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Touch Screens: Technologies, Materials and Markets 2010

Touch Screens: Technologies, Materials and Markets 2010

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This report from NanoMarkets analyzes the leading touch-screen technologies and shows how well each of them meets current and future market needs for the various applications. It also analyzes the strategies of the most innovative touch-screen suppliers and technology developers and discusses how touch-screen technology and products will change in the future. Finally, the report provides an eight-year quantitative and qualitative forecast for shipments of touch-screen products of all kinds. NanoMarkets believes that this report will be a source of new ideas for product managers, business development executives and marketers at all levels of the touch-screen display value chain; from those focused on the development of important new materials to those creating and integrating the displays themselves.

This report from NanoMarkets analyzes the leading touch-screen technologies and shows how well each of them meets current and future market needs for the various applications. It also analyzes the strategies of the most innovative touch-screen suppliers and technology developers and discusses how touch-screen technology and products will change in the future. Finally, the report provides an eight-year quantitative and qualitative forecast for shipments of touch-screen products of all kinds. NanoMarkets believes that this report will be a source of new ideas for product managers, business development executives and marketers at all levels of the touch-screen display value chain; from those focused on the development of important new materials to those creating and integrating the displays themselves.

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Touch Screens: Technologies, Materials and Markets 2010 to 2017
January 2010

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Entire contents copyright NanoMarkets, LC. The information contained in this report is based on the best information available to us, but accuracy and completeness cannot be guaranteed. NanoMarkets, LC and its author(s) shall not stand liable for possible errors of fact or judgment. The information in this report is for the exclusive use of representative purchasing companies and may be used only by personnel at the purchasing site per sales agreement terms. Reproduction in whole or in any part is prohibited, except with the express written permission of NanoMarkets, LC.

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Table of Contents

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Executive Summary ............................................................................................................. 1
E.1 Key Issues in the Touch-Screen Industry ................................................................................. 1 E.2 The Growing Importance of Multi-Touch ................................................................................ 1 E.3 Opportunities by Technology ................................................................................................. 3
E.3.1 Analog Resistive Technology ..................................................................................................................... 3 E.3.2 Surface Capacitive Technology ................................................................................................................. 3 E.3.3 Acoustic Pulse Recognition ....................................................................................................................... 4 E.3.4 Dispersive Signal Technology .................................................................................................................... 5 E.3.5 Force Sensing ............................................................................................................................................ 6 E.3.6 Projected Capacitive Touch Screens ......................................................................................................... 6 E.3.7 Infrared Technology .................................................................................................................................. 7 E.3.8 Surface Acoustic Wave Technology .......................................................................................................... 8 E.3.9 Optical Touch Screens ............................................................................................................................... 8 E.3.10 Vision-Based Optical ............................................................................................................................... 8 E.3.11 Digital Resistive Technology .................................................................................................................... 9 E.3.12 Waveguide Infrared–RPO........................................................................................................................ 9 E.3.13 LCD-Based Touch-in-Pixel ..................................................................................................................... 10

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E.4 Market Segments: Multi-Touch and Display Size .................................................................. 11 E.5 Structure of the Industry: Firms to Watch ............................................................................ 13
E.5.1 Can LCD Display Makers Get into the Touch-Display Business? ............................................................ 15

E.6 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of the Touch-Screen Market .............................................. 16 E.7 Opportunities for Materials and Component Manufacturers ................................................. 18
E.7.1 Opportunities for Optoelectronic Devices .............................................................................................. 18 E.7.2 Opportunities for Touch-Screen Controllers ........................................................................................... 19 E.7.3 Opportunities for Optical Coatings, Films and Adhesives ....................................................................... 20 E.7.4 Opportunities for Transparent Conductors in Touch Screens ................................................................ 20

Chapter One: Introduction ................................................................................................ 23
1.1 Background to this Report ................................................................................................... 23
1.1.1 Touch Screens: Why Now? ..................................................................................................................... 23 1.1.2 Patents and Technology Proliferation: The Supply Side ........................................................................ 23 1.1.3 The Supply Side: Meeting Market Needs ............................................................................................... 25 1.1.4 New Applications: Beyond Kiosks, ATMs and Mobile Phones ............................................................... 25 1.1.5 Changing Industry Structure: The Rise of the Display Manufacturers ................................................... 26

1.2 Objective and Scope of this Report ....................................................................................... 27 1.3 Methodology and Information Sources for this Report ......................................................... 28
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1.4 Plan of this Report ............................................................................................................... 28

Chapter Two: Touch-Screen Technologies .......................................................................... 30
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 30
2.1.1 Mature and Emerging Technologies ....................................................................................................... 30 2.1.2 The Importance of Multi-Touch .............................................................................................................. 32 2.1.3 The Role that Patents Play ...................................................................................................................... 37 2.1.4 Classifications of Touch-Screen Technologies......................................................................................... 37

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2.2 Analog Resistive Touch Screens ............................................................................................ 38
2.2.1 Current Technology, Materials, Limitations and Applications ................................................................ 38 2.2.2 Future Development of Analog Resistive Touch-Screen Technologies ................................................... 40

2.3 Surface Capacitive Touch Screens ......................................................................................... 41
2.3.1 Current Technology, Limitations and Applications ................................................................................. 42 2.3.2 Wacom’s Variation on the Surface Capacitive Theme ............................................................................ 43 2.3.3 Future Development and Potential for Surface Capacitive Touch-Screen Technologies ....................... 44 2.3.4 Expected Improvements in Manufacturing and Materials for Surface Capacitive Touch Screens ......... 44

2.4 Acoustic Pulse Recognition Touch Screens: Elo ..................................................................... 45
2.4.1 Current Technology, Limitations and Applications ................................................................................. 45

2.5 Dispersive Signal Technology Touch Screens: 3M .................................................................. 46
2.5.1 Current Technology, Limitations and Applications ................................................................................. 46 2.5.2 DST vs. APR ............................................................................................................................................. 46

2.6 Force Sensing Touch Screens: Vissumo ................................................................................ 47
2.6.1 Current Technology, Limitations and Applications ................................................................................. 47

2.7 Projected Capacitive Touch Screens...................................................................................... 48
2.7.1 Current Technology, Limitations and Applications ................................................................................. 49 2.7.2 Multi-Touch Capabilities ......................................................................................................................... 51 2.7.3 Future Development and Potential for Projected Capacitive Touch-Screen Technologies .................... 51 2.7.4 Expected Improvements in Manufacturing and Materials for Projected Capacitive Touch Screens ..... 51

2.8 Infrared Technology Touch Screens ...................................................................................... 52
2.8.1 Current Technology, Limitations and Applications ................................................................................. 53

2.9 Surface Acoustic Wave Touch Screens (SAW) ........................................................................ 53
2.9.1 Current Technology, Limitations and Applications ................................................................................. 54 2.9.2 Expected Improvements in Manufacturing and Materials for SAW Technologies ................................. 55

2.10 Optical Touch Screens ........................................................................................................ 55
2.10.1 Current Technology and Limitations ..................................................................................................... 56

2.11 Vision-Based Optical .......................................................................................................... 56
2.11.1 Microsoft Surface .................................................................................................................................. 56

2.12 Digital Resistive ................................................................................................................. 58

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2.12.1 Current Technology, Limitations and Applications ............................................................................... 58

2.13 Waveguide Infrared—RPO ................................................................................................. 59 2.14 LCD-Based Touch-in-Pixel ................................................................................................... 60
2.14.1 Optical Technologies ............................................................................................................................. 62 2.14.2 Switched-Based Technologies ............................................................................................................... 63 2.14.3 Capacitive-Based Technologies ............................................................................................................. 63

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2.15 Other Touch-Screen Technologies ...................................................................................... 64
2.15.1 Touchco ................................................................................................................................................. 64 2.15.2 FlatFrog ................................................................................................................................................. 64

2.16 Beyond Touch Screen: The Relationship to Haptics and Other Touch Technology ................ 65 2.17 Materials and Components for Touch-Screens .................................................................... 66
2.17.1 Optical Films and Coatings in Touch Screens ........................................................................................ 66 2.17.2 ITO, Other Transparent Conductors and Touch Screens ...................................................................... 69 2.17.3 Substrates and Encapsulation for Touch Screens ................................................................................. 72

2.18 Key Points Made in this Chapter ......................................................................................... 74

Chapter Three: Market Requirements for Touch-Screen Technologies ................................ 84
3.1 Current Drivers for Touch-Screen Technology ....................................................................... 84
3.1.1 Proliferation of Displays .......................................................................................................................... 85 3.1.2 Growing Sophistication of Touch-Screen Technology ............................................................................ 85 3.1.3 Need to Provide Simple Interfaces in a High-Tech Product Environment .............................................. 85 3.1.4 Cost Improvements for Touch-Screen Technology ................................................................................. 86

3.2 Factors Retarding the Touch-Screen Technology Market ....................................................... 86
3.2.1 Touch-Screen and the Macroeconomic Environment ............................................................................ 86 3.2.2 Over-reaching with the Technology ........................................................................................................ 87 3.2.3 Creative Destruction in the Touch-Technology Industry ........................................................................ 87

3.3 Important Performance Metrics for Touch Screens ............................................................... 87
3.3.1 Factors Related to the Touch Device ...................................................................................................... 88 3.3.2 Durability and Stability ............................................................................................................................ 88 3.2.3 Flush Surfaces ......................................................................................................................................... 89

3.4 Touch Screens and Non-LCD Displays: OLEDs and E-paper .................................................... 89 3.5 Key Points Made in this Chapter ........................................................................................... 90

Chapter Four: Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technologies and Applications........... 93
4.1 Forecasting Methodology .................................................................................................... 93
4.1.1 Which Applications and Technologies Should We Forecast? ................................................................. 93 4.1.2 Pricing Assumptions ................................................................................................................................ 95

4.2 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in Kiosks ................................................... 95

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4.2.1 Information Kiosks .................................................................................................................................. 98 4.2.2 Commerce Kiosks .................................................................................................................................... 98 4.2.3 Kiosk Industry Trends and the Need for Touch-Screen Technology ....................................................... 98 4.2.4 Touch-Screen Technologies Used in Kiosks ............................................................................................ 99

4.3 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in ATMs.................................................... 99
4.3.1 The Need for Touch-Screen Technologies in ATMs ................................................................................ 99 4.3.2 Touch-Screen Technologies Used in ATMs ........................................................................................... 102

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4.4 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in POS Terminals .................................... 102
4.4.1 The Need and Use of Touch-Screen Technologies in POS Terminals .................................................... 105

4.5 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in Handheld Mobile Devices ................... 105
4.5.1 Mobile Industry Trends ......................................................................................................................... 105 4.5.2 The Need and Use of Touch Screens in Mobile Devices ....................................................................... 108

4.6 Eight-Year Forecasts for Touch Screens in Office Automation and PCs ................................. 109
4.6.1 The Need and Use of Touch Screens in Office Automation and PCs .................................................... 109

4.7 Eight-Year Forecasts for Touch Screens in Gaming Systems ................................................. 113
4.7.1 The Need and Use of Touch Screens in Large Gaming Systems............................................................ 114 4.7.2 Touch-Screen Technology Used in Large Gaming Systems ................................................................... 116

4.8 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in Digital Signage .................................... 117
4.8.1 Touch-Screen Technology for the Digital Signage Market .................................................................... 117

4.9 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in Vehicular Displays .............................. 120
4.9.1 The Automobile/Truck Market for Touch-Screen Displays ................................................................... 122

4.10 Other Touch-Screen Applications in Specific Industries ..................................................... 123
4.10.1 Factory Automation ............................................................................................................................ 125 4.10.2 Medical and Healthcare Equipment Applications ............................................................................... 126 4.10.3 Educational and Training Applications ................................................................................................ 127 4.10.4 Household Appliances ......................................................................................................................... 128

4.11 A Note on Architectural Applications ................................................................................ 128 4.12 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Displays............................................... 129 4.13 Eight-Year Forecasts of Coatings, Components and Other Materials Used in Touch-Screen Displays .................................................................................................................................. 131 Abbreviations and Acronyms Used In this Report ..................................................................... 135 About the Author .................................................................................................................... 136

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List of Exhibits

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Exhibit E-1 Touch-Screen Technologies by Size and Multi-Touch Functionality ........................................................................ 12 Exhibit E-2 Touch-Screen Technology Suppliers by Technology ................................................................................................. 13 Exhibit E-3 Eight-Year Forecasts of Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays ($ Millions) ............................................................ 16 Exhibit E-4 Coatings, Films and Adhesives for Touch-Screen Display Technologies ................................................................... 20 Exhibit 1-1 Major Touch-Screen Technologies ........................................................................................................................... 24 Exhibit 2-1 Touch-Screen Technologies: By Maturity and Multi-Touch Support ....................................................................... 38 Exhibit 2-2 Touch-in-Pixel Technologies ..................................................................................................................................... 61 Exhibit 4-1 Pricing for Touch-Screen Technology ....................................................................................................................... 95 Exhibit 4-2 Worldwide Market for Kiosk Touch Screens ............................................................................................................ 96 Exhibit 4-3 Worldwide Market for ATM Touch Screens ........................................................................................................... 100 Exhibit 4-4 Worldwide Market for POS Terminal Touch Screens ............................................................................................. 102 Exhibit 4-5 Worldwide Market for Mobile Touch Screens ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Exhibit 4-6 Worldwide Market for PCs and Office Automation Equipment ............................................................................. 111 Exhibit 4-7 Worldwide Market for Casino and Large Amusement Gaming Touch Screens ...................................................... 115 Exhibit 4-8 Worldwide Market for Touch Screens in Digital Signage ....................................................................................... 118 Exhibit 4-9 Worldwide Market for Touch Screens in Vehicular Applications ........................................................................... 121 Exhibit 4-10 Worldwide Market for Touch Screens Used for Control Panels for Appliances, Medical Devices and Industrial Equipment ..................................................................................................................................................... 124 Exhibit 4-11 Eight-Year Forecasts of Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays by Technology ($ Millions) ................................. 129 Exhibit 4-12 Eight-Year Forecasts of Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays by Application ($ Millions) ................................. 130 Exhibit 4-13 Forecast of Volume Demand for Materials Requirements in Touch-Screen Displays ............................................ 131 Exhibit 4-14 Forecast of Transparent Conductive Materials Use by Type in Touch-Screen Displays ......................................... 133

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Executive Summary

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E.1 Key Issues in the Touch-Screen Industry

Although touch-screen displays have been around in some form for almost half a century, there appear to be important new opportunities emerging in this space. For a variety of reasons, touch technology is becoming much more acceptable across a wide spectrum of display applications. Indeed, it is hard to think of a segment of the display industry where touch is not being considered. This contrasts strongly with (say) the situation a decade ago, when touch was little more than just a niche technology. There are many reasons why touch-screen technology is on the rise. Due to the addition of multi-touch capability (see below), touch screens now offer a higher level of functionality, making them a more attractive and user-friendly input technology. In addition, it dovetails nicely with the rapid rise in use and sophistication of displays as an output device; combining these two technologies makes perfect sense. Touch-screen technology has also received a boost from high-profile applications such as the Apple iPhone, and from the fact that large LCD display makers are considering getting into this business. The specific reasons for the rise of touch-screen technology are also application specific; a touch-screen display is, for example, an excellent way to facilitate a young untrained operator at a fast food restaurant, one who is supposed to enter many different orders over a short period of time. However, understanding the opportunities available in the touch-screen industry has become more difficult as a result of the growing diversification on both the supply and the demand side (that is, more applications). In particular, new suppliers and technologies are rushing into the market and the mainstream display manufacturers, who have traditionally not looked at touch technologies very seriously, are, as we have already noted, now beginning to enter the market.
E.2 The Growing Importance of Multi-Touch

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Multi-touch displays are those that can recognize two or more touch points. This capability can be used in many different ways and we believe that it is going to be an important part of the opportunities that will flow from the touch-display space over the coming decade. This means that touch sensor technologies that don’t offer multi-touch capabilities will be at a disadvantage. However, the opportunities that come as the result of multi-touch are not just those associated with the sensor, special controllers will have to be developed (for each of the multi-touch technologies), operating systems will have to support this functionality and applications will need to be designed.

