DESCRIBING PROBLEMS

with past participle as adjectives The shirt is stained. *The pen is leaking. The car is damaged in one side The jacket lining is torn. The vase is cracked. The glasses are scratched.

with nouns It has a stain on the collar. It has a leak in it It has some damage on one side It has a tear in it./There’s a hole in it. There is a crack in it. There are a lot of scratches on it.

*Exception: is leaking is a present continuous form.

action taken (what needs to be done)
need + passive infinitive The car needs to be fixed. The chair needs to be repaired The walls need to be painted. need + gerund It needs fixing. The chair needs repairing. They need painting.

Practice
Describe two problems with each thing, using past participle, or noun forms of the following words; break, chip, dent, scratch, leak, tear, stain, crack. Then say what needs to be done to fix them.

(they arranged for someone to repair it) I cut my hair yesterday. They repaired their car. (I cut it myself) I had my hair cut yesterday. (I went to the hairdresser) My computer is not working. but we arrange for someone else to it for us. I need to get it fixed. (they did it themselves) They had their car repaired.………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… GETTING THINGS DONE CAUSATIVE *Have / get + object + past participle = when we do not do something ourselves. *The causative have has two structures which are similar in meaning to the following ones: active *passive .

I'm going to get my car fixed tomorrow. * These causative verbs can be in any verb tense: a. I had my assistant type the report. and make. My mother…………………………………………………………………………… c. My bother is going to record it for me.. but she isn’t good at typing. …………………………………………………. b. I’ve got a class until 8:30 pm and my favorite TV series starts at 7. It needs to be repaired by a mechanic. *more commonly used *We also use causative have when someone does something to us. have. There is a problem with my car engine. Rhonda had to type a report. I need to …. make (as a causative verb) expresses the idea that the person requires another person to do something. It means forcing or strong convincing.Sub/causative/agent /verb / object participle I had Michael mend the car (I arranged for Michael to fix the car) I caused him to mend it).…………………………………….. c. Sub/causative/ object I had the car /past fixed (I arranged for the car to be fixed by someone). *Besides have and get to mean convince someone to do something. Bill had his money stolen by a thief. ………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………. Do you know where I could get a passport photo taken? You can get one taken downtown. usually in informal spoken English. *We can use have +subject + verb. I am making my students write the exam again next week because they did so poorly. . One of the kitchen taps is leaking.30 pm. to have someone do something. My mother will call the plumber to fix it. d. I'll have my lawyer look into it. *Get is possible instead of have. so her sister type it for her. Subject + Make + Person + Base Form of Verb Peter made her do her homework. The teacher made the students stay after class. it implies giving instructions or orders (more common in American English).. *The three verbs usually used for the causative are get. I have to get my wife to pick me up after work because my car is in for repairs. Practice Read the situations a – f and complete the sentences using the causative (HAVE) a. ……………………………………………………………………………… b. I have been having my kids shovel the sidewalks after every snowfall.

tell him what he can have done. you can have pizza or whatever food delivered from some restaurants. Read the clues below and add more to the list. . …………………………………………………………………………………. You have to check in the phone book. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Practice A foreigner is visiting Bogotá and he doesn’t know what things he can have done.e. ………………………. Can I … get a suit or dress made in a department store? get free medical advice over the phone? get shoes shined in a bus or train station? buy a hot meal from a street vendor? have groceries delivered to my home? have shoes repaired on the street? ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… CONVERSATION F. The gardener has planted some roses in our garden.……………………………… f.. Write down a conversation. Miss Mc Clam isn’t available at the moment. ……………………………………………………………. Can I have meals delivered to my home here? A: Well. A photographer is taking her picture.

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