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Building Integrated Photovoltaics: Opportunities 2010
Published July 2010 © NanoMarkets, LC
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Table of Contents
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Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... 1
E.1 The Economics of BIPV: BIPV< PV + Building Materials?........................ 1 E.2 BIPV and Aesthetic Opportunities.................................................................. 2
E.2.1 BIPV, Aesthetics and the New Market for BIPV ................................................................................ 2 E.2.2 Aesthetics, Architects and BIPV .......................................................................................................... 3
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E.3 Market Positioning and Distinguishing Features of BIPV .......................... 3
E.3.1 Current Status of BIPV Products ......................................................................................................... 4 E.3.2 Opportunities for Crystalline Silicon PV Suppliers ............................................................................. 6 E.3.3 Opportunities for Thin-Film PV Suppliers ........................................................................................... 7
E.4 BIPV's Impact on the Construction Industry ............................................... 8 E.5 Opportunities for Building Materials Suppliers ............................................ 8 E.6 Firms to Watch ..................................................................................................... 9
E.6.1 E.6.2 E.6.3 E.6.4 E.6.5 E.6.6 E.6.7 E.6.8 E.6.9 Ascent Solar ........................................................................................................................................... 9 Dow Chemical ........................................................................................................................................ 9 Dyesol and Corus................................................................................................................................. 10 Konarka and Solarmer ........................................................................................................................ 10 Odersun ................................................................................................................................................ 11 Pythagoras Solar .................................................................................................................................. 11 SRS Energy ........................................................................................................................................... 11 Sunovation............................................................................................................................................ 12 United Solar Ovonic............................................................................................................................. 12
E.7 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of BIPV Markets.................................. 13
Chapter One: Introduction ........................................................................................ 16
1.1 Background to this Report .............................................................................. 16
1.1.1 BIPV: The New Value Proposition for Solar .................................................................................... 16 1.1.2 Three Approaches to Building Integration: Rigid, Flexible, Transparent ................................... 17
1.2 Objectives and Scope of this Report ............................................................. 18 1.3 Methodology of this Report ............................................................................ 19 1.4 Plan of this Report ............................................................................................ 20
Chapter Two: Rigid BIPV Tiles, Roofing, and Cladding. . . and Beyond .......... 21
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2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 21
2.1.1 The Market Dynamics of BIPV ........................................................................................................... 21
2.2 Building Materials Markets: A Happy Coexistence with BIPV? .............. 23
2.2.1 The Cost Factor ................................................................................................................................... 23
2.3 Crystalline Silicon PV: Approaches to Building Integration .................... 25
2.3.1 BIPV Tiles and Slates and the Aesthetic Factor .............................................................................. 27 2.3.2 Factors in Favor of Crystalline Silicon BIPV ..................................................................................... 29 2.3.3 Crystalline Silicon's Limitations in the BIPV Market ........................................................................ 29
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2.4 Thin-Film PV and the Rigid BIPV Market ..................................................... 30
2.4.1 Thin-Film PV's Value Propositions ..................................................................................................... 31 2.4.2 Can Thin-Film PV Compete with Crystalline Silicon in Rigid Tiles? ............................................... 33 2.4.3 Thin-Film PV Technologies as they Relate to BIPV ........................................................................ 33
2.5 Key Points Made in this Chapter .................................................................... 42
Chapter Three: Transparent and Semi-Transparent BIPV: BIPV Glass .......... 46
3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 46
3.1.1 Primary Markets for Transparent and Semi-Transparent BIPV..................................................... 46
3.2 Architectural Glass: More than Just Windows ........................................... 47
3.2.1 Cost Advantages of Transparent/Semi-Transparent BIPV ............................................................. 47 3.2.2 Applications of Transparent/Semi-Transparent BIPV ..................................................................... 47
3.3 Semitransparent Approaches to Crystalline Silicon BIPV ....................... 48
3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 Two Innovative c-Si BIPV Glass Products ........................................................................................ 50 Peekaboo Panels: The Aesthetics of Glass Encapsulated Crystalline Silicon PV Cells .............. 50 The Cost of Glass vs. the Cost of the Crystalline Silicon PV Inside .............................................. 51 Advantages and Disadvantages of Crystalline Silicon for Semitransparent BIPV ..................... 52
3.4 Thin-Film PV and the Semitransparent Panel ............................................ 53
3.4.1 See-Through Becomes More Attractive ............................................................................................ 54 3.4.2 Glass Substrate Costs vs. Architectural Glass Costs ....................................................................... 54 3.4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Thin-Film PV for Semitransparent BIPV ............................... 56
3.5 Can BIPV Glass Become Truly Transparent? .............................................. 59
3.5.1 OPV, BIPV and Transparency ............................................................................................................ 59 3.5.2 OPV, DSC and Transparency ............................................................................................................. 60
3.6 Key Points Made in this Chapter .................................................................... 61
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Chapter Four: Flexible BIPV: Laminates, Shingles, and Other Flexible Products ......................................................................................................................... 63
4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 63 4.2 Flexible Building Materials: Ready for BIPV? ............................................. 63 4.3 Flexible BIPV Laminates and the "PV Anywhere" Concept ..................... 64
4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 The Aesthetics of Roll-On BIPV ......................................................................................................... 66 Separate but Less Costly: BIPV Laminates ...................................................................................... 67 Issues with Flexible BIPV Modules .................................................................................................... 68 Newer Approaches to Flexible BIPV Laminates ............................................................................... 70
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4.4 One and the Same: Incorporating PV into Flexible Building Materials 73
4.4.1 The Aesthetics of Invisibility .............................................................................................................. 75 4.4.2 Flexible BIPV Products and Cost ....................................................................................................... 76
4.5 Key Points Made in this Chapter .................................................................... 76
Chapter Five: Eight-Year Forecasts ......................................................................... 79
5.1 Forecasting Methodology ................................................................................ 79
5.1.1 Economics, Construction and BIPV ................................................................................................... 80 5.1.2 Alternative Economic Scenarios ......................................................................................................... 81 5.1.3 Scope of Forecast ................................................................................................................................ 81
5.2 Eight-Year Forecasts of Rigid BIPV Tiles and Panels ............................... 83
5.2.1 Forecast of Rigid BIPV Shipments by PV Technology .................................................................... 83 5.2.2 Cost Assumptions for Rigid BIPV Forecasts ..................................................................................... 86 5.2.3 Forecast of Rigid BIPV Shipments by Product Type ....................................................................... 87
5.3 Eight-Year Forecasts of Transparent and Semi-Transparent BIPV Products ..................................................................................................................... 89
5.3.1 Forecast of Transparent and Semi-Transparent BIPV Shipments by PV Technology .............. 90 5.3.2 Cost Assumptions for Transparent/Semi-Transparent BIPV Forecasts ........................................ 92
5.4 Eight-Year Forecasts of Flexible BIPV Products and Laminates ............ 93
5.4.1 Forecast of Flexible BIPV Shipments by PV Technology ................................................................ 94 5.4.2 Cost Assumptions for Flexible BIPV Forecasts ................................................................................ 96 5.4.3 Forecast of Flexible BIPV Shipments by Product Type .................................................................. 97
5.5 Summary of Forecasts...................................................................................... 99
5.5.1 Summary of Worldwide BIPV Markets by Product Type ................................................................ 99 5.5.2 Summary of Worldwide BIPV Markets by Watts Shipped and Technology Type .................... 100
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Abbreviations and Acronyms Used In this Report.......................................... 103 About the Author .................................................................................................... 104 List of Exhibits
Exhibit E-1 Cost Advantages and Disadvantages of BIPV ............................................................................................................. 2 Exhibit E-2 Aesthetic Advantages and Disadvantages of BIPV ..................................................................................................... 4 Exhibit E-3 Summary of BIPV Markets by PV Technology .......................................................................................................... 13 Exhibit E-4 Summary of BIPV Revenues by Product Type .......................................................................................................... 14 Exhibit 2-1 Cost of PV Systems per Square of Roof Area, 10 Percent Module Efficiency ($) ..................................................... 24 Exhibit 2-2 Peak Power Producible per Square of Roofing ......................................................................................................... 25 Exhibit 5-1 Rigid BIPV Shipments by PV Technology .................................................................................................................. 84 Exhibit 5-2 Rigid BIPV Average Cost ............................................................................................................................................ 86 Exhibit 5-3 Rigid BIPV Products by Product Type ....................................................................................................................... 88 Exhibit 5-4 BIPV Glass Shipments by PV Technology .................................................................................................................. 90 Exhibit 5-5 BIPV Glass Average Cost ........................................................................................................................................... 93 Exhibit 5-6 Flexible BIPV Shipments by PV Technology .............................................................................................................. 95 Exhibit 5-7 Flexible BIPV Average Cost ....................................................................................................................................... 96 Exhibit 5-8 Flexible BIPV Products by Product Type ................................................................................................................... 97 Exhibit 5-9 BIPV Revenues by Product Type ............................................................................................................................... 99 Exhibit 5-10 BIPV Shipments by PV Technology ......................................................................................................................... 101
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E.1 The Economics of BIPV: BIPV< PV + Building Materials?
The three factors that define BIPV's value propositions are (1) its aesthetics and cultural image, (2) its cost, and (3) the market positioning and distinguishing features that BIPV technology provides on the supply side. The most easily quantifiable of these factors is the cost of BIPV. Obviously, like any PV product, cost is a strong factor in consumer choice. However, unlike standard PV, where panels are rapidly becoming commoditized, and the price of a product can be almost everything in a consumer decision (although branding can also play a role), the cost factor in BIPV is more complex. Not only does the absolute price of BIPV matter. NanoMarkets' analysis suggests that in some cases at least the cost of BIPV systems has the potential to be lower than the cost of the conventional PV systems plus the conventional building materials that they replace. One of the biggest opportunities for BIPV, therefore, is that BIPV may be able to provide PV power solutions that lower total building costs, for a building that is planning to use PV in the first place. This is always a good thing and in a construction market that is having serious problems worldwide it is a very good thing! Two caveats about this cost advantage, however. First, the argument only works if PV is being considered in the first place. There may be plenty of other ways to supply electricity to buildings, but obviously PV is a technology on the rise. Secondly, at the present time, the number of instances where the total cost argument can be really proved is fairly limited. Indeed, in an absolute sense, BIPV will never be in a position where it can always be the lowest cost solution. There will always be some conventional building material and some conventional PV panel that, together, are cheaper than a fully integrated BIPV product. And in any case, there can be many reasons why an architect/builder opts for a conventional building material other than cost; most obviously aesthetics or durability. For this reason, BIPV, we believe, will have a rising share of the PV used in buildings, but will never have 100 percent of that market. While this is the part of the story about BIPV cost that leads to an obvious opportunity for panel vendors involved in the BIPV market, we note that cost factors impacting BIPV are quite complex and various. They are also different depending on whether one is talking about conventional c-Si BIPV or the various thin-film BIPV products that are beginning to enter the
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market. With all this in mind, in Exhibit E-1, we summarize the cost advantages and disadvantages of BIPV.
Exhibit E-1 Cost Advantages and Disadvantages of BIPV
Advantages CRYSTALLINE SILICON: Rigid BIPV High conversion efficiency Discrete cells make product layout easy for specified tile dimensions Would presumably have high conversion efficiency if it could be made High conversion efficiency Ease of glazing silicon cells Easily customizable sizes and shapes Disadvantages Sensitivity to silicon market
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Silicon cell rigidity and fragility Wafer thickness constrained by handling No truly flexible solutions at this time Difficult to automate customized assembly processes
THIN-FILM/ORGANIC PV: Rigid BIPV
Lower cost potential of TFPV vs. c-Si PV Can cover larger portions of terraced tiles Inherent flexibility of some TFPV and OPV/DSC Light weight Automated factory production Truly transparency of some may avoid spaces between cells
Lower conversion efficiency Unusual substrate shapes can be problematic Lower conversion efficiency Encapsulation issues Difficult to make custom sizes and shapes Lower conversion efficiency
E.2 BIPV and Aesthetic Opportunities
It was aesthetics that drove the first developments in BIPV as a way to make buildingmounted PV systems look less like power plants. Large roof- or wall-mounted solar panels are not generally considered aesthetically pleasing any more than satellite dishes are; at best people get used to seeing these installations as they become more common. In some cases conventional PV installations can even run afoul of local building ordinances.
E.2.1 BIPV, Aesthetics and the New Market for BIPV
The conventional PV market is, in fact, all about costs. Panel and installation costs along with electricity generation and incentives produce real numbers for hard calculations of cost and payoff, and PV is usually an investment question. This is more so than ever before. There is some segment of the population that wants to install PV, because it is "cool," "green" or "socially responsible" and this segment has been installing PV since the 1970s often in the form of off-grid systems, and often at very high
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costs, but it is the ability of today's PV systems to offer price points that enabled PV to be sold into markets beyond this "enthusiast/activist" market1. And this is also what has led to high levels of interest in PV in the general population. However, the "non-enthusiast" market for PV is unlikely to be motivated by cost factors alone. Precisely because it is a non-enthusiast market, aesthetic concerns are likely to be prominent and, in our opinion, this gives BIPV a significant opportunity to capitalize on its ability to masquerade as an attractive building material and not just an ugly panel that gets fixed to a roof. As such, again potentially, BIPV can not only compete very effectively against conventional PV products, but can also compete to some extent against (high-end) building materials.
E.2.2 Aesthetics, Architects and BIPV
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The aesthetics-based opportunity for BIPV is reinforced by the fact that BIPV use is slanted towards the large commercial and residential buildings in which architects are likely (but not inevitably) involved in the original design. Like anyone else involved on the construction industry value chain, architects spend much of their time dealing with cost issues. However, architecture is in most cases not a business of finding the lowest cost; architecture involves many aesthetic and stylistic concerns that are considered more important than simply going for the lowest cost building. This is why using an architect, rather than simply a builder/draftsman is almost always a very expensive option. In any case, it suggests that the aesthetics of BIPV might well be something that could appeal to architects. Although the degree to which factors other than cost matter, of course, is highly dependent on the particular building, the particular architect, etc. Architects, we believe, can help promote BIPV at a number of levels. As with cost issues described above, there is a lot more to the aesthetics issue relating to BIPV than is covered in the few paragraphs above. Exhibit E-2 illustrates some of the aestheticsrelated advantages and disadvantages of crystalline silicon-based BIPV and thin-film and organic-based BIPV for the different types of BIPV products.
E.3 Market Positioning and Distinguishing Features of BIPV
On the supply side of things, BIPV provides considerable new product opportunities for the panel supplier or even the installer/systems integrator to exploit. This is relative to the conventional PV market where there is little difference between one panel and the next, except
With a little help from government subsidies.
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in terms of panel size and cost; a situation that incidentally invites strong branding efforts in the future.
Exhibit E-2 Aesthetic Advantages and Disadvantages of BIPV
Advantages CRYSTALLINE SILICON: Rigid BIPV Cells fit well into tile-shaped packages Suitable for flush mounting Cell appearance can be attractive Would offer a classic PV appearance if it could be made Custom shapes can be handled with attractive cell layouts Cell appearance can be attractive Disadvantages Cell appearance can be considered unattractive Limited sizes and shapes of cells Silver tabbing usually required Cells too rigid and fragile for flexible BIPV Difficult cell alignment produces irregular reflections Silver tabbing crosses the transparent spaces between cells Some consider cell appearance unattractive
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Flexible BIPV "Transparent" BIPV
THIN-FILM/ORGANIC PV: Rigid BIPV Flexible BIPV
Clean, uniform appearance Suitable for flush mounting Clean, uniform appearance Curved installations possible Versatile for use on many surfaces Clean, factory precision appearance Some may produce transparent BIPV glass with no visible pattern
More or larger panels required for same power Limits to flexibility Versatility can lead to some undesirable installations Custom or irregular panel shapes may have irregular or truncated cell patterns or be impossible
By contrast, BIPV permits a wide variety of product variations in terms of both form and quality and much of this report deals with how that fact is best exploited by BIPV providers. With this in mind, NanoMarkets has defined three primary types of BIPV product which we believe together represent the main product directions for BIPV. These are: rigid (opaque) products, flexible products, and transparent/semi-transparent products. Each class has unique features and concerns in terms of costs. The different PV technologies also each bring their own cost-related benefits and challenges to BIPV.
E.3.1 Current Status of BIPV Products
First-generation BIPV: However—again as we discuss in the main body of the report—while the medium-to-long term potential for product range diversification is very high within the definition of BIPV, it is important for the firm that enters this space to realize that we are only just entering the BIPV era. Just a few years ago, BIPV meant little more than using completely
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conventional panels and hiding them with architectural features. This required some careful roofing design, but this kind of first-generation BIPV really didn't manifest most of the benefits that we see flowing from "real" BIPV. There would be no obvious cost advantages, for example. And while there would be aesthetic benefits, they would tend to be somewhat uni-dimensional. Finally, while this first-generation BIPV enables firms to distinguish themselves in the marketplace, the firms that it enables in this way are builders and installers, not BIPV systems providers. Flush-mounted panels: Currently, a lot of what passes for BIPV are actually flush-mounted panels and little more; again as we have noted, this is a long way from the exciting products that BIPV seems to promise. We believe that such flush-mounted PV panel installations should be considered as BIPV—and consider them such in the report—if the panels are designed specifically for that purpose. When this is the case they approximate the aesthetics expected from BIPV; they certainly provide a more attractive alternative than large rack-mounted systems. They also provide some real market differentiating features for panel suppliers. In particular, we note that these flush-mounted panels provide one of the most accessible BIPV options, especially for small, budget-minded users like most residential users, and especially for retrofits. Since PV is the most cost sensitive portion of BIPV it makes sense to minimize the costs that fall into the PV category and to allow the architectural cost category to "take up the slack". This is hard to do when BIPV consists of flush-mounted but otherwise conventional panels or laminates installed over existing conventional building materials; the PV costs for such an installation are completely obvious because the PV system is installed completely separate from the architectural components. But when fully integrated BIPV products come from a factory with the PV devices already incorporated, or when the building material does not function well without the PV devices or vice versa, the distinction between the architectural and building material costs of a BIPV product and where the PV costs of that product are hidden is much more fuzzy. BIPV can then more easily maximizing the perceived value of the architectural aspects of BIPV products, leaving a smaller portion of BIPV costs to be assigned as PV system costs. This is easiest to do when the conventional building materials that BIPV is designed to match or replace are high-end, high-cost ones. If the building material costs are already comparable to or higher than the cost of PV by itself there is much more ability to absorb a significant part of the PV cost into the cost of the building materials used or replaced. This is already the case for some expensive building materials like some architectural glass or high-end roofing slate. Page | 5
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BIPV's task is to position products as high-end through their design—emulating high-end building materials—or by other marketing means. Eventually the cost of the PV within BIPV products and systems should be low enough in proportion to high-end building materials that it will be (almost) fully absorbable into the cost of those materials. At the very least, the premium commanded for PV should decline to a point where BIPV can be marketed as just another high-end building material in some sense. Declining PV prices will also eventually allow significant portions of PV cost to be absorbed by mid-range and lower-end building materials, enhancing BIPV's market position in those categories. Newer BIPV products: But newer approaches to BIPV can prove more aesthetically pleasing. One of the most attractive newer approaches to BIPV is making BIPV tiles that interlace with conventional roofing tiles. This approach has been used for a few years with crystalline silicon PV and only to a small extent with thin-film PV. But now there is increasing development of interlacing products with slightly different approaches. New CIGS-based flexible roofing products like Dow Chemical's shingle product make additional markets more accessible to PV and BIPV firms. There are also new approaches to making BIPV glass more attractive. Thin-film PV-based BIPV glass is one approach; these panels replace the square-ish silicon cell-space pattern with tighter, more precise pinstripe or other patterns and eliminate the tabbing that spans the spaces between cells. Crystalline silicon still has some advantages for BIPV glass, so any approaches to making the cells look better are certainly worthwhile. Pythagoras Solar takes the path of hiding the cells by turning them on their sides.
E.3.2 Opportunities for Crystalline Silicon PV Suppliers
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One of the major drawbacks of crystalline silicon PV is the fact that it uses silicon wafers and they impact the appearance of the products. There are few ways to avoid having the wafers front and center in the BIPV products, especially BIPV glass products. And while many observers consider the c-Si cell patterns attractive, many others find them unappealing. Thus, there is an opportunity for BIPV suppliers and designers to find ways to camouflage, hide, or otherwise make more universally appealing the crystalline silicon cells that are used in BIPV products. There are also other opportunities for crystalline silicon PV suppliers to profit from the BIPV markets, but they mainly deal with ways of splitting the cost of the PV with the cost of the building materials with which it is integrated. To best do this, we believe, the underlying opportunity is to position the products as high-end "smart" building materials, with the PV
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costs being absorbed in the premium that customers are willing to pay for high-end building materials. This kind of BIPV product, for example, can be made to emulate roofing slate, in terms of dimensions, shape, texture, and color.
E.3.3 Opportunities for Thin-Film PV Suppliers
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While nearly all current BIPV tile products are based on crystalline silicon PV, TFPV can offer better coverage of unusually shaped tiles as well as conformity to tiles that aren't flat. This is a market that is fairly wide open to TFPV suppliers and obviously lends itself to builders, architects and building owners who want their property to look a little bit different. Thin-film PV-based BIPV products are almost always made with thin-film silicon PV, which means conversion efficiency is limited to about 7 percent. But these products compete with crystalline silicon-based BIPV products that may achieve double that efficiency. Therefore, it is quite clear that the markets that TFPV suppliers will be able to address will grow as the efficiencies of TFPV increase. It is also pretty clear that the most obvious and fastest route to higher efficiencies is to use CIGS or CdTe PV technology, but nanocrystalline silicon also offers some potential for efficiency improvements, even if they are several years away. As the highest-performing thin-film PV technology, there are several opportunities available specifically for CIGS PV. The semitransparent BIPV market is dominated by crystalline silicon PV and the more universally attractive thin-film PV-based BIPV glass market is dominated by low-performing thin-film silicon. CIGS-based BIPV glass has the opportunity to offer the aesthetics of thin-film with performance closer to that of crystalline silicon. Flexible BIPV: Similarly, flexible BIPV products have been dominated by thin-film silicon but suffer a performance deficit. CIGS-based flexible BIPV products have the opportunity to provide higher performance—and better market opportunities. Among flexible BIPV laminate producers, there is also an opportunity to boost sales by selling laminates directly to end users. Such direct sales can appeal to PV enthusiasts with limited budgets; those to whom the possession and use of a PV system is more important than ensuring that it is aesthetically installed. Because of their versatility and ease of installation, flexible BIPV laminates offer the best opportunity for such enthusiasts to "do it yourself" and obtain a functional BIPV system without significant installation costs. But this can also be a risky opportunity. Amateur installations run the risk of poor aesthetics and durability problems that may hurt the image of the flexible laminates over the longer term. OPV, DSC and transparency: There is also, we believe, a significant opportunity specifically for organic and dye-sensitized PV—and probably eventually for inorganic thin-film PV as well—for
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producing truly transparent BIPV glass. The opaque cells that are integral to semitransparent BIPV glass have been a deal breaker for the use of BIPV glass in applications where visibility is important, such as in most windows. Truly transparent BIPV glass—with cells that are tinted but not opaque—would open these applications to the possibility of BIPV glass. This is especially true if the PV layer can be made uniformly tinted, without spaces or any opaque traces. OPV and DSC are the closest technologies to achieving this. Something that crystalline silicon won't be able to do within the timeframe covered by this report is to make BIPV glass truly transparent. That opportunity appears to be reserved for OPV and DSC; the inorganic thin-films also may be able to produce a product late in the forecast period. Transparent BIPV glass offers the opportunity to get rid of any visible patterning of the glass—just a tint would be apparent—making the glass more aesthetically pleasing in addition to opening new addressable markets.
E.4 BIPV's Impact on the Construction Industry
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As the construction industry continues in its doldrums throughout the world, with a possible down turn in China likely, construction firms are looking for new ways to boost business prospects. So-called "green building" is appealing from the construction industry's perspective in this regard, because it can add some appeal to buildings, making them more salable in a down market. One can imagine this trend having an impact in the luxury residential sector and for certain commercial buildings where likely occupiers want to create a certain kind of image. Even in the weakest construction markets the desire for retrofits can drive some projects like reroofing. As always, the actual economics of PV in such circumstances—separate from its impact on salability of buildings—can be a bit hard to quantify. But there can be no doubt that BIPV products are very well positioned to take advantage of this opportunity, for all the reasons set out above.
E.5 Opportunities for Building Materials Suppliers
The most important BIPV-related opportunity for building materials suppliers is to form partnerships with the PV firms to develop and produce fully integrated BIPV products. Without such partnerships, it is unlikely that most building products firms would have all the necessary expertise to get into the BIPV market themselves. Indeed, they might well find themselves in a position where BIPV is in direct competition with what they offer.
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Through such partnerships, building materials firms can expand their product offerings to include higher-value BIPV products that can be more profitable than the conventional building materials.
E.6 Firms to Watch E.6.1 Ascent Solar
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Ascent Solar has demonstrated a laminate product called WaveSol Light. This product is claimed to be 8-9 percent efficient, outperforming the currently standard thin-film siliconbased product by 20-30 percent. But as a standalone product WaveSol will face challenges because it will be difficult to share its costs with those of building materials or architectural features. And the product is still undergoing independent certification; Ascent Solar expects it to be complete in 2011. NanoMarkets would like to see this product put into fully integrated BIPV products in addition to being sold standalone. Watch for the product's certification and for sales or deals with building materials companies.
E.6.2 Dow Chemical
Dow Chemical has announced a flexible, fully integrated, CIGS PV-based BIPV shingle called the "Dow Powerhouse Solar Shingle". This product is enabled by Dow's development of flexible encapsulation materials that exclude water from the ultra sensitive CIGS materials inside. The Dow BIPV shingle stands out because it appears set to be the first CIGS-based fully integrated flexible BIPV product. The advantage and opportunity for CIGS is the potential for higher conversion efficiencies than produced by a-Si. Also important is the fact that Dow Chemical is a huge conglomerate that can stand behind its product, especially since the critical encapsulation that is used is such a new development. Dow claims it will sample the product within 2010 and begin volume sales in 2011. Even though Dow is such a strong player we are still a little skeptical about the new encapsulation solution, especially its cost. We have also seen other confident announcements within the CIGS PV industry that have never come to fruition, so any bold CIGS claim must be treated carefully. Watch for the product to stick to its schedule (or not)—especially the commercial sales in 2011.
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E.6.3 Dyesol and Corus
Dyesol is the main driver for the growth of DSC even though its focus is on selling materials and equipment rather than on manufacturing cells. Because the company focuses on building partnerships with companies to integrate DSC with other products, the partnerships it makes and the projects it undertakes can be suggestive of where the DSC industry might find markets within the next few years. Important BIPV-related partnerships and projects Dyesol has made include one with Corus—a major European steel company, now owned by the Indian Tata Group—to develop fully integrated, flexible BIPV roofing products and with Pilkington North America to develop BIPV glass products. Also in development are new transparent electrolytes that will improve the prospects for transparent BIPV glass products. Dyesol's development of transparent BIPV glass is not as far along as it is at some OPV companies but DSC-based products will likely be more efficient than OPV-based ones and eventually lead the transparent segment of the BIPV glass market even if OPV arrives first. Corus project: The Corus project is significant because it represents two important approaches. One is actually using building materials as substrates for PV cells; this more thoroughly integrates PV with the building materials to save costs and to further blur the lines between what is PV and what is building material within the product. It also represents an approach to BIPV that not only acknowledges that illumination will be off-axis and indirect— like all BIPV except during fleeting moments of the day—but also asserts that indirect illumination won't have much impact on the power produced. The importance of this approach is that—if costs can be kept reasonable—much larger portions of a building's skin can become suitable locations for BIPV products. There is the potential for such a DSC-based product installed on an entire roof to produce more power than a more traditional product applied just where sunlight is most direct. NanoMarkets believes that Dyesol is taking an effective approach to promoting the DSC industry and pressing toward commercialization of BIPV products. While it is not necessarily these specific projects (with Pilkington and Corus) that will achieve high volumes, Dyesol's position as an "elder statesman" to the young DSC industry makes it likely that, if these projects are successful, additional similar projects would be spawned.
E.6.4 Konarka and Solarmer
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These two OPV companies are targeting the BIPV glass market with realistic potential to achieve truly transparent products. Konarka has partnered with Air Products, a major chemical company, and Solarmer has partnered with Joel Berman Glass Studios to work
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toward these ends. Konarka is the first and only significant commercial manufacturer of OPV cells, while Solarmer is the record holder for OPV cell performance. NanoMarkets believes that Konarka has the better chance between these two companies of achieving commercial transparent BIPV glass because of its current dominant mindshare and IP position in the OPV space.
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Odersun stands out among thin-film PV-based BIPV glass manufacturers mainly because its thin strips of PV cells—1-cm wide—suggest that assembly of BIPV glass panels may be more customizable than other thin-film PV approaches. And the CIGS technology that Odersun uses can produce higher conversion efficiencies than thin-film silicon. NanoMarkets likes Odersun mainly because of its electrodeposition-based manufacturing process, which seems likely to achieve low costs at modest volumes rather than depending on gigantic factories to bring costs down through economies of scale. We like seeing this approach applied to BIPV glass as well. That said, "assembling" BIPV glass panels from cell strips instead of "building" them on the glass itself makes Odersun less capable of taking advantage of the blending of the costs of the PV and the building materials.
E.6.6 Pythagoras Solar
Pythagoras Solar stands out because of its approach to incorporating crystalline silicon PV cells into architectural glass to form BIPV glass products. Instead of simply fusing cells between sheets of glass and producing the questionable aesthetics of silicon wafers and blocked visibility, Pythagoras hides the cells by turning them horizontal and using a prism system to direct sunlight into them while letting most indirect and other light through. Watch for the company to fulfill its plans of installing systems on demo sites within 2010 and for other companies to try other approaches to making crystalline silicon-based BIPV glass more universally appealing. Also watch for actual conversion efficiency numbers—over the entire window area—to be reported, a metric that becomes tricky when cells are not illuminated in the conventional ways. NanoMarkets agrees that improving the aesthetics of crystalline silicon BIPV glass is a great opportunity. But we are also a little skeptical about the relative cost and performance of this type of system in the long run.
E.6.7 SRS Energy
SRS Energy stands out because it produces rigid BIPV tile products using thin-film PV technology, something that is rare at this point.
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lines have been idled and staffing levels have been reduced significantly. But the window of opportunity for this product will be limited by the low efficiency of the thinfilm silicon PV used. This has been sold in limited markets since 2009 and just received UL certification in July 2010. However. E. The company claims that using Plexiglas reduces the weight of the panels significantly and allows the modules to be formed easily into curved shapes—bending the c-Si PV cells along with them—and even to be somewhat flexible. NanoMarkets. Germany with 450 semitransparent BIPV glass modules.6. This tile uses the laminate to conform to an S-tile shape. a rigid.9 United Solar Ovonic United Solar Ovonic is already the dominant supplier of flexible BIPV laminates. E. and instead of increasing production.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.8 Sunovation Page | 12 Sunovation stands out among crystalline silicon-based BIPV glass manufacturers because it uses Plexiglas instead of conventional glass in its products. Still. membrane. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . it has been over a year and the project consists of only 450 panels. and other roofing firms as well as other building material firms as partners.6. But we are concerned that the soccer stadium retrofit is taking so long. NanoMarkets sees the benefit of light weight and curvability that Sunovation claims to offer with its Plexiglas-based product. The company is in the middle of a 122 kW project fitting the Weser soccer stadium in Bremen. The company has certainly been ambitious in terms of forming partnerships with building material firms. more efficient CIGS-based products emerge in several years. interlacing roofing tile that incorporates United Solar Ovonic's Uni-Solar a-Si PV laminate. this tile is likely to fill a niche that will exist at least until similar. the project began in May 2009 and is still continuing over one year after its start. to produce the Solé PowerTile. The light weight and curvability/flexibility of Plexiglas are the main opportunities that Sunovation recognizes and is trying to take advantage of. the company has dozens of metal. NanoMarkets believes this approach—using thin-film PV on rigid BIPV products—is a good opportunity because TFPV can conform better to tile shapes and dimensions. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. But with both capacity and utilization cut it is questionable how much these partnerships are contributing right now. both as standalone products and as components of fully integrated BIPV products—both flexible and rigid. suggesting difficulties in producing enough modules.net The company has partnered with US Tile Co.nanomarkets. but since then times have not been so good for the company. The company was doing quite well until the global financial crisis erupted in 2008.
2 2.9 947.4 335.net NanoMarkets believes that United Solar Ovonic's troubles are enhanced by the fact that its laminates are only 6-7 percent efficient while other BIPV products routinely exceed 10 percent and even more.877.9 0.1 1.8 75. similar products with higher performance.5 2.6 0.4 0.6 82.7 1.690.5 161.0 7.5 3.3 876.1 1.0 246.1 1.220.353.8 422.9 1.5 23.4 0.425.1 947.4 6.7 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of BIPV Markets Page | 13 Exhibit E-3 summarizes NanoMarkets' forecasts for worldwide BIPV markets by the PV technology used.1 312. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .818.2 417.3 414.2 684.6 6.1 3.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.247.1 0.343.4 0.3 2.062.6 357.6 193.832.025. in terms of megawatts and in dollar terms. The emergence of higher-efficiency CIGS-based flexible BIPV products will increase cost pressure on the company as its low conversion efficiency is compared to new.0 2.532. E.9 4.522.934.2 94.0 738.2 194.2 1.703.404.7 495.0 215. but NanoMarkets is skeptical that that can be achieved in that timeframe.5 2.8 898.101.0 629.2 25.0 25.573.4 1.7 0.7 74.2 3.006.9 1.5 739.686.7 4.6 193.8 202.103.3 551.698.3 7.007.161.0 57.1 2.8 11.0 0.0 128.178.6 4.285. The company has a plan to achieve 12 percent conversion efficiency by 2012.382.3 764.4 4.621.9 474.1 1.306.nanomarkets.1 8.2 1.6 35.2 1.8 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 NanoMarkets.3 121.0 280.9 483.1 2.4 672.7 289.6 1.5 3. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 48.267.9 404.5 16.3 1.469.7 0.6 1.931. Exhibit E-3 Summary of BIPV Markets by PV Technology 2010 Total BIPV Shipments (MW) c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Total Total BIPV Shipments ($ Millions) c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Total 1.2 1.0 5.0 1.0 982.957.7 2.5 4.458.721.608.205.9 555.0 19.
4 8.7 2012 1.1 2.7 1.8 609.8 1.484.7 1.439.5 665.2 2017 3.7 1.539.500 1.1 949.025.220.354.008.3 293.2 2.7 68.934.8 3.5 3.5 148.159.5 259. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.7 6.8 4.537.364.000 3.490. LC thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.5 2.3 676. Exhibit E-4 Summary of BIPV Revenues by Product Type 2010 Rigid BIPV Products ($ Millions) Of which: Flush-Mounted Panels Fully Integrated Tiles Flexible BIPV Products ($ Millions) Of which: Standalone Flexible Laminates Fully Integrated Flexible BIPV Glass ($ Millions) Grand Total ($ Millions) 80.801.7 163.4 719.1 1.nanomarkets.2 548.0 1.9 900.7 1.1 5.000 500 0 © NanoMarkets.500 4.9 1.029.0 330.3 100.500 $ Millions 3.247.0 874.000 18.104.22.168 166.4 1.8 500.072.532.000 4.5 889.6 NanoMarkets.7 2015 1.6 209.6 4.425.608.205.803.0 736.902.460.2 407.1 253.8 16.9 9.158.746.8 3.354.7 2014 1.5 11.8 1.7 289.000 2.500 2.2 2013 1.0 2.1 1.3 108.net Summary of BIPV Markets by PV Technology Page | 14 c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Exhibit E-4 summarizes NanoMarkets' forecasts of BIPV revenues by type of BIPV product.267.2 493.919.3 226.573.8 493.470.8 1.3 2016 2.5 1.5 358.8 2011 862. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .459.NanoMarkets 5.877.
10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0
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Summary of BIPV Revenues by Product Type
Page | 15 Rigid BIPV Products Flexible BIPV Products BIPV Glass
© NanoMarkets, LC
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Total BIPV Product Revenues-2010-2017
18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0
© NanoMarkets, LC
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they have also certainly considered the panels and mechanical systems supporting them to be attractive works of art. it becomes easier for panel makers to show that their products are different from "plain vanilla" panels and also (if they wish) to re-position their products as building materials rather than PV panels if this fits in with their product/marketing strategies. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Both these factors potentially open up new addressable markets. NanoMarkets. This first generation of BIPV systems was primarily architectural in nature. In some cases. BIPV improves the aesthetics of PV and could potentially reduce the total costs of constructing home. Nonetheless. the first generation of BIPV also has been intended to meet the requirements of certain local governments. which have either mandated BIPV or required that PV panels be hidden from view. From the demand side of the equation. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Specifically. However.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. It consisted of attempts to make the PV panels more unobtrusive. Understanding this was what led to the first generation of BIPV product. 1.1 BIPV: The New Value Proposition for Solar Page | 16 Aesthetics: For the earliest adopters of photovoltaics the value obtained from the PV system has often come from a sense that they are complying with the goals of environmental ideology. From the supply perspective. BIPV has the potential to change the terms of reference for the solar panel industry in a number of ways. In addition to helping PV appeal to a broader audience. All of the above should be very welcome news for the PV industry which has lost momentum in the past couple of years as the result of the worldwide recession and the near collapse of construction markets in a number of geographies.nanomarkets. it was always unlikely that PV could spread into large addressable markets based on such drivers. BIPV offers new ways for PV panel suppliers to distinguish themselves in the marketplace.net Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Background to this Report Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) is still a fledgling business and although a wide variety of BIPV products are now on offer the volumes sold are still low.1. such as installing them parallel to the roof surface or even hidden on a flat roof—and without the sun-tracking systems that would boost performance at the expense of a much more visually conspicuous system—and choosing thinner panels. offices and factories utilizing solar panels.
BIPV products. However. presenting customers with similar perceptions to those that they have come to expect from regular PV panels. to opportunities for creating new brands. more specialized products also serve as roofing or cladding themselves or even as skylights or other building features.net These first generation BIPV systems are not our primary concern in this report. Flexible. NanoMarkets believes that the BIPV market into three broad categories. Rather we are more interested in BIPV products as opposed to BIPV design. Transparent Page | 17 From a product perspective. Rigid BIPV products that are available or planned include tiles that are designed to interlace with conventional roofing tiles or cladding materials. which are overwhelmingly rigid. As such. simply look better to most observers.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. the cost of a BIPV system is higher than a standard PV panel of a similar performance. they are relatively low risk. (2) flexible BIPV products and laminates. these possibilities include everything from new marketing channels. It is not yet clear that BIPV has yet reached a point where the expectations set out in the paragraph above are being met and to some great extent. properly installed. they lie flush on a rooftop or wall. the beauty of a building contributes to its value. However. 1. BIPV will stand or fall on whether they are. since the cost of using BIPV materials will be lower than using conventional building materials in conjunction with conventional PV systems.nanomarkets. The BIPV products we have in mind here are those that integrate smoothly with building surfaces.1. the big hope for BIPV is that it can lower the total costs of construction of a BIPV-enabled building. however. Rigid products: Rigid BIPV products represent a minimal departure from the manufacturing of conventional panels. if costs for BIPV begin to reach the point where BIPV products can be positioned as high-end building materials it opens up a lot of new possibilities for solar panel makers who have adopted the BIPV approach. based on the function that the BIPV products serve in the building envelope. to yet another way to distinguish their products from conventional panels. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. At a minimum. a major concern for buildings and systems that will be present for several decades. NanoMarkets.2 Three Approaches to Building Integration: Rigid. and (3) transparent or semitransparent BIPV glass products. believes that there are distinct opportunities in this space that BIPV can tap into in a manner not available to conventional PV panels. larger tiles that serve as entire roof portions or wall portions NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Along with many less tangible benefits. These categories are (1) rigid BIPV tiles and panels. Each of these product categories are at a different level technological maturity and also have significantly different addressable markets. Costs: Inevitably.
LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . For the time being. 1. at least.2 Objectives and Scope of this Report Page | 18 The primary purpose of this report is to examine and quantify the revenue-generating opportunities for BIPV over the next eight years.nanomarkets. they are typically not transparent enough to provide good visibility through the panel and they are thus not used where visibility is important. Flexible products: Flexible PV laminates are a newer direction for BIPV than the rigid systems described above. and shade structures such as canopies and it can often be easily built to custom dimensions and shapes. new construction and retrofits. either by adjusting the number and spacing of crystalline silicon cells or by cutting thin-film PV panels to size.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. commercial and (to a more limited extent) industrial. but the materials and manufacturing platforms necessary to produce a real product of this kind. seem quite far off. primarily thin-film and organic PV. flush-mounted panels that overlay conventional roofing or siding but are specifically designed for flush mounting on buildings.net themselves. But they do offer the opportunity to integrate PV into buildings in places and as part of features where the penetration of some sunlight is desired. Besides flexible PV laminates. and thin. The possibility of windows that are also PV panels has been much talked about. there are also products like flexible shingles that interlace with conventional asphalt shingles. curtain walls. They are also reliant on using newer materials platforms. Also coming soon are flexible building materials with PV cells built or deposited directly onto them. since these materials are flexible and conventional c-Si PV is not. The flexible product segment of the BIPV market clearly involves novel products and as such they represent a riskier business proposition than the rigid BIPV products described above. We perform this analysis for each of the product classes mentioned above and also considering the various addressable markets for BIPV—residential. These products aim to integrate the PV panels more completely with building materials than today's laminates which are applied in a separate installation. The focus is primarily on how BIPV and the firms that make it can build value beyond what can be achieved with conventional PV. It is still an open question as to which of the several thin-film/organic approaches to PV is best suited to flexible PV. which are designed to be glued onto existing building materials such as metal roofing. The initial markets for BIPV glass are in skylights. facades. We also consider the sizes of the various NanoMarkets. Transparent: BIPV glass products are in many cases essentially a way of using glazing to make PV cells and modules into decorative building features.
In this report. we take the approach that BIPV products include those PV panels specifically designed for mounting on (or in) buildings. government resources. We also drew on an extensive search of the technical literature. it has been reinvestigated. The forecasts are worldwide forecasts and we have not been geographically selective in the firms that we have covered in this report or interviewed in order to collect information. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . in fact. Where information has been used in an earlier report.net BIPV markets. Largely. and assess the competitive landscape to determine the suitability and likely volume of each of the transparent conductor types over the next NanoMarkets. That is not to say that the markets and firms considered in this report are geographically homogeneous. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. and reconsidered in light of current developments and updated accordingly. trade journals. our main concern here is with BIPV products. the geographical bias of BIPV—and hence of this report—is determined by the size of the PV market as a whole in certain countries and regions. Some of the historical and background information has also been taken from our 2009 BIPV report and. This report is international in scope. Applications. the roles and strategies of important firms in the industry. we have built on the research we conducted for other recent photovoltaics-related reports including "Materials Markets for Inorganic Thin-Film Photovoltaics: 2010" from December 2009 and "Organic and Dye-Sensitized Cell Photovoltaics: Materials. and Opportunities 2010" from May 2010. As we note above there are three kinds of BIPV products that fit that definition and we discuss all of these in depth in the main body of this report.nanomarkets. in addition. Also. consider the specifics of the applications and the types of products available or under development. 1. including NanoMarkets' ongoing interview program of business development managers and technologists involved with photovoltaics of all kinds. but the basic approach taken here is to identify and quantify the underlying needs and markets that are served by BIPV products. we have noted above. rather than with design/architectural strategies to integrate largely conventional PV technology into buildings. and various collateral items from trade shows and conferences. and the various PV technologies as they relate to BIPV.3 Methodology of this Report Page | 19 The information for this work is derived from a variety of sources. The forecasting approach taken in this report is explained in more detail in Chapter Five.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. but principally comes from primary sources. relevant company Web sites. reanalyzed. the markets are concentrated in certain geographic areas and the firms are concentrated around these markets.
nanomarkets. 1. their market driving aspects. for flexible BIPV products. and the available opportunities that relate to them.net eight years. we consider rigid BIPV products. Page | 20 NanoMarkets. the conventional building materials that they complement and replace. markets.4 Plan of this Report In Chapter Two. In Chapter Three we explore the parallel products. and in Chapter Four. although NanoMarkets critically considers these claims in light of all available data. and opportunities for transparent BIPV products. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. materials. Finally. This analysis includes a focus on the cost of BIPV relative to that of conventional building materials plus conventional PV panels. Chapter Five contains our eight-year forecasts of the markets for BIPV products of each of these three types. The stated plans of the key firms are of course of special interest.
Roofing. In some cases conventional PV installations can run afoul of local building ordnances. at best people get used to seeing these installations as they become more common. As we discuss in the next chapters.1 Introduction The first generation of BIPV consisted of otherwise conventional PV panels mounted flush with roof surfaces as an aesthetic improvement over large conventional roof panels. NanoMarkets. whether per watt or per kilowatt-hour. and Cladding." BIPV products are designed to improve on the aesthetics provided by conventional PV in a large number of ways. This type of PV was generally considered to be expensive compared to other forms of PV. The only sense in which conventional PV aesthetics may be considered favorable is where the building owners installing them. However. Standard rack-mounted panels are almost always the least expensive option in terms of PV system cost. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. a country where there has been considerable enthusiasm for PV for many years. the BIPV market has developed from there to include tiles that interlace with conventional roofing tiles or cladding and larger tiles that can form an entire roof without conventional roofing materials. in part because of the high cost of energy. roof. Aesthetics: Large solar panels. Cost: BIPV products are never the cheapest options. These are listed in no particular order and in fact the market dynamics of BIPV will be established by the balance between these factors at any given time. We doubt whether this is going to change during the forecasting period considered in this report. .NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. .1 The Market Dynamics of BIPV Page | 21 The paragraph above essentially lists all the factors that have shaped and will shape the BIPV market going forward and there are four such factors: aesthetics. This type of BIPV was widely deployed in Japan. wear them as a "badge of honor" demonstrating their "greenness. cost.or wall-mounted are not generally considered as aesthetically pleasing any more than satellite dishes are. BIPV has also taken interesting new directions in the form of semitransparent and flexible products.net Chapter Two: Rigid BIPV Tiles. "green image" and ability to create new products in a market that is rapidly commoditizing. and Beyond 2. for example.nanomarkets. 2.1. but these are discussed in their own chapters. It is these novel products that constitute the bulk of "true" BIPV products at the present time.
to get its products into markets that go beyond the early adopters. for example. an opportunity that could open up markets that would not traditionally be seen as PV markets. Similarly. NanoMarkets. They were also concerned to some extent by "survivalist" considerations (which were very popular back then)." Market positioning and distinguishing the product in the marketplace: Again from the point of view of the supplier. to show off the fact that they were environmental enthusiasts. provided the BIPV products are perceived as premium products themselves. an encroaching problem is the commoditization of solar panels. A good example here would be the many wineries in California that are using PV to drive their irrigation systems. the fact that so many of them are made in China is probably a sign of the times in this regard.net Image: The first people to install (off-grid) PV in their homes—in the 1970s and 1980s—were almost completely concerned with image. This tradition continues today and many firms have installed PV in part to try to impress a customer base that believes being "green" is important.nanomarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. BIPV tiles have an appearance matching or complementing natural slate—along with a high-quality appearance and perception—the portion of their cost assigned to roofing or architectural categories could be similar to the value of the slate that they would replace. From the PV suppliers' point of view. these days image and ideology are likely to be only part of the story. One way around the commoditization of conventional roof panels is with a strong branding effort. But BIPV offers suppliers the ability to even more clearly distinguish their products in the marketplace. If. However. because there are more dimensions along which they can be distinguished. It also creates the possibility of selling a BIPV product as a building material rather than a PV panel. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 22 . The opportunity for BIPV manufacturers is to market their products in a way that produces that perception. As these fully integrated products have emerged the cost equation for BIPV has become more complex— and opportunities have arisen for BIPV to claim comparable costs to conventional PV systems in some cases. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. many residential facilities are using PV to show off their "greenness" in communities where this clearly matters. BIPV products may compete very favorably with high-end conventional building materials. An example of the kind of BIPV that could serve vendor product/market strategies in this regard would be tiles that serve dual function as building skin and PV module. they will have to appeal increasingly to factors other than "greenness. The dollars and cents ROI is almost always going to be part of the economic calculation made by PV users of all kinds. when the cost of the conventional building materials that BIPV products replace is taken into consideration.
For rigid BIPV products that substitute for building materials this is typically roofing material.000 per square. a module of 10 percent efficiency covering one square of roof would produce 929 watts. The cost per watt. At the high end. 2.nanomarkets. and especially cost and therefore provide something of a moving target for comparing the cost of BIPV roofing products to the cost of conventional roofing materials. (A square is a unit of area used to measure roofing materials.29 square meters. equal to 100 square feet or 9. there are several options including wood shingles or shakes.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. And conventional roofing materials cover a wide range of products. all of which are in the range of a few hundred dollars to $1.2 Building Materials Markets: A Happy Coexistence with BIPV? Page | 23 Part of the value proposition of BIPV—and contributing to its aesthetic qualities as well—is the fact that many types of BIPV substitute for some functional building element. This uncertainty can work in favor of BIPV by allowing its cost to be distributed between the PV component and the building material component in different proportions. It is these four factors—aesthetics. asphalt shingles—which are flexible themselves but may accommodate rigid BIPV panels or tiles—range from $100 or less per square to about $200 per square. These conventional roofing materials also differ widely in appearance. whether individual tiles or entire roofs. natural slate roofing can cost upwards of $4.000 or more per square.29 square meters—and the "standard" value used for peak insolation under air mass 1. will vary depending on the materials used for PV and a number of other factors. size. durability. function.2. Thus. overall building cost. and composition.) In between. conventional roofing materials offer a baseline for considering the cost and function of the materials that BIPV products replace. even as the worldwide economy and especially construction markets remain uncertain.000 watts). with differences in form. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .5 (1.1 The Cost Factor Cost of roofing materials: Prices of conventional roofing materials vary.net So the opportunity is there for these fully-integrated BIPV tiles to build an aura of high quality and to emulate or complement high-end building materials. however. concrete and ceramic tiles. of course. and standing seam steel roofing. NanoMarkets. 2. but at the economy end. image and product marketing emphasis—that we believe will enable BIPV to grow and to help drive additional growth for photovoltaics overall. Cost of PV: Given the area of a square of roofing material—9.
At $1 per watt.432 9.net Exhibit 2-1 explores the cost of PV materials sufficient to cover one square of roof area. The 16-20 percent levels are currently only the domain of crystalline silicon PV. In such cases. even with PV as low as $1 per watt. however. also before considering the electricity generated. 10-12 percent for CdTe. but.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. At 10 percent efficiency the PV cost would be an order of magnitude greater than the cost of low-end asphalt shingles. and shake roofs.5 1 2 4 6 8 10 PV Cost per Square 465 929 1. The 4 percent level or so is what one might expect out of DSC/OPV today or in the near future. but the point is that in theory if a BIPV-capable slate roof was available for $4 per watt. BIPV becomes comparably priced with steel. 10 Percent Module Efficiency ($) PV Cost per Peak Watt 0.290 Page | 24 What is apparent from this exhibit is that BIPV materials become cost competitive with highend slate roofs at about $4 per watt. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. NanoMarkets. But even if the cost is not fully absorbed as roofing material the portion of the cost allocated to the PV system may be substantially reduced. (Although obviously. 6-8 percent for thin-film silicon. For the time being such comparisons are really comparing apples and oranges. of course much depends on the what kind of PV is being used.574 7. For our examples. the purchaser would in fact be getting PV for free. is that BIPV systems would need to be exceptionally cheap to produce the same effect if low-end building materials were being considered.858 3.nanomarkets. but could perhaps also correspond to some future improvement on CIGS or one of the other thin-film PV technologies.716 5. tile. one would also have to consider the inverter and installation costs. Exhibit 2-2 shows the power produced per square at different levels of module efficiency. we chose 10 percent because it approximates what one might actually achieve in PV today. given 10 percent module efficiency and various levels of cost per watt. and 12-14 percent for CIGS. there is almost no flexibility for any of the BIPV costs to be absorbed as "roofing" costs. even without accounting for the electricity generated. Exhibit 2-1 Cost of PV Systems per Square of Roof Area.) What Exhibit 2-1 also makes apparent.
But these rack-mounted rooftop systems are essentially the same as ground-mounted installations.486 1.301 1. The simplest and most common approach to BIPV taken by the crystalline silicon PV industry is to just modify existing panel designs and mounting systems to make them thinner.net Exhibit 2-2 Peak Power Producible per Square of Roofing Module Efficiency (percent) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Peak Watts per Square 372 557 743 929 1. 2. We do not consider these systems to be BIPV. But as the cost of PV and BIPV continue to fall BIPV will become less costly than those high-end building materials and approach comparability with mid-range materials. And this will in turn open a much wider addressable market. BIPV is currently more expensive than conventional PV.858 Page | 25 And it is also important to note that the cost of photovoltaics and BIPV is still falling.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . As this happens the division of cost between the building skin and the PV functionality will benefit BIPV targeted to match or complement mid-range building materials to a greater extent. office. The large. Some purists would not consider products produced like this—and applied over conventional building materials—to NanoMarkets. and the panels can be "hidden" to some extent—along with other rooftop utility systems—by facades and walls that rise above roof level and simply by virtue of the high level of the flat roof: most of a flat roof is invisible except from above. even when some conventional building materials are replaced. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. as we have noted. more uniform.672 1. especially commercial buildings.3 Crystalline Silicon PV: Approaches to Building Integration The original approach to applying crystalline PV to buildings—simply mounting racks on the rooftops and installing standard panels—is still very much alive and today is the primary way that PV power is generated on buildings. and flush-mountable on top of existing roofing or siding.115 1. flat roofs of big retailers. only high-end building materials—excluding architectural glass. discussed in its own chapter—are currently anywhere close to the cost of BIPV. and public buildings provide an ideal surface for mounting PV arrays just as they are on the ground.
c-Si BIPV applications are generally rigid ones.net be true BIPV products. Page | 26 NanoMarkets. curved wafer technology is not likely within the forecast period and flexible wafer technology—while it may appear sooner—is not yet viable.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Because they are composed of individual. These linkages can be somewhat fragile and allowing bending between the individual c-Si PV cells—even if the cells themselves are kept flat—can be problematic as well. customization of rigid BIPV products is one area where c-Si PV can stand out. The wafers used for c-Si PV cells are inherently flat. but NanoMarkets believes that they represent an important approach to building integration that is still going strong. conventional kind of roofing. 3S Swiss Systems already licenses its technology to other companies. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . and several c-Si PV module manufacturers have been doing just that. This is in contrast to TFPV cells built on substrates. each cell is linked mechanically and electrically to other cells. modules can be assembled in many different ways. and its Megaslates are also produced by Atlantis Energy and Solarwood. And because even standard PV modules are designed to stand up to weathering. But this most common approach of minimally modifying conventional panels is not the only one. which have the potential to be flexible or even curved while still rigid. Beyond the add-on panels there are BIPV modules that are designed to serve all of the functions of a conventional roof or conventional cladding material. cladding tiles or shakes are also targeted. The value proposition for both of these products is to essentially create an entire roof out of PV panels.nanomarkets. And this approach also makes sense from the manufacturer's perspective because minimal retooling and redesign is needed and these flat panels are well-suited to crystalline silicon. at least until solar wafers commonly become thin enough and flexible enough to allow decent bending curvatures without threatening to break. And then there is the growing trend of making the module housing into tiles that emulate conventional roofing or cladding material units themselves. For this reason. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. In fact. Suppliers and products: Two examples of the whole-roof approach to integrating PV cells with roofing materials are Suntech's Just Roof and 3S Swiss Systems' Megaslate. this approach should not be exceedingly difficult for other PV module manufacturers to adopt. essentially eliminating the typical materials entirely from the surfaces that use these panels. eliminating any conflicting aesthetics that may result from combining PV panels with another. discrete cells. In addition to the flatness and rigidity of the individual cells. and this is an opportunity for conventional PV module manufacturers. Rigidity and flatness are common aspects of all commercial wafer-based crystalline silicon PV. These are most often roofing tiles designed to match popular conventional roofing tile products.
Atlantis Energy Systems' Sunslates.) BIPV tiles are often targeted at particular popular roofing products—cement tiles.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. as we discuss below. more conventional PV panels. This has largely been because crystalline silicon PV has been around much longer than thin-film PV for grid-connected PV. (The silicon shortage is now a thing of the past and TFPV manufacturers are now looking at the same factors shaping demand for their products as all other makers of solar panels. The different kinds of PV tiles are differentiated by the types of conventional roofing tiles they are compatible with. PV manufacturers have taken this approach in part as a new way to package their PV cells in order to produce more specialized products that fit niches that may command a premium price. some of it warranted and some not. There has been a significant level of hype about these "fully integrated" BIPV products. and DRI's Lumeta subsidiary produces both a Solar Flat Tile and a Solar S Tile.nanomarkets. Also. the reason that TFPV took off so fast in the mid-2000s was to fill a demand that could not be fulfilled by standard c-Si PV because of silicon supply constraints. slates. Solarcentury's C21e tile. niche markets where photovoltaic design is of great importance. etc. But volumes have remained low largely because of their high cost relative to other. Such products have thus so far been relegated to small. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.3. period. NanoMarkets. SunPower's SunTile. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . and Sharp's ND series of roofing tiles. clay tiles. or other specialty products—they simply needed products.net The roofing tile approach has attracted more manufacturers.—and are designed to match those products dimensionally. And the recent collapse of construction markets hasn't helped! By "matching" products to particular conventional roofing products the addressable market is also made that much smaller. General Electric also produces a roofing tile. 2. and to interlace with each other and with the conventional tiles that make up the remainder of the roof. with only a few examples of thin-film PVbased tiles in production or development.1 BIPV Tiles and Slates and the Aesthetic Factor Page | 27 BIPV tiles: Rigid BIPV tiles—the type that interlace with conventional roofing tiles or slates— are thoroughly dominated by crystalline silicon PV. aesthetic products. The types of tiles offered have proliferated in the market in the last few years as panel manufacturers have followed the hype and tried to match or best one another in a new category of product considered sexier than conventional PV. though. TFPV manufacturers didn't need integrated products. as well as by their conversion efficiency and appearance. Several PV module manufacturers have come up with tile or slate products designed to dimensionally and aesthetically match single roofing tiles or strips of several conventional tiles. Interlacing BIPV roofing tile products include BP Solar's EnergyTile.
LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . when these products are applied as a complete roof.nanomarkets. The aesthetics of high-end conventional roofing systems are often said to favor products with visible. The first is that they are more costly than conventional (non-BIPV) PV panels. Their cost is lower than that of the other BIPV options. their cost is clearly entirely attributable to the PV functionality. the conventional roofing materials are done away with altogether. three dimensional texture. The need to market whole-roof BIPV systems places aesthetics front and center of the marketing for this kind of product. These are typically the lowest in cost among the rigid BIPV options but they have two costrelated disadvantages. but these aesthetics are not universally accepted as high-end. flush appearance on top of an underlying roof. The opportunities for improving this perception of BIPV as high-end roofing materials may include designing these complete roof products to incorporate more texture and to emulate high-end roofing materials like slate. Here.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. BIPV overlays: We also note that there are PV panels that do not attempt to substitute for building materials but instead aim for a clean. as the smaller. shifting the bulk of the perceived cost into the "roofing" column and reducing the perceived cost of the PV functionality.net Taking the aesthetics argument mentioned at the beginning of this chapter seriously. And since the panels cover—and hide—a portion of the roof it is less of a loss to cover low-end materials like asphalt than highend materials like slate. Current BIPV roof tiles are generally flat and smooth. a product strategy that is of growing importance is represented by the large BIPV tiles that are designed to make up an entire roof rather than aiming to seamlessly integrate with conventional roofing tiles. flush overlying panels are generally best suited to low-end roofs. and there is a large degree of arbitrariness as to where to draw the line between the cost of the PV functionality and that of the roofing functionality. interlacing tiles have done. which are chosen precisely because of their aesthetic appearance when visible. a good fit since a low-end roof may also indicate a lower budget for other building systems. Page | 28 NanoMarkets. there should be an opportunity for additional entrants into this market with only modest effort developing systems that cover—actually. and the second is that they are completely separate from the roofing materials. with texture limited to possible lapping of one row of tiles over another. along with their cost. replace—and seal an entire roof. Because they cover existing conventional roofing material and they cannot share their costs with those of the conventional roof. The opportunity here is to promote and market these complete PV roof systems as high-end roofing options. And because conventional PV panels are designed to withstand the weather.
and modules are completely flat with few exceptions. it is the highest-volume PV technology (because of its maturity) and its maturity has also led to diversification of product offerings. exceeding only organic and dye-sensitized PV. brittle materials used to encapsulate crystalline silicon—as well as the NanoMarkets. This flatness and rigidity can be a drawback for tiles that serve as roofing and cladding materials. on flexible and semitransparent products.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. SRS Energy's Solé PowerTile is an exception but still uses a flexible TFPV laminate. Cadmium telluride PV has achieved a record efficiency of 16.3. materials that frequently have a level of flexibility to them. although neither has achieved very significant volumes of even standard products.2 Factors in Favor of Crystalline Silicon BIPV Crystalline silicon PV is widely favored for rigid BIPV products for three major reasons.3. Thin-film PV is not yet at the same stage of development. And CIGS PV. especially the single-crystal silicon variety.0 percent—but its production modules are in the 10 to 13 percent efficiency range. and production modules routinely reach the high teens of efficiency. Of course. the current ranking of the different kinds of PV materials may well change over the forecast period considered in this report.nanomarkets. Amorphous silicon conversion efficiency is below 10 percent. The most mature TFPV technology.5 percent but commercial modules are around 11 percent efficient. It may also spell trouble when it comes to weather-related and mechanical damage. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Glass and other rigid. while starting to diversify into BIPV at a very early stage in its commercial development. amorphous silicon PV. Thin-film PV. has begun diversifying its products but the focus has been mainly on flexible products and semitransparent products. First is crystalline silicon's availability and maturity. The same is true of organic photovoltaics and dye-sensitized photovoltaics. Third is the higher conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon PV versus the thin-films and organics. typically 6 or 7 percent in production. 2. is focused similarly to amorphous silicon.3 Crystalline Silicon's Limitations in the BIPV Market While crystalline silicon PV is the most common technology used for BIPV. it is not without its limitations.net 2. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. is significantly lower and varies by technology. Crystalline silicon PV cells can top 20 percent conversion efficiency. BIPV products also allow crystalline silicon PV suppliers to distinguish their products from other suppliers' products. Conversion efficiency is especially important for BIPV because of limited roof space (and other sun-facing building surfaces) available for BIPV installation. Page | 29 Second. on the other hand. Cadmium telluride PV has been entirely focused on conventional modules. CIGS PV has achieved the highest thin-film PV efficiency in champion cells—20. It is obviously not flexible in the way that thin-film PV can be.
cloud cover. While this random texture has the potential to help this type of crystalline silicon PV complement natural building materials. 2. more so than other kinds of PV. Crystalline silicon PV also has visible features that may detract from its aesthetics and visual appearance. although crystalline silicon PV boasts the highest conversion efficiencies among PV technologies suitable for BIPV. and other stresses that often occur to building materials. and shadowing have stronger detrimental impacts on crystalline silicon PV than on thin-film PV. stationary.net silicon itself—may be easily damaged by hail.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. strongly depends on the angle of incidence of light for maximum efficiency. As we have already noted. with rigid products consisting almost entirely of overlying flush panels very similar to conventional panels (although some rigid tile products incorporate flexible TFPV laminates). The most efficient type—single-crystal silicon PV—uses cells with rounded corners that may stand out as the dominant feature of a BIPV product when it may distract from other desired appearance features. has a random. it seems natural for thin-film PV to have a place among rigid BIPV products. this has been because of the relative immaturity of the thin-film PV market and the fact that TFPV's innovation in BIPV has focused on the most obvious benefits and potential benefits of thin-film PV over crystalline silicon PV. where a uniform appearance is desired it can detract from aesthetics. Crystalline silicon PV.nanomarkets. But in reality thinfilm BIPV has been limited to mostly flexible and semitransparent products. while it uses square or rectangular cells. walking on a roof. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. multicrystalline pattern to it that often shows in final products. Both types of crystalline silicon PV depend on silver fingers for collecting current from the front surface as well as thick silver tabbing to connect the electrodes in almost all cases. These silver stripes are in contrast to the more uniform appearance of both the silicon cells themselves and of most building materials. tree limbs.4 Thin-Film PV and the Rigid BIPV Market Page | 30 With its more uniform appearance and lower sensitivity to off-axis and indirect illumination. In addition. the tabbing stripes may run in directions that give the BIPV products an awkward appearance. And multicrystalline silicon PV. the fact that BIPV is almost always flat. Finally. NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Off-axis illumination. and has its orientation determined by the building surfaces—rather arbitrarily when it comes to the direction of solar incidence—detracts from its efficiency. its potential flexibility and is suitability for building cells and panels on glass substrates.
because it is built on a substrate.—or of the most unique features of thin-film PV. From a perspective of the cost of BIPV versus the cost of conventional PV plus conventional building materials. And in the case of amorphous silicon—the most mature of the thin-film PVs—low conversion efficiency has limited BIPV products. But thin-film PV also goes where crystalline silicon PV cannot in two important ways. etc. or substitute for an entire roof. there is also the potential to generate PV electricity from the entire surface of BIPV products that are not flat.4. most notably by First Solar. more uniform appearance as arrays of cells are patterned onto large substrates rather than being discretely placed as wafers. or a variety of other colors or may have visible patterned dark or silver lines on them. While at first glance the addressable market for curved BIPV seems exceedingly small. But for BIPV.net Other innovations for TF BIPV have not had time to surface and produce products yet. 2. This is in contrast to crystalline silicon PV panels which often have squarish cells. whether they are to overlay over conventional roofing materials. especially its potential flexibility. First. typically 125-mm or 156-mm wide. This can provide a cleaner. separated by spaces and nearly always with two widths of silver stripes on them." starting materials are glass substrates (or flexible ones) rather than individual silicon wafers and cells that need to be manually assembled and interconnected to form modules.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. lighter weight can reduce the strength and cost of balance-of-system components needed. Aesthetically. Some of these value propositions have been effectively used to make conventional modules of lower cost than crystalline silicon ones. thin-film PV offers modules that are "built" rather than "assembled. most of the potential advantages of thin-film PV for BIPV are the same as those for thin-film PV for conventional PV panels. gray. thinner. very thin fingers and rather thick tabbing. Lower material usage makes them less sensitive to price fluctuations for silicon and other materials.1 Thin-Film PV's Value Propositions Page | 31 The value propositions of thin-film PV are typically considered in terms of conventional PV panels—they can be lighter. Thin-film PV panels of a wide range of sizes can be uniformly black. a drawback only overcome in some markets where the unique features of thin-film PV—notably its flexibility—come into play. etc. thin-film PV has a greater potential for curved BIPV products (and flexible BIPV products. the important value propositions are those that relate to the most important types of opportunities for BIPV: those that deal with aesthetics and those that deal with cost. and especially rigid BIPV tiles. such as S-tiles. emulate roofing tiles or shingles. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . discussed in their own chapter). NanoMarkets.nanomarkets.
Some technologies—dye-sensitized PV. similarly the cell—if not enclosed—should function without additional modifications beyond making electrical contact. Substrates are integral components of thin-film PV cells. In contrast. and some kinds of NanoMarkets. Drawbacks: The major drawbacks of thin-film PV for rigid BIPV applications are lower conversion efficiency and the difficult process development required to produce new types of products. thin-film PV stays pretty consistent regardless of light intensity. one inside the other. fullyintegrated BIPV products usually require PV cells to be enclosed in a package that provides the building skin functionality. Because BIPV products conform to the building surface they are not angled toward the sun and generally don't use tracking systems. Currently.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Only very rarely are BIPV products illuminated on-axis and even when they are it is only for fleeting periods during the day. this is mitigated by the fact that the additional installation surface needed—or the reduction in power output—is not as great as it appears.net But the greatest potential benefit thin-film PV brings to rigid BIPV—as well as to other BIPV— is that building materials themselves can be more easily used as substrates. We have already discussed the implications of the lower conversion efficiency. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 32 . it is the package that behaves as a roofing tile. If the package were to be sealed without the PV cell inside it would still function as roofing or cladding. the cells cannot be built without them. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. at least for the foreseeable future. This is because the conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon PV gets dramatically lower in less intense light.nanomarkets. Also important is thin-film PV's ability to continue producing power under indirect or steep angled illumination. although the reduced incident light still results in reduced power output. the products consist of two components. However. with less of a power drop than occurs with crystalline silicon. That is. Since BIPV is typically mounted flush to building surfaces and not directly facing the sun—much less using equipment to track the sun—the drop in power output from indirect illumination is especially important. But if the building materials themselves were used as substrates for thinfilm PV then fully integrated BIPV tiles would be possible with only about half of the "package"—or perhaps even less—as the substrate itself would serve some of the building skin function. A functional PV cell or module is enclosed within a functional roofing tile. cladding. for instance—actually increase in conversion efficiency in dimmer light. This is because the flush-mounted nature of BIPV works somewhat in thin-film PV's favor. etc. with steep drops in performance as the angle of solar incidence gets steeper. Crystalline silicon PV suffers more from this indirect illumination than thin-film PV does.
4. thin-film PV's key advantages over crystalline silicon for rigid BIPV products include improved aesthetics.2 Can Thin-Film PV Compete with Crystalline Silicon in Rigid Tiles? Page | 33 While thin-film PV-based BIPV products are late to the rigid BIPV game. and this will have its impacts on BIPV as well. greater coverage of the available surface in the product (including curved surfaces and spaces that would be between crystalline silicon cells). is how soon thin-film PV can develop the processes. 2. the trials and tribulations of CIGS PV point out that process development is not a sure thing. however. the question remains as to whether they can compete effectively with crystalline silicon-based products. And there are already inroads. As we have seen. While in theory the (small volumes of) materials and production processes will make thin-film PV lower in cost than crystalline silicon PV. due in part to a-Si PV's establishment in the PV field—it has been around the longest among the TFPV technologies.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. SRS Energy has partnered with US Tile to produce the Solé PowerTile. the "presumed" lower cost of thin-film PV is not entirely certain in comparison with crystalline silicon PV. Global Solar has also spoken of placing its flexible CIGS laminates on clay roofing tiles. Development of thin-film PV-based processes and products for BIPV could prove as difficult or even more so. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . The answer is yes. Soon to be added to this list is the benefit of using building materials as substrates for thin-film PV. there are a number of companies producing NanoMarkets.3 Thin-Film PV Technologies as they Relate to BIPV Thin-Film silicon PV for BIPV applications: Thin-film silicon PV currently dominates the TFPV portion of the BIPV market.net PV—DSC and OPV—actually get more efficient in low light. and the performance boost that thin-film PV achieves when considering the off-axis illumination that predominates with BIPV products. But crystalline silicon PV still generally produces significantly higher power output than thin-film PV when both are used for BIPV.4. What is less certain. even when measured in kilowatt-hours per year instead of the peak watts that are rather unrealistic for these installations. although this is still far off. and marketing strategies that enable effective competition.nanomarkets. It is no longer going to be "easy" to make thin-film PV at lower cost than crystalline silicon PV. 2. a rigid. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. And with the silicon shortage over the relative cost of thin-film PV versus crystalline silicon PV has risen substantially. products. eliminating the need for at least half of the packaging materials that are used to produce fully integrated BIPV tiles from crystalline silicon PV cells. and NanoMarkets believes that BIPV remains one of the key opportunities for thin-film PV suppliers to exploit in the BIPV space. Conversely. interlacing roofing tile that incorporates United Solar Ovonic's Uni-Solar a-Si PV laminate.
The efficiency of a cell degrades in ordinary sunlight over time by as much as 15-35 percent. and there is even turnkey a-Si PV manufacturing equipment and processes available. The only viable PV alternative at the time was c-Si PV. a-Si PV may still see its cost advantages return to the limelight in several years. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. That being said. due to the Staebler-Wronski Effect. although they have been dealt a setback with lowered PV prices in the last couple years.5 percent).5 percent. This will depend also on conversion efficiency improvements. Because of its long history and the number of companies that have been producing TF Si PV products for several years. Page | 34 NanoMarkets. which will be required for thin-film silicon PV to remain competitive over the next several years and for which there are some credible strategies such as using nanocrystalline silicon.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. OPV.nanomarkets. CdTe. there has been a level of innovation at the product level that has not yet been seen among the other TFPV technologies. While the other thin-film technologies (CIGS. The current low efficiency of a-Si PV is the major disadvantage for its long-term prospects for PV and BIPV applications. although that applies equally to the other thin-film PV technologies. which was impacted to a much larger extent by the silicon shortage and accompanying high and rapidly increasing prices of silicon because it used so much of it. less than half that of CIGS PV. lagging far behind both CIGS (20. CdTe PV and CIGS PV. including those for BIPV applications. and DSC) have necessarily focused on getting their initial products developed and into volume production. The key advantage for TF Si PV over the long term is its current market positioning. a-Si PV manufacturers were using their profits (before the PV market crash) to develop new products. champion cell efficiency is still only about 12 percent. as the relatively rare metals tellurium and indium account for higher proportions of the costs of a-Si PV's most viable PV competitors. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .0 percent) and CdTe (16. Now the silicon shortage is over and the reduced material usage is not as much as an advantage for amorphous silicon PV. Champion single-junction a-Si PV cell efficiency is only 9. although they are of course not certain. This effect can be reduced by decreasing the thickness of the a-Si film. Amorphous Si PV grew rapidly in the early 2000s mainly because of its cost advantage. Exacerbating this unimpressive efficiency is the fact that amorphous silicon also has an inherent illumination-related degradation mechanism.net a-Si PV. but thinner films give lower cell efficiencies because fewer photons are absorbed. Even with multi-junction or tandem cells (which are quickly becoming the standard in TF Si PV products but necessitate added complexity in the manufacturing process).
thin-film silicon is the only game in town for these flexible applications. TF Si's prospects for rigid and semitransparent BIPV products are similar. some using roll-to-roll manufacturing on flexible substrates. but not as bright. As other TFPV technologies come along with their own flexible BIPV products—with effective encapsulation and higher efficiency—and produce them in comparable volume. sometimes called "micromorph" tandem cells. A few companies have demonstrated reasonable—what would have been considered high before First Solar raised the bar—volumes of CIGS PV. Further down the line are advanced cells that use nanocrystalline silicon. These factors help to mitigate the drawback of low conversion efficiency. though. CIGS PV for BIPV applications: CIGS PV offers potentially higher efficiencies than any of the other TFPV technologies. because it is not yet applicable or beneficial to a thin-film PV process. This is still a small step for thin-film silicon PV. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . because it has entered this market first and because it can be effectively encapsulated more easily than competing thin-film technologies. One of the key advantages of CIGS PV is its high conversion efficiency. Many of these tandem and triple junction cells use a-Si/Si:Ge architecture.0 percent efficiency and that record still increases more frequently than the records for crystalline silicon. Again. these are taking a step forward as Innovalight and JA Solar develop crystalline silicon PV cells with a nanocrystalline silicon topping to boost efficiency. Champion cells made in the lab have reached 20. The transition from single to tandem and triple junction cells—boosting production cell efficiencies to around ten percent—is now almost complete. and expectations are high that roll-to-roll manufacturing will eventually allow it to achieve production volumes and costs that are comparable to those of First Solar. this is also helping to fuel a trend toward a-Si/µc-Si architecture since the microcrystalline silicon is less costly.nanomarkets. which has achieved impressive progress with CdTe PV. amorphous silicon is used as the front absorber and a fairly thick layer (1–3 µm) of microcrystalline silicon is used as the back absorber.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. which adds cost because of the expense of germanium. In these cells. suggesting that CIGS PV could someday match Page | 35 NanoMarkets. at least for a while. so that is no longer an obstacle.net While the efficiency of a-Si PV leaves much to be desired. thin-film silicon will lose its dominant position here. TF Si PV will still be the most important technology until the other TFPVs catch up. there are materials improvements in the works. The flexible BIPV market is discussed in its own chapter in this report. Moisture and air infiltration are not nearly as much of an issue for CIGS and other PV technologies when they are encapsulated in glass. NanoMarkets believes that thin-film silicon's prospects for BIPV are best in the flexible BIPV arena. but its lead is not as great in this segment.
This is in contrast to the superstrate configurations of CdTe PV and most a-Si PV. However. and Fujifilm have claimed breakthroughs in encapsulation technology but time will tell whether they are cost effective and durable enough for BIPV applications designed to last for decades.nanomarkets. provided moisture is excluded from the cells. Unlike CdTe PV and most versions of a-Si PV technology. CIGS PV's efficiency does not degrade in sunlight (like a-Si PV's) or at high module temperatures (like CdTe PV's).7 percent efficiency. Some high-profile companies like Dow Chemical. Encapsulation of CIGS PV modules in glass largely eliminates this problem because glass is sufficiently impervious to water and sealing the edges of a module is easier than sealing the surface. Still. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . (Excluding moisture. Indium's primary use is in ITO. which causes degradation and reduces conversion efficiency. and because—for flexible BIPV—the substrate need not be transparent and flexible substrates are a potentially easy development. one that relates more to flexible and semitransparent BIPV than to rigid. Production cell efficiency for CIGS PV is between 10 and 14 percent. Also. of course. It is extremely sensitive to moisture. By contrast. this is in some cases higher than that of CdTe PV. used mainly for flat-panel displays and CIGS PV is expected to grow to become the second largest user of indium within the next eight years. Glass encapsulation is generally not a problem for CIGS PV modules built on glass substrates or destined for rigid applications. CdTe PV. but it is subject to large swings in price as demand frequently changes more rapidly than supply can keep up. CIGS PV is not without its drawbacks. where in use the substrate is at the front and must be transparent to allow the cell to function. DuPont.net polycrystalline c-Si PV at 20. Indium is about as abundant as silver and there is enough available for CIGS and ITO production for decades into the future.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. CIGS PV is universally built from the bottom up so that in use the substrate is at the back of the cell and light does not need to pass through it.3 percent efficiency or even monocrystalline c-Si PV at 24. has not broken its own record champion cell efficiency of 16.) An important advantage of CIGS PV—although. but it is not an option for flexible applications like some BIPV products. is not a trivial concern.5 percent since 2001. making semitransparent modules a fairly simple proposition. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. and certainly higher than any other TFPV production cell efficiency. nontransparent BIPV—is its substrate configuration. What the indium situation means for CIGS PV is that the cost of producing CIGS Page | 36 NanoMarkets. however. Another disadvantage of CIGS PV is that it depends heavily on indium. The reasons that CIGS PV's substrate configuration is advantageous for semitransparent BIPV are because the substrate and the top electrode—and potentially the base electrode as well—are both transparent. the next highest-efficiency technology.
Würth Solar already produces CIGS BIPV glass. First Solar has since been consistently building new plants and running them near capacity. capital markets dried up and dramatically slowed the rate of investment. most CIGS PV is already produced on glass substrates. placing this concern again toward the forefront. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. products have already been demonstrated and the viability of CIGS for these types of BIPV is essentially a question of getting sufficient volume in production. At that point. While these films are required to enable flexible BIPV products based on CIGS. the future of CIGS PV for BIPV hinges on the encapsulation issue. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . however. NanoMarkets is skeptical of the cost of the new. so it is not a far cry to make CIGS PV into a semitransparent BIPV product. Once CIGS PV is confidently believed to have solved the encapsulation problem. CIGS PV was on its way up but was ultimately not able to establish itself in high-volume manufacturing before the economy came crashing down around it. While the indium used for CIGS is a volatile commodity and there will be much short-term price fluctuation throughout the forecast period. flexible encapsulation systems that chemical and film companies claim to have developed. if their cost remains too high it will have implications for the cost and volume of those products. Additionally. Overall. But in NanoMarkets' opinion. With conversion efficiencies around 11 percent on its production Page | 37 NanoMarkets. we expect it to rapidly overtake the TF Si-based flexible BIPV products because of its greater power output. For flexible BIPV products.net PV will ride up and down with the price of indium.nanomarkets. CIGS PV developers had already been granted over a billion dollars of venture capital but none had been able to achieve 100 MW of annual production. NanoMarkets believes that it is only a matter of time—and investment in CIGS—before CIGS BIPV glass is competitive with TF Si BIPV glass in volume terms. and more investment capital was most likely needed to do so. CdTe PV for BIPV Applications: CdTe PV has certainly made impressive growth strides since First Solar debuted in 2002. Indium declined in the early part of the Great Recession but is now on its way up again. the amount used in CIGS PV is small enough that it is not as important a factor as the other production costs and the development of low-cost processes. In fact. where the encapsulation has been done effectively by sandwiching the modules between glass sheets. robust. Perhaps the most significant disadvantage for CIGS PV is its market timing. For rigid BIPV products and semitransparent ones.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. we expect growth of flexible CIGS BIPV products to be hampered by concern about the durability of brand-new flexible encapsulation materials and the module life that they will allow.
but the largest hurdle relating to cadmium has been public perception.81 per watt in the first quarter of 2010. at least as long as PV supply exceeds—or even falls slightly below—demand. A major disadvantage for BIPV based on CdTe PV is that CdTe is so dominated by a single firm. Cadmium is highly toxic and environmentally harmful. it was able to use its profits to maintain its growth rather than relying on external sources of funding that have largely dried up. First Solar's factories are very similar. Some other companies have become interested in capturing a piece of the CdTe pie—including large companies like GE and QCells—but for the most part they are focused on standard modules similar to those that First Solar already produces. CdTe's major advantage is its current position in the market. it produces a single type of product. when it first hit 100 MW capacity. First Solar remained profitable through the slump. and significant quantities of it are used in CdTe PV modules. Since First Solar was already profitable and producing hundreds of megawatts by the time the bottom fell out of the economy and investment markets in late 2008. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 38 . First Solar—and thus CdTe—has become a major factor in the PV market in general. it is about ten times as scarce as indium and only slightly more abundant than gold. Tellurium is the ninth rarest natural element in the Earth's crust according to the USGS. Environmental regulations in some jurisdictions present an obstacle to deployment. safe. First Solar is doing so well with its standard module products that any competitor would be hard pressed to make a profit before reaching similar size. Both cadmium and tellurium metals present challenges to the CdTe PV industry. CdTe also benefits from its cost structure. although it faced significant pricing pressure due to reduced demand for PV modules. The hard work has paid off: First Solar's production costs have reached $0. But First Solar has a supply agreement with 5N Plus that extends NanoMarkets. There are some ironies in using toxic metals within products (solar panels) that are supposed to be beneficial to the environment. First Solar has been continuously ramping new factories since 2007. the lowest in the PV industry. funded with module sales through a trust fund in order to insulate it from the possible insolvency of First Solar. and First Solar has spent considerable effort convincing the market and the public that the cadmium within CdTe PV modules is contained. and not at risk for environmental release.net modules and the leading position in worldwide production volume of any PV company. and the company spends a considerable amount of effort on controlling and improving its manufacturing process.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.nanomarkets. Part of this effort has been the formation of a module recycling program. The drawback for tellurium is its scarcity. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.
suggesting that there would be some advance warning if tellurium supply were to begin to become an issue. it would appear that every ounce of development is going into improving its current manufacturing process and ramping new factories. flexible products will be even harder to achieve. and DSC—sensitivity to moisture and air. cell transparency. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Switching to a flexible substrate would likely be problematic given its current manufacturing setup. First Solar has made no public indication that it is pursuing any product other than its standard modules. or low-volume.nanomarkets. However.net through 2014 and that agreement appears to be extended from time to time. For its part. we wouldn't put it past First Solar to have some kind of quiet R&D project already focused on producing BIPV modules. Unlike inorganic Page | 39 NanoMarkets. However. OPV's inherent flexibility is one of the strongest advantages it has going for it. OPV for BIPV Applications: OPV is at this point a low-performing PV technology best suited to niches where unique features like extreme flexibility. Another disadvantage for CeTe BIPV is the fact that CdTe PV degrades with excessive heat. It is even more sensitive to moisture and air than CIGS and durable. they will be either flushmounted overlying panels—similar to their standard products—designed specifically for rooftop installation or semitransparent products since they would play off of its current glassbased manufacturing process. although its low conversion efficiency and low flexible panel life make it irrelevant for BIPV. The BIPV-specific advantages for CdTe are its high—relative to thin-film BIPV leader a-Si— conversion efficiency and its fairly low—relative to CIGS PV. This is of course an issue with any CdTe installation in warm climates. lowcost manufacturing are required. Its costs have not come down as quickly as needed to be widely competitive with other PV technologies—all of which have higher conversion efficiencies—and thus is not well suited to conventional panels. but BIPV products may be particularly susceptible to it because they are typically flush-mounted—reducing the amount of passive convection—and less likely than conventional systems to have dedicated cooling systems. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. OPV. We believe that flexible CdTe BIPV products will be even later—possibly beyond the scope of the forecasts in this report—but that they are more likely to come from a start-up that emerges initially with a flexible product. we think if First Solar does begin to produce BIPV products. But OPV can already produce transparent cells—they are tinted but not opaque—and this is where its BIPV opportunities lie.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. The opportunities for OPV in the field of transparent BIPV are discussed in Chapter Three of this report.
Low efficiency is another problem for OPV. Dyesol is considered the market leader and "advocate" for DSC but mainly produces equipment and materials for sale to other companies (including G24 Innovations). The niche of tinted—rather than patterned—BIPV glass will be the greatest source of BIPV revenues for OPV. It also may find a niche as a printable power supply for things like smart packaging or RFID. For transparent BIPV applications. the materials used are generally inexpensive ones like titania Page | 40 NanoMarkets. as it is for flexible CIGS PV. We are also skeptical of any prediction that production OPV efficiency will achieve greater than 10 percent efficiency in the next eight years. Niches where high levels of flexibility are important could include PV for clothing and other textiles. Maximum reported champion cell conversion efficiency is only 7. the fact that no laboratory cell has yet exceeded 7. which is flexible mainly because of its thinness. These opportunities are discussed in more detail in the chapter on BIPV glass in this report. this can actually be an advantage because it can allow the cells to be transparent. The advantages of DSC are similar to those of OPV.net TFPV. areas with low margins that other PV technologies may not pursue aggressively.nanomarkets. One of the major disadvantages of OPV is its extreme sensitivity to air and moisture. are also in the early stages of commercialization. Such glass may eventually become an option even for windows that require clear visibility because it would still allow a high degree of undistorted visibility. which is used in tiny quantities. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . This is a typical problem with all organic electronics and has limited their lifetimes. the other organic-based PV technology. with commercial products from G24 Innovations. While breakthroughs are possible. DSC for BIPV Applications: Dye-sensitized PV cells (DSC). The efficiencies are low because the organic materials used for OPV have very low absorption coefficients and a large proportion of the light passes right through the cell without being absorbed.9 percent efficiency makes it unlikely that production cells will be much higher than that even in another eight years. Low cost is foremost. Encapsulation in rigid glass is fairly effective but still does not produce lifetimes comparable to other glass-encapsulated PV. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. NanoMarkets believes that OPV-based BIPV will be limited to transparent BIPV within the eight-year forecast period and that it will be toward the middle or end of that period that it emerges. except for the dye. the polymers used in OPV are flexible in bulk and thus OPV is expected to be more resilient than inorganic TFPV.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. however.9 percent—a new record set by Solarmer Energy in December 2009. Development of barrier coatings is a high priority for OPV. especially where they are exposed to air or water. in contrast to the BIPV glass products currently available.
The major disadvantage of DSC is that the cells contain a liquid electrolyte.3 percent.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Specifically for BIPV.nanomarkets. The DyesolCorus DSC-on-steel project will likely have some success because it takes advantage of the key opportunity of using actual building materials as PV substrates. a key component of any thinPage | 41 NanoMarkets. R&D work in the industry includes developing non-ruthenium dyes. Record champion cell efficiency is 11. and DSCs have lifetime issues similar to those of OPV. A notable BIPV project for DSC is a joint project between Dyesol and steel roofing manufacturer Corus to develop DSC on steel for applications such as BIPV roofing and cladding. But the dye itself is extremely expensive. Dyesol is also beginning to focus on the BIPV glass market. Another disadvantage for DSC is the use of expensive ruthenium dyes. only an exceedingly small amount of dye is used per watt and smaller quantities are available. The companies have built a pilot production line and produced alpha testing modules that are being tested in a PV accelerator for outdoor weathering and long-term accelerated testing. leakage is another route to deterioration of performance. DSC has an important advantage over OPV in that higher conversion efficiencies have been demonstrated. This project is discussed in more detail in the chapter on Flexible BIPV in this report. Aside from the cells' sensitivity to moisture and air. But production cells are much lower in efficiency. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . To contain the liquid. the advantages of DSC are again its cost and the simple manufacturing process. in Switzerland. DSCs using solid electrolytes have been developed but they are much lower in performance. but the approach seems like one that would work for rigid building materials as well. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. this development is discussed in its own chapter in this report. the one on BIPV Glass. Besides roofing products. Fortunately. the cells must be effectively sealed and this has been problematic at times. The manufacturing processes are relatively simple and inexpensive too. Even so. Again. Ruthenium is about as abundant as gold but it is only a small part of the dye complexes—large organic molecules surrounding single atoms of ruthenium—used in DSC cells. and even organic dyes. the cost of the dyes is extremely high. NanoMarkets believes that DSC shows more promise for BIPV than OPV does. Dyesol agreed to form a joint venture with Pilkington North America to develop BIPV glass products using Dyesol's DSC materials and Pilkington's tin oxide coated glass. as well as dye-less cells. around 2 or 3 percent.net and iodine. achieved in 2008 using Dyesol materials at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. and it is only because it is used in such tiny quantities that the technology can be considered low in cost. In March 2010.
provided the BIPV products are perceived as premium products themselves. "green image" and ability of BIPV product suppliers to create new products in a market that is rapidly commoditizing. The market dynamics of BIPV will be established by the balance between these factors at any given time. The factors that have shaped and will shape the BIPV market going forward are: aesthetics. We doubt whether this is going to change during the forecasting period considered in this report. 2. an opportunity that could open up markets that would not traditionally be seen as PV markets. cost. BIPV has also taken interesting new directions in the form of semitransparent and flexible products. Rigid BIPV products may follow on its heels. Standard rack-mounted panels are almost always the least expensive option in terms of PV system cost. BIPV products may compete very favorably with high-end conventional building materials. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. And truly transparent products are likely to outperform those made with OPV because of the likely higher efficiency of DSC by the time those products are developed and produced in volume. The opportunity for BIPV manufacturers is to market their products in a way that produces that perception. The BIPV market has developed from there to include tiles that interlace with conventional roofing tiles or cladding and larger tiles that can form an entire roof without conventional roofing materials. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . It also creates the possibility of selling a BIPV product as a building material rather than a PV panel. BIPV products are never the cheapest options. because there are many dimensions along which they can be distinguished.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. thus blurring the lines between the building material and the PV device—as well as blurring the lines between the costs of each of those components. BIPV offers suppliers the ability to clearly distinguish their products in the marketplace.5 Key Points Made in this Chapter Page | 42 The first generation of BIPV consisted of otherwise conventional PV panels mounted flush with roof surfaces as an aesthetic improvement over large conventional roof panels. The simplest and most common approach to BIPV taken by the crystalline silicon PV industry is to just modify existing panel designs and mounting systems to make them NanoMarkets.net film PV cell. but these are discussed in later chapters. It is these novel products that constitute the bulk of "true" BIPV products at the present time.
net thinner. flush appearance on top of an underlying roof. modules can be assembled in many different ways. discrete cells. and flush-mountable on top of existing roofing or siding. Customization of rigid BIPV products is one area where c-Si PV can stand out. Because they are composed of individual. First is crystalline silicon's availability and maturity. cladding tiles or shakes are also targeted. their cost is clearly entirely attributable to the PV functionality. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Second. Crystalline silicon PV is widely favored for rigid BIPV products for three major reasons. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . It is obviously not flexible in the way that thin-film PV can be and modules are completely flat with few exceptions. more uniform.nanomarkets. The first is that they are more costly than conventional (nonBIPV) PV panels. BIPV products allow crystalline silicon PV suppliers to distinguish their products from other suppliers' products. Beyond the add-on panels there are BIPV modules that are designed to serve all of the functions of a conventional roof or conventional cladding material. These are most often roofing tiles designed to match popular conventional roofing tile products. materials that frequently have a level of flexibility to them. While crystalline silicon PV is the most common technology used for BIPV. This flatness and rigidity can be a drawback for tiles that serve as roofing and cladding materials. but NanoMarkets believes that they represent an important approach to building integration that is still going strong. These are typically the lowest in cost among the rigid BIPV options but they have two costrelated disadvantages. it is not without its limitations.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. And then there is the growing trend of making the module housing into tiles that emulate conventional roofing or cladding material units themselves. and several c-Si PV module manufacturers have been doing just that. essentially eliminating the typical materials entirely from the surfaces that use these panels. and the second is that they are completely separate from the roofing materials. There are PV panels that do not attempt to substitute for building materials but instead aim for a clean. Third is the higher conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon PV versus the thin-films and organics. Some purists would not consider products produced like this—and applied over conventional building materials—to be true BIPV products. It may also spell trouble when it comes to Page | 43 NanoMarkets. And this approach also makes sense from the manufacturer's perspective because minimal retooling and redesign is needed and these flat panels are well-suited to crystalline silicon.
nanomarkets. CIGS PV offers potentially higher efficiencies than any of the other TFPV technologies. etc. NanoMarkets. the question remains as to whether they can compete effectively with crystalline siliconbased products. it seems natural for thin-film PV to have a place among rigid BIPV products.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. The value propositions of thin-film PV panels are typically considered in terms of conventional PV panels—they can be lighter. However. due in part to a-Si PV's establishment in the PV field—it has been around the longest among the TFPV technologies. thinner. and because—for flexible BIPV—the substrate need not be transparent and flexible substrates are a potentially easy development.net weather-related and mechanical damage. The major drawbacks of thin-film PV for rigid BIPV applications are lower conversion efficiency and the difficult process development required to produce new types of products. and there are even turnkey a-Si PV manufacturing equipment and processes available. But in reality thin-film BIPV has been limited to mostly flexible and semitransparent products. making semitransparent modules a fairly simple proposition. and NanoMarkets believes that BIPV remains one of the key opportunities for thin-film PV suppliers to exploit in the BIPV space. the current low efficiency of a-Si PV is the major disadvantage for its long-term prospects for PV and BIPV applications. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. cladding. Crystalline silicon PV also has visible features that may detract from its aesthetics and visual appearance. with rigid products consisting almost entirely of overlying flush panels very similar to conventional panels. etc. it is the package that behaves as a roofing tile. With its more uniform appearance and lower sensitivity to off-axis and indirect illumination. But the greatest potential benefit thin-film PV brings to rigid BIPV—as well as to other BIPV—is that building materials themselves can be more easily used as substrates. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 44 . there are a number of companies producing a-Si PV. The answer is yes. Thin-film silicon PV currently dominates the TFPV portion of the BIPV market. While thin-film PV-based BIPV products are late to the rigid BIPV game. nontransparent BIPV—is its substrate configuration. The reasons that CIGS PV's substrate configuration is advantageous for semitransparent BIPV are because the substrate and the top electrode—and potentially the base electrode as well—are both transparent. one that relates more to flexible and semitransparent BIPV than to rigid. Currently fully-integrated BIPV products usually require PV cells to be enclosed in a package that provides the building skin functionality. An important advantage of CIGS PV—although.
CIGS PV is not without its drawbacks.nanomarkets. except for the dye. Specifically for BIPV. The niche of tinted—rather than patterned—BIPV glass will be the greatest source of BIPV revenues for OPV. DSC has an important advantage over OPV in that higher conversion efficiencies have been demonstrated. products have already been demonstrated and the viability of CIGS for these types of BIPV is essentially a question of getting sufficient volume in production. A notable BIPV project for DSC is a joint project between Dyesol and steel roofing manufacturer Corus to develop DSC on steel for applications such as BIPV roofing and cladding. But in NanoMarkets' opinion. where the encapsulation has been done effectively by sandwiching the modules between glass sheets. which causes degradation and reduces conversion efficiency. which is used in tiny quantities. of course. the materials used are generally inexpensive ones like titania and iodine.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. The advantages of DSC are similar to those of OPV. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. the advantages of DSC are again its cost and the simple manufacturing process. It is extremely sensitive to moisture. in contrast to the BIPV glass products currently available. Low cost is foremost. These opportunities are discussed in more detail in the chapter on BIPV glass in this report. the future of CIGS PV for BIPV hinges on the encapsulation issue. Perhaps the most significant disadvantage for CIGS PV is its market timing. Such glass may eventually become an option even for windows that require clear visibility because it would still allow a high degree of undistorted visibility. CIGS PV was on its way up but was ultimately not able to establish itself in high volume manufacturing before the economy came crashing down around it. NanoMarkets believes that OPV-based BIPV will be limited to transparent BIPV within our eight-year forecast period and that it will be toward the middle or end of that period that it emerges. For rigid BIPV products and semitransparent ones.net However. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Page | 45 NanoMarkets.
big opportunities for BIPV suppliers. the architectural design of semitransparent BIPV systems is generally a bigger undertaking than it is for non-transparent BIPV products. These are often architectural features that are added to buildings primarily for (1) aesthetic reasons rather than for structural reasons or (2) to seal the outside of a building against the elements. and building owners. and canopies. curtain walls. and shading structures—are used. 3. stadiums. facades. and the large size of the projects in which they are installed. or buildings designed to admit a great deal of natural lighting through the roof and walls. whether rigid or flexible. since natural lighting reduces the need for electric lighting. and this is where the bulk of the opportunities lie. these projects are. BIPV glass provides a prominent—but still attractive and architecturally integrated—presentation of photovoltaics when the system is intended to convey an image of environmental consciousness resulting in increased goodwill for the company owning or renting the building or even the architect designing it.nanomarkets. their focus mainly on prestigious and high-visibility commercial buildings. individually and collectively. Because of their prominent display. high-value NanoMarkets. This includes buildings intended to be certified as green or at least energy efficient. semitransparent BIPV products take a different route.1 Primary Markets for Transparent and Semi-Transparent BIPV Page | 46 Glass-based BIPV systems are geared mainly for commercial and prestigious buildings where the bulk of the non-window glass addressable market—features like facades. and public buildings like airports and rail terminals where natural lighting and a wide open structure enhance aesthetics and function. These designs and installations are often high-profile. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.net Chapter Three: Transparent and Semi-Transparent BIPV: BIPV Glass 3.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.1 Introduction While rigid BIPV products—tiles and flush-mounted panels customized for buildings— represent a way of innovating that matches or combines PV modules with roofing and cladding materials. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Similarly. glass-based BIPV systems are the only choice to cover the maximum sunexposed building surface. where rain and wind cover may be desired while still admitting light for visibility and turf growth. they often provide protection from sun or wind to other building surfaces or the building interior. architecture and design firms. In many cases.1. such as for buildings like skyscrapers that have much more window and wall space than rooftop area. using PV within skylights and other transparent features or even as decorative or shading structures such as curtain walls.
But it is important to consider the impact that BIPV glass has on visibility through the glass. etc. 3. And. But the high cost of architectural glass is an advantage for glazed BIPV products intended to substitute for conventional architectural glass because the cost of adding PV functionality can be a smaller portion of the overall cost of the materials. atria. This produces an important opportunity for BIPV glass suppliers because BIPV glass can be viewed as an "economical" way to add PV to a building. impact resistant. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.2 Architectural Glass: More than Just Windows Glass as a construction material is often more expensive than the mainstream roofing materials that are most commonly substituted by or underlying non-transparent BIPV.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. with opaque cells interspersed with transparent spaces between them. the cost of incorporating PV cells into it can be a relatively small portion of the total BIPV costs. and to treat the electricity generated as "icing". curtain walls. Part of the expense of architectural glass is because of its required thickness—especially for larger panes—as well as other requirements like shatter resistance and coatings for energy efficiency or other functions.2 Applications of Transparent/Semi-Transparent BIPV The conventional uses of architectural glass range from the mundane—windows and skylights—to the exotic. rather than to some combination of glass and conventional PV modules. and canopies.1 Cost Advantages of Transparent/Semi-Transparent BIPV Page | 47 Indeed. The cost of architectural glass varies widely but it can range from around $100 or less per square meter for basic glass to several hundred dollars or more for multi-pane glass with features such as IR-reflecting. pergolas. Glass is used in so many different parts of building skin that there are many opportunities for substitution with BIPV glass. and the visibility of the design and construction adds to the prestige and goodwill of the companies responsible. in some cases manufacturers of glazed BIPV products already suggest that the relevant cost comparison for BIPV glass is to conventional glass alone. The opportunity here is to sell BIPV glass as purely an architectural cost. 3.2. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . current BIPV glass designs are semitransparent. especially in commercial buildings. like building facades. Excluding these windows that are designed NanoMarkets. Since architectural glass can be such a high-value material. 3. architectural glass can be higher in cost than conventional PV panels.net architectural projects. And that is before considering the value of the PV electricity produced. These designs are not suitable for glass structures that must provide excellent visibility. like picture windows. but also would produce negative tradeoffs with many other types of windows including most residential windows.nanomarkets.2. a "free" bonus of selecting BIPV architecture. indeed.
glass BIPV often has a high level of customization to it. cells are simply assembled on one pane of glass with the desired spacing. decision makers will be incented against removing expensive glass panels that function well and still have much of their useful life left. windows. Customization: Whether for new construction or for new glass features added to existing construction. the BIPV glass opportunities mainly apply to architectural glass used in commercial buildings. Custom products—including products that can be customized on a construction site—are thus an important opportunity in BIPV glass.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Incidentally. Retrofits: BIPV glass is not as well suited to retrofits as the opaque and flexible BIPV products are. and a second pane of glass is sealed to cover the cells. there are also standard BIPV glass products available for installations such as skylights. presenting another important opportunity for PV suppliers and architectural glass manufacturers. and curtain walls that can conform to panel specifications. Architectural glass is in many cases easily cut and otherwise modified to form custom pieces as required for a project. The result is individual silicon PV cells sandwiched in glass. including onsite glazing. 3. those products are much easier to use as retrofits. these modifications are even often performed on the actual construction site. the unsuitability of semitransparent BIPV glass for such a large portion of the architectural glass market points to an opportunity for the development of truly transparent (tinted) BIPV glass.net largely for unobstructed visibility. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. the glass incorporated in existing buildings can be difficult to retrofit economically with BIPV. NanoMarkets. But just as there are standard architectural glass products. Oversimplifying somewhat. a transparent polymer filler is used to seal the cells in place and fill the gaps between them. These standard panes can be easier to produce and thus lower in cost. This opportunity and the technologies behind it are discussed in their own section later in this chapter.3 Semitransparent Approaches to Crystalline Silicon BIPV Page | 48 The simplest approaches to making BIPV glass from crystalline silicon PV cells involve glazing a conventional PV module in glass instead of using the opaque materials that are usually used to make conventional panels. tabbing and busbars applied.nanomarkets. Similarly. the variety of glass architectural features and the ease of existing glazing technology often allows and even requires custom design and production of BIPV glass. The addressable residential architectural glass market is much smaller. something that is already underway. Part of this is because of the high cost of the conventional architectural glass in relation to the PV that would be added. This is in contrast to flush-mounted PV panels and flexible laminates that are not fully integrated with building materials.
The production of curved c-Si PV panels is an opportunity that can address markets for the construction of large curved vaults or curved windows on "showcase" buildings. round corners. The same spacing and drilling options apply with these cells as well. Because of the recent oversupply of crystalline silicon PV cells and the ease of glazing. Multicrystalline silicon PV cells are also used at lower cost but with reduced conversion efficiency. These thinner cells will allow opportunities to use c-Si PV in BIPV glass of tighter and tighter bending radius. Page | 49 NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Cut cells can also be used. this type of BIPV glass has quickly become a field with several players but few standouts. and generally best suited to flat applications. approximately 50 percent open space is typical. unsuitable for flexible applications. and Schüco Solar. Schott Solar. For greater transparency holes can also be drilled through the individual cells. or other shapes to change the aesthetics. Market distinguishing features for products in what is largely a homogeneous field. the need for absolute flatness is not cast in stone. While additional steps can be taken to produce multi-pane glass or other improvements. The highest conversion efficiencies can be achieved for these BIPV glass panels by using monocrystalline silicon cells. include a further alternative approach to glazed crystalline silicon BIPV. including Sharp Solar. although this has obvious implications for PV performance and the efficiency of materials usage. this basic process is the standard way of making BIPV glass.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. encapsulating the cells in curved glass sheets to produce curved panels. Where different approaches come into play for c-Si PV glazing is mainly in the kinds and shapes of cells used and how transparency is achieved. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. These cells can be spaced closely to allow only a small percentage of sunlight through or farther apart for greater transparency. rectangles.nanomarkets. While crystalline silicon PV cells are rigid and fairly brittle. producing perfect squares. Curved panes also point to the opportunity for crystalline silicon PV cell manufacturers to continue making thinner and thinner cells. and such cells can be incorporated into curved glass panels as long as the radius of curvature is fairly large and there is not much repeated flexing. these cells are perfectly square or rectangular and have the characteristic random multicrystalline pattern on them. the square cells with the truncated. Many large and small PV panel companies produce BIPV glass this way. As the wafer thickness of c-Si PV cells has decreased. it has become easier to bend them.net with transparent spaces between them and silver tabbing stripes crossing the spaces to connect the cells together.
The company was funded with $11 million in 2008. a shadow pattern on interior floors and walls. It is not just the appearance of the panels themselves that is impacted and benefited from these designs.3. And the options available for cell shapes. This company recognizes the opportunity of improving the aesthetics of crystalline siliconbased BIPV glass. Its multicrystalline silicon PV cells are mounted between the panes of double-pane thermal glass and oriented perpendicular to the glass panes.S. grid-like pattern of prisms and opaque cell edges. spacing. The company is in the middle of a 122-kW project fitting the Weser soccer stadium in Bremen. The light weight and curvability/flexibility of Plexiglas are the main opportunities that Sunovation recognizes and is trying to take advantage of. suggesting difficulties in producing enough modules. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Since they are frequently used for shading and daylighting.1 Two Innovative c-Si BIPV Glass Products Sunovation: Sunovation of Germany innovates in the BIPV glass space by using plastic— Evonik's Plexiglas—instead of glass panes. or below canopies or pergolas in other locations. and even the geometry of cell spacing make for a wide variety of aesthetic appearances. This dappled shadow pattern can be very attractive in addition to providing daylighting or shade. comes along with the aesthetics of the panel itself. Germany with 450 semitransparent BIPV glass modules. 3. the company claims that direct sunlight is directed into the cells while diffuse light and visible scenery are transmitted through the window. It plans to install skylight and curtain wall products on partner sites within the third quarter of 2010. But although the aesthetics of these BIPV glass panels and their shadows is widely admired.2 Peekaboo Panels: The Aesthetics of Glass Encapsulated Crystalline Silicon PV Cells Page | 50 BIPV glass panels made with crystalline silicon PV have a striking appearance that many architects and laypeople find appealing. The cells and prisms form a grid-like structure.net 3. the project began in May 2009 and is still continuing over one year after its start. the appeal is not universal and there are many who would consider their appearance NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Above each cell is a high-index prism that refracts incoming light. its panels give up the questionable aesthetics of face-oriented crystalline silicon cells embedded in the glass for a more subtle.3. However. making the window semitransparent. large panes with opaque squares or similar shapes distributed through them. The company claims that using Plexiglas reduces the weight of the panels significantly and allows the modules to be formed easily into curved shapes—bending the c-Si PV cells along with them—and even to be somewhat flexible.nanomarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. takes innovation in a different direction. Pythagoras: Pythagoras Solar of Israel and the U.
especially in the last couple of years. This trend was abetted by the ease of glazing the cells. these variations are made more apparent by the bright sunlight that passes through the panels by design.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. A significant portion of the addressable market for these BIPV glass systems will be shunned by these aesthetic concerns. As is also the case for the opaque BIPV products discussed in the previous chapter. One of the best opportunities for BIPV glass—and for all fully integrated BIPV. Moving just a few inches may reveal or hide some visible feature on the other side. the Cost of the Crystalline Silicon PV Inside Page | 51 Conventional glazed crystalline silicon PV cells have been a top choice for BIPV. Oversupply of crystalline silicon PV cells in the depths of the Great Recession made it easy for panel makers to get their hands on cheap cells and to try to differentiate their products with features like semitransparency. for most BIPV glass applications. While these are minority opinions on the aesthetics of crystalline silicon-based BIPV glass. BIPV glass in fact has even more to gain from this cost division. and to minimize their apparent cost. any panel manufacturer could do it and it could even be done at a building site by contractors. for one thing. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Pythagoras Solar's approach to this opportunity has been presented earlier in this report. in part because. By allocating some or all of the PV cost to the building material category the apparent cost of the PV functionality can be minimized or even eliminated. or at least a more precise. The silver tabbing stripes that connect the cells to one another can also be perceived as a negative visual feature because they interrupt the otherwise open space between the cells. the division of BIPV cost between categories of PV power generation and architectural features is an important factor in the cost of BIPV glass relative to conventional architectural glass and conventional PV panels. And some people will have problems with the aesthetics of the small variations in cell spacing and orientation that are inevitable in all but the most tightly controlled. the characteristics that give rise to them cannot be avoided. The lowered cost of making BIPV glass in this way helped to promote this type of BIPV from the supply side. for that matter—is to conceal the actual cost of the PV devices inside. way. 3. Visibility is hindered through the glass. Opportunities are thus available for firms to incorporate crystalline silicon PV cells into BIPV glass in a less conspicuous. conventional PV panels are not a realistic alternative.3.nanomarkets.net unattractive. the size of the cells within the panels is enough to interfere with visibility regardless of distance or spacing.3 The Cost of Glass vs. by sharing the costs with those of the building material component. in-factory assembly processes. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. as in a game of peek-aboo. NanoMarkets.
and competition between suppliers is likely to enhance pricing and features.3. Crystalline silicon-based BIPV is thus suitable for custom projects that cannot use standard-dimension panels. and even shading structures.net Conventional panels are universally opaque and would wipe out any light transmitting functionality of the glass structures.nanomarkets. Semitransparent BIPV glass takes a substantial hit in conversion efficiency in any installation simply because of the empty space required between cells to transmit light. are not minimalist architectural features by their nature. Buildings that include these features in their design have already chosen to pay a premium for features beyond the minimum necessary structure.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. It also helps that the cost of even low-end architectural glass is not too different from the cost of PV modules. precisely because of the flexibility of the budgets. NanoMarkets. Curtain walls and building facades. This makes BIPV glass accessible to smaller conventional PV module makers as well as architects and glaziers. Even if the features are added in order to accommodate BIPV. This is in contrast to BIPV products that interlace with or substitute for low-end roofing. This makes facades and other high-end architectural glass features a lucrative opportunity for BIPV glass suppliers. For a given percent transparency. Just as it is in the markets for opaque BIPV. because the PV panel option is completely inappropriate. the architectural component of BIPV cost is much more flexible in terms of being able to absorb additional costs like PV functionality. Thus there is little basis for comparing the cost of BIPV products to conventional architectural glass plus conventional PV panels. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . in that case the conventional building materials are clearly less costly than the PV devices and they can only absorb a portion of the cost of the PV. even on a worksite as opposed to in a factory. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. crystalline silicon PV—especially monocrystalline silicon—will provide the highest peak conversion efficiency among all of the PV options for BIPV glass. the most cost-conscious buildings do not include these features. Crystalline silicon also boasts higher conversion efficiency than any of the thin-film or organicbased PV technologies. the building owner gains the prestige of not only the PV system but also of these high-end architectural components. 3.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Crystalline Silicon for Semitransparent BIPV Page | 52 The main advantages of crystalline silicon PV for BIPV glass are (1) the availability of individual c-Si PV cells and (2) the ease of glazing them to form semitransparent panels. making it relatively easy to absorb the cost of the photovoltaics into the cost of the glass. the active PV material is not packed as densely within the module and the module-level efficiency is diluted by the spacing of the cells.
The manufacturing process for thinfilm PV is such that modules are generally produced by the cell manufacturers. Most important are concerns about aesthetics. aesthetics goes to the core of BIPV's value propositions and can have a significant impact on the market. and that the cost of the PV devices inside may be less easily discernable by the end users. The consequences of the "natural" fit of TFPV for BIPV glass are that the aesthetics of TFPVbased glass may more universally be considered attractive. that the PV devices can be more intimately and completely integrated into the final BIPV product. This makes thin-film PV an excellent match for semitransparent BIPV products.4 Thin-Film PV and the Semitransparent Panel Page | 53 NanoMarkets believes that thin-film PV can give crystalline silicon PV a run for its money in the BIPV glass market. performance will drop more dramatically for c-Si PV-based BIPV glass than it will for thin-film PV-based BIPV glass.nanomarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. NanoMarkets. making BIPV glass with it essentially means using architectural glass as the substrate.net But crystalline silicon has its drawbacks for BIPV glass as well. 3. BIPV glass is also an excellent opportunity for TFPV suppliers. Where c-Si-based BIPV is a product consisting of "things"—individual solar cells—inserted and sandwiched between glass panes. Compared to thin-film PV—which has lower conversion efficiency but experiences less of a performance drop in low light—c-Si PV will not produce as much power in terms of kilowatt hours for a given peak wattage. And as such a good match. thin-film PV is more of a "treatment" or almost a coating for glass. The silver tabbing stripes and small but visible variations in cell spacing and orientation threaten to bring the aesthetics of c-Si based BIPV glass into question. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . especially those on rectangular glass sheets that can easily be standardized. And the industry will be hard pressed to address these concerns. or at least a material with similar conductivity. Also a factor for BIPV glass—as it is for all BIPV that is not designed to track the sun—is the drop in performance that crystalline silicon experiences under indirect lighting conditions. there is little opportunity for straight module assemblers to use TFPV cells for BIPV glass simply because the TFPV manufacturers build an entire module on a single glass substrate. the only options are all opaque. While aesthetics are largely subjective and objections to c-Si-based semitransparent BIPV are certainly in the minority. producing better opportunities for higher margins. As the sun travels off axis and as clouds and shadows interfere with insolation. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. the electrical connections between cells require the silver tabbing. While cell orientation and spacing might be improved at higher cost. Thin-film PV is normally built on glass substrates anyway.
TFPV substrates are typically in the $10 to $20 range per square meter.4. neater look. And this certainly makes a difference in appearance. the issue becomes whether the high volumes required in a TFPV factory run can be sold. While part of the aesthetics issue has to do with the appeal of pinstripes (thin-film PV BIPV glass) versus squares (c-Si BIPV). 3.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Patterning cells in a factory on controlled substrates clearly produces a cleaner. or even larger or smaller.1 See-Through Becomes More Attractive While users and observers of crystalline silicon BIPV glass debate the aesthetics of discrete cells and tabbing connections sandwiched between glass panes. The spaces can be millimeters or centimeters wide. NanoMarkets. But the higher cost of architectural glass works in favor of BIPV because the high cost of architectural glass has a good potential to absorb some or all of the cost of the PV powergenerating component of BIPV. in a factory. but it bears comparison to TFPV substrate glass. Again. Architectural Glass Costs Page | 54 We have discussed the cost of architectural glass earlier in this chapter. spacing. meaning that architectural glass can be an order of magnitude higher in cost than TFPV substrate glass.2 Glass Substrate Costs vs. Architectural glass is typically designed to withstand a higher level of battering and environmental wear than TFPV substrates. square and rectangular patterns fit naturally and even diagonal patterns should be possible.net 3. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. thin-film PV-based BIPV glass offers a nearly unlimited range of possibilities for cell size. and even shape. the process of making the panels also impacts appearance. which often aren't even exposed to the environment. this illustrates the different cost structures between the PV industry and the architecture industry: photovoltaics tends to minimize costs wherever possible while architecture is more concerned about certain performance features and can maintain higher prices. this is apparent even in photos of high-profile BIPV projects using cSi-based BIPV glass. a front cover glass is exposed instead.nanomarkets.4. Where individual c-Si PV cells are limited in the precision of their placement—especially when assembled on a construction site—the TFPV cells that make up the stripes on TFPV-based BIPV glass are patterned on single panes of glass with precision patterning and scribing equipment. even the smallest variations in cell orientation or positioning become glaringly obvious. And stripes don't need to be the only pattern. In direct sunlight and often with reflective cell edges. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . While a pinstripe pattern—thin transparent stripes between opaque cell strips just a few or even one centimeter wide—is most popular the width of the transparent stripes—and hence the amount of light allowed through—can be varied with the only limits being the size of the substrate.
This is much easier for BIPV glass than for the other categories of BIPV. itself a fully integrated BIPV glass product. To put an outer layer of semitransparent PV on conventional glass building surfaces would be to create a new facade or curtain wall.net As we have discussed in the prior chapter. and make more segments of the architectural glass market addressable by BIPV glass before the end of the forecast period. and shading structures are very uncommon on residential homes. especially prestigious ones. Unlike rigid opaque BIPV and flexible BIPV. and because of the high cost of architectural glass. and especially for TFPV-based BIPV glass because it does not have the separate—and visible—steps of inserting the individual cells and glazing them. Architectural budgets are generally more flexible and better able to handle excess costs. and produces some of the best opportunities for marketing BIPV in general and BIPV glass in particular. the cost-related limits on BIPV glass in the marketplace are related more to the cost of the—largely optional—glass features into which they can be incorporated. Conventional windows. While there are rigid panels that are applied flush over existing rooftops.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Transparent—rather than semitransparent—BIPV glass uses actual transparent PV cells and would be completely the Page | 55 NanoMarkets. Skylights and sunrooms are more common in residential buildings and are more likely to be constructed of standard-sized glass materials—and more often suitable for TFPV-based BIPV glass. Thus. aren't a realistic market for BIPV glass at this point because the cells interfere with visibility. there is not a similar solution for semitransparent BIPV. facades. Transparent BIPV glass may begin to change this. it is very easy to "bury" the cost of the PV portion of BIPV glass into the architectural costs of the glass. they are more of a feature of commercial and institutional buildings. because of the transparent nature of architectural glass. and there are flexible laminates that can be applied onto existing building skin materials. while ubiquitous in residential buildings. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . BIPV glass offers even more of an opportunity for sharing these costs with the building materials than either the rigid or the flexible BIPV products. The apparent cost of adding PV functionality to architectural materials can be made lower by assigning more of the cost of a fully integrated product into the architectural category. Because mounting conventional panels on top of conventional architectural glass is not a realistic option. This is one of the key value propositions for BIPV glass in general and for thin-film PV as a BIPV glass component. But they represent a limited addressable market. Curtain walls.nanomarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. semitransparent BIPV does not have options that are less than fully integrated. this ability to assign portions of the cost of BIPV to different categories—architectural and power-generating—is one of the most important features of BIPV that will help it succeed in the marketplace.
uniform appearance. c-Si PV cells are not likely to become transparent enough within the forecast period. Crystalline silicon PV-based BIPV glass is produced by a process that allows the cost of the PV portion to be isolated fairly easily—the cells themselves at a minimum. factory-patterned appearance of TFPV-based BIPV glass is in many cases an advantage for thin-film PV.nanomarkets. This is especially important given the decades-long life of architectural glass. While many find the square. regardless of the level of PV performance. This unusually long service life raises the opportunity for thin-film PV suppliers to boost their long-term performance and to offer extended warranties. Cost concealment: The emphasis on architectural functions rather than PV generating ones leads into the next advantage of TFPV-based BIPV glass over c-Si-based BIPV glass: the cost of the PV portion of the BIPV glass is better concealed and thus easier to assign to the architectural cost category. interspersed with a few glints of silver from tabbing or reflections from the edges of cells. the cost of assembling them and sealing the panel together can perhaps also be estimated—especially when it is NanoMarkets. even if they warrant performance to a lower level. better embedding of the cost of the PV within the product and avoiding steps and components that can be easily isolated to pin down the cost of the PV inside. one that is discussed in its own section later in this chapter. to be attractive. BIPV glass panels are likely to remain installed in some buildings.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. As long as the architectural functions—including practical functions as well as aesthetic and stylistic ones—are still performing well. many BIPV glass panels are likely to remain installed for a much longer time than the term of their performance warranties. With the cost of BIPV glass primarily in the architectural category it is in many cases likely to be the architectural service life—rather than the PV service life—that determines when panels will be replaced. ever so slightly irregular patterns of c-Si-based BIPV glass. the in-factory production that merges the PV component seamlessly with the architectural glass component.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Thin-Film PV for Semitransparent BIPV Page | 56 The major advantages of TFPV for BIPV glass are its clean. Truly transparent BIPV glass is thus a major opportunity for TFPV suppliers. 3. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Appearance and lifetimes: The precise. and the potential for transparency.net domain of thin-film and organic PV.4. the small irregularities may over time become more of a drawback on their aesthetics. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . simply because architectural glass is so costly and because the cost of the PV functionality is so well hidden.
OPV. Transparency: Transparency of BIPV glass—that is. OPV and DSC are likely to be the first technologies to achieve true transparency without visible patterns and hence the immediate opportunities are with those technologies.or multi-pane glass with IR coatings and other highend features will make the cost of the PV an even smaller portion of total cost. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Thin-film PV panels can certainly be cut to size or shape. The opportunity here is to increase the value of the architectural portion of BIPV glass even further. Transparent BIPV glass would be exclusively served by TFPV. but this is an operation that would need to be done in a factory as well.nanomarkets. Page | 57 NanoMarkets. and DSC. Such a development would add the huge market for conventional windows to the addressable market for BIPV glass. significant transparency of the cells and not just of the spaces between them—has eluded BIPV glass manufacturers so far but it is likely to become a reality within the period covered by this report. This can make it easier for the PV cost to be made less apparent or even ignored.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. for aesthetics and to allow proper sealing to avoid degradation of the PV material from the cut edges. or project owner to divide the cost into architectural and PV portions. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. The PV cells provide a starting point for estimating how much of the cost of the BIPV glass should be attributed as energy generating value. Building thin-film PV into double. without any visible pattern.net assembled onsite. And this structure of discrete cells sealed within glass is apparent not only when the panel is being assembled but it is blatantly obvious even in the completed panel. Crystalline silicon-based BIPV glass is clearly preferred for projects with irregular or inconsistent dimensions or where measurements and cuts need to be made at the construction site. the PV power generation becomes "icing. this pins down that portion of the cost to some extent. builder. and is a promising opportunity for those PV technologies. The downside of standardization: One drawback of thin-film PV-based BIPV glass is that it must be produced in a factory on standard-sized substrates. But thin-film PV-based BIPV glass generally emerges from the factory complete. and more easily hidden within the cost of the building materials. the stripes of cells within it are essentially part of the glass and it is harder for an architect. This limits the ability to make custom glasswork using it or to fit BIPV to the shape and dimensions of a specific project. This is especially true if the BIPV glass can be made uniformly tinted. The opacity of the cells has precluded the use of BIPV glass in windows because good visibility is a requirement for most windows." a benefit of the type of "architecture" selected.
There is thus a great opportunity for CIGS PV manufacturers especially to produce more BIPV glass with higher efficiencies.net The standardization of BIPV glass made with TFPV also points to another drawback: the volumes required to manufacture a product make it difficult to produce custom products or even a huge variety of standard ones. BIPV glass is likely—more so than conventional PV or even other types of BIPV—to remain installed well beyond the warranty period. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Lower efficiencies: Lower efficiency is also an important drawback for TFPV-based BIPV glass.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Wurth Solar already produces CIGS-based BIPV glass and has built the modules for the semitransparent BIPV roof of the South China Railway Station using it. Thin-film PV used for BIPV glass starts from lower efficiency anyway—especially amorphous silicon. in Germany. Other CIGS PV companies are also interested in the BIPV glass market. custom BIPV glass projects using TFPV-based products need to design around the dimensions and appearance of standard products. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. With c-Si PV-based BIPV glass the panels are more likely to continue producing power at some level—even if it's below the warranted level—during this extended lifetime. also depending on spacing. this approach may allow Odersun to take advantage of the opportunity of producing low volumes of custom sized and shaped BIPV glass products. Odersun stands out because of its electrodeposition method and its assembly of PV modules from 1-cm cell strips.nanomarkets. TFPV-based BIPV glass will thus be primarily standard products. the most common kind in BIPV glass today—and glass panels made with a-Si PV could have only around 3 percent module efficiency. Using CIGS PV could approximately double the efficiency and power output of BIPV glass with the same percent transparency as amorphous silicon BIPV glass. And there may be an opportunity if TFPV firms can find a way to produce small volumes of panels of custom shape and dimensions at reasonable cost. Even if the warranties cover the same amount of time. depending on the spacing and the type and quality of the cells used. the shorter performance lifetime that TFPV generally has in comparison to c-Si PV is a negative. Bosch Solar has demonstrated its CIGS BIPV glass façade in 2010 on the Schwager department store in Holzminden. Lower Saxony. Of course there may be exceptions for truly huge custom projects but the resulting BIPV glass panels would probably be considered new standard products as easily as high-volume custom products. Besides generally lower conversion efficiency. Spacing cells far enough apart to allow significant light through already slashes the power output of any kind of semitransparent BIPV product but c-Si PV-based glass panels may still reach as high as about 10 percent module efficiency. The opportunity for extending warranties on Page | 58 NanoMarkets.
net thin-film PV-based BIPV glass—along with boosting long-term performance—has already been mentioned. To make them transparent.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. NanoMarkets does not expect wafers to become reliably thin enough during the period covered by this report.5 Can BIPV Glass Become Truly Transparent? As we have already mentioned. silicon wafers would need to be extremely thin indeed. BIPV and Transparency Page | 59 Among the thin-film and organic PV technologies. NanoMarkets. especially DSC and OPV firms. While truly transparent BIPV glass is an important opportunity for thin-film and organic PV. but the cells themselves are opaque. Handling and processing such extremely thin wafers would be prohibitively difficult. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. Filling the spaces between cells with a matching tinted material is mainly a matter of patterning alignment and should not prove excessively difficult. OPV is so sensitive to air and moisture that even when fully encapsulated in glass Konarka— the only significant commercial manufacturer of OPV at this point—only claims a 10-15 year life for modules. But Konarka is targeting transparent BIPV glass and has partnered with Air Products to develop a product. such as in most windows. OPV cells can already be made up to 50 percent transparent. semitransparent PV glass allows light through between the cells. without spaces or any opaque traces. OPV is the closest to achieving truly transparent BIPV glass. But truly transparent BIPV glass—where the cells are tinted but not opaque—would open these applications to the possibility of BIPV glass. Solarmer is also working on BIPV. 3. having partnered with Joel Berman Glass Studios in April 2010 to demonstrate and develop glass BIPV panels. and there would be no incentive to develop them for the higher-volume conventional panels because their performance would suffer. it is not an opportunity for c-Si PV over the next several years. Where OPV faces the biggest hurdle to producing viable BIPV glass is in achieving longer lifetimes. this is probably enough for tinted windows. 3. These developments are tremendous opportunities for thin-film and organic PV manufacturers. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Crystalline silicon does not absorb light as efficiently as the thin films and bringing wafer thickness down to just a few microns would drastically cut power output. This has been a deal breaker for the use of BIPV glass in applications where visibility is important. This is especially true if the PV layer can be made uniformly tinted.5. And even if the wafers became thin enough to be transparent there would still be the issues of tabbing material and the filling of the spaces between the cells to match tints.1 OPV.
products may just begin to be commercialized by the end of the period covered by this report. DSC appears likely to be next to the transparent BIPV glass market. DSC and Transparency Page | 60 On the heels of OPV. Dyesol—the leading supplier of DSC materials—agreed to form a joint venture with Pilkington North America to develop BIPV glass products. But the timeline for now appears to be too long to produce real opportunities at the current time. NanoMarkets believes transparent BIPV glass is an important opportunity for OPV suppliers. NanoMarkets. making cells transparent could reduce that to 2 percent or less. Konarka's best-performing standard product is only about 4 percent efficient. NanoMarkets expects DSCbased BIPV glass to be a larger opportunity than OPV-based BIPV glass by the end of the eightyear scope of this report. and that is that the conversion efficiency of OPV is so low. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Still. it is the largest grid-connected opportunity for OPV. even if OPV beats DSC to the market.5.net OPV faces another important challenge with transparent BIPV glass. Unlike semitransparent BIPV glass. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. The inorganic thin-films are not as far along toward the development of transparent BIPV glass as the organic-based technologies are. And in March 2010. this low efficiency may lead many potential users of OPV for BIPV glass to decide that the small amount of power generated is not worth the installation. In fact. DSC cells are strongly tinted because of the iodine used as electrolyte but alternative—more transparent—electrolytes are in development. Since this venture is so new it will probably take some time to reach commercialization but products may become available within the period covered by this report.nanomarkets. But such products are certainly a possibility and a direction firms are interested in taking. Other grid-connected applications cannot overcome OPV's low conversion efficiency and not-low-enough costs. 3. DSC's conversion efficiency is not any better than OPV's at this point but there does seem to be more upside potential for performance improvements for DSC than for OPV. precisely because OPV stands out as the first technology likely to achieve it.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. But since it would open a large market segment that is currently inaccessible to BIPV.2 OPV. so DSC-based transparent BIPV glass will probably be significantly higher in conversion efficiency than OPVbased glass by the time commercial products become available. the cells could be packed densely so there would at least not be a further performance penalty from large spaces between cells.
like picture windows. for one thing. Visibility is hindered through the glass. And some people will have problems with the Page | 61 NanoMarkets. BIPV glass panels made with crystalline silicon PV have a striking appearance that many architects and lay people find appealing: large panes with opaque squares or similar shapes distributed through them. And that is before considering the value of the PV electricity produced. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . These designs are not suitable for glass structures that must provide excellent visibility. This produces an important opportunity for BIPV glass suppliers because BIPV glass can be viewed as an "economical" way to add PV to a building. the appeal is not universal and there are many who would consider their appearance unattractive. the size of the cells within the panels is enough to interfere with visibility regardless of distance or spacing. Current BIPV glass designs are semitransparent. Although the aesthetics of these BIPV glass panels and their shadows is widely admired. The high cost of architectural glass is an advantage for glazed BIPV products intended to substitute for conventional architectural glass because the cost of adding PV functionality can be a smaller portion of the overall cost of the materials. and to treat the electricity generated as "icing".NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. And the options available for cell shapes. and even the geometry of cell spacing make for a wide variety of aesthetic appearances. The opportunity here is to sell BIPV glass as purely an architectural cost. BIPV glass is not as well suited to retrofits as the opaque and flexible BIPV products are. Moving just a few inches may reveal or hide some visible feature on the other side. the glass incorporated in existing buildings can be difficult to retrofit economically with BIPV.net 3. and shading structures—are used. and this is where the bulk of the opportunities lie. with opaque cells interspersed with transparent spaces between them. but also would produce negative tradeoffs with many other types of windows including most residential windows. a "free" bonus of selecting BIPV architecture. as in a game of peek-a-boo. curtain walls. spacing.6 Key Points Made in this Chapter Glass-based BIPV systems are geared mainly for commercial and prestigious buildings where the bulk of the non-window glass addressable market—features like facades.nanomarkets.
the infactory production that merges the PV component seamlessly with the architectural glass component. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets.net aesthetics of the small variations in cell spacing and orientation that are inevitable in all but the most tightly controlled. OPV is the closest to achieving truly transparent BIPV glass. The consequences of the "natural" fit of TFPV for BIPV glass are that the aesthetics of TFPV-based glass may more universally be considered attractive. that the PV devices can be more intimately and completely integrated into the final BIPV product. uniform appearance. Among the thin-film and organic PV technologies. better embedding of the cost of the PV within the product and avoiding steps and components that can be easily isolated to pin down the cost of the PV inside. even on a worksite as opposed to in a factory. The major advantages of TFPV for BIPV glass are its clean. Conventional glazed crystalline silicon PV cells have been a top choice for BIPV. in-factory assembly processes. especially in the last couple of years. The main advantages of crystalline silicon PV for BIPV glass are (1) the availability of individual c-Si PV cells and (2) the ease of glazing them to form semitransparent panels. it is not an opportunity for c-Si PV over the next several years. Most important are concerns about aesthetics. and the potential for transparency. Oversupply of crystalline silicon PV cells in the depths of the Great Recession made it easy for panel makers to get their hands on cheap cells and to try to differentiate their products with features like semitransparency. OPV cells can already be made up to 50 percent transparent.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Page | 62 NanoMarkets. producing better opportunities for higher margins. But crystalline silicon has its drawbacks for BIPV glass as well. and that the cost of the PV devices inside may be less easily discernable by the end users. this is probably enough for tinted windows. While truly transparent BIPV glass is an important opportunity for thin-film and organic PV. NanoMarkets believes that thin-film PV can give crystalline silicon PV a run for its money in the BIPV glass market.
they often cost less than $100 per square. including concrete and ceramic tiles and standing seam NanoMarkets. The mid-range of roofing materials is represented by both rigid and flexible materials. while flexible materials can be several meters in length because of their flexibility.2 Flexible Building Materials: Ready for BIPV? Page | 63 Not all conventional building materials are flexible. flexible building materials tend to be somewhat less costly than their rigid counterparts. namely better and more controlled aesthetics and the ability to allocate costs between categories of PV power production and architecture with considerable discretion. 4. these are designed to look better than conventional panels but they do not substitute for—or produce any savings from—conventional building materials. where long strips of rigid material would be unwieldy and subject to breakage. There are two classes of flexible BIPV products: (1) laminates that are applied to building surfaces and (2) fully integrated flexible BIPV products. flexible materials of large size are resilient and easier to handle. and Other Flexible Products 4. conventional building materials suppliers. The fully integrated products—products like flexible roofing shingles and PV-integrated metal roofing—share many of the same value propositions and opportunities as the rigid. for instance. and versatility. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . but many are and they provide certain benefits because of it. and to architects and designers: Flexible BIPV laminates are analogous to the rigid BIPV tiles that are designed to lie flush on top of conventional roofing or cladding materials. And perhaps most importantly.nanomarkets. the flexible ones are the ones with the shortest market history. Each presents its own set of opportunities to PV suppliers. Asphalt shingles lie near the bottom of the roofing material market in terms of cost.S.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. ease of installation. basic approaches are in many ways similar to the ones used in rigid BIPV products. They offer value propositions—and opportunities—that derive from their light weight.net Chapter Four: Flexible BIPV: Laminates. Shingles. and they also allow for larger unit sizes and easier installations. Rigid tiles of conventional building materials are typically well under one meter in any dimension. Nonetheless. Flexible building materials are not as easily broken as rigid ones made of ceramic. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.1 Introduction Of the three major types of BIPV products. fully integrated products. This is the primary reason asphalt is the most popular residential roofing material in the U.
nanomarkets. means thin-film PV. rigid BIPV roof system—might be ruled out for structural reasons. $2 per peak watt the cost of flexible PV is still higher than that of most kinds of flexible roofing. Flexible PV. and this is an important opportunity for the BIPV laminates: they are versatile enough to be applied to almost any flat surface—and maybe even some that are not flat. even curved rigid modules. But there is a drawback to targeting flexible roofing materials and other flexible building skin materials with flexible BIPV. brick and stucco.net roofing made of steel or other metals. But even the rigid materials commonly used as cladding or simply exterior wall surfaces are often not particularly suited to integration in fully integrated rigid BIPV products. Many kinds of cladding or siding are also flexible.000 per square. Roofing is certainly not the only part of building skin that is often flexible. and in many ways it is. These materials generally cost a few hundred dollars to around $1. The use of c-Si PV almost completely rules out the creation of flexible modules and. in many cases. NanoMarkets. TFPV modules do not have to suffer from this rigidity problem. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. rigidity of TFPV panels is a result of using rigid substrates or rigid encapsulations materials. This leaves less potential for absorbing much of the cost of the PV functionality of BIPV products into the architectural cost category. Using a flexible substrate and flexible encapsulation yields a product that is at least somewhat flexible. Flexible BIPV products offer the opportunity to address the low end of the building materials market—the largest segment of the residential market—and to greatly expand the addressable market in the mid-range of building materials.3 Flexible BIPV Laminates and the "PV Anywhere" Concept Page | 64 The idea of flexible PV seems like a good fit for BIPV. The generally lower cost of flexible materials means that the cost of the PV will be a higher proportion of the total BIPV—or conventional PV plus conventional building materials—cost.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Part of the potential for flexible BIPV is that it can be suitable for application to rigid surfaces as well as flexible ones. including more options for commercial buildings. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . say. Rigid BIPV products are encased in glass and hence the cells themselves (whether c-Si or TFPV) contribute only a small fraction of the overall weight and thickness of the module. although using such substrates and encapsulation materials is not as easy as one might think. opening opportunities for installations where the sheer weight of a rack system or even a fully-integrated. 4. By contrast. for example. and again flexible materials claim the low end with products like vinyl siding. Even at a very low cost of. flexible PV for BIPV applications offers lighter weight in addition to flexibility. by necessity. Flexibility can make installation easier and allow the use of larger modules or strips of BIPV materials.
too. snow loads. Flexible PV costs haven't come as low as expected relative to rigid forms of PV but the savings on installation can still be significant. And another important opportunity related specifically to flexible BIPV laminates is their versatility. Besides rooftops. almost without regard to materials. PowerFilm. doors. Their flexibility also allows them to withstand and flex with the occasional stresses associated with conventional building materials. So far. a division of Energy Conversion Devices. United Solar Ovonic. such as wind. and JN Solar. including QCells' FlexCell unit.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. And direct marketing and sales to end users can actually encourage these kinds of installations. So these flexible TFPV modules applied to standard roofing materials generally do not require additional structural support or roof penetrations. Of course.net The first approaches to flexible BIPV have simply been flexible PV panels designed to be laid onto a roof. was expected to be very cheap since flexible laminates could easily be glued to the surface beneath them. and fences.nanomarkets. Installation. there may be aesthetic issues with the installation of BIPV laminates on some surfaces. flexible TFPV-based BIPV has been dominated by a-Si technology and by a single company. or perhaps attached to roofing materials before they are installed. flexible modules are the application where the lighter weight of TFPV is truly an advantage. as well as technical and architectural issues NanoMarkets. since the heavy glass encapsulation is avoided. and certainly lighter than the asphalt or metal building materials they are often affixed to. these benefits combine to produce lucrative opportunities to market flexible BIPV laminates as a simpler alternative to flush-mounted rigid BIPV panels. When effectively glued. All of these flexible modules are designed to be adhesively bonded to conventional roofing materials. the adhesive keeps them on the roof. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 65 . Part of the thinking has been that the cost of flexible PV would be low and that minimal modifications would be needed to make flexible PV modules into BIPV products. Flexible PV modules applied to roofing materials are lightweight in comparison to rigid modules. There are many advantages to flexibility and avoiding the framework structure: From a weight perspective. and impacts. The rack mounting system can be avoided too. this can include surfaces such as walls. Together. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Other a-Si PV manufacturers also produce flexible modules intended for the roofing industry. they also do not allow wind beneath them and wind loads are similar to those on the building materials without the PV laminates. rather than supported by a framework or rack like conventional rigid PV panels. These panels can be installed pretty much on any surface onto which they can be glued. since the roofing material to which the panels are glued serves the full mounting function.
NanoMarkets. clean appearance. In this field. while keeping the products—and their cost—separate from the conventional building materials onto which they are applied. The standing seam metal roof is an example of where the aesthetics can be very pleasing. But architecture is a field with much greater cost flexibility.1 The Aesthetics of Roll-On BIPV Page | 66 Since flexible BIPV laminates can be applied to so many different types of building surfaces they can run the gamut in terms of aesthetic appearances. 4. This sounds like a reasonable approach. this approach is not optimal because of the different natures of the photovoltaics industry and the architecture field. With flexible laminates. degradation of the underlying material. either aesthetically or in terms of other negative effects like standing or wicking water. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . or at least have much broader leeway when it comes to optimizing cost with design. Flexible PV laminates on a standing seam metal roof may fit nicely and have wide aesthetic appeal. But flexible PV laminates on an asphalt roof or other patterned or rough surface may not be a good idea. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Membrane roofs are another type of roof that is fairly well-suited to flexible BIPV laminates. At the core of the opportunities that flexible BIPV laminates provide is the fact that this approach is an attempt to minimize the cost of the PV component of BIPV.net when they are installed without the help of an architect or trained installer. Metal roofs are particularly suited for this kind of glued installation because they provide a smooth. PV is an extremely cost-conscious industry and differences of a few cents per peak watt or per kilowatt-hour can dramatically affect the overall market and the competitive standing of different firms. or even stresses on the panel itself. These issues are discussed below. With flexible BIPV laminates the other major value proposition for BIPV—aesthetic appearance—can also come into question. PV can be applied to many surfaces including many where other kinds of BIPV—or even conventional PV—would be difficult or cost prohibitive to use. aesthetic and design concerns often trump costs.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. But many of those options are places where flexible laminate BIPV would be questionable from an aesthetic or architectural perspective. However. With products touted to be able to be applied "anywhere" comes a mixed bag of results. continuous surface without gaps or joints. the uniformly wide spaces between the seams allow for a neat.3.nanomarkets. although aesthetics play less of a role in membrane roofs because they are generally not visible from the ground. minimizing the cost is certainly an important objective and it logically follows that those minimal costs should be easily and accurately known by the end users.
nanomarkets. where the laminates can be sold as a part of a roofing system. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . In many cases such self-installations will be satisfactory in terms of integrity and aesthetics. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. If these improper or unappealing installations occur widely there will likely be negative impacts on the image of the products for BIPV. tile. But it is important to point out that direct marketing and sales to end users—however risky it may be to the future image of this type of BIPV—boosts short-term revenues and will not be going away. And while this approach may actually be one of the best for minimizing the total cost of a building plus its PV system. United Solar Ovonic's Uni-Solar laminates are in fact already available for direct purchase through online retailers. even if the problems are unique to amateur installations and would not be issues for professional installations. And there is also the possibility that over the course of the 20. These products are generally intended for pairing with compatible types of roofing like the standing seam metal mentioned above. NanoMarkets. with damaging consequences for aesthetics. The resulting stresses on the laminate could result in puckers or gaps.2 Separate but Less Costly: BIPV Laminates Page | 67 Flexible BIPV laminates—sold as standalone products as opposed to already attached to building materials—take the approach of minimizing the cost of the PV panels and the installation with only minimal impact on—and sharing with—the costs of the building materials onto which they will be applied. Laminates applied in a factory onto roofing panels represent the most precise installation and also allow flexible BIPV to take some advantage of the integration of the PV and the roofing materials—physically as well as their costs—to reduce their apparent cost. 4. a development that could boost sales but which could also encourage installations by do-it-yourselfers without benefit of an architect or trained installer.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. it does not take full advantage of the distributing of costs that is possible when PV is fully integrated with building materials.3.to 30-year lifetime of such panels. or another material—may produce combinations of patterns that could have negative aesthetic appeal. Because of the risk of poor installations the best aesthetic path for commercialization of flexible BIPV laminates is through building materials suppliers. but their claims of low cost and easy installation could bring them to other kinds of installations that may have narrower appeal. These combined products represent a different and larger opportunity and will be discussed a bit further in this chapter.net A potential threat to this type of BIPV—flexible laminates—relates to the possibility of widespread amateur installation. settling or other movement of the underlying roofing may occur. but there will also be many cases of questionable performance and appearance. Installation on a patterned roof—whether asphalt.
some flexible PV laminates may be suitable for temporary installation on permanent buildings but designed to be removed frequently or after a period of time much less than the decades that most BIPV products are designed for.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. In addition to marketing and selling products to building materials firms. In fact.nanomarkets.3. But it also opens the door to greater numbers of faulty installations or just plain unappealing ones since architects and trained installers will often not be involved in the design and installation of the system. times have not been so good for United Solar Ovonic. These may be items like temporary window awnings or even sheets of cells that are deployed as needed. it is more akin to portable applications since the panels are not permanently installed and they can be moved around easily. systems integrators. and direct sales will be an important part of any roadmap to bring BIPV to true high-volume status. as we have noted previously. making BIPV accessible to a much larger number of potential installations.net But the opportunities for cost savings with flexible BIPV laminates still exist. perhaps. Bypassing the middlemen in PV system sales is a double-edged sword. PV suppliers can sell products directly to small end users. lines have been idled and staffing levels have been reduced significantly. In the past. and instead of increasing production. PV enthusiasts and early adopters had to hire architects and trained crews to install a PV system. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . This development produces the opportunity to open new market segments. it would seem that that company should be doing a brisk business and rapidly expanding its production and capacity. but for the purposes of this report we do not consider such installations to be building-integrated PV because they are not on permanent buildings. and construction firms. Similarly. 4. But with the advent of flexible BIPV laminates there is now an alternative for lower-budget enthusiasts—would-be early adopters or those who value the PV system itself above its architectural integration and appearance—to obtain a PV system without the added expense of the architect and specialized installers. We do not consider this kind of product to be BIPV either. And this certainly can be a good opportunity for thin-film PV suppliers. has been dominated so far by a single company. flexible BIPV laminates would seem to lend themselves well to temporary installations. Because of their claimed easy and low-cost installation. such as on soft structures like tents.3 Issues with Flexible BIPV Modules Page | 68 Since flexible BIPV laminates are such a unique product and the market for them. for emergency power. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. NanoMarkets. even if they were not concerned with building integration or aesthetics. The sheer weight of the panels and the complexity of the project made specialized equipment a necessity and a structural analysis of the existing building critical. Part of this has to do with the impacts of recession felt across the solar industry. especially in residential markets. United Solar Ovonic. This lower-cost proposition is certainly an important opportunity for thin-film PV suppliers.
somewhat less costly. the strategy of the standalone flexible BIPV laminate is to lay bare the costs of the PV portion of BIPV.nanomarkets. the importance of aesthetic appeal in marketing the products assumes elevated importance. misalignment with an underlying pattern. This part of the value proposition for flexible BIPV laminates has been heavily dependent on the laminates being significantly less costly than conventional PV panels. or paired patterns that simply clash. could end up almost anywhere. Page | 69 NanoMarkets. But other installations can be problematic aesthetically. the United Solar Ovonic laminates are not clearly cheaper than other PV. While part of the marketing appeal— which leads to some of the key opportunities—of flexible BIPV laminates is that they can be installed almost anywhere. Even worse. These cost and performance deficiencies beg an opportunity for lower cost and higher conversion efficiency. installation methods. The company vaguely mentions nanosilicon—perhaps the only technology that may allow amorphous silicon PV to reach and exceed these efficiencies—but the details are lacking. But at $3-$4 per watt. Nanosilicon as currently used on silicon wafer-based hybrid c-Si/nc-Si cells by Innovalight and JA Solar only boosts conversion efficiencies by about a percent or two. in fact. even when accounting for the different. First of all. The good match between this type of roofing and BIPV laminates also makes this combination a good target for more fully integrated products in which laminates are pre-installed on roofing materials. This opportunity is discussed later in this chapter. especially standing seam roofing where long. With the cost of United Solar Ovonic's flexible BIPV laminates not terribly appealing. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Among other concerns.net but much of it is because United Solar Ovonic and the a-Si PV technology have not been able to fully realize the opportunities of flexible BIPV laminates. And the aesthetics can be very good for these laminates when applied to the right kinds of materials. the drawback of this versatility is that they.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. with little or no opportunity to share the costs with other components of the building. NanoMarkets is skeptical of United Solar Ovonic's recently announced targets of 10 percent conversion efficiency in 2011 and 12 percent in 2012. And with the low conversion efficiency of these a-Si PV laminates—about 6-7 percent—cost becomes even more critical since limited roof or wall area limits the amount of power produced. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. amateur installation may lead to slightly skewed orientations. flat "tracks" between the seams provide an ideal installation location that is both inconspicuous and provides opportunities for enhancing the appearance of the roof.
And capitalizing on this "wow" factor is certainly an important opportunity in the short term.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) holds potential for improvements beyond those achievable with amorphous silicon technology—and possibly even wafer-based crystalline silicon—because below about 100 nm in diameter the properties of silicon crystals begin to change. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. an intrigue that devices possess simply because they change longstanding assumptions about how devices can be made and be used. There are a few ways to approach these objectives. NanoMarkets believes that the best opportunity—for higher conversion efficiencies is through the use of nanocrystalline silicon. Tuning the bandgap with nanocrystalline silicon is an opportunity that could potentially lead to greater performance gains. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . could have adverse impacts on the image of flexible BIPV laminates. These problems. There is something of a "wow" factor with most kinds of flexible electronics. Tuning of the bandgap is already done in amorphous silicon cells and is what enables the multijunction cells that boosted performance to current levels. or puckering due to building settling or other forces. in the range where nanoparticles are often called "quantum dots"—the bandgap becomes tunable either by size or shape or by surface morphology or derivatization. and is thus one of the most important routes to reducing costs. These opportunities are related.nanomarkets. At very small sizes—around 5 nm or so. Nanocrystalline silicon: Within the thin-film silicon class of PV technologies. accelerating roof deterioration. Much of the appeal of flexible BIPV laminates is actually not because of their visual aesthetics but simply because they are flexible.4 Newer Approaches to Flexible BIPV Laminates Page | 70 As we have just said. and may promote the buildup of water between the laminate and the roof. since improving conversion efficiency will reduce the size of the panel—and amount of material—needed to produce a given amount of power. This NanoMarkets. as they are for other types of BIPV. But in the longer term this "wow" factor will subside—as either the image of the flexible devices becomes less appealing or as they become more common and familiar—and the aesthetics of flexible BIPV laminates will be based on more traditional aesthetical values. But of even greater interest is the effect of quantum confinement. some of the best opportunities for flexible BIPV laminates lie in increasing their conversion efficiency and reducing their costs.3.net when applied directly to some kinds of roofing material the laminates may be subject to shifting. even if they only make up a minority of installations. 4. one that goes hand-in-hand with the direct marketing of the laminates to end users. stretching. which traps excitons (ejected electrons and the holes they leave behind) within extremely small spaces.
VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Quantum confined excitons also raise the possibility of multiple exciton generation (MEG). currently many recombine without generating current—often by finding defect sites—and only generating heat. Prepared properly. Page | 71 NanoMarkets. But as a standalone product it will face the same other challenges as the a-Si products do.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. And the product is still undergoing independent certification. silicon quantum dots can generate more than one exciton upon absorption of a high-energy photon. usually systems of alternating polymer and ceramic layers.nanomarkets. outperforming the currently dominant Uni-Solar product by 20-30 percent. CIGS PV and CdTe PV require more complex—and expensive— solutions.net quantum confinement can boost efficiencies by preserving excitons for longer periods of time until they can separate at the absorber junction. Reasonable opportunities for nanocrystalline silicon are more modest. But CIGS PV players do indeed have their eyes on the flexible BIPV laminate market. including silicon. While it is not certain that this substantial improvement can be achieved within that timeframe. This product is 8-9 percent efficient. This opportunity is enhanced by the fact that thin-film silicon is the least moisture sensitive of the commercial thin-film PV technologies. Ascent Solar expects it to be complete in 2011. Of course. 50 percent conversion efficiency for thin-film silicon PV is nothing but a pipe dream within the eight-year scope of this report. Global Solar also claims a flexible BIPV laminate product but the company appears to be reserving it for integration with building materials. only generate one excition and any excess photon energy just creates heat. a strategy that NanoMarkets believes will help to capitalize on more lucrative opportunities. efficiencies comparable to those of CdTe PV and CIGS PV would certainly help flexible BIPV laminates based on thin-film silicon PV grow their share of the overall BIPV market. Water penetration is an issue especially threatening to flexible BIPV products because most flexible encapsulation materials are more water permeable than glass and because BIPV products are continuously exposed to rain and other environmental moisture. not electricity. MEG is the feature that could allow nanosilicon PV to reach remarkable efficiencies—50 percent is talked about as a reasonable goal. CIGS: While water can be excluded from thin-film silicon PV effectively enough with relatively simple polymer encapsulation. Conventional absorbers. United Solar Ovonic claims a target of 12 percent conversion efficiency in 2012 using nanocrystalline silicon. Ascent Solar has demonstrated a laminate product called WaveSol Light.
a subsidiary of Xunlight.net While in total. However. First Solar may even have plans to develop flexible products at some point. Vitex Systems' Barix coating system is a prime example of the current state-of-the-art in dyad encapsulation technology. They also must be highly transparent to minimize the absorbance of light that would reduce the efficiency of the cell. The materials used in CIGS PV cells are sensitive to rainwater but also to condensation and humidity in the air. no fewer than 10 CIGS PV manufacturers and developers have produced flexible cells. CdTe: Even CdTe PV. CIGS PV is much more sensitive to moisture than are the other inorganic TFPV technologies and hence has more stringent encapsulation requirements. it is the larger potential players like GE that have a better chance of penetrating the CdTe PV market. plans that would no doubt be accelerated if a competitor began taking market share with its own flexible products. Inorganic films also do not provide sufficient impermeability because defects—unavoidable over the large areas covered by PV modules—provide sites for moisture transport. However. Xunlight X26.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 72 . small companies like Xunlight X26 are not likely to get to commercialization soon enough to gain significant market share of flexible BIPV laminates. The alternate layers NanoMarkets. The reason for the moisture sensitivity is that CIGS has an inherent degradation mechanism in the presence of moist heat. Encapsulation materials must be compatible with the cell materials and with the electrical connections that pass through them. effective encapsulation is critical to the sustained performance of CIGS PV modules. the major concern with CIGS is still its moisture sensitivity.nanomarkets. Most high-performance transparent encapsulation systems use dyads—alternating layers of polymers and inorganic films— allowing one material to "plug the holes" in the other material. has some minor players who have designs on flexible products. and eliminating moisture by effective encapsulation prevents this degradation. this mechanism requires water to proceed. According to Vitex Systems. though. Polymers do not provide the level of impermeability required because of relatively high diffusion rates and the inevitable presence of pinholes. Barix is comprised of alternating layers of polymer and alumina thin films deposited on the substrate of the cell. thoroughly dominated by First Solar. But these systems can be expensive and difficult to apply. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Flexible encapsulation: Flexible encapsulation materials are an area where there is currently a lot of opportunity for development both for CIGS PV and for similarly sensitive organic electronics. The opportunity remains. was formed in 2008 expressly for the purpose of developing flexible CdTe PV cells. that flexible CdTe PV with effective and costeffective flexible encapsulation could capture parts of the flexible BIPV laminate market. Thus.
CIGS PV players are getting into the game as well. DuPont is collaborating with the U.4 One and the Same: Incorporating PV into Flexible Building Materials Page | 73 Beyond improving the standalone laminates themselves and pursuing more effective marketing strategies for them. as with the BIPV laminates. cost-effective. recognizing the opportunity that a high level of integration with conventional building materials can bring: helping to camouflage the cost of the PV cells and push BIPV toward being treated as mainly an architectural cost instead of an energy generating one. And 3M has developed an encapsulation system with SoloPower for use with flexible CIGS PV cells. Other companies also claim to have produced viable.000 times less permeable to water than anything currently available. Also. This film is targeted at several organic electronics applications as well as TFPV. Vitex has tested the Barix coating on several kinds of devices including CIGS PV modules and claims very good results on CIGS with a two-dyad film.nanomarkets. NanoMarkets. But dye-sensitized-cell PV is also making a play for a portion of this market. and imperfections in the ceramic structure (that would otherwise lead to moisture transfer) are plugged by the polymer.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. As was the case for flexible BIPV laminates. The company calls it its "Ultra Barrier system. This approach avoids the likelihood of poor attachments to the building materials—whether in terms of aesthetics or structurally—and allows the cost of the PV used in BIPV to be shared with the cost of the architecture. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Dow Chemical has been working on one for several years and in October 2009 was apparently comfortable enough with it to announce a flexible CIGS BIPV product.S." 4. The approach of fully incorporating flexible PV modules into fully integrated flexible BIPV products offers more and better opportunities to PV suppliers than simply offering standalone flexible laminates that can be applied to existing building surfaces. Fujifilm announced in early 2009 a "transparent super high barrier film" that the company claims has the world's highest level of moisture exclusion. the market for integrated flexible BIPV products has been dominated by amorphous silicon PV and by products incorporating United Solar Ovonic's laminate product. a transparent ceramic such as silica or alumina is deposited. These layers are repeated in alternating fashion to produce a robust moisture barrier.net serve to seal one another: pinholes in the polymer layers are covered by the ceramic. robust encapsulation systems. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Vitex claims that Barix is "10. most opportunities for flexible BIPV laminates involve integrating them more fully with conventional building materials." After a first layer of polymer is applied to smooth the surface of the PV cell and to fill any valleys. Department of Energy to develop barrier films for TFPV in a project funded with $9 million over three years.
Also important is the fact that Dow Chemical is a huge conglomerate that can stand behind its product. Since BIPV rarely gets on-axis solar illumination. Second. Dyesol has said it will announce details about the beginning of beta testing of modules after the eighth Page | 74 NanoMarkets. These two products produce some unique value propositions and opportunities that set them apart from current BIPV shingle and metal roofing products that rely on a-Si PV: The Dow Chemical/Global Solar BIPV shingle stands out because it appears set to be the first CIGS-based fully integrated flexible BIPV product. First.6 percent (by Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA) in June 2010). achieving the seventh in February 2010. the product uses the steel roofing material as its actual substrate—producing even greater opportunities to merge the costs of PV and of building materials since the steel is actually a part of the PV cell—rather than simply applying a self-contained laminate onto a building material. The advantage and opportunity for CIGS is the potential for higher conversion efficiencies than produced by a-Si.nanomarkets. fully-integrated products in development are Dow Chemical's new "Dow Powerhouse Solar Shingle"—based on CIGS PV cells from Global Solar and targeted for sampling within 2010. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. the product is designed to take advantage of DSC's better relative performance—and even higher conversion efficiency—in low light and in off-axis illumination. Dyesol has been working with Corus since 2006 under a Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) contract to develop this BIPV roofing product.net The two most notable flexible. Where a-Si-based BIPV laminates are stalled at about 6-7 percent conversion efficiency—notwithstanding claims that 10-12 percent efficiency will be developed in the next two years—CIGS PV laminates can already produce 8-9 percent efficiency and flexible CIGS PV cells have been demonstrated with conversion efficiencies as high as 17. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. The Dyesol/Corus work is notable for two reasons. volume sales in 2011—and Corus' steel roofing with incorporated DSC cells from Dyesol. The companies have built a pilot production line and produced alpha testing modules that are being tested in a PV accelerator for outdoor weathering and long-term accelerated testing. a product designed and marketed to perform nearly as well in steep-angle or diffuse light opens opportunities for installations on more building surfaces beyond just those that face the sun most directly. especially since the critical encapsulation that is used is such a new development. The project has been divided into several milestones and the companies have completed milestones one through seven.
Of these three categories. as well as cladding materials like vinyl and metal siding. 4. fully integrated BIPV products discussed in Chapter Two. or like the Corus/Dyesol product. Shingle products and metal roofing products are instead focused on aesthetics. this is one of the two major value propositions of all BIPV: its improved aesthetics versus systems that use rack-mounted conventional panels. fully integrated BIPV products: emulating the conventional building material product that the BIPV product is designed to replace or blend in with. that use building materials as substrates for building the PV cells Shingle products. which lie flat across a wider surface of membrane roof. in which flexible PV laminates. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . It is a major goal and opportunity of BIPV to enable the production of PV power by buildings without making them look like power plants. which are designed to interlace with conventional shingles on asphalt roofs Membrane roofing products. The BIPV products are matched dimensionally and aesthetically to the conventional roofing products they are designed to emulate. as discussed in the last section. They are primarily: Metal roofing products.1 The Aesthetics of Invisibility Most integrated flexible BIPV products are designed to blend into the building structure or architecture and to be as unobtrusive as possible. The opportunity presented by targeting these materials is to expand the addressable market for fully-integrated BIPV to include building skin made of flexible roofing materials as asphalt shingles and metal roofing. since most membrane roofs are invisible from the ground. are applied to metal roofing panels between the seams and in a factory.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. The fully integrated products that are produced this way can be very attractive. providing a level of Page | 75 NanoMarkets.4. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.net milestone review. As we have been saying throughout this report. which should be coming soon based on the historical frequency of milestone announcements.nanomarkets. But flexible BIPV targets flexible conventional building materials instead of rigid ones. flexible BIPV has taken a similar approach to that of the rigid. In targeting this opportunity. The laminates are also attached to the roofing materials in the factory. membrane roof products are generally designed mainly for ease of installation and maintenance rather than for aesthetics. The appeal here is very similar to the appeal of the rigid.
But this opportunity is limited. The benefit of sharing costs between the PV system and flexible building materials is generally not as great as it is for fully integrated rigid BIPV products. conventional building materials suppliers. 4. benefits of the overall BIPV system. This is in contrast to the treatment of PV systems. based mainly on intangibles like aesthetics. for which onsite installation is a realistic alternative. where small differences in cost serve as the basis for choosing one system over another. This is simply because rigid building materials tend to be higher in absolute cost than flexible building materials.4. Each presents its own set of opportunities to PV suppliers. this is a particularly important opportunity for the metal roofing products. and the decision makers in building design routinely favor premium and mid-range materials over low-end materials. designers. Because flexible conventional building materials are lower in cost they cannot absorb as much of the cost of the photovoltaics. Instead of serving as "icing" on an architectural structure that could be built even without considering the PV power generated. 4. The high-end conventional products are generally rigid—materials like natural slate. architects. and to architects and designers Flexible BIPV products offer the opportunity to address the low end of the building materials market—the largest segment of the residential market—and to greatly NanoMarkets. the shifting of any portion of the cost of the PV system into an architectural category provides a tremendous benefit to BIPV economics by making the apparent cost of the PV less. or even for the decision whether or not to install a photovoltaic system at all. a "zero-cost"—really zero apparent cost—PV system integrated into high-end building materials is pretty much off the table for the flexible BIPV products. to an extent. Because architectural features and building materials are much more flexible in terms of budgeting and costs. by the relatively low cost of flexible building materials.2 Flexible BIPV Products and Cost The number one cost-related opportunity for fully integrated flexible BIPV products is to share the cost of the PV with that of the building materials and the architecture.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. In contrast.nanomarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. As we have pointed out throughout this report. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .net precision not available on a worksite. the low-end conventional products—like asphalt shingles—tend to be flexible. power generation must be an integral part of the decision when determining the cost vs.5 Key Points Made in this Chapter Page | 76 There are two classes of flexible BIPV products: (1) laminates that are applied to building surfaces and (2) fully integrated flexible BIPV products.
Page | 77 NanoMarkets. by necessity. The use of c-Si PV almost completely rules out the creation of flexible modules and. The first approaches to flexible BIPV have simply been flexible PV panels designed to be laid onto a roof. In many cases such selfinstallations will be satisfactory in terms of integrity and aesthetics. too. A potential threat to flexible laminates is the possibility of widespread amateur installation. flexible TFPV-based BIPV has been dominated by a-Si technology and by a single company. But there is a drawback to targeting flexible roofing materials and other flexible building skin materials with flexible BIPV. Other a-Si PV manufacturers also produce flexible modules intended for the roofing industry. without benefit of an architect or trained installer. United Solar Ovonic. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. means thin-film PV. and JN Solar. but there will also be many cases of questionable performance and appearance. TFPV modules do not have to suffer from this rigidity problem. including Q-Cells' FlexCell unit. So far.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Flexible PV costs haven't come as low as expected relative to rigid forms of PV but the savings on installation can still be significant. a division of Energy Conversion Devices. PowerFilm. Part of the thinking has been that the cost of flexible PV would be low and that minimal modifications would be needed to make flexible PV modules into BIPV products. All of these flexible modules are designed to be adhesively bonded to conventional roofing materials. even curved rigid modules. rather than supported by a framework or rack like conventional rigid PV panels.net expand the addressable market in the mid-range of building materials. was expected to be very cheap since flexible laminates could easily be glued to the surface beneath them. including more options for commercial buildings.nanomarkets. Flexible PV. and this is an important opportunity for the BIPV laminates: they are versatile enough to be applied to almost any flat surface—and maybe even some that are not flat. Installation. in many cases. rigidity of TFPV panels is a result of using rigid substrates or rigid encapsulation materials. The generally lower cost of flexible materials means that the cost of the PV will be a higher proportion of the total BIPV—or conventional PV plus conventional building materials—cost. or perhaps attached to roofing materials before they are installed. Part of the potential for flexible BIPV is that it can be suitable for application to rigid surfaces as well as flexible ones.
While in total of no fewer than 10 CIGS PV manufacturers and developers have produced flexible cells. was formed in 2008 expressly for the purpose of developing flexible CdTe PV cells. Global Solar also claims a flexible BIPV laminate product but the company appears to be reserving it for integration with building materials.net Because of their claimed easy and low-cost installation. flexible BIPV laminates would seem to lend themselves well to temporary installations.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Ascent Solar expects it to be complete in 2011. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Xunlight X26. Similarly. However. CIGS PV players have their eyes on the flexible BIPV laminate market. fully-integrated products in development are Dow Chemical's new "Dow Powerhouse Solar Shingle"—based on CIGS PV cells from Global Solar and targeted for sampling within 2010. Even CdTe PV. First Solar may even have plans to develop flexible products at some point. has some minor players who have designs on flexible products. a subsidiary of Xunlight. Ascent Solar has demonstrated a laminate product called WaveSol Light.nanomarkets. the major concern with CIGS is still its moisture sensitivity. such as on soft structures like tents. thoroughly dominated by First Solar. it is the larger potential players like GE that have a better chance of penetrating the CdTe PV market. volume sales in 2011—and Corus' steel roofing with incorporated DSC cells from Dyesol. Page | 78 NanoMarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. some flexible PV laminates may be suitable for temporary installation on permanent buildings but designed to be removed frequently or after a period of time. The two most notable flexible.
net Chapter Five: Eight-Year Forecasts 5. We have been covering this area for approximately five years and this is the third of our annual reports on BIPV. Factors such as the rate of new construction and of renovations of existing structures.nanomarkets. attitudes about architecture and aesthetics. Having looked at these various areas. And most critical to the analysis in this report. After considering and quantifying the impact of each of these factors. These forecasts are derived. even more so than is the PV market in general. The underlying data for these forecasts have come from a wide variety of sources including the numerous interviews that NanoMarkets conducts in this space on a regular basis. While BIPV markets depend to a large extent on the underlying overall PV markets. in part. and the affluence of the client base all have an impact on the BIPV market beyond simply mirroring the overall PV market.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. especially as it affects building materials markets. We have also taken into consideration the activities of major PV/BIPV companies. and allocating them to each cost category in ways that minimize the apparent cost of the PV devices within the BIPV products. We have considered the current trends in BIPV product offerings and the state of development of BIPV products within the various PV technologies. there are other independent factors as well. The methods used to arrive at these forecasts are similar to those used in other NanoMarkets forecasts. BIPV does not simply follow the same trends as PV in general. Pricing influences and trends are also discussed and reported since they are critical to evaluating the markets. we have taken our own independent view in evaluating company claims and product roadmaps and considered the current economic environment when forecasting shipments and installation growth. and the state of development of the PV technologies themselves. online sources of various kinds. Page | 79 NanoMarkets. Since BIPV is heavily dependent on construction markets. but adjusted for the specific needs of BIPV. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . we have produced the forecasts in this chapter. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. we have also considered the state of the construction market. We have divided the forecasts by product type and also differentiated them by PV technology and the level of integration with conventional building materials. crystalline silicon PV as well as the inorganic thin-films and the organic-based PV technologies. from NanoMarkets' ongoing research on photovoltaics and energy topics more generally. BIPV offers the opportunity to manipulate the economics of PV by sharing the costs of photovoltaics and of building materials.1 Forecasting Methodology This chapter contains NanoMarkets' eight-year forecasts for BIPV.
Construction and BIPV Page | 80 Worldwide economic conditions also play an important role in our forecasts. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. On the other hand.1. trends in construction and building materials. are not particularly helpful when considering BIPV. and statistics from trade associations and government sources. This should give any BIPV firm cause for thought about the next few years. For now. For example. for that matter. Canada would be an example here. that New York City office leasing activity had recently surged to its highest level in four years. borrowing and money supply growth as new productivity gains from the "information revolution" begin to peter out. however. 5.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. this data is of limited use for the purposes of this report. so such data. perhaps the most important of which is when the deflationary spiral will turn to an inflationary spiral. as this report goes to press it had just been reported. (This suggests another possible opportunity for BIPV. as we have seen throughout this report. there are many uncertainties. Conventional PV industry tracking is generally focused on the standard devices—cells and conventional modules—rather than the innovative products that combine them with building materials. BIPV that is designed for retrofit markets. Going forward. some of the construction markets that were hit worst during the recession have begun to return to some kind of normalcy. for example. Photovoltaics and building materials are nothing new. All the major countries of the world are clearly going through a significant balance sheet adjustment as governments struggle to deal with the consequences of excessive social services spending.nanomarkets. while useful for the underlying PV markets. as are even some of the construction markets that until recently seemed to have survived the recession quite well. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .net including the World Wide Web. the world seems stuck in a deflationary phase that has a dramatic impact on the construction market into which BIPV sells. BIPV trends do not simply mirror trends in the overall PV markets or. Once factory capacities build NanoMarkets. as already mentioned. and data on their progress over the last couple of decades has been tracked by various private and public sources. BIPV depends heavily on new construction and is often not economical to install as a retrofit. although rents are still low.S.) Optimism about the immediate future should also be tempered by the fact that some of the hottest construction markets (notably China) are apparently under pressure.1 Economics. Almost every economist also believes that worldwide economic growth will be slower in 2011 than in 2010. construction markets that went into deep recession in 2009 are beginning to see some recovery. However. Some of the U. And.
. overall and by categories of product type and PV technology. If it was to result in property prices rising again. The point about inflation that is important to remember is that it often lodges in a particular sector. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . reflecting modest (but historically low) economic growth in the major nations of the world for the next few years. this might actually be quite good for BIPV. efficiencies. What this means in terms of actual numbers would be perhaps 3 percent GDP growth in the U. A leap in real growth would be everyone including BIPV. over the next eight years. major defaults on sovereign debt. and those projections are used in the process of developing the BIPV forecasts. the rate of take up of PV in buildings underpins all our forecasts here. with some outlier events (e. While PV production is NanoMarkets. manufacturing technology. 5. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. and those two types of products use different measurements.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. however..1. since it would promote construction activity.1. BIPV combines features of both PV modules and building materials.2 Alternative Economic Scenarios Page | 81 A deep analysis of such issues lies well beyond the scope of this report. at least. which seems highly unlikely. it is possible that a property price inflation will hit at some point or that some new industry/technology will take off and drive worldwide economic growth upwards again.S. not PV as a whole. As we have noted. and in the 1 -2 percent growth range for Europe and Japan. there is a dilemma in terms of the units of measure to use. collapse of European economies) that would not have been taken seriously a few years ago. meaning that even the fastest growing nations will be growing slower than they did for the past few years. although we believe that it is.g. of course. in the 6 to 9 percent range. and architectural and aesthetic concerns. Specifically.nanomarkets. The strong likelihood is that the BIPV industry will have to face a market driven by historically low economic growth throughout the world. and relative growth rates of the overall PV industry. As we have already discussed. since it would encourage the use of PV. China is obviously going to do better. within the context of the growth of photovoltaics in general. So would inflation that led to higher fossil fuel prices. although. But as we have noted.net up again inflation seems highly likely unless central banks can put a brake on the inflation without killing the economy. Units of measurement: When forecasting BIPV products. BIPV requires a formula containing the volumes. worth pointing out such issues. our assumptions in this forecast reflect what we believe to be a middle-of-the-road scenario.3 Scope of Forecast Our principal goal in this report is to forecast the market for BIPV products. The forecasts contained herein are specifically forecasts of the BIPV markets. 5. there are plenty of other economic scenarios.
They also do not include the cost of conventional building materials that must underlie some of the product types we forecast. BIPV products for use in one part of a building can often be used for a different portion with minimal—if any— modifications in manufacturing. rigidity. we have divided the BIPV market into three parts based on the types of BIPV products: Rigid. They do not include any balance-of-system materials like inverters and other electrical equipment.net traditionally measured in megawatts of peak power production. or transparency. not the building material onto which it is applied. the construction of BIPV products determines their flexibility.nanomarkets. Certainly there are specific products designed only for roofing. At the product level. When a BIPV or building materials manufacturer assembles integrated BIPV products from separate building materials and PV cells—such as flexible laminates applied to metal roofing in the factory—both the PV materials and the building materials are included in the forecasted revenues. nontransparent BIPV products that offer the most robust glass encapsulation and the best protection for cells inside Transparent or semitransparent BIPV products designed to let some light through Flexible BIPV products that can be more resilient and offer novel types of installation options. But when a flexible laminate is applied on a building or retrofit site. building skin materials are measured instead in units of area. only the laminate itself is included in the forecasted revenues. though. for example. but the BIPV market has been developing in a way that makes many products more versatile. Page | 82 NanoMarkets. As we have discussed in the main body of this report. Similarly for BIPV glass assembled in a factory or by a builder. An analysis of the relation between peak megawatts and surface area is provided in the first chapter of this report. our BIPV projections are made in terms of peak megawatts. framing for roof support. or installation costs. racks for panels. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. both types of materials are included.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. nor do they include any savings from conventional building materials that are not needed when certain other BIPV products are used. Dividing BIPV products based on the part of the building for which they are designed does not produce as clean a division as separating the market in this way. Coverage of forecasts: The forecasts of BIPV products herein cover only the BIPV products themselves. For consistency with other PV forecasts. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .
5. The other development is that flexible BIPV products using CIGS PV technology have made significant advances and appear ready to enter the market in a meaningful way beginning in 2011. We include in this category PV panels that are designed specifically for flush mounting on rooftops for visual integration. And they continue to be the most popular "off the shelf" type of BIPV installed worldwide.1 Forecast of Rigid BIPV Shipments by PV Technology Exhibit 5-1 shows NanoMarkets' forecasts for rigid BIPV products using the various PV technologies. but they do provide a cleaner and more aesthetic appearance than more obtrusive rack-mounted systems. in megawatt and dollar terms. NanoMarkets. 5. But we also now forecast slightly greater overall growth in BIPV revenues. These panels are minimally different in construction from conventional. reaching about 30 percent higher revenues in 2016 than we had predicted in our 2009 report.net Our overall BIPV revenue forecasts for 2010 are about 10 percent lower than we projected for 2010 in our 2009 report. the first kind developed as a more aesthetic way to mount PV panels on buildings.2.nanomarkets. The forecasts are based primarily on NanoMarkets' internal model of the PV industry. One of the drawbacks of flexible BIPV products has been their low conversion efficiency.2 Eight-Year Forecasts of Rigid BIPV Tiles and Panels Page | 83 Rigid BIPV products are the "classic" form of BIPV. We have increased our forecasts for these flush-mounted panels over last year's forecast as global construction markets have continued to languish and retrofits—for which flush-mounted products are often the best BIPV option—appear likely to account for a larger share of the BIPV market. First. The lines between conventional PV panels and the flush-mounted panels that overlay existing conventional roofing materials—the ones we consider BIPV—are blurring somewhat and consequently we are including more panels in the BIPV category. we are noticing a trend toward more conventional PV panels being targeted for flush mounting on rooftops. The reasons for this are that devastated construction markets in both Europe and the U.S. specifically what that model has to say about the overall production in each of the PV technologies/materials categories and the share of this production that falls into the rigid/opaque BIPV category. New CIGS-based products appear poised to ease that problem and make flexible BIPV products a more lucrative market.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. This more rapid growth is mainly due to two important developments. have cut the opportunities for installing fully-integrated BIPV products. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. especially rigid roofing tiles and fully integrated flexible roofing products. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . multipurpose PV panels and they do not serve building skin functions.
883. The share of CIGS.8 1. Conversely.071.2 1.0 1.0 254. or First Solar itself changes direction.4 3.0 Total 719.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 127.3 0.8 61.5 CdTe 0.5 65. TF Si also has few long-term advantages in this part of the BIPV market. Thin-film silicon—the only real alternative to crystalline silicon for this segment of the BIPV market today—will grow in terms of penetration but the more efficient technologies.8 238.919.3 1.2 12.net For most of the period under consideration in this report this share will certainly be very low and at present.8 0.0 8.3 2.8 88.3 2015 590.1 3.0 258.9 31.7 1.3 TF Si 42.578.0 Total 124. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .7 817.7 0.1 Rigid BIPV Shipments ($ Millions) c-Si 677.7 0.2 0.8 2011 167. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.6 39.5 422.7 433. with CdTe being the lowest number.9 153.0 564. unless a new firm enters that shows more interest in BIPV than First Solar does at the present time.0 2016 796.1 Page | 84 802. But NanoMarkets believes that thin-film PV will increase its share of this market from only about 5 percent in 2010 to over 40 percent in 2017.3 5.8 2012 234.439.0 OPV/DSC 0.9 22.0 12.2 21.2 1.2 75.5 2013 323. perhaps representing 1-2 percent of total production.6 21.3 2014 446. all of the materials will show penetrations in the single digits.1 2017 1.247.0 0.0 1.2 1.0 0.7 1. only one material—c-Si—is showing any significant penetration for rigid/opaque BIPV.800.0 179.0 CIGS 0.9 1.5 320.3 101.3 224.0 OPV/DSC 0. will grow more rapidly once they establish viable products.8 TF Si 7.nanomarkets.3 CdTe 0.0 161.0 0.0 CIGS 0.7 934.7 1.0 376.1 37.0 60.5 128.4 252.3 243.6 63.0 862.3 54. Exhibit 5-1 Rigid BIPV Shipments by PV Technology 2010 Rigid BIPV Shipments (MW) c-Si 116.7 0.3 1.0 0. OPV/DSC and c-Si that is represented by rigid/opaque BIPV is likely to fall into the 5-7 percent range by 2017.6 NanoMarkets.0 2.0 126.230.029.2 43.5 122. however.573.158.0 258.8 12.2 2.3 376.1 86.0 0. By 2017.386.245.9 0. CIGS and CdTe.3 124.9 172. rigid BIPV products are thoroughly dominated by crystalline silicon PV and that will not change during the forecast period.073.4 13.
LC thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. mainly because of its high conversion efficiency.000 800 600 400 200 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 $ Millions c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC © NanoMarkets. beginning with flush panels for overlaying existing roofing.200 1.400 1.200 1. LC Although the thin-film PV technologies will rapidly capture market share.800 1. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Even though crystalline silicon PV costs will fluctuate with the silicon market—and usually be higher than the cost of thin-film PV—this will remain a strong market for it. in part because the cost of the actual PV is diluted by integrating it with building materials.600 1.000 800 MW 600 400 200 0 © NanoMarkets.net Rigid BIPV Shipments by PV Technology c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Page | 85 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Rigid BIPV Shipments by PV Technology 2.000 1. crystalline silicon PV will remain the dominant technology in this market.nanomarkets.NanoMarkets 1. Most of CIGS' attention has NanoMarkets. Within the next few years CIGS PV will begin to target the rigid BIPV market in a meaningful way.
2 Cost Assumptions for Rigid BIPV Forecasts Page | 86 The cost of BIPV is of course critical not only to forecasting revenues but also for influencing purchasing decisions.0 4.6 2.1 3. 5.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. both for flush-mounted panels that are not physically combined with building materials and for the fully integrated BIPV tiles that are.net been focused on transparent and flexible BIPV instead of the more conventional rigid BIPV products. Exhibit 5-2 Rigid BIPV Average Cost 2010 Average Rigid BIPV Cost per Watt ($) Flush-Mounted Panels Fully Integrated Tiles 5. This is in part due to the crystalline silicon PV market becoming a bit more stable over the past year.2 3. because the continued languishing construction market has had its impact on our expectations for the cost of the building materials that are used in these tiles or that they are designed to substitute for.6 1. BIPV products—even the flush-mounted panels that lie on top of existing conventional building materials—can command a premium over conventional PV panels because of their better aesthetic appearance and the reduced need for rack structures. And the fully integrated tiles also require higher prices because they incorporate building materials and building skin functions. Even in CdTe PV. The costs we forecast for fully integrated tiles has remained similar to last year's forecasts even though subject to the same forces. but as we have pointed out in this report the opportunities are real for CIGS and other thin-films in rigid BIPV products too. We have increased the cost of flushmounted panels slightly from last year's forecast.2 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 NanoMarkets.3 2. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .4 2. Both of these premiums will decline over time as competition increases and as manufacturing becomes more efficient.1 3. Exhibit 5-2 shows NanoMarkets' forecasts for the cost of rigid BIPV products over the next eight years.3 7.7 2.7 5. First Solar—and perhaps a competitor—will eventually begin to produce rigid BIPV products to reach into broader markets. As conversion efficiency rises the cost of BIPV will also decline.4 6.nanomarkets.2.1 1. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. This is in part because of efficiency's impact on the cost per watt of PV but also because—in the case of fully integrated BIPV tiles—less of the conventional building materials are required per watt.5 3.3 4. which are costly in and of themselves.
2. NanoMarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. fully integrated BIPV tiles also make up a larger portion of the market. In other words. but that share will decrease to about 70 percent as more widespread installation of fully-integrated BIPV tiles enhances that segment's image and popularity. The fully integrated products serve some building skin functions in addition to their photovoltaic ones. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . In dollar terms. Currently. simply because they are more costly than the flush-mounted panels.net Rigid BIPV Average Cost per Watt ($) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 © NanoMarkets. and produce savings from the conventional building materials replaced.nanomarkets. flush-mounted panels account for about three quarters of this market in terms of megawatts. showing complete forecasts in the two major categories: flush-mounted panels and fully integrated tiles. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. fully integrated BIPV tiles represent the greater growth opportunity. LC Page | 87 $ Flush Floating Panels Fully Integrated Tiles 5.3 Forecast of Rigid BIPV Shipments by Product Type Exhibit 5-3 takes the forecasts in Exhibit 5-1 and Exhibit 5-2 to the next stage.
8 BIPV thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.439.3 Mounted Panels Fully 226.5 41.200 1.1 949.0 358.8 862.4 2016 860. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .354.158.5 Integrated Tiles Total Rigid 719.2 500.919.3 1.230.9 2013 293.5 82.5 137.1 1.1 BIPV Rigid BIPV Shipments ($ Millions) Flush493.400 1.NanoMarkets 2010 Rigid BIPV Shipments (MW) Flush93.0 1.8 2014 426.600 1.029. LC MW Fully Integrated Tiles Flush Mounted Panels NanoMarkets.2 1.8 258.5 376.8 253.573.3 2.1 1.net Exhibit 5-3 Rigid BIPV Products by Product Type 2011 138.1 Mounted Fully 31.3 817.1 2017 1.9 Page | 88 179.000 1.243.5 1.8 1.7 1.1 609.247.883.0 370.072.5 221.6 293.8 2015 595.3 889.000 800 600 400 200 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 © NanoMarkets.6 Rigid BIPV Shipments by Product Type 2. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.7 56.4 2012 201.nanomarkets.1 1.1 736.800 1.0 Integrated Tiles Total Rigid 124.490.2 628.254.3 564.9 676.7 1.2 3.7 1.803.
nanomarkets. or other desirable attributes and enhance the image of their owners.000 2. NanoMarkets.500 3.3 Eight-Year Forecasts of Transparent and Semi-Transparent BIPV Products Semitransparent BIPV is used most often on commercial buildings. for example—are simply much more common on commercial buildings than on residential ones. BIPV glass is often considered the high-end portion of the BIPV market. Because of its use on high-profile buildings and larger projects. from over 100 MW in 2010 to over 2 GW by 2017. BIPV is in most cases the only option for PV installations on transparent faces of buildings because conventional PV panels are not practical. In dollar terms this billion dollar market in 2010 will grow nine fold by 2017 as prices come down with the increasing volumes. This market will grow tremendously over the next eight years as incentives grow for green certifications and as the standards for achieving them become more demanding. and/or occupants. architects. And many of the features that BIPV glass is suitable for—facades. Furthermore. Our BIPV glass revenue forecasts are thus quite similar to last year's. more innovative kinds of BIPV glass a reality during the forecast period. We have increased our volume forecasts since last year in megawatt terms as developments in thin-film PV and OPV are appearing likely to make newer.500 thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. curtain walls. In terms of megawatts we expect the market will grow almost twenty times.NanoMarkets 3. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. especially "showcase" buildings that are designed to show off their architecture. greenness.500 1. LC 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 5.000 1.net Rigid BIPV Shipments by Product Type Page | 89 $ Millions 2.000 500 0 Fully Integrated Tiles Flush Mounted Panels © NanoMarkets. But this is compensated for by slightly lower cost projections related to slow markets for construction materials including architectural glass. and large atria. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .
4 1.3 0.7 248.460.7 323.9 6.0 2.0 123.3 215.0 0.0 122.0 108.6 0.5 2.1 477.6 269.565.9 66.6 4.5 744.5 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 NanoMarkets. We have used similar thinking in these estimates to the equivalent forecasts for rigid BIPV and again the share of total shipments in all the PV technology/materials categories is very low.7 1.6 1.0 19.8 30.0 44.5 3.1 213.4 2.851.078.1 416.335.nanomarkets.0 2.7 21.8 688.5 7.2 452.1 1.8 86.2 665. By the end of the forecasting period in 2017.7 22.6 844.3 557.8 580.9 103.6 1.2 2.7 473.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.1 2.9 87.4 51.4 471.3 232.8 2.1 1. in the 1-4 percent range.7 117.4 9.0 843.0 12. Page | 90 Exhibit 5-4 BIPV Glass Shipments by PV Technology 2010 BIPV Glass Shipments (MW) c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Total BIPV Glass Shipments ($ Millions) c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Total 705.4 0.0 6.9 833.3 137.128.386.354.0 85.159.0 271.5 123.4 51. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.516. we think that both CdTe and OPV/DSC will see `significant shares (around 15 percent) of total shipments being represented by transparent/semi-transparent and much smaller shares for the other technologies/materials.5 1.3 407.801.1 Forecast of Transparent and Semi-Transparent BIPV Shipments by PV Technology Exhibit 5-4 shows NanoMarkets' forecasts for BIPV glass based on each of the PV technologies.0 139.8 6.8 1.2 0.427.9 1.5 1.1 44.470.017.9 215.6 980.5 413.008.9 1.3.1 0.608.8 643.3 318.176.2 183.921.7 2.3 3.6 283.2 358.7 0.746.699.1 55. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .711.4 249.149.0 1.net 5.0 34.8 182.6 0.9 22. with exception of CdTe (again the First Solar factor plays in here) and OPV/DSC.5 169.7 901.4 0.1 1. in terms of both megawatts and dollars.
000 1. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.500 3.500 $ Millions 2.000 500 c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC 0 2010 © NanoMarkets.000 2. LC Page | 91 c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 BIPV Glass Shipments by PV Technology 3.500 1.nanomarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .net BIPV Glass Shipments by PV Technology 800 700 600 500 MW 400 300 200 100 0 2010 © NanoMarkets.
since architectural glass is used in the manufacture of BIPV glass in essentially the same way as standard PV substrates are. with 70 percent of this market. just over 30 percent in fact. the cells themselves are difficult to align perfectly and they still require silver tabbing traversing the spaces between cells. As thin-film PV becomes less costly to manufacture the cost of BIPV glass will get nearer to the cost of conventional architectural glass. Thin-film silicon PV makes up most of the rest. as another means for First Solar to broaden its addressable market. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. precisely because they will be first to produce truly transparent BIPV glass. but thin-film PV-based BIPV glass offers factory precise features and unobstructed transparent spaces that do not raise the issue of questionable aesthetics. But CIGS PV's higher conversion efficiency will lead to its more rapid growth—once CIGS PV is able to achieve truly high volumes of PV production—and it will be on its way to overtaking thin-film silicon in the marketplace. but that premium will become less and less over the course of the forecast period. And OPV and DSC are likely to see some action in the BIPV glass market segment. it is telling to examine the mix of PV technologies used for BIPV glass. truly transparent BIPV glass—without visible patterning. Furthermore. Crystalline silicon-based BIPV glass consists of silicon wafer cells sandwiched between panes of glass. This is mainly because of aesthetic issues. Crystalline silicon PV is clearly the leader in 2010.net Among thin-film PV technologies. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . unlike the case with rigid BIPV. Again.2 Cost Assumptions for Transparent/Semi-Transparent BIPV Forecasts Page | 92 As we have mentioned above. thin-film silicon has its head start and will maintain the largest thin-film share of the BIPV glass market throughout the forecast period. we have lowered our forecasts a bit for the cost of BIPV glass because of continued poor construction markets and their impact on the pricing of architectural glass and other building materials. especially as thin-film PV makes up a growing proportion of the market. Exhibit 5-5 shows NanoMarkets' forecasts for the cost of BIPV glass over the next eight years. But. a competitor is also possible. BIPV glass does indeed command a premium over conventional architectural glass. The impact of these features on the aesthetics of a BIPV glass panel is a matter for debate. just a tinted appearance—appears likely within the next eight years. 5. BIPV glass will probably be the second jaunt into the BIPV market for CdTe PV.nanomarkets. Such transparency would expand the addressable market for BIPV glass considerably.3. NanoMarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. crystalline silicon PV will make up well under half of the market by 2017. led by OPV and DSC. But it will not happen by the end of the forecast period.
and in many ways the most exotic. For the purposes of these estimates we have assumed BIPV glass of 50 percent transparency—and more precisely. 5. LC 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Measuring BIPV glass in terms of watts is problematic because active PV cells are deliberately interspersed with empty space to provide semitransparency.net Exhibit 5-5 BIPV Glass Average Cost 2010 Average BIPV Glass Cost per Watt ($) 8. spacing the cells wider to provide more light passage—and fewer cells per square meter—increases the per-watt cost of BIPV glass since more architectural glass is required.4 Eight-Year Forecasts of Flexible BIPV Products and Laminates Flexible BIPV products are the newest type of BIPV on the scene. akin to the two varieties of rigid BIPV products.6 2013 6. There are two varieties. Perhaps somewhat counter intuitively at first glance.8 2016 4. Flexible thin-film PV has been proposed and developed for many applications. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.4 2015 4.0 2014 5. of which BIPV is perhaps the most lucrative.9 Page | 93 BIPV Glass Average Cost per Watt ($) 9 8 7 6 5 $ 4 3 2 1 0 © NanoMarkets.4 2017 3.4 2012 6. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Yet we have forecasted the megawatt volumes and the per-watt cost of BIPV glass to be consistent with the other types of BIPV. with PV cells covering 50 percent of the glass area.2 2011 7.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.nanomarkets. and products that are integrated with building materials and that replace parts of NanoMarkets. a standalone class that is applied over existing conventional building materials.
led by DSC maker Dyesol and its partner Corus. Corus is a European steel company and lends substantial weight to the prospects for this standing seam roofing project. And if the product in development is successfully commercialized other products and partnerships will follow. CdTe PV may also turn toward flexible BIPV. As much as 30 percent of the OPV/DSC market is likely to be accounted for by BIPV. The standalone products are laminates that can be applied to walls or roofs. whether by First Solar or by a new entrant. and the ability to be delivered and installed in long strips or rolls without the risk of breakage. for obvious reasons. since that is where the competitive advantage of this particular technology is to be found.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. compatibility with many kinds of building materials that are inherently flexible. And especially the fully integrated products aesthetically match conventional roofing products to add architectural value to buildings. Also of note is the trend toward using building materials as actual flexible substrates for BIPV. the other types of technology will have entered the flexible BIPV market with the exception of c-Si. While part of the appeal of flexible BIPV products is their novelty. Only TF silicon is being shipped for this kind of product at the present time. And it will probably take some competition within the CdTe PV space to drive development of flexible CdTe. Flexible BIPV is purely a market for thin-film and organic-based PV. The most rapid growth opportunities here are for the CIGS and DSC PV technologies. Among the thin-films. although this will be the last of the three BIPV routes that the industry will take. Exhibit 5-6 shows NanoMarkets' forecasts for flexible BIPV products using each of the PV technologies. thin-film silicon produces the only viable flexible products today. But CIGS BIPV laminates are coming and will be followed by flexible shingles based on CIGS.4. by the end of the forecast period. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . 5. usually by gluing. they also provide more fundamental benefits like resiliency. about 3 percent of the market is in this form at the present time.1 Forecast of Flexible BIPV Shipments by PV Technology Page | 94 Following the pattern established with the other two types of PV.net the building envelope. NanoMarkets. Crystalline silicon PV may eventually develop to the point where wafers are flexible enough to be used in truly flexible BIPV products. measured in megawatts and in dollars. but that is most likely beyond the scope of this forecast. not just using DSC but also with the inorganic thin-film PV technologies. The closest that crystalline silicon PV can come to flexible BIPV products today is rigid modules attached to flexible membrane roofing—not what we would consider flexible BIPV. However.nanomarkets. The fully integrated products are used in place of conventional roofing or cladding materials like standing seam metal roofing or asphalt shingles. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.
5 420.8 0.1 231. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.5 0.8 16.8 0.8 0.0 39.0 207.7 0.356.0 209.6 0.6 0.2 289.0 385.5 1.0 113.0 135.1 0.0 84.539.7 2.0 119.0 509.0 463.5 0.net Exhibit 5-6 Flexible BIPV Shipments by PV Technology 2010 Flexible BIPV Shipments (MW) c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Total Flexible BIPV Shipments ($ Millions) c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Total 0.5 0.9 135.0 0.7 0.4 0. LC c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 NanoMarkets.0 126.0 313.6 0. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .1 236.8 17.7 0.4 2.1 219.4 51.5 330.9 0.0 666.0 1.2 1.0 33.6 288.2 0.0 0.000 900 800 700 600 MW 500 400 300 200 100 0 2010 © NanoMarkets.484.9 28.0 0.0 100.4 11.9 0.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.9 0.468.0 148.2 366.0 668.2 265.7 608.0 1.1 0.8 529.2 5.463.4 96.0 280.4 0.2 478.5 192.9 548.nanomarkets.8 900.8 725.4 0.7 0.0 0.056.0 848.0 54.0 10.1 875.9 125.0 466.0 33.2 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Page | 95 Flexible BIPV Shipments by PV Technology 1.0 4.9 56.0 3.0 53.1 0.2 1.9 925.8 0.902.0 0.6 962.0 148.0 204.3 49.0 33.
3 3. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 5.6 2.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 2012 2.3 2013 2.net Flexible BIPV Shipments by PV Technology 1.4 2.7 2014 1.2 Cost Assumptions for Flexible BIPV Forecasts Exhibit 5-7 shows NanoMarkets' forecasts for the cost of flexible BIPV products.4.2 2015 1.200 $ Millions 1. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .nanomarkets.7 4.7 2016 1.9 3.8 2011 3. flexible PV laminates are intended to be a low-cost approach to BIPV and they are the lowest cost product class that we cover in this report.7 5. comprising standalone laminates and fully integrated flexible BIPV products like PV shingles. As we have mentioned in the report.0 NanoMarkets.1 5.000 800 600 400 200 0 c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Page | 96 2010 © NanoMarkets.3 2017 1.600 1. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. We have even lowered our initial cost forecast for flexible BIPV laminates a bit from last year's forecasts because of persisting market conditions pushing prices lower.2 2.400 1. Exhibit 5-7 Flexible BIPV Average Cost 2010 Average Flexible BIPV Cost per Watt ($) Standalone Flexible Laminates Fully Integrated Flexible 3. also for fully integrated flexible BIPV products because of market conditions for roofing materials.
net Flexible BIPV Average Cost per Watt Page | 97 Standalone Flexible Laminates Fully Integrated Flexible 2 1 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 © NanoMarkets.3 Forecast of Flexible BIPV Shipments by Product Type Exhibit 5-8 shows NanoMarkets' forecasts for flexible BIPV products.7 289.0 874.7 2014 210.8 1.6 2017 1.7 68.2 38.2 548.5 2.7 166.364.7 665. But this premium will diminish over the course of the forecast period because manufacturing will become more efficient and especially because the building materials the products are designed to match—especially asphalt shingles—are rather inexpensive for building materials.1 1.025.1 320.2 80. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.6 725.5 2011 34.2 54. 5.8 108.4 20. Exhibit 5-8 Flexible BIPV Products by Product Type 2010 Flexible BIPV Shipments (MW) Standalone Flexible Laminates Fully Integrated Flexible Total Flexible BIPV Flexible BIPV Shipments ($ Millions) Standalone Flexible Laminates Fully Integrated Flexible Total Flexible BIPV 21.6 366.537.9 3.5 900.296.468.5 259. The forecasts are in terms of both megawatts and dollars and are based on data in the two previous Exhibits.0 1.1 148.3 78.7 209.8 330.4 NanoMarkets. LC Fully integrated flexible BIPV products will command a premium throughout the forecast period because of their better integration into building features and because they include building skin materials and functionality.0 163.2 493.7 1.6 2012 61.539.9 407.7 2016 734.NanoMarkets 7 6 5 4 $ 3 thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.7 33.4 192. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .459.nanomarkets.171.4 2015 405.7 2.902.1 2013 114.9 100.4.8 1.3 1. both laminates that overlay existing building materials and fully integrated flexible BIPV products like shingles or metal roofing panels.9 2.8 155.356.484.5 622.8 11.3 100.
nanomarkets.500 4.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.000 2. LC Fully Integrated Flexible Standalone Flexible Laminates NanoMarkets.500 $ Millions 3.000 Page | 98 2.000 500 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 © NanoMarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.000 3.500 2. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .net Flexible BIPV Shipments by Product Type 3.000 1.500 1.500 2.500 1.000 MW 1.000 500 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 © NanoMarkets. LC Fully Integrated Flexible Standalone Flexible Laminates Flexible BIPV Shipments by Product Type 4.
7 2012 1.025.8 16.0 1.902.364.919.1 1.3 226.5 665.3 2016 2.8 3.803.9 1.877.3 676.6 209.2 2.5 2.2 407.9 9. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .8 1.539.537.425.243.net We have reduced our initial volume forecasts for fully integrated flexible BIPV products compared to last year's forecasts because of continued poor construction markets.6 4. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.7 1.029.7 1.4 1.8 2011 862.801.7 1. 5.161.746.8 4. expected commercially in 2012. largely because of the high cost of the architectural glass from which it is made and with which it competes and the fact that BIPV is often a large project in terms of kW supplied. the standalone laminates—better suited to retrofits—have taken up some of the slack.470.5 11.205.5 Summary of Forecasts 5.5 148. later in the forecast period we have increased our projections for volumes of the fully integrated products in large part because CIGS PV products are looking more serious.5 358.2 2013 1.2 493.5.573.220.247. BIPV glass remains the largest market segment throughout the forecast period.3 293.7 2014 1.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.490.7 163. and other products are likely to follow.267.7 68. Exhibit 5-9 BIPV Revenues by Product Type 2010 Rigid BIPV Products ($ Millions) Of which: Flush-Mounted Fully Integrated Tiles Flexible BIPV Products ($ Millions) Of which: Standalone Flexible Laminates Fully Integrated Flexible BIPV Glass ($ Millions) Grand Total ($ Millions) 80.0 2.3 100.354.7 6.354.4 8.158.8 500.5 1.1 5.0 330.459.159.072.7 289.2 2017 3.7 2015 1. However.484.nanomarkets.934.5 259.008.1 949.439.8 1.7 166.1 1.5 3.8 609.3 108.8 3.7 1.2 548.460.9 900.6 NanoMarkets.8 493.1 2.532.4 719.1 Summary of Worldwide BIPV Markets by Product Type Page | 99 Exhibit 5-9 summarizes NanoMarkets' forecasts for overall BIPV revenues by the type of BIPV product.1 253.0 874.0 736. The higher conversion efficiency of CIGS compared to that of existing thin-film silicon-based products will make these newer BIPV shingles more viable in the marketplace.608.8 1. The strength of Dow Chemical is behind CIGS BIPV shingle products.5 889.
000 10.000 2.net Total BIPV Revenues by Product Type ($ Millions) Page | 100 BIPV Glass Flexible BIPV Products $ Millions Rigid BIPV Products 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 © NanoMarkets. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 $ Millions 5.000 12.000 6.000 14.000 16. but it is given a run for its money by thinfilm silicon PV and CIGS PV by the end of the forecast period.000 14.NanoMarkets 18. in terms of megawatts as well as revenues.000 0 thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.000 2. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.000 8.000 12.5.nanomarkets.2 Summary of Worldwide BIPV Markets by Watts Shipped and Technology Type Exhibit 5-10 summarizes NanoMarkets' forecasts for the overall BIPV market by PV technology.000 8. NanoMarkets. LC Total BIPV Product Revenues-2010-2017 18.000 6.000 10.000 0 2010 © NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .000 16.000 4.000 4. Crystalline silicon PV is clearly the dominant technology early in the forecast period.
698.8 Total BIPVShipments by PV Technology 2.7 0.7 4.0 57.7 1.404.6 6.000 800 600 400 200 0 2010 © NanoMarkets.600 1.1 1.2 194.5 16.458.220.9 4.8 75.5 4.877.382.0 982.818.7 2.532. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 7.6 4.2 417.6 193.6 1.469.5 2.2 1.0 215.nanomarkets.4 4.062.425.9 0.621.7 74.721.267.5 3.4 672.0 0.205.8 11.9 2013 555.0 19.0 280.3 7.0 1.178.5 23. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .306.400 1.2 1.3 2.7 0.2 684.9 2015 1.2 2.8 898.800 1.025. LC c-Si TF Si CdTe MW CIGS OPV/DSC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 NanoMarkets.1 2.006.5 2.6 193.1 8.6 35.0 25.5 739.957.1 2.000 1.7 495.2 1.4 1.3 2014 764.9 2012 404.686.9 483.0 246.573.101.1 1.7 2011 289.3 414.8 422.6 1.5 161.353.832.1 2017 1.703.2 3.0 629.0 48.1 1.522.9 947.161.1 947.3 876.690.6 82.285.9 474.007.931.4 0.200 1.0 128.608.2 94.934.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.4 6.9 2016 1.343.1 3.3 121.4 0.4 0.net Exhibit 5-10 BIPV Shipments by PV Technology 2010 Total BIPV Shipments (MW) c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Total Total BIPV Shipments ($ Millions) c-Si TF Si CdTe CIGS OPV/DSC Total 202.103.0 5.1 0.1 312.247.0 738.0 2.6 357.5 3.4 335.3 551.2 1.3 1.2 25.8 Page | 101 1.6 0.
000 4. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 NanoMarkets.000 2.000 0 2010 © NanoMarkets.000 16. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.000 $ Millions 10.net Total BIPV Shipments by PV Technology 18. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .000 12.000 OPV/DSC Page | 102 CIGS CdTe TF Si c-Si 6.000 8.nanomarkets.000 14.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.
. ft.S.29 sq.nanomarkets.S. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .NanoMarkets a-Si BIPV CdTe CIGS DoE GW IR ITO kW µc-Si MEG MW Nc-Si NREL OPV PV R&D RFID Square TF TFE TFPV TOP USGS thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Organic and/or Printable United States Geological Survey Page | 103 NanoMarkets.) GigaWatts Infrared Indium Tin Oxide Kilowatt Micro-Crystalline Silicon Multiple Exciton Generation MegaWatts Nanocrystalline Silicon National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U. meters Thin Film Thin Film Electronics Thin Film Photovoltaics Thin Film.net Abbreviations and Acronyms Used In this Report Amorphous Silicon Building Integrated Photovoltaics Cadmium Telluride Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenium Department of Energy (U. Department of Energy) Organic Photovoltaics Photovoltaics Research and Development Radio Frequency Identification 100 sq. 9.
He has published research on nanocrystalline materials and crystallization mechanisms. process development. with hands-on experience in optical lithography. and Economics. Page | 104 NanoMarkets.net Paul Markowitz is a Senior Analyst at NanoMarkets and has authored reports on CIGS photovoltaics markets. and engineering. and developed front-end semiconductor processes at the 90-. indium tin oxide and is the lead analyst on NanoMarkets' series "Metals in Photovoltaics. Louis. and 45-nm nodes. participated in the startup and ramp of two microprocessor fabs. and the manufacture of silicon.nanomarkets. Engineering and Public Policy.D. in Chemistry from Washington University in St. Missouri. He has worked at leading companies in the semiconductor industry. nanomaterials. as well as degrees in Chemical Engineering. Markowitz's academic background is as a materials chemist. He holds a Ph. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. 65-." Markowitz has a background in materials-related research.NanoMarkets About the Author thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.
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