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Projected capacitive, vision-based optical, LCD in-cell and digital resistive technologies all offer support for unlimited touch at the sensor level. Other touch-sensing technologies are capable of supporting a more limited multi-touch function. Optical technology can support up to four touches, as can infrared using Elo’s “XYU” IR technology, which also enables SAW touch technology to support two touches. Waveguide IR from RPO currently supports two touches as well. Other technologies don’t yet have touch capabilities but may in the future; indeed the market may demand this. In particular, Elo may upgrade its APR technology to include multi-touch capability, and 3M may do so with its DST technology. The one multi-touch product that most people are familiar with is the Apple iPhone, but there are other products on the market as well. These include not just other smart phones, but tablet PCs and monitors from Dell, HP all-in-one computers, and Sharp netbooks. Microsoft has built support for multi-touch into its new Windows 7 operating system for PCs. What this shows is that multi-touch can be incorporated into a wide range of products and that it is being adopted by some of the biggest names in consumer electronics. However, within any consumer product class, there are usually just one or two products that are multi-touchenabled. It is still far from clear in which product classes multi-touch will become ubiquitous, but the smart-phone sector seems like a reasonable bet for extensive multi-touch capability in the next few years, if only because there is a growing number of iPhone wannabees. Note that while most multi-touch apps currently fall into the consumer sector, applications of multi-touch for kiosks, education and more specialist applications are on the way. There are plenty of open questions about multi-touch, however. One is how many touches need to be supported. There is no clear answer to this question. Also, in answering this question one also needs to make the distinction between the technical question—how many touches can a touch technology support—and the question as to how many touches particular applications require. Some sensing technologies, such as the widely used projected capacitive technology, can inherently support an unlimited number of touches. However, the number of touches that can actually be supported in the real world depends on the capabilities of the controller, operating system and applications software. One technical problem that immediately presents itself in the context of multi-user touch-screen systems is how the system distinguishes between touches from different users. One fairly easy solution is to segment the display in a conventional way, with each segment dedicated to one user. Another way that has actually been implemented in real world applications—notably in casinos—is to have each user identify him/herself by touching a pad near the display. Novel multi-touch applications using more than one or two touches are clearly a way for firms to distinguish themselves in the marketplace. However, exactly what directions the new

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more-than-two touch display applications will take is hard to predict. But there are a number of possibilities. One area could be in 3-D CAD. In addition, support of large numbers of touch may be needed if multiple users make use of the same display. This may occur in gaming, kiosks and educational applications.
E.3 Opportunities by Technology E.3.1 Analog Resistive Technology

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Analog resistive touch screens are by far the most common and least costly of the different touch-screen technologies. They can be deployed on a wide range of display sizes from the very smallest all the way up to 26-inch displays; of course this would still leave out the largest signage devices as target markets. As might be expected there are many suppliers of both the sensor subsystems and the controllers for this technology. The applications for today’s resistive touch-screen technology are those where the degradation of ITO is not a problem, and cost and/or power consumption is a primary concern. The problem with these displays is that they tend to wear out after a certain number of touches. The ITO in these displays is subjected to a level of bending with each touch and ITO is fairly brittle; when subjected to this repeated bending it tends to degrade and crack over time. For this reason, analog resistive technologies are seen as an opportunity by almost all the firms making more flexible alternatives to ITO. This sector also represents an opportunity for a wide variety of coatings including anti-scratch coatings (because the PET surface of many of these displays seems to crack), as well as antiglare, anti-reflective and anti-smudge coatings. These can be added to the displays, which can also be equipped with ruggedized casings and substrates where applications demand this. This represents an opportunity for materials suppliers, of course, but also for the display makers, since adding these coatings, etc., is also a way of adding value to what would otherwise be a more-or-less commodity product, or at least soon will be. Analog resistive technology is losing market share to other technologies across the board. Cost points for this technology are already lower than any other touch technology. It is possible that, through the use of new materials and better production processes that perhaps use less material, costs could be reduced still further.
E.3.2 Surface Capacitive Technology

The other touch technology that is both mature and does not offer multi-touch is surface capacitive technology. This competes with analog resistive technology in that it offers somewhat higher performance and is more rugged. More specifically, because surface
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capacitive touch screens do not have moving parts, they are sturdier than analog resistive technology. They are also resistant to contamination and are highly sensitive with excellent drag performance. This technology is therefore well suited to public applications such as kiosks and ATMs. The surface capacitive display has established an important niche application for itself in the casino-based gaming machine industry, but seems to be slowly losing this sector to other touch-screen technologies. Another market that seems to be closed to traditional surface capacitive technology is the mobile phone market. This is because surface capacitive technology is vulnerable to RF and needs EMI shielding. In addition, the opportunities for surface capacitive technology are constrained by the absence of multi-touch capability. Given all this, this part of the touch-screen market has all of the signs that it is likely to go into decline, at the very least relative decline. For surface-capacitive technology to survive it will have to maintain its cost advantages or improve technologically. That said, surface capacitive technology does have some hopes for the future. One of these is Wacom’s variation on this technology called Reversing Ramped Field Capacitive (RRFC). This approach isolates performance from all capacitance effects other than the one associated with the finger or other conductive touch object. Additional digital signal processing is also thrown in to improve accuracy and provide drift-free performance. The big plus of the Wacom technology is that it can be used in a mobile environment, which opens it up to a market that is effectively closed to other forms of surface capacitive technology. In addition, the display can be used outdoors in relatively harsh conditions and a much thicker hard coat can be added to the display compared with the traditional version of the surface capacitive technology. A broader range of touch objects can be used, notably hands in latex/polypropylene gloves will work as well. There is also some serious activity in using new kinds of coatings to improve the performance of surface capacitive technology. 3M has developed its surface-capacitive touch screen using only one layer of ITO. In addition, an optional bottom shield or ruggedized substrate can be added; Wacom has added a hardcoat quadruple the thickness to its version of the technology. Wacom also uses optical bonding in its manufacturing process, which eliminates reflections from two surfaces, lowers display reflectance, and increases transmission and display brightness.
E.3.3 Acoustic Pulse Recognition

Page | 4

While it is easy to accept the idea of older touch-screen technologies without multi-touch, it is perhaps surprising that newer technologies would be commercialized without this capability.
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However, as we have already seen, there are at least three such technologies: acoustic pulse recognition (APR), dispersive signal technology (DST) and force sensing. Two of these technologies appear to promise some kind of multi-touch capability for the future. The other—force sensing—has very specialist applications in mind. APR is a good all-round touch technology. Among its virtues is that it is extremely durable and works with any touch object. APR also has a wide range of applicability in terms of the size of display that it can be used with, from mobile-phone sized displays up to 52-inch displays. However, APR is a semi-proprietary technology supported by one supplier—Elo TouchSystems—which has been shipping these displays for about four years. Apart from the absence of multi-touch and the limited support, the systems require a considerable amount of touch force, enough to generate sound. However, the literature on APR technology suggests a broad range of applications, including all the obvious stationary ones. In addition, Elo is known to be interested in developing this technology for mobile applications of various kinds. The long-run success of this technology depends on how widely Elo can get it adopted by OEMs and especially on how well the multi-touch capability performs when it appears.
E.3.4 Dispersive Signal Technology

Page | 5

3M’s DST technology, like APR, is a single-source technology with minimal revenues. It was originally introduced in 2005, but apparently didn’t work well and was reintroduced in 2007. This technology is clearly for larger displays, in the 30-inch to 40-inch range and is likely to be used in digital signage and information displays. 3M seems to have been very cautious about its rollout and this is perhaps so that the company doesn’t cannibalize too much of its surface capacitive sales. DST is very similar to APR in terms of the basic technology being used and most of the advantages cited for APR are also cited for DST. In addition, because of the real-time analysis of position, the system is said to be highly responsive and accurate. While DST doesn’t support multi-touch, it does support some surrogates such as flick, scroll, expand and rotate gestures. The hope is that these will be sufficient for most application developers’ requirements. Because of their similarities, APR and DST are often compared. Apart from purely technical differences, we believe that they have somewhat different commercial characteristics too. One thing to note again is that DST’s backer, 3M, has considerably larger resources to devote to this technology, but at the present time, is not doing so. In addition, the applications of the two technologies are somewhat different; specifically, APR is able to serve the small/mobile
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display market, while—for the time being anyway—DST is not being targeted toward this application.
E.3.5 Force Sensing

Force sensing is very different from any of the other touch-screen technologies discussed in this report in a number of ways. It is alone among the technologies considered here in sensing touch directly; that is, as a force. The primary commercial product currently available that uses this technology comes from a start-up firm called Vissumo. This technology can be used to build quite small displays (5 inches or so) all the way up to displays ten times that size. The main application for which this technology is being designed is architectural applications, with three-dimensional substrates. None of the other touch technologies considered in this report are really being targeted at this application. The competitive advantage of this technology lies in its capability to provide designers with more options. It can, for example, be used in kiosks, etc., that are constructed using natural materials such as slate, marble, and wood. Vissumo also claims that its displays are the ideal solution for unattended applications or outdoor environments exposed to weather conditions, bright sunlight, or possible vandalism.
E.3.6 Projected Capacitive Touch Screens

Page | 6

Projected capacitive is by far the most successful multi-touch technology to date and has become the rising star of the touch-screen industry; it has risen from almost no revenues to becoming the second biggest revenue earner in the touch-screen industry in a period of three years or so. It is also the most familiar touch-screen technology in some ways, because it is the one used in the iconic Apple iPhone. Dell has also adopted this technology. Both industrial (kiosks, ATMs, etc.) and consumer applications are suited to this technology. Projected capacitive touch has many other advantages apart from its ability to support multitouch. It enables the construction of both very small (2-inch) and very large (100-inch) displays. However, larger displays must use wire electrodes instead of the more common ITO strips. The technical advantages of projected capacitive displays are also impressive. These include a high level of durability and high optical quality. It can also be deployed on a flexible substrate, such as PET. Understandably, a large number of suppliers are offering sensor products in the projected capacitive space. These are located all over the world, but a growing center of projected capacitive technology can be found in Taiwan and to a less extent in China. There is also a fairly large involvement of big-name U.S. firms supplying controllers for projected capacitive

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sensors including Analog Devices, Atmel, Broadcom, Texas Instruments and Cypress. More suppliers are entering this market all the time, because it is growing fast and, as yet, has no dominant suppliers. It is unlikely that the growth in the number of suppliers in this space can continue for much longer, though. Projected capacitive displays are, of course, not without their limitations. Power consumption in this technology is not especially impressive when compared to analog resistive technology. However, this is obviously not a sufficient reason to keep it out of the iPhone, which, like all mobile phones, is battery challenged to some extent. In addition, projected capacitive technology is sometimes said to be difficult to integrate into a display/final product because of its noise sensitivity. NanoMarkets expects outdoor readability to be one of the major areas of development for projected capacitive touch screens. As this technology finds itself in more as well as higherend displays, in particular smart phones, its lack of readability in the sun will become more obvious and increasingly a barrier to its use. Conversely, we would expect prices to drop dramatically in this sector as more firms enter the sector and the technology matures.
E.3.7 Infrared Technology

Page | 7

Infrared touch-screen technology is used mainly in larger displays and is supplied by about a dozen firms, although controllers are mostly proprietary. There seems to be a growing interest in this technology and some newer Asian firms are entering the market with low-cost versions of this technology. One reason for the interest in infrared is that it is a mature technology that addresses the needs of the larger display market and therefore seems fairly suitable for the burgeoning digital signage business. However, there are plenty of other technologies that can meet this need and no one expects infrared technology to really take off in a big way any time soon. Infrared has some impressive positives in its favor. These include a high degree of durability and optical performance as well as stable calibration and substrate independence. As far as the latter is concerned, it is really the only practical solution for most “glass free” applications. There are also limitations. The display bezel must allow infrared light to pass through, which can prove a design limitation. In addition, infrared is arguably the worst technology for creating a flat display, because the seating of the touch frame is slightly above the screen. Some OEMs—notably Apple—insist that any touch-screen technology that they utilize must enable a completely flat display. The other major limitations on infrared touch-screen displays are that they tend to be quite expensive and have a fairly low resolution.

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E.3.8 Surface Acoustic Wave Technology

Surface acoustic wave is the other traditional way of approaching multi-touch. This technology is primarily used for larger displays, starting in the 6-to-10-inch range, but some firms claim that they can build them up to 52 inches, and Fujitsu has a prototype of a SAWbased mobile display. There are perhaps a dozen suppliers of SAW touch screens. These include Elo TouchSystems, General Touch, Shenzhen Top-Touch, Leading Touch and Shenzhen KeeTouch. Elo is still by far the largest supplier. It became dominant in this part of the touch-screen technology market by virtue of ownership of the key patent in this space. However, this patent has now expired, which has allowed Taiwanese and Chinese vendors to enter the market, resulting in significant price pressures. Although an older technology, SAW touch screens still have some very attractive features. They offer high optical performance, can be activated by many types of soft objects, and are very durable. However, they are difficult to seal and therefore subject to contaminants. Opportunities in this space include novel ways of dust proofing and surface treating these displays to avoid such contaminants.
E.3.9 Optical Touch Screens

Page | 8

Optical touch-screen technologies are already commercialized and represent a very scalable technology that can be used in displays up to 120 inches, making it a good technology for digital signage, as well as some educational applications, which with touch-screen technology can become collaborative and interactive. Today, however, one of the main applications for this technology is consumer monitors and all-in-one (AiO) systems. It has been adopted by both Dell and HP, for example. Suppliers in this space include NextWindow, apparently the major supplier, and Smart Technologies. One limitation of this technology is that it is highly sensitive to contaminants.
E.3.10 Vision-Based Optical

Vision-based optical technology is supported by Microsoft (under the name Microsoft Surface), which is obviously a vote in its favor. Other supporters of the technology include Perceptive Pixel, GestureTek and NORTD (a developer kit). Vision-based optical is already beginning to generate some revenues, with all of these revenues coming from large displays; typically these displays are well over 30 inches and have glass or acrylic substrates. Typical applications include digital signage, large retail applications and interactive video walls.

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There are limitations to the touch objects that can be used. For the Microsoft Surface product, an IR-reflective object must be used. In other versions, only fingers may be used. The overall technology is very similar to machine vision, which means to some extent that it can build on existing technology and components. In part, this is the reason why optical vision touch screen is the multi-touch technology being used by a lot of firms that are doing R&D in multi-touch; it is easy to build in the lab. This may have longer-term implications in that software and applications are being developed for this technology and this may help to promote its use in the future. The early systems are fairly large and expensive systems for public, professional or military applications and the Microsoft Surface product is a complete imaging system, as described in more detail in the main body of this report. However, Microsoft has promised low-cost consumer versions of its technology in 2010.
E.3.11 Digital Resistive Technology

Page | 9

This is a simple technology that competes directly on cost with projected capacitive technology. However, it is more expensive than analog resistive technology, tends to offer low resolution, poor optical performance and poor durability. Most digital resistive technology is based on a simple digital switch, although a few newer designs combine analog and digital design in various ways, which improves on resolution. The primary advantage that digital resistive has is that it is very good on power consumption and has an unlimited level of multi-touch functionality. This technology has yet to generate any huge revenues, in part because multi-touch controllers are hard to come by for this technology, although single-touch controllers are plentiful. Because this technology is established in the opaque touch world, there are already many suppliers active in this space. Suppliers include Stantum, AD Semi, and Wintek, while SiMa Systems and J-Touch market a technology that combines analog and digital resistive approaches. The suppliers of this type of technology see a strong market for themselves by positioning themselves as a low-cost alternative to projective capacitive technology for mobile and other consumer devices including AiO systems. However, there is also an opportunity for this technology in simple touch controllers.
E.3.12 Waveguide Infrared–RPO

Waveguide-infrared is associated with one supplier, RPO. It is similar to traditional IR in a number of ways but is much lower cost than traditional IR. However, it provides limited multitouch and isn’t as scalable as many of the other display technologies listed here. RPO’s actual product is a 3.5-inch display, but according to sources, this technology is scalable up to 14 inches or so.

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There will be products using this technology in the marketplace in 2010 if there are not already. The first markets being targeted are mobile devices and automotive. However, the real hope for this product is as a superior form of infrared; i.e., potential customers who are attracted by the general infrared story will view this technology as the best in its class. In addition, the mobile display industry is very much in a state of flux at the present time and waveguide IR can benefit from that, too.
E.3.13 LCD-Based Touch-in-Pixel

Page | 10

This technology, which is only just beginning to emerge commercially, is intended to allow the mainstream LCD display makers to enter this market. To date, there are three basic kinds of LCD-in-pixel technology, although all have similar characteristics; high optical performance, a very flat surfaced screen, stable calibration and substrate independence are important advantages of this kind of technology. So far, however, many of these technologies have proved both costly and bad on power consumption. In addition, the reader should note that true in-cell technologies are exactly that; the photocells, micro-switches or electrodes are actually positioned in the pixel. However, some display manufacturers are not willing to go to such a radical rethinking of display design and manufacture. Instead, they are adopting an approach that, from a purely manufacturing standpoint, points them closer to what the touch display sensor maker has done in its role as system integrator. For example, CMO has deployed capacitive touch-screen technology on the top or bottom of the color filter. Optical approaches to touch-in-pixel: This uses photocells deployed throughout the LCD display (although not necessarily in every pixel). This technology has been used mainly in smaller displays to date, but there is really no good reason why it should not be utilized in any size LCD display. This concept has an impressive list of supporters including AUO, CMO, CPT, LG Displays, Samsung, Sony and TMD. LG Displays and E Ink have developed an e-reader concept product with touch control based on this technology, as have SiPix and AUO. The poster boy for this type of technology, however, is Sharp’s PC-NJ70A netbook computer, which was released recently in Japan. This uses one sensor for every nine pixels and is said to be very slow— obviously a major problem. Slowness is just one of the problems with this technology that will need to be overcome to make this technology broadly viable. Optical in-pixel cannot really be judged as an opportunity until all of these challenges are dealt with. One of these problems is that dark touch objects do not work well in low light. This problem can be diminished to some extent by adding IR sources to the backlighting or in edge lighting. Another problem with optical in-

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cell is that there seems to be a need to add a cover glass to protect the LCD and prolong its lifetime, but this also reduces the sensitivity of the screen. Finally, cost seems to be a major issue with this technology. Switched-based approaches to touch-in-pixel: These technologies have received support from AUO and Samsung and operate with the touch object pressing on the LCD surface and activating a micro-switch that is deployed in each pixel. There are limitations on the use of switch-based touch-screen displays in terms of size, because of the need to incorporate connecting traces for the sensors. As a practical matter the target market for this technology is small mobile displays. No cover glass can ever be used which means that the LCD display is unlikely to have a long life. Reportedly, a switch-based touch-screen display will survive about one-tenth as many touches as an analog resistive display. However, this technology needs only a simple controller so there may be an opportunity to integrate the touch controller into the LCD display driver. Capacitive approaches to touch-in-pixel: True in-pixel capacitive displays have capacitive sensors made from ITO and actually positioned in the LCD display. The technology is otherwise very similar to projected capacitive technology. A Swedish company, Integritouch, has a technology that uses the existing LCD electrodes instead of ITO for capacitive sensing. Firms that have been attracted to this technology include AUO, CMO, CPT and LG Displays. Typically, these firms expect to integrate this technology at the LCD fab itself, or at the color filter factory for the AUO/Cando product. The applications for this technology are small-tomedium displays, mostly under 24 inches. Although this technology has some pluses, most of them are shared with other touch-screen technologies, while at the same time, the technology also has a number of important disadvantages. As with other capacitive technologies, this version of capacitive technology works only with fingers. But perhaps the most important limitation on this technology is that, once again, it does not work well with a cover glass.
E.4 Market Segments: Multi-Touch and Display Size

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As much of the rest of this report discusses, there are many differences and many overlaps between the various touch technologies considered here. For the foreseeable future, it is highly improbable that there will be a touch-screen technology that anyone could reasonably call perfect or even perfect for a particular application. However, although there are many ways to compare the various touch-screen technologies, breaking the market out simultaneously by the size of display and by whether it supports multi-touch seems to us to be
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a useful exercise, because the resulting categories seem to be useful in terms of understanding where the various touch-screen technologies are applicable. Thus, some technologies would seem to be much more appropriate to a large multi-touch video wall and others to a simple single-touch PDA display. We have followed this analytical path in Exhibit E-1.
Exhibit E-1 Touch-Screen Technologies by Size and Multi-Touch Functionality
Small/Mobile Displays Multi-Touch Analog resistive Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Surface capacitive Infrared Acoustic Pulse Recognition (APR) Dispersive Signal Technology (DST) Force Sensing Projected capacitive Optical Over 6” Over 6” Over 8” Over 3” Yes` Yes SingleTouch Yes Medium-Sized Displays for Kiosks, etc. Multi-Touch Single-Touch Yes Yes Yes Yes Smaller digital signage Smaller digital signage Smaller signage Yes Smaller digital signage Very-Large Displays for Interactive Digital Signage Multi-Touch Single-Touch

Page | 12

Yes Over 5” Yes Large end of the mobile market Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Digital resistive Waveguide Infrared Vision-Based Optical LCD in pixel

Yes Small end of market Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

There are some takeaways from this Exhibit. First, and not surprisingly, many of the technologies cluster around the middle of the market in terms of size. There are, for example, many technologies (especially multi-touch technologies) chasing after the opportunities for mid-sized displays of the kind used for kiosks, desktop monitors, etc. Mostly, it is only the newer touch-screen technologies that can compete for small mobile display requirements. And there is a very limited number of touch-screen technologies that could meet the needs of the market for very large multi-user displays for signage and other related applications.
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E.5 Structure of the Industry: Firms to Watch

The touch-screen industry has mostly existed independently of the conventional display industry. This is presumably in part because until recently it was a niche business. The way the industry has worked, in fact, is for the purveyors of touch-screen technology to adopt a systems integrator approach, taking conventional displays and adding their touch-screen sensors. The controllers were also integrated as part of this process, but tended to come from another group of suppliers. With the rise in importance of touch-screen technology, display manufacturers themselves are increasingly interested in integrating touch capabilities into their mainstream products. Exhibit E-2 summarizes the key activities of the leading suppliers of touch-screen technology today and the technologies that they support.
Exhibit E-2 Touch-Screen Technology Suppliers by Technology
Waveguide Infrared LCD in Cell Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive Digital Resistive Infrared Force Sensing

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Optical

3M AD Semi Alps AUO Cando/AUO CMO CPT Cypress DanoTech DigiTech EELY eIT Elo TouchSystems Emerging Display Technology eTurboTouch Fujitsu GeneralTouch GestureTek Gunze HannStar Display Higgstec Innolux Integritouch IRTouch iTouch Electro-Optical JTouch LG Displays LeadingTouch Lumio

X

X X X X X X X X

X X X

X X X X X X

X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

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VisionBased Optical

SAW

APR

DST

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Exhibit E-2 Touch-Screen Technology Suppliers by Technology
Waveguide Infrared LCD in Cell Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive Digital Resistive Infrared Force Sensing

Optical

VisionBased Optical X X X

SAW

APR

DST

Page | 14

Microsoft Minato Nexio NextWindow Nissha Nortd N-trig OpTera Panasonic PanJit/Mildex Perceptive Pixel Quanta Quick Touch RPO Samsung Sharp SMART Technologies Shenzhen KeeTouch Shenzhen Top-Touch SiMa Systems Sintek Photronic SMK Sony Stantum Swenk/TPO Synaptics TMD Touch International TPK Truly Semi Vissumo Wacom Wintek Xiroku Young Fast Zytronic

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

The Exhibit contains a long list of firms, but it is by no means complete; there are many other small Asian firms that compete in this space, almost completely on price. Within the Exhibit, we note some big-name firms that it is appropriate to watch, but for different reasons. These include Elo TouchSystems, a Tyco Electronics Corporation business, which supports more touch-screen technologies than any other firm and is said to ship about one million touch
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screens per year. Also worth watching is Microsoft, whose clout in the marketplace and innovative software could shape the higher end of the touch-screen display market in the future. Its Surface product is currently aimed at high-end industrial applications, but starting in 2010, the company is bringing this technology to the consumer marketplace. In other similar markets, we might be advising readers to follow companies that own important patents. However, virtually all of the significant touch-screen technology patents were filed during the 1970s and 1980s and have expired. Touch-screen component manufacturing and product design are no longer encumbered by royalties or legalities with regard to patents. As we note elsewhere in this report, one of the reasons why there are so many touch-screen technologies is that firms are technologies hoping to bring protected IP back as a competitive factor in the touch-screen market.
E.5.1 Can LCD Display Makers Get into the Touch-Display Business?

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One of the big strategic questions that still need to be settled is the degree to which mainstream display manufacturers are going to become involved in the touch-screen display market. Until four or five years ago, they studiously avoided becoming involved, seeing it presumably as a niche business that didn’t satisfy their minimal revenue requirements for entry. However, as touch-screen technologies have become increasingly ubiquitous, the display makers have increasingly viewed touch screen as an opportunity that they are missing. As a result, they are beginning to design their own touch-screen solutions for LCD displays. These solutions create new revenue streams and to some extent eliminate costs (for example, no special clean rooms are needed for assembling the sensing subsystems onto the LCD displays). On the other hand, the involvement of the mainstream display firms in the touchscreen business also means that they may well incur extra costs (new masks are needed) and will probably have to rethink the specific product ranges that they offer. The jury is still out on whether the main LCD display makers can successfully also be touchscreen technology suppliers and integrators, and what the impact would be on conventional touch-screen suppliers if they are successful. Here, one of the facts of life to bear in mind is that most of the LCD suppliers have much larger resources than the touch-screen suppliers and so could bring a lot to the table to ensure their success. One apocalyptic scenario would be that the traditional suppliers of touch-screen technologies along with some of the technologies themselves would be forced out of business by some of the larger interlopers. However, if things ultimately go in this direction, we would expect the share of the touch-screen market held by the mainstream LCD makers to grow only slowly. Contracts are already in place and technologies that are designed into OEM products will not
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485.4 1. but have included many of the emerging technologies in an “other” category.nanomarkets.9 81.2 219.624. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .9 2017 400.2 184. And the opposite scenario is also a possibility.1 150.8 1.5 112.5 75.8 2016 477.6 495.2 279.089.7 193.9 1.6 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of the Touch-Screen Market Page | 16 Exhibit E-3 summarizes the revenues that NanoMarkets expects to see generated by touchscreen technology over the next eight years.7 455. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.9 295.941.4 2011 776.5 174.8 617.8 4.2 124.8 1. We have forecast separately all the major touchscreen technologies that are commercialized now. in many cases.0 336.1 115.net be abandoned.2 3.7 842.0 260.5 361.9 214. that the LCD makers’ current efforts in the realm of the touch screen will come to naught.3 397.2 124.5 133.8 3. the future of particular technologies is tied up with the fortunes of one company.217.6 736.9 152.1 217.3 149.2 3.2 162.8 249.6 180.3 94.629.8 143.7 2.174.373.6 17.6 84.402.6 NanoMarkets.168.508.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 2012 734.6 1.3 3.4 110.5 111.050.3 154. the analog resistive and projected capacitive technologies that now account for so much of the touch-screen market seem unlikely to just disappear overnight.4 2014 618.6 40. E.786. In addition.0 56. making them nearly impossible to predict.3 76.8 127. namely.734.1 2.6 103. since there are so many plausible scenarios for their development and because.5 2015 547.4 156.0 2. Exhibit E-3 Eight-Year Forecasts of Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays ($ Millions) 2010 Analog resistive Projected capacitive Surface capacitive Infrared SAW Optical In-Pixel Other Total 748.1 142.9 2013 687.7 122.7 75.4 937.3 170.7 1.3 95.0 1.292.

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4,500 4,000 3,500 Revenues ($ Millions) 3,000 2,500 2,000

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Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays by Technology
Other In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface capacitive Projected capacitive Analog resistive

Page | 17

1,500
1,000 500 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

© NanoMarkets, LC

Total Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays
4,500 4,000 Revenues ($ Millions) 3,500 3,000 2,500

2,000
1,500 2010 © NanoMarkets, LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

In this exhibit, we have provided a projection of in-pixel technology, because it represents not just another way of doing touch screens, but a new way of restructuring the entire touchscreen business. The in-pixel “project” is exactly the type of endeavor that could prove to be immensely successful, having a serious impact on the fortunes of the other technologies

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however. However. We note in this context that interest in IR touch screens has been growing and NanoMarkets. it is at least possible that some of the technologies with much smaller market shares will be crowded out by other technologies. As we have already mentioned. more mature. Applications for these devices include uses in the optical version of in-pixel touch technology. significant opportunities presented to the manufacturers of both materials and components by the spread of touch-screen technology. in-pixel technologies are mostly in their early phase and are impacted by serious problems in need of a solution. However.net considered here and on the firms that supply those technologies. There are.nanomarkets. These opportunities have more to do with volumes than they do about new technology. if the volume demand for touch displays increases in the way that we have suggested it will in this report. vision-based optical and traditional IR.7 Opportunities for Materials and Component Manufacturers Page | 18 Exhibit E-3 quantifies the opportunities for the manufacturers of the touch-screen sensing technologies themselves. this market growth will create new markets for some fairly established materials and electronics devices. But it is also the kind of endeavor that could prove to be a good idea that can never really cut it in the real world.7. while analog resistive and projected capacitive technologies are almost certain to survive. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. which are used in a number of touch-screen technologies discussed in this report. however. these devices and materials may be adapted technically and repositioned from a market perspective to best meet the needs of the touch-screen industry. Touch screen is not really an area that is being enabled by new materials in the way that epaper is within the display industry. as well as in waveguide IR. it is possible for their use to be extended to improve coupling of light in touch-screen displays more generally.1 Opportunities for Optoelectronic Devices There appear to be two kinds of opportunities for manufacturers of optoelectronic devices. Much less speculative is the need for IR LEDs. again we could conceive of other plausible scenarios. Rather. Waveguides are currently associated with just one part of the touch-screen market— waveguide infrared. The other is for optical waveguides. We have somewhat begged that question by dumping most of the newer technologies into an “other” category and we have assumed as a matter of forecasting methodology that all the other. Nor is it a technology that is using new kinds of chips (other than specialist controllers). E. technologies survive. E. as we note elsewhere in this report. Another open question is whether all of the technologies discussed in this report are going to survive over the eight-year period covered in this report.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. One of these is for IR sources. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . especially IR LEDs.

since it is only with these volume markets that significant revenues and profits can be generated by these new chips. This area is only worth pursuing.2 Opportunities for Touch-Screen Controllers Page | 19 While the opportunity for IR devices and waveguides in the touch-screen market consists largely of an expanded market for commodity products. Once this happens. controllers are mostly proprietary and sometimes this remains the case even with reasonably mature technologies such as SAW and infrared. the evolution of the controller technology follows a fairly well-defined path. however. where there are good prospects for high-volume markets to emerge. the opportunity with touch-screen controllers is a lot more specific. E.nanomarkets. promises new applications for vision-based optical than have really been thought through at this point in time. For any given touch technology. it seems that chip firms will quite quickly jump in to take advantage of the opportunity. Cyprus and Texas Instruments. Once a touch technology begins to take off. force sensing. which is really a lot more than just a touch technology. Atmel. Broadcom. But this is likely to prove transitory as low-cost firms from Asia start to get into the market. The obvious examples of where this is already the case are analog resistive and projected capacitive touch-screen technologies. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. other touch-screen technologies that use proprietary controllers include APR. Apart from SAW. DST. touch-screen controllers are dependent on the touch-screen technology being used. There is also a growing number of controller suppliers for projected capacitive and these include some major names in the IC business including. For early-stage touch-screen technologies or ones with small market shares. Analog Devices. there are already many sources of controllers. NanoMarkets. or a more generally functioning CPU. the likely strategy for other firms is to integrate the controller electronics with other electronics such as a display driver.net the Microsoft “Surface” technology. since they can easily beat proprietary chips on price. The rapidly growing touch-screen market as a whole and the arrival on the scene of an attractive new touch-screen technology may open up opportunities for chip manufacturers of this caliber who can derive big margins for a while. as we have mentioned previously. In the case of the former. optical. They are typically manufactured by firms other than those that make the touch-sensing subsystem or the LCD display itself.7. which still dominates the touch-screen business. however. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . too. which consists in providing off-the-shelf controller products that will be less expensive than the proprietary kind.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. multi-touch digital resistive and waveguide infrared. which are not sold in huge volumes.

Films and Adhesives Touch-screen displays can enjoy improved performance with the addition of a variety of coatings and films.7. Thus. While the optical coatings used in touch screens can be supplied separately. Scratches can never be good. Optical bonding reduces optical loss. Effect can be improved with the use of polarizers. The iPhone 3G S is coated with an oleophobic coating. and scratch. These opportunities have already attracted some high-profile suppliers such as 3M. notebooks or AiO systems. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .nanomarkets. Exhibit E-4 profiles the opportunities for coating. oleophobic. The basis of anti-smudge coatings is usually a compound called perfluoro alkyl ether. Honeywell and Fujitsu. However. There are also opportunities to use films and coatings to reduce scratches and dust interfering with the performance of touch screens. films and optical adhesives used (actually or potentially) for touch screens. It may also make the system more durable. it is a challenging material in a number of ways. light-enhancement. and increasing contrast. to produce coatings and films that can improve sunlight readability in terms of reducing glare.and smudge-resistant.net E.3 Opportunities for Optical Coatings. Exhibit E-4 Coatings. improving brightness. ATMs and POS terminals do not require the same image quality as smart phones. especially when it comes to costs and durability. mobile phones are usually in need of anything that can boost readability in the sunlight. eliminates water vapor getting into cracks. Optical bonding can be used to attach a filter or even a complete touch-sensing subsystem to a display. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.7. while kiosks. The need for these coatings very much depends on application and technologies.4 Opportunities for Transparent Conductors in Touch Screens The dominant transparent conductor in use today is indium tin oxide (ITO). hydrophobic. Films and Adhesives for Touch-Screen Display Technologies Product Brightness enhancing films Anti-reflective coatings and index matching films Anti-smudge and oleophobic coatings Optical adhesives Purpose Improves sunlight readability Most effective way of improving sunlight readability Widely used on touch screens Comment Limited ability and tend to reduce viewing angle Can cut the reflectance of the display system by half. some suppliers sell glass substrates pre-coated with these optical films. broadly speaking. Optical filters and optical bonding are also deployed to add to the visual experience with touch screens. The opportunities here are. etc. but in the case of some touch-screen technologies—such as capacitive touch-screen technology—they can significantly impair the performance. Page | 20 Used in optical bonding E. NanoMarkets. Optical films and coatings that may find an opportunity as the touch-screen market continues to grow include those that are anti-glare.

VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 21 . While firms offering these alternatives are interested in getting their products into the broad range of flat-panel displays.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.C. which are quasi-mechanical devices that challenge the physical properties of ITO. there is an important caveat here. especially if and when the cost of ITO starts going up again. making the efforts seem less urgent. none of them present major challenges to ITO at the present time. Starck are targeting their PEDOT films toward touch screens. And Fujitsu has introduced a resistive touch screen using a polythiophene conductive polymer (the same class of material as PEDOT).net The three main alternatives to ITO are other transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). although this has not been widely available. In addition. the prospects that one of the proverbial “next big things” in the display industry will be inherently flexible NanoMarkets. do seem to present some opportunities for the future. Until recently. However. but their attractive feature with regard to their use in resistive touch screens is their inherent flexibility. Conductive polymers are weak conductors. they may do so in the future. Almost all of the new touch-screen technologies discussed in this report are not as demanding of the transparent conductors. These materials—like conductive polymers—are inherently flexible and could potentially be developed into high conductivity materials. the touch-screen market was dominated by analog resistive touch screens. although Fujitsu claims sufficient stability in high humidity and ultraviolet exposure. and various kinds of nanomaterials. In addition. despite a lot of work. Conductive polymers and nanomaterials. conductive polymers. too. have targeted the touch-screen market as an opportunity. however. there have been reports that the polymer electrodes still degrade with heat and light exposure. which seems to suggest a longer lifetime for them in resistive displays. which would prove significant rivals to current ITO materials. touch screens seem like a strong opportunity. because touch products seem more in need of an ITO alternative than other products. There are a handful of firms that have developed transparent nanocoatings that can be used as ITO replacements and these firms. In addition. While the potential alternatives to ITO for touch screens are chasing genuine opportunities. Both Agfa and H. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. there have not been huge successes in the field of ITO alternatives. and at the same time the price of ITO has dropped again. The nanomaterials that we are talking about here have some way to go before they reach that stage and it is important to remember that compared with any TCO or polymer their properties are not well understood.nanomarkets. which makes the touch-screen market a little less attractive as an opportunity for ITO alternatives than it might have seemed a year or two ago.

NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. means that there will be a greater demand for transparent conductors that are capable of being constantly flexed.nanomarkets.net displays. This may also drive the demand for flexible ITO alternatives. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Page | 22 NanoMarkets.

This in itself has driven new R&D work in the field. 1. In fact. of course. a closer analysis reveals important current drivers for touch screens on both the supply and demand side of the market equation. touch-screen displays have a long history. In total.1. So the reasons for the current excitement about this technology are really not immediately obvious.nanomarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.net Chapter One: Introduction 1. As a result. Exhibit 1-1 provides brief profiles of the touch-screen technologies that are already in the marketplace or close to being commercial.1 Background to this Report 1. making the addressable market for touch-screen displays that much larger. touch-screen displays have been familiar to most of us in kiosks and (slightly more recently) in ATMs for many years.2 Patents and Technology Proliferation: The Supply Side Touch-screen technology has been around long enough that many of the basic patents on the older touch-screen technologies have expired. is that displays are much more ubiquitous than they were a decade ago and are lower in cost. there are at least 13 different kinds of touch-screen technologies that are either commercialized or on the verge of being commercialized.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. depending on how one counts. dating back to the 1960s. touch-screen technology developers have been seeking new approaches to creating touch screens that are patentable. there has been a proliferation of new touch-screen technologies in the past few years. But this is not enough to explain why touch-screen displays specifically are seen as opportunities. However. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . One driver. NanoMarkets.1.1 Touch Screens: Why Now? Page | 23 Touch-screen technologies have received considerable attention in the display industry in the past few years and are viewed by many firms as a major long-term opportunity. Nonetheless.

Main applications seem to be information kiosks and digital signage. Samsung. Many suppliers. Excellent on multi-touch capabilities and reasonably priced. But it is low cost and low power consuming. this is a combination of touch screen and rear projection screen. Support for the concept includes AUO. but cannot handle multi-touch. The dominant supplier has been 3M. Primarily associated with Vissumo start-up. It is designed for consumer monitors and digital signage. Emerging technology that has good all-around performance but lacks multi-touch capability. Dominant supplier is Elo. but losing market share. Durable and responsive. but faces durability and performance issues. Occupies an established place for large displays. and interactive video walls. The advantage of this technology is that it is very durable and responsive. Good features across-the-board. Already generating modest revenues in the large display sector. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . however.nanomarkets. It is designed for digital signage. but its patent has expired.NanoMarkets Technology Analog resistive thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Not very scalable beyond 14” or so. an expensive and low-res technology with a number of other technical issues. Has many impressive performance features including excellent multi-touch support. but is expensive. It is. in part because it doesn’t offer multi-touch. although Fujitsu is developing a mobile version. capable of serving small-to-mediumsized displays. Although a relatively new technology. but is susceptible to contaminants. Lower cost than traditional IR. There are many suppliers of both sensors and controllers. but this will require expensive retooling. Has gained the support of Dell and HP. It is used in larger displays and is more scalable than any other technology. notably the Apple iPhone. Suffers from some performance issues and doesn’t easily support multitouch. except very sensitive to any surface contamination. There are already a large number of suppliers of both the sensors and the controllers for this technology. multi-touch capabilities. Good cost and performance. although its patent has now expired and new low cost firms are entering the market. It is unique in its ability to handle three-dimensional substrates with embedded moving objects. it has grown rapidly because of its use in smart phones.net Exhibit 1-1 Major Touch-Screen Technologies Market Presence This is the dominant touch-screen technology. This technology enables the LCD display makers to build their own touch displays. Good on multi-touch. For large displays only. but does not easily support multi-touch. Good optical performance and durability. Mature technology that suffers from high cost and poor power consumption. Sharp. The Australian company RPO is the major source of this technology. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. but high priced and poor power consumption. Elo is the only current supplier of this technology. Emerging touch-screen display technology from 3M for larger displays. but has no multi-touch capabilities. Mainly intended for architectural applications of various kinds. Established technology for larger displays and especially public gaming machines. There are several different versions of this technology. Page | 24 Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Surface capacitive Infrared Acoustic Pulse Recognition (APR) Dispersive Signal Technology (DST) Force Sensing Projected capacitive LCD in cell Optical Digital resistive Waveguide Infrared Vision-Based Optical NanoMarkets. Sony. but has good optical performance and durability. LG Philips and others. and offers high-performance. It also offers multi-touch.

there are also more opportunities to match touch-screen technologies within product categories.nanomarkets. The appearance of multi-touch capabilities has shown a new direction for touch-screen technology. but some of the most important are cost. since it introduces a completely different level of functionality than can be achieved without multi-touch.net 1. which has again received support from the popularity of the iPhone.S. As this report discusses. An example here is the Apple iPhone. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . shows that styli are in no way essential. Thus. although the iPhone’s success in the U. cost is very important in mobile phones. These days almost any display could utilize touch technology.4 New Applications: Beyond Kiosks. The last of these—multi-touch capabilities—is perhaps the most important. 1. What the new awareness of touch-screen technology has done is to open up a wide range of products to touch technology.1. Support for styli seems to remain as important for mobile phones in Asia.3 The Supply Side: Meeting Market Needs Of course. Page | 25 Indeed. whether one can use a stylus. for example. whether there will ever be a “perfect” touch-screen technology is questionable. in the sense that product designers who are planning to use displays in their products now consider whether the display should be a touch display. NanoMarkets. general durability. but more durable touch technologies may be required for outdoor applications. For example. ATMs and Mobile Phones The growth in the number of applications in which touch screens are being deployed is more than just a shift in emphasis from the established kiosks and ATMs to mobile phones. Durability is especially important for outdoor applications such as gas pumps and some military applications. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Just how important these factors are depends on specific applications. image/optical quality and whether the technology can support multi-touch capabilities.1.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. which uses multi-touch to adjust font size. all this technological diversity is not just because manufacturers want to create protectable IP. it is primarily because no one has yet been able to create a touch-screen technology that meets all the needs of the marketplace. it seems. there are many parameters that a touch-screen display must meet. In a sense. less so for large-scale industrial signage. And with the rising consciousness of touch-screen technologies coupled with the growing number of available technologies. such as displays on gas pumps. what we are seeing now is the mainstreaming of the touch-screen technology. low-cost analog resistive technology may well be the way to go for many conventional indoor kiosk products.

VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . it raises considerable strategic problems. although there are exceptions to this rule. LCD display makers want to grab some of the new revenues for themselves. the touch sensor) and then integrated it with a conventional display from one of the many LCD display makers and also added the control electronics from yet another source. Instead. The creation of these new technologies is important. for example? Nonetheless. 1.nanomarkets. Until quite recently. Some of these newer applications will also provide markets for some of the emerging touchscreen technologies.5 Changing Industry Structure: The Rise of the Display Manufacturers Page | 26 The final novel aspect of the current touch-screen technology scene is the growing interest of the mainstream LCD display makers. optical touch-screen technology seems set to do well in consumer computing products and in digital signage. the display makers are not especially well suited to becoming touchscreen integrators. household appliances. does one make touch and non-touch versions of the same display. The importance of these categories is modified by how fast the underlying addressable market is growing. medical and healthcare apps.net There are several product areas where the use of touch-screen technologies is just beginning. They are doing this by adopting one of the new technologies that are generically known as LCD in-cell touch technologies. but also because most of the display makers have substantially greater resources than the existing suppliers of the touch-screen sensing subsystems. For example. in-cell touch has attracted the interest of some of NanoMarkets.1. For example. The major exception is 3M. which is a player in the touch subsystem market. Designs of either LCD display frontplanes. the office equipment and household appliances businesses are not growing at an especially fast rate. consumer monitors (and all-in-one computers). LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. By contrast. touch-screen firms designed the touch subsystem (a. digital signage is growing very fast and touch-screen digital signage will therefore benefit from this growth. who could not see how they could generate significant revenues from this kind of technology. architectural applications.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. On the other hand. military equipment. although the penetration of touchscreen displays is still quite low in both sectors. music devices. In addition. automotive. touch was more or less ignored by the mainstream display makers. and digital signage. not just because they are new technologies. As touch-screen technology becomes increasingly important.k.a. industrial control. backplanes or both must be modified to accommodate touch and this may cost well over a million dollars. although not all of these technologies are actually in the LCD cell. These include office equipment..

Meanwhile. The objective of this analysis is to match the features of each of these technologies with current and future market demands. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . the situation that it currently faces is a very new one. what will be the impact on the existing suppliers of touchscreen sensing subsystems. As a result. In this analysis. these new technologies represent the response of touch subsystem/sensor makers to the growing market for touch displays coupled with the fact that the basic patents on many of the older touch-screen technologies have run out. we are able to forecast the market for touch-screen technologies over the next eight years. For the most part. all of which have different advantages and disadvantages. To summarize then. Sony and others. however. including AUO. we will focus. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. With all this in mind. One consequence of this is that there are now at least 13 touch-screen technologies.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. a group of new touch-screen technologies have made their appearance and are in various stages of commercialization. With this in hand. This has (perhaps) been inspired by the use of touch technology in cell phones. in NanoMarkets. 1. whether it is worth them doing so. NanoMarkets believes that it is time to produce this report. this report provides an analysis of all the key touch-screen display technologies listed above. touch-screen technology is rapidly moving out of the niche phase. There are also other objectives for this report. seem to be the degree to which the big display makers will be able to enter the touch-screen display industry. billions of dollars of revenues appear to be at stake while new touch-screen technologies and new suppliers proliferate. The big open questions. which is designed to pinpoint where the emerging opportunities in this space will be found over the coming decade. which is another major goal of this report. if they do so. LG Philips. Samsung. While the touch-screen industry as a whole may be an old one. In particular.net the biggest names in displays and consumer electronics. and. today’s product designer is in the fortunate position to be able to pick and choose among competing touch-screen technologies to find the one with the performance and cost that best meets the needs of his design project. which is relatively new and which has raised the consciousness of both product designers and consumers as to the usefulness (and otherwise) of touch-screen technology.nanomarkets. We are interested in projecting where the innovations in touch-screen displays are likely to come and the impact of this on their productization and the applications that they serve.2 Objective and Scope of this Report Page | 27 As the touch-screen display industry becomes mainstreamed. Sharp.

We have examined both technical and marketing literature in this field as well as presentations at key industry conferences. since the enabling effect of new materials is the key focus of NanoMarkets’ operations. We have also carried out extensive secondary research on the underlying applications markets. The forecasts are worldwide forecasts and we have not been geographically selective in the firms that we have covered in the report.nanomarkets. Finally.net particular. However. we believe that we have covered all the major applications in which touch displays can be deployed. this report is entirely international in scope.3 Methodology and Information Sources for this Report Page | 28 This report is based on a number of different sources. i. In addition. SEC filings and other corporate literature to fill out what is going on in this sector. on the areas where new materials are likely to make a difference to the fate of a particular touch-screen technology. At this point. We have also carried out interviews with key personnel to help shape our view on where the touch-screen display industry is headed. and where they fit into the market. this is (almost) any application in which displays are deployed at all. we examine how new technology directions could lead to greater market penetration for these NanoMarkets. the kiosk. we are especially interested in how the role of the mainstream LCD display suppliers will change in the touch-screen industry over the next few years. As far as the scope of this report is concerned. In addition. trade press articles. ATM and other markets in which touch-screen displays are being deployed. The objective of this research is to get a handle on the size and expected growth of these underlying markets and (where possible) of the likely penetration of touchscreen technology over the coming years.e. The forecasting approach taken in this report is explained in more detail in Chapter Four of this report. we believe that we have covered all the major touch-screen technologies that have been commercialized or are likely to be commercialized in the near future. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.4 Plan of this Report Chapter Two of this report reviews the (apparently ever growing) touch-screen technologies. 1. cell phone. with the current surge of new technologies in this field.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.. In addition. it is certainly possible that other new technologies will appear (at least in industrial labs) in the not-too-distant future. Our secondary research drew on the World Wide Web. their advantages and disadvantages. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . commercial databases. 1.

Page | 29 NanoMarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. we carry out a thorough analysis of the underlying markets for touch-screen technologies. In Chapter Three. For each of the technologies covered. we also identify the main suppliers and discuss how the supply structure is likely to change over the next eight years. we provide eight-year forecasts for all the major technologies and end-user markets considered in this report. This section concludes with a revenue forecast for touchscreen displays broken out by technology type. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . In Chapter Four. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. especially focusing on the drivers for deploying touch-screen technologies and which touch-screen technologies are most likely to be deployed.net technologies.nanomarkets.

however. and this is one factor— along with the need to create protectable intellectual property—that has fueled the interest in alternative touch-screen technologies. some of the problems with this technology are fairly fundamental. optical performance. The issue of power consumption is becoming more important in the context of stationary applications. the suppliers of the touch sub-display (or sensor) itself. always important.nanomarkets. Changes are occurring in this traditional structure. and.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. of course. The first of these parameters (cost) is. ATMs. because batteries run down fast and improvements in battery technologies have not been able to keep up with developments in electronic technologies. This structure has led to a touch-screen display industry made up of three types of firms.net Chapter Two: Touch-Screen Technologies 2.1. understandably. finally. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . The second (power consumption) is dramatically important in the context of mobile applications. and the need to NanoMarkets. There is as yet no touch technology that can surpass it when it comes to cost and power consumption. Again. There are serious problems with analog resistive technology. as the result of the growing deployment of touch-screen displays. As discussed later in this chapter. some basic display firms are trying to get a share of the value-added inherent in adding touch capabilities to displays. This is a mature technology and until the iPhone and other smart phones started to adopt multi-touch capacitive technology it was the touch-screen technology that most consumers had to deal with in kiosks. these systems integrators work with one touch-screen technology.1 Mature and Emerging Technologies Page | 30 Although there are more than a dozen touch-screen technologies that have been commercialized or are near to commercialization. These are: the firms that provide the basic display itself (all the usual firms that one associates with the mainstream display industry). Indeed.1 Introduction Touch-sensitivity is primarily implemented in a display by adding a touch sub-display on top of the usual front-plane display. however. the controller suppliers (controllers are specific to the kind of touch-screen technology being used). etc. which also act as systems integrators and integrate all three components of the touch-screen display. we discuss this later. these firms have therefore found ways to integrate touch capabilities into the basic LCD frontplane. around two-thirds of the market is accounted for by analog resistive technology. They include durability. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Whether the economics of doing so makes complete sense has yet to be worked out. as energy prices continue their rise. in other cases more. 2. And there is a lot to be said for resistive touch technology. In some cases.

Notably. is probably years away from occurring. LCD in cells) is really a catch-all phrase for three different kinds of technologies used by mainstream display makers to implement touch capabilities within the LCD frontplane itself. also have their pros and cons.k. This is a relatively new technology. dating back to the 1990s in its original form. There appear to be even more touch technologies on their way. in a sense. which is something of an iconic product and has made touch-screen technologies known to a much larger audience of both consumers and designers. although inevitable in the long run. a shakeout. Projected capacitive technology has been the big success story of the touch-screen display business.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. there are no perfect touch-screen technologies even among those that have yet to be fully commercialized. multi-touch versions of resistive touchscreen displays are not really possible. although these newest technologies seem to be variations on the ones that we focus on primarily in this report. surface acoustic wave. there is the special case of projective capacitive technology. this plethora of touch-screen technologies is beginning to raise concerns about a shakeout in the industry. the mirror image of resistive touch-screen technologies.nanomarkets. of course. vision-based optical. it is being used in the Apple iPhone. digital resistive technology. signage. kiosks. It is excellent at providing multi-touch capabilities and offers highly stable calibration and durability. acoustic pulse recognition (APR). Finally. dispersive signal technology (DST). it already accounts for more than 15 percent of the revenues from touch-screen products and is. Page | 31 NanoMarkets. And there are at least another eight of these.a. In addition. waveguide infrared and LCD-in-pixel. LCD-in-pixel (a. The other three established touch-screen technologies are surface capacitive. although it does enable a sort of approximation to touch. but they are already generating substantial revenues and will presumably continue to do so in the future. as well as good optical performance. All three of these. and infrared. However. All of these factors open up the possibility of strong competition for analog resistive technology in the future. They are mostly used in larger displays. If we treat these as three separate technologies we are faced with a touch-screen display market in which 15 separate technologies compete. force sensing. coming from a practically zero market share two or three years ago. Not surprisingly. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. in fact. It is now widely used for smaller displays. projected capacitive technology is costly and for better or worse does not work with a stylus. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . given the early stage at which this latest surge of interest in touch-screen technology is at. etc. Other touch-screen technologies that have yet to be commercialized to any serious degree include optical. However. The other traditional touch-screen technologies also have their issues and.net recalibrate the display from time to time.

of the new touch-screen technologies are intended to serve the needs of larger displays. individually they are very low in value. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. the newest touch technologies are associated with just one company and/or are as yet generating minimal revenues. which might prove useful in kiosk applications. In a few cases. Partly because of the already mentioned iconic role of the iPhone in raising the level of public awareness of touch-screen technology.” The reason for saying this is that the dominant analog resistive technology doesn’t offer NanoMarkets. the problem with the mobile phone market from the perspective of the newer technologies is that (1) they are somewhat spoken for already (with analog resistive and projective capacitive technology). it dates back to the 1980s. Examples of “one company technologies” are Elo’s APR technology and 3M’s DST technology. and (3) while the number of mobile device displays sold every year is huge. for example. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . It can be used. it does not offer multi-touch capabilities. for example. but not all. as with touch-screen technology more generally. Is multi-touch a must have? The immediate answer to this question seems to be a clear.2 The Importance of Multi-Touch Page | 32 Multi-touch displays are those that can recognize two or more touch points.1. By contrast a relatively small volume of larger displays can represent a substantial order in value terms. looks like it is one of the best ever touch-screen technologies. multi-touch capability is not all that novel. All of the newer touch-screen technologies are discussed in some detail below.net Several of the leading touch technologies have dozens of competing suppliers. “No. or at least essential for the future. 2. APR. the attempt to establish multi-touch as a widespread capability of displays is fairly new and knowledge of the history of the technology does not really give an understanding of the market today. in some cases.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. firms are dabbling with bringing some of these newer technologies to mobile phones. This capability can be used in many different ways. when considered along many parameters. However. Be that as it may. which is (increasingly) an important factor for success in a number of different markets. in particular. However.nanomarkets. However. at least initially. Most. In fact. However. the current environment raises some interesting questions about the requirements for multi-touch in the context of today’s marketplace. it is tempting to think of multi-touch as being something new. Or it can be used to enable two or more people to touch the same display at the same time. this is certainly true of both analog resistive technology and projected capacitive technology. Here we only mention that some of these technologies look especially promising. as it is in the iPhone to adjust text size using two fingers. (2) some of the new touch sensing technologies require relatively large components that do not fit into a small display environment.

multi-touch is not a “must have” at the present time. so for multi-touch to really take off. For one thing. and one reason for this loss is clearly its lack of multi-touch capabilities. but that much of the R&D work being carried out is using visionbased optical technology. for multi-touch to have much meaning in the real world. In answering this question one also needs to make the distinction between the technical question. So at least in the opinion of some current technology developers. the decline is not so fast that one can assert that single-touch is already antiquated. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. which is also unlimited in this regard. DST and force sensing—do not have multi-touch capabilities. In addition. nor is it likely to.nanomarkets. how many touches can a touch technology support.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. For the time being. however. This technology is. Secondly. users are likely to come to expect multi-touch capabilities as part of touch-screen technology and this may mean that analog resistive technology will get increasingly defined downwards into market sectors where what matters most is price. While analog resistive technology is losing market share. we note that the number two touchscreen technology in terms of revenue generation—projected capacitive technology—already supports an unlimited number of touches. of course. that multi-touch will take a growing share of the touch-screen technology market over the coming decade. and the marketingoriented question stated at the beginning of this paragraph. however. tested and standardized. (This is apparently because NanoMarkets. However. already being widely deployed in the iPhone and other consumer products and with some difficulty it is actually possible to use more than two fingers on an iPhone to (say) change font size and move text around simultaneously. With regard to the technical question mentioned above. most commercialized multi-touch displays are thought of as supporting two touches from a practical point of view.) How many touches need to be supported? There is no clear answer to this question at the present time and different observers of the touch-screen display market all have their own ideas. (More on this below. specific multi-touch applications will have to be built and tested in the marketplace and the controllers and operating systems capable of supporting these applications will have to be built. We suspect.net true multi-touch. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 33 . it is not quite clear why anyone would really want to do this. We note that not only is a widely deployed touch-screen technology capable of supporting an unlimited number of touches. one must be able to do something useful with it. This illustrates the distinction between what a touch technology can achieve in terms multi-touch and what the market needs to achieve. some of the latest touch-screen technologies—notably APR.

Given the ubiquity of the Microsoft operating system and its applications and applications NanoMarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. There is also a strong incentive for display firms to innovate in this direction. By way of proof that multitouch is catching on—or at least expected to catch on—Microsoft has built support for multitouch into its new Windows 7 operating systems for PCs. for example. A sensor technology could theoretically be able to support large numbers of users. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 34 . What is needed to make multi-touch ubiquitous in the marketplace? As we have already suggested. to enable information about the multiple touches to be passed on to the operating system. since novel multitouch applications using more than one or two touches are clearly a way for such firms to distinguish themselves in the marketplace. where multi-touch may be a better solution than some of the more traditional approaches to data input. Exactly what directions the new more-than-two touch display applications will take is hard to predict. kiosk and educational applications. Our belief is that designers will find new. Another way that has actually been implemented in real-world applications—notably in casinos—is to have each user identify him/herself by touching a pad near the display. The idea here is that. or both a student and teacher could work simultaneously on a terminal. First. Much will depend on the capabilities of software and controllers.nanomarkets. if these are made available by the technology itself. Then the operating system must itself be able to support multi-touch.) What this suggests is that innovation in the multi-touch area is not likely to be limited by the capabilities of the technology and so will be developed to the level required by the marketplace. support of large numbers of touch may be needed if multiple users make use of the same display. In addition. One that has been suggested is the somewhat niche-like area of 3-D CAD. with each segment being dedicated to one user. interesting and profitable ways to use a large number of touch capabilities. to make multi-touch capabilities a widespread commercial success more—a lot more—than support by the core sensing technology is required. This may occur in gaming. more than one person could look up information on an information kiosk. but there may be no electronics to enable it to do this in the real world. there needs to be support from the controller/driver electronics and related software. not just the sensor itself. One technical problem that immediately presents itself in the context of multi-user touch-screen systems is how the system distinguishes between users. But there are a number of possibilities.net optical touch-screen technology is relatively easy to build in a lab environment. One fairly easy solution is to segment the display in a conventional way. Most of the touch-screen technologies that are capable of multi-touch capabilities will also work with Windows 7.

as can infrared using Elo’s “XYU” IR technology. Several firms are working specifically in this area of multi-touch design. Other technologies don’t yet have touch capabilities but may have in the future. for example. In particular. While anything is possible. In fairness. Mitsubishi is working in this area for turning up the gain on projected capacitive technology. and 3M may do so with its DST technology. Whether “simulated multi-touch” is or will be good enough to show continued market success in the future remains to be seen. it is unlikely that this kind of half-way Page | 35 NanoMarkets. Other touch sensing technologies have a more limited multi-touch capability. has a technology called “resistive gestures” that is capable of sensing two-finger gestures. In all of these cases. but only if the finger is moving. 3M has a similar capability for its DST sensor system. the limitations on the number of touches that can be sensed have more to do with the controller electronics than with the sensing technology. at least for the time being. A system (sensor. However. And the manufacturer may have come up with a clever way to utilize this capability.net suites. which also enables SAW touch technology to support two touches. Which technologies will have multi-touch capabilities in the future? Projected capacitive and vision-based optical are not the only touch technologies that can support unlimited multitouch. product designers have to come up with a way to implement this application such that the customer will actually use it. Finally. Others with this capability are LCD in-pixel and digital resistive technology. marketable design at the applications layer is very important. Elo. Perhaps this can best be illustrated by the many-touch systems discussed above. Optical technology can support up to four touches.nanomarkets. In the long run. Another firm GestureTek focuses on far-field gesture recognition technology. All the other technologies discussed in this report are single-touch technologies. The two-finger-zoom process on the iPhone is a good example of a successful implementation of this kind. electronics and operating system) may be able to support many touches. there are some ways that multi-touch can be simulated on analog resistive technology. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Waveguide IR from RPO currently supports two touches as well.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Microsoft’s support for touch should be regarded as a key supply side driver/enabler for multi-touch technologies. one problem here is keeping the “x” and “y” coordinates of one user from getting mixed up with that of another user. indeed the market may demand this. Elo may upgrade its APR technology to multi-touch capability. it seems unlikely that analog resistive touch technologies could be easily or effectively upgradeable to multi-touch capability. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .

LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.. half of them can point to real-world products that show this multi-touch capability in use. i. Dell is also in this space with its Latitude XT touch-screen tablet.e. touch-enabled ones represent a fairly small proportion of the total number of smart phone models currently in production. Finally. which use optical touch-screen technology. The Apple iPhone is a good example of the current pattern of touch technology deployment.net measure will be enough. what it does show is that multi-touch can be incorporated into a wide range of products and that it is being adopted by some of the biggest Page | 36 NanoMarkets. which is 15 to 25 percent less than more established suppliers. the Sharp Netbook is one of the early examples of LCD in-pixel and incorporates multi-touch. this uses projective capacitive technology. Also.75 to $0. we note that digital multi-touch technologies are not necessarily easy to build.85. Commercialization of multi-touch products: Of the ten touch-screen technologies that are capable of supporting multi-touch. as a percentage of smart phone products. However. it seems. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . analog resistive technology may continue to be used with some primitive touch features added as a selling feature. the other technologies will either reach the productization stage or get close.nanomarkets. And they also get a lot of press. while at the same time powerful enough to cope with coordinates from multiple users. The focus of this productization will be consumer products. the use of multi-touch technologies in teaching products. During 2010. Apple is not the only big name firm that has introduced touch technology. We are told that even at the present time suppliers of analog resistive technology based in China can supply at $0. We have already given some indications of how multi-touch could be used in such areas.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. kiosks and other non-consumer products seems a strong possibility given time. because it will soon fall below consumer expectations. The penetration of multi-touch in most applications is usually quite low. Like the iPhone. HP offers its TouchSmart all-in-one desktop systems. However. The iPhone and a few other touch-based smart phones are currently available and are receiving a great deal of attention in retail stores. This is by no means intended as a complete list of products that are available now and that incorporate multi-touch capabilities. There is also the example of the Jazz Mutant Music Controller. it is used in only a few products within a certain application area. which uses digital resistive technology. Dell also sells a touch monitor for kiosk and POS applications that uses SAWbased touch-screen technology. This problem obviously grows in importance as more touches are added to the mix. In no product category is touch-technology the norm. in areas where cost is paramount. but that could change over time. However. there is the problem of building controllers that are not too costly.

One possible way is to consider whether they are analog or digital technologies. it becomes important to identify ways to classify them. With this in mind. control electronics development faces somewhat different issues depending on whether the sensor technology is digital or analog. it is important to note that one of the incentives for companies developing new touch-screen sensor systems is undoubtedly to create new protectable IP from which they can benefit and which (especially. This means that firms that adopt these older approaches must (1) establish a market presence that is dominant enough to overshadow the importance of patents. But while the new touch-screen technologies will ultimately be judged in the marketplace. or could. 2. Therefore. More useful is the categorization of touch-screen displays by stage of development (whether the technologies being categorized are new or mature) and by multi-touch capability (whether or not they do. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. support multi-touch). going forward there is little doubt that multitouch is going to be a very important part of the touch-screen story.1.nanomarkets. The novelty or otherwise of the technology is indicative of the kinds of business development that must be carried out to make it a success and the risks involved. Whether a touch-screen technology supports multi-touch or not has much to do with what applications it can be used in. even adopting (2) or (3) does not in any way mean that the firm will automatically attain market share with its protected technology. Of course.1.net names in consumer electronics. doesn’t really help with teasing out where the main opportunities are in the touch-screen market. This is useful to some extent because.4 Classifications of Touch-Screen Technologies Page | 37 With such a large number of touch-screen technologies to cope with. 2. if they are startups) will make it easier to raise money. (2) create IP based on patentable enhancements to basic touch-screen technologies. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . in Exhibit 2-1 we break out touch-screen technologies by multi-touch capability and maturity. there is another factor in play.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. or (3) create entirely new touch-screen technologies with their own fundamental patents attached. There seems to be (at least) three ways to do this. However. while it raises important issues. as we have already noted.3 The Role that Patents Play While improved performance/meeting marketplace needs is clearly the main factor driving the creation of new touch-screen technologies. This is the fact that the core patents on the most established touch-screen technologies have expired. a classification based on this factor. NanoMarkets.

Gunze. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.NanoMarkets Maturity\Multi-Touch New thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. from a stylus or a finger with or without a glove.nanomarkets.2. the least opportunities.1 Current Technology. The remaining technologies are somewhere in between. 2. Thus. There are also many sources of the control electronics for this type of touch-screen technology. which is exactly what one might expect from such a well-established technology. These changes are created when an outer coversheet is touched. J-Touch. Swenc/TPO. whether with a finger or a stylus. changes in touch are measured via detecting changes in voltage. EELY. “touch” is measured indirectly. These include Nissha. It is also the case that technologies that this Exhibit portrays as being likely to present the most opportunities are also the most risky. SMK. Fujitsu. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . by far the most common of the different touch-screen technologies. In addition. Limitations and Applications Current technology and materials: In all of the touch-screen technologies.net Exhibit 2-1 Touch-Screen Technologies: By Maturity and Multi-Touch Support Multi-Touch Projected capacitive Digital resistive Vision-based optical Waveguide infrared Optical LCD in-pixel/LCD-in-cell SAW Infrared No Multi-Touch 1 Acoustic Pulse Recognition 1 Dispersive Signal Technology Force sensing Page | 38 Mature 1 Analog resistive Surface capacitive Some possibility for future upgrade to multi-touch. resistive touch-screen technology can be deployed on a wide range of display sizes from the very smallest all the way up to 26-inch displays. and eTurboTouch. in fact. of course this would still leave out the largest signage devices as target markets. the technologies in the top left-hand cell of the matrix portrayed in Exhibit 2-1 are likely to present the most opportunities of the technologies considered in this report. Materials. New technologies are likely to produce more opportunities than older technologies and multitouch technologies are likely to produce more opportunities than technologies that do not offer multi-touch. There are at least 60 suppliers of resistive touch-screen technology. In the case of a resistive touch-screen. The display is equipped with two electrodes. Elo TouchSystems. which NanoMarkets.2 Analog Resistive Touch Screens Analog resistive touch screens are one of the two technologies that fall into the mature/nonmulti-touch category. They are. 2. They have some clear market advantages notably that they are inexpensive to produce and receptive to almost any kind of touch input. Young Fast. Truly Semi. and those in the bottom right-hand cell.

but also has a short life. Four-wire systems have a single pair of busbars on each ITO layer. this decreases as the touch pressure increases. The busbars on the cover sheet and substrate are perpendicular to each other. Glass-on-glass is another possibility and this is used in the automotive industry because it is so durable. In four-wire touch-screens.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. usually for cell phones. but also in some less demanding stationary applications. There are various combinations of materials that can be used for the coversheet and substrate. While. From a materials/technology perspective. or at least soon will be. anti-reflective and anti-smudge can be added to these displays and they can also be equipped with ruggedized casings and substrates where applications demand this. the substrate is glass. the touch subsystem consists of a cover layer of PET film. Both the outside of the glass and the inside of the PET are coated with ITO to create transparent electrodes. industrial controls. Various surface treatments including anti-glare.nanomarkets. film has been used to create very thin displays. the touch is sensed by measuring the contact resistance between the two ITO layers. It is the kind of touch screen that is most widely found in the mobile device market. an analog resistive touch screen can be developed along a number of dimensions: A fundamental variation is to be found in the basic mechanism for analog resistive touch-screen technologies. The four-wire type is the lowest cost. The busbars are then connected to the touch screen controller through a four-wire flex cable. point-of-sale systems. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 39 . Five-wire touch screens use circular electrodes in the substrate ITO and then four-wires are connected to the electrodes in a manner similar to the four-wire version. The five-wire version is higher cost. separated by spacers. Typically. but has a longer life and is the kind of resistive technology most widely found in kiosks. The advantage of the five-wire touch screen type is that the ITO coating on the topsheet is not required to be in perfect condition.net measure the touch position along the x and y axes. and other workplace applications. from a glass substrate. restaurant systems. The fifth wire is the so-called sense wire and is embedded in the topsheet. Film is usually used for the top layer. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. NanoMarkets. This means that physical deterioration of five-wire touch screens is less critical than for four-wire touch screens. This is a way of adding value to what would otherwise be a more or less commodity product. The sensor system alternates from one electrode to the other very rapidly to provide continuous detection of the touch position in both axes.

Aside from this. point-of-sale terminals are expected to have long lifetimes and are used frequently. PDAs. many of those used today also incorporate analog resistive touch-screen technology. analog resistive technology is losing market share to other technologies—notably capacitive technologies. so one can only expect so much from this kind of technology. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Although. as we discuss in more detail in the next chapter. the degradation may be insufficient to cause any major problems during the lifetime of the system. Finally. this was the only cost effective touch-screen technology available.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. for applications such as smart phones. costs could be reduced still further. It is possible that. through the use of new materials and better production process that perhaps use less material. consider the NanoMarkets.net Limitations: The major drawback of resistive touch screens is that they tend to wear out after a certain number of touches. In fact. However. consumer handhelds are typically replaced in a couple of years. the improvements that are possible in this technology will mostly be in improved durability and optical clarity. if one buys from a low-cost Chinese supplier. ITO is fairly brittle and when subjected to this repeated bending it tends to degrade and crack over time. capability. The flexible cover layer is subjected to a level of bending with each touch. For example. this technology has to be low cost to compete with the growing number of rivals that it faces in the marketplace. 2. across the board. Cost points for this technology are already lower than any other touch technology. as much as 20 percent of the light from the display itself can be lost as it travels through the touch screen sub-display. and GPS systems. given its other limitations.nanomarkets. While the iPhone relies on capacitive touch-screen technology.2 Future Development of Analog Resistive Touch-Screen Technologies Page | 40 This is a very mature technology. This is presumably because. this is one reason why touch screens have become the target market for so many firms creating ITO alternatives. As an example of what can be achieved. there are no practical ways of enabling analog resistive technology to provide high-quality multi-touch. many of the competitive smart phones are still using resistive technology. as low as 75 cents per vertical inch. However.2. for example. POS terminals seem likely to migrate to other touch-screen technologies in the not-too-distant future. Applications: The applications for today’s resistive touch-screen technology are those where the degradation of ITO is not a problem. In fact. Some touch-enabled notebooks are also using resistive touch-screen technology and this technology may also find its way into appliances of the future. and cost and/or power consumption is a primary concern. The PET surface of analog resistive displays is also likely to scratch and the optical quality of these screens is not especially good. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. until recently. which are not in constant use.

In addition. EELY. According to press reports. NanoMarkets. which has been something of a sustaining sector for this technology. We return to this topic at the end of this chapter. but once again.nanomarkets. The surface capacitive business. 2. Apart from 3M. whose surface capacitive technology adds additional capabilities to the more traditional kind of surface capacitive technology. This part of the touch-screen market is showing all of the signs that it is likely to go into decline. surface capacitive technology is losing share of the total touch-screen display market because it comes with quite a few disadvantages of which the major one is the lack of multi-touch capability. This firm makes four-wire analog resistive displays both for mobile and PC applications and specializes in displays that can be used in harsh environments. is different from the analog resistive market in a couple of important ways.net small Japanese company Techno Print. In total. eTurbo. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. there may be as many as 20 firms active in this space at the present time. And for perhaps this reason. eGalax. as we have already noted. the surface capacitive market is about 10 percent the size of the analog resistive technology market and like the analog resistive market. it seems fated to go into decline. DigiTech. Touch International. Digitech and Billabs (ISI). 3M has dominated this technology. For a start. Standard control electronics are available from 3M. On the supply side. The ability to view the display in sunlight is achieved by the use of circular polarized film suppressing the inside reflection of the touch panel. it has achieved the highest transmissivity in the analog resistive type by use of AR coating and optical film keeping the high transmissivity of the glass itself. surface capacitive technology is losing share of the casino machine sector. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . so a shakeout in the market would be no surprise. Optera. with the major applications found in casino gaming machines. Elo TouchSystems. we see a case where the core patents have expired and other firms—notably Chinese and Taiwanese firms—have begun to move in with the inevitable price erosion. and Higgstec. Although analog resistive technology holds by far the largest share of the touch-screen market. kiosks and ATMs.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. however. this technology is mostly used on larger displays from 6 inches up to 32 inches. On the user side of the equation.3 Surface Capacitive Touch Screens Page | 41 The other touch technology that is both mature and does not offer multi-touch is surface capacitive technology. the analog resistive touch screen is a key target for firms seeking to replace ITO with other forms of transparent conductive material. Hampshire. A special mention needs to be given to Wacom. the other firms in this space are DanoTech.

They are also resistant to contamination and are highly touch sensitive with excellent drag performance. Limitations and Applications Current technology: Surface capacitive touch-screen displays sense touch through the medium of changes in current. so a stylus cannot be used. A scratch resistant top layer may also be used. A gloved finger will not work. How much current is pulled in will depend on where the touch occurs on the display. There is usually some kind of hard coat placed over the top-side conductive coating to provide physical protection and anti-glare protection. These are the basics. This changes the voltage at the point of contact and pulls in more current from the electrodes. In this way the exact point of touch can be determined. which is the technology with which they are most likely to be compared. The conductive object must also be large enough to draw a significant amount of charge.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. thus creating a uniform electric field. surface capacitive displays are prone to false readings from parasitic capacitive coupling. Because surface capacitive touch screens do not have moving parts. which creates capacitance. they are sturdier than analog resistive technology. They consist of an insulator (typically glass) coated on one side with a transparent conductive layer. But surface capacitive displays are actually a little more complex than suggested above. some of the stored charge is drawn into the finger or other object. electric charge is stored. The reason why the electrodes are placed completely around the display is to evenly distribute the voltage across the front-side conductive coating. there is no inherent ability to offer multi-touch and the touch object has to be conductive. there are still plenty of limitations on surface capacitive displays: As with analog resistive technologies. It is subject to calibration drift.net 2.nanomarkets.1 Current Technology. Limitations: Despite the many positives. Page | 42 NanoMarkets. typically ITO. Real world displays of this kind would have ITO coated on both sides of the glass insulator. with the bottom ITO being used for EMI shielding. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. and need calibration during and after manufacture. Regular recalibration is required and consequently maintenance can be quite expensive. All of the above makes surface capacitive displays an excellent choice of technology for relatively simple applications that need to offer smooth performance. In particular. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Electrodes around the panel’s edge apply a voltage to the conductive layer.3. When a finger—or some other conductive object—touches the screen.

These include the usual kiosks and ATMs. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. At the same time.2 Wacom’s Variation on the Surface Capacitive Theme Wacom has introduced a variation on surface capacitive technology that overcomes many of its limitations.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. This approach isolates performance from all capacitance effects other than the one associated with the finger or other conductive touch object. notably hands in latex/polypropylene gloves will work. it is not good enough to protect the performance of the display sufficiently for mobile phone applications. which opens it up to a market that is effectively closed to other forms of surface capacitive technology. which opens up the medical/R&D market for this technology. public access applications. Additional digital signal processing is also thrown in to improve accuracy and provide drift-free performance. In RRFC. however. The current is measured for all four fields. This creates a “ramp shaped” electrostatic field across the surface. As we have noted. The big plus of the Wacom technology is that it can be used in a mobile environment. NanoMarkets. it adds new levels of performance durability for this technology. The display can be used outdoors in relatively harsh conditions and a much thicker hard coat can be added to the display compared with the traditional version of the technology. AC voltage is applied on two adjacent corners and DC voltage is applied on the other two. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . This is a big deal. Page | 43 Scratches in the coatings can cause dead spots on the screens. As well. Applications: Surface-capacitive touch screens are used primarily for heavy-use. 2. but especially casino gambling machines where they have become common. This is the reason for adding an anti-scratch coating. The controller switches the signal around all of the corners. thereby creating four such ramp fields. Wacom’s version of this technology is called Reversing Ramped Field Capacitive (RRFC). because this limitation effectively precludes the use of surface capacitive displays from the huge mobile phone market. At the core of this technology is the ASIC that Wacom originally developed for its EMR pen computing digitizer.net While the EMI shielding mentioned above is good enough for stationary applications. as opposed to the single field in the traditional version of this technology. a broader range of touch objects can be used.3. it can also be used in the larger displays that are most frequently associated with this technology. the legal gambling industry is understandably beginning to experiment with other kinds of touch-screen technologies with a broader range of applications. In addition.nanomarkets.

An optional bottom shield or ruggedized substrate can be added and. Wacom itself. of course. there is only one source of this technology.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.net Since both Wacom’s RRFC touch and EMR pen input technologies can work together from a single ASIC and MCU pair. this is part of a more general trend. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.3 Future Development and Potential for Surface Capacitive Touch-Screen Technologies Page | 44 As we have suggested. That the latter can happen has been proved by the arrival of Wacom’s version of surface capacitive technology. and increases transmission and display brightness.3. 3M has developed its surfacecapacitive touch screen using only one layer of ITO. For surface-capacitive technology to survive. the potential for the traditional surface capacitive technology is fairly limited and one of its main applications—casino machines—does seem to be going away. This eliminates reflections from two surfaces.3. Nonetheless. There are still disadvantages with Wacom’s technology.4 Expected Improvements in Manufacturing and Materials for Surface Capacitive Touch Screens There seems to be some serious activity in using new kinds of coatings to improve the performance of surface capacitive technology. lowers display reflectance. Wacom has added a quadruple thicker hardcoat to its version of the technology. as we have already noted. there is still no multi-touch and as with some other touch-screen technologies. NanoMarkets.nanomarkets. This can enable a significant reduction in manufacturing and materials costs for the systems in which they are combined. 2. it remains a serious option for applications that are looking for a technology that is more durable than analog-resistive touch screen. it is possible to combine the two technologies for (say) tablet PC applications. ATO and tin oxide have also been suggested. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . of course. 2. While ITO is still the transparent conductor of choice for this kind of display. There are also opportunities to create a more rugged display with surface capacitive technology. but less costly than projected-capacitive touch screen. The company claims that the primary advantages of a single-sided ITO-coated surface are improved optics (3 percent to 4 percent improvement over two-sided coated sensors). In addition. it will have to maintain its cost advantages or improve technologically. For one. and increased production flexibility (by reducing lead time processing steps). Wacom also uses optical bonding in its manufacturing process. although.

there is no mechanism to wear out and the systems can operate even when scratched. it is perhaps surprising that newer technologies would be commercialized without this capability. In addition.1 Current Technology. APR technology will also support stylus.nanomarkets. Essentially. Elo first started offering its technology in 2006. The bending wave radiates outward and the four piezoelectric transducers convert this mechanical energy into electrical energy. Obviously. the degree to which this makes a difference in the marketplace will NanoMarkets. but its efforts in the mobile space are much more recent. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . this technology works by recognizing the sound created when the glass is touched at a given position. Dispersive Signal Technology (DST) and Force Sensing. reportedly both multi-touch and touch-and-hold capability is being developed for this technology and will appear over the next year or so. there are at least three such technologies: Acoustic Pulse Recognition (APR). but “mobile APR” operates with a controller ASIC. the pure-glass surface of APR displays is resistant to scratches. Limitations: The most obvious limitation for this technology is the absence of multi-touch capability.5-inch to 42-inch displays. proprietary. not surprisingly.4 Acoustic Pulse Recognition Touch Screens: Elo While it is easy to accept older touch-screen technologies without multi-touch. These include excellent optical qualities. as mentioned earlier in this report. The larger APR displays require a controller board. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. they consist of a single piece of glass. the touch creates a bending wave within the glass substrate. Elo is claiming many benefits for this technology. as we have already seen. durability. stability. In addition to being good to great on most performance characteristics that matter in touch displays. Limitations and Applications Page | 45 Current technology: APR displays are quite simple.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. In addition. However. Among its virtues is that it is extremely durable and works with any touch object.4. only one-time factory calibration is required. The fact that it is only supported by one supplier—Elo TouchSystems—may be regarded as a disadvantage for APR by some. APR displays can be scaled from 2. APR is a good all-round touch technology. glove. The sensing mechanism consists of four piezoelectric devices at the corners of the glass. 2.net 2. this technology also has a wide range of applicability in terms of the size of display that it can be used with—from mobile phone sized display up to 52-inch displays. water and other contaminants on the screen. and dragging properties. More specifically. Apart from the absence of multi-touch. However. Controllers for this product are. bare finger and fingernail activation and is supposedly relatively low cost. Unlike analog resistive technology.

controllers are proprietary devices. 3M seems to have been very cautious about its rollout and this is perhaps so that the company doesn’t cannibalize too much of its surface capacitive sales. which include POS terminals. It is also claimed that real-time processing enables DST to be precisely accurate in varying environments and in larger display sizes. Once again. pharmacy automation and industrial and office automation. Applications: The literature on APR technology suggests a broad range of applications. scroll. enough to generate sound. while DST uses real-time analysis. 2. In addition. is also a single-source technology with minimal revenues. kiosks.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Limitations and Applications Current technology: DST is very similar to APR. because of the real-time analysis of position. has considerably larger resources to devote to this technology. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Apart from purely technical differences. specifically. Most of the advantages cited for APR are also cited for DST. but apparently didn’t work well and was reintroduced in 2007. in the 30-to-40-inch range. Like APR. Applications: Applications that are being mentioned for this application include digital signage and information kiosks. One important difference lies in the way touch position is calculated. but it does support some surrogates such as flick. It was originally introduced in 2005.net depend on how sophisticated these offerings turn out to be. it also uses plain glass with four piezoelectric devices at the corners. we believe that they have somewhat different commercial characteristics too. the systems offered so far reportedly require a considerable amount of touch force. APR is able to serve the small/mobile NanoMarkets.5. In addition.1 Current Technology. The hope is that these will be sufficient for most application developer’s requirements. expand and rotate gestures. the system is said to be highly responsive. response in 20 ms is what is apparently being claimed.2 DST vs. 2. gaming.5.nanomarkets. One thing to note again is that DST’s backer. but at the present time is not doing so. In addition. Elo is known to be interested in developing this technology for various kinds of mobile applications. like APR technology. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . the applications of the two technologies are somewhat different. APR Because of their similarities. APR uses look-up tables. In addition. and is likely to be used in digital signage and information displays.5 Dispersive Signal Technology Touch Screens: 3M Page | 46 3M’s DST technology. APR and DST are often compared. 3M. 2. restaurant and hospitality automation. This technology is clearly for larger displays. Limitations: DST doesn’t support multi-touch.

as a force. It is also alone in targeting the niche market for architectural touch displays. force sensing measures touch directly. this technology actually dates back to the 1990s when IBM was developing it using strain gauge technology. etc. 2. in which the movement of the touch screen is constrained to the z-axis. although most of them present some kind of competition for force sensing in this application.1 Current Technology. The movement is then measured with some kind of force sensor. be used in kiosks. This technology can be used to build quite small displays (5 inches or so) all the way up to displays ten times that size. that is. where force sensing scores high is that it can handle three-dimensional substrates with embedded moving objects. a piezoelectric device. It can. primarily via the medium of some electrical phenomenon. It can also be deployed to meet green architecture specifications by incorporating panels made of “eco-friendly” materials. for example.nanomarkets. as a force. Vissumo’s technology uses beam-mounted strain gauge sensors at NanoMarkets. DST is better than APR when it comes to how hard one has to touch the display to get it to operate. Controllers for Vissumo’s technology are proprietary. or potentially something else. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. The primary commercial product currently available that uses this technology comes from a start-up firm called Vissumo (a subsidiary of QSI). Limitations and Applications Current technology: Force sensing is a three-dimension technology. marble. that are constructed of natural materials such as slate. the main application for which this technology is being designed is architectural applications. It is alone among the technologies considered here in sensing touch directly. while—for the time being anyway—DST is not being targeted toward this application. The competitive advantage of this technology lies in its capability to provide designers with more options than other technologies. and wood. This could be a strain gauge.net display market. It seems that APR has the advantage over DST in terms of available or planned multi-touch and gesture technology. IBM’s technology was never successfully commercialized. However. However.. None of the other touch technologies considered in this report are really being targeted at this application. While all the other technologies discussed in this report measure force indirectly.6.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. 2. However.6 Force Sensing Touch Screens: Vissumo Page | 47 Force sensing is very different from any of the other touch-screen technologies discussed in this report in several ways. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . However.

Panels can be made of rigid. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . after the once ubiquitous analog resistive technology. kiosks. there is no need for the user to make an electrical connection with the touch screen. Also. it has been deployed by both Dell and Apple and this technology also enables both very small (2-inch) and very large (100-inch) displays to be built. In terms of commercial success. According to Vissumo. It can also be deployed on a flexible substrate. a solid panel made of virtually any material in any size or shape can function as a touch panel. it is natural to compare the two technologies. the corner sensors compute the x and y coordinates of the touch location. In particular. It is unlikely that anyone would want to extend force sensing to other markets. elevator controls. more than 200 ms is needed between touches and this is one technical—as opposed to marketing—reason why the current force sensing technology is likely to be constrained to the markets described here. at least not in its current form. etc.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. bright sunlight. What is different here is that the display itself is not directly involved in the sensing operation. These include a high level of durability. such as PET. while in analog resistive technology. Vissumo also claims that its displays are the ideal solution for unattended applications or outdoor environments exposed to weather conditions.net the four corners of the display.” Limitations: The big limitations of this technology are the obvious ones—no multi-touch capabilities and a limited market being targeted. Its technical advantages are impressive too. or possible vandalism. Because projected capacitive technology has quickly risen to become the second largest technology in terms of revenue. so that the touch measurement is completely free from the substrate being used. Force sensing is also a fairly unresponsive technology. according to one source. high-impact materials such as glass and metal and “will virtually never wear out no matter how many touches they sustain in high use applications. Projected capacitive screens have several advantages in this regard.nanomarkets. but is by far the most successful multi-touch technology to date. the top layer of the display has to bend which is a challenge to long product lifetimes. high optical quality. and unlimited multi-touch capability. so the display can be protected with a sheet of glass or NanoMarkets.7 Projected Capacitive Touch Screens Page | 48 Projected capacitive touch-screen technology is a new technology. 2. toll booths. Applications: The specific applications that have been suggested for this technology include ATMs. projected capacitive technology operates with the user interacting with an electrical field and the ITO layers do not have to come into physical contact. As with other touch-screen technologies. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.

There are several types of projected capacitive technology. These are located all over the world. In the “perimeter scan” or “non-imaging” type. The electric fields from these capacitors are projected through the top layer of glass. The fact that there is a protected sensor makes the display highly durable and its performance is also not easily hurt by dirt or other contamination. as yet. One fairly primitive form is the single-layer sensor type. The front bezel can also be sealed around the edges. firms supplying projected capacitive controllers including Analog Devices. In most projected capacitive technology two layers of sensor are used. The difference here is that the ITO layers are sealed in between two pieces of glass.S..net plastic. It is unlikely that the growth in the number of suppliers in this space can continue for much longer. but a growing center of projected capacitive technology is to be found in Taiwan and to a less extent in China. 2. as one might expect from a technology with which such a large number of suppliers are involved. has no dominant suppliers.7. NanoMarkets. in that “ghost points” are sometimes identified. Atmel. the x and y electrodes are scanned in order to locate the area of maximum capacitance.1 Current Technology. As with other capacitive technologies the finger (or other touch object) couples with the fields when placed near the surface of the screen and this changes the capacitance of some of the capacitors near the touch object. Broadcom. The basic architecture behind projective capacitive touch consists of two layers of transparent conductor (typically ITO) sandwiched between two pieces of glass. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . In fact. This technology is said to be extremely robust and reliable and it also offers one of the highest light transmission characteristics of any of the current touch-screen technologies. the idea is very similar to the surface capacitive technology previously described in this chapter. Our understanding is that this technology has proved problematic in a multi-touch environment.nanomarkets. because it is growing fast and. Most sensor suppliers do not offer controllers. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. More suppliers are entering this market all the time.S. namely Cypress and Synaptics in the U. which offers low resolution and is not typically used for displays. But there are a few exceptions to this rule. Limitations and Applications Page | 49 Current Technology: Projected capacitive touch technology uses an array of embedded sensing wires within a multi-layer laminated screen behind a protective front surface. An algorithm converts such changes into an identification of the touch position. N-trig in Israel and Zytronic in the U. There is also a fairly large involvement of big-name U. Texas Instruments and Cypress. A large number of suppliers are offering sensor products in the projected capacitive space. The ITO layers are designed to form a grid capacitor.K.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.

monitors. Applications: Projected capacitive touch-screen technology seems to address a very wide range of applications. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 50 . which affects surface capacitive touch screens. it has been used for signature capture devices. It has also been used in military applications. However.net Another type of projected capacitive display is the “imaging” type.nanomarkets. Because of its construction. both consumer and industrial. Power consumption for this technology is not especially impressive when compared to analog resistive technology. it has been used in the usual kiosks. this technology does have its limitations. Just like surface capacitive touch screens. However. because it is the technology that is used in the Apple iPhone. One fact that might be considered a limitation in certain applications is that projected capacitive technology cannot work with a regular stylus and perhaps the most important limitation is that—for the time being anyway— this is a costly technology. projected capacitive sensors do not always work with a gloved finger. projected capacitive touch screen technology is suitable for outdoor and/or heavy-use applications. This technology is probably the most familiar of the projected capacitive technologies (even if it is not identified as such). it is sometimes said that projected capacitive technology is difficult to integrate into a display/final product. this is obviously not a sufficiently challenging factor to keep it out of the iPhone. Limitations: Projected capacitive technology is not prone to the cracking that resistive touch screens suffer from nor is it subject to drift. NanoMarkets. all points are addressable and the output to the controller is a complete set of capacitance values for all crosspoints on the display. projected capacitive technology has also been used in cell phones (those iPhones again) and is being introduced into netbooks. However. Finally. which has two layers of glass encapsulating the ITO layers. the sensitivity can be increased so that it can detect fingers through a thick glove. However. because of its noise sensitivity. from tiny mobile displays. However. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. this can make it difficult to operate the touch screen without gloves. if the touch screen is always going to be used in a cold environment. Of course.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. all the way up to ones that are more than 100-inch diagonal. With regard to the latter. some of these problems can be overcome through an adjustment of the sensitivity of the projected capacitive touch screen. laptops/notebooks and all-in-one systems. In particular. In this technology. POS terminals and ATMs. One factor in this breadth is that this particular technology is highly scalable. For example. for the larger displays (more than approximately 24 inches) wires rather than ITO seem to be needed.

that patent mentions the ability to support “ten fingers. As this technology finds itself in more as well as higherend displays. but are also visible and really only appropriate for displays that are used intermittently. 2. whether or not this can be implemented in the real world is as much a matter of operating system and controller capabilities and application design as it is of the sensor system. PET can be substituted for glass in some cases. As we discuss in more depth in the concluding chapter of this report. The Apple patent covering the iPhone seems to have more ambitious things in mind than the offerings of the current phone. However. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. In particular. The advantage of PET is that it is less expensive and more flexible than glass. As with other touch screens. An example of recent innovations in this area is Mitsubishi’s display with increased sensitivity.4 Expected Improvements in Manufacturing and Materials for Projected Capacitive Touch Screens There are already a number of different variations on the materials that are used to construct projected capacitive displays. mention of this in a patent should not be seen as a proof that Apple plans to actually implement this level of capability. Of course. In addition to the usual alternative TCOs. But PET is less suitable for outdoor applications. we would expect prices to drop dramatically in this sector as more firms enter the sector and the technology matures. as we have already noted. NanoMarkets. In addition.7. 2. in particular smart phones. there are also projected capacitive touch screens that use wires instead of ITO strips. As we have already noted. the finger can activate the display while hovering above it.3 Future Development and Potential for Projected Capacitive Touch-Screen Technologies Page | 51 NanoMarkets expects outdoor readability to be one of the major areas of development for projected capacitive touch screens.7. wire-based projected capacitive displays are appropriate for larger screens.net 2. The other area in which projected capacitive displays can vary materials is in substituting away from the ITO option. its lack of readability in the sun will become more obvious and increasingly a barrier to its use. PET enables the creation of curved displays. two palms and three other” touch objects.7. Such wires are durable.nanomarkets. this technology is “big” enough to invite new variations from suppliers looking for a unique product or meeting the needs of specific markets. This functionality is achieved by sacrificing some of the resolution achievable with more conventional projected capacitive displays.2 Multi-Touch Capabilities Projected capacitive technology is theoretically capable of unlimited multi-touch technology.

This way of doing things has been adopted by Zytronic. These include a high degree of durability and optical performance as well as stable calibration and substrate independence. there are a number of options here including ITO on two pieces of glass. but with touch becoming increasingly ubiquitous. some newer Asian firms are entering the market with low-cost versions of this technology. This approach has been implemented by TPK. which uses wires.nanomarkets. there are more mature multi-touch technologies. On the supply side. Another approach that uses PET is a hybrid approach in which PET and glass are deployed together. it is really the only practical solution for most “glass-free” applications. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. there are plenty of other technologies that can meet this need and no one expects this technology to take off any time soon. However. a similar ITO-based approach is possible. However. IRTouch.net PET displays: A few companies have designed projected capacitive touch-screen displays that use two sheets of PET. one of the most obvious things about infrared touch-screen technology is that it is possible to build very large displays using this approach. SMK. there is also growing interest in it. Of course. thereby replacing glass entirely with PET. namely infrared and SAW. Although there are some obvious limitations of this technology (see below). that might prove to be a major advantage for this technology. with most of it coming from larger displays. From a market perspective. Again.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Glass displays: Glass-based wire displays have also been adopted by Zytronic. but ITO-based glass displays are more common. On the demand side. Visual Planet uses wires and Touch International uses ITO. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . It is one of the few touch-screen technologies that could NanoMarkets. 2. Both have generated revenues for quite some time. due to the technology’s impressive positive attributes. up to 150 inches according to one source. As far as the latter is concerned. technically interesting option is two layers of ITO on one piece of glass but separated by a dielectric layer. Controllers are mostly proprietary. Minato and Nexio. and ITO on both sides of a sheet of glass. One final. Both Visual Planet and Touch International have introduced displays of this kind. the market for 150-inch displays of any kind is rather limited. Infrared touch-screen technology is used mainly in larger displays and is supplied by about a dozen firms including Elo. IR’s ability to support very large displays makes it an attractive technology to suit the needs of digital signage—a rapidly growing application area.8 Infrared Technology Touch Screens Page | 52 While multi-touch displays using projected capacitive technology have taken the world by storm.

In addition. This is of importance in terms of the elegance of the product. the controller pulses the LEDs to create the grid of infrared light beams. The other limitations on infrared touch-screen displays are that they tend to be quite expensive and have a fairly low resolution. Limitations and Applications Current technology: The basic idea of a traditional infrared touch screen is to create an infrared light grid with arrays of LEDs and the appropriate detectors. Some OEMs—notably Apple—insist that any touch-screen technology that they utilize must enable a completely flat display. What this technology does share with security sensors. 2. starting in the 6-to-10-inch range. One important limitation is that it is arguably the worst technology for creating a flat display. but also because the technology is also susceptible to early activation before the finger or stylus has actually touched the surface. Limitations: Apart from the bezel issue. POS terminals and digital signage. In addition. because the seating of the touch frame is slightly above the screen.8. there is one example of a cell phone that uses this technology. sunlight can be an important limiting factor in certain environments and certain applications. This technology is primarily used for larger displays. while allowing the infrared light to pass through. Contaminants can also cause false activation on the screen inside the thick border that is required for the frame. but some firms claim that they can NanoMarkets. 2. but obviously for a very different application. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.9 Surface Acoustic Wave Touch Screens (SAW) Page | 53 SAW is the other traditional way of approaching multi-touch. this technology is highly suitable for use in manufacturing and medical applications because it can be completely sealed and therefore isolated from extreme environments. The display bezel in this type of technology is designed to shield the electronics. since the bezel must be designed to be transparent to infrared. In the operation of these displays. This technology is somewhat similar to an array of infrared security sensors. there are several important limitations for the use of infrared touch-screen technology. This is actually a design limitation to some extent.1 Current Technology. Applications: The applications that are usually cited for infrared displays are the obvious ones in kiosks. One or more phototransistors then detect the absence of light and transmit a signal that identifies the x and y coordinates. however.nanomarkets. with the detectors placed directly opposite the LEDs. is that it can be activated by almost any object. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .net be used in the large signage market. But the real driver here is the growth in digital signage. namely the Neonode cell phone.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. although infrared will also be used in point-of-sale and kiosk displays. these surround the face of the display. However.

It is also found in ATMs and amusement park applications. They are very susceptible to contaminants and water damage. SAW touch screens still have some very attractive features. However. They are also very durable and can be protected from vandalism with an additional layer of glass. Although an older technology. SAW touch-screen technology has not generally found its way into mobile electronics. however. These include Elo TouchSystems. This patent has now expired. Applications: The main applications for this technology are kiosks and gaming. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . The contaminants can cause dead spots on the screen. There are perhaps a dozen suppliers of SAW touch screens.9. Limitations and Applications Page | 54 Current technology: In SAW touch screens the measure of touch is through time delay. It is by far the largest supplier with well over half of the market. which emit/receive ultrasonic Rayleigh waves. reluctant to use SAW technology for displays above 36 inches. A horizontal and vertical pair of transmitter/receivers is created on top of the display. They offer high optical performance and can be activated by many types of soft objects. General Touch. in any case. which has allowed Taiwanese and Chinese vendors to enter the market. Leading Touch and Shenzhen KeeTouch. NanoMarkets. based on changes in the ultrasonic wave. 2. Limitations: The overall durability of this type of display is counteracted by the fact that SAW touch displays are very difficult to seal. resulting in significant price pressures. This makes them unsuitable for harsh conditions and hence for many industrial and commercial applications. the user’s finger absorbs some of the energy of the acoustic wave and the controller circuitry measures the touch location.net build them up to 52 inches. when the user touches the glass surface.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Fujitsu has built a prototype of a mobile SAW touch screen that utilizes piezo devices that are just two microns thick. However. Clearly. Shenzhen Top-Touch. not just fingers. it became dominant in this part of the touch-screen technology market by virtue of ownership of the key patent in this space. Elo is the firm to watch here. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. positioned along the edges of the display. Controllers are mostly proprietary.1 Current Technology. Each wave then is spread across the screen by bouncing off reflector arrays. requiring periodic cleaning of the sensor and sometimes recalibration. the market for 52-inch touch screens is rather limited and some participants in this part of the display market are. Two receivers detect the waves.nanomarkets.

Suppliers in this space include NextWindow.10 Optical Touch Screens Page | 55 Not surprisingly.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. The other technologies follow the established business model of having the sensor maker act as the technology integrator.2 Expected Improvements in Manufacturing and Materials for SAW Technologies Because of the challenges that SAW touch screens face in terms of contamination. Xiroku and eIT. Quanta Computer and Pixart Imaging announced that Quanta would delegate optical touch IC designs to Pixart to be used in all-in-one PCs and notebook products supporting Windows 7. which makes it a good technology for digital signage. most of the newer touch-screen technologies offer multi-touch. As already noted. Meanwhile. with touch-screen technology. It also provides excellent optical properties and sensitivity. one of these—LCD-in-pixel—is designed to allow mainstream display makers the option to incorporate touch directly into their displays. apparently the major supplier. Pixart Imaging also licensed Smart Technologies’ DViT (Digital Vision Touch) technology. NanoMarkets. can become interactive devices. Optical touch-screen technologies are already commercialized and are deployed exclusively for larger displays. NextWindow was the first optical touch-screen manufacturer to announce the certification from Microsoft. The approaches being suggested are fairly obvious and conventional ones and include the usual dust proofing and surface treatments. However. Among the attractions of this technology apart from its scalability are its superior drag performance and the fact that it can be made “aware” of object size. Lumio. as well as some educational applications. despite the possible future focus of this technology on very large displays.nanomarkets. 2. much attention is being paid to how these factors can be improved upon. the first use of optical touch in a consumer product came about three years ago with the introduction of the HP TouchSmart and the somewhat later introduction of the Dell Studio One. This should be seen as a vote for the credibility of this technology. which. this is a very scalable technology and can be used in displays up to 120 inches. Smart Technologies filed a patent infringement lawsuit against NextWindow in early 2009. Shipping in smaller quantities are Quanta. as well as Smart Technologies. one of the main applications for this technology at the present time is to be found in consumer monitors and AiO systems. In late 2008. users can operate the display with any kind of input device and with a very light touch.9.net 2. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .

it is easy to build in the lab. In part this is the reason why optical vision touch screen is being used by a lot of firms that are doing R&D in multi-touch. Typical applications include digital signage. Microsoft said it had 120 partners in 11 countries that are developing NanoMarkets. which means to some extent that it can build on existing technology and components. it uses two imaging sensors and two infrared LEDs on the top two corners. This technology is highly sensitive to contaminants. It is also being used by military for tactical overviews. which is obviously a vote in its favor. 2. The relatively small number of components that are used in this kind of display contributes to the cost effectiveness of this technology and this advantage scales with panel size.11.) In early 2009. good enough for most applications. although the Microsoft version (as discussed below) offers up to 52 touches. which may help to promote its use in the future. This may have longer-term implications in that software and applications are being developed for this technology. The technology itself is a combination of touch screen and rear screen projector with the touch points indicated either by FTIR (Fourier transform IR) or by reflected IR. the more cost effective it is.nanomarkets. typically these displays are well over 30 inches and have glass or acrylic substrates. GestureTek and Nortd (a developer kit). The first users for the Microsoft Surface product are restaurants. only fingers may be used. retail and public entertainment venues. hotels. However. very few of the other suppliers of touch-screen technology have the marketing clout of Microsoft.1 Microsoft Surface The Microsoft Surface product is important to consider. are used as the infrastructure for the sensing system.net 2. the larger the panel. Vision-based optical is already beginning to generate some revenues. There are limitations to the touch objects that can be used.10. if only because Microsoft is the vendor. 2. large retail applications and interactive video walls. along with a projector. For the Microsoft Surface product an IRreflective object must be used. which is. (The only real exceptions are the large LCD display makers that are only now becoming directly involved with touch-screen via their involvement with in-pixel technology.11 Vision-Based Optical Page | 56 Vision-based optical is supported by Microsoft (under the name Microsoft Surface). In other versions. along with a series of photoreflectors.1 Current Technology and Limitations Optical touch-screen technology is very similar to the infrared technology described earlier. This technology offers unlimited multi-touch. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . with all of these revenues coming from large displays.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. The overall technology is very similar to machine vision. IR light sources and cameras. Other supporters of the technology include Perceptive Pixel. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. of course.

coverage. Applications: Microsoft Surface is more than just a touch-screen technology. Starwood Hotels is using the system in an application that allows users to drop a credit card on the table to pay for music. which is software. The IR light sources for Microsoft Surface are 850-nanometer-wavelength LEDs aimed at the surface. and object recognition. books. is a software and hardware package that allows multiple users to manipulate digital content using gestures with either their hands or objects. The Surface display is set into a table-like structure. the light is reflected to the infrared cameras with a net resolution of 1024 x 768. Technology: Microsoft Surface. Surface applications are written using either Windows Presentation Foundation or Microsoft XNA technology. It is a complete imaging manipulation system that uses touch as the tool to carry out this manipulation. and 42” wide. allowing it to sense and react to items touching the tabletop.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. This is a “picture” of water with leaves and rocks within it. and other amenities offered at the resort. 21” deep. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 57 . and phone features. use of Surface includes interactive presentations of plans. viewing maps. This technology is a premium technology and is intended for use in large “premium” applications such as video walls. playing games. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. and plans. In one demo that has been widely reported on. multi-touch contact. which is 22” high. the demonstrator drew a smiley face with his finger and then used all of his 10 fingers to give the face a full head of hair. It has a 30-inch reflective surface with a XGA DLP projector underneath the surface. not hardware. By touching the screen. digital signage and high-end signage applications. in addition to the ability to drop two different phones on the table and having the customer able to view and compare prices. and interacting with other people. ordering drinks. A unique feature that comes preinstalled with Surface is the pond effect “Attract” application. Microsoft notes four main components being important in Surface’s interface: direct interaction. which was first announced in 2007. while four cameras record reflections of infrared light from touch objects on the surface. The touch NanoMarkets. The software for the products runs on a custom version of Windows Vista and has Ethernet. WiFi and Bluetooth connectivity. The performance of this system is very sophisticated compared with any of the other systems that we review here and this reflects Microsoft’s real strategic interest in this touch screen. The projector projects an image onto its underside. Other applications for which this system has been deployed include watching videos.nanomarkets. In AT&T stores. a multi-user experience.net applications for Surface's interface. one can create ripples in the water just like you were putting your hand into a real stream. When an object touches the tabletop. features.

there are already many suppliers active in this space. stable calibration and optical performance. while SiMa Systems and J-Touch market a technology that combines analog and digital resistive approaches. However. This technology was originally designed with opaque touch in mind. virtual concierge. music.S. Limitations and Applications Technology: Digital resistive technology has many of the same features as analog resistive. It can be constructed with the same combinations of PET and glass that are used for analog NanoMarkets. The primary advantages of digital resistive technology are its good power consumption and its high level of multi-touch functionality (which is unlimited in theory). the expectation is that prices for this system will drop considerably—and that low-cost consumer units will appear—in 2010. Because this technology is established in the opaque touch world. including photos. 2. this technology has yet to generate any huge revenues. These displays are also adequate in regard to most of the other performance characteristics.500 to $15. More recently it has been developed for use in touch-display panels.net can alter the size of the ripple created. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. 2. Suppliers include Stantum. It was also used by the MSNBC cable channel during its coverage of the 2008 U. in part because multi-touch controllers are hard to come by for this technology. However.12 Digital Resistive Page | 58 This is a simple technology that competes directly on cost with projected capacitive technology. AD Semi. presidential election and in a number of other high-profile locations and applications. and tends to offer low resolution. and Wintek. poor optical performance and poor durability. One commercial example of this technology is in the JazzMutant Music Controller.1 Current Technology. Product Evolution: Microsoft Surface was officially launched in 2008 when it became available for use by customers in AT&T stores. although single-touch controllers are plentiful. Most digital resistive technology uses a technology based on a simple digital switch.nanomarkets. more specifically for simple control panels. In general this technology can be used to build systems up to about 20 inches or so. Surface currently ships with basic applications. However. as they would in real life. it is more expensive than analog resistive technology. The price of Microsoft Surface is between $12. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. such as those used on thermostats. although a few newer designs combine analog and digital designs in various ways.000 depending on the software offered with it. and games.12. although there are questions over its durability. that can be customized for the customers. and objects placed into the water create a barrier that ripples bounce off of.

However. It is a relatively new product that was first announced in 2007.net resistive technology. However.nanomarkets.13 Waveguide Infrared—RPO Page | 59 Waveguide-infrared technology is again associated with one supplier. Arguably the most important difference between analog and digital resistive technology is that digital resistive has multi-touch capabilities. A more sophisticated version of the digital resistive display is all-points addressable and is intended to compete directly with projected capacitive technology on cost. in this variation on the IR theme. higher resolution and better power consumption. digital resistive technology should not be seen as an absolute improvement over the analog resistive technology. it provides limited multi-touch and isn’t as scalable as many of the other display technologies listed here. Digital resistive technology is also less scalable than analog resistive technology.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. there is also an opportunity for this technology in simple touch controllers. although the newer hybrid analog/digital version of this technology alleviates this problem. However. The most important downsides to the digital version of resistive touch-screen technology are poor durability when a PET cover or substrate sheet is used and low-resolution. the light source is coupled NanoMarkets. RPO. There are several types of digital resistive technology. but is sufficiently different to possibly be considered a technology on its own. although its performance and screen size have improved since then. much like traditional infrared. However. One simple version is based on a segmented panel and these are likely to be used in industrial applications such as control applications in a manner similar to the way this technology is deployed in an opaque environment. not surprisingly it is more expensive than analog resistive technology. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . for example. the disadvantages of this technology are the same as those for analog resistive technology. Other advantages over traditional IR are that it has a very low profile height. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Applications: As mentioned above. for the most part. Limitations: Again. the suppliers of this type of technology see a strong market by positioning themselves as a low-cost alternative to projective capacitive technology for mobile and other consumer devices including AiO systems. while analog resistive technology does not. it is much lower cost than traditional IR. 2. Waveguide infrared uses a free-space optical grid for detection of the touch object. digital resistive touch screens have a lower resolution than analog resistive screens. Waveguide IR is similar to traditional IR in a number of ways and might be considered a variation on the older IR technology. However. In particular. For example.

However. potential customers who are attracted by the general infrared story will view this technology as the best in its class. Not surprisingly. We expect to see products using this technology in the marketplace in 2010 if they are not there already. the mobile display industry is very much in a state of flux at the present time and waveguide IR can benefit from that too. They also provide stable calibration and substrate independence. there are also receive-side waveguides that take the light to an ASIC light detector. this technology is scalable up to 14 inches or so. In addition. there are three kinds of LCD-in-pixel technologies.net into a waveguide that takes the light to a grid in the display. many of these technologies have proved both costly and bad on power consumption. i. they have high optical performance and (because they are integrated in the LCD display itself) are capable of delivering a very flat surfaced screen..NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.14 LCD-Based Touch-in-Pixel Page | 60 This technology. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . NanoMarkets.5-inch display. because it is intended to enable not just a new—and perhaps better—way of constructing touch-screen displays. controllers are proprietary. is different from the others discussed in this report. as discussed below. although they have similar characteristics. the real hope for this product is as a superior form of infrared. In particular. RPO’s actual product is a 3. also referred to as LCD-in-cell. Conversely. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. but also to allow the mainstream LCD display makers to enter this market. but according to sources.nanomarkets. 2. since there is only one supplier. however. This type of technology is only just beginning to emerge and.e. The first markets being targeted are mobile devices and automotive. The three types of LCD-in-pixel technologies are portrayed in Exhibit 2-2. So far.

NanoMarkets Technology Optical Description Each pixel contains a photonic device thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. because to add true in-pixel technology involves creating a new mask at costs that can be well over a million dollars using current masking technologies. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .nanomarkets.and y. Both AUO and LG Displays have gone down this road.net Exhibit 2-2 Touch-in-Pixel Technologies Advantages Works with a wide range of objects and the technology can also be used as a scanner Disadvantages In low light the display may fail to indicate touch from a dark object. AUO has also combined capacitive and switch sensing. Considerable processing power is need to process the image and the touch sensor tends to be slow compared with other technologies Users have to touch the surface of the display.axis Each pixel contains a capacitive subsystem that operates much like projected capacitive technology Works with finger or stylus The touch-screen technologies listed in this Exhibit are not necessarily mutually exclusive. All of these technologies are currently being deployed in small-to-medium displays. Works with finger only Page | 61 Switches Capacitive Each pixel contains a micro-switch for both the x. Instead. the capacitive version of in-pixel displays exhibits all the disadvantages that we have already described for capacitive systems. NanoMarkets. they also have some important differences. Another approach is essentially to use fairly standard capacitive or analog resistive technology and laminate directly onto the LCD display. some display manufacturers are not willing to go to such a radical rethinking of display design and manufacture. Taking a more modest approach such as this obviously reduces the number of manufacturing challenges. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. which is a serious disadvantage in terms of durability. micro-switches or electrodes are actually positioned in the pixel. The reader should also note that true in-pixel technologies are exactly that. which can reduce lifetimes All the standard issues found with projected capacitive technology. CMO is doing this. One way that they have adopted this second approach is to utilize capacitive technology deployed on the top or bottom of the color filter. In addition. But it also reduces costs. while switch-based and capacitive in-pixel technologies cannot use a cover glass. the photocells. they are adopting an approach that from a purely manufacturing perspective points them closer to what the touch display sensor maker has done in its role as system integrator. However. Although the technologies being considered for use by LCD display makers have some similarities. but one of the technologies—optical—is in principle highly scalable. for example.

which was released recently in Japan. but has no OEM customers yet for this display product. This is obviously a major problem. LG Philips has been developing this technology for automotive touch screens and researchers at Planar and AUO have issued a joint paper on this topic. since most end users will not likely give up the accepted level of performance of a touchpad for an input device that is “cool” but ineffective and inefficient. in other words. One persistent problem is that dark touch objects do not work well in low light. LG Displays and E Ink have developed an e-reader concept product with touch control.nanomarkets. AUO is working on displays up to 40 inches that use this technology. Apart from automotive displays. especially for notebooks and e-book readers. CPT. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .. A similar approach was taken by Planar.e. Sharp has developed it in product form and AUO is supposedly in mass production with a product. other suppliers include CMO. Another problem with optical in-pixel technology is that there seems to be a need to add a cover glass to protect the LCD and prolong its lifetime. This technology has been used mainly in smaller displays to date. Suppliers and product evolution: Optical in-pixel was launched by TMD five or six years ago. which is a fairly impressive list.net 2. it depends on whether the display is in bright light or dim light and the display can switch automatically between the two modes. The poster boy for this type of technology is Sharp’s PC-NJ70A netbook computer. photocell approach) is fairly simple in conception. The idea seems to be catching on to some extent. a substitute for the usual touch pad.14. LG Displays. except that the IR was deployed as edge lighting. This uses one sensor for every nine pixels and is said to be very slow. but it is not yet clear when the TMD version will be fully commercialized. Samsung. and Sony. The photocells in the pixels can sense either a shadow of the touch object or the reflection of the LCD backlight on that object. Challenges: Slowness is just one of the problems with this technology that will need to be overcome to make this technology broadly viable. the main focus for this technology at the present time seems to be for smaller mobile displays. as have SiPix and AUO. since it is essentially a fairly sophisticated image processing technology.1 Optical Technologies The optical (i. Adding the glass reduces the sensitivity Page | 62 NanoMarkets. but there is really no good reason why it should not be utilized in any size LCD display. reportedly. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. but rather as a touch control for the whole system. Significant processing power is required for this technology compared with other approaches. the touch functionality is being deployed not in the main display.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. This problem can be diminished to some extent by adding IR sources to the backlighting and this is what Sharp has done with its netbook mentioned above. In its current state.

which means that the LCD display is unlikely to have a long life. The target applications for these displays are all the NanoMarkets. In addition. however. this opens up the possibility of integrating the touch controller into the LCD display driver. in a manner similar to specialist touch sensing subsystem manufacturers. In fact. CMO. the touch object presses on the LCD surface and activates a micro-switch that is deployed in each pixel. 2. Firms that have been attracted to this technology include AUO. according to AUO. have capacitive sensors made from ITO and actually positioned in the LCD display. these firms expect to integrate this technology at the LCD fab itself. either the surface is damaged or the ITO cracks.14. this technology is completely independent of light conditions. And as we have already indicated. Typically. Another disadvantