
=
j
e t s t S ) ( ) , ( . (2.9)
Digital signal processors operating on a single antenna can only process signals based on
their time variation. Space-time filters process signals based on their spatial and temporal
variation [39]. In order to do spatial filtering, an array of sensors is required.
2.4. Antenna Arrays
The basic setup of an arbitrary antenna array is shown in Figure 2. The location of
the
th
n antenna element is described by the vector
n
d , where
[ ]
n n n
z y x
n
= d . (2.10)
The set of locations of an N-element antenna array will be described by the N-by-3 matrix
D, where

=
N
d
d
d
D
M
2
1
. (2.11)
When the array is linear (for example, all elements placed along the z-axis), the matrix D
can be reduced to a vector.



14

Figure 2. Arbitrary antenna array geometry.
Let the output from the
th
n antenna at a specific time be
n
X . Then the output from
antenna n is weighted (by
n
w ), and summed together to produce the antenna array output,
Y, as shown in Figure 3. See chapter 3 for a discussion of weighting methods. The array
output can be written as

=
=
N
n
X w Y
n n
1
. (2.12)
Defining

=
N
X
X
X
M
2
1
X (2.13)
and



15

=
N
w
w
w
M
2
1
W , (2.14)
then (2.12) can be rewritten in compact form as
X W
T
Y = , (2.15)
where T represents the transpose operator.


Figure 3. Spatial processing of antenna array signals.





16
2.5. Spatial Processing Using Antenna Arrays
Suppose the transmitted signal given by (2.9) is incident upon an N-element antenna
array. Let the normalized field pattern for each antenna be described as a function of the
wavevector (k) and be represented by f(k). The array output is then


=
⋅ −
=
N
n
f
j
e t s w t y
n
n
1
) ( ) ( ) ( k
d k
. (2.16)
If the elements are identical, (2.16) reduces to

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
⋅ −
=

N
n
j
e w f t s t y
n
n
1
) ( ) ( ) (
d k
k . (2.17)
The quantity in parenthesis is referred to as the array factor (AF). Hence, the output is
proportional to the transmitted signal, multiplied by the element factor and the array
factor. This factoring is commonly called pattern multiplication, and it is valid for arrays
with identical elements oriented in the same direction.
A very general form for the output of an array is when there are G incident signals
(with wavevectors G i
i
K , 2 , 1 , = k ) incident on N antennas with distinct patterns (given
by N i f
i
, , 2 , 1 ), ( K = k ). Then the output is
∑ ∑
= =
⋅ −
=
N
n
G
i
j
e w f t s t y
n i
n i n i
1 1
) ( ) ( ) (
d k
k . (2.18)
For one-dimensional arrays with elements along the z-axis (linear array),
) 0, , 0 (
n n
z = d . (2.19)
Using (2.7), the AF reduces to



17

=

=
N
n
z j
e w AF
n
n
1
cos
2
θ
λ
π
. (2.20)
The one-dimensional array factor is only a function of the polar angle. Hence, the array
can filter signals based on their polar angle θ but cannot distinguish arriving signals
based on the azimuth angle φ .
For two-dimensional arrays with elements on the x-y plane, the array factor
becomes [22]

=
+ −
=
N
n
y x j
e w AF
n n
n
1
) sin sin cos sin (
2
φ θ φ θ
λ
π
. (2.21)
The array factor is a function of both spherical angles and can therefore filter signals
based on their azimuth and elevation angles.
The effect of the array on the received signal as a function of the angle of arrival is
now illustrated by examining the array factor. An N-element array will be analyzed. For
simplicity let 1 =
n
w for all n, and let ) 2 / 0, , 0 ( λ n
n
= d . Then (2.19) reduces to

=

=
N
n
jn
e AF
1
cosθ π
. (2.22)
Using the identity
c
c
c
N N
n
n


=


=
1
1
1
0
, (2.23)
it follows that (2.21) can be written as
|
|
¹
|

\
|




=
θ π
θ π
θ π
cos
1
cos
1
cos
j
e
jN
e
j
e AF . (2.24)



18
After factoring, the above equation simplifies to
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|


=
2
cos
sin
2
cos
sin
cos
2
cos
2
cos
θ π
θ π
θ
π
θ
π
θ π
N
j
e
N
j
e
j
e AF . (2.25)
The magnitude of the array factor is plotted in Figure 4 for an array with N=5 elements,
normalized so that the peak of the array factor is unity or 0 dB. The magnitude of the
array factor shows that the array will receive (or transmit) the maximum energy when
° = 90 θ . Manipulation of the weights will allow the array factor to be tailored to a
desired pattern, which is the subject of Chapter 3. In addition, the response of the array
factor is strongly influenced by the specific geometry (D) used. Selection of the weights
is a simpler problem, as they array factor is a linear function of the weights. The array
factor is a much more complicated function of the element positions; hence, optimizing
array geometry is highly non-linear and exponentially more difficult.



19

Figure 4. Magnitude of array factor for N=5 elements.

Directivity can be calculated for an array factor in the same manner as that of an
antenna. In addition, important parameters of array factors include beamwidth and
sidelobe level. The beamwidth is commonly specified as null-to-null or half-power
beamwidth. The null-to-null beamwidth is the distance in degrees between the first nulls
around the mainbeam. The half-power beamwidth is the distance in degrees between the
half-power points (or 3 dB down on the array factor) around the mainbeam. The sidelobe
level is commonly specified as the peak value of the array factor outside of the
mainbeam.
As an example, the array factor for a 3x3 rectangular array is examined. The
weights will again be uniform; i.e. 1 =
n
w for all n. The positions for the N=9 element



20
array will be ) 0 , 2 / , 2 / ( λ λ b a
ab
= d for a,b=0,1,2. From (2.21), the array factor
becomes
∑ ∑
= =
+ −
=
2
0
2
0
) sin cos ( sin
b a
b a j
e AF
φ φ θ π
. (2.26)
Applying the sum formula (2.23) twice, (2.26) reduces to
|
|
¹
|

\
|




|
|
¹
|

\
|




=
φ θ π
φ θ π
φ θ π
φ θ π
sin sin
1
sin sin 3
1
cos sin
1
cos sin 3
1
j
e
j
e
j
e
j
e
AF . (2.27)
By factoring, (2.27) can be written as

|
|
¹
|

\
|


|
|
¹
|

\
|


=
2 / sin sin
2 / sin sin 3
2 / cos sin
2 / cos sin 3
φ θ π
φ θ π
φ θ π
φ θ π
j
e
j
e
j
e
j
e
AF
( ) ( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
) 2 / sin sin sin(
2 / sin sin 3 sin
) 2 / cos sin sin(
2 / cos sin 3 sin
φ θ π
φ θ π
φ θ π
φ θ π
. (2.28)
For ease in plotting, the following variables will be introduced:
φ θ
π
λ
cos sin
2
= =
x
k
u (2.29)
φ θ
π
λ
sin sin
2
= =
y
k
v . (2.30)
The magnitude of the array factor is plotted in Figure 5. The sidelobes are 9.54 dB down
from the main lobe (which is normalized to 0 dB in the figure).



Figure 5. Magnitude of the array factor (dB) for 2
Beamwidths are more difficult to specify when the array factor is two dimensional
Commonly, beamwidths are specified in certain planes (for instance, elevation and
azimuthal planes) and given in half
case. The sidelobe level is again the maximum value of the array factor outside
main beam.
2.6. Aliasing
The steering vector
an array for a given wavevector
Figure 5. Magnitude of the array factor (dB) for 2-D array.

Beamwidths are more difficult to specify when the array factor is two dimensional
Commonly, beamwidths are specified in certain planes (for instance, elevation and
azimuthal planes) and given in half-power or null-to-null form, as in the one
case. The sidelobe level is again the maximum value of the array factor outside
(v) is the vector of propagation delays (or phase changes) across
wavevector, k. It can be written mathematically as
21

D array.
Beamwidths are more difficult to specify when the array factor is two dimensional.
Commonly, beamwidths are specified in certain planes (for instance, elevation and
null form, as in the one-dimensional
case. The sidelobe level is again the maximum value of the array factor outside of the
the vector of propagation delays (or phase changes) across



22

⋅ −
⋅ −
⋅ −
=
N
j
e
j
e
j
e
d k
d k
d k
k v
M
) (
2
1
. (2.31)
Aliasing occurs when signals propagating in distinct directions produce the same steering
vectors. In that case, the array’s response towards the two directions will be identical, so
that the array cannot distinguish the two directions. This is similar to the signal
processing version of aliasing, where if the sampling rate is too small in time, then
distinct frequencies cannot be resolved.
For uniformly spaced linear arrays, there will exist plane waves from distinct
directions with identical steering vectors if the spacing between elements, ∆, is greater
than 2 / λ . Similarly, for uniformly spaced rectangular (planar) arrays with elements on
the x-y plane, there will exist distinct directions with identical steering vectors if the
element spacing in the x- or y-directions is greater than 2 / λ . When aliasing exists, the
main beam may be replicated elsewhere in the pattern. These replicated beams are
referred to as grating lobes.
For arrays without a uniform structure, the distance between elements can be much
larger than 2 / λ without introducing aliasing. In this case, no two distinct angles of
arrival will produce identical steering vectors. However, while aliasing technically does
not occur, there may be steering vectors that are very similar so that grating lobes exist.
Determining whether or not this occurs for an arbitrary array is very difficult. In general,
if a non-uniform array is decided upon, the array factor can be checked to ensure that



23
grating lobes do not occur. Mathematical studies on the uniqueness of steering vectors
can be found in [40-41].

III. WEIGHTING METHODS IN ANTENNA ARRAYS
3.1. Introduction
From (2.17), it is clear that the weights will have a significant impact on the output
of the antenna array. Since the array factor is a linear function of the weights, weighting
methods are well developed and can be selected to meet a wide range of objectives.
These objectives include pattern steering, nulling energy from specific directions relative
to an array, minimizing the Mean Squared Error (MSE) between a desired output and the
actual output, or minimizing the sidelobe level outside a specified beamwidth in linear
arrays. These techniques will be discussed in this chapter. In addition, adaptive signal
processing methods applied to antenna arrays will be discussed. Most of the methods
described here apply to arrays of arbitrary geometry. However, for simplicity, examples
will be presented for uniform linear arrays with half-wavelength spacing. Hence, the
element positions will be given by ) 2 / 0, , 0 ( λ n
n
= d for 1 , 1, , 0 − = N n K .
3.2. Phased-Tapered Weights
The linear array of Section 2.4 had maximum response in the direction of ° = 90 θ .
The simplest method of altering the direction in which the array is steered is to apply a
linear phase taper to the weights. The phase taper is such that it compensates for the
phase delay associated with the propagation of the signal in the direction of interest. For
example, if the array is to be steered in the direction
d
θ , the weights would be given by
d
n
jn
e w
θ π cos
= . (3.1)
For these weights, the array factor becomes


=

=
1
0
) cos (cos
N
n
jn
e AF
d
θ θ π
, (3.2)



25
or
) cos (cos
1
) cos (cos
1
θ θ π
θ θ π




=
d
d
j
e
N j
e
AF (3.3)
The magnitude of the array factor (normalized so that the peak is unity, or 0 dB) is
plotted in Figure 6 for N=5 and ° = 45
d
θ . The array factor has a maximum at the desired
direction, and like the result in Figure 2.5 the sidelobes are 11.9 dB down from the
mainlobe. This simple steering method can be used in two- or three-dimensional arrays
as well as for arbitrary scan angles.

Figure 6. Array factor of steered linear array.

3.3. Schelkunoff Polynomial Method
A weighting scheme for placing nulls in specific directions of an array factor was
developed by Schelkunoff [22, 42]. In general, an N-element array can null signals
arriving from N-1 distinct directions.



26
To illustrate the method, the array factor


=

=
1
0
cos
N
n
n j
e w AF
n
θ π
(3.4)
can be rewritten as a polynomial as


=
=
1
0
) (
N
n
z w z AF
n
n
, (3.5)
where
θ π cos j
e z

= . (3.6)
Since a polynomial can be written as the product of its own zeros, it follows that


=
− =

2
0
) ( ) (
1
N
n
z z w z AF
n N
, (3.7)
where the
n
z are the zeros of the array factor. By selecting the desired zeros and setting
(3.7) to (3.5), the weights can be found.
As an example, assume an N=3 element array with zeros to be placed at ° 45 and
° 120 . In that case, the following values are calculated

° −
=
45 cos
0
π j
e z (3.8)
and
° −
=
120 cos
1
π j
e z . (3.9)
Arbitrarily letting 1
2 1
= =

w w
N
, (3.7) becomes
1 0 1 0
2
) ( ) ( z z z z z z z AF + + − = . (3.10)



27
Setting (3.10) equal to the original form of the array factor (3.5), the weights are easily
found to be:

+ − =

=
1
) (

1 0
1 0
2
1
0
z z
z z
w
w
w
w . (3.11)
The normalized array factor for the specified weights is plotted in Figure 7. As desired,
the pattern has nulls at ° 45 and ° 120 .

Figure 7. Array pattern with weights from Schelkunoff method.

3.4. Dolph-Chebyshev Method
Often in antenna arrays it is desirable to receive energy from a specific direction
and reject signals from all other directions. In this case, for a specified main beamwidth
the sidelobes should be as low as possible. For linear, uniformly spaced arrays of



28
isotropic sensors steered to broadside ( ° = 90
d
θ ), the Dolph-Chebyshev method will
return weights that achieve this. A weighting method for obtaining minimum sidelobes
in arbitrarily spaced arrays of any dimension, steered to any scan angle and for any
antenna type is derived in Chapter 6.
In observing array factors as in Figure 4, note that the sidelobes decrease in
magnitude away from the mainbeam. To have the lowest overall sidelobe level, the
sidelobe with the highest intensity should be decreased at the expense of raising the
intensity of the lower sidelobes. The result will be that for the minimum overall sidelobe
level, the sidelobes will all have the same peak value. Dolph observed this and employed
Chebyshev polynomials, which have equal-magnitude peak variations (or ripples) over a
certain range. By matching the array factor to a Chebyshev polynomial, the equal-ripple
(or constant-sidelobe) weights can be obtained. The actual process is straightforward but
cumbersome to write out; for details see [22]. Several articles have been written on
efficient computation of the Dolph-Chebyshev weights [43-44].
As an example, a uniformly spaced linear array with half-wavelength spacing and
N=6 is used. The Dolph-Chebyshev weights are calculated for a sidelobe level of -30
dB. The associated magnitude of the array factor is plotted in Figure 8. The null-to-null
beamwidth is approximately ° 60 . Note that all the sidelobes are equal in magnitude at -
30 dB.



29

Figure 8. Dolph-Chebyshev array for N=6 with sidelobes at -30 dB.

3.5. Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) Weighting
The weighting methods discussed previously have been deterministic; that is, they
have not dealt with noise or statistical representations of the desired signals or
interference. In this section, a more general beamforming technique is developed that
takes into account the statistical behavior of the signal environment.
Assume now the input to the array consists of one desired signal, s(t), with an
associated wavevector
s
k . Assume there exists noise at each antenna, ) (t n
i
. The noise
at each antenna can be written in vector form as



30

=
) (

) (
) (
) (
2
1
t n
t n
t n
t
N
M
N . (3.12)
In addition, assume there are G interferers, each having narrowband signals given by
) (t I
a
and wavevectors given by
a
k , . , 2, , 1 G a K = Using the steering vector notation
for the phase delays as in (2.31), the input to the antenna array can then be written as

=
+ + =
G
a
t I t
s
t s t
a a
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( k v N k v X . (3.13)
The desired output from the antenna array (or spatial filter) is
) ( ) ( t s t Y
d
= . (3.14)
The actual output is
) ( ) ( t t Y
H
X W = . (3.15)
where H is the Hermitian operator (conjugate transpose). Equation (3.15) differs from
(2.15) because the mathematics in the derivation will be simpler if the weights used are in
the form of (3.15). The error can then be written as
) ( ) ( ) ( t Y t Y t e
d
− = . (3.16)
The minimum mean-squared error estimate (MMSE) seeks to minimize the expected
value of the squared magnitude of e(t). The mean-squared error (MSE) is
)] ( ) ( [ MSE t e t e E

= , (3.17)
where * indicates complex conjugate and E[] is the expectation operator. Expanding
(3.17) with (3.15), the MSE becomes



31
( )( )] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( [ MSE t s t t s t E
H H ∗
− − = W X X W . (3.18)
Multiplying the terms above, the MSE becomes
− + =

)] ( ) ( [ ] ) ( ) ( [ MSE t s t s E t t E
H H
W X X W
] ) ( ) ( [ )] ( ) ( [ W X X W t t s E t s t E
H H


. (3.19)
The first term in (3.19) can be simplified to
W X X W W X X W )] ( ) ( [ ] ) ( ) ( [ t t E t t E
H H H H
= , (3.20)
since the expectation is a linear operator and the weights are fixed. The autocorrelation
matrix,
XX
R , is defined to be
)] ( ) ( [ t t E
H
X X R
XX
= . (3.21)
The second term in (3.19) is the signal power,
2
s
σ :
)] ( ) ( [
2
t s t s E
s

= σ . (3.22)
Defining
)] ( ) ( [ t s t E

= X Λ , (3.23)
the third term in (3.19) becomes
Λ W X W
H H
t s t E =

)] ( ) ( [ . (3.24)
Finally, the fourth term in (3.19) is just the complex conjugate of the third term:
W Λ W X
H H
t t s E = ] ) ( ) ( [ . (3.25)
Equation (3.19) can then be rewritten as
W Λ Λ W W R W
XX
H H
s
H
− − + =
2
MSE σ . (3.26)



32
The goal is to find the W that produces the minimum MSE. The gradient of (3.26) with
respect to W is
Λ W R
XX
2 2 MSE − = ∇ . (3.27)
Setting (3.27) equal to zero and solving gives the optimal weights,
opt
W :
Λ R W
XX
1 −
=
opt
. (3.28)
Equation (3.28) requires two pieces of information, the autocorrelation matrix and
the vector Λ. The inverse of the autocorrelation matrix is often estimated using the
Sample Matrix Inverse (SMI) method. The estimate is denoted with the bar overhead,
1 −
XX
R , and uses K snapshots of the input vector X to formulate the estimate.
1
1
1
) ( ) (

=
=

K
k
k k
H
X X R
XX
. (3.29)
Assuming the signal of interest is uncorrelated in time with the noise and
interference, (3.29) along with (3.13) yields
) ( )] (
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( [
2
s s a a
t s
G
a
t I t
s
t s E k v k v N k v Λ σ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
+ + =


. (3.30)
Hence, the vector Λ can be determined if the direction of the signal (given by
s
k ) and
the signal power (
2
s
σ ) are known. Often the incoming direction and power can be
determined by using a training sequence to calibrate the array. The optimal weights can
be rewritten using (3.30) as
) (
1 2
s s opt
k v R W
XX

= σ . (3.31)



33
Equation (3.31) represents the weights that minimize the MSE. The optimal MSE is
found from substituting (3.31) into (3.26):
) ( ) ( MSE
1 4 2
s s
H
s s opt
k v R k v
XX

− = σ σ . (3.32)
Similar formulations can be used to formulate weights that maximize the signal to noise
ratio (SNR) when the autocorrelation matrix of the interference and noise can be
estimated [45].
As an example, consider the case of the desired signal arriving from ° =110
d
θ with
a signal power of
2
s
σ =1. Two interferers, arriving from ° = 40
1
θ and ° = 90
2
θ , each
have 10
2
=
I
σ . The array will have N=3 elements. Two cases will be considered, the
first with noise power 01 . 0
2
=
n
σ (SNR=20 dB), and the second with 1
2
=
n
σ (SNR=0
dB). The optimal weights can then be calculated using (3.31).
The resulting array factor magnitudes are plotted in Figure 9. Observe that for the
high SNR case, the pattern places nulls exactly in the directions of the interferers. For the
low SNR case, the pattern puts less emphasis on nulling out the interferers. This is
because the gain in combating independent noise sources is best obtained by combining
the received signals with equal gain [45]. Note that neither array factor is maximum
towards the signal of interest, ° =110
d
θ .



34

Figure 9. Array factor magnitudes for MMSE weights.

3.6. The LMS Algorithm
The weights discussed up until now have not been adaptable; that is, they do not
attempt to change as the signal environment changes. A weight updating strategy that
changes with its environment is known as an adaptive algorithm and adaptive signal
processing has become a field in itself. In this section, the first and arguably most widely
used adaptive algorithm is discussed, the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. This
algorithm was invented by Bernard Widrow along with M. E. Hoff, Jr. and published in a
primitive form in 1960 [46]. The Applebaum algorithm [47] was developed
independently in 1966 and largely uses the same ideas.
The algorithm assumes some a priori knowledge; in this version (the spatial LMS
algorithm), the known information is assumed to be the desired signal power (
2
s
σ ) and



35
the signal direction,
s
k . The algorithm iteratively steps towards the MMSE weights. If
the environment changes, then the algorithm will step towards the new MMSE weights.
Samples of the input vector, X, will be ordered and written as X(k).
To accomplish the iterative minimization of the MSE, recall that the gradient of the
MSE as a function of the weights (W) is given by (3.26). The LMS algorithm
approximates the autocorrelation matrix at each time step by
) ( ) ( ) ( k k k
H
X X R
XX
= . (3.33)
Then the gradient of the MSE can be approximated at each time step as
) ( 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( MSE
2
s s
H
k k k k k v W X X σ − = ∇ . (3.34)
To minimize the MSE, the LMS algorithm simply increments the weights in the direction
of decreasing the MSE. The update algorithm for the weights can then be written as
) ( MSE
2
) ( ) 1 ( k k k ∇ − = +
λ
W W , (3.35)
where λ is a positive scalar that controls how large the steps are for the weights.
Substituting (3.34) into (3.35) produces the LMS algorithm:
{ } ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 (
2
k k k k k
H
S S
W X X k v W W − + = + σ λ . (3.36)
Equation (3.36) actually represents one of the many forms of the LMS algorithm. The
versions primarily differ in the a priori knowledge required.
The algorithm’s simplicity is its primary reason for its widespread use. In addition,
it has fairly decent convergence properties and has been extensively studied. In order to
have stable results (the expected MSE will converge to a constant value), the parameter
λ should be chosen according to



36
) (
2
0
XX
R
MAX
λ
λ < < , (3.37)
where ) (
max XX
R λ is the largest eigenvalue of the autocorrelation matrix [48]. The speed
of the convergence is governed by the condition number (ratio of largest to smallest
eigenvalues) of the autocorrelation matrix [49].
As an example of the LMS algorithm, the interference and noise scenario of Section
3.3 is again considered, this time with a SNR=20 dB. The noise will be additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN) that is independent at each antenna. The array will be the linear
array of N=5 elements with half-wavelength spacing. The algorithm is initiated with a
weight of unity applied to all elements:

=
1
1
) 1 ( M W . (3.38)
The parameter λ is chosen to be
) (
1 . 0
015 . 0
max XX
R λ
λ = = . (3.39)
An example run is conducted, and the resulting MSE is plotted at each iteration [from
(3.26)], along with the optimal MSE [from (3.31)] in Figure 10. The LMS algorithm is
fairly efficient in moving towards the optimal weights for this case. Since the algorithm
uses a guess of the autocorrelation matrix at each time step, some of the steps actually
increase the MSE. However, on average, the MSE decreases. This algorithm is also
fairly robust to changing environments.



37

Figure 10. MSE at each iteration, along with the optimal MSE.
Several adaptive algorithms have expanded upon ideas used in the original LMS
algorithm. Most of these algorithms seek to produce improved convergence properties at
the expense of increased computational complexity. For instance, the recursive least-
square (RLS) algorithm seeks to minimize the MSE just as in the LMS algorithm [48].
However, it uses a more sophisticated update to find the optimal weights that is based on
the matrix inversion lemma [45]. Both of these algorithms (and all others based on the
LMS algorithm) have the same optimal weights the algorithms attempt to converge to,
given by (3.31).

IV. METHODS OF ANTENNA ARRAY GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION
4.1. Introduction
The field of electromagnetics was unified into a coherent theory and set of four
fundamental equations by James Clerk Maxwell in 1879 [50]. These equations are
known as Maxwell’s equations. The first is Gauss’s law:
V
ρ = ⋅ ∇ D , (4.1)
where D is the electric flux density and
V
ρ is the volume charge density. The second
equation states that “magnetic monopoles do not exist”, and can be written in
mathematical form:
0 = ⋅ ∇ B , (4.2)
where B is the magnetic flux density. The third equation is known as Ampere’s law:
J
D
H =


− × ∇
t
, (4.3)
where H is the magnetic field and J is the impressed electric current density. The fourth
is Faraday’s law:
0 =


+ × ∇
t
B
E , (4.4)
where E is the electric field.
While there are only four equations in the set, they are complicated enough that
they can only be solved in closed form for some basic canonical shapes. As a result,
numerical methods for solving electromagnetic problems became necessary. A thorough
introduction and survey of the methods can be found in [51].
Among the most popular of the numerical methods include the finite-difference
time domain (FDTD) method developed in 1966 by Yee at Lawrence Livermore National



39
Laboratories [52]. This method discretizes space and time and computes the electric and
magnetic fields using discretized forms of Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law. The
algorithm initially computes the electric fields (assuming the magnetic fields are known)
using Ampere’s law. A small time step later, the algorithm computes the magnetic fields
at that time using Faraday’s law (along with the calculated electric field). This process is
repeated as long as desired and has been widely successful in modeling numerous
electromagnetic problems. Another popular method is the Integral Equation (IE) Method
of Moments (MoM), which numerically solves complex integral equations by assuming a
solution in the form of a sum of weighted basis functions along the structure being
analyzed. The weights are then found by introducing boundary conditions and solving an
associated matrix for the weights, thereby leading to the solution [53].
Because of the difficulty in obtaining solutions to electromagnetic problems,
optimization is not simple. Antenna arrays, being a specific class of electromagnetic
problems, are no exception. However, significant developments over the past 50 years in
the field of mathematical optimization are now being applied to electromagnetic
problems. The tremendous increase in computing power over the last few decades has
enabled complex problems to be solved and led to large advances in the fields of
numerical electromagnetics and in optimization. This chapter describes the optimization
methods that have penetrated the electromagnetic field in the late 20th century.
The first set of methods, linear programming and convex optimization problems,
are part of a class of optimization methods that are deterministic. The problems have a



40
unique solution that can be verified to be globally optimal. However, due to the complex
nature of the problems, the solutions are obtained numerically and not analytically.
The second set of methods discussed in this chapter, Simulated Annealing (SA) and
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), are part of a class of optimization methods that are
stochastic in nature. These methods produce solutions to the most general optimization
problems that have very little structure and cannot be solved via other methods. The
resulting solutions from these methods are unfortunately not verifiable to be globally
optimal. However, they have recently been receiving a lot of attention in the antenna
field because they can be applied to a wide range of problems and can be used to obtain
solutions that achieve a desired performance metric. In March 2007, the IEEE
Transactions on Antennas and Propagation dedicated the entire issue to optimization
techniques in electromagnetics and antenna system design. An overview of the methods
and their applications to electromagnetics can be found in [54]. Many of these papers
used techniques that were stochastic in nature, including the popular genetic algorithm
(GA)[55].
These optimization techniques are often coupled with the numerical methods
discussed previously. For instance, the PSO algorithm was used in conjunction with the
FDTD method in [56]. The genetic algorithm was used along with the method of
moments for the design of integrated antennas in [57].
4.2. Linear Programming
The most general form of a mathematical optimization problem can be expressed as

χ ∈ x
x
subject to
) ( minimize f
. (4.5)



41
Here f(x) is the objective function to be minimized, and χ is known as the feasible set, or
set of all possible solutions. In the following, ‘subject to’ will be abbreviated as ‘s. t.’.
The solution (
opt
x ) to (4.5) will have the property
χ ∈ ∀ ≤ x x x ) ( ) ( f f
opt
, (4.6)
where∀is commonly used in mathematics to state ‘for all’. The solution is not
necessarily unique but exists as long as χ is not the empty set.
A linear program (LP) is a widely studied optimization problem that has numerous
practical applications, one of which is shown at the end of this section. The theory on
this subject was developed by George Dantzig and John von Neumann in 1947 [58]. The
variables in a linear program are written as an N-dimensional vector of real numbers:

=


2
1
N
x
x
x
M
x . (4.7)
The objective function to be minimized is a linear function of the problem variables:
x c x
T
f = ) ( , (4.8)
where c is an N-dimensional (real) vector.
The feasible set χ in a linear program is a set of M affine inequalities. Each
inequality can be written in the form:
i
T
i
b ≤ x a , (4.9)
where
i
a is an N-dimensional real vector,
i
b is a real number, and . , 2, , 1 M i K =
Without any constraints, the vector x can be any vector in
N
ℜ . Each constraint in the



42
form of (4.9) divides the space
N
ℜ into two half-spaces. In two dimensions (N=2), the
divider is a straight line; in three dimensions (N=3) the divider is a plane and so on. The
resulting feasible region χ is the intersection of all of these half-spaces. The set of
constraints
M
T
M
T
T
b
b
b



x a
x a
x a
M
2 2
1 1
(4.10)
are often abbreviated as
b Ax ≤ . (4.11)
In (4.11), A is an N M × matrix given by

=
T
M
T
T
a
a
a
A


2
1
M
, (4.12)
and b is an M-dimensional vector given by

=
M
b
b
b
M
2
1
b . (4.13)
The inequality sign in (4.11) is understood to be component-wise (must be satisfied for
all inequalities). The standard form of an LP can then be written as in (4.14).
b Ax
x c
≤ . .
min
t s
T
(4.14)



43
An equality constraint can be viewed as two inequality constraints, so LPs are often
written in the form given in (4.15), where C is a matrix and f is a vector. If no vector x
satisfies all the constraints, the problem is said to be infeasible.
f Cx
b Ax
x c
=


. .
min
t s
T
(4.15)
Extensive work has gone into understanding the problem presented in (4.15).
Solutions found to (4.15) must satisfy a set of optimality conditions, and they can
therefore be verified to be globally optimal [59]. In addition, several numerical methods,
such as the simplex algorithm [60] and the rapid interior point method [61], have been
developed to efficiently solve the LP. As a result, if an optimization problem can be put
into the form of an LP, an optimal vector (if one exists) can be found efficiently and
verified to be globally optimal. Commonly used computational software programs,
including Mathematica and Matlab, now have built in routines for solving linear
programs.
To illustrate the utility of linear programs, a method of determining sidelobe
minimizing weights for symmetric linear arrays with real weights steered to broadside
will be presented. This follows the discussion in [27]. The results will be extended in
Chapter 6 to work for arbitrarily spaced arrays with complex weights steered to any
angle, with arbitrary antenna elements and an arbitrary beammwidth.
A symmetric linear array is an array with elements spaced symmetrically about the
origin, as shown in Figure 11.



44

Figure 11. Symmetric linear array.
An array of this type with real weights and 2N elements will have an array factor given
by

=
=
N
n
d w AF
n n
1
) cos 2 cos( ) ( θ π θ . (4.16)
where
n
d is the position of the
th
n element along the z-axis. The objective is to
determine the weights that produce the lowest possible sidelobe level. The sidelobe level
will be defined as the maximum value of the magnitude of the array factor outside of a
specified beamwidth. The set of all angles in which the array factor is to be suppressed
will be written as Θ . The sidelobe level (SLL) can be written mathematically as
| ) ( | max θ
θ
AF SLL
Θ ∈
= . (4.17)



45
Since the array factor is to be maximum at broadside, the following constraint is
imposed:
1 ) 90 ( = ° AF . (4.18)
The problem of minimizing the sidelobe level can then be written as an optimization
problem:
1 ) 90 ( . .
min
= ° AF t s
SLL
. (4.19)
This problem can be written as an LP in standard form. First, let t represent the
maximum sidelobe level. Sample the region Θ into R sample points (
R 2 1
, , , θ θ θ K ).
The sidelobes will be suppressed at the sample points; following the optimization
procedure, it can be verified that the sidelobes are also suppressed between the samples.
Equation (4.19) can be rewritten into the form given in (4.20).
R i t AF
AF t s
t
i
, 2, , 1 , | ) ( |
1 ) 90 ( . .
min
K = ≤
= °
θ
(4.20)
Each one of the constraints in (4.20) can be written as an affine constraint as in (4.10).
To see this, define the problem variables to be

=
N
w
w
w
t
M

2
1
X . (4.21)
The objective function in (4.20) can be rewritten as
[ ] X c X
T
t = = 0 0 0 1 L . (4.22)



46
The equality constraint in (4.20) can be rewritten using (4.16) along with the vector X as
[ ] 1


1 1 1 0
2
1
=

N
w
w
w
t
M
L , (4.23)
or
1
0
= X a
T
. (4.24)
Finally, the inequality constraints in (4.19) can be rewritten as
t AF t
i
≤ ≤ − ) (θ , (4.25)
for R i , 2, , 1 K = . Using (4.16), the inequality on the right becomes
[ ] 0

) cos cos(2 ) cos cos(2 ) cos cos(2 1
2
1
2 1


N
i N i i
w
w
w
t
d d d
M
L θ π θ π θ π , (4.26)
or
0 ≤ X a
T
i
. (4.27)
Similarly, the inequality on the left in (4.25) becomes
[ ] 0

) cos cos(2 ) cos cos(2 ) cos cos(2 1
2
1
2 1


N
i N i i
w
w
w
t
d d d
M
L θ π θ π θ π , (4.28)
or



47
0 ≤ X f
T
i
. (4.29)
Using (4.22), (4.24), (4.27) and (4.29), the optimization problem of (4.20) can be
rewritten as in (4.30).
R i
t s
T
i
T
i
T
T
, 2, , 1 , 0
, 0
1 . .
min
0
K = ≤

=
X f
X a
X a
X c
(4.30)
Equation (4.30) is in the same form as the standard LP in (4.15). Hence, solutions can be
rapidly found to this problem using numerical computational software and guaranteed to
be globally optimal.
As an example, consider the following 6-element symmetric linear array with
positions
] 0.85 0.5 2 . 0 [ λ λ λ ± ± ± =
T
d . (4.31)
Finding weights that minimize the sidelobe level while directing the maximum to
broadside cannot be found via the Dolph-Chebyshev method, because the array does not
have uniform spacing. The beamwidth will be ° 40 ; hence, the region of sidelobe
suppression will be
{ } } 180 110 { 70 0 ° ≤ ≤ ° ∪ ° ≤ ≤ ° = Θ θ θ . (4.32)
Using the linear programming method described in this section, the optimal weights can
be found to be
4967 . 0
1309 . 0
3724 . 0
3
2
1
=
=
=
w
w
w
, (4.33)



48
where
1
w is the weight associated with the first pair of positions in (4.31), while
2
w and
3
w are associated with the second and third pairs of positions, respectively. The resulting
array factor is plotted in Figure 12. The dashed vertical lines in Figure 12 define the
boundary of the main beam and specify the region in which the sidelobes are suppressed.
The maximum sidelobe level outside the main beam is -11.21 dB. Note that the sidelobes
are equal in magnitude, which is expected for sidelobe-minimizing weights.

Figure 12. Array factor for optimal weights found via linear programming.

4.3. Convex Optimization
Convex optimization problems are a subclass of the general optimization problem
given by (4.5). They have recently received a lot of attention in the engineering
community because of their wide applicability. These applications include robotics [62],



signal processing [63], image processing [64] and information theory [65]. An excellent
text for the engineering community on convex optimization has been written [66].
A convex optimization problem is defined by two fundamental characte
feasible set χ must be convex and the objective function
convex set is defined such that for every
straight line between
1
x and
can be written as
where α is a scalar between 0 and 1; for all
Examples of convex sets are shown in Figure 13. Convex sets are convenient to
with because search algorithms can always move between the current feasible point and
the optimal point without running into the boundary of the set. Examples of non
sets are shown in Figure 14; each set contains points
between them, as in (4.34), are in the set.


signal processing [63], image processing [64] and information theory [65]. An excellent
text for the engineering community on convex optimization has been written [66].
A convex optimization problem is defined by two fundamental characte
must be convex and the objective function f(X) is a convex function. A
convex set is defined such that for every
1
x and
2
x in the set χ , then all points along a
and
2
x are in χ . Mathematically, any point between
2 1
) 1 ( x x z α α − + = ,
is a scalar between 0 and 1; for all α in this range z must be in the set.
Examples of convex sets are shown in Figure 13. Convex sets are convenient to
with because search algorithms can always move between the current feasible point and
the optimal point without running into the boundary of the set. Examples of non
sets are shown in Figure 14; each set contains points
1
x and
2
x such that not all points
between them, as in (4.34), are in the set.
Figure 13. Examples of convex sets.
49
signal processing [63], image processing [64] and information theory [65]. An excellent
text for the engineering community on convex optimization has been written [66].
A convex optimization problem is defined by two fundamental characteristics: the
) is a convex function. A
, then all points along a
. Mathematically, any point between
1
x and
2
x
(4.34)
must be in the set.
Examples of convex sets are shown in Figure 13. Convex sets are convenient to work
with because search algorithms can always move between the current feasible point and
the optimal point without running into the boundary of the set. Examples of non-convex
such that not all points z




Figure 14. Examples of non

A function is said to be convex on a set
satisfies the following inequality:
This means that the curve of the function
connecting the two points
function f(t) shown in Figure 15. The secant line between two points
drawn; note that f(t) lies below this line every
Figure 14. Examples of non-convex sets.
A function is said to be convex on a set χ if for any two points X and
satisfies the following inequality:
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) ) 1 ( ( Y X Y X f f f α α α α − + ≤ − + . (4.35)
This means that the curve of the function f will always lie below a straight line
connecting the two points f(X) and f(Y). This is illustrated for a one-dimensional
shown in Figure 15. The secant line between two points x and
lies below this line everywhere between x and y.

50

and Y in χ , it
. (4.35)
will always lie below a straight line
dimensional
and y is also



Figure 15. Illustration of a convex function.
A function is said to be strictly convex if the inequality (
with a strict inequality (<). For convex functions, local minimums are alwa
minimums. For a strictly convex function, the global minimum is unique. This property
makes convex functions convenient to work with in optimization.
As an example of proving a function is convex, consider
by ( , ), ( ), (
2 1
X X
M
f f f K
set:
The goal is to show that F
Figure 15. Illustration of a convex function.

A function is said to be strictly convex if the inequality ( ≤ ) in (4.35) is replaced
with a strict inequality (<). For convex functions, local minimums are alwa
minimums. For a strictly convex function, the global minimum is unique. This property
makes convex functions convenient to work with in optimization.
As an example of proving a function is convex, consider M convex functions given
) (X . Define the function F to be the pointwise maximum of the
) ( max ) ( X X
i
i
f F = . (4.36)
F is also convex. To accomplish this, rewrite (4.36) as
) ) 1 ( ( max ) ) 1 ( ( Y X Y X α α α α − + = − +
i
i
f F . (4.37)
51

) in (4.35) is replaced
with a strict inequality (<). For convex functions, local minimums are always global
minimums. For a strictly convex function, the global minimum is unique. This property
convex functions given
to be the pointwise maximum of the
. (4.36)
is also convex. To accomplish this, rewrite (4.36) as
. (4.37)



52
Using the convexity of each function
i
f , it follows that
[ ] ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( max ) ) 1 ( ( max Y X Y X
i i
i
i
i
f f f α α α α − + ≤ − + . (4.38)
Since maximizing a sum of functions over one index must be less than maximizing each
function individually,
[ ] ) ( ) 1 ( max ) ( max ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( max Y X Y X
j
j
i
i
i i
i
f f f f α α α α − + ≤ − + . (4.39)
Equations (4.37)-(4.39) show that
) ( max ) 1 ( ) ( max ) ) 1 ( ( Y X Y X
j
j
i
i
f f F α α α α − + ≤ − + , (4.40)
which proves that F is convex. Hence, the pointwise maximum of convex functions is
convex; this property will be used in Chapter 6.
Convex optimization problems are rapidly solvable with computers; the interior
point methods developed for linear programs have been efficiently extended to convex
problems [67]. Since these problems have a very general structure, they can be applied to
a wide range of practical problems. In addition, since the optimal points found can be
mathematically proven to be globally optimal, putting a problem into convex form is very
desirable. Free convex optimization packages have been written for use with Matlab;
examples packages include CVX and YALMIP and are available online. A convex
optimization problem will be derived and solved in Chapter 6 which greatly extends the
minimum sidelobe weighting vector of Section 4.2.
4.4. Simulated Annealing
The discussion now turns to stochastic optimization algorithms. These algorithms
work on the most general type of optimization problems; however, they tend to use



53
random searches and the results are not guaranteed to be globally optimal. However,
they have recently been employed extensively in the engineering community.
The simulated annealing (SA) algorithm attempts to mimic the physical process of
annealing of solids. This process involves heating a solid material up to a high
temperature and then allowing it to cool at a very slow rate. The result is that the
particles in the solid arrange themselves in the lowest energy state configuration, usually
an ordered lattice of some sort [68]. The SA algorithm attempts to optimize via the same
procedure. The algorithm was originally introduced in 1983 by Kirkpatrick in the journal
Science as a generalization of the Monte Carlo method for examining the equations of
state of n-body systems [69].
The SA algorithm requires a cost function f [also known as the objective function in
(4.5)], an initial feasible point (
1
x ), and a perturbation mechanism for obtaining new
points around the current point. The algorithm evaluates the cost function at the start
point, perturbs the point to a new point, evaluates the cost function at this point and
repeats. The following discussion describes finding a minimum.
From the current point
i
x , a candidate new point (
1 + i
x
)
) in the feasible set is chosen
using the perturbation mechanism. If the new point decreases the cost function, then
0 ) ( ) (
1
< − = ∆
+ i i i
f f f x x
)
(4.41)
and the current solution is updated according to

1 1 + +
=
i i
x x
)
. (4.42)
The algorithm does not want to only accept points that decrease the cost function; this
would cause the algorithm to find a local minimum about the initial point. If the next



54
candidate point increases the objective function, then the probability that the algorithm
updates the current solution to the candidate solution is given by
|
¹
|

\
| ∆ −
= =
+ +
T
f
P
i
i i
exp } {
1 1
x x
)
, (4.43)
where T represents the current “temperature” of the system. If T is very large, then
almost all transitions occur and the result is a random walk through the space of points
independent of the cost function. When T becomes small, only transitions that increase
the value of the cost function occur; the result is that the algorithm converges to the local
minimum of the neighborhood of points that the current point resides in. If the algorithm
does not accept the next candidate point, then it simply remains at the previous point,
i i
x x =
+1
. (4.44)
The simulated annealing algorithm starts the optimization procedure at a high
temperature (sufficiently high such that most transitions occur), and lowers the
temperature slowly enough so that a satisfactory solution is found. There are many
methods of choosing this ‘cooling schedule’; a collection of these is described in [70] and
a specific method is utilized in Chapter 5. The algorithm is stopped once transitions to
new candidate points do not occur over a large number of attempts; the algorithm is then
said to have converged.
The SA algorithm, while being relatively simple to implement, requires a good deal
of care in choosing the initial temperature and an appropriate cooling schedule so that a
globally optimum point is likely to be found. Increased confidence that the proposed
solutions are globally optimum can be obtained by running the algorithm multiple times
from various initial points.



55
4.5. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
The PSO algorithm is a stochastic, evolutionary algorithm capable of effectively
optimizing difficult multidimensional optimization problems. Examples of the successful
application of the PSO algorithm in the electromagnetics community include antenna
design [71] and array geometry selection [72]. Originally introduced by Kennedy and
Eberhart in 1995 [73], the PSO algorithm has been gaining popularity over the genetic
algorithm and other evolutionary algorithms because of its simplicity in implementation
and efficient optimization. In addition, the algorithm lends itself well to parallel
processing, which is an added bonus.
The PSO algorithm attempts to mimic the behavior of birds or bees in obtaining a
food source. Initially, a flock of birds may start out in random directions searching for
food. As each individual bird travels on its path, it may find food in various locations.
The bird remembers its own ‘personal best’ location of where it had found food. In
addition, the bird may periodically fly up and survey the progress of the other birds in the
flock. In this manner, each individual bird will be aware of the ‘global best’ position, or
location found with the most food by any bird in the flock. Using this general procedure,
a flock of birds will descend on the region in the area that has a relatively high amount of
food available.
The PSO algorithm translates this behavior into a mathematical algorithm for
optimization. The PSO algorithm consists of a set of particles (the ‘swarm’), which are
analogous to the birds. The algorithm also has a cost or fitness function, which evaluates



56
the current position of each bird; this is analogous to a bird evaluating how much food is
in a certain location.
It will be assumed in the following discussion that there is a feasible set χ to be
optimized over in which each element can be represented as an N-dimensional real
vector, and a fitness function ℜ → χ : f which can evaluate each position to a real
number.
The algorithm starts with M particles selected at random positions within the
feasible set. The number M depends on the dimension and difficulty of the problem, and
is one of the parameters left to the algorithm implementer. The algorithm is iterative and
the locations will change at each time step. The
th
i particle at time t will be at the
location given by
t
i
x , where i is an integer between 1 and M, and t is an integer
specifying the current time step. Each particle will also have a randomly selected initial
velocity vector. The
th
i particle at time t will have a velocity written as
t
i
v .
In addition, each particle will record the location of its ‘personal best position’.
This is the location that the current particle has found to be the fittest (minimum) so far
along its trajectory. The personal best positions will be written for the
th
i particle as
i
p ,
and the corresponding fitness value for each of these positions will be written as
i
P .
Each particle will also be aware of the ‘global best position’, which is the position that
has been found to be the fittest so far from among all the particles and will be written as
the vector g. The global best value will also be recorded, and it will be written as
i
i
P G min = . (4.45)



57
Once the random initial positions and velocities have been chosen for each particle,
the fitness value for each of the positions is evaluated, giving the personal and global best
positions and values. The algorithm then updates the velocity and position of each
particle at every time step until the simulation is stopped.
To perform the updates, first define matrices
t
i 1
U and
t
i 2
U according to

=
t
aN
t
a
t
a
t
ai
u
u
u
0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0
2
1
L
M O M
L
L
U , (4.46)
where a is equal to 1 or 2, and each
t
ai
u is an independent uniformly distributed real
variable on [0,1]. The velocity is then updated at each time step according to
) ( ) (
1
2 2 1 1
1 − − −
− + − + =
t
i
t
i
t
i i
t
i
t
i V
t
i
c c w x g U x p U v v
1
, (4.47)
where
V
w is a real number called the ‘inertial weight’,
1
c is a real number that
accelerates the particle towards its personal best position, and
2
c is a real number that
accelerates the particle towards its global best position. In this manner, each particle
moves in a random fashion around the solution space, but is stochastically drawn towards
the particle’s previous best location and the swarm’s global best location. The inertial
weight w is a real number in the range [0,1] that controls how much the updated velocity
depends on the previous velocity. Studies on PSO have shown that 2.0 is a good choice
for both parameters
1
c and
2
c [74].
The position is then updated according to
1 1 − −
+ =
t
i
t
i
t
i
v x x , (4.48)



58
and the fitness function is evaluated at each of the new locations. Finally, the personal
best and global best positions and values are updated if possible, and then the process
repeats again.
This algorithm is relatively simple to implement but performs well on general
optimization problems in comparison to other evolutionary algorithms. The biggest
drawback to the method is that the resulting solutions cannot be verified to be globally
optimal.


V. ARRAY GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION FOR INTERFERENCE SUPPRESSION
5.1. Introduction
In this chapter, the influence of array geometry on the performance of adaptive
antenna arrays is examined by solving a specific wireless communication problem. The
problem of interference is addressed, which can occur intentionally (as in jamming) or
unintentionally (as in wireless devices sharing a frequency band).
The steady-state weights many adaptive algorithms (for instance, LMS and RLS)
converge to are the MMSE weights in (3.31). The optimal MSE is rewritten from (3.32):
) ( ) ( MSE
1 4 2
s s
H
s s opt
k v R k v
XX

− = σ σ , (5.1)
which is a fair measure of the performance of an adaptive array. In (5.1) the weights are
absent because the optimal weights have already been substituted into the expression.
The signal power,
2
S
σ , and the signal direction, given by
s
k , are part of the wireless
environment and cannot be changed. The terms that remain in (5.1) are the steering
vector v(
s
k ) and the autocorrelation matrix
XX
R . The steering vector can be rewritten
from (2.31) as

⋅ −
⋅ −
⋅ −
=
N s
s
s
s
j
e
j
e
j
e
d k
d k
d k
k v
M
) (
2
1
, (5.2)
which is a nonlinear function of the array element positions. The autocorrelation matrix,
defined in (3.21), is a function of the inputs (X) to the antenna array. The input is a
summation of noise, the desired signal and the interference from various directions. The
input to the array then depends on the positions of the array, the noise power, the signal



60
power and the powers of the interferers. Since an antenna array cannot control the power
incident upon it, the autocorrelation matrix can only be altered by changing the array
geometry, D. Hence, the MSE in (5.1) is actually only a complicated function of the
geometry of the array. Naturally, the question of determining an optimum geometry for
an adaptive array arises, which is the subject of this chapter.
5.2. Interference Environment
Military communication systems will potentially be used in environments with a
large amount of co-channel interference from sources intending to impede
communication. In this situation, an antenna array is suitable for blocking interference
spatially separated from the desired signal direction.
The arrays are not operating in a unique situation in which the interference is from
known directions. As a result, it would not be prudent to optimize the array geometry for
a specific interference situation (example: 3 interferers from 3 distinct angles). Instead,
the concept of an interference environment will be introduced as a statistical
characterization of the expected directions and relative power of the interference. For
example, a cell phone tower would expect the interference to be confined to a fixed range
of elevation angles (directed towards the ground) and would not be concerned with
blocking interference from the sky. Other arrays used in more dynamic environments
may expect interference from all directions with equal probability. By optimizing an
array geometry with respect to an interference environment, it is possible to minimize the
expected (or average) interference power that is not rejected by the array. A specific



61
example of an interference environment will be detailed in Section 5.4. The task is now
to derive an optimization problem whose solution yields an optimal array geometry.
Recall the definition of the autocorrelation matrix:
)] ( ) ( [ t t E
H
X X R
XX
= , (5.3)
where the expectation is over time. Each unique interference situation in which the array
operates will have a unique autocorrelation matrix. Going one step further, the expected
autocorrelation matrix,
X
S , is now defined as
] [
XX X
R S
I
E = , (5.4)
where the expectation operator is now over the interference situations (which defines the
interference environment). A noteworthy observation is that if all the antenna elements
have the same physical orientation, then
X
S can alternatively be found by treating the
elements as isotropic sensors while simply adjusting the power levels in the interference
environment. As a simple example, suppose an array was operating in an environment in
which interference occurred from one of two distinct angles of arrival with equal
probability. Each situation would have an autocorrelation matrix associated with it,
which is written as
1 XX
R and
2 XX
R . Then the expected autocorrelation matrix is
) ( 5 . 0
2 1 XX XX X
R R S + = . (5.5)
5.3. Optimization for Interference Suppression
If it is assumed that the interference has a larger power than the signal of interest or
that there are many interferers, then the array’s primary goal is to minimize the output
power while restricting one of the weights in the array to be unity. This is similar to a
sidelobe cancellation system [47] and is also the method used in a 7-element adaptive



62
array developed by Raytheon for combating interference in GPS systems [75]. By using
the power minimization technique, the array can greatly reduce the amount of
interference power that makes it into the next stage of processing (usually a temporal
filter). Note that power minimization does not attempt to place the maximum of the array
factor towards the signal of interest. This is a suboptimal technique in regards to the
MSE; however, when the interference power is much stronger than the power of the
desired signal, this technique produces weights close to those produced using the MMSE
weights. The advantage of this technique is its simplicity, as it does not require
estimating the direction of arrival of the signal of interest or its power.
The output power from the array at any time is
w XX w
H H
y y =

. (5.6)
For a fixed interference situation, the average output power P is then
w P
H
XX
R w = . (5.7)
A measure of the average output power for a given interference environment P is then
w S w
XX
H
P = . (5.8)
One of the weights is restricted to be unity so that the power minimization algorithm does
not set all of the weights to zero. In addition, for practical reasons such as minimizing
the effects of mutual coupling, it will be required that the separation between elements be
at least 4 / λ . Let
ij
r be the separation between elements i and j. The problem of finding
an optimal array for interference suppression can be written as in optimization problem,



63
given in (5.9). Note that 0] 0 0 1 [
1
L =
T
e . The minimization variables are the complex
weights and the values of
ij
r .
j i
t s
ij
H
H
≠ ≥
=
for , 4 /
1 . .
min
1
λ r
e w
w S w
X
(5.9)
Assuming the locations of the antenna elements are known (or held fixed), the
optimal weight vector for this problem can be found by using Lagrange multipliers. The
Lagrangian can be expressed as
) 1 ( ) , ( − Λ + = Λ
1 X
e w w S w w
H H
L . (5.10)
Taking the gradient with respect to w of the Lagrangian and setting the result to zero,
(5.10) becomes
0 2
1
= Λ + = ∇ e w S
X opt
L , (5.11)
where
opt
w are the power-minimizing weights. Assuming that
X
S is invertible, the
weights can be solved from (5.11) as
2
1
1
e S
w
X

Λ −
=
opt
. (5.12)
The parameter Λcan be determined by invoking the equality constraint of (5.9)
1
2
1 1 1
=
Λ
− =

e S e e w
1
X
T H
opt
, (5.13)
and the property
1 1
) (
− ∗ −
=
X X
S S was used, which follows from the definition of an
autocorrelation matrix. The solution to (5.13) can be substituted into (5.12) yielding the
power-minimizing weights,



64
1
1
1
1
1
e S e
e S
w
X
X


=
T
opt
. (5.14)
Substituting (5.14) into the objective function of (5.9), the minimum value of the
objective function for a fixed geometry becomes
1 1
1
} { min
e S e
w S w
w
1
X
X

=
T
H
. (5.15)
The goal is now to minimize (5.15) over all array geometries that meet the
constraints in (5.9). Minimization of (5.15) is equivalent to maximizing the reciprocal;
this is true whenever a function is strictly nonnegative. Equation (5.15) is always
nonnegative because an autocorrelation matrix is always positive semi-definite [76],
positive semi-definite matrices always have nonnegative quadratic forms [77], and if a
matrix is positive semi-definite then its inverse will be as well [77]. Hence, the
minimization problem in (5.10) can be rewritten as a maximization problem as in (5.16).
The notation
mn
] [Z will be used to represent the element of the matrix Z from the
th
m
row and
th
n column, so that the optimization problem can be written as
j i t s
ij
T
≠ ≥
=
− −
for , 4 / . .
] [ max
11
1
1
1
1
λ r
S e S e
X X
. (5.16)
The objective function in (5.16) is only a function of the antenna locations and the
interference environment. Since the interference environment cannot be controlled, the
performance of the array using the optimal weights of (5.14) is only a function of the
antenna locations. The optimal element locations are those that maximize the objective
function of (5.16) subject to the specified constraints. The solution to (5.16) will not be
unique, because
X
S is invariant to translation (shifting the elements uniformly). The



65
optimization problem in (5.16) is what needs to be solved in order to determine an
optimum array geometry for a given interference environment.
5.4. Planar Array with Uniform Interference at Constant Elevation
As an example of the solution to (5.16), a planar array of N elements with the same
physical orientation is considered. This example assumes M interferers and takes the
interference to be mutually independent and arriving from a uniform distribution in the
azimuth direction ( ] 2 , 0 [ π φ ∈ measured counterclockwise from the x-axis), but from a
fixed elevation angle ( ] , 0 [ π θ ∈ measured down from the z-axis towards the plane of the
array). The elements will be located at positions in the x-y plane given by
N i y x
i i i
, 2, , 1 ), 0 , , ( K = = r . (5.17)
With M interferers, the input to the array becomes

=
=
M
n
t s f t
n n n
1
) ( ) ( ) , ( ) ( k v X φ θ , (5.18)
where ) , ( φ θ f is the element pattern for each antenna, while ) (t s
n
and ) (
n n
k v are the
signal and the steering vector for the
th
n interferer, respectively. For simplicity, it will be
assumed that the antenna elements do not have a pattern that varies much in the azimuth
direction. This assumption allows the element factor to be eliminated because the
interferers are assumed to come from a fixed elevation angle; hence the response of the
antenna can be lumped into the received power. Finally, the steering vectors will be
rewritten as a function of the azimuth angle (
n
φ ) only, so that (5.18) simplifies to

=
=
M
n
t s t
n n n
1
) ( ) ( ) ( φ v X . (5.19)



66
The autocorrelation matrix becomes
)] ( ) ( [ t t E
H
X X R
XX
=
=

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
∑ ∑
H
M
n
t s
M
n
t s E
n n n n n n
1
) ( ) (
1
) ( ) ( φ φ v v . (5.20)
Assuming the interference to be independent, it follows that
( )( ) 0 ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( [ =
H
m m m n n n
t s t s E φ φ v v (5.21)
because 0 )] ( ) ( [ =

t s t s E
m n
for n m ≠ . For m=n, it follows that the components of the
autocorrelation matrix become
( )( )
ab
H
n n n n n n
t s t s E ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( [ φ φ v v

+ + −
=

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
b y b x a y a x
n n
y k x k j
e
y k x k j
e t s t s E
)) ( sin ) ( (cos sin
2
2
b a n b a n
n
y y x x j
e
− + − −
=
φ φ θ
λ
π
σ . (5.22)
Equation (5.20) along with (5.22) gives the components of the autocorrelation matrix,

=
− + − −
=
M
n
y y x x j
e
b a n b a n
n ab
1
)) ( sin ) ( (cos sin
2
] [
2
φ φ θ
λ
π
σ
XX
R . (5.23)
The expected autocorrelation matrix can now be calculated from (5.23) and the fact
that the interference is uniformly distributed in the azimuth direction. The expected value
of (5.23) is taken, resulting in



67


2
0
2
1
)) ( sin ) ( (cos sin
2

] [
2


=
− + − −
=
π
π
φ
φ φ θ
λ
π
σ
n
b a n b a n
n
ab
d
M
n
y y x x j
e
E
XX
R



− + − −
=
=
π
π
φ
φ φ θ
λ
π
σ
2
0
2
)) ( sin ) ( (cos sin
2
1
2 n
b a n b a n
n
d
y y x x j
e
M
n
. (5.24)
In order to evaluate the integral in (5.24), the following variable substitutions are made:
ab ab b a
R x x φ cos ) ( = − (5.25)
ab ab b a
R y y φ sin ) ( = − . (5.26)
In (5.25) and (5.26),
ab
R is the distance between elements a and b. Using the
trigonometric identity
) sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( v u v u v u + = − , (5.27)
and substituting (5.25)-(5.27) into (5.24), the integral in (5.24) becomes

− − π
π
φ
φ φ θ
λ
π
2
0
2
) cos( sin
2
n
ab n ab
d
R j
e . (5.28)
Since the integral in (5.28) is over a complete cycle for
n
φ , the term
ab
φ will not
contribute to the integral and can be arbitrarily set to zero without influencing the result.
The Bessel function of the first kind of order n can be written in integral form as [78]

+
=

π
φ
φ φ
π
2
0
) cos (
2
) ( d
n x j
e
j
x J
n
n
. (5.29)
Hence, (5.24) can be rewritten using (5.28) and (5.29), as



68
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
= =

θ
λ
π
σ sin
2
1
] [ ] [
0
2
ab n ab ab
R J
M
n
E
XX X
R S . (5.30)
Equation (5.30) shows that the expected autocorrelation matrix depends on the total
interference power incident on the array, and not on the number of interferers. Equation
(5.30) along with (5.16) defines the optimization problem used to determine an array for
suppressing interference. A method of determining an optimal array is the subject of the
following section.
5.5. Using Simulated Annealing to Find an Optimal Array
The Simulated Annealing optimization algorithm described in Chapter 4 was found
to be suitable for the problem at hand. For simplicity, an elevation angle of ° = 90 θ is
chosen for the interferers. The candidate arrays (or points in the feasible space, as
discussed in Section 4.4) at every time step are represented by a real vector in
N 2
ℜ ,
which represents the x- and y- positions of the N-elements.
In using the SA algorithm, a circular array is chosen as the initial array. Ideally, the
initial array chosen will have no effect on the optimization result. The perturbation
mechanism is implemented by choosing a random vector in
N 2
ℜ that has an Euclidean
norm that is zero-mean and with a small variance. The variance is chosen such that the
average perturbation for each element is on the order of λ 01 . 0 ; a large variance will lead
to an imprecise search of the solution space, while a small variance will lead to a long
simulation time. The 2N components of this vector are added to the x-y coordinates of
the current array. If the perturbation moves the elements too close to each other ( λ 25 . 0 <
), then the perturbation is discarded and a new perturbation selected. Another constraint



69
is imposed such that all elements stay within λ 75 . 0 of the origin (center of the initial
circular array) to keep the search space finite. This number was chosen to be large
enough such that the resulting optimal arrays were not altered by this constraint.
The initial temperature
0
T was chosen such that virtually all (>99%) of
perturbations are accepted. The temperature is held constant for a fixed number (P) of
perturbations. The temperature is then multiplied by a factor u<1. The solution array is
then again perturbed P times. This process is performed until T is small enough that no
perturbations that decrease the objective function are accepted (recall the optimization
problem is one of maximization); once this happens the solutions has converged upon a
local maximum. If P is sufficiently large and the temperature decreased sufficiently
slowly, this method will converge to the global optimum [68]. In the solution for N=6,
the parameters used were u=0.99, P=50 000, and
0
T =12. The method of determining
these numbers was to use small values of u, P and
0
T , and increase them until the
simulations consistently returned the same solution starting from various initial arrays.
As u, P, and
0
T are increased, the probability of a correct (globally optimal) solution
increases; if they are decreased, the solution is less likely to be optimal. However, the
tradeoff lies in the computational time needed. The simulation for the 6-element array
described below was performed using MATLAB on a computer with a 2.9 GHz
processor, and the solution time was approximately 8 hours.
The optimum array configurations for the N=4, 5 and 6 element arrays are found
using the above optimization procedure and plotted in Figures 16, 17 and 18,
respectively. The dotted circles in these figures are of radius λ 25 . 0 . The results suggest



70
that the interference suppression capabilities are best for arrays spaced as closely as
possible. They all have a center element and are surrounded by a circular array of radius
λ 25 . 0 (the minimum distance allowed). This suggests a trade-off between interference
suppression and largely spaced arrays used for diversity or to minimize mutual coupling.

Figure 16. Optimum N=4 element array (measured in units of λ ).



71

Figure 17. Optimum N=5 element array (measured in units of λ ).




72

Figure 18. Optimum N=6 element array (measured in units of λ ).
5.6. Evaluating the Performance of the Optimal Arrays
In order to illustrate the performance of the optimum array, it will be compared to
three other standard arrays: a circular array with radius chosen such that the spacing
along the circle between elements is λ 5 . 0 as suggested in [79], a linear array with
interelement spacing λ 5 . 0 oriented along the z-axis, and a rectangular array with
interelement spacing λ 5 . 0 .
Interferers from six different angles are chosen, each randomly selected from a
uniform distribution (on [0, ° 360 ]) and all at the same elevation angle ( ° 90 ). The output
power ( w R w
XX
H
) is calculated when the weights are given by the optimal weight vector
for this specific instance, given in (5.31). This is the steady-state solution the adaptive



73
power-minimization algorithm would converge to in practice, if the first weight is fixed
at unity.
1 1
1
1
e R e
e R
w
1
XX
XX


=
T
opt
(5.31)
This process is repeated 100,000 times to form an average output power for this type of
interference environment. The results are listed in Table I, where the average output
power is given relative to the power allowed by the optimal array.
TABLE I
OUTPUT POWER COMPARISON AMONG DIFFERENT ARRAYS
Array Relative Power (N=4) Relative Power (N=5) Relative Power (N=6)
Optimal 0 dB 0 dB 0 dB
Circular 11.5 dB 16.9 dB 32.2 dB
Rectangular 7.1 dB 20.5 dB 32.4 dB
Linear 12.2 dB 24.4 dB 37.8 dB


Table I illustrates the dramatic effect that array geometry can have on the
interference-suppression capabilities of the array. The optimum arrays performed
significantly better on average than the standard arrays used in practice, much more than
reasonably expected. The output powers for the standard arrays are much higher than
those for the optimal arrays, clearly showing their superior interference-suppression
capabilities.
After viewing Figures 16-18, one may easily conjecture what the optimal 7-element
array would be. The optimization procedure is applied and confirms the solution to be
that as given in Figure 19. The interesting thing about the optimal 7-element array is that
it is a hexagonally sampled planar array. In multidimensional digital signal processing, it
is well known that the optimal sampling strategy to avoid aliasing for circularly



74
bandlimited signals is a hexagonally sampled lattice [80]. Hence, while sampling for
reconstruction and sampling for interference suppression are fundamentally different, the
problems are strongly related and the optimal solutions come out the same (for the case
of a circular interference environment). This parallel strengthens the methods and
procedures applied in determining optimal arrays.

Figure 19. Optimum N=7 element array (measured in units of λ ).
The array geometry in Figure 19 is the layout of the 7-element GAS-1 (GPS
Antenna System) array developed by Raytheon whose primary function is to suppress
interferers or jamming [75]. The method of this paper confirms that the GAS-1 geometry
used is optimum for the case of a planar array in a circular interference environment. The
elements of the GAS-1 array are circular patches each operating at the dual frequencies of
L1 (1.575 GHz) and L2 (1.227 GHz).



75
The method derived above seeks to minimize output power. While this has its
advantages, the primary disadvantage is that the desired signal may be muted along with
the interferers. To get an idea of the signal to interference ratio (SIR) at the output of the
array, a few test cases are considered. In Case 1, the desired signal arrives from ° = 45
d
θ
and ° = 0
d
φ . Twelve interferers are selected from a fixed elevation angle ( ° = 90
I
θ ) and
a random azimuth angle and 30 dB Interference-to-Signal Ratio (ISR). The weight vector
used for each case is the vector that minimizes the MSE, given in (3-30). The process
will be repeated (random interference directions selected) 100,000 times to form an
expected SIR, given by


=
n
n
n
n
I
S
SIR , (5.32)
where
n
S and
n
I are the output signal power and the output interference power for the
th
n situation, respectively. The resulting SIRs for N=5, 6, and 7 elements are determined
for the optimal array along with a circular, linear, and rectangular array as before. The
results for Case 1 are given in Table II. Case 2 will be the same as Case 1 except the
signal arrives from ° = 0
d
θ . The results for Case 2 are presented in Table III. Case 3
will be the same as Case 1 except the signal arrives from ° = 90
d
θ . The results for Case
3 are presented in Table IV.






76
TABLE II
RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 1
Array Relative SIR (N=5) Relative SIR (N=6) Relative SIR (N=7)
Optimal 0 dB 0 dB 0 dB
Circular -6.45 dB -11.4 dB -26.9 dB
Rectangular -6.41 dB -15.85 dB -25.13 dB
Linear 2.98 dB -5.82 dB -19.15 dB


TABLE III
RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 2
Array Relative SIR (N=5) Relative SIR (N=6) Relative SIR (N=7)
Optimal 0 dB 0 Db 0 dB
Circular -3.9 dB -10.15 Db -35.9 dB
Rectangular -5.8 dB -19.25 dB -27.2 dB
Linear 5 dB -10.24 dB -21 dB


TABLE IV
RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 3
Array Relative SIR (N=5) Relative SIR (N=6) Relative SIR (N=7)
Optimal 0 dB 0 dB 0 dB
Circular -11.3 dB 2.5 dB -4.3 dB
Rectangular -11.6 dB -0.45 dB -6.64 dB
Linear -15.1 dB -7.6 dB -4.29 dB



The results given in Tables II-IV show that on average, the optimal array boosts the
SIR compared to the other arrays. In some situations, like the N=7 arrays for Cases 1 and
2, the optimal array produces significant SIR gains compared to the standard arrays. The
linear array has some advantage in blocking interference in that it has a smaller field of
view than the other 2-D arrays. This is exhibited by the slightly superior results seen for
Case 1 and 2 when N=5. However, when the signal is in the same plane as the interferers



77
(Case 3) the linear array performs poorly. Therefore, while the optimization problem was
set up to minimize output power and thereby reduce interference, it does indeed raise the
output SIR as desired.
5.7. Summary
To briefly summarize the chapter, an optimization problem (5.16) has been derived
whose solution yields an optimal array for suppressing interference. Optimizing an
adaptive antenna array’s geometry can be done by defining an interference environment,
or expected directions and level of interference. In this manner, the array is not
optimized for a specific situation, but rather optimized to maximize the performance on
average based on the expected environment the array is to operate in. A specific problem
of a circular interference environment was studied, and a method of solution was
demonstrated using the Simulated Annealing optimization algorithm. In addition, the
results implicitly show that the array geometry used has a significant effect on the array’s
performance.




VI. MINIMUM SIDELOBE LEVELS FOR LINEAR ARRAYS
6.1. Introduction
One-dimensional arrays have been extensively analyzed, dating back to the early
part of the 20
th
century. Their ubiquity in textbooks and actual applications is partly due
to the relative ease with which they are analyzed. However, the question of determining
the minimum possible sidelobe level for an N-element linear array has yet to be
determined. Determining this for a linear array of arbitrary elements, steered to an
arbitrary angle is the goal of this chapter.
Methods of weight selection were discussed in Chapter 3. The most important for
the discussion of this chapter is the Dolph-Chebyshev weighting method. This method
can determine minimum-sidelobe weights for uniformly spaced linear arrays of omni-
directional antennas. Optimizing geometry for sidelobe minimization has also been
examined via a range of techniques, as discussed in Chapter 1. Recently, [17] used the
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method to determine optimum sidelobe-minimizing
positions for linear arrays assuming the weights were constant.
In this chapter, the weights and positions of a linear array will be optimized to
lower sidelobes. In [13],[17] the authors force the arrays to have symmetry about the
center to keep the array factor real; the work in this chapter does not require this
restriction. In addition, the arrays will have no bounds on minimum or maximum
element separation, except in Section 6.5 where a minimum element separation is needed.
For a given linear array, a method of finding the optimum weights for minimizing
the sidelobe level is derived given:
• a beamwidth



79
• the array element’s positions
• the individual antenna’s radiation pattern
• a desired direction (
d
θ ) for the array to be scanned.
This problem will be posed in convex form; thus it can be solved without searching
through the space of weights as in [28]. The element positions will be unrestricted and
the space will be extensively searched via PSO in order to find optimum positions in
conjunction with the corresponding optimum weights. The positions found via PSO are
likely to be globally optimal as discussed in Section 6.4. Consequently, the results
presented here likely represent global bounds on the minimum-possible sidelobe levels
achievable for a given beamwidth. This information can be used by array designers in
determining how well their arrays perform compared to the best design possible, to
determine if altering the weights or element positions could potentially return a
significant improvement in performance.
6.2. Problem Setup

The basic geometry of a one-dimensional linear array is shown in Figure 20. The
positions of a one-dimensional N-element linear array can be written as a vector d=
) , , (
2 1 N
d d d K , where
n
d is the position of the
th
n element measured from the origin
along the z-axis. Incoming plane waves are characterized by an angle θ (measured from
the z-axis) that specifies their direction of arrival.



80

Figure 20. Basic setup of a linear N-element array.

Assuming a vector w=(
N
w w w , , ,
2 1
K ) of complex excitation weights, the array
factor (AF) can be rewritten from (2.20) as


=
=
N
n
jkd
e w AF
n
n
1
cos
) , , (
θ
θ d w (6.1)
where λ π / 2 = k . For a given angle θ , the array factor is a function of the weight vector
and the positions of the elements. It will be assumed that the elements are identical and
oriented in the same direction. The problem can be extended to arrays with distinct
antenna elements in a straightforward manner. The total radiation pattern ) ( θ d, w, T is
then the product of the array factor and the element pattern, given by
) , ( ) ( ) ( θ θ θ d w, d, w, AF f T = , (6.2)
where ) (θ f is each elements’ radiation pattern. This chapter addresses determining the
minimum possible sidelobe level of an N-element array for a given beamwidth.
The sidelobe level of an array intrinsically depends on the element positions (d) and
the weights (w). Determining the minimum possible sidelobe level of an N-element



81
linear array consists of finding the optimum combination of weights and element
positions that minimize the sidelobe level. To accomplish this, Section 6.3 determines
optimum weights for a linear array with arbitrary element positions. Since the optimum
weights can be determined for every linear array, the problem reduces to finding the
optimum positions that (along with the corresponding optimum weights) yield a sidelobe
level that no other combination of weights or element positions can improve upon.
6.3. Determination of Optimum Weights for an Arbitrary Linear Array
For non-uniformly spaced linear arrays, a new method must be developed to
determine the optimal sidelobe-minimizing weights. In [27], an optimization procedure
using linear programming (LP) was developed for sidelobe-level minimizing weights;
however, their results only apply for symmetric arrays and real-valued weights.
Let the positions of an arbitrarily spaced N-element linear array be described by the
vector d. The sidelobe level will be defined as the maximum value of the total radiation
pattern outside of the main beam. The beamwidth is then the angular range in which the
radiation pattern is not to be minimized. Letting Θ represent the angles in which the
radiation pattern is to be suppressed, the sidelobe level (SLL) can be written
mathematically as
| ) , ( | max θ
θ
d w, T SLL
Θ ∈
= . (6.3)
The normalized radiation pattern is constrained to be unity towards the desired direction (
d
θ ). The optimum sidelobe-minimizing weights are therefore the solution to the
optimization problem given in (6.4).



82
1 ) , ( . .
| ) , ( | max min
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
Θ ∈ ∈
d
N
T t s
T
C
θ
θ
θ
d w,
d w,
w
(6.4)
In (6.4),
N
C is the set of all N-element vectors with complex components, and the
complex weight vector w is the variable in the problem. This problem can be put into a
fairly simple convex optimization form, which is rapidly solvable and solutions are
guaranteed to be globally optimum.
To accomplish this, the weights are first expressed in terms of their real and
imaginary parts,
IM
n
RE
n n
jw w w + = . (6.5)
The real part of the total radiation pattern can then be written as
{ } ( ) ( )} cos sin cos cos { ) ( ) , ( Re
1
θ θ θ θ
n
IM
n
N
n
n
RE
n
kd w kd w f T − =

=
d w, , (6.6)
and the imaginary part as
{ } ( ) ( )} cos sin cos cos { ) ( ) , ( Im
1
θ θ θ θ
n
RE
n
N
n
n
IM
n
kd w kd w f T + =

=
d w, . (6.7)
Next, Θ is partitioned into M discrete sample points
M
θ θ θ , , ,
2 1
K . Selection of the
sample points is discussed at the end of the section. Minimizing the magnitude of the
total radiation pattern at a fixed position
i
θ , while the beam is maximum in direction
d
θ ,
can be written as an optimization problem (with variables , , , , ,
1 1
IM
N
RE
N
IM RE
w w w w K
i
t and
i
s ), given in (6.8).




83
2 2
i
min
i
s t +
s.t.
i i i
t T t ≤ ≤ − )} , ( Re{ θ d w, (6.8)
i i i
s T s ≤ ≤ − )} , ( Im{ θ d w,
1 )} , ( Re{ =
d
T θ d w,
0 )} , ( Im{ =
d
T θ d w,
In the above optimization problem,
i
t and
i
s are dummy variables. The inequality
constraints in (6.8) on the real part of the total radiation pattern can be written as a linear
inequality (for notational simplicity, let
i n
i
n
kd p θ cos = ),

0
0
0
0
0
0




0 1 - sin cos - sin cos -
0 1 - sin - cos sin - cos
) (
1
1
1 1
1 1
M
M
L
L
i
i
IM
N
RE
N
IM
RE
i i i i
i i i i
i
s
t
w
w
w
w
p p p p
p p p p
f
N N
N N
θ
. (6.9)
Similarly, the constraints on the imaginary part of the total radiation pattern can also be
expressed in this form. Hence, (6.8) can be rewritten into the simpler form given in
(6.10).
2 2
i
min
i
s t +
0 Z A ≤
i
t s . . (6.10)
BZ = 0



84
In (6.10),
i
A is the matrix that describes the inequality constraints, B is a matrix that
describes the equality constraints, Z is a vector of the problem variables (
, , , , ,
2 1 1
IM
N
RE IM RE
w w w w K
i
t ,
i
s ), and 0 is a vector of zeros. The optimization problem of
(6.10) is a simple quadratic program, which is easily solved numerically [81].
This procedure can be accomplished at every location
i
θ for which the total
radiation pattern is to be suppressed. Extend the vector Z to include the weights and all
the dummy variables:
] [
2 1 2 1 1 1 M M
IM
N
RE
N
IM RE T
s s s t t t w w w w L L L = Z . (6.11)
Adding the constraints for all M positions to be included in the matrix A, the problem in
(6.10) can be extended into the form given in (6.12).
0 BZ
0 AZ

. .
max min
2 2
, , 1
=

+
=
t s
s t
i i
M i L
(6.12)
This problem will minimize the array factor at all desired locations. Since
2 2
i i
s t + is a
convex function for all i , the pointwise maximum in (6.12) is also a convex function (as
derived in Chapter 4).
Finally, (6.12) does not guarantee that the magnitude of total array radiation pattern
is a maximum at
d
θ (the maximum could be anywhere outside the region Θ). To have a
maximum at
d
θ , a necessary condition is for the derivative of the squared magnitude of
the radiation pattern to be zero. Writing ) ( ) ( ) ( θ θ θ jI F T + = in terms of its real and
imaginary parts, it follows that



85

θ θ θ d
dT
T
d
dT
T
d
T dT

∗ ∗
+ =


) )( ( ) )( ( I j F jI F I j F jI F ′ + ′ − + ′ − ′ + = . (6.13)
At
d
θ , the equality constraints force F=1 and I=0, which implies that the squared
magnitude of the total radiation pattern has zero derivative if
0 )} , ( Re{ = = ′
d
T
d
d
F θ
θ
d w, . (6.14)
This constraint is also a linear constraint on w, and it can be added to the matrix B.
When this is implemented, the method is sufficient to have the maximum of the radiation
pattern in the direction
d
θ (at least for all cases considered in this chapter).
In summary, the result is that (6.12) represents a convex optimization problem and
is therefore solvable, and the solutions represent global optima [66]. This problem can be
solved via a standard numerical optimization routine, or via commercial software such as
MATLAB (for example, using the function fminimax).
The only question left then is the selection of the number of sample points, M. The
only two values of θ that need to be selected are those that define the boundary of the
main beam; the remaining values can be selected fairly sparsely. Usually, a spacing of
° 5 between sample points is sufficient. Once the weights are determined, the total
radiation pattern can be plotted to show that the sidelobes are indeed suppressed as
desired, even in between the sampled points. In theory, it is desirable to choose sample
points as closely spaced as possible to guarantee the radiation pattern is suppressed. In



86
practice, the method works with sparse spacing, and it is advantageous to choose a sparse
sampling to speed up the computation time.
The method developed in this section will return weights almost identical to that of
the Dolph-Chebyshev method for uniformly spaced linear arrays of omnidirectional
antenna elements. The discrepancy results from the Dolph-Chebyshev method using null
to null beamwidth and suppressing sidelobes outside of that region; this method
suppresses sidelobes outside a specified beamwidth, which isn’t necessarily null to null.
However, as will be seen in the Section 6.5, the difference is extremely small and the
weights are the same to at least three significant digits for the arrays in question.
6.4. Broadside Linear Array

In this section, broadside ( ° = 90
d
θ ) N-element linear arrays of omnidirectional [
1 ) ( = θ f ] antennas are considered. The goal is to determine the optimum element
positions for minimizing sidelobes, and consequently, the global bound on sidelobe level
for linear arrays. Suppose the desired beamwidth is ° ∆ 2 ; then the region Θ in which the
radiation pattern is to be minimized can be written as
} 180 or 0 : {
d
° ≤ ≤ ∆ + ∆ − ≤ ≤ ° = Θ θ θ θ θ θ
d
. (6.15)
The sidelobe level (SLL) for a given weight vector w can be expressed in dB as
| ) , ( | log 20
max
) (
10
θ
θ
d w, w T SLL
Θ ∈
= . (6.16)
Two cases will be analyzed in this chapter. Case 1 will have a large beamwidth
° ∆ 2 = ° 60 , and Case 2 will have a relatively small beamwidth, ° ∆ 2 = ° 30 . A minimum
inter-element separation of λ 25 . 0 can be enforced. However, the results are the same



87
whether or not this constraint is applied since the elements will tend to separate largely
from each other to achieve low sidelobes.
Since for any array configuration d the optimum weights can be found, the
problem now becomes one of finding the best antenna element positions to minimize the
SLL. For an array with two elements (N=2), the problem is a function of a single variable
(
1 2
d d − = element separation and hence a global optimum can easily be found). For
linear arrays with more than two elements, a search method needs to be employed that is
rapid (without excessive computation time) and accurate (solutions are consistent and no
other method leads to a better solution). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method
was found to be suitable for this task. For a detailed discussion of the details of PSO that
goes beyond the elementary discussion in Chapter 4, the reader is referred to [17, 82].
While no method short of an exhaustive search can guarantee a global optimum
for problems such as these (many local minima in the objective function), intelligent use
of PSO will give high confidence that the solutions are indeed globally optimum. For the
results presented in this work, the PSO is used by initially choosing a set of P random
arrays (these are the particles used in PSO). The arrays are described by a vector of
element positions, d. For each position vector, the optimum weights are calculated and
the sidelobe level is determined. The element positions are updated via the PSO
technique, and the process is repeated. The algorithm is run using the PSO parameters
set to 5 . 0 =
V
w , 0 . 2
1
= c , and 0 . 2
2
= c . Each run of the algorithm is executed for
approximately 20-200 iterations, or long enough such that several iterations no longer



88
decrease the objective function. If repeated use of the algorithm does not produce
identical results, P is increased until consistency is achieved.
The number of particles P required for regular convergence is given in Table V.
The number of particles required appears to grow roughly as N! which indicates PSO
cannot consistently return optimum solutions for large arrays. Because the arrays (or
particles) start from random positions every time, and because the number of antenna
elements is small, this method is fairly certain to return the globally optimum array if the
number of particles is large and repeated application of the algorithm returns identical
arrays. Table V also gives the approximate time per simulation on a single 3.0 GHz
processor running MATLAB (speedup by approximately a factor of S can be obtained if
the code is written for S-processors in parallel).
TABLE V
NUMBER OF PARTICLES REQUIRED FOR CONVERGENCE FOR VARYING
ARRAY SIZE WITH SIMULATION TIME
Array Size (N) P Time (Hours)
2 2 0.05
3 4 0.2
4 16 1.3
5 100 7
6 700 50
7 3000 300


Results for broadside arrays of size N=2-7 elements are presented in Tables VI-IX
(note that 0
1
= d for all arrays in this chapter). For both cases, the optimum arrays are
very regular, with either uniform or nearly uniform spacing. The weights for this case are
allowed to be complex, but are found to be real valued. The weights given in Table VII
are identical to the Dolph-Chebyshev weights (to at least 3 significant digits). Case 2 has



89
a larger array length, consistent with results developed in [83], in which the beamwidth is
reported to decrease with increased array length. The magnitude of the array factor for
both cases is shown in Figure 21 for N=6, and the results for N=7 are shown in Figure
22. Because the results for Case 1 have uniform spacing, the method in [15] correctly
determines the optimum sidelobe level for this problem. However, this will not hold in
future scenarios.
TABLE VI
OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 (BW= ° = ° 90 , 60
d
θ )
N

2
d
3
d
Error!
Objects
cannot
be
created
from
editing
field
codes.

5
d
6
d
7
d
SLL (dB)
2 0.667 -6.02
3 0.667 1.333 -16.90
4 0.667 1.333 2.000 -27.05
5 0.667 1.333 2.000 2.667 -39.45
6 0.667 1.333 2.000 2.667 3.333 -51.21
7 0.667 1.333 2.000 2.667 3.333 4.000 -62.62

TABLE VII
OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 (BW= ° = ° 90 , 60
d
θ )
N
1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
5
w
6
w
7
w
2 0.500 0.500
3 0.286 0.429 0.286
4 0.154 0.346 0.346 0.154
5 0.083 0.247 0.340 0.247 0.083
6 0.044 0.166 0.290 0.290 0.166 0.044
7 0.024 0.107 0.227 0.286 0.227 0.107 0.024






90








TABLE VIII
OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 2 (BW= ° = ° 90 , 30
d
θ )
N

2
d
3
d
Error!
Objects
cannot
be
created
from
editing
field
codes. 5
d
6
d
7
d
SLL (dB)
2 0.794 -1.95
3 0.794 1.589 -6.59
4 0.794 1.589 2.383 -12.24
5 0.794 1.589 2.383 3.178 -18.18
6 0.794 1.589 2.383 3.178 3.97 -24.15
7 0.794 1.589 2.383 3.178 3.97 4.762 -30.07


TABLE IX
OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 (BW= ° = ° 90 , 30
d
θ )
N

1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
5
w
6
w
7
w
2 0.500 0.500
3 0.286 0.429 0.286
4 0.154 0.346 0.346 0.154
5 0.083 0.247 0.340 0.247 0.083
6 0.044 0.166 0.290 0.290 0.166 0.044
7 0.059 0.127 0.198 0.227 0.199 0.130 0.060








91



(a) , 60 ( ° = BW ) 90° =
d
θ (b) , 30 ( ° = BW ) 90° =
d
θ

Figure 21. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=6).



(a) , 60 ( ° = BW ) 90° =
d
θ (b) , 30 ( ° = BW ) 90° =
d
θ

Figure 22. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=7).







92


6.5. Array Scanned to 45 Degrees

Suppose now the goal is to find the optimum array pattern for an arbitrarily spaced
N-element linear array scanned to ° 45 from broadside ( ° = 45
d
θ ). This problem is
solved in an identical manner to that in Section 6.4. However, for this problem, the
arrays tend to favor closely spaced elements. Consequently, a minimum separation of
λ 25 . 0 between elements was enforced, as in [30]. The optimum element positions and
the weight vectors are given in Tables X-XIII. The magnitude of the array factor for both
cases is shown in Figure 23 for N=6, and Figure 24 plots the results for N=7.
The weights found in this section are complex. For clarity, Y X∠ is equal to
) sin( ) cos( Y jX Y X + . The positions found are very irregular. The elements favor
having at least one element separation being the minimum allowable ( λ 25 . 0 ) for many
of the cases. Comparing these results to Section 6.4, it is clear that it is more difficult for
a linear array to have low sidelobes when it is scanned away from broadside.
TABLE X
OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 (BW= ° = ° 45 , 60
d
θ ).
N

2
d
3
d
Error!
Objects
cannot
be
created
from
editing
field
codes. 5
d
6
d
7
d
SLL (dB)
2 0.508 -0.76
3 0.250 1.432 -5.44
4 0.250 1.512 1.762 -8.74
5 0.250 1.475 1.725 1.975 -12.64
6 0.250 0.707 1.442 1.912 2.162 -19.60



93
7 0.250 0.734 1.369 1.850 2.108 3.935 -23.00








TABLE XI
OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 (BW= ° = ° 45 , 60
d
θ )

(a) Results for N=2-4.
N=2 N=3 N=4
1
w
0.499 ° ∠43 425 . 0 ° ∠45 304 . 0
2
w
° ∠231 501 . 0 ° ∠248 465 . 0 ° ∠250 415 . 0
3
w
° ∠5 386 . 0 ° ∠21 408 . 0
4
w
° ∠227 297 . 0

(b) Results for N=5-7.
N=5 N=6 N=7
1
w
° ∠30 287 . 0 ° ∠51 231 . 0 ° ∠44 146 . 0
2
w
° ∠246 345 . 0 ° ∠260 293 . 0 ° ∠257 258 . 0
3
w
° ∠63 359 . 0 ° ∠132 172 . 0 ° ∠143 195 . 0
4
w
° ∠279 427 . 0 ° ∠37 167 . 0 ° ∠48 195 . 0
5
w
° ∠135 22 . 0 ° ∠272 292 . 0 ° ∠292 275 . 0
6
w
° ∠121 237 . 0 ° ∠145 169 . 0
7
w
° ∠25 057 . 0


TABLE XII
OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 2 (BW= ° = ° 45 , 30
d
θ )
N

2
d
3
d
Error!
Objects
cannot
be
created
from
editing 5
d
6
d
7
d
SLL (dB)



94
field
codes.
2 0.535 -0.31
3 0.250 2.030 -3.77
4 0.302 1.933 2.976 -6.92
5 0.250 2.130 2.380 3.617 -8.85
6 0.250 2.123 2.373 3.653 4.657 -10.39
7 0.250 0.926 2.112 2.362 3.806 4.056 -12.36








TABLE XIII
OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 (BW= ° = ° 45 , 60
d
θ )

(a) Results for N=2-4.
N=2 N=3 N=4
1
w
0.50 ° ∠47 469 . 0 ° ∠37 298 . 0
2
w
° ∠224 5 . 0 ° ∠248 524 . 0 ° ∠248 335 . 0
3
w
° ∠211 34 . 0 ° ∠226 298 . 0
4
w
° ∠330 191 . 0

(b) Results for N=5-7.
N=5 N=6 N=7
1
w
° ∠49 23 . 0 ° ∠49 196 . 0 ° ∠42 21 . 0
2
w
° ∠247 252 . 0 ° ∠248 218 . 0 ° ∠238 18 . 0
3
w
° ∠224 322 . 0 ° ∠223 355 . 0 ° ∠111 165 . 0
4
w
° ∠70 385 . 0 ° ∠64 361 . 0 ° ∠228 293 . 0
5
w
° ∠175 195 . 0 ° ∠169 186 . 0 ° ∠69 245 . 0
6
w
° ∠251 068 . 0 ° ∠164 163 . 0
7
w
° ∠7 162 . 0





95




(a) , 60 ( ° = BW ) 45° =
d
θ (b) , 30 ( ° = BW ) 45° =
d
θ

Figure 23. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=6).


(a) , 60 ( ° = BW ) 45° =
d
θ (b) , 30 ( ° = BW ) 45° =
d
θ

Figure 24. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=7).

6.6. Array of Dipoles Scanned to Broadside




96
The broadside case is considered again, this time assuming the antennas are short or
ideal dipoles having a normalized radiation pattern
θ θ sin ) ( = f . (6.17)

For this case, no minimum separation is required since the elements tend to spread out as
in Section 6.4. The problem is solved again as in Section 6.4. The resulting optimum
element positions and weights are given in Tables XIV-XVII. The magnitude of the total
radiation pattern for both cases is shown in Figure 25 for N=6, and Figure 26 gives the
results for N=7.

TABLE XIV
OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 WITH DIPOLES (BW=
° = ° 90 , 60
d
θ )
N

2
d
3
d
Error!
Objects
cannot
be
created
from
editing
field
codes.

5
d
6
d
7
d
SLL (dB)
2 0.793 -11.15
3 0.726 1.452 -22.38
4 0.703 1.403 2.116 -34.00
5 0.696 1.391 2.087 2.788 -45.40
6 0.693 1.382 2.069 2.755 3.441 -56.50
7 0.681 1.362 2.043 2.724 3.405 4.086 -66.90


TABLE XV
OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 WITH DIPOLES (BW= ° = ° 90 , 60
d
θ )
N

1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
5
w
6
w
7
w
2 0.500 0.500
3 0.276 0.448 0.276



97
4 0.150 0.351 0.351 0.148
5 0.082 0.25 0.343 0.246 0.079
6 0.043 0.165 0.292 0.292 0.165 0.043
7 0.023 0.106 0.227 0.288 0.227 0.106 0.023






TABLE XVI
OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) AND SLL FOR CASE 2 WITH DIPOLES
(BW= ° = ° 90 , 30
d
θ )
N

2
d
3
d
Error!
Objects
cannot
be
created
from
editing
field
codes.

5
d
6
d
7
d
SLL (dB)
2 1.130 -4.64
3 0.951 1.900 -9.93
4 0.915 1.779 2.675 -15.70
5 0.876 1.723 2.565 3.463 -21.70
6 0.842 1.681 2.516 3.358 4.233 -27.50
7 0.860 1.706 2.528 3.362 4.192 5.024 -33.58




TABLE XVII
OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 WITH DIPOLES (BW= ° = ° 90 , 30
d
θ )
N

1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
5
w
6
w
7
w
2 0.500 0.500
3 0.341 0.313 0.347
4 0.224 0.283 0.273 0.220
5 0.139 0.224 0.270 0.224 0.143
6 0.087 0.168 0.239 0.238 0.178 0.090



98
7 0.047 0.122 0.196 0.231 0.208 0.134 0.062




(a) , 60 ( ° = BW ) 90° =
d
θ (b) , 30 ( ° = BW ) 90° =
d
θ

Figure 25. Magnitude of the total radiation pattern for optimal arrays of dipoles (N=6).


(a) , 60 ( ° = BW ) 90° =
d
θ (b) , 30 ( ° = BW ) 90° =
d
θ

Figure 26. Magnitude of the total radiation pattern for optimal arrays of dipoles (N=7).




99
The results of this section, compared with the results of Section 6.4, show that the
optimum linear array element positions (and associated weights) will be different
depending on the type of antenna elements used in the array. The elements in this section
have a larger spacing than the broadside array considered in Section 6.4. The individual
dipole’s radiation pattern works to lower the total radiation pattern away from broadside.
Consequently, this helps to lower the overall sidelobe level, so that an array of dipoles
has lower sidelobes than an array of omnidirectional radiators. This is evident by
comparing the results of this section and Section 6.4.
6.7. Mutual Coupling
Mutual coupling is present in all antenna arrays to some degree. This coupling
affects the radiation pattern of the elements which can degrade the overall radiation
pattern [84]. In this section, the extent to which the above results vary due to mutual
coupling is considered.
Without mutual coupling, the output of the array will be written as
ideal
X . When
mutual coupling is present, the output of the array will be written as
actual
X . Because of
the linearity in Maxwell’s equations, it is reasonable to model the coupling as a linear
system. Hence the relationship between the ideal and actual array outputs can be written
as
ideal actual
CX X = , (6.18)
where C is a square matrix known as the mutual coupling matrix. This matrix can be
modeled as [85]
1
) (

+ = I Z C
L L
Z Z , (6.19)



100
where
L
Z is the load impedance in each element. In (6-19), Z is the impedance matrix,
which relates the current into each antenna to the voltage,
V=ZI. (6.20)
If the mutual coupling matrix is known, then the array input can be pre-multiplied
by the inverse of the coupling matrix to obtain the decoupled weights, as in (6.21).
actual
X C X
1 −
= (6.21)
Since the output of the array is given by
actual
H H
y X C w X w
1 −
= = , (6.22)
the optimal weights derived in section 6.3 can be replaced by
opt opt
w C w
1 −
= ′ . (6.23)
The resulting total radiation patterns will then be the same as presented here, to the extent
that the mutual coupling matrix model is correct. Experimental results by Huang et al.
[85] suggest that the model performs fairly well. A circular array of dipoles was
considered in that work, which will necessarily have a strong degree of mutual coupling
because the elements are each in line with the other element’s direction of maximum
radiation. Using (6.23), the compensated radiation patterns for the arrays were compared
to the ideal or non-coupled case and the results were found to be in agreement. Hence, it
is expected that arrays without such a strong degree of coupling (as commonly used in
practice), can also be accurately modeled using (6.18) and (6.19).
6.8. Conclusions

This chapter determined the limits of performance on linear arrays of size N=2-7.
A method of determining globally optimum weights for minimizing sidelobes for a given



101
linear array was presented. The elements were then varied in position until it was certain
that a global optimum was found. Consequently, it is very likely that no other weight
strategy or element placement scheme will lead to sidelobes lower than those presented in
this paper. These results can be used as a benchmark in comparing existing array
performance to determine if it is worth updating the array placement or weighting
strategy.



VII. MINIMIZING SIDELOBES IN PLANAR ARRAYS
7.1. Introduction

The natural next step in studying sidelobe-minimization in antenna arrays is to look
at two-dimensional or planar arrays. In this chapter, many of the ideas from Chapter 6
are extended to two-dimensional arrays, which are mathematically similar but the total
radiation pattern is more complex.
Sidelobe minimization has received renewed interest due to the difficult nature of
the wireless channel. To block interference, it is best to place nulls in the direction of the
interference. However, this often does not work well in practice. For example, the
European standard for 3
rd
generation of mobile communication is known as Wideband
Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). In this scheme, the same frequency
spectrum is shared simultaneously by all users; for an in-depth description, see [86].
Consequently, interference is a major problem. These systems are designed to work with
a large number of users, and since an N-element antenna array can only place N-1 nulls,
an impractically large number of antennas would be needed to null out signals from all
directions not of interest. In addition, due to multipath effects, each signal will be
arriving from several distinct angles, which further reduces the performance of a nulling
based approach. In [87], the performance of arrays with different weighting methods
used in WCDMA systems are compared. It was found that for a large number of
interferers, a low sidelobe method will outperform a nulling method. The low sidelobe
method is also preferred because no processing needs to be performed to determine
direction-of-arrivals for varying signals. Hence, as the capacity requirements of wireless



103
communication systems increase, methods for reducing sidelobe levels will become
increasingly important.
In addition, the WCDMA systems should not be modeled using a single-frequency
or narrowband total radiation pattern. To address this, wideband arrays will be studied in
the latter half of this chapter. The sidelobe-minimizing weighting methods will be
extended to work for wideband arrays. Previous work has been performed in an attempt
to develop wideband sidelobe-minimizing weights. In [88], the author develops a
wideband weighting method that works for 2D rectangular arrays. This method does
incorporate the antenna patterns into determining the weight vector, which increases the
utility of the method. However, the results of that work assume all signals arrive from a
fixed elevation angle, which is a major restriction. In addition, the results are clearly
suboptimal in viewing the resulting sidelobes.
Other wideband weighting methods use antenna coefficients that vary with
frequency in order to improve the radiation pattern over a range of frequencies. This is
done using a tapped delay line filter in [89], and with a recursive filter in [90]. In this
chapter, the weights will continue to be constant (not a function of frequency) so that the
weights derived are easily implemented in a real system.
The chapter is organized as follows. In Section 7.2, the two-dimensional sidelobe
minimization problem is addressed. In Section 7.3, sidelobe-minimizing weights are
developed for two-dimensional arrays of arbitrary elements. In Section 7.4, optimal
arrays and sidelobe levels are obtained for arrays of omnidirectional antennas of size
N=4-7 for two distinct beamwidths. In Section 7.5, optimal arrays and sidelobe levels



104
are obtained for arrays of patch (or microstrip) antennas. A method of determining
weight-minimizing sidelobes over a range of frequencies is developed in Section 7.6.
Optimal arrays and sidelobe levels are obtained for wideband arrays of omnidirectional
antennas in Section 7.7. Finally, in Section 7.8 optimal arrays and sidelobe levels are
obtained for wideband arrays of patch antennas, and conclusions presented in Section 7.9.
7.2. Two-Dimensional Symmetric Arrays
The elements of the array are assumed to lie in the x-y plane, at z=0. The position
of the
th
n element is ) 0 , , (
n n n
y x d = as shown in Figure 27.

Figure 27. Arbitrary planar array.
The output or radiation pattern of an antenna array (or spatial filter) is given by

=
=
+
N
n
e k k f w k k T
n
y
y
k
n
x
x
k j
y x n n y x
1
) , ( ) , , , (
) (
D w (7.1)



105
where
n
w is the weight multiplying the signal of the
th
n element, and ) , (
y x n
k k f is the
antenna gain for the
th
n element in the direction determined by ) , (
y x
k k . It is desired for
the array pattern to have a maximum at the desired direction, denoted ). , (
yd xd
k k
This chapter deals with two-dimensional arrays with symmetry about the origin.
That is, if an element is located at ) 0 , , (
n n n
y x d = and not at the origin, there exists
another element in the array with the same weighting coefficient located at
) 0 , , (
n n n
y x d − − = − . This constraint keeps the array factor real when the weights are
real, allowing efficient computation of the results.
When the antennas in the array are identical (have the same individual radiation
pattern), the radiation pattern for the entire antenna array takes the form given in (7.2) if
there is an element at the origin (odd number of elements). If there is an even number of
elements, the radiation pattern will have the form given in (7.3).

+
=
+ + =
2 / ) 1 (
2
1
) cos( 2 ) , ( ) , ( ) , , (
N
n
n y n x n y x y x y x
y k x k w k k f k k f w k k T D w, (7.2)


=
+ =
2 /
1
) cos( 2 ) , ( ) , , (
N
n
n y n x n y x y x
y k x k w k k f k k T D w, (7.3)
7.3. Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Two-Dimensional Arrays
A method of sidelobe minimization for symmetric linear arrays with real weights
was given as an example in Section 4.2. The results are now extended for two-
dimensional arrays of non-isotropic elements. It will be assumed that the array positions
D are known, the array is to be steered toward 0 =
d
θ or ) 0 , 0 ( ) , ( =
yd xd
k k , and to have a
specified beamwidth for the main beam.



106
The discussion will follow the development in Section 4.2. The transition region is
defined as the region in ) , (
y x
k k space in which the sidelobes are not to be suppressed.
The suppression region Θ is now two-dimensional, and a circular transition region will
be assumed. For a circular transition region, the cutoff region occurs when
c
θ θ ≥ . The
suppression region can be specified as
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
¹
|

\
|
≤ + ≤ = Θ
2
2 2 2
2
: ) , (
λ
π
y x c y x
k k k k k , (7.4)
where a cutoff value ( λ θ π / sin 2
c c
k = ) is specified. The cutoff value dictates how wide
or narrow the array’s mainbeam is to be. The suppression region is illustrated in Figure
28 in ) , (
y x
k k space. The region in the ) , (
y x
k k plane with magnitude less than λ π / 2 is
commonly referred to as the visible region. Values of ) , (
y x
k k outside of this region do
not correspond to any value of ) , ( φ θ at the frequency of interest.



107

Figure 28. Suppression region for two-dimensional arrays.
The suppression region can be sampled at R places as in Section 4.2. Each sample
point is denoted by ) , (
yi xi
k k for R i , 2, , 1 K = . The parameter R is chosen sufficiently
large such that when the resulting radiation pattern is plotted, it is suppressed even
between sample points. The LP problem of (4-20) is rewritten to include the non-
isotropic element pattern in (7.5).
R i t k k T
T t s
t
yi xi
, 2, , 1 , | ) , , ( |
1 ) 0 , 0 , ( . .
min
K = ≤
=
D w,
D w, (7.5)
The constraints in (7.5) are again linear functions of the weights, as seen in (7.2-7.3).
Hence, the constraints in (7.5) can be rewritten as affine inequalities exactly as done in



108
Section 4.2. The result is that the problem of finding the optimal sidelobe-suppressing
weights for two-dimensional array of non-isotropic elements is again a linear program,
and therefore rapidly solvable.
As an example, consider the 7-element hexagonal array of Figure 19, but with a
radius of λ 77 . 0 . A weighting method with a linear phase-taper (from Section 3.2) will
be used for comparison. When the array is steered to broadside, the sidelobe level for the
linear phase-tapered array is -10.9 dB. The beamwidth is ° 30 . Using this beamwidth to
define the suppression region as in Figure 28, the optimal weights can be determined.
The sidelobe level for the array factor with the optimal weights is -13.9 dB. The optimal
array factor is plotted, along with the array factor using the phase-tapered weights, in
Figure 29 (elevation plot for ° = 0 φ ) and Figure 30 (elevation plot for ° = 45 φ ). The
positions and optimal weights are listed in Table XVIII.



109

Figure 29. Array factors for optimal weighted and phase-tapered array ( ° = 0 φ ).




110

Figure 30. Array factors for optimal weighted and phase-tapered array ( ° = 45 φ ).

TABLE XVIII
OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR 7-ELEMENT HEXAGONAL ARRAY
Position Weight
(0, 0) 0.200
± (0.77, 0) 0.133
± (0.385, 0.667) 0.133
± (-0.385, 0.667) 0.133

7.4 Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Scanned Two-Dimensional Arrays
In this section, the procedure of Section 7.3 is extended for two-dimensional arrays
scanned from broadside. It is assumed that the array is scanned towards ) , (
d d
φ θ , so that
the wavevector components in the desired direction are
d d xd
k φ θ
λ
π
cos sin
2
= (7.6)



111

d d yd
k φ θ
λ
π
sin sin
2
= (7.7)
Two beamwidths are specified. The first is the polar (elevation) beamwidth θ ∆ , which
is the beamwidth when the azimuth angle is fixed at
d
φ . The second is the azimuth
beamwidth φ ∆ , which is the beamwidth when the polar (elevation) angle is fixed at
d
θ .
The method of Section 7.3, in which the weights are real, will not produce optimal
weights when the array is to be steered from broadside. As a result, the complex method
of Section 6.3 must be used. Once the suppression region has been specified as in Figure
28, the method can be directly implemented for the two-dimensional case.
An example will now be presented using this method. A 5x5 rectangular array with
uniform spacing of 4 / λ is used. The results are compared to the performance of an
array with a linear phase taper, as discussed in Section 3.2. The array is scanned to
) 0 , 90 ( ) , ( ° ° =
d d
φ θ . The magnitude of the array factor is plotted in Figure 31. The
maximum sidelobe level is -12.04 dB. The beamwidth selected for determining the
optimal weights is identical to the result for the linear phase taper array for comparison.
Hence, ° = ∆ 7 . 68 2 / θ and ° = ∆ 2 . 38 2 / φ .



112

Figure 31. |AF| for phase-tapered weights; (a) elevation plot, (b) azimuth plot.
The following parameters are defined that indicate the boundary of the suppression
region in the ) , (
y x
k k plane:
|
¹
|

\
| ∆
+ =
2
cos sin
2 φ
φ θ
λ
π
φ d d x
k (7.8)
|
¹
|

\
| ∆
+ =
2
sin sin
2 φ
φ θ
λ
π
φ d d y
k (7.9)
d d x
k φ
θ
θ
λ
π
θ
cos
2
sin
2
|
¹
|

\
| ∆
− = (7.10)
d d y
k φ
θ
θ
λ
π
θ
sin
2
sin
2
|
¹
|

\
| ∆
− = (7.11)
Increasing θ for a fixed azimuth angle is equivalent to moving outward in the radial
direction in the ) , (
y x
k k plane. Increasing φ for a fixed elevation angle is equivalent to
moving in a circle (at a fixed distance from the origin) in the ) , (
y x
k k plane.



113
Consequently, the suppression region Θ has the form plotted in Figure 32 for this
example.

Figure 32. Suppression region for an array scanned away from broadside.
Employing the method of Section 6.3 with the suppression region in Figure 32, the
optimal weights can be determined, and they are listed along with their respective
positions in Table XIX. The sidelobe level is reduced to -31.2 dB, showing the
superiority of this method over the linear phase-taper method. The array factor using the
optimal weights is plotted, along with the array factor using the phase-tapered weights, in
Figure 33 for an azimuth scan with a fixed elevation angle ( ° = 90 θ ). The elevation scan
is plotted in Figure 34 with a fixed azimuth angle ( ° = 0 φ ).





114
TABLE XIX
OPTIMAL WEIGHTS WITH ASSOCIATED POSITIONS
Position Weight Position Weight
(-0.5, 0.5) ° ∠246 103 . 0 (0, -0.25) ° ∠288 020 . 0
(-0.5, 0.25) ° ∠31 192 . 0 (0, -0.5) ° ∠355 166 . 0
(-0.5, 0) ° ∠227 227 . 0 (0.25, 0.5) ° ∠235 126 . 0
(-0.5, -0.25) ° ∠22 204 . 0 (0.25, 0.25) ° ∠133 179 . 0
(-0.5, -0.5) ° ∠234 090 . 0 (0.25, 0) ° ∠256 291 . 0
(-0.25, 0.5) ° ∠118 184 . 0 (0.25, -0.25) ° ∠142 211 . 0
(-0.25, 0.25) ° ∠246 182 . 0 (0.25, -0.5) ° ∠244 108 . 0
(-0.25, 0) ° ∠246 182 . 0 (0.5, 0.5) ° ∠126 066 . 0
(-0.25, -0.25) ° ∠221 180 . 0 (0.5, 0.25) ° ∠346 174 . 0
(-0.25, -0.5) ° ∠113 137 . 0 (0.5, 0) ° ∠143 196 . 0
(0, 0.5) ° ∠350 210 . 0 (0.5, -0.25) ° ∠350 185 . 0
(0, 0.25) ° ∠168 067 . 0 (0.5, -0.5) ° ∠137 060 . 0
(0, 0) ° ∠4 418 . 0



Figure 33. Azimuth plot of array factors with optimal and phase-tapered weights.



115


Figure 34. Elevation plot of array factors with optimal and phase-tapered weights.
7.5. Symmetric Arrays of Omnidirectional Elements

In this section, the antennas are omnidirectional, so that
1 ) , ( =
y x
k k f . (7.12)
The array elements are allowed to assume an arbitrary geometry, subject to the arrays
being symmetric, as in (7.2) and (7.3). The goal of this section is to determine the
geometry that, accompanied with the optimum weights of Section 7.2, yield the minimum
sidelobe level. The positions will be varied using the PSO algorithm as in Chapter 6 in
order to determine an optimal geometry for minimum sidelobes. The parameters and
method of implementation used are the same as in Chapter 6.
The algorithm is again run with P particles. The particles move around and interact
via the PSO algorithm. As the element positions are varied, the optimum weights are



116
calculated for each particle (or array) at every iteration. Consequently, the weights and
the array geometry are simultaneously optimized. The number of particles is increased
until successive runs of the algorithm return identical results. Because the algorithm
starts with random and independent particles (or arrays) every time, and because the
algorithm consistently returns identical solutions, it is likely that the results are globally
optimal.
Two cases are considered in this section. In Case 1, the beamwidth will be ° 60 ;
this indicates the sidelobes are to be suppressed when ° ≥ 30 θ . The cutoff value can be
calculated to be

λ
π
λ
π
= ° = ) 30 sin(
2
1 c
k . (7.13)
For Case 2, a smaller beamwidth of ° 30 is considered. The sidelobes will therefore be
suppressed when ° ≥ 15 θ . The cutoff value is then
λ
π
λ
π 518 . 0
) 15 sin(
2
2
= ° =
c
k . (7.14)
For symmetric arrays, there exists no optimal 2 or 3 element symmetric arrays, as
the symmetry forces the arrays to be linear. A linear array cannot suppress sidelobes in
two dimensions because the pattern of a linear array is only a function of one variable.
Results will be presented for arrays of size N=4-7.
The number of particles required for regular convergence is given in Table XX,
along with the average simulation time. The simulations were performed on a 3.0 GHz
processor running MATLAB.




117
TABLE XX
NUMBER OF REQUIRED PARTICLES FOR PSO AND COMPUTATION TIME FOR
N=4-7
N P Time (hours)
4 290 3
5 300 3.5
6 800 7
7 1000 10


The optimal arrays for Case 1 are plotted in Figure 35. For N=4, 5, 7, the optimal
arrays are close to being circular with an increasingly large radius, and a center element if
the array has an odd number of elements. The result for N=6 is distinct, as it takes a
cross shape. The optimal array when N=7 is also a hexagonal array, as discussed in
Section 5.6.
The optimal positions are listed with the sidelobe levels in Table XXI. The
corresponding optimal weights are given in Table XXII. In Figure 36, the magnitude of
the array factor is plotted as a function of the elevation angle θ for several azimuth
angles. The mainbeam is almost identical within the transition region ( ° ≤ 30 θ ) for
distinct azimuth angles. This indicates a circularly symmetric mainbeam, as expected
with a circular suppression region.




118


Figure 35. Optimal symmetric array locations for Case 1 (dimensions in λ ).



TABLE XXI
OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 1 (DIMENSIONS IN λ )

) , (
1 1
y x ) , (
2 2
y x
) , (
3 3
y x
) , (
4 4
y x
SLL (dB)
N=4 (0.45, 0) (0, 0.52) -5.5
N=5 (0, 0) (0.67, 0) (0, 0.67) -6.9
N=6 (0.41, 0) (1.24, 0) (0, 0.67) -7.9
N=7 (0, 0) (0.77, 0) (0.39, 0.67) (-0.39, 0.67) -13.9






119
TABLE XXII
OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1

1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
N=4 0.556 0.444
N=5 0.268 0.183 0.183
N=6 0.442 0.159 0.400
N=7 0.200 0.133 0.133 0.133



Figure 36. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuthal angles (Case 1), N=7.

The optimal arrays for Case 2 are plotted in Figure 37. The positions and sidelobe
levels for this case are presented in Table XXIII. The optimal weights are listed in Table
XXIV. The arrays for this case are similar to the results for Case 1 except they are
spread out farther, which is expected for a narrower mainbeam. The results for N=6
differ significantly between the two cases, indicating that the results can have significant
variance depending on the beamwidth. The results for Case 2 for N=6 and N=7 are
almost identical, the difference being the center element. Note that the addition of this



120
element only lowers the sidelobe level by 0.1 dB. This information would be
advantageous to an array designer in determining the number of elements needed to
achieve a sidelobe level. The extra complexity introduced by adding a seventh element
in this case would not be very beneficial. The magnitude of the array factor at distinct
azimuthal angles is plotted in Figure 38 for the N=7 array. The mainbeam is again
identical when ° ≤ 15 θ for distinct azimuth angles, indicating a circular mainbeam.


Figure 37. Optimal symmetric array locations for Case 2 (dimensions in λ ).



121

TABLE XXIII
OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 2 (DIMENSIONS IN λ )

) , (
1 1
y x ) , (
2 2
y x
) , (
3 3
y x
) , (
4 4
y x
SLL (dB)
N=4 (0.49, 0) (0, 0.70) -1.9
N=5 (0, 0) (0.79, 0) (0, 0.79) -3.2
N=6 (0.92, 0) (0.46, 0.80) (-0.46, 0.80) -5.7
N=7 (0, 0) (0.92, 0) (0.46, 0.80) (-0.46, 0.80) -5.8


TABLE XXIV
OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2

1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
N=4 0.661 0.339
N=5 0.268 0.183 0.183
N=6 0.442 0.159 0.400
N=7 0.200 0.133 0.133 0.133



Figure 38. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuthal angles (Case 2), N=7.






122
7.6. Symmetric Arrays of Patch Antennas

In this section, symmetric arrays of patch antennas steered to 0 =
d
θ are
considered. The method of solution is identical to that in Section 7.3. When a microstrip
or patch antenna has a thin dielectric, the far field components of the electric field are
approximately given by (7.15) and (7.16), when the polar angle 2 / π θ ≤ [91]. For
2 / π θ > , which is the region below the patch, the radiated fields will assumed to be zero.
In (7.9-7.10), k is the free-space wavenumber, W is the width of the patch, and L is the
length of the patch.
φ φ θ
φ θ
φ θ
θ
cos cos sin
2
cos
2
sin sin
2
sin sin
sin
0
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
kL
kW
kW
E E (7.15)
φ θ φ θ
φ θ
φ θ
ϕ
sin cos cos sin
2
cos
2
sin sin
2
sin sin
sin
0
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
kL
kW
kW
E E (7.16)
The normalized pattern to be used for ) , ( φ θ f as in (7.1) will be
2
0
2
0
) , (
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
E
E
E
E
f
φ
θ
φ θ (7.17)
In this section, the patch dimensions are chosen to be W=L=0.5λ . The directivity
for this antenna can be numerically calculated to be 9.34 dB. The patch pattern is plotted
in Figure 39 for two fixed azimuth angles. The pattern here is complicated enough that it
is highly unlikely that an analytical weighting method can be developed that minimizes
the sidelobes in an patch array. However, using the development of Section 7.2, adding



123
the pattern does not significantly increase the difficulty of determining the optimal
weights. Using a realistic, complicated antenna pattern helps to highlight the utility of
the LP method of weight selection.

(a) ° = 0 φ

(b) ° = 90 φ

Figure 39. Magnitude of patch pattern (in dB).

The two cases discussed in Section 7.3 are again considered here. Using the
solution method discussed previously, the optimal arrays for Case 1 (beamwidth equal to
° 60 ) are presented in Figure 40. The optimal arrays of patch antennas are skewed



124
somewhat owing to the non-isotropy of the antenna pattern. The results for N=4, 5 and 7
are fairly similar to the Case 1 results of omnidirectional elements; however they are
slightly rotated and more spread out. The arrays are more spread out (or elongated)
because the array factor effectively has a narrower main-beamwidth (due to the patch
pattern which decreases in magnitude for ° > 0 θ ). The narrower mainbeam leads to
more spread out arrays, as seen in Case 2 of Section 7.3. The result for N=6 is a
significant departure from the omnidirectional case, which indicates that the antenna
pattern must be taken into account in determining an optimal geometry.
The positions and optimal sidelobe levels for Case 1 of patch elements are listed in
Table XXV. The corresponding optimal weights are listed in Table XXVI. The
magnitude of the radiation pattern is plotted in Figure 41 as a function of θ for three
distinct azimuth angles for the N=7 array. The directivity of this array is evaluated
numerically to be 17.67 dB.



125


Figure 40. Optimal symmetric patch array locations for Case 1 (units of λ ).

TABLE XXV
OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 1 OF PATCH ELEMENTS (UNITS OF
λ )

) , (
1 1
y x ) , (
2 2
y x
) , (
3 3
y x
) , (
4 4
y x
SLL (dB)
N=4 (0.46,-0.42) (0.49, 0.42) -12.5
N=5 (0.00, 0.00) (0.61, -0.57) (0.65, .53) -13.1
N=6 (0.34, 0.68) (-0.32, .69) (.54, -.01) -16.6
N=7 (0.00, 0.00) (0.50, 0.74) (0.85, -.04) (.37, -.77) -21.5






126


TABLE XXVI
OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 WITH PATCH ELEMENTS

1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
N=4 0.256 0.244
N=5 0.233 0.193 0.191
N=6 0.133 0.133 0.234
N=7 0.218 0.124 0.132 0.135



Figure 41. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (Case 1), N=7 (patch).

Next, Case 2 (beamwidth equal to ° 30 ) is considered with patch elements. The
optimal arrays are plotted in Figure 42. The arrays for this case are fairly similar to the
results of Case 1, except for again being spread out farther. The result for N=6 is more
symmetric and less football shaped, while the result for N=7 is again a hexagonally
sampled array.



127
The optimal positions along with the sidelobe levels are listed in Table XXVII. The
sidelobe level increased on average by 7.5 dB when compared to Case 1 of Section 7.4.
The optimal weights are given in Table XXVIII. The magnitude of the radiation pattern
is plotted as a function of θ for distinct azimuth angles in Figure 43 for the N=7 array.
The directivity of this array is evaluated numerically to be 17.72 dB.



Figure 42. Optimal symmetric patch array locations for Case 2 (units of λ ).





128



TABLE XXVII
OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 2 OF PATCH ELEMENTS (UNITS OF
λ )

) , (
1 1
y x ) , (
2 2
y x
) , (
3 3
y x
) , (
4 4
y x
SLL (dB)
N=4 (0.64, 0.61) (0.77, -0.61) -5.7
N=5 (0.00, 0.00) (1.27, -0.11) (0.11, 1.12) -7.5
N=6 (1.05, 0.05) (0.58, -0.94) (0.51, 0.99) -9.6
N=7 (0.00, 0.00) (0.60, -1.02) (0.63, 1.01) (1.20, -0.01) -10.7


TABLE XXVIII
OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 WITH PATCH ELEMENTS

1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
N=4 0.272 0.228
N=5 0.194 0.184 0.219
N=6 0.178 0.163 0.159
N=7 0.061 0.163 0.161 0.145



Figure 43. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (Case 2), N=7 (patch).




129
7.7. Wideband Weighting Method
The previous efforts have been focused on optimizing an antenna array for
minimizing sidelobes at a single frequency. In practice, arrays transmit and receive
information over a range of frequencies, generally centered about some carrier frequency.
An array that has low sidelobes at a given frequency is not guaranteed to have low
sidelobes at other frequencies within the band the array is operating in. In this section, a
method of choosing weights that yield the minimum sidelobes over a range of
frequencies is developed.
The minimum sidelobe level in a wideband array is written as
| ) , , , ( |
) , , (
max λ
λ
y x
y x
k k T
k k
SLL d w,
Θ ∈
= , (7.18)
where again Θ is the region in which the sidelobes are to be suppressed. It will be
assumed that the sidelobes are to be suppressed within a continuous frequency range, and
in the region given by
c
θ θ ≥ for all frequencies. This interval will be written as

=
U L
U L
c c
f f
λ λ
, ] , [ , (7.19)
where
U L
f f < .
The weighting method used in Section 7.3 could be extended such that every
constraint is duplicated at every frequency; this was the method proposed in [92].
However, to do so, particularly for 2D arrays or for very wideband arrays, would add an
intractable number of constraints. While this would be technically correct, the
optimization would often be computationally intractable. Hence, a more efficient method
is developed.



130
Defining
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
¹
|

\
|
≤ + ≤
|
|
¹
|

\
|
= Θ
2
2 2
2
2 sin 2
: ) , ( ) (
i
y x
i
c
y x i
k k k k
λ
π
λ
θ π
λ , (7.20)
it follows that
U
i
i
λ
λ ) ( Θ = Θ , (7.21)
where the union is over all wavelengths within [
L U
λ λ , ].
For the wideband case, the total radiation pattern is written as the product of the
element pattern and the array factor,
) , , , ( ) , , ( ) , , , ( λ λ λ
y x y x y x
k k AF k k f k k T d w, d w, = . (7.22)
The two-dimensional array factor is rewritten from (2.21) with the wavevector definitions
in (2.7) as

=
+ −
=
N
n
y k x k j
e w k k AF
n y n x
n y x
1
) (
) , , ( d w, . (7.23)
Equation (7.23) indicates that the array factor does not depend on λ when
x
k and
y
k are
specified.
This is not true for the element pattern, ) , , ( λ
y x
k k f , which in general will not be
independent of λ when
x
k and
y
k are specified. This can be seen from the patch
element pattern of Section 7.3 given in (7.15-7.17), which cannot be written as only a
function of two variables.
Most antennas will exhibit a notable change in radiation pattern over the band of
operation. In this case, the variation of the antenna pattern with frequency should be



131
taken into account. To accomplish this, an auxiliary antenna pattern, ) , (
y x
k k H is
defined as
) , , (
] , [
max ) , ( λ
λ λ λ
y x
L U
y x
k k f k k H

= . (7.24)
This auxiliary antenna pattern is the maximum value of the antenna pattern evaluated at
) , (
y x
k k over the frequency range of interest. Note that the maximum in (7.24) is taken
only over the frequency range for which ) , (
y x
k k is in the visible region. For instance, at
the value ) 0 , / 2 ( ) , (
U y x
k k λ π = , the only frequency that has this value in the visible
region is
U
f f = . For the narrowband or single frequency case, the auxiliary antenna
pattern reduces to the antenna pattern at the frequency of interest.
Using (7.22) and (7.24), it follows that
| ) , , ( | ) , ( | ) , , , ( |
y x y x y x
k k AF k k H k k T d w, d w, ≤ λ . (7.25)
Hence, the total radiation pattern as a function of frequency can be minimized by
minimizing the right hand side of (7.19), which is only a function of
x
k and
y
k . The
minimization is performed over the region specified in (7.21). Letting

L
c
cL
k
λ
θ π sin 2
= , (7.26)
the suppression region for the wideband case can be illustrated graphically, as shown in
Figure 44. The wideband case is equivalent to minimizing the sidelobes in the ) , (
y x
k k
plane beginning at the cutoff value for the lowest frequency ) (
cL
k , and extending the
region to the largest wavenumber in the visible region at the highest frequency ) / 2 (
U
λ π .



132

Figure 44. Suppression region for two-dimensional arrays over a frequency band.
Writing
) , , ( ) , , ( ) , (
y x y x y x
k k G k k AF k k H d w, d w, = , (7.27)
the single-frequency sidelobe minimizing optimization problem of (7.5) is rewritten for
the wideband case in (7.28).
R i t k k G
G t s
t
yi xi
, 2, , 1 , | ) , , ( |
1 ) 0 , 0 , ( . .
min
K = ≤
=
D w,
D w, (7.28)
In (7.22), the R samples are sampled over the suppression region illustrated in Figure 44.
The solution to (7.22) yields weights that produce the minimum sidelobe level over the
frequency band of interest.



133
When the antenna elements do not have significantly different radiation patterns
over the frequency band of interest, the radiation pattern can be approximated,
) , , ( ) , , (
j i
f f λ φ θ λ φ θ ≈ , (7.29)
for all
j i
λ λ , within the frequency band. For this case, determining the wideband weights
is as simple as extending the suppression region as in Figure 37 and using the procedure
of Section 7.2.
7.8. Optimal Wideband Arrays of Omnidirectional Antennas
In this section, the arrays are optimized to determine the minimum sidelobe level
over a range of frequencies. The frequency range will be specified by the fractional
bandwidth (FBW),
2 / ) (
L U
L U
c
L U
c
f f
f f
f
f f
f
f
FBW
+

=

=

= , (7.30)
where
c
f is the center frequency. Fractional bandwidths are considered wideband when
0.2<FBW<0.5, and are considered ultra-wideband when 5 . 0 ≥ FBW [93]. In this
section, an ultra-wideband case is considered in which FBW=0.50. The antenna elements
are omnidirectional and independent of frequency over the frequency range of interest, so
that
1 ) , , ( = λ φ θ f . (7.31)
When the antenna’s radiation pattern is independent of frequency over the bandwidth of
interest, the antennas are referred to as frequency independent. Hence, the optimization
in this section will focus on the array factor, which is equivalent to the total radiation



134
pattern for this case. For comparison with the results of Section 7.4, the beamwidth will
be ° 60 , so that the sidelobes will be suppressed when ° ≥ 30 θ for all frequencies.
The optimization procedures that were applied in the previous sections of this
chapter are again sufficient for the problem at hand. The resulting optimal arrays are
found for N=4-7 and are presented in Figure 45. Note that the results are now given in
units of
c c
f c / = λ . The optimal positions are also tabulated in Table XXIX. The
corresponding optimal weights are listed in Table XXX.


Figure 45. Optimal symmetric array locations for FBW=0.5 (units of
c
λ ).



135

TABLE XXIX
OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL ELEMENTS (UNITS
OF
c
λ , FBW=0.5)

) , (
1 1
y x ) , (
2 2
y x
) , (
3 3
y x
) , (
4 4
y x
SLL (dB)
N=4 (0.51, 0) (0, 0.39) -2.4
N=5 (0.0, 0.0) (0.44, -.44) (0.44, 0.44) -3.9
N=6 (0.65, 0.0) (0.33, 0.56) (-0.33, 0.56) -6.0
N=7 (0.0, 0.0) (0.71, 0) (0.36, .61) (-.36, 0.61) -7.2


TABLE XXX
OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL ELEMENTS (FBW=0.5)

1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
N=4 0.189 0.311
N=5 0.183 0.204 0.204
N=6 0.169 0.169 0.169
N=7 0.043 0.160 0.160 0.160


The results are interesting when compared with the narrowband results of Section
7.4. The SLL increased on average of 3.6 dB when the array is designed to perform in
this ultra-wideband situation. The arrays are slightly less spread out as in the narrowband
case. The result for N=6 is a circular array in the wideband case, whereas it was a cross
shape for the narrowband case. In addition, in extending the array from narrowband to
ultra-wideband, the SLL increased by only 1.9 dB for N=6. This is not a large penalty in
SLL for greatly extending the bandwidth. However, the SLL increase was 6.7 dB for
N=7, which is relatively large.
The total radiation pattern for the optimal array of size N=7 is now presented.
Since it is now a function of frequency, the pattern will be plotted as a function of θ for
distinct azimuth angles at the lower frequency (
L
f , given in Figure 46), the center



136
frequency (
c
f , given in Figure 47), and the upper frequency (
U
f , given in Figure 48).
Note that the beamwidth varies depending on the frequency. However, for all
frequencies in the range of interest, the beamwidth is less than ° 60 and the sidelobes
never rise above the SLL (-7.2 dB) in the suppression region, as desired.


Figure 46. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
L
f f = .




137

Figure 47. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
c
f f = .





138
Figure 48. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
U
f f = .

7.9. Optimal Wideband Arrays of Patch Antennas
In this section, wideband arrays of patch antennas are examined. The bandwidth is
selected to be FBW=0.2, which is much smaller than the ultra-wideband case of Section
7.7 but still wideband enough that the narrowband assumption is not valid. Patch
antennas have radiation patterns that vary significantly with frequency, but can be made
to have a wider bandwidth using various methods including adding slits [94] or adding a
U-slot to the patch [95]. The beamwidth will again be ° 60 for comparison with the
results of Section 7.5.
The normalized field patterns for the patch, given in (7.9-7.11) will now be
rewritten as a function of frequency in (7.32-7.33).
φ φ θ
λ
π
λ
φ θ π
λ
φ θ π
λ
θ
cos cos sin cos
sin sin
sin sin
sin
) (
0
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
L
W
W
E E (7.32)
φ θ φ θ
λ
π
λ
φ θ π
λ
φ θ π
λ
ϕ
sin cos cos sin cos
sin sin
sin sin
sin
) (
0
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
L
W
W
E E (7.33)
The normalized pattern to be used for ) , ( φ θ f as in (7.1) will be
2
0
2
0
) (
) (
) , , (
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
E
E
E
E
f
λ
λ
λ φ θ
φ
θ
. (7.34)
The implicit assumption in (7.32-7.34) is that
0
E is approximately constant over the
frequency range of interest.



139
The PSO algorithm is again applied to determine the optimal positions. The
resulting optimal arrays are found for N=4-7 and are presented in Figure 49. The results
are again given in units of
c c
f c / = λ . The optimal positions are also tabulated in Table
XXXI. The corresponding optimal weights are listed in Table XXXII.


Figure 49. Optimal symmetric patch array locations for FBW=0.2 (units of
C
λ ).
The arrays are similar to the narrowband case of patch elements with the same
bandwidth given in Figure 33. The seven element array is again approximately



140
hexagonal, which has been a recurring theme throughout this work. The arrays for this
case appear to be spread out further than the narrowband case, when measured in units of
the center wavelength.
On average, the SLL increased by 1.9 dB in order to guarantee the sidelobe level
over the frequency range of operation. The N=5 element array exhibited the lowest rise
in sidelobes (only 1.1 dB) by extending the bandwidth of the array. The N=7 element
array exhibited the highest rise in sidelobes (3.0 dB) in order to extend the bandwidth.

TABLE XXXI
OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR PATCH ELMENTS (UNITS OF
c
λ ,
FBW=0.2)

) , (
1 1
y x ) , (
2 2
y x
) , (
3 3
y x
) , (
4 4
y x
SLL (dB)
N=4 (0.53, 0.00) (.01, -0.87) -10.8
N=5 (0.0, 0.0) (0.99, 0.07) (-0.10, 0.84) -12.0
N=6 (0.56, 0.30) (0.50, -0.49) (0.11, 0.90) -14.7
N=7 (0.0, 0.0) (0.45, -0.76) (0.49, 0.75) (0.91, -0.01) -18.5


TABLE XXXII
OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR PATCH ELEMENTS (FBW=0.2)

1
w
2
w
3
w
4
w
N=4 0.320 0.180
N=5 0.268 0.169 0.197
N=6 0.215 0.185 0.100
N=7 0.188 0.142 0.136 0.128

Finally, the total radiation patterns for the optimal N=7 arrays are again plotted at
the lower, center and upper frequencies for fixed elevation angles. The radiation pattern
at the lower frequency (
L
f f = ) is plotted in Figure 50, the center frequency (
c
f f = )
radiation pattern is given in Figure 51, and the upper frequency (
U
f f = ) radiation



141
pattern is plotted in Figure 52. As seen in the ultra-wideband case, the beamwidth again
varies depending on the frequency. However, the variance is less pronounced in this case
because of the lower fractional bandwidth considered.

Figure 50. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
L
f f = .




142

Figure 51. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
c
f f = .





143

Figure 52. Magnitude of ) (θ T at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for
U
f f = .

7.10. Conclusions

The sidelobe minimization technique was extended from 1D to 2D in this chapter.
It was seen that the optimal geometry varies depending on the beamwidth and antenna
elements used in the array.
The arrays were then studied over a wide frequency range. Optimal weights were
derived that minimize the sidelobe level over a range of frequencies. The optimal
geometries and weights were found to vary with the fractional bandwidth used by the
array. Hence, if an array is used over a frequency range, the narrowband optimization
technique will not be optimal.
The PSO method was again effective in optimizing the array geometry. This
optimization technique has proven to work well for a wide variety of problems. In



144
addition, the method lends itself well to be employed using parallel processing, which
can significantly speed up computation time.


VIII. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND FUTURE WORK
8.1. Summary and Conclusions
The primary goal of this dissertation has been to show the effect of an array’s
geometry on metrics of interest. These metrics include sidelobe level, interference-
rejection and SINR. Because of the difficulty in analyzing an array’s geometry, the
geometry is often chosen to be a standard geometry in practice. However, this work has
shown that gain in performance can be achieved via suitable optimization of the array
geometry.
The secondary goal has been to improve upon existing weight-selection strategies
via convex optimization. The relatively new field of convex optimization will likely be a
tremendously effective tool as it makes its way into the antenna field.
In Chapter 5, improving the performance of an adaptive array was considered.
Because of the wide range of environments in which these arrays operate, the concept of
an interference environment was introduced. In this manner, the performance can be
optimized on average over the likely scenarios in which the array is to perform. This was
a necessary development, as optimizing over a specific situation would not have been
extremely useful for an adaptive array. The interference-suppression capability of
adaptive arrays was shown to vary with geometry, and consequently, the optimization of
the geometry was of interest. It was shown that the interference allowed through the
spatial-filter (that is the antenna array) can be lowered by varying the geometry. In
addition, this lowering of interference power was then shown to often translate into gains
in overall SINR, a critical parameter in wireless communication.



146
Sidelobe level was shown to be critical in WCDMA systems in [87]. In Chapter 6,
the process of determining the minimum possible SLL in a linear array was developed.
Sidelobe-minimizing weights were derived that can be efficiently computed for any
linear geometry, beamwidth, scan angle, and antenna type. The Dolph-Chebyshev
sidelobe-minimizing weighting method was derived in 1946 [21] and has been used
extensively since its publication. The derivation of the weights presented in Chapter 6
was a significant expansion of the capabilities of that method. The total radiation pattern
depends on both the weights, positions and elements in the array. Since the optimal
weights can be found for any array geometry and any antenna type, the only variables
remaining were the array positions. The PSO algorithm was employed to determine
optimal positions, that along with the optimal weights, determined the optimal sidelobe
levels for linear arrays of size N=2-7. Results were presented for linear arrays steered to
broadside and ° 45 , and for two different beamwidths. In addition, arrays of
omnidirectional elements and short dipoles were examined to show the effect of the
antenna’s radiation pattern on the optimal geometry, weights and sidelobe level.
In Chapter 7, the optimal sidelobe level for 2D or planar arrays was considered.
The methods for minimizing sidelobes in linear arrays were extended to the planar case.
Optimal symmetric planar arrays of size N=4-7 were found for two beamwidths, and for
arrays with either omnidirectional or patch antenna elements. In addition, a method of
minimizing sidelobes in wideband planar arrays was developed. Sidelobe minimizing
weights were derived that suppress the sidelobes over a range of frequencies, instead of at
a single frequency as is done in the narrowband case. This weighting method is valid for



147
arbitrary bandwidths, beamwidths, antenna types, and planar array geometries. The
positions were optimized simultaneously with the weights to determine optimal sidelobe
levels for wideband arrays. Results were presented for an ultra-wideband case of
omnidirectional elements, and for a wideband case of patch antenna elements.
Throughout this work, the hexagonal array has been a recurring optimal two-
dimensional array. For interference suppression, the optimal 7-element array was a
closely spaced hexagonal array. For sidelobe suppression in the planar case, the
hexagonal array arose as the solution for distinct element types and beamwidths. Hence,
when using an array with a number of elements that fits well with the hexagonal
structure, it is likely that this geometry would be a good starting point.
As the traffic in wireless communication increases, every variable that can be
exploited to improve performance will be optimized. Since the demand for higher data
rates and reliability for a given bandwidth continues to grow exponentially, it is likely
array geometry optimization will be employed in real systems.
8.2. Future Work
There is no shortage of applications in which array geometry optimization would
prove useful. The obvious next steps would be to continue the work of this dissertation
for arrays with a larger number of elements. The minimum sidelobe-producing antenna
arrays for one and two dimensions could be studied for increasing number of elements to
determine the characteristics of the optimal arrays as the number of elements becomes
large. The same extensions could be done to the interference-suppressing adaptive
arrays.



148
Another topic of interest would be to optimize the weights and geometries of
antennas consisting of non-identical elements. Antenna array analysis is almost
exclusively performed with identical elements, and it would be interesting to observe if
gains could be made by exploiting elements with different radiation patterns.
Another interesting practical problem would be to minimize cross-polarization in
antenna arrays while holding a certain criteria constant (SLL, MSE, etc.). This problem
could likely be solved in a similar manner to the solution methods of Chapters 6 and 7.
Implementing precise weights can sometimes be difficult in actual systems. Hence,
deriving an optimization problem that returns weights from a discrete set of allowable
weights would be advantageous. Then optimizing over the positions to determine an
optimal geometry for the discretized weights could be performed.
The geometry-optimization in this work has focused on translating the elements.
For non-omnidirectional elements, the array could be optimized by allowing the elements
to rotate or be put at an angle relative to the other elements. This would add new degrees
of freedom to each element, which could translate to potentially large gains in
performance.
On the theoretical side, optimization methods for proving an array’s geometry is
globally optimal would be of value. This has not been done due to the mathematical
intractability of the problem (many locally optimal points). However, as the field of
optimization expands, it is possible that a clever technique could be developed to verify
that an array is globally optimal.



149
Finally, in digital communications, the bit error rate (BER) for a given data rate is
the definitive measure of performance for a wireless communication system. Hence,
more general modeling methods that ultimately minimize the BER would be valuable.
However, because of the large and complex nature of wireless communication systems,
this would not be an easy task.

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ANTENNA ARRAYS: PERFORMANCE LIMITS AND GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION by Peter Joseph Bevelacqua

has been approved March 2008

Graduate Supervisory Committee: Constantine A. Balanis, Chair Joseph Palais Abbas Abbaspour-Tamijani James Aberle Cihan Tepedelenlioglu

ACCEPTED BY THE GRADUATE COLLEGE

ABSTRACT The radiation pattern of an antenna array depends strongly on the weighting method and the geometry of the array. Selection of the weights has received extensive attention, primarily because the radiation pattern is a linear function of the weights. However, the array geometry has received relatively little attention even though it also strongly influences the radiation pattern. The reason for this is primarily due to the complex way in which the geometry affects the radiation pattern. The main goal of this dissertation is to determine methods of optimizing array geometries in antenna arrays. An adaptive array with the goal of suppressing interference is investigated. It is shown that the interference rejection capabilities of the antenna array depend upon its geometry. The concept of an interference environment is introduced, which enables optimization of an adaptive array based on the expected directions and power of the interference. This enables the optimization to perform superior on average, instead of for specific situations. An optimization problem is derived whose solution yields an optimal array for suppressing interference. Optimal planar arrays are presented for varying number of elements. It is shown that, on average, the optimal arrays increase the signalto-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) when compared to standard arrays. Sidelobe level is an important metric used in antenna arrays, and depends on the weights and positions in the array. A method of determining optimal sidelobeminimizing weights is derived that holds for any linear array geometry, beamwidth, antenna type and scan angle. The positions are then optimized simultaneously with the optimal weights to determine the minimum possible sidelobe level in linear arrays.

iii

Minimizing sidelobes is then considered for 2D arrays.Results are presented for arrays of varying size. weights and sidelobe levels. and for distinct beamwidths and scan angles. This is done for arrays with varying number of elements. bandwidths. and different antenna elements. iv . The positions are again simultaneously optimized with the weights to determine optimal arrays. with different antenna elements. A method of determining optimal weights in symmetric 2D arrays is derived for narrowband and wideband cases. beamwidths.

Bo Yang. Dr. Dr. Many other people have in some way contributed to my education. Dr. v . Shira Broschat and Dr. Andreas Spanias for helping with my qualifying exam and in understanding Fourier Transforms. personal. without this the work would not have been completed due to my youthful impatience and wavering trajectory. Cihan Tepedelenlioglu for taking the time to be on my research committee and for helpful suggestions along the way. which ultimately led to the work presented here. Abbaspour-Tamijani. Thanks also to Dr. Joseph Palais. My thanks go to my colleagues at ASU. James Aberle and Dr. This work is the culmination of approximately 10 years of college education. The presence of these people increased the quality of my research and life in various ways during my time at ASU. Lee Boyce from Stanford. specifically during my qualifying and comprehensive examinations. I am indebted to many people for academic. Dr. John Schneider from Washington State. His guidance and helpfulness were paramount in producing successful research. Victor Kononov. Constantine Balanis. but they are too numerous to list here. and my parents. and Aron Cummings.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work would not have been possible without my adviser. Dr. Of these. I would like to thank Dr. Balanis let me into his research group and gave me funding to research array geometry. including Zhiyong Huang. and financial assistance along the way. I would like to thank Dr. Gang Qian and Dr.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Dolph-Chebyshev Method. . . 4 II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. . . FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ANTENNA ARRAYS. . . . . . . 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3. . . . . . 34 IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The LMS Algorithm. . . . .ix LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Wireless Communication. . .5 Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) Weighting . . . . . . . .2 Antenna Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Schelkunoff Polynomial Method . . . . METHODS OF ANTENNA ARRAY GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Spatial Processing Using Antenna Arrays. . . . . 27 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2. . . . 11 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Phase-Tapered Weights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Literature Survey. . . . . . . . . xii CHAPTER I. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Antenna Arrays. . . . . . .1 Overview. . . . . . . . 24 3. . . . . . . . . 24 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . 24 3. . . . . . . . . . .6 Aliasing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. . . . WEIGHTING METHODS IN ANTENNA ARRAYS . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 6. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Array of Dipoles Scanned to Broadside. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARRAY GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION FOR INTERFERENCE SUPPRESSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER Page 4. . . . . . . .3 Convex Optimization. . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . 38 4. . . .7 Mutual Coupling. . . . . . . . . . . 99 vii . . . . . . . . .5 Using Simulated Annealing to Find an Optimal Array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Broadside Linear Array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 5. 65 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Problem Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Interference Environment. . . .6 Evaluating the Performance of Optimal Arrays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 5. . . . . . . . .5 Array Scanned to 45 Degrees . . . . .3 Determination of Optimum Weights for an Arbitrary Linear Array. . . . . . . . 72 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . MINIMUM SIDELOBE LEVELS FOR LINEAR ARRAYS. . . . .4 Simulated Annealing. . . . . . . . . . . 92 6. . .4 Planar Array with Uniform Interference at Constant Elevation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . 68 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 6. . . . . . . . . 78 6. 40 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) . . . 78 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Linear Programming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 VI. . . . . . . . 52 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Optimization for Interference Suppression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 6. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summary and Conclusions. 102 7. . . . . . . 146 8. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Optimal Wideband Arrays of Patch Antennas. . . . AND FUTURE WORK. . . . . . 151 viii . . . . . . . 144 VIII. . . . . . . . . . . . .122 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 7. . . . .2 Future Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Wideband Weighting Method. . . . . . . 146 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Symmetric Arrays of Patch Antennas. . . . . . . . 148 REFERENCES. . . . . . .8 Optimal Wideband Arrays of Omnidirectional Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONLUSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . 138 7. . . .2 Two-Dimensional Symmetric Arrays. . . . . . . . . SUMMARY. MINIMIZING SIDELOBES IN PLANAR ARRAYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7. . 115 7.5 Symmetric Arrays of Omnidirectional Elements. . . .3 Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Two-Dimensional Arrays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER Page 6. . . . . . . . 100 VII. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Scanned Two-Dimensional Arrays. . . . . . .8 Conclusions . . 104 7. . . . . . . . . . . .10 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 XI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. . . . . . . . . . θ d = 90° ). . . θ d = 45° ). . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES Table I. . . . OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 (BW= 30°. . . . . . . . . 96 ix . . . . . . θ d = 45° ). . . . . . . OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 (BW= 30°. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 (BW= 60°. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 NUMBER OF PARTICLES REQUIRED FOR CONVERGENCE FOR VARYING ARRAY SIZE WITH SIMULATION TIME. . . . . . . . . XIV. . . . . IV. . . . . . . . . . . . 76 RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. . . . . . . . . 89 VII. . . . θ d = 45° ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 2 (BW= 30°. . 88 VI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 (BW= 60°. . . . . . θ d = 90° ). θ d = 45° ). V. . . . . θ d = 90° ). . 90 IX. . . . . . . . . . . 73 RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 1. VIII. . . . θ d = 90° ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 (BW= 60°. . . . . . 93 XIII. . X. . . . . . . . . . Page OUTPUT POWER COMPARISON AMONG DIFFERENT ARRAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . θ d = 90° ). XII. . . . OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 (BW= 60°. . . . . . . 93 OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 2 (BW= 30°. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 3. . . . . . . 94 OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 WITH DIPOLES (BW= 60°. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 128 x . . . . . . . . . . 114 NUMBER OF REQUIRED PARTICLES FOR PSO AND COMPUTATION TIME FOR N=4-7. . . . . . . . . . . . XXV. . . XX. .Table XV. . XIX. . . OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 . 121 XXIV. . 119 OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 2 (DIMENSIONS IN λ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) AND SLL FOR CASE 2 WITH DIPOLES (BW= 30°. OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 WITH PATCH ELEMENTS . . . OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 WITH DIPOLES Page (BW= 60°. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR 7-ELEMENT HEXAGONAL ARRAY. . . . . .126 XXVII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 WITH DIPOLES (BW= 30°. . OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 2 OF PATCH ELEMENTS (UNITS OF λ ). . . . . . . . 122 OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 1 OF PATCH ELEMENTS (UNITS OF λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . θ d = 90° ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \ XVIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . θ d = 90° ). . . . . . . . . .110 OPTIMAL WEIGHTS WITH ASSOCIATED POSITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 XXII. . . . . . . 125 XXVI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 XVII. . . . . 96 XVI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 XXI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 1 (DIMENSIONS IN λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . θ d = 90° ) .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2). . . .141 XXXII. . . . . 128 XXIX. . . . . . . OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR PATCH ELEMENTS (UNITS OF λ c . . . . . . . . . FBW=0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR PATCH ELEMENTS (FBW=0. . . . . . . OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 WITH PATCH ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . .Table Page XXVIII. . . . . . 141 xi .2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 XXXI. . . . . . . .5). . . . .5). . 135 XXX. . FBW=0. . . . . . . . OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL ELEMENTS (FBW=0. . . . OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL ELEMENTS (UNITS OF λc . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . Array factor for optimal weights found via linear programming. . . . . . . . . 14 Spatial processing of antenna array signals. . . . 19 Magnitude of the array factor (dB) for 2-d array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Array pattern with weights from Schelkunoff method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . Optimum N=5 element array (measured in units of λ ). . Optimum N=7 element array (measured in units of λ ). . . . . . . . 70 17. 29 Array factor magnitudes for MMSE weights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . along with the optimal MSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . 44 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 50 15. . . . . Optimum N=6 element array (measured in units of λ ). . . . 74 20. . . . . . . . .49 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of convex sets. . . . . . 80 21. .LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Dolph-Chebyshev array for N=6 with sidelobes at -30 dB. . . . . . . . . Illustration of a convex function. 10 Arbitrary antenna array geometry. . . . . . . . . 72 19. . . . . . . . 37 11. . . . . 4. Optimum N=4 element array (measured in units of λ ). . . . . 71 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 xii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of non-convex sets. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Magnitude of array factor for N=5 elements. . . . . . . . . . . . 34 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSE at each iteration. 21 Array factor of steered linear array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Symmetric linear array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . Page Elevation (a) and azimuthal (b) patterns for a short dipole. . . . . . . . Basic setup of a linear N-element array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 98 26. . . (b) azimuth plot. . (a) elevation plot. . . . . . . . . . . . .115 35. . . . . . . N=7.Figure Page 22. . . . . . . Suppression region for an array scanned away from broadside. . . . . Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=7) . . . . . . . . 110 31. . 119 37. . Magnitude of the total radiation pattern for optimal arrays of dipoles (N=6). 113 33. . . . . . . 121 39. . . . . . . |AF| for phase-tapered weights. . . . 98 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Array factors for optimal weighted and phase-tapered array ( φ = 45° ). . . . . . N=7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimal symmetric patch array locations for Case 1 (units of λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnitude of patch pattern (in dB) . . .95 25. . . . . . . . 121 38. . 123 40. . . . Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=6) . . 109 30. . . 125 xiii . Suppression region for two-dimensional arrays. 118 36. . . . . . . . Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=7) . . . . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuthal angles (Case 2). Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuthal angles (Case 1). Optimal symmetric array locations for Case 2 (dimensions in λ ). .95 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Azimuth plot of array factors with optimal and phase-tapered weights. 114 34. . . . Optimal symmetric array locations for Case 1 (dimensions in λ ). . . . . . . . . . . . Elevation plot of array factors with optimal and phase-tapered weights. . . . . . . . . . 112 32. . . . . 104 28. . . . . . . Array factors for optimal weighted and phase-tapered array ( φ = 0° ). . . 107 29. . . . . . Magnitude of the total radiation pattern for optimal arrays of dipoles (N=7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arbitrary planar array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = f c . . . . . 134 46. . . . . . . . . 138 49. . . . .2 (units of λc ). 132 45. Optimal symmetric array locations for FBW=0. 126 42. 144 xiv . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = f L . 140 50. Optimal symmetric patch array locations for Case 2 (units of λ ). . . . . . . . . . . Optimal symmetric patch array locations for FBW=0. . . . . . .136 47. . . . 143 52. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 48. . . . N=7 (patch). . 128 44. . .41. . . . . . . . .142 51. . . . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = f L . . N=7 (patch). . . . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = fU . . . . . . . 127 Figure Page 43. . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (Case 2). . . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (Case 1). . . . . .5 (units of λc ). . . . . . Suppression region for two-dimensional arrays over a frequency band. . . . . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = f c . . . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = fU .

This development was significant in wireless communications as it improved the reception and transmission patterns of antennas used in these systems. 1901. The concept of an antenna array was first introduced in military applications in the 1940s [2]. Development in the fields of electronics.I. Overview On December 12. This communication system. information theory. the desire for improved wireless communication systems has not been quenched. However. Guglielmo Marconi successfully received the first transatlantic radio message [1]. signal processing. Consequently. This event was arguably the most significant achievements in early radio communication. despite the tremendous advances since the days of Marconi in each of these fields. while technically functional. The message was the Morse-code for the letter ‘S’ – three short clicks.1. with no letup in progress likely in the foreseeable future. INTRODUCTION 1. clearly had significant room for improvement. arrays could be used to receive energy (or information) from a particular direction while rejecting information or nulling out the energy in unwanted directions. As the field of signal processing developed. A century of improvement in the field of wireless communication has occurred. The array also enabled the antenna system to be electronically steered – to receive or transmit information primarily from a particular direction without mechanically moving the structure. The envelope has been pushed in every imaginable direction. arrays could be used to mitigate . and antenna theory have all contributed to the ubiquity of wireless communication systems today.

2 intentional interference (jamming) or unintentional interference (radiation from other sources not meant for the system in question) directed toward the communication system. The primary goal of this dissertation is to study the influence of array geometry on wireless system performance. The reason for this lies in the mathematical complexity of dealing with the optimization of the element positions for various situations. This again significantly contributed to the capacity available in wireless communication systems. understanding the influence of the element weighting (which is a major component of the signal processing involved in antenna arrays) is significantly simpler than understanding the effect of varying the positions of the elements. These arrays adapted their radiation or reception pattern based on the environment they were operating in. Further development in signal processing led to the concept of adaptive antenna arrays. While there has been a large amount of work on the signal processing aspects (and in conjunction. the electronics used to implement the algorithms). . optimization of the element positions in an antenna array (for various situations) is now tractable. Array geometry optimization can therefore be hoped to contribute to the continuing advancement of wireless communication system performance. the physical geometry (or location of the antenna elements in the array) has received relatively little attention. As shown in Chapter 2. It will be shown that performance gains can be obtained via intelligent selection of the array geometry. Thanks to the tremendous advances in numerical computing.

An optimization problem is derived whose solution yields an optimal array for a given interference environment. Chapters 5-7 represent the author’s original research for this dissertation. Chapters 2-4 are primarily a collection of other’s work. Chapter 7 deals with the determination of minimum sidelobe levels in planar or two-dimensional arrays. Chapter 4 discusses methods of choosing the weighting vector applied in the antenna array. This method of weight selection. Solutions of this optimization problem (that is. yield a lower bound on sidelobe levels in linear antenna arrays. The minimum sidelobe levels of arrays with an optimized geometry are compared to those with a standard (or non-optimized) geometry. scan angle. Chapter 6 deals with the minimum possible sidelobe level for a linear antenna array with a fixed number of elements. namely interference suppression in an adaptive array. The method of weight selection is extended from the linear to the planar case along with the geometrical optimization routine. coupled with a geometrical optimization routine. A method of determining the optimal sidelobeminimizing weight vector is determined that holds for an arbitrary antenna type. array geometries) are presented for a specific situation and the gains in performance are illustrated. The methods are employed on arrays of varying size and beamwidths. and with different types of antenna elements. Chapter 3 discusses various optimization methods used in this work. and beamwidth.3 This dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter 5 deals with a specific problem in a wireless communication system. Chapter 2 introduces the main ideas and terminology used in understanding antenna arrays. Two-dimensional arrays . as defined in that chapter.

future problems of interest are discussed. Harrington [5] considered small element perturbations in an attempt to synthesize a desired array pattern. The remainder of this chapter presents a literature survey of previous research on array geometry optimization. Finally. the problem was tackled in a statistical fashion to avoid the excessive amount of computation time required to determine an optimal thinned array [7]. . King [4] proposed eliminating grating lobes via element placement in an array. In 1961. The concept of ‘thinned arrays’ was introduced in the early 1960s as well. For large arrays. 1. Unz [3] studied linear arrays in 1960 and noted that performance improvement could be obtained by holding the weights constant and varying the element positions. periodically spaced antenna arrays. and made up of different antenna types. Chapter 8 summarizes the important results and presents conclusions based on the solutions. removing some of the elements did not noticeably degrade the array’s performance. In 1960.2. Literature Survey The first articles on improving array performance via geometry optimization dates back to the early 1960s.4 are optimized of varying sizes and beamwidths. [6] and was first studied deterministically – attempting to systematically determine the minimum number of elements required to achieve a desired performance metric. This method of altering an array’s geometry was introduced by Skolnik et al. Optimal geometries are then presented for the wideband case for arrays made up of both omnidirectional and patch antenna elements. The narrowband assumption is then discarded and optimal weights are derived for the wideband situation. It was noted that in large.

5 Stutzman [8] introduced a simple method of designing nonuniformly spaced linear arrays that is based on Gaussian-quadrature that involves fairly simple calculations. Antenna arrays are also used for diversity reception. [9] shows that for linear aperiodic arrays. Gavish and Weiss [10] compared array geometries based on how distinct the steering vectors are for distinct signal directions. some of the elements will lie in the region where the ideal source has a small excitation. they proposed that larger distinctions lead to less ambiguity in direction finding. This method requires a specified array pattern and set of weights. Pillai et al. In [15] the weights are optimized and then linear array scaled to find an optimal geometry. he showed that by appropriate scaling of the element spacings. and thus can be omitted from the array (another method of array thinning). this method was also extended to circular and spherical arrays [14]. it then attempts to determine an array geometry that closely approximates the desired array pattern. A textbook proof analyzing uniformly distributed multipath components suggest arrays will exhibit good diversity characteristics if the antennas are separated by at least 0. An analytical method of choosing a linear array geometry for a given set of weights is presented in [13]. In addition.4 λ [12]. The method does not guarantee a global optimum for the element positions. Ang et al. A . [11] also evaluated the direction-finding performance of arrays by varying the elements’ positions based on a genetic algorithm. Array geometry plays a critical roll in the direction-finding capabilities of antenna arrays. or comparing signal power at spatially distinct locations and processing the signals based on their relative strength. there exists an array that has superior spatial-spectrum estimation ability.

the minimum possible sidelobe level for a specified null-to-null beamwidth). However. because Dolph uses Chebyshev polynomials to obtain the excitation coefficients. Khodier and Christodoulou [17] used the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method to determine optimal sidelobe-minimizing positions for linear arrays assuming the weights were constant. In addition to geometry considerations. This method is known as the Dolph-Chebyshev method. the problem of determining the optimal weights was solved by Dolph and published in 1946 [21]. [19] used a genetic algorithm to reduce sidelobes via element position perturbations. For linear. In [18]. This method has an implicit maximum array spacing for a given beamwidth [22]. Riblet [23] showed that for arrays with interelement spacing less than λ / 2 . the minimum possible sidelobe level for an array is of interest. Tennant et al. such as Genetic Algorithms (GA). there exists a set of weights that give a smaller nullto-null main beam than Dolph’s method. the authors demonstrate sidelobe minimization by choosing a geometry based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) method. array geometry optimization has been under investigation recently using biologically inspired algorithms. equally spaced arrays. PSO methods were used for planar array synthesis in minimizing sidelobes. along with null-placement. The Dolph-Chebyshev method produces . The method returns the minimum possible null-to-null beamwidth for a specified sidelobe level (or equivalently.6 method of perturbing element positions to place nulls in desired directions is described in [16]. In [20]. Riblet only derives the results for arrays with an odd number of elements. Due to the large increase in the computational capability of computers.

The array geometry is shown to have a significant impact on the MIMO channel properties. DuHamel extended the work of Dolph to endfire linear arrays with an odd number of elements [25]. the authors attempt to simultaneously optimize the weights and the positions of a 25-element linear array using a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm. the problem was not solved for the general case [26]. They make no claim that their results are optimal. the impact of geometry on performance was studied by considering standard arrays such as the uniform linear array. Adaptive antenna arrays began with the work of Bernard Widrow in the 1960s [29]. A more generalized version of Dolph’s algorithm (called an equiripple filter) is also frequently used in the design of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters in the field of signal processing [24]. In [28].7 sidelobes that have equal amplitudes. but do show the sidelobes lowered via the optimization method. The effect of array orientation on MIMO wireless channels was investigated in [32]. The effect of array geometry on wireless systems in urban environments using Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) channels has been studied [31]. beamwidth and antenna pattern is derived in Chapter 6. Optimizing an adaptive antenna array’s geometry was performed in [30] with regards to suppressing interference. The general case of nonuniform arrays with arbitrary scan angle. The optimum sidelobeminimizing weights for broadside. In 1953. non-uniformly spaced symmetric linear arrays with real weights can now be found using linear programming [27]. this work is the subject of Chapter 5. including the channel capacity. Dolph’s work was also considered for the case of non-isotropic sensors. Because of the difficulty in examining array geometry and determining an optimal array. .

Antenna Characteristics Throughout this dissertation. along with noise and interfering signals. measured off the z-axis) and φ (azimuth angle ranging from 0 to 2π . Arrays can have several thousand elements. array performance improves with added elements. There may be one signal of interest or several. y. as in the AN/FPS-85 Phased Array Radar Facility operated by U.1. which is common for the receiving arrays on cell phone towers. an array of antennas does a superior job of receiving signals when compared with a single antenna. leading to their widespread use in wireless applications. Introduction An antenna array is a set of N spatially separated antennas. The radiation pattern is also a function of frequency. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ANTENNA ARRAYS 2. Arrays in practice can have as few as N=2 elements. In general. By reciprocity. The methods by which an antenna array can process signals in this manner are discussed following an elementary discussion of antennas. 2. S. The array has the ability to filter the electromagnetic environment it is operating in based on the spatial variation of the signals present. measured off the x-axis).II. a Cartesian coordinate system with axis labels x. A physical antenna has a radiation pattern that varies with direction. Air Force [33]. The coordinates are illustrated in Figure 1. . Put simply. the radiation pattern is the same as the antenna’s reception pattern [34]. and z will be used along with spherical coordinates θ (polar angle ranging from 0 to π .2. therefore arrays in practice usually have more elements. so the two can be discussed interchangeably.

This function. φ ) = sin θ 2R (2. are commonly called the reactive near-field region.4) . θ . describes the angular variation in the reception pattern of the antenna.3) where j = − 1 .1) (2. φ ) . in order of increasing distance from the antenna. For a modern cellular phone operating at 1. (2. θ . The radiated far-zone field of an antenna will be described by the function F ( R. η0 is the impedance of free space. For the short dipole. the far-field region occurs when the following two conditions are met: R> 2D 2 λ (2. In practice. φ ) = sin θ .9 GHz with an antenna length of roughly D=4 cm. antennas communicate in the far-field region. For an antenna of maximum length D.2) R >> λ . except where noted. φ ) .9 however. it will be assumed a single frequency is of interest (described by the corresponding wavelength λ ). the radiating near-field (Fresnel) region and the far-field (Fraunhofer) region [22]. both inequalities are achieved for R>2 meters. For example. the normalized field pattern is expressed as f (θ . The radiation pattern takes different shapes depending on how far the observation is from the antenna – these regions. The normalized field pattern will be of frequent interest in this work. the far-zone field radiated by a short dipole of length L with uniform current I is given by [33]: jILη 0 e − jkR F ( R. and this is assumed throughout. and k = 2π / λ is the wavenumber. denoted by f (θ .

sin θ dθ dφ (2. φ )] 2 0 0 The directivity of the short dipole discussed previously is 1. due to symmetry the elevation pattern will not change. Directivity. Directivity (or maximum directivity) is an important antenna parameter that describes how much more directional an antenna is from a reference source. An antenna with a directivity of 1 (or 0 dB) would be an isotropic source.5 (1. .76 dB). (a) Elevation Pattern (b) Azimuthal Pattern Figure 1. can be calculated from D= 4π 2π π . the more pointed or directional the antenna pattern will be. all actual antennas exhibit a directivity higher than this. D. usually an isotropic radiator.10 This field pattern is plotted in Figure 1. The higher the directivity. (a) Elevation and (b) azimuthal patterns for a short dipole.5) ∫ ∫ [ f (θ . The horizontal axis in Figure 1(a) can be the xor y-axis.

If an antenna is attempting to receive a signal from an electromagnetic wave. part or all of the energy will not be detected by the antenna [22]. the amplitudes and phases now take on a discrete set of values. m(t) had the information coded directly into the amplitude or frequency of the signal (as in AM or FM radio). The polarization of the radiated field is the figure traced out by the electric field at a fixed location in space as a function of time. Information today is primarily encoded into digital form. they are also used for detection [37].11 Antennas are further described by their polarization. The polarization of the short dipole is linear. it must be matched to the polarization of the incoming wave. and m(t) is a train of a discrete set of symbols representing 1s and 0s. If the wave is not matched to the antenna. In the most basic form of digital .3. Wireless Communication The primary purpose of antenna systems is for communication. unless otherwise noted. In the earlier days of radio. meaning almost all the energy has frequency content below B Hz. The message m(t) will be assumed to be band-limited to B Hz. 2. The information is still encoded into the amplitude and phase of these symbols. 3536]. Further information on antennas can be found in several popular textbooks [22. however. however. In this dissertation. it will be assumed that the antennas are properly matched in polarization to the desired waves. The polarization of an antenna is the same as the polarization of its radiated fields. elliptical and circular polarization. Common polarizations are linear. The information to be transmitted or received will be represented by m(t). The preceding discussion will be sufficient for the purposes in this work.

12 communication, binary phase shift keying (BPSK), m(t) is either +1 or -1 (representing a 1 or a 0), so that the information is encoded into the phase. Note that m(t) can be complex, where the real part represents the in-phase component of the signal and the imaginary part corresponds to the quadrature component [38]. Digital communication is used because of its high data rate, lower probability of error than in analog communication (along with error-correcting codes), high spectral efficiency and high power efficiency [12]. The message m(t) is then modulated up to the frequency used by the antenna system. The transmitted signal s(t) is given by s(t ) = m(t )e j 2πf c t (2.6)

where f c is the carrier (or center) frequency used by the antenna system. Note that in general B << f c . Typically, the energy then lies within the frequency spectrum in a very narrow band around f c , so that the transmitted signal is assumed to be a monochromatic plane wave. If the signal is sufficiently broadband that the narrowband assumption cannot be applied, the signal can be processed by filtering it into distinct narrow bands and processing each separately. In the far field the narrowband signal will have the characteristics of a monochromatic plane wave. Assume that the wave is traveling in the direction defined by (θ , φ ) relative to a reference point (for instance, a receiving antenna). The wavevector
k is defined to represent the magnitude of the phase changes along the x-, y-, and z-

directions:

13

k = (k x , k y , k z ) =

λ

(sin θ cos φ , sin θ sin φ , cos θ ) .

(2.7)

The spatial variation of the signal can then be written as S ( x, y, z, t ) = s (t )e − j ( k x x+ k y y + k z z ) . (2.8)

Defining the position vector as R=(x,y,z), (2.8) can be written more compactly as

S (R, t ) = s(t )e

− jk⋅R

.

(2.9)

Digital signal processors operating on a single antenna can only process signals based on their time variation. Space-time filters process signals based on their spatial and temporal variation [39]. In order to do spatial filtering, an array of sensors is required. 2.4. Antenna Arrays The basic setup of an arbitrary antenna array is shown in Figure 2. The location of the n th antenna element is described by the vector d n , where

d n = [x n y n z n ] .

(2.10)

The set of locations of an N-element antenna array will be described by the N-by-3 matrix D, where
d1  d  D =  2 . M    d N 

(2.11)

When the array is linear (for example, all elements placed along the z-axis), the matrix D can be reduced to a vector.

14

Figure 2. Arbitrary antenna array geometry. Let the output from the n th antenna at a specific time be X n . Then the output from antenna n is weighted (by wn ), and summed together to produce the antenna array output,

Y, as shown in Figure 3. See chapter 3 for a discussion of weighting methods. The array
output can be written as

Y=

∑w
n =1

N

n

Xn .

(2.12)

Defining

X1  X  X= 2   M    X N 
and

(2.13)

12) can be rewritten in compact form as Y = WT X .14) (2.  M     wN  then (2. (2. Spatial processing of antenna array signals. . Figure 3.15) where T represents the transpose operator.15  w1  w  W =  2 .

2.18) n =1 i =1 For one-dimensional arrays with elements along the z-axis (linear array). i = 1.5. N ).16 2. 2. Hence.9) is incident upon an N-element antenna array.16) reduces to  N − jk⋅dn  . Then the output is y (t ) = ∑ ∑ s (t ) f i N G n (k i ) wn e − jk i ⋅dn . Let the normalized field pattern for each antenna be described as a function of the wavevector (k) and be represented by f(k). the AF reduces to (2. This factoring is commonly called pattern multiplication. (2. Spatial Processing Using Antenna Arrays Suppose the transmitted signal given by (2. K. The array output is then y (t ) = ∑ w s(t )e n N − jk⋅dn f (k ) . A very general form for the output of an array is when there are G incident signals (with wavevectors k i . d n = (0. (2. and it is valid for arrays with identical elements oriented in the same direction. the output is proportional to the transmitted signal. Using (2. i = 1. y (t ) = s(t ) f (k ) ∑ wn e   n =1  (2. 0. (2.19) .7).17) The quantity in parenthesis is referred to as the array factor (AF). z n ) .16) n =1 If the elements are identical.KG ) incident on N antennas with distinct patterns (given by f i (k ). multiplied by the element factor and the array factor.

the array can filter signals based on their polar angle θ but cannot distinguish arriving signals based on the azimuth angle φ . An N-element array will be analyzed.21) can be written as − jNπ cosθ jπ cosθ  1 − e  AF = e  − jπ cosθ  1− e  .17 N −j 2π zn cosθ AF = ∑w e n λ . For simplicity let wn = 1 for all n. (2. n =0 N −1 n (2. The effect of the array on the received signal as a function of the angle of arrival is now illustrated by examining the array factor. nλ / 2) . the array factor becomes [22] N −j 2π ( xn sinθ cosφ + yn sinθ sinφ ) .21) AF = ∑ wn e n=1 λ The array factor is a function of both spherical angles and can therefore filter signals based on their azimuth and elevation angles.23) it follows that (2. For two-dimensional arrays with elements on the x-y plane.20) n =1 The one-dimensional array factor is only a function of the polar angle.24) . (2. (2. 0.19) reduces to AF = ∑e n =1 N − jnπ cosθ .22) Using the identity 1− cN ∑c = 1− c .   (2. Hence. Then (2. and let d n = (0.

Manipulation of the weights will allow the array factor to be tailored to a desired pattern. . hence. normalized so that the peak of the array factor is unity or 0 dB. the response of the array factor is strongly influenced by the specific geometry (D) used. the above equation simplifies to  − j Nπ cosθ  2 jπ cosθ  e AF = e  π  − j cosθ  e 2    Nπ cos θ   sin     2 .   sin  π cos θ      2   (2. In addition. optimizing array geometry is highly non-linear and exponentially more difficult. The magnitude of the array factor shows that the array will receive (or transmit) the maximum energy when θ = 90 ° . The array factor is a much more complicated function of the element positions.25) The magnitude of the array factor is plotted in Figure 4 for an array with N=5 elements.18 After factoring. as they array factor is a linear function of the weights. Selection of the weights is a simpler problem. which is the subject of Chapter 3.

In addition. The weights will again be uniform. The beamwidth is commonly specified as null-to-null or half-power beamwidth. The null-to-null beamwidth is the distance in degrees between the first nulls around the mainbeam. important parameters of array factors include beamwidth and sidelobe level. the array factor for a 3x3 rectangular array is examined.19 Figure 4. Magnitude of array factor for N=5 elements.e. The sidelobe level is commonly specified as the peak value of the array factor outside of the mainbeam. wn = 1 for all n. Directivity can be calculated for an array factor in the same manner as that of an antenna. As an example. The positions for the N=9 element . The half-power beamwidth is the distance in degrees between the half-power points (or 3 dB down on the array factor) around the mainbeam. i.

b=0. (2.    (2. (2.30) The magnitude of the array factor is plotted in Figure 5. From (2.   (2. the following variables will be introduced: u= kxλ = sin θ cos φ 2π kyλ 2π = sin θ sin φ .21). (2.54 dB down from the main lobe (which is normalized to 0 dB in the figure).27)  e − j 3π sinθ cosφ / 2  e − j 3π sinθ sinφ / 2   ∗ AF =   − jπ sinθ cosφ / 2  − jπ sinθ sin φ / 2  e  e   sin (3π sin θ cos φ / 2 )  sin (3π sin θ sin φ / 2)      sin(π sin θ cos φ / 2)  sin(π sin θ sin φ / 2)  .23) twice. . 0) for a.26) reduces to  1 − e − j 3π sinθ cosφ AF =   − jπ sinθ cosφ  1− e By factoring.27) can be written as  1 − e − j 3π sinθ sinφ   − jπ sinθ sinφ  1 − e  .20 array will be d ab = (aλ / 2. the array factor becomes AF = b=0 a =0 ∑ ∑e 2 2 − jπ sinθ (a cosφ +b sin φ ) . The sidelobes are 9.2. bλ / 2.29) v= (2. (2.1.26) Applying the sum formula (2.28) For ease in plotting.

as in the one null one-dimensional case. Commonly.6. The sidelobe level is again the maximum value of the array factor outside of the main beam. 2-D Beamwidths are more difficult to specify when the array factor is two dimensional dimensional. beamwidths are specified in certain planes (for instance. .21 Figure 5. Magnitude of the array factor (dB) for 2 D array. 2. Aliasing The steering vector (v) is the vector of propagation delays (or phase changes) across an array for a given wavevector k. elevation and azimuthal planes) and given in half half-power or null-to-null form. It can be written mathematically as wavevector.

Similarly.or y-directions is greater than λ / 2 . then distinct frequencies cannot be resolved. In this case. the array factor can be checked to ensure that . Determining whether or not this occurs for an arbitrary array is very difficult. For arrays without a uniform structure. there may be steering vectors that are very similar so that grating lobes exist. However. v(k ) =   M    e − jk⋅d N    (2. while aliasing technically does not occur. the distance between elements can be much larger than λ / 2 without introducing aliasing. where if the sampling rate is too small in time.22 e − jk⋅d1    e − jk⋅d 2  . if a non-uniform array is decided upon. so that the array cannot distinguish the two directions. In general. there will exist distinct directions with identical steering vectors if the element spacing in the x. This is similar to the signal processing version of aliasing.31) Aliasing occurs when signals propagating in distinct directions produce the same steering vectors. the array’s response towards the two directions will be identical. These replicated beams are referred to as grating lobes. the main beam may be replicated elsewhere in the pattern. In that case. ∆ . When aliasing exists. for uniformly spaced rectangular (planar) arrays with elements on the x-y plane. For uniformly spaced linear arrays. no two distinct angles of arrival will produce identical steering vectors. is greater than λ / 2 . there will exist plane waves from distinct directions with identical steering vectors if the spacing between elements.

.23 grating lobes do not occur. Mathematical studies on the uniqueness of steering vectors can be found in [40-41].

nλ / 2) for n = 0.2.17). N − 1 . adaptive signal processing methods applied to antenna arrays will be discussed. Since the array factor is a linear function of the weights. For example. (3. WEIGHTING METHODS IN ANTENNA ARRAYS 3. the element positions will be given by d n = (0. Hence. 3. for simplicity. In addition. weighting methods are well developed and can be selected to meet a wide range of objectives.4 had maximum response in the direction of θ = 90 ° .III. 0. examples will be presented for uniform linear arrays with half-wavelength spacing. The simplest method of altering the direction in which the array is steered is to apply a linear phase taper to the weights. These techniques will be discussed in this chapter. the weights would be given by wn = e For these weights.2) . K . it is clear that the weights will have a significant impact on the output of the antenna array.1) AF = N −1 jnπ (cosθ −cosθ ) d . ∑e n =0 (3. nulling energy from specific directions relative to an array. minimizing the Mean Squared Error (MSE) between a desired output and the actual output.1. if the array is to be steered in the direction θ d . or minimizing the sidelobe level outside a specified beamwidth in linear arrays. These objectives include pattern steering. However. Phased-Tapered Weights The linear array of Section 2. the array factor becomes jnπ cosθd . Introduction From (2. Most of the methods described here apply to arrays of arbitrary geometry. 1. The phase taper is such that it compensates for the phase delay associated with the propagation of the signal in the direction of interest.

The array factor has a maximum at the desired direction. or 0 dB) is plotted in Figure 6 for N=5 and θ d = 45° . Schelkunoff Polynomial Method A weighting scheme for placing nulls in specific directions of an array factor was developed by Schelkunoff [22. 3.5 the sidelobes are 11. Array factor of steered linear array. This simple steering method can be used in two. In general. an N-element array can null signals arriving from N-1 distinct directions.25 or 1− e jπN (cosθd −cosθ ) jπ (cosθd −cosθ ) (3.3) AF = 1− e The magnitude of the array factor (normalized so that the peak is unity.or three-dimensional arrays as well as for arbitrary scan angles. and like the result in Figure 2. 42]. Figure 6.9 dB down from the mainlobe.3. .

10) .7) where the z n are the zeros of the array factor.7) to (3. (3.7) becomes AF ( z ) = z 2 − z ( z 0 + z1 ) + z 0 z1 .6) n=0 ∑ wn e − jπn cosθ (3.9) Arbitrarily letting wN −1 = w2 = 1 .5) Since a polynomial can be written as the product of its own zeros. the following values are calculated z0 = e and − jπ cos 45° (3. the weights can be found. it follows that AF ( z ) = w N −1 N −2 ∏ (z − zn ) . assume an N=3 element array with zeros to be placed at 45 ° and 120 ° .4) N −1 ∑ wn z n .5). In that case. (3. By selecting the desired zeros and setting (3. the array factor N −1 AF = can be rewritten as a polynomial as AF ( z ) = where z=e − jπ cosθ . (3. As an example.8) z1 = e − jπ cos120° .26 To illustrate the method. n=0 (3. n=0 (3. (3.

4. for a specified main beamwidth the sidelobes should be as low as possible. 3. uniformly spaced arrays of . In this case. For linear. As desired. Figure 7. Dolph-Chebyshev Method Often in antenna arrays it is desirable to receive energy from a specific direction and reject signals from all other directions.5). the weights are easily found to be:  w0   z 0 z1  w =  w1  = − ( z 0 + z1 ) .11) The normalized array factor for the specified weights is plotted in Figure 7. Array pattern with weights from Schelkunoff method. the pattern has nulls at 45 ° and 120 ° .10) equal to the original form of the array factor (3.27 Setting (3.      w2    1     (3.

The result will be that for the minimum overall sidelobe level. To have the lowest overall sidelobe level. Dolph observed this and employed Chebyshev polynomials. which have equal-magnitude peak variations (or ripples) over a certain range. steered to any scan angle and for any antenna type is derived in Chapter 6. The null-to-null beamwidth is approximately 60 ° . . for details see [22]. the Dolph-Chebyshev method will return weights that achieve this. A weighting method for obtaining minimum sidelobes in arbitrarily spaced arrays of any dimension. The Dolph-Chebyshev weights are calculated for a sidelobe level of -30 dB. The associated magnitude of the array factor is plotted in Figure 8. the sidelobe with the highest intensity should be decreased at the expense of raising the intensity of the lower sidelobes. the equal-ripple (or constant-sidelobe) weights can be obtained. Several articles have been written on efficient computation of the Dolph-Chebyshev weights [43-44]. By matching the array factor to a Chebyshev polynomial. In observing array factors as in Figure 4. note that the sidelobes decrease in magnitude away from the mainbeam. the sidelobes will all have the same peak value. a uniformly spaced linear array with half-wavelength spacing and N=6 is used. As an example.28 isotropic sensors steered to broadside ( θ d = 90° ). The actual process is straightforward but cumbersome to write out. Note that all the sidelobes are equal in magnitude at 30 dB.

Assume now the input to the array consists of one desired signal. 3. ni (t ) .5. a more general beamforming technique is developed that takes into account the statistical behavior of the signal environment.29 Figure 8. Assume there exists noise at each antenna. they have not dealt with noise or statistical representations of the desired signals or interference. Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) Weighting The weighting methods discussed previously have been deterministic. that is. The noise at each antenna can be written in vector form as . with an associated wavevector k s . Dolph-Chebyshev array for N=6 with sidelobes at -30 dB. s(t). In this section.

a = 1. (3.14) Y (t ) = W H X(t ) .17) with (3. Equation (3.15). the input to the antenna array can then be written as X(t ) = s (t ) v(k s ) + N(t ) + ∑ I a (t ) v(k a ) .15). K .16) The minimum mean-squared error estimate (MMSE) seeks to minimize the expected value of the squared magnitude of e(t). The mean-squared error (MSE) is MSE = E[e(t )e ∗ (t )] .30 n1 (t )  n (t )  N (t ) =  2  . G. a =1 G (3. Expanding (3. the MSE becomes .12) In addition. assume there are G interferers.15) because the mathematics in the derivation will be simpler if the weights used are in the form of (3. The error can then be written as e(t ) = Y (t ) − Yd (t ) . (3.13) The desired output from the antenna array (or spatial filter) is Yd (t ) = s (t ) .31). 2. each having narrowband signals given by I a (t ) and wavevectors given by k a .  M    n N (t ) (3.17) where * indicates complex conjugate and E[] is the expectation operator. The actual output is (3.15) differs from (2. (3. Using the steering vector notation for the phase delays as in (2.15) where H is the Hermitian operator (conjugate transpose).

(3. Multiplying the terms above. the third term in (3. σ s2 : (3. the MSE becomes ( )( ) (3.19) becomes (3. (3.22) Λ = E[X(t )s ∗ (t )] . The first term in (3.26) . R XX .19) E[ W H X(t )X H (t )W] = W H E[X(t )X H (t )]W .24) E[s(t ) X H (t )W] = Λ H W . Finally.19) can then be rewritten as (3.18) MSE = E[W H X(t )X H (t )W] + E[ s(t ) s ∗ (t )] − E[ W H X(t ) s ∗ (t )] − E[s(t )X H (t ) W] . Defining (3.19) is just the complex conjugate of the third term: (3.19) can be simplified to (3. the fourth term in (3. The autocorrelation matrix. Equation (3. is defined to be R XX = E[ X(t )X H (t )] .23) E[ W H X(t )s ∗ (t )] = W H Λ .21) σ s2 = E[ s(t ) s ∗ (t )] . The second term in (3.31 MSE = E[ W H X(t ) − s(t ) X H (t )W − s ∗ (t ) ] .20) since the expectation is a linear operator and the weights are fixed.25) MSE = W H R XX W + σ s2 − W H Λ − Λ H W .19) is the signal power.

R −1 . Wopt : Wopt = R −1 Λ .31) .30) as Wopt = σ s2 R −1 v(k s ) . (3. XX −1 XX R K  =  ∑ X( k ) X H ( k )  . (3.30) Hence. The gradient of (3.27) Setting (3. the autocorrelation matrix and the vector Λ . XX (3. The optimal weights can be rewritten using (3. The estimate is denoted with the bar overhead.29) Assuming the signal of interest is uncorrelated in time with the noise and interference. k =1    −1 (3. The inverse of the autocorrelation matrix is often estimated using the Sample Matrix Inverse (SMI) method. and uses K snapshots of the input vector X to formulate the estimate.27) equal to zero and solving gives the optimal weights.28) Equation (3. XX (3.32 The goal is to find the W that produces the minimum MSE. the vector Λ can be determined if the direction of the signal (given by k s ) and the signal power ( σ s2 ) are known.29) along with (3.28) requires two pieces of information.13) yields G   Λ = E[ s(t ) v(k s ) + N(t ) + ∑ I a (t ) v(k a )  s ∗ (t )] = σ s2 v(k s ) .   a =1   (3.26) with respect to W is ∇MSE = 2R XX W − 2 Λ . Often the incoming direction and power can be determined by using a training sequence to calibrate the array.

consider the case of the desired signal arriving from θ d = 110° with a signal power of σ s2 =1. arriving from θ 1 = 40° and θ 2 = 90° . Observe that for the high SNR case. the 2 2 first with noise power σ n = 0. Two interferers. Two cases will be considered. the pattern puts less emphasis on nulling out the interferers. The optimal MSE is found from substituting (3. The resulting array factor magnitudes are plotted in Figure 9. θ d = 110° . XX (3. each have σ I2 = 10 . For the low SNR case.26): MSE opt = σ s2 − σ s4 v H (k s )R −1 v(k s ) . .31) represents the weights that minimize the MSE. Note that neither array factor is maximum towards the signal of interest. the pattern places nulls exactly in the directions of the interferers.31) into (3. and the second with σ n = 1 (SNR=0 dB).01 (SNR=20 dB).33 Equation (3. As an example.31). The optimal weights can then be calculated using (3.32) Similar formulations can be used to formulate weights that maximize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) when the autocorrelation matrix of the interference and noise can be estimated [45]. This is because the gain in combating independent noise sources is best obtained by combining the received signals with equal gain [45]. The array will have N=3 elements.

they do not attempt to change as the signal environment changes. E.34 Figure 9. The LMS Algorithm The weights discussed up until now have not been adaptable. 3. Jr. The Applebaum algorithm [47] was developed independently in 1966 and largely uses the same ideas. the first and arguably most widely used adaptive algorithm is discussed.6. This algorithm was invented by Bernard Widrow along with M. The algorithm assumes some a priori knowledge. In this section. Array factor magnitudes for MMSE weights. the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. Hoff. A weight updating strategy that changes with its environment is known as an adaptive algorithm and adaptive signal processing has become a field in itself. in this version (the spatial LMS algorithm). that is. the known information is assumed to be the desired signal power ( σ s2 ) and . and published in a primitive form in 1960 [46].

26). (3. Then the gradient of the MSE can be approximated at each time step as ∇MSE (k ) = 2X(k ) X H (k ) W (k ) − 2σ s2 v (k s ) .35) produces the LMS algorithm: 2 W(k + 1) = W(k ) + λ σ S v(k S ) − X(k ) X H (k ) W(k ) . Substituting (3. The update algorithm for the weights can then be written as W(k + 1) = W(k ) − λ 2 ∇MSE(k ) .36) actually represents one of the many forms of the LMS algorithm. If the environment changes. Samples of the input vector. k s .35 the signal direction. The algorithm iteratively steps towards the MMSE weights. X. In addition. the parameter λ should be chosen according to . The versions primarily differ in the a priori knowledge required. the LMS algorithm simply increments the weights in the direction of decreasing the MSE. it has fairly decent convergence properties and has been extensively studied. The algorithm’s simplicity is its primary reason for its widespread use. The LMS algorithm approximates the autocorrelation matrix at each time step by R XX (k ) = X(k ) X H (k ) . will be ordered and written as X(k). To accomplish the iterative minimization of the MSE.36) Equation (3.33) (3.34) into (3.34) To minimize the MSE. In order to have stable results (the expected MSE will converge to a constant value). recall that the gradient of the MSE as a function of the weights (W) is given by (3. (3. then the algorithm will step towards the new MMSE weights.35) where λ is a positive scalar that controls how large the steps are for the weights. { } (3.

.3 is again considered. Since the algorithm uses a guess of the autocorrelation matrix at each time step. The algorithm is initiated with a weight of unity applied to all elements: 1 W(1) = M  . on average.39) An example run is conducted. this time with a SNR=20 dB. along with the optimal MSE [from (3.1 . and the resulting MSE is plotted at each iteration [from (3.38) λ = 0.26)].36 0<λ < 2 . As an example of the LMS algorithm.  1  The parameter λ is chosen to be (3. some of the steps actually increase the MSE. The noise will be additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) that is independent at each antenna. the interference and noise scenario of Section 3. The array will be the linear array of N=5 elements with half-wavelength spacing.37) where λmax (R XX ) is the largest eigenvalue of the autocorrelation matrix [48]. the MSE decreases. This algorithm is also fairly robust to changing environments.31)] in Figure 10. However. λ MAX (R XX ) (3.015 = 0. λmax (R XX ) (3. The LMS algorithm is fairly efficient in moving towards the optimal weights for this case. The speed of the convergence is governed by the condition number (ratio of largest to smallest eigenvalues) of the autocorrelation matrix [49].

31). However. along with the optimal MSE. it uses a more sophisticated update to find the optimal weights that is based on the matrix inversion lemma [45]. the recursive leastsquare (RLS) algorithm seeks to minimize the MSE just as in the LMS algorithm [48]. given by (3.37 Figure 10. Several adaptive algorithms have expanded upon ideas used in the original LMS algorithm. For instance. Most of these algorithms seek to produce improved convergence properties at the expense of increased computational complexity. MSE at each iteration. Both of these algorithms (and all others based on the LMS algorithm) have the same optimal weights the algorithms attempt to converge to. .

IV. METHODS OF ANTENNA ARRAY GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION 4.1. Introduction The field of electromagnetics was unified into a coherent theory and set of four fundamental equations by James Clerk Maxwell in 1879 [50]. These equations are known as Maxwell’s equations. The first is Gauss’s law:

∇ ⋅ D = ρV ,

(4.1)

where D is the electric flux density and ρV is the volume charge density. The second equation states that “magnetic monopoles do not exist”, and can be written in mathematical form:
∇⋅B = 0,

(4.2)

where B is the magnetic flux density. The third equation is known as Ampere’s law: ∇×H − ∂D =J, ∂t (4.3)

where H is the magnetic field and J is the impressed electric current density. The fourth is Faraday’s law: ∇×E + where E is the electric field. While there are only four equations in the set, they are complicated enough that they can only be solved in closed form for some basic canonical shapes. As a result, numerical methods for solving electromagnetic problems became necessary. A thorough introduction and survey of the methods can be found in [51]. Among the most popular of the numerical methods include the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method developed in 1966 by Yee at Lawrence Livermore National ∂B = 0, ∂t (4.4)

39 Laboratories [52]. This method discretizes space and time and computes the electric and magnetic fields using discretized forms of Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law. The algorithm initially computes the electric fields (assuming the magnetic fields are known) using Ampere’s law. A small time step later, the algorithm computes the magnetic fields at that time using Faraday’s law (along with the calculated electric field). This process is repeated as long as desired and has been widely successful in modeling numerous electromagnetic problems. Another popular method is the Integral Equation (IE) Method of Moments (MoM), which numerically solves complex integral equations by assuming a solution in the form of a sum of weighted basis functions along the structure being analyzed. The weights are then found by introducing boundary conditions and solving an associated matrix for the weights, thereby leading to the solution [53]. Because of the difficulty in obtaining solutions to electromagnetic problems, optimization is not simple. Antenna arrays, being a specific class of electromagnetic problems, are no exception. However, significant developments over the past 50 years in the field of mathematical optimization are now being applied to electromagnetic problems. The tremendous increase in computing power over the last few decades has enabled complex problems to be solved and led to large advances in the fields of numerical electromagnetics and in optimization. This chapter describes the optimization methods that have penetrated the electromagnetic field in the late 20th century. The first set of methods, linear programming and convex optimization problems, are part of a class of optimization methods that are deterministic. The problems have a

40 unique solution that can be verified to be globally optimal. However, due to the complex nature of the problems, the solutions are obtained numerically and not analytically. The second set of methods discussed in this chapter, Simulated Annealing (SA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), are part of a class of optimization methods that are stochastic in nature. These methods produce solutions to the most general optimization problems that have very little structure and cannot be solved via other methods. The resulting solutions from these methods are unfortunately not verifiable to be globally optimal. However, they have recently been receiving a lot of attention in the antenna field because they can be applied to a wide range of problems and can be used to obtain solutions that achieve a desired performance metric. In March 2007, the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation dedicated the entire issue to optimization techniques in electromagnetics and antenna system design. An overview of the methods and their applications to electromagnetics can be found in [54]. Many of these papers used techniques that were stochastic in nature, including the popular genetic algorithm (GA)[55]. These optimization techniques are often coupled with the numerical methods discussed previously. For instance, the PSO algorithm was used in conjunction with the FDTD method in [56]. The genetic algorithm was used along with the method of moments for the design of integrated antennas in [57]. 4.2. Linear Programming The most general form of a mathematical optimization problem can be expressed as

minimize

f ( x)

subject to x ∈ χ

.

(4.5)

’. the vector x can be any vector in ℜ N . where ∀ is commonly used in mathematics to state ‘for all’. K . bi is a real number. 2.6) A linear program (LP) is a widely studied optimization problem that has numerous practical applications. (4. Each inequality can be written in the form: (4. The solution is not necessarily unique but exists as long as χ is not the empty set. The feasible set χ in a linear program is a set of M affine inequalities. where c is an N-dimensional (real) vector. (4.41 Here f(x) is the objective function to be minimized. t. The theory on this subject was developed by George Dantzig and John von Neumann in 1947 [58]. and i = 1. or set of all possible solutions.9) Without any constraints. and χ is known as the feasible set. i where a i is an N-dimensional real vector.5) will have the property f (x opt ) ≤ f (x) ∀ x ∈ χ .8) a T x ≤ bi . M . M   xN  (4. one of which is shown at the end of this section. In the following. The solution ( x opt ) to (4. ‘subject to’ will be abbreviated as ‘s.7) The objective function to be minimized is a linear function of the problem variables: f ( x) = c T x . Each constraint in the . The variables in a linear program are written as an N-dimensional vector of real numbers:   x=    x1  x2  .

t. min cT x s. the divider is a straight line.14) . A is an M × N matrix given by T  a1   T  a A =  2 . in three dimensions (N=3) the divider is a plane and so on.11). Ax ≤ b (4. The resulting feasible region χ is the intersection of all of these half-spaces.11) In (4.42 form of (4.10) are often abbreviated as Ax ≤ b .12) and b is an M-dimensional vector given by b1  b  b= 2 .  M     aT   M (4. In two dimensions (N=2). The standard form of an LP can then be written as in (4. (4. M    bM  (4.9) divides the space ℜ N into two half-spaces.11) is understood to be component-wise (must be satisfied for all inequalities). The set of constraints T a1 x ≤ b1 a T x ≤ b2 2 M a T x ≤ bM M (4.13) The inequality sign in (4.14).

Ax ≤ b (4.43 An equality constraint can be viewed as two inequality constraints. and they can therefore be verified to be globally optimal [59]. the problem is said to be infeasible. This follows the discussion in [27]. In addition. The results will be extended in Chapter 6 to work for arbitrarily spaced arrays with complex weights steered to any angle. including Mathematica and Matlab. A symmetric linear array is an array with elements spaced symmetrically about the origin. such as the simplex algorithm [60] and the rapid interior point method [61].15). if an optimization problem can be put into the form of an LP.15) must satisfy a set of optimality conditions.15). To illustrate the utility of linear programs. a method of determining sidelobe minimizing weights for symmetric linear arrays with real weights steered to broadside will be presented. have been developed to efficiently solve the LP.15) Cx = f Extensive work has gone into understanding the problem presented in (4. where C is a matrix and f is a vector. t. min c T x s. several numerical methods. now have built in routines for solving linear programs. with arbitrary antenna elements and an arbitrary beammwidth. As a result. an optimal vector (if one exists) can be found efficiently and verified to be globally optimal. Commonly used computational software programs. so LPs are often written in the form given in (4. . as shown in Figure 11. Solutions found to (4. If no vector x satisfies all the constraints.

Symmetric linear array. The sidelobe level (SLL) can be written mathematically as SLL = max | AF (θ ) | . The sidelobe level will be defined as the maximum value of the magnitude of the array factor outside of a specified beamwidth. θ∈Θ (4.44 Figure 11. (4. The objective is to determine the weights that produce the lowest possible sidelobe level.16) where d n is the position of the n th element along the z-axis. An array of this type with real weights and 2N elements will have an array factor given by AF (θ ) = n=1 ∑w N n cos(2πd n cos θ ) . The set of all angles in which the array factor is to be suppressed will be written as Θ .17) .

18) The problem of minimizing the sidelobe level can then be written as an optimization problem: min SLL s. define the problem variables to be  t  w   1  X =  w2  .20) can be rewritten as (4. the following constraint is imposed: AF (90°) = 1 . (4.22) .21) t = [1 0 0 L 0]X = c T X . θ 2 . t. R (4. i = 1. First. (4. (4. let t represent the maximum sidelobe level. AF (90°) = 1 .10).    M   wN    The objective function in (4. Equation (4.19) This problem can be written as an LP in standard form. following the optimization procedure.19) can be rewritten into the form given in (4.45 Since the array factor is to be maximum at broadside. K . t.20).20) can be written as an affine constraint as in (4. 2. The sidelobes will be suppressed at the sample points. K .20) Each one of the constraints in (4. Sample the region Θ into R sample points ( θ 1 . min t s. To see this. θ R ). AF (90°) = 1 | AF (θ i ) |≤ t . it can be verified that the sidelobes are also suppressed between the samples.

27) (4. the inequality on the right becomes t  w   1  [− 1 cos(2πd1 cos θ i ) cos(2πd 2 cos θ i ) L cos(2πd N cosθ i )] w2  ≤ 0 .    M   wN    or (4. 0 Finally.    M   wN    or (4.25) becomes t  w   1  − [1 cos(2πd1 cos θ i ) cos(2πd 2 cos θ i ) L cos(2πd N cos θ i )]  w2  ≤ 0 .46 The equality constraint in (4. for i = 1. the inequality constraints in (4. Using (4. K .    M  wN    or (4.24) − t ≤ AF (θ i ) ≤ t .20) can be rewritten using (4.16).26) aT X ≤ 0 . R . i Similarly.28) .23) aT X = 1.25) (4. the inequality on the left in (4.19) can be rewritten as (4. 2.16) along with the vector X as t  w   1  [0 1 1 L 1]  w2  = 1 .

t.33) . R (4. because the array does not have uniform spacing. Using (4.3724 w2 = 0.32) Using the linear programming method described in this section. solutions can be rapidly found to this problem using numerical computational software and guaranteed to be globally optimal.30).29) s.20) can be rewritten as in (4.30) Equation (4. 2. i = 1.2λ ± 0. i f iT X ≤ 0. K. Hence.24).85λ ] .5λ ± 0. Finding weights that minimize the sidelobe level while directing the maximum to (4. hence. (4.4967 (4. a T X = 1 0 a T X ≤ 0. (4. consider the following 6-element symmetric linear array with positions d T = [±0. w3 = 0. the optimal weights can be found to be w1 = 0.15).31) broadside cannot be found via the Dolph-Chebyshev method.29). The beamwidth will be 40 ° . the region of sidelobe suppression will be Θ = {0° ≤ θ ≤ 70° } ∪ {110° ≤ θ ≤ 180°} .22).47 f iT X ≤ 0 .27) and (4.30) is in the same form as the standard LP in (4. (4. As an example. min c T X (4.1309 . the optimization problem of (4.

The maximum sidelobe level outside the main beam is -11. which is expected for sidelobe-minimizing weights.21 dB. The resulting array factor is plotted in Figure 12. Convex Optimization Convex optimization problems are a subclass of the general optimization problem given by (4. Figure 12. respectively.48 where w1 is the weight associated with the first pair of positions in (4.31). while w2 and w3 are associated with the second and third pairs of positions.3. . The dashed vertical lines in Figure 12 define the boundary of the main beam and specify the region in which the sidelobes are suppressed. These applications include robotics [62]. 4.5). Note that the sidelobes are equal in magnitude. They have recently received a lot of attention in the engineering community because of their wide applicability. Array factor for optimal weights found via linear programming.

then all points along a straight line between x1 and x 2 are in χ . Mathematically. Examples of convex sets.34) where α is a scalar between 0 and 1. (4. Examples of non non-convex sets are shown in Figure 14. for all α in this range z must be in the set. image processing [64] and information theory [65]. each set contains points x1 and x 2 such that not all points z between them. A convex optimization problem is defined by two fundamental characte characteristics: the feasible set χ must be convex and the objective function f(X) is a convex function. as in (4. Figure 13.49 signal processing [63]. Convex sets are convenient to work with because search algorithms can always move between the current feasible point and the optimal point without running into the boundary of the set. . Examples of convex sets are shown in Figure 13. are in the set.34). A ) convex set is defined such that for every x1 and x 2 in the set χ . An excellent text for the engineering community on convex optimization has been written [66]. any point between x1 and x 2 can be written as z = αx1 + (1 − α ) x 2 .

This is illustrated for a one-dimensional dimensional function f(t) shown in Figure 15.35) This means that the curve of the function f will always lie below a straight line connecting the two points f(X) and f(Y). A function is said to be convex on a set χ if for any two points X and Y in χ .50 Figure 14. (4. it satisfies the following inequality: f (αX + (1 − α )Y ) ≤ αf ( X) + (1 − α ) f (Y ) . The secant line between two points x and y is also drawn. note that f(t) lies below this line every everywhere between x and y. . Examples of non non-convex sets.

consider M convex functions given by f 1 ( X). the global minimum is unique. A function is said to be strictly convex if the inequality ( ≤ ) in (4.36) as F (αX + (1 − α )Y) = max f i (αX + (1 − α )Y) . rewrite (4. f 2 ( X). f M ( ) . K . i (4. Illustration of a convex function. As an example of proving a function is convex.36) The goal is to show that F is also convex. For a strictly convex function. This property makes convex functions convenient to work with in optimization. Define the function F to be the pointwise maximum of the (X set: F ( X) = max f i ( X) .37) . local minimums are alwa global always minimums.51 Figure 15. To accomplish this.35) is replaced with a strict inequality (<). i (4. For convex functions.

Hence. In addition. since the optimal points found can be mathematically proven to be globally optimal. Free convex optimization packages have been written for use with Matlab. Simulated Annealing The discussion now turns to stochastic optimization algorithms. it follows that max f i (αX + (1 − α )Y) ≤ max[αf i (X) + (1 − α ) f i (Y)] . they can be applied to a wide range of practical problems.39) Equations (4.37)-(4. i j (4. max[αf i ( X) + (1 − α ) f i (Y)] ≤ max αf i ( X) + max(1 − α ) f j (Y) . they tend to use . A convex optimization problem will be derived and solved in Chapter 6 which greatly extends the minimum sidelobe weighting vector of Section 4. These algorithms work on the most general type of optimization problems. Convex optimization problems are rapidly solvable with computers. putting a problem into convex form is very desirable.4. i i (4.2.38) Since maximizing a sum of functions over one index must be less than maximizing each function individually. the pointwise maximum of convex functions is convex. this property will be used in Chapter 6.52 Using the convexity of each function f i . examples packages include CVX and YALMIP and are available online. 4. Since these problems have a very general structure. the interior point methods developed for linear programs have been efficiently extended to convex problems [67]. however.39) show that F (αX + (1 − α )Y) ≤ α max f i ( X) + (1 − α ) max f j (Y) .40) which proves that F is convex. i i j (4.

an initial feasible point ( x1 ). The following discussion describes finding a minimum. The SA algorithm requires a cost function f [also known as the objective function in (4. ) From the current point x i . and a perturbation mechanism for obtaining new points around the current point. This process involves heating a solid material up to a high temperature and then allowing it to cool at a very slow rate. The algorithm evaluates the cost function at the start point. If the next . then ) ∆f i = f (x i +1 ) − f (x i ) < 0 and the current solution is updated according to (4. (4. The simulated annealing (SA) algorithm attempts to mimic the physical process of annealing of solids. However. they have recently been employed extensively in the engineering community. a candidate new point ( x i +1 ) in the feasible set is chosen using the perturbation mechanism. perturbs the point to a new point.53 random searches and the results are not guaranteed to be globally optimal. The algorithm was originally introduced in 1983 by Kirkpatrick in the journal Science as a generalization of the Monte Carlo method for examining the equations of state of n-body systems [69].42) The algorithm does not want to only accept points that decrease the cost function. The result is that the particles in the solid arrange themselves in the lowest energy state configuration. If the new point decreases the cost function.41) ) x i +1 = x i +1 . evaluates the cost function at this point and repeats.5)]. The SA algorithm attempts to optimize via the same procedure. this would cause the algorithm to find a local minimum about the initial point. usually an ordered lattice of some sort [68].

requires a good deal of care in choosing the initial temperature and an appropriate cooling schedule so that a globally optimum point is likely to be found. then almost all transitions occur and the result is a random walk through the space of points independent of the cost function. . The simulated annealing algorithm starts the optimization procedure at a high temperature (sufficiently high such that most transitions occur). When T becomes small. If the algorithm does not accept the next candidate point.43) where T represents the current “temperature” of the system. the result is that the algorithm converges to the local minimum of the neighborhood of points that the current point resides in. and lowers the temperature slowly enough so that a satisfactory solution is found. the algorithm is then said to have converged. x i +1 = x i . while being relatively simple to implement.54 candidate point increases the objective function. Increased confidence that the proposed solutions are globally optimum can be obtained by running the algorithm multiple times from various initial points. If T is very large. There are many (4. then the probability that the algorithm updates the current solution to the candidate solution is given by  − ∆f i ) P{x i +1 = x i +1 } = exp  T  .44) methods of choosing this ‘cooling schedule’. The SA algorithm. then it simply remains at the previous point.  (4. a collection of these is described in [70] and a specific method is utilized in Chapter 5. only transitions that increase the value of the cost function occur. The algorithm is stopped once transitions to new candidate points do not occur over a large number of attempts.

which evaluates . or location found with the most food by any bird in the flock. which is an added bonus. Examples of the successful application of the PSO algorithm in the electromagnetics community include antenna design [71] and array geometry selection [72]. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) The PSO algorithm is a stochastic. each individual bird will be aware of the ‘global best’ position. As each individual bird travels on its path. The PSO algorithm attempts to mimic the behavior of birds or bees in obtaining a food source. Using this general procedure. The algorithm also has a cost or fitness function.55 4. it may find food in various locations. In this manner. the algorithm lends itself well to parallel processing. The PSO algorithm consists of a set of particles (the ‘swarm’). Originally introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995 [73]. The bird remembers its own ‘personal best’ location of where it had found food. a flock of birds may start out in random directions searching for food. The PSO algorithm translates this behavior into a mathematical algorithm for optimization. a flock of birds will descend on the region in the area that has a relatively high amount of food available.5. which are analogous to the birds. the PSO algorithm has been gaining popularity over the genetic algorithm and other evolutionary algorithms because of its simplicity in implementation and efficient optimization. In addition. Initially. evolutionary algorithm capable of effectively optimizing difficult multidimensional optimization problems. In addition. the bird may periodically fly up and survey the progress of the other birds in the flock.

The i th particle at time t will be at the location given by x ti . and it will be written as G = min Pi . The global best value will also be recorded.56 the current position of each bird. The number M depends on the dimension and difficulty of the problem. The i th particle at time t will have a velocity written as v ti . The algorithm starts with M particles selected at random positions within the feasible set.45) . Each particle will also have a randomly selected initial velocity vector. It will be assumed in the following discussion that there is a feasible set χ to be optimized over in which each element can be represented as an N-dimensional real vector. This is the location that the current particle has found to be the fittest (minimum) so far along its trajectory. and the corresponding fitness value for each of these positions will be written as Pi . Each particle will also be aware of the ‘global best position’. and a fitness function f : χ → ℜ which can evaluate each position to a real number. In addition. which is the position that has been found to be the fittest so far from among all the particles and will be written as the vector g. each particle will record the location of its ‘personal best position’. and t is an integer specifying the current time step. where i is an integer between 1 and M. The algorithm is iterative and the locations will change at each time step. i (4. and is one of the parameters left to the algorithm implementer. The personal best positions will be written for the i th particle as p i . this is analogous to a bird evaluating how much food is in a certain location.

57 Once the random initial positions and velocities have been chosen for each particle.0 is a good choice for both parameters c1 and c 2 [74]. and c 2 is a real number that accelerates the particle towards its global best position. (4. In this manner. Studies on PSO have shown that 2. the fitness value for each of the positions is evaluated. t To perform the updates. each particle moves in a random fashion around the solution space. but is stochastically drawn towards the particle’s previous best location and the swarm’s global best location.1].1] that controls how much the updated velocity depends on the previous velocity. The algorithm then updates the velocity and position of each particle at every time step until the simulation is stopped.48) . giving the personal and global best positions and values. (4. The inertial weight w is a real number in the range [0. c1 is a real number that accelerates the particle towards its personal best position.47) where wV is a real number called the ‘inertial weight’. and each u ai is an independent uniformly distributed real variable on [0. The velocity is then updated at each time step according to t v ti = wV v ti −1 + c1U1i (p i − x ti −1 ) + c2 U t2i (g − x ti −1 ) .46) t where a is equal to 1 or 2. t U ai =  M O M    t 0 0 0 L u aN    (4. The position is then updated according to x ti = x ti −1 + v ti −1 . first define matrices U 1i and U t2i according to t u a1 0 0 L 0    t 0 u a 2 0 L 0  .

The biggest drawback to the method is that the resulting solutions cannot be verified to be globally optimal. . This algorithm is relatively simple to implement but performs well on general optimization problems in comparison to other evolutionary algorithms. Finally. the personal best and global best positions and values are updated if possible.58 and the fitness function is evaluated at each of the new locations. and then the process repeats again.

the signal . The terms that remain in (5. The steady-state weights many adaptive algorithms (for instance. XX (5. the desired signal and the interference from various directions. In (5. defined in (3.1) the weights are absent because the optimal weights have already been substituted into the expression. The optimal MSE is rewritten from (3. The autocorrelation matrix. LMS and RLS) converge to are the MMSE weights in (3. σ S .1) are the steering vector v( k s ) and the autocorrelation matrix R XX . is a function of the inputs (X) to the antenna array. given by k s .V. which can occur intentionally (as in jamming) or unintentionally (as in wireless devices sharing a frequency band). and the signal direction.21).32): MSE opt = σ s2 − σ s4 v H (k s )R −1 v(k s ) .2) which is a nonlinear function of the array element positions. The input to the array then depends on the positions of the array. the influence of array geometry on the performance of adaptive antenna arrays is examined by solving a specific wireless communication problem. Introduction In this chapter.31).1. The input is a summation of noise.31) as e − jk s ⋅d1     − jk s ⋅d 2  . ARRAY GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION FOR INTERFERENCE SUPPRESSION 5. 2 The signal power. The steering vector can be rewritten from (2.1) which is a fair measure of the performance of an adaptive array. v (k s ) = e  M    e − jk s ⋅d N    (5. the noise power. are part of the wireless environment and cannot be changed. The problem of interference is addressed.

Since an antenna array cannot control the power incident upon it. As a result.1) is actually only a complicated function of the geometry of the array. the concept of an interference environment will be introduced as a statistical characterization of the expected directions and relative power of the interference. it would not be prudent to optimize the array geometry for a specific interference situation (example: 3 interferers from 3 distinct angles). Interference Environment Military communication systems will potentially be used in environments with a large amount of co-channel interference from sources intending to impede communication. Hence. a cell phone tower would expect the interference to be confined to a fixed range of elevation angles (directed towards the ground) and would not be concerned with blocking interference from the sky. For example. A specific . The arrays are not operating in a unique situation in which the interference is from known directions. 5. By optimizing an array geometry with respect to an interference environment.2.60 power and the powers of the interferers. it is possible to minimize the expected (or average) interference power that is not rejected by the array. which is the subject of this chapter. an antenna array is suitable for blocking interference spatially separated from the desired signal direction. the question of determining an optimum geometry for an adaptive array arises. the autocorrelation matrix can only be altered by changing the array geometry. Naturally. D. Other arrays used in more dynamic environments may expect interference from all directions with equal probability. Instead. In this situation. the MSE in (5.

suppose an array was operating in an environment in which interference occurred from one of two distinct angles of arrival with equal probability.3) where the expectation is over time.4) where the expectation operator is now over the interference situations (which defines the interference environment).5(R XX1 + R XX2 ) . Each unique interference situation in which the array operates will have a unique autocorrelation matrix. 5. (5.4. Each situation would have an autocorrelation matrix associated with it. A noteworthy observation is that if all the antenna elements have the same physical orientation. As a simple example. then S X can alternatively be found by treating the elements as isotropic sensors while simply adjusting the power levels in the interference environment.61 example of an interference environment will be detailed in Section 5.5) If it is assumed that the interference has a larger power than the signal of interest or that there are many interferers. then the array’s primary goal is to minimize the output power while restricting one of the weights in the array to be unity. is now defined as S X = E I [ R XX ] .3. Then the expected autocorrelation matrix is S X = 0. S X . Recall the definition of the autocorrelation matrix: R XX = E[ X(t )X H (t )] . Going one step further. which is written as R XX1 and R XX2 . This is similar to a sidelobe cancellation system [47] and is also the method used in a 7-element adaptive . (5. The task is now to derive an optimization problem whose solution yields an optimal array geometry. the expected autocorrelation matrix. Optimization for Interference Suppression (5.

the array can greatly reduce the amount of interference power that makes it into the next stage of processing (usually a temporal filter). By using the power minimization technique. The problem of finding an optimal array for interference suppression can be written as in optimization problem. it will be required that the separation between elements be at least λ / 4 . when the interference power is much stronger than the power of the desired signal. The advantage of this technique is its simplicity. (5. . Note that power minimization does not attempt to place the maximum of the array factor towards the signal of interest. For a fixed interference situation. In addition.62 array developed by Raytheon for combating interference in GPS systems [75]. Let rij be the separation between elements i and j. for practical reasons such as minimizing the effects of mutual coupling. the average output power P is then (5. as it does not require estimating the direction of arrival of the signal of interest or its power.7) A measure of the average output power for a given interference environment P is then P = w H S XX w .8) One of the weights is restricted to be unity so that the power minimization algorithm does not set all of the weights to zero. (5.6) P = w H R XX w . however. This is a suboptimal technique in regards to the MSE. this technique produces weights close to those produced using the MMSE weights. The output power from the array at any time is y ∗ y =w H XX H w .

min w H S X w s. t.13) and the property (S −1 ) ∗ = S −1 was used. Λ) = w H S X w + Λ(w H e 1 − 1) .11) as w opt = (5. which follows from the definition of an X X autocorrelation matrix.10) becomes ∇L = 2S X w opt + Λe1 = 0 . The minimization variables are the complex weights and the values of rij .63 T given in (5. Note that e1 = [1 0 0 L 0] . 2 (5. (5. 2 (5.13) can be substituted into (5.9) L(w.12) yielding the power-minimizing weights.9).10) Taking the gradient with respect to w of the Lagrangian and setting the result to zero. The Lagrangian can be expressed as (5. Assuming that S X is invertible. w H e1 = 1 rij ≥ λ / 4. the optimal weight vector for this problem can be found by using Lagrange multipliers. (5. the weights can be solved from (5.11) − Λ S −1 e 1 X .12) The parameter Λ can be determined by invoking the equality constraint of (5. for i ≠ j Assuming the locations of the antenna elements are known (or held fixed). . where w opt are the power-minimizing weights. The solution to (5.9) H w opt e1 = − Λ T −1 e1 S X e1 = 1 .

16) subject to the specified constraints. for i ≠ j .10) can be rewritten as a maximization problem as in (5.15) constraints in (5.14) into the objective function of (5.14) is only a function of the antenna locations. The .15) is equivalent to maximizing the reciprocal.64 w opt S −1e1 = T X −1 . so that the optimization problem can be written as T max e1 S −1e1 = [S −1 ]11 X X s. the minimum value of the objective function for a fixed geometry becomes 1 min{w H S X w} = T −1 . Since the interference environment cannot be controlled. the performance of the array using the optimal weights of (5.16) will not be unique. t.9). rij ≥ λ / 4. Equation (5.16) is only a function of the antenna locations and the interference environment. Hence. the minimization problem in (5. The solution to (5. The optimal element locations are those that maximize the objective function of (5. positive semi-definite matrices always have nonnegative quadratic forms [77]. and if a matrix is positive semi-definite then its inverse will be as well [77]. (5. e1 S X e1 (5.14) Substituting (5. e1 S X e1 w The goal is now to minimize (5. The notation [Z] mn will be used to represent the element of the matrix Z from the m th row and n th column.15) is always nonnegative because an autocorrelation matrix is always positive semi-definite [76]. because S X is invariant to translation (shifting the elements uniformly).15) over all array geometries that meet the (5.16) The objective function in (5. this is true whenever a function is strictly nonnegative.9).16). Minimization of (5.

Planar Array with Uniform Interference at Constant Elevation As an example of the solution to (5. the steering vectors will be rewritten as a function of the azimuth angle ( φn ) only.18) where f (θ . while s n (t ) and v n (k n ) are the signal and the steering vector for the n th interferer. but from a fixed elevation angle ( θ ∈ [0. (5.16) is what needs to be solved in order to determine an optimum array geometry for a given interference environment. respectively.4. π ] measured down from the z-axis towards the plane of the array). K. For simplicity.18) simplifies to X(t ) = ∑s n =1 M n (t ) v n (φ n ) .2π ] measured counterclockwise from the x-axis). The elements will be located at positions in the x-y plane given by ri = ( xi . Finally. N . With M interferers. This example assumes M interferers and takes the interference to be mutually independent and arriving from a uniform distribution in the azimuth direction ( φ ∈ [0. hence the response of the antenna can be lumped into the received power.65 optimization problem in (5. i = 1. so that (5. yi .0). 2.19) .16). a planar array of N elements with the same physical orientation is considered.φ )s n =1 M n (t ) v n (k n ) . (5. it will be assumed that the antenna elements do not have a pattern that varies much in the azimuth direction. 5. This assumption allows the element factor to be eliminated because the interferers are assumed to come from a fixed elevation angle. the input to the array becomes X(t ) = (5. φ ) is the element pattern for each antenna.17) ∑ f (θ .

The expected value of (5. (5. resulting in .20) (5.22) gives the components of the autocorrelation matrix.22) Equation (5.20) along with (5.66 The autocorrelation matrix becomes R XX = E[ X(t )X H (t )] H  M  M     = E  ∑ s n (t ) v n (φ n )  ∑ s n (t ) v n (φ n )   .21) ∗ because E[ s n (t ) s m (t )] = 0 for m ≠ n .23) is taken. For m=n.23) and the fact that the interference is uniformly distributed in the azimuth direction.23) The expected autocorrelation matrix can now be calculated from (5. M −j 2 n 2π [R XX ]ab = ∑σ n =1 e λ sinθ (cosφn ( xa − xb )+sin φn ( ya − yb )) . it follows that the components of the autocorrelation matrix become E[(s n (t ) v n (φ n ) )(s n (t ) v n (φ n ) ) ] ab H − j (kx xa +k y ya ) j (kx xb +k y yb )   ∗ = E  s n (t ) s n (t )e e    −j 2 = σne 2π λ sinθ (cosφn ( xa − xb )+sin φn ( ya − yb )) . it follows that E [ (s n ( t ) v n ( φ n ) )(s m ( t ) v m (φ m ) ) ] = 0 H (5.     n = 1  n = 1     Assuming the interference to be independent. (5.

24).27) into (5.25) and (5. the integral in (5. ∫e λ 2π 0 Since the integral in (5. (5.29) 0 Hence.29).24) becomes 2π − j 2π Rab sinθ cos(φn −φab ) dφ n .27) and substituting (5. Using the trigonometric identity cos(u − v) = cos(u ) cos(v) + sin(u ) sin(v) .28) ∫ e j ( x cos φ + nφ ) dφ .28) is over a complete cycle for φn .24).25) (5. = ∑σ n ∫ e λ 2π n =1 0 M (5.28) and (5. The Bessel function of the first kind of order n can be written in integral form as [78] j −n J n ( x) = 2π 2π (5.24) In order to evaluate the integral in (5. Rab is the distance between elements a and b. In (5.26) (5.26).24) can be rewritten using (5. the following variable substitutions are made: ( xa − xb ) = Rab cosφab ( y a − yb ) = Rab sin φ ab . (5. the term φab will not contribute to the integral and can be arbitrarily set to zero without influencing the result. (5.67 E[R XX ]ab = 2π M ∫ ∑ σ n2 e −j 2π λ sinθ (cosφn ( xa − xb )+sin φn ( ya − yb )) 0 n =1 dφ n 2π 2π − j 2π sinθ (cosφn ( xa − xb )+sinφn ( ya − yb )) dφ n 2 . as .25)-(5.

while a small variance will lead to a long simulation time. The variance is chosen such that the average perturbation for each element is on the order of 0. The perturbation mechanism is implemented by choosing a random vector in ℜ 2 N that has an Euclidean norm that is zero-mean and with a small variance. as discussed in Section 4. For simplicity.16) defines the optimization problem used to determine an array for suppressing interference. The candidate arrays (or points in the feasible space. the initial array chosen will have no effect on the optimization result. an elevation angle of θ = 90 ° is chosen for the interferers.30) shows that the expected autocorrelation matrix depends on the total (5. Another constraint . which represents the x. a circular array is chosen as the initial array.5. then the perturbation is discarded and a new perturbation selected. If the perturbation moves the elements too close to each other ( < 0. Equation (5. In using the SA algorithm.   λ  n = 1   Equation (5. Ideally. A method of determining an optimal array is the subject of the following section. and not on the number of interferers.positions of the N-elements. Using Simulated Annealing to Find an Optimal Array The Simulated Annealing optimization algorithm described in Chapter 4 was found to be suitable for the problem at hand. 5.30) along with (5. The 2N components of this vector are added to the x-y coordinates of the current array.and y.4) at every time step are represented by a real vector in ℜ 2 N .25λ ).68  M   2π  2 [S X ] ab = E[R XX ]ab =  ∑ σ n  J 0  R ab sin θ  . a large variance will lead to an imprecise search of the solution space.01λ .30) interference power incident on the array.

The optimum array configurations for the N=4. 17 and 18. The solution array is then again perturbed P times. and T0 are increased. this method will converge to the global optimum [68]. In the solution for N=6. This process is performed until T is small enough that no perturbations that decrease the objective function are accepted (recall the optimization problem is one of maximization). once this happens the solutions has converged upon a local maximum.25λ . and the solution time was approximately 8 hours. This number was chosen to be large enough such that the resulting optimal arrays were not altered by this constraint. P. the parameters used were u=0. respectively.69 is imposed such that all elements stay within 0. P=50 000. However. the solution is less likely to be optimal.75λ of the origin (center of the initial circular array) to keep the search space finite. If P is sufficiently large and the temperature decreased sufficiently slowly. As u. the tradeoff lies in the computational time needed. and T0 =12. the probability of a correct (globally optimal) solution increases.99. The results suggest . The dotted circles in these figures are of radius 0. The temperature is then multiplied by a factor u<1. and increase them until the simulations consistently returned the same solution starting from various initial arrays. 5 and 6 element arrays are found using the above optimization procedure and plotted in Figures 16. The initial temperature T0 was chosen such that virtually all (>99%) of perturbations are accepted. The simulation for the 6-element array described below was performed using MATLAB on a computer with a 2. if they are decreased. The method of determining these numbers was to use small values of u. The temperature is held constant for a fixed number (P) of perturbations.9 GHz processor. P and T0 .

Figure 16. This suggests a trade-off between interference suppression and largely spaced arrays used for diversity or to minimize mutual coupling.25λ (the minimum distance allowed). They all have a center element and are surrounded by a circular array of radius 0. Optimum N=4 element array (measured in units of λ ).70 that the interference suppression capabilities are best for arrays spaced as closely as possible. .

Optimum N=5 element array (measured in units of λ ).71 Figure 17. .

This is the steady-state solution the adaptive . and a rectangular array with interelement spacing 0. Optimum N=6 element array (measured in units of λ ). 360 ° ]) and all at the same elevation angle ( 90 ° ). The output power ( w H R XX w ) is calculated when the weights are given by the optimal weight vector for this specific instance.31). each randomly selected from a uniform distribution (on [0. a linear array with interelement spacing 0. Evaluating the Performance of the Optimal Arrays In order to illustrate the performance of the optimum array.5λ as suggested in [79]. given in (5.5λ .72 Figure 18. it will be compared to three other standard arrays: a circular array with radius chosen such that the spacing along the circle between elements is 0. Interferers from six different angles are chosen.5λ oriented along the z-axis.6. 5.

TABLE I OUTPUT POWER COMPARISON AMONG DIFFERENT ARRAYS Array Optimal Circular Rectangular Linear Relative Power (N=4) 0 dB 11.73 power-minimization algorithm would converge to in practice.000 times to form an average output power for this type of interference environment. where the average output power is given relative to the power allowed by the optimal array.5 dB 7. After viewing Figures 16-18.9 dB 20. The optimum arrays performed significantly better on average than the standard arrays used in practice. much more than reasonably expected. The results are listed in Table I. one may easily conjecture what the optimal 7-element array would be. w opt = R −1 e1 XX T e1 R −1 e1 XX (5.4 dB 37. The interesting thing about the optimal 7-element array is that it is a hexagonally sampled planar array. if the first weight is fixed at unity.2 dB 32. it is well known that the optimal sampling strategy to avoid aliasing for circularly .5 dB 24.2 dB Relative Power (N=5) 0 dB 16.4 dB Relative Power (N=6) 0 dB 32. The optimization procedure is applied and confirms the solution to be that as given in Figure 19.8 dB Table I illustrates the dramatic effect that array geometry can have on the interference-suppression capabilities of the array. The output powers for the standard arrays are much higher than those for the optimal arrays.31) This process is repeated 100.1 dB 12. In multidimensional digital signal processing. clearly showing their superior interference-suppression capabilities.

while sampling for reconstruction and sampling for interference suppression are fundamentally different.74 bandlimited signals is a hexagonally sampled lattice [80]. Hence. Optimum N=7 element array (measured in units of λ ). . the problems are strongly related and the optimal solutions come out the same (for the case of a circular interference environment). The elements of the GAS-1 array are circular patches each operating at the dual frequencies of L1 (1.227 GHz).575 GHz) and L2 (1. This parallel strengthens the methods and procedures applied in determining optimal arrays. The method of this paper confirms that the GAS-1 geometry used is optimum for the case of a planar array in a circular interference environment. The array geometry in Figure 19 is the layout of the 7-element GAS-1 (GPS Antenna System) array developed by Raytheon whose primary function is to suppress interferers or jamming [75]. Figure 19.

Case 2 will be the same as Case 1 except the signal arrives from θ d = 0° . the primary disadvantage is that the desired signal may be muted along with the interferers. In Case 1. The weight vector used for each case is the vector that minimizes the MSE. and rectangular array as before. The results for Case 1 are given in Table II. linear. The resulting SIRs for N=5. given by ∑S SIR = ∑I n n n . Case 3 will be the same as Case 1 except the signal arrives from θ d = 90° .000 times to form an expected SIR. Twelve interferers are selected from a fixed elevation angle ( θ I = 90° ) and a random azimuth angle and 30 dB Interference-to-Signal Ratio (ISR). the desired signal arrives from θ d = 45° and φ d = 0° . While this has its advantages. To get an idea of the signal to interference ratio (SIR) at the output of the array. n (5. respectively.32) where S n and I n are the output signal power and the output interference power for the n th situation. given in (3-30). a few test cases are considered. . The process will be repeated (random interference directions selected) 100. The results for Case 2 are presented in Table III. The results for Case 3 are presented in Table IV. 6.75 The method derived above seeks to minimize output power. and 7 elements are determined for the optimal array along with a circular.

41 dB 2.2 dB -21 dB TABLE IV RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 3 Array Optimal Circular Rectangular Linear Relative SIR (N=5) 0 dB -11.9 dB -5.5 dB -0.45 dB -6.64 dB -4. when the signal is in the same plane as the interferers .1 dB Relative SIR (N=6) 0 dB 2.9 dB -25.8 dB 5 dB Relative SIR (N=6) 0 Db -10.25 dB -10.76 TABLE II RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 1 Array Optimal Circular Rectangular Linear Relative SIR (N=5) 0 dB -6.29 dB The results given in Tables II-IV show that on average.15 dB TABLE III RELATIVE SIR FOR CASE 2 Array Optimal Circular Rectangular Linear Relative SIR (N=5) 0 dB -3.4 dB -15.3 dB -6. the optimal array produces significant SIR gains compared to the standard arrays.82 dB Relative SIR (N=7) 0 dB -26.24 dB Relative SIR (N=7) 0 dB -35.45 dB -7.6 dB -15. This is exhibited by the slightly superior results seen for Case 1 and 2 when N=5.98 dB Relative SIR (N=6) 0 dB -11. like the N=7 arrays for Cases 1 and 2.13 dB -19.15 Db -19.3 dB -11. However. In some situations. The linear array has some advantage in blocking interference in that it has a smaller field of view than the other 2-D arrays.6 dB Relative SIR (N=7) 0 dB -4. the optimal array boosts the SIR compared to the other arrays.85 dB -5.9 dB -27.

77 (Case 3) the linear array performs poorly.7. or expected directions and level of interference. it does indeed raise the output SIR as desired. In addition. an optimization problem (5.16) has been derived whose solution yields an optimal array for suppressing interference. while the optimization problem was set up to minimize output power and thereby reduce interference. the array is not optimized for a specific situation. and a method of solution was demonstrated using the Simulated Annealing optimization algorithm. A specific problem of a circular interference environment was studied. 5. but rather optimized to maximize the performance on average based on the expected environment the array is to operate in. the results implicitly show that the array geometry used has a significant effect on the array’s performance. In this manner. Therefore. Summary To briefly summarize the chapter. Optimizing an adaptive antenna array’s geometry can be done by defining an interference environment. .

VI. In addition. Methods of weight selection were discussed in Chapter 3.[17] the authors force the arrays to have symmetry about the center to keep the array factor real. In this chapter. The most important for the discussion of this chapter is the Dolph-Chebyshev weighting method.5 where a minimum element separation is needed. Recently. Introduction One-dimensional arrays have been extensively analyzed. MINIMUM SIDELOBE LEVELS FOR LINEAR ARRAYS 6. This method can determine minimum-sidelobe weights for uniformly spaced linear arrays of omnidirectional antennas. steered to an arbitrary angle is the goal of this chapter.1. Optimizing geometry for sidelobe minimization has also been examined via a range of techniques. a method of finding the optimum weights for minimizing the sidelobe level is derived given: • a beamwidth . the arrays will have no bounds on minimum or maximum element separation. [17] used the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method to determine optimum sidelobe-minimizing positions for linear arrays assuming the weights were constant. dating back to the early part of the 20th century. the work in this chapter does not require this restriction. the weights and positions of a linear array will be optimized to lower sidelobes. Determining this for a linear array of arbitrary elements. as discussed in Chapter 1. except in Section 6. In [13]. However. the question of determining the minimum possible sidelobe level for an N-element linear array has yet to be determined. For a given linear array. Their ubiquity in textbooks and actual applications is partly due to the relative ease with which they are analyzed.

.K d N ) . The positions of a one-dimensional N-element linear array can be written as a vector d= (d1 . 6. Incoming plane waves are characterized by an angle θ (measured from the z-axis) that specifies their direction of arrival. d 2 . where d n is the position of the n th element measured from the origin along the z-axis. The element positions will be unrestricted and the space will be extensively searched via PSO in order to find optimum positions in conjunction with the corresponding optimum weights.4. thus it can be solved without searching through the space of weights as in [28]. Problem Setup The basic geometry of a one-dimensional linear array is shown in Figure 20. The positions found via PSO are likely to be globally optimal as discussed in Section 6.2. the results presented here likely represent global bounds on the minimum-possible sidelobe levels achievable for a given beamwidth. to determine if altering the weights or element positions could potentially return a significant improvement in performance. Consequently. This information can be used by array designers in determining how well their arrays perform compared to the best design possible. This problem will be posed in convex form.79 • • • the array element’s positions the individual antenna’s radiation pattern a desired direction ( θ d ) for the array to be scanned.

w2 .K.2) where f (θ ) is each elements’ radiation pattern. d. This chapter addresses determining the minimum possible sidelobe level of an N-element array for a given beamwidth.80 Figure 20. θ ) . d. the array factor is a function of the weight vector and the positions of the elements. wN ) of complex excitation weights. d. (6.θ ) = ∑w e n= n 1 N jkd n cos θ (6. the array factor (AF) can be rewritten from (2.20) as AF (w. For a given angle θ . Assuming a vector w=( w1 . Determining the minimum possible sidelobe level of an N-element . It will be assumed that the elements are identical and oriented in the same direction. θ ) is then the product of the array factor and the element pattern. Basic setup of a linear N-element array. The total radiation pattern T (w. The sidelobe level of an array intrinsically depends on the element positions (d) and the weights (w). d.1) where k = 2π / λ . θ ) = f (θ ) AF (w. The problem can be extended to arrays with distinct antenna elements in a straightforward manner. given by T (w.

81 linear array consists of finding the optimum combination of weights and element positions that minimize the sidelobe level. The beamwidth is then the angular range in which the radiation pattern is not to be minimized. a new method must be developed to determine the optimal sidelobe-minimizing weights. To accomplish this. Since the optimum weights can be determined for every linear array. 6. Section 6.3 determines optimum weights for a linear array with arbitrary element positions. Letting Θ represent the angles in which the radiation pattern is to be suppressed. Let the positions of an arbitrarily spaced N-element linear array be described by the vector d. θ ∈Θ (6.θ ) | . the sidelobe level (SLL) can be written mathematically as SLL = max | T (w. The optimum sidelobe-minimizing weights are therefore the solution to the optimization problem given in (6. .3. The sidelobe level will be defined as the maximum value of the total radiation pattern outside of the main beam.3) The normalized radiation pattern is constrained to be unity towards the desired direction ( θ d ). however. Determination of Optimum Weights for an Arbitrary Linear Array For non-uniformly spaced linear arrays. their results only apply for symmetric arrays and real-valued weights. an optimization procedure using linear programming (LP) was developed for sidelobe-level minimizing weights.4). d. the problem reduces to finding the optimum positions that (along with the corresponding optimum weights) yield a sidelobe level that no other combination of weights or element positions can improve upon. In [27].

n =1 N (6. Selection of the sample points is discussed at the end of the section. This problem can be put into a fairly simple convex optimization form.8). d. C N is the set of all N-element vectors with complex components.t.7) Next. θ 2 . To accomplish this. (6. d.4) In (6.K. given in (6. w N .θ M . d. while the beam is maximum in direction θ d . w N .82   min  max | T (w. the weights are first expressed in terms of their real and imaginary parts. RE IM can be written as an optimization problem (with variables w1RE . θ )} = f (θ ) ∑ {wn cos(kd n cos θ ) + wn sin (kd n cos θ )} . which is rapidly solvable and solutions are guaranteed to be globally optimum.5) The real part of the total radiation pattern can then be written as RE IM Re{T ( w.4). n =1 N (6.θ ) | w ∈ C N θ ∈ Θ  s. Θ is partitioned into M discrete sample points θ1 . w1IM .θ d ) = 1 (6. .6) and the imaginary part as IM RE Im{T ( w. T (w. d. RE IM wn = wn + jw n . K . and the complex weight vector w is the variable in the problem. ti and si ). θ )} = f (θ )∑ {wn cos (kd n cos θ ) − wn sin (kd n cos θ )} . Minimizing the magnitude of the total radiation pattern at a fixed position θ i .

10) . ti and si are dummy variables.sinp 1i L cosp iN .8) can be rewritten into the simpler form given in (6.θ d )} = 0 (6.θ i )} ≤ si Re{T (w.  cos p 1i . d. let pn = kd n cos θ i ). d.θ d )} = 1 Im{T (w.8) on the real part of the total radiation pattern can be written as a linear i inequality (for notational simplicity.sinp iN . min t i2 + s i2 s. A i Z ≤ 0 BZ = 0 (6.1 0    w1RE  0  IM     w1  0  M   M     RE  w N  ≤ 0   IM    . − t i ≤ Re{T (w. the constraints on the imaginary part of the total radiation pattern can also be expressed in this form.t.  w N  0   t  0   i     s i  0    (6.θ i )} ≤ t i − si ≤ Im{T (w.8) In the above optimization problem. d. Hence. (6.cosp N sinp N .cos p 1 sinp 1 L .1 0  f (θ i )  i i i i  .t. The inequality constraints in (6.10).9) Similarly.83 min t i2 + s i2 s. d.

Writing T (θ ) = F (θ ) + jI (θ ) in terms of its real and imaginary parts. M s. Z is a vector of the problem variables ( RE IM w1RE . The optimization problem of (6. min max t i2 + s i2 i =1. w1IM . This procedure can be accomplished at every location θ i for which the total radiation pattern is to be suppressed. si ). and 0 is a vector of zeros. Finally. A i is the matrix that describes the inequality constraints.11) Adding the constraints for all M positions to be included in the matrix A. Extend the vector Z to include the weights and all the dummy variables: RE IM Z T = [ w1RE w1IM L w N w N t1 t 2 L t M s1 s 2 L s M ] .t.10) can be extended into the form given in (6.12) is also a convex function (as derived in Chapter 4). (6.10). ti . the pointwise maximum in (6. Since t i2 + s i2 is a convex function for all i . To have a maximum at θ d . (6. wN . w2 . which is easily solved numerically [81].K. AZ ≤ 0 BZ = 0 (6. the problem in (6.84 In (6.12).12) This problem will minimize the array factor at all desired locations.12) does not guarantee that the magnitude of total array radiation pattern is a maximum at θ d (the maximum could be anywhere outside the region Θ ). B is a matrix that describes the equality constraints. a necessary condition is for the derivative of the squared magnitude of the radiation pattern to be zero.L. it follows that .10) is a simple quadratic program.

dθ (6. This problem can be solved via a standard numerical optimization routine. which implies that the squared magnitude of the total radiation pattern has zero derivative if F′ = d Re{T (w. M. and the solutions represent global optima [66]. or via commercial software such as MATLAB (for example. and it can be added to the matrix B. even in between the sampled points. Usually. the total radiation pattern can be plotted to show that the sidelobes are indeed suppressed as desired. In .14) This constraint is also a linear constraint on w. Once the weights are determined. The only question left then is the selection of the number of sample points.13) At θ d . d. The only two values of θ that need to be selected are those that define the boundary of the main beam. the equality constraints force F=1 and I=0. the remaining values can be selected fairly sparsely. (6. In summary. the method is sufficient to have the maximum of the radiation pattern in the direction θ d (at least for all cases considered in this chapter). using the function fminimax). it is desirable to choose sample points as closely spaced as possible to guarantee the radiation pattern is suppressed. When this is implemented. the result is that (6.12) represents a convex optimization problem and is therefore solvable. In theory.85 dT ⋅ T ∗ dT ∗ dT =T +T∗ dθ dθ dθ = ( F + jI )( F ′ − jI ′) + ( F − jI )( F ′ + jI ′) .θ d )} = 0 . a spacing of 5° between sample points is sufficient.

the method works with sparse spacing.16) Two cases will be analyzed in this chapter.86 practice. broadside ( θ d = 90° ) N-element linear arrays of omnidirectional [ f (θ ) = 1 ] antennas are considered. 2 ∆ ° = 30 ° . this method suppresses sidelobes outside a specified beamwidth. 6. as will be seen in the Section 6. Case 1 will have a large beamwidth 2 ∆ ° = 60 ° . and consequently. the results are the same . The goal is to determine the optimum element positions for minimizing sidelobes. θ ∈Θ (6. d. Broadside Linear Array In this section. and Case 2 will have a relatively small beamwidth. The sidelobe level (SLL) for a given weight vector w can be expressed in dB as SLL (w ) = max 20 log10 | T (w. A minimum inter-element separation of 0. and it is advantageous to choose a sparse sampling to speed up the computation time. the difference is extremely small and the weights are the same to at least three significant digits for the arrays in question. The method developed in this section will return weights almost identical to that of the Dolph-Chebyshev method for uniformly spaced linear arrays of omnidirectional antenna elements. The discrepancy results from the Dolph-Chebyshev method using null to null beamwidth and suppressing sidelobes outside of that region. However.15) (6.4.5. However.25λ can be enforced. then the region Θ in which the radiation pattern is to be minimized can be written as Θ = {θ : 0° ≤ θ ≤ θ d − ∆ or θ d + ∆ ≤ θ ≤ 180°} . θ ) | . the global bound on sidelobe level for linear arrays. Suppose the desired beamwidth is 2 ∆ ° . which isn’t necessarily null to null.

the reader is referred to [17. For linear arrays with more than two elements.0 . For a detailed discussion of the details of PSO that goes beyond the elementary discussion in Chapter 4. The algorithm is run using the PSO parameters set to wV = 0.0 . the problem is a function of a single variable ( d 2 − d1 = element separation and hence a global optimum can easily be found). the optimum weights are calculated and the sidelobe level is determined. For an array with two elements (N=2).5 . 82]. c1 = 2. d. For each position vector. Since for any array configuration d the optimum weights can be found. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method was found to be suitable for this task. For the results presented in this work. the problem now becomes one of finding the best antenna element positions to minimize the SLL. While no method short of an exhaustive search can guarantee a global optimum for problems such as these (many local minima in the objective function). Each run of the algorithm is executed for approximately 20-200 iterations. intelligent use of PSO will give high confidence that the solutions are indeed globally optimum. and c 2 = 2. the PSO is used by initially choosing a set of P random arrays (these are the particles used in PSO). or long enough such that several iterations no longer . a search method needs to be employed that is rapid (without excessive computation time) and accurate (solutions are consistent and no other method leads to a better solution).87 whether or not this constraint is applied since the elements will tend to separate largely from each other to achieve low sidelobes. and the process is repeated. The arrays are described by a vector of element positions. The element positions are updated via the PSO technique.

The weights given in Table VII are identical to the Dolph-Chebyshev weights (to at least 3 significant digits). Table V also gives the approximate time per simulation on a single 3. P is increased until consistency is achieved. The number of particles required appears to grow roughly as N! which indicates PSO cannot consistently return optimum solutions for large arrays. but are found to be real valued. the optimum arrays are very regular.2 1. The weights for this case are allowed to be complex.88 decrease the objective function. with either uniform or nearly uniform spacing. The number of particles P required for regular convergence is given in Table V. and because the number of antenna elements is small. If repeated use of the algorithm does not produce identical results. TABLE V NUMBER OF PARTICLES REQUIRED FOR CONVERGENCE FOR VARYING ARRAY SIZE WITH SIMULATION TIME Array Size (N) 2 3 4 5 6 7 P 2 4 16 100 700 3000 Time (Hours) 0. this method is fairly certain to return the globally optimum array if the number of particles is large and repeated application of the algorithm returns identical arrays. For both cases. Because the arrays (or particles) start from random positions every time.05 0.0 GHz processor running MATLAB (speedup by approximately a factor of S can be obtained if the code is written for S-processors in parallel). Case 2 has .3 7 50 300 Results for broadside arrays of size N=2-7 elements are presented in Tables VI-IX (note that d1 = 0 for all arrays in this chapter).

333 3.340 0.02 -16.333 1. consistent with results developed in [83].107 0.166 0.044 0.000 2.154 0.05 -39.667 0. TABLE VI OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 (BW= 60°.227 0.667 2.333 1.333 d5 d6 d7 0.247 0.667 2.667 0.286 0.024 w2 0. Because the results for Case 1 have uniform spacing.000 SLL (dB) -6. in which the beamwidth is reported to decrease with increased array length.166 0.286 0.62 TABLE VII OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 (BW= 60°.227 w4 w5 w6 w7 0. However.667 3.000 2.290 0.429 0.89 a larger array length.667 0.024 .000 2.154 0.107 w3 0. and the results for N=7 are shown in Figure 22.667 0. N 2 3 4 5 6 7 d2 d3 1.333 1.346 0.667 2. θ d = 90° ) N 2 3 4 5 6 7 w1 0.286 0.247 0. this will not hold in future scenarios.000 2.333 1.90 -27.500 0.500 0.667 0.346 0. θ d = 90° ) Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.21 -62.083 0.044 0. the method in [15] correctly determines the optimum sidelobe level for this problem. The magnitude of the array factor for both cases is shown in Figure 21 for N=6.45 -51.290 0.333 4.083 0.

044 0.346 0.059 0.130 0.589 1.178 3.90 TABLE VIII OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 2 (BW= 30°.166 0.198 w4 w5 w6 w7 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.589 d5 d6 d7 0.154 0.794 0.794 0.15 -30.166 0.589 1.044 0. θ d = 90° ) N w1 w2 w3 0.383 3.500 0. N 2 3 4 5 6 7 d2 d3 1.383 2.794 0.500 0.060 .794 0.199 0.97 3.383 2.95 -6.127 0.383 2.247 0.340 0.59 -12.794 0.346 0.290 0.97 4.429 0.589 1.227 0.794 2.247 0.154 0. θ d = 90° ) Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.286 0.286 0.178 3.762 SLL (dB) -1.18 -24.290 0.083 0.178 3.589 1.07 TABLE IX OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 (BW= 30°.24 -18.083 0.

θ d = 90°) Figure 21. θ d = 90°) Figure 22. θ d = 90°) (b) ( BW = 30°. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=7).91 (a) ( BW = 60°. θ d = 90°) (b) ( BW = 30°. (a) ( BW = 60°. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=6). .

250 0. This problem is solved in an identical manner to that in Section 6. and Figure 24 plots the results for N=7.76 -5.512 1. as in [30]. X∠Y is equal to X cos(Y ) + jX sin(Y ) . Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.74 -12. it is clear that it is more difficult for a linear array to have low sidelobes when it is scanned away from broadside.5. The weights found in this section are complex. TABLE X OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 (BW= 60°.92 6. a minimum separation of 0. Array Scanned to 45 Degrees Suppose now the goal is to find the optimum array pattern for an arbitrarily spaced N-element linear array scanned to 45 ° from broadside ( θ d = 45° ).432 1. for this problem.912 2.162 SLL (dB) -0.64 -19.475 0.25λ ) for many of the cases. The positions found are very irregular.44 -8. For clarity. Consequently.975 1.4.25λ between elements was enforced. The magnitude of the array factor for both cases is shown in Figure 23 for N=6.725 1. Comparing these results to Section 6. the arrays tend to favor closely spaced elements.250 0. N 2 3 4 5 6 d2 0. However.60 .762 1.707 d5 d6 d7 1.442 1.250 0.4. The elements favor having at least one element separation being the minimum allowable ( 0. The optimum element positions and the weight vectors are given in Tables X-XIII.508 0.250 d3 1. θ d = 45° ).

θ d = 45° ) Error! Objects cannot be created from editing N d2 d3 d5 d6 d7 SLL (dB) . N=5 N=6 0.386 ∠5° w1 w2 N=4 0.850 2.359 ∠63 ° 0.00 TABLE XI OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 (BW= 60°.231∠51 ° 0.293 ∠260 ° 0.425 ∠43 ° 0.250 0.501∠231 ° 0. θ d = 45° ) (a) Results for N=2-4.108 3.427 ∠279 ° 0.345 ∠246 ° 0.172 ∠132 ° 0.169 ∠145 ° 0.734 1.415 ∠250 ° 0.057 ∠25° w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 TABLE XII OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 2 (BW= 30°.465 ∠248 ° 0.275 ∠292 ° 0.22 ∠135 ° 0.499 0.408 ∠21 ° 0.292 ∠272 ° 0.369 1.935 -23.195 ∠48 ° 0.258 ∠257 ° 0.146 ∠44 ° 0.304 ∠45 ° 0.287 ∠30 ° 0.297 ∠227 ° w3 w4 w1 w2 (b) Results for N=5-7.195 ∠143 ° 0.167 ∠37 ° 0.237 ∠121 ° N=7 0.93 7 0. N=2 N=3 0.

335 ∠248 ° 0.250 0.218 ∠248 ° 0.030 1.302 0. N=2 N=3 0.31 -3.469 ∠47 ° 0. θ d = 45° ) (a) Results for N=2-4.657 3.196 ∠49 ° 0. 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.361∠64 ° 0.130 2.77 -6. N=5 N=6 0.535 0.362 4.976 2.373 2.5∠224 ° 0.85 -10.250 0.123 0.355 ∠223 ° 0.94 field codes.380 2.50 0.250 2.385 ∠70 ° 0.165 ∠111 ° 0.34 ∠211 ° w1 w2 N=4 0.298 ∠226 ° 0.524 ∠248 ° 0.18∠238 ° 0.653 2.926 2.068 ∠251 ° N=7 0.252 ∠247 ° 0.933 2.92 -8.186 ∠169 ° 0.36 TABLE XIII OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 (BW= 60°.39 -12.23∠49° 0.21∠42° 0.250 0.163∠164 ° 0.322 ∠224 ° 0.162 ∠7° w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 .245 ∠69 ° 0.617 3.806 4.293 ∠228 ° 0.195 ∠175 ° 0.298 ∠37 ° 0.112 3.191∠330 ° w3 w4 w1 w2 (b) Results for N=5-7.056 -0.

6.95 (a) ( BW = 60°. θ d = 45°) Figure 24. θ d = 45°) Figure 23. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=6). θ d = 45°) (b) ( BW = 30°. 6. (a) ( BW = 60°. Array of Dipoles Scanned to Broadside . θ d = 45°) (b) ( BW = 30°. Magnitude of array factor for optimal arrays (N=7).

788 2.693 0.4. The problem is solved again as in Section 6.276 w4 w5 w6 w7 2 3 0.96 The broadside case is considered again.087 2.90 TABLE XV OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 WITH DIPOLES (BW= 60°.696 0.391 1.448 . The magnitude of the total radiation pattern for both cases is shown in Figure 25 for N=6.00 -45. (6. N 2 3 4 5 6 7 d2 0.452 1.405 4.703 0.086 SLL (dB) -11.15 -22.500 0.043 2. θ d = 90° ) Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.681 d3 1.362 d5 d6 d7 2. The resulting optimum element positions and weights are given in Tables XIV-XVII. θ d = 90° ) N w1 w2 w3 0.069 2.793 0.17) For this case.116 2.276 0. this time assuming the antennas are short or ideal dipoles having a normalized radiation pattern f (θ ) = sin θ .403 1. TABLE XIV OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) FOR CASE 1 WITH DIPOLES (BW= 60°.382 1.4.500 0.755 2. and Figure 26 gives the results for N=7.40 -56.441 3.50 -66.726 0.724 3. no minimum separation is required since the elements tend to spread out as in Section 6.38 -34.

915 0.288 0.25 0.106 0.239 w4 w5 w6 w7 2 3 4 5 6 0.023 0.351 0.143 0.779 1.341 0.273 0.97 4 5 6 7 0. θ d = 90° ) Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.238 0.292 0.58 TABLE XVII OPTIMUM WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 WITH DIPOLES (BW= 30°.227 0.270 0.283 0.292 0.500 0.516 2.528 3.860 d3 1.192 5.675 2.043 0.706 d5 d6 d7 2.224 0. N 2 3 4 5 6 7 d2 1.900 1.043 0. θ d = 90° ) N w1 w2 w3 0.876 0.500 0.082 0.168 0.090 .951 0.224 0.178 0.842 0.723 1.150 0.246 0.023 TABLE XVI OPTIMUM ELEMENT POSITIONS (IN λ ) AND SLL FOR CASE 2 WITH DIPOLES (BW= 30°.313 0.130 0.343 0.165 0.681 1.50 -33.139 0.565 2.347 0.148 0.220 0.087 0.227 0.93 -15.351 0.362 4.233 4.64 -9.70 -27.70 -21.024 SLL (dB) -4.463 3.358 3.106 0.165 0.079 0.224 0.

θ d = 90°) (b) ( BW = 30°.208 0.062 (a) ( BW = 60°. θ d = 90°) Figure 26.196 0.047 0.134 0. Magnitude of the total radiation pattern for optimal arrays of dipoles (N=6). θ d = 90°) Figure 25. (a) ( BW = 60°. . θ d = 90°) (b) ( BW = 30°.231 0.98 7 0. Magnitude of the total radiation pattern for optimal arrays of dipoles (N=7).122 0.

6.4. Because of the linearity in Maxwell’s equations. This is evident by comparing the results of this section and Section 6. compared with the results of Section 6. Without mutual coupling. The individual dipole’s radiation pattern works to lower the total radiation pattern away from broadside. This matrix can be modeled as [85] C = Z L (Z + Z L I) −1 . (6.4. Mutual Coupling Mutual coupling is present in all antenna arrays to some degree. the extent to which the above results vary due to mutual coupling is considered. (6. it is reasonable to model the coupling as a linear system. This coupling affects the radiation pattern of the elements which can degrade the overall radiation pattern [84].18) where C is a square matrix known as the mutual coupling matrix.19) . Consequently. Hence the relationship between the ideal and actual array outputs can be written as X actual = CX ideal .7. the output of the array will be written as X ideal . so that an array of dipoles has lower sidelobes than an array of omnidirectional radiators. In this section.4.99 The results of this section. the output of the array will be written as X actual . show that the optimum linear array element positions (and associated weights) will be different depending on the type of antenna elements used in the array. The elements in this section have a larger spacing than the broadside array considered in Section 6. this helps to lower the overall sidelobe level. When mutual coupling is present.

100 where Z L is the load impedance in each element. In (6-19), Z is the impedance matrix, which relates the current into each antenna to the voltage, V=ZI. (6.20)

If the mutual coupling matrix is known, then the array input can be pre-multiplied by the inverse of the coupling matrix to obtain the decoupled weights, as in (6.21).

X = C −1 X actual
Since the output of the array is given by

(6.21)

y = w H X = w H C −1 X actual ,
the optimal weights derived in section 6.3 can be replaced by w ′ = C −1 w opt . opt

(6.22)

(6.23)

The resulting total radiation patterns will then be the same as presented here, to the extent that the mutual coupling matrix model is correct. Experimental results by Huang et al. [85] suggest that the model performs fairly well. A circular array of dipoles was considered in that work, which will necessarily have a strong degree of mutual coupling because the elements are each in line with the other element’s direction of maximum radiation. Using (6.23), the compensated radiation patterns for the arrays were compared to the ideal or non-coupled case and the results were found to be in agreement. Hence, it is expected that arrays without such a strong degree of coupling (as commonly used in practice), can also be accurately modeled using (6.18) and (6.19). 6.8. Conclusions This chapter determined the limits of performance on linear arrays of size N=2-7. A method of determining globally optimum weights for minimizing sidelobes for a given

101 linear array was presented. The elements were then varied in position until it was certain that a global optimum was found. Consequently, it is very likely that no other weight strategy or element placement scheme will lead to sidelobes lower than those presented in this paper. These results can be used as a benchmark in comparing existing array performance to determine if it is worth updating the array placement or weighting strategy.

VII. MINIMIZING SIDELOBES IN PLANAR ARRAYS 7.1. Introduction The natural next step in studying sidelobe-minimization in antenna arrays is to look at two-dimensional or planar arrays. In this chapter, many of the ideas from Chapter 6 are extended to two-dimensional arrays, which are mathematically similar but the total radiation pattern is more complex. Sidelobe minimization has received renewed interest due to the difficult nature of the wireless channel. To block interference, it is best to place nulls in the direction of the interference. However, this often does not work well in practice. For example, the European standard for 3rd generation of mobile communication is known as Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). In this scheme, the same frequency spectrum is shared simultaneously by all users; for an in-depth description, see [86]. Consequently, interference is a major problem. These systems are designed to work with a large number of users, and since an N-element antenna array can only place N-1 nulls, an impractically large number of antennas would be needed to null out signals from all directions not of interest. In addition, due to multipath effects, each signal will be arriving from several distinct angles, which further reduces the performance of a nulling based approach. In [87], the performance of arrays with different weighting methods used in WCDMA systems are compared. It was found that for a large number of interferers, a low sidelobe method will outperform a nulling method. The low sidelobe method is also preferred because no processing needs to be performed to determine direction-of-arrivals for varying signals. Hence, as the capacity requirements of wireless

In Section 7. In addition. the weights will continue to be constant (not a function of frequency) so that the weights derived are easily implemented in a real system. The chapter is organized as follows. sidelobe-minimizing weights are developed for two-dimensional arrays of arbitrary elements.5. In addition. which is a major restriction. the results are clearly suboptimal in viewing the resulting sidelobes. In Section 7. To address this. the results of that work assume all signals arrive from a fixed elevation angle.4. However. the WCDMA systems should not be modeled using a single-frequency or narrowband total radiation pattern. The sidelobe-minimizing weighting methods will be extended to work for wideband arrays.103 communication systems increase. In Section 7. This method does incorporate the antenna patterns into determining the weight vector.2. wideband arrays will be studied in the latter half of this chapter. the author develops a wideband weighting method that works for 2D rectangular arrays. In [88]. Previous work has been performed in an attempt to develop wideband sidelobe-minimizing weights. Other wideband weighting methods use antenna coefficients that vary with frequency in order to improve the radiation pattern over a range of frequencies. In Section 7. In this chapter. optimal arrays and sidelobe levels .3. methods for reducing sidelobe levels will become increasingly important. which increases the utility of the method. the two-dimensional sidelobe minimization problem is addressed. This is done using a tapped delay line filter in [89]. and with a recursive filter in [90]. optimal arrays and sidelobe levels are obtained for arrays of omnidirectional antennas of size N=4-7 for two distinct beamwidths.

A method of determining weight-minimizing sidelobes over a range of frequencies is developed in Section 7.6. D.0) as shown in Figure 27.7. y n . and conclusions presented in Section 7. k y ) = n=1 ∑w N n f n (k x . at z=0.8 optimal arrays and sidelobe levels are obtained for wideband arrays of patch antennas. 7.104 are obtained for arrays of patch (or microstrip) antennas. The position of the n th element is d n = ( xn . Figure 27. k x .2. k y )e j ( k x xn + k y yn ) (7. in Section 7. Two-Dimensional Symmetric Arrays The elements of the array are assumed to lie in the x-y plane. Finally. Optimal arrays and sidelobe levels are obtained for wideband arrays of omnidirectional antennas in Section 7.9.1) . Arbitrary planar array. The output or radiation pattern of an antenna array (or spatial filter) is given by T (w .

2) T (w. k yd ). ( N +1) / 2 T (w.2) if there is an element at the origin (odd number of elements). 0) . k y ) + f (k x .105 where wn is the weight multiplying the signal of the n th element. k yd ) = (0. D. allowing efficient computation of the results. k x . and to have a specified beamwidth for the main beam. It is desired for the array pattern to have a maximum at the desired direction. .− y n . the radiation pattern for the entire antenna array takes the form given in (7.3). denoted (k xd . k y ) = f (k x . the radiation pattern will have the form given in (7. Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Two-Dimensional Arrays (7. This chapter deals with two-dimensional arrays with symmetry about the origin. That is. k x . D. If there is an even number of elements. It will be assumed that the array positions D are known. k y ) = w1 f (k x . k y ) is the antenna gain for the n th element in the direction determined by (k x . if an element is located at d n = ( xn . When the antennas in the array are identical (have the same individual radiation pattern). the array is to be steered toward θ d = 0 or (k xd . and f n (k x . y n . k y ) N /2 n =1 ∑ 2w n=2 n cos(k x x n + k y y n ) (7.3. k y ) ∑ 2wn cos(k x xn + k y y n ) 7. The results are now extended for twodimensional arrays of non-isotropic elements.2.3) A method of sidelobe minimization for symmetric linear arrays with real weights was given as an example in Section 4.0) . This constraint keeps the array factor real when the weights are real. there exists another element in the array with the same weighting coefficient located at − d n = (− xn . k y ) .0) and not at the origin.

106 The discussion will follow the development in Section 4. k y ) space in which the sidelobes are not to be suppressed. k y ) outside of this region do not correspond to any value of (θ . For a circular transition region.2.  λ      (7. The suppression region Θ is now two-dimensional. The suppression region is illustrated in Figure 28 in (k x . the cutoff region occurs when θ ≥ θ c . . k y ) plane with magnitude less than 2π / λ is commonly referred to as the visible region. and a circular transition region will be assumed. The suppression region can be specified as 2     2π   2 2 2 Θ = (k x . Values of (k x .4) where a cutoff value ( k c = 2π sin θ c / λ ) is specified. k y ) space. The region in the (k x . φ ) at the frequency of interest. The transition region is defined as the region in (k x . The cutoff value dictates how wide or narrow the array’s mainbeam is to be. k y ) : k c ≤ k x + k y ≤    .

5) can be rewritten as affine inequalities exactly as done in (7. Hence. k xi . the constraints in (7. D. Each sample point is denoted by (k xi .2. i = 1. k yi ) |≤ t . The suppression region can be sampled at R places as in Section 4.5). it is suppressed even between sample points. Suppression region for two-dimensional arrays. 0) = 1 | T (w. 2. K . D. R . as seen in (7. 0.5) . k yi ) for i = 1. The parameter R is chosen sufficiently large such that when the resulting radiation pattern is plotted. R The constraints in (7. 2. K. t. T (w.5) are again linear functions of the weights.2-7. The LP problem of (4-20) is rewritten to include the nonisotropic element pattern in (7.3). min t s.107 Figure 28.

the sidelobe level for the linear phase-tapered array is -10. Using this beamwidth to define the suppression region as in Figure 28. The optimal array factor is plotted. When the array is steered to broadside. The result is that the problem of finding the optimal sidelobe-suppressing weights for two-dimensional array of non-isotropic elements is again a linear program.2) will be used for comparison. The beamwidth is 30 ° .9 dB. The positions and optimal weights are listed in Table XVIII. As an example. . in Figure 29 (elevation plot for φ = 0° ) and Figure 30 (elevation plot for φ = 45° ).9 dB. and therefore rapidly solvable. The sidelobe level for the array factor with the optimal weights is -13.77 λ . consider the 7-element hexagonal array of Figure 19. A weighting method with a linear phase-taper (from Section 3. but with a radius of 0.2. along with the array factor using the phase-tapered weights.108 Section 4. the optimal weights can be determined.

Array factors for optimal weighted and phase-tapered array ( φ = 0° ). .109 Figure 29.

the procedure of Section 7. It is assumed that the array is scanned towards (θ d .133 0. 0) (0.385.385.4 Sidelobe-Minimizing Weights for Scanned Two-Dimensional Arrays In this section. TABLE XVIII OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR 7-ELEMENT HEXAGONAL ARRAY Position Weight ± ± (0. φ d ) .667) 0.133 7. Array factors for optimal weighted and phase-tapered array ( φ = 45° ). 0.133 0.110 Figure 30. so that the wavevector components in the desired direction are k xd = 2π sin θ d cos φ d λ (7.77.6) .200 0. 0) ± (0.667) (-0. 0.3 is extended for two-dimensional arrays scanned from broadside.

The results are compared to the performance of an array with a linear phase taper. The first is the polar (elevation) beamwidth ∆θ . . which is the beamwidth when the azimuth angle is fixed at φd .3 must be used.2° .111 k yd = 2π sin θ d sin φ d λ (7. φd ) = (90°. as discussed in Section 3. will not produce optimal weights when the array is to be steered from broadside. An example will now be presented using this method.04 dB. As a result. ∆θ / 2 = 68 . The method of Section 7. The maximum sidelobe level is -12. The magnitude of the array factor is plotted in Figure 31.7) Two beamwidths are specified.7° and ∆φ / 2 = 38. A 5x5 rectangular array with uniform spacing of λ / 4 is used. in which the weights are real. the method can be directly implemented for the two-dimensional case. The beamwidth selected for determining the optimal weights is identical to the result for the linear phase taper array for comparison. Once the suppression region has been specified as in Figure 28. Hence.3. 0°) .2. The array is scanned to (θ d . which is the beamwidth when the polar (elevation) angle is fixed at θ d . the complex method of Section 6. The second is the azimuth beamwidth ∆φ .

9) k xθ = 2π ∆θ   sinθ d −  cos φ d 2  λ  ∆θ   sinθ d −  sin φ d 2  λ  (7.10) k yθ = 2π (7. k y ) plane. (b) azimuth plot. The following parameters are defined that indicate the boundary of the suppression region in the (k x . (a) elevation plot. Increasing φ for a fixed elevation angle is equivalent to moving in a circle (at a fixed distance from the origin) in the (k x . k y ) plane: k xφ = 2π ∆φ   sin θ d cos φ d +  2  λ  ∆φ   sin θ d sin φ d +  2  λ  (7. k y ) plane.11) Increasing θ for a fixed azimuth angle is equivalent to moving outward in the radial direction in the (k x . . |AF| for phase-tapered weights.8) k yφ = 2π (7.112 Figure 31.

and they are listed along with their respective positions in Table XIX. Figure 32. . The sidelobe level is reduced to -31. the optimal weights can be determined. in Figure 33 for an azimuth scan with a fixed elevation angle ( θ = 90 ° ). Suppression region for an array scanned away from broadside. along with the array factor using the phase-tapered weights. The array factor using the optimal weights is plotted. the suppression region Θ has the form plotted in Figure 32 for this example.113 Consequently. The elevation scan is plotted in Figure 34 with a fixed azimuth angle ( φ = 0° ). Employing the method of Section 6.3 with the suppression region in Figure 32.2 dB. showing the superiority of this method over the linear phase-taper method.

5.5) 0.25.5) 0.25) 0. 0) 0.184 ∠118 ° (0.5) 0.5.5) 0.25) 0.25. -0.196 ∠143 ° (0.25. 0. 0.066 ∠126 ° (-0. -0.5.25.418∠4° Figure 33.179 ∠133 ° (-0.060 ∠137 ° (0. 0. -0.25) 0.211∠142 ° (-0.25.020 ∠288 ° (-0.25) 0. 0) 0. 0.25.166 ∠355 ° (-0.5) 0.5.25. 0.291∠256 ° (-0.5. Azimuth plot of array factors with optimal and phase-tapered weights.182 ∠246 ° (0. 0.25) 0.137 ∠113 ° (0.25) 0.25.182 ∠246 ° (0.5.090 ∠234 ° (0. 0) 0.5. 0.114 TABLE XIX OPTIMAL WEIGHTS WITH ASSOCIATED POSITIONS Position Weight Position Weight (-0.174 ∠346 ° (-0.103 ∠246 ° (0.5.108 ∠244 ° (-0. -0.5.5) 0. 0) 0.25) 0.210 ∠350 ° (0.185 ∠350 ° (0.25) 0.25) 0. -0. -0.5) 0. -0.5.25. -0. 0) 0.227 ∠227 ° (0. 0.180 ∠221 ° (0. -0.25) 0.126 ∠235 ° (-0. 0.5) 0. 0.5) 0.067 ∠168 ° (0.204 ∠22 ° (0.192 ∠31 ° (0.5) 0.25. -0. .

accompanied with the optimum weights of Section 7. so that f (k x . 7. as in (7. Elevation plot of array factors with optimal and phase-tapered weights.115 Figure 34.5. the optimum weights are . The goal of this section is to determine the geometry that.2. The algorithm is again run with P particles. k y ) = 1 . As the element positions are varied. (7. The positions will be varied using the PSO algorithm as in Chapter 6 in order to determine an optimal geometry for minimum sidelobes. The particles move around and interact via the PSO algorithm. The parameters and method of implementation used are the same as in Chapter 6.2) and (7.3). Symmetric Arrays of Omnidirectional Elements In this section. the antennas are omnidirectional.12) The array elements are allowed to assume an arbitrary geometry. yield the minimum sidelobe level. subject to the arrays being symmetric.

A linear array cannot suppress sidelobes in two dimensions because the pattern of a linear array is only a function of one variable. In Case 1. The cutoff value can be calculated to be k c1 = 2π π sin(30°) = . The sidelobes will therefore be suppressed when θ ≥ 15 ° . along with the average simulation time. Results will be presented for arrays of size N=4-7.14) For symmetric arrays. λ λ (7.518π sin(15°) = . λ λ (7. The number of particles is increased until successive runs of the algorithm return identical results. The number of particles required for regular convergence is given in Table XX.0 GHz processor running MATLAB. The simulations were performed on a 3.116 calculated for each particle (or array) at every iteration. the weights and the array geometry are simultaneously optimized. this indicates the sidelobes are to be suppressed when θ ≥ 30 ° . the beamwidth will be 60 ° . it is likely that the results are globally optimal. . as the symmetry forces the arrays to be linear.13) For Case 2. there exists no optimal 2 or 3 element symmetric arrays. Because the algorithm starts with random and independent particles (or arrays) every time. Two cases are considered in this section. a smaller beamwidth of 30 ° is considered. The cutoff value is then kc2 = 2π 0. and because the algorithm consistently returns identical solutions. Consequently.

5 7 10 The optimal arrays for Case 1 are plotted in Figure 35. The optimal array when N=7 is also a hexagonal array. the magnitude of the array factor is plotted as a function of the elevation angle θ for several azimuth angles. The corresponding optimal weights are given in Table XXII. . The result for N=6 is distinct. This indicates a circularly symmetric mainbeam. as expected with a circular suppression region.117 TABLE XX NUMBER OF REQUIRED PARTICLES FOR PSO AND COMPUTATION TIME FOR N=4-7 N 4 5 6 7 P 290 300 800 1000 Time (hours) 3 3. In Figure 36. the optimal arrays are close to being circular with an increasingly large radius. 5. The mainbeam is almost identical within the transition region ( θ ≤ 30 ° ) for distinct azimuth angles. as it takes a cross shape. and a center element if the array has an odd number of elements.6. For N=4. as discussed in Section 5. The optimal positions are listed with the sidelobe levels in Table XXI. 7.

24.67) .67) (0. 0) (0. 0) (0.67) -5.118 Figure 35.52) (0. y 2 ) ( x4 . 0.9 (-0. 0.9 -7. y 3 ) ( x1 . 0. 0) (0. 0) (0.67) (0.9 -13. y1 ) ( x2 .45.5 -6. 0. Optimal symmetric array locations for Case 1 (dimensions in λ ). 0.67. y 4 ) SLL (dB) N=4 N=5 N=6 N=7 (0. 0) (0.77.39.39.41. TABLE XXI OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 1 (DIMENSIONS IN λ ) ( x3 . 0) (1. 0) (0.

133 0.442 0. The results for N=6 differ significantly between the two cases. N=7.133 Figure 36. The arrays for this case are similar to the results for Case 1 except they are spread out farther. The results for Case 2 for N=6 and N=7 are almost identical. which is expected for a narrower mainbeam. Note that the addition of this .133 0. Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuthal angles (Case 1). The positions and sidelobe levels for this case are presented in Table XXIII. indicating that the results can have significant variance depending on the beamwidth.183 0.200 0.444 0. The optimal weights are listed in Table XXIV. the difference being the center element.400 0.159 0.556 0.119 TABLE XXII OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 w3 w1 w2 w4 N=4 N=5 N=6 N=7 0. The optimal arrays for Case 2 are plotted in Figure 37.183 0.268 0.

Figure 37. The magnitude of the array factor at distinct azimuthal angles is plotted in Figure 38 for the N=7 array. The extra complexity introduced by adding a seventh element in this case would not be very beneficial. The mainbeam is again identical when θ ≤ 15 ° for distinct azimuth angles. .1 dB. Optimal symmetric array locations for Case 2 (dimensions in λ ). indicating a circular mainbeam.120 element only lowers the sidelobe level by 0. This information would be advantageous to an array designer in determining the number of elements needed to achieve a sidelobe level.

46.79.268 0.133 Figure 38.46.7 -5.159 0.80) -1. 0) (0.92.121 TABLE XXIII OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 2 (DIMENSIONS IN λ ) ( x3 . y 3 ) ( x1 .80) (0.9 -3. y 2 ) ( x4 .46.46. Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuthal angles (Case 2). 0) (0.133 0. 0.400 N=7 0.8 TABLE XXIV OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 w3 w1 w2 w4 N=4 0.79) (-0.339 N=5 0. .92. 0.2 -5. 0) (0.183 N=6 0. 0.200 0.80) (0.183 0. 0. 0) (0.70) (0. 0.442 0. 0) (0. N=7. 0.133 0. y 4 ) SLL (dB) N=4 N=5 N=6 N=7 (0.661 0. 0) (0.80) (-0.49. y1 ) ( x2 .

16).15) (7. the far field components of the electric field are approximately given by (7. adding . and L is the length of the patch. W is the width of the patch. φ ) =  θ E  0   Eφ   +   E    0 2 2 (7.122 7.10). However. When a microstrip or patch antenna has a thin dielectric. The method of solution is identical to that in Section 7. The pattern here is complicated enough that it is highly unlikely that an analytical weighting method can be developed that minimizes the sidelobes in an patch array.16) The normalized pattern to be used for f (θ . In (7. For θ > π / 2 .6.34 dB.17) In this section.15) and (7. The directivity for this antenna can be numerically calculated to be 9. the patch dimensions are chosen to be W=L=0.9-7.1) will be E f (θ . which is the region below the patch. using the development of Section 7.3.  kW sin θ sin φ  sin   2  cos kL sin θ cos φ  cos φ  Eθ = E 0   kW sin θ sin φ  2  2  kW sin θ sin φ  sin   2  cos kL sin θ cos φ  cos θ sin φ  Eϕ = − E0   kW sin θ sin φ  2  2 (7. symmetric arrays of patch antennas steered to θ d = 0 are considered. the radiated fields will assumed to be zero.2. when the polar angle θ ≤ π / 2 [91]. k is the free-space wavenumber. φ ) as in (7. Symmetric Arrays of Patch Antennas In this section. The patch pattern is plotted in Figure 39 for two fixed azimuth angles.5 λ .

(a) φ = 0° (b) φ = 90° Figure 39. the optimal arrays for Case 1 (beamwidth equal to 60 ° ) are presented in Figure 40.123 the pattern does not significantly increase the difficulty of determining the optimal weights. Using a realistic. The optimal arrays of patch antennas are skewed . The two cases discussed in Section 7.3 are again considered here. Magnitude of patch pattern (in dB). complicated antenna pattern helps to highlight the utility of the LP method of weight selection. Using the solution method discussed previously.

3. The arrays are more spread out (or elongated) because the array factor effectively has a narrower main-beamwidth (due to the patch pattern which decreases in magnitude for θ > 0° ). as seen in Case 2 of Section 7. . however they are slightly rotated and more spread out. 5 and 7 are fairly similar to the Case 1 results of omnidirectional elements. The directivity of this array is evaluated numerically to be 17. The results for N=4. The result for N=6 is a significant departure from the omnidirectional case.67 dB. The corresponding optimal weights are listed in Table XXVI. which indicates that the antenna pattern must be taken into account in determining an optimal geometry.124 somewhat owing to the non-isotropy of the antenna pattern. The positions and optimal sidelobe levels for Case 1 of patch elements are listed in Table XXV. The narrower mainbeam leads to more spread out arrays. The magnitude of the radiation pattern is plotted in Figure 41 as a function of θ for three distinct azimuth angles for the N=7 array.

42) (0.00.5 (.57) (-0.6 -21. y 2 ) ( x4 .54. y1 ) ( x2 .37. .61. 0.85.65. -0. Optimal symmetric patch array locations for Case 1 (units of λ ).49.34.46. -. y 4 ) SLL (dB) N=4 N=5 N=6 N=7 (0.77) .04) -12.00) (0.53) (.01) (0. -.50. -. 0.5 -13. y 3 ) ( x1 . 0.-0.69) (0.74) (0.32.00) (0.42) (0.1 -16. 0. TABLE XXV OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 1 OF PATCH ELEMENTS (UNITS OF λ) ( x3 .125 Figure 40. .00.68) (0. 0.

The optimal arrays are plotted in Figure 42. while the result for N=7 is again a hexagonally sampled array. N=7 (patch).191 0. The arrays for this case are fairly similar to the results of Case 1. Case 2 (beamwidth equal to 30 ° ) is considered with patch elements. The result for N=6 is more symmetric and less football shaped.132 0.133 0. except for again being spread out farther.256 0. Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (Case 1).126 TABLE XXVI OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 1 WITH PATCH ELEMENTS w3 w1 w2 w4 N=4 N=5 N=6 N=7 0.234 0. .135 Figure 41.193 0.218 0. Next.233 0.244 0.133 0.124 0.

The optimal weights are given in Table XXVIII. Figure 42. . Optimal symmetric patch array locations for Case 2 (units of λ ). The magnitude of the radiation pattern is plotted as a function of θ for distinct azimuth angles in Figure 43 for the N=7 array. The sidelobe level increased on average by 7.5 dB when compared to Case 1 of Section 7.127 The optimal positions along with the sidelobe levels are listed in Table XXVII.4.72 dB. The directivity of this array is evaluated numerically to be 17.

y 2 ) ( x4 . . 0. N=7 (patch). Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (Case 2). 0.05.184 0.94) (0.61) (0.58.061 0.159 N=7 0. -0.63.6 -10. 1. 1. y 3 ) ( x1 .02) (0. -0.7 -7.00) (0.163 0.228 N=5 0.77.64. 0.161 0.11.01) TABLE XXVIII OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR CASE 2 WITH PATCH ELEMENTS w3 w1 w2 w4 N=4 0.178 0. -0.194 0.20.11) (0.00.60.7 (1.00) (1.12) (0.145 Figure 43.128 TABLE XXVII OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR CASE 2 OF PATCH ELEMENTS (UNITS OF λ) ( x3 . 0.5 -9.51.00.01) -5.219 N=6 0. -1.61) (1.99) (0. -0. 0.05) (0. y 4 ) SLL (dB) N=4 N=5 N=6 N=7 (0.272 0. y1 ) ( x2 .27.163 0.

3 could be extended such that every constraint is duplicated at every frequency.  (7. While this would be technically correct. However.7. (k x .129 7. λ ) | . The minimum sidelobe level in a wideband array is written as SLL = max | T (w. the optimization would often be computationally intractable. d. arrays transmit and receive information over a range of frequencies.  . Wideband Weighting Method The previous efforts have been focused on optimizing an antenna array for minimizing sidelobes at a single frequency. and in the region given by θ ≥ θ c for all frequencies. k x .19) The weighting method used in Section 7.  λ L λU where f L < fU . . In this section. a more efficient method is developed. k y . generally centered about some carrier frequency.18) where again Θ is the region in which the sidelobes are to be suppressed. An array that has low sidelobes at a given frequency is not guaranteed to have low sidelobes at other frequencies within the band the array is operating in. fU ] =  . This interval will be written as c c [ f L . k y . In practice. Hence. a method of choosing weights that yield the minimum sidelobes over a range of frequencies is developed. λ ) ∈ Θ (7. particularly for 2D arrays or for very wideband arrays. this was the method proposed in [92]. It will be assumed that the sidelobes are to be suppressed within a continuous frequency range. would add an intractable number of constraints. to do so.

Most antennas will exhibit a notable change in radiation pattern over the band of operation. For the wideband case. d. the variation of the antenna pattern with frequency should be .21) with the wavevector definitions in (2. This is not true for the element pattern. λ L ]. λ ) . (7.23) Equation (7. T (w. λ ) AF (w. the total radiation pattern is written as the product of the element pattern and the array factor.130 Defining   2π sin θ c  Θ(λi ) = (k x .   (7. k x . In this case. k y . k x .3 given in (7. f (k x . k y ) = n=1 ∑w e n N − j (k x xn + k y yn ) . (7. k y . k y ) :   λ  i     2π  2  ≤ k x2 + k y ≤    λ    i  2 2   . λi (7.15-7. d. k y . λ ) = f (k x . which cannot be written as only a function of two variables.17). This can be seen from the patch element pattern of Section 7.21) where the union is over all wavelengths within [ λU . which in general will not be independent of λ when k x and k y are specified.7) as AF (w.23) indicates that the array factor does not depend on λ when k x and k y are specified. d.20) it follows that Θ = U Θ( λi ) .22) The two-dimensional array factor is rewritten from (2. k y . k x . λ ) .

k y ) = (2π / λU .25) minimizing the right hand side of (7. The minimization is performed over the region specified in (7.21). For instance. the auxiliary antenna pattern reduces to the antenna pattern at the frequency of interest. (7. For the narrowband or single frequency case. λ ) |≤ H (k x . k y ) = f (k x . the only frequency that has this value in the visible region is f = fU . k x . k y . k y ) is in the visible region. d.131 taken into account.24).24) is taken only over the frequency range for which (k x . λ L ] (7. k y ) plane beginning at the cutoff value for the lowest frequency (k cL ) . it follows that | T (w. k y ) | AF (w. as shown in Figure 44. k y ) | . k y ) is defined as H (k x .19). Letting k cL = 2π sin θ c .26) λL the suppression region for the wideband case can be illustrated graphically. Note that the maximum in (7. λ ) . k y . the total radiation pattern as a function of frequency can be minimized by (7.24) This auxiliary antenna pattern is the maximum value of the antenna pattern evaluated at (k x . an auxiliary antenna pattern. Using (7. To accomplish this.22) and (7. at the value (k x . and extending the region to the largest wavenumber in the visible region at the highest frequency (2π / λU ) . Hence. The wideband case is equivalent to minimizing the sidelobes in the (k x . d. H (k x . . max λ ∈ [λU . which is only a function of k x and k y . 0) . k y ) over the frequency range of interest. k x .

28) In (7. 2. k y ) AF (w. The solution to (7. R (7.5) is rewritten for the wideband case in (7. d.22) yields weights that produce the minimum sidelobe level over the frequency band of interest. 0) = 1 | G (w. D. K . G (w. k yi ) |≤ t .132 Figure 44. k x . min t s.27) the single-frequency sidelobe minimizing optimization problem of (7. 0. the R samples are sampled over the suppression region illustrated in Figure 44. k y ) = G (w. (7. i = 1. k xi . k x . D. k y ) . Suppression region for two-dimensional arrays over a frequency band.28).22). d. Writing H (k x . . t.

λ j within the frequency band. In this section. φ . the arrays are optimized to determine the minimum sidelobe level over a range of frequencies. φ .5. φ .133 When the antenna elements do not have significantly different radiation patterns over the frequency band of interest.2.8. Optimal Wideband Arrays of Omnidirectional Antennas In this section. (7. which is equivalent to the total radiation . 7. Hence.29) for all λi . λ j ) . f (θ .5 [93].30) where f c is the center frequency. the antennas are referred to as frequency independent. The frequency range will be specified by the fractional bandwidth (FBW). so that f (θ . fc fc ( fU + f L ) / 2 (7. FBW = f − fL fU − f L ∆f = U = . the optimization in this section will focus on the array factor. (7. λi ) ≈ f (θ . the radiation pattern can be approximated. determining the wideband weights is as simple as extending the suppression region as in Figure 37 and using the procedure of Section 7. Fractional bandwidths are considered wideband when 0. λ ) = 1 . and are considered ultra-wideband when FBW ≥ 0. an ultra-wideband case is considered in which FBW=0. The antenna elements are omnidirectional and independent of frequency over the frequency range of interest. For this case.2<FBW<0.50.31) When the antenna’s radiation pattern is independent of frequency over the bandwidth of interest.

Optimal symmetric array locations for FBW=0. The optimization procedures that were applied in the previous sections of this chapter are again sufficient for the problem at hand. Note that the results are now given in units of λc = c / f c . Figure 45. so that the sidelobes will be suppressed when θ ≥ 30 ° for all frequencies.134 pattern for this case.5 (units of λc ). The resulting optimal arrays are found for N=4-7 and are presented in Figure 45. The optimal positions are also tabulated in Table XXIX. . the beamwidth will be 60 ° . For comparison with the results of Section 7.4. The corresponding optimal weights are listed in Table XXX.

9 dB for N=6.0 -7.183 0. 0.204 0. 0.39) (0. This is not a large penalty in SLL for greatly extending the bandwidth.0) (0. In addition.7 dB for N=7.71. .189 0.44.56) (0.33. 0.160 The results are interesting when compared with the narrowband results of Section 7.311 N=5 0. The SLL increased on average of 3.9 -6.160 0.36. 0) (-.043 0.36. The arrays are slightly less spread out as in the narrowband case.44) (0.61) SLL (dB) -2.6 dB when the array is designed to perform in this ultra-wideband situation.169 0.135 TABLE XXIX OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL ELEMENTS (UNITS OF λc .61) ( x4 .204 N=6 0. Since it is now a function of frequency.56) (0.0) (0. 0. The total radiation pattern for the optimal array of size N=7 is now presented. y 4 ) N=4 N=5 N=6 N=7 (0. y1 ) ( x2 .51. the pattern will be plotted as a function of θ for distinct azimuth angles at the lower frequency ( f L .44) (-0. 0. the SLL increase was 6.4 -3.160 0.0.0.33. the center . 0.169 0.5) ( x1 . y 3 ) (0. The result for N=6 is a circular array in the wideband case.169 N=7 0.0) (0. whereas it was a cross shape for the narrowband case. FBW=0. which is relatively large.2 TABLE XXX OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL ELEMENTS (FBW=0.65. y 2 ) ( x3 . given in Figure 46). 0) (0. in extending the array from narrowband to ultra-wideband. However. 0.5) w3 w1 w2 w4 N=4 0.4.44. -. the SLL increased by only 1. 0.

as desired. Figure 46. and the upper frequency ( fU . given in Figure 48). given in Figure 47). .2 dB) in the suppression region. the beamwidth is less than 60 ° and the sidelobes never rise above the SLL (-7.136 frequency ( f c . However. Note that the beamwidth varies depending on the frequency. Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = f L . for all frequencies in the range of interest.

137 Figure 47. . Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = f c .

7.11) will now be rewritten as a function of frequency in (7.9-7.33). 0 0     2 2 (7.33) λ The normalized pattern to be used for f (θ . but can be made to have a wider bandwidth using various methods including adding slits [94] or adding a U-slot to the patch [95].5. λ ) =  θ     E  + E  . φ ) as in (7.138 Figure 48. The bandwidth is selected to be FBW=0. Optimal Wideband Arrays of Patch Antennas In this section.1) will be  E (λ )   Eφ (λ )  f (θ . The beamwidth will again be 60 ° for comparison with the results of Section 7.  πW sin θ sin φ  sin   λ  cos πL sin θ cos φ  cos φ  Eθ ( λ ) = E 0   πW sin θ sin φ λ  (7.32-7. which is much smaller than the ultra-wideband case of Section 7. given in (7.7 but still wideband enough that the narrowband assumption is not valid.9. Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = fU . The normalized field patterns for the patch.34) is that E0 is approximately constant over the frequency range of interest.34) The implicit assumption in (7.2. . Patch antennas have radiation patterns that vary significantly with frequency. wideband arrays of patch antennas are examined. φ .32) λ  πW sin θ sin φ  sin   λ  cos πL sin θ cos φ  cos θ sin φ  Eϕ ( λ ) = − E 0   πW sin θ sin φ λ  (7.32-7.

The seven element array is again approximately . The corresponding optimal weights are listed in Table XXXII. The results are again given in units of λc = c / f c . The resulting optimal arrays are found for N=4-7 and are presented in Figure 49. The arrays are similar to the narrowband case of patch elements with the same bandwidth given in Figure 33.2 (units of λC ). Figure 49.139 The PSO algorithm is again applied to determine the optimal positions. Optimal symmetric patch array locations for FBW=0. The optimal positions are also tabulated in Table XXXI.

320 0.2) ( x3 .128 Finally. TABLE XXXI OPTIMAL SLL AND POSITIONS FOR PATCH ELMENTS (UNITS OF λc . -0.49.49) (0.07) (-0. the SLL increased by 1.215 0.8 -12.7 -18.00) (0. 0. the total radiation patterns for the optimal N=7 arrays are again plotted at the lower. -0.90) (0. y 4 ) SLL (dB) N=4 N=5 N=6 N=7 (0.53.56. y1 ) ( x2 . when measured in units of the center wavelength. the center frequency ( f = f c ) radiation pattern is given in Figure 51. y 3 ) ( x1 .0.0 -14.30) (0.2) w3 w1 w2 w4 N=4 0. 0.0) (. FBW=0. 0.0) (0.01) -10.188 0.140 hexagonal.84) (0.87) (0.142 0.169 0.136 0.01.99.0 dB) in order to extend the bandwidth. The radiation pattern at the lower frequency ( f = f L ) is plotted in Figure 50. The N=5 element array exhibited the lowest rise in sidelobes (only 1.185 0.9 dB in order to guarantee the sidelobe level over the frequency range of operation.0.180 N=5 0. 0. On average.11. 0. 0. -0.1 dB) by extending the bandwidth of the array.91. 0.45. The N=7 element array exhibited the highest rise in sidelobes (3. y 2 ) ( x4 . center and upper frequencies for fixed elevation angles.197 N=6 0. 0.10.268 0.75) (0. The arrays for this case appear to be spread out further than the narrowband case. which has been a recurring theme throughout this work.76) (0. -0.50.100 N=7 0. and the upper frequency ( f = fU ) radiation .5 TABLE XXXII OPTIMAL WEIGHTS FOR PATCH ELEMENTS (FBW=0.

.141 pattern is plotted in Figure 52. the beamwidth again varies depending on the frequency. Figure 50. the variance is less pronounced in this case because of the lower fractional bandwidth considered. However. Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = f L . As seen in the ultra-wideband case.

Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = f c . .142 Figure 51.

Optimal weights were derived that minimize the sidelobe level over a range of frequencies.10. Conclusions The sidelobe minimization technique was extended from 1D to 2D in this chapter. In . The PSO method was again effective in optimizing the array geometry. Magnitude of T (θ ) at distinct azimuth angles (N=7) for f = fU . 7. The arrays were then studied over a wide frequency range.143 Figure 52. It was seen that the optimal geometry varies depending on the beamwidth and antenna elements used in the array. This optimization technique has proven to work well for a wide variety of problems. Hence. if an array is used over a frequency range. the narrowband optimization technique will not be optimal. The optimal geometries and weights were found to vary with the fractional bandwidth used by the array.

.144 addition. the method lends itself well to be employed using parallel processing. which can significantly speed up computation time.

improving the performance of an adaptive array was considered. The relatively new field of convex optimization will likely be a tremendously effective tool as it makes its way into the antenna field. a critical parameter in wireless communication. CONCLUSIONS. the performance can be optimized on average over the likely scenarios in which the array is to perform. In addition. The interference-suppression capability of adaptive arrays was shown to vary with geometry.1. as optimizing over a specific situation would not have been extremely useful for an adaptive array. In this manner. It was shown that the interference allowed through the spatial-filter (that is the antenna array) can be lowered by varying the geometry. Because of the difficulty in analyzing an array’s geometry. However.VIII. In Chapter 5. this lowering of interference power was then shown to often translate into gains in overall SINR. . AND FUTURE WORK 8. Summary and Conclusions The primary goal of this dissertation has been to show the effect of an array’s geometry on metrics of interest. the geometry is often chosen to be a standard geometry in practice. the optimization of the geometry was of interest. These metrics include sidelobe level. this work has shown that gain in performance can be achieved via suitable optimization of the array geometry. SUMMARY. Because of the wide range of environments in which these arrays operate. and consequently. The secondary goal has been to improve upon existing weight-selection strategies via convex optimization. interferencerejection and SINR. the concept of an interference environment was introduced. This was a necessary development.

and antenna type. Optimal symmetric planar arrays of size N=4-7 were found for two beamwidths. scan angle. Since the optimal weights can be found for any array geometry and any antenna type. the optimal sidelobe level for 2D or planar arrays was considered. In addition. instead of at a single frequency as is done in the narrowband case. arrays of omnidirectional elements and short dipoles were examined to show the effect of the antenna’s radiation pattern on the optimal geometry. The derivation of the weights presented in Chapter 6 was a significant expansion of the capabilities of that method. In Chapter 6. This weighting method is valid for . a method of minimizing sidelobes in wideband planar arrays was developed. beamwidth. The total radiation pattern depends on both the weights. determined the optimal sidelobe levels for linear arrays of size N=2-7. and for arrays with either omnidirectional or patch antenna elements. the only variables remaining were the array positions. the process of determining the minimum possible SLL in a linear array was developed. The methods for minimizing sidelobes in linear arrays were extended to the planar case.146 Sidelobe level was shown to be critical in WCDMA systems in [87]. Sidelobe minimizing weights were derived that suppress the sidelobes over a range of frequencies. The Dolph-Chebyshev sidelobe-minimizing weighting method was derived in 1946 [21] and has been used extensively since its publication. that along with the optimal weights. and for two different beamwidths. In Chapter 7. The PSO algorithm was employed to determine optimal positions. Sidelobe-minimizing weights were derived that can be efficiently computed for any linear geometry. Results were presented for linear arrays steered to broadside and 45 ° . In addition. positions and elements in the array. weights and sidelobe level.

147 arbitrary bandwidths, beamwidths, antenna types, and planar array geometries. The positions were optimized simultaneously with the weights to determine optimal sidelobe levels for wideband arrays. Results were presented for an ultra-wideband case of omnidirectional elements, and for a wideband case of patch antenna elements. Throughout this work, the hexagonal array has been a recurring optimal twodimensional array. For interference suppression, the optimal 7-element array was a closely spaced hexagonal array. For sidelobe suppression in the planar case, the hexagonal array arose as the solution for distinct element types and beamwidths. Hence, when using an array with a number of elements that fits well with the hexagonal structure, it is likely that this geometry would be a good starting point. As the traffic in wireless communication increases, every variable that can be exploited to improve performance will be optimized. Since the demand for higher data rates and reliability for a given bandwidth continues to grow exponentially, it is likely array geometry optimization will be employed in real systems. 8.2. Future Work There is no shortage of applications in which array geometry optimization would prove useful. The obvious next steps would be to continue the work of this dissertation for arrays with a larger number of elements. The minimum sidelobe-producing antenna arrays for one and two dimensions could be studied for increasing number of elements to determine the characteristics of the optimal arrays as the number of elements becomes large. The same extensions could be done to the interference-suppressing adaptive arrays.

148 Another topic of interest would be to optimize the weights and geometries of antennas consisting of non-identical elements. Antenna array analysis is almost exclusively performed with identical elements, and it would be interesting to observe if gains could be made by exploiting elements with different radiation patterns. Another interesting practical problem would be to minimize cross-polarization in antenna arrays while holding a certain criteria constant (SLL, MSE, etc.). This problem could likely be solved in a similar manner to the solution methods of Chapters 6 and 7. Implementing precise weights can sometimes be difficult in actual systems. Hence, deriving an optimization problem that returns weights from a discrete set of allowable weights would be advantageous. Then optimizing over the positions to determine an optimal geometry for the discretized weights could be performed. The geometry-optimization in this work has focused on translating the elements. For non-omnidirectional elements, the array could be optimized by allowing the elements to rotate or be put at an angle relative to the other elements. This would add new degrees of freedom to each element, which could translate to potentially large gains in performance. On the theoretical side, optimization methods for proving an array’s geometry is globally optimal would be of value. This has not been done due to the mathematical intractability of the problem (many locally optimal points). However, as the field of optimization expands, it is possible that a clever technique could be developed to verify that an array is globally optimal.

149 Finally, in digital communications, the bit error rate (BER) for a given data rate is the definitive measure of performance for a wireless communication system. Hence, more general modeling methods that ultimately minimize the BER would be valuable. However, because of the large and complex nature of wireless communication systems, this would not be an easy task.

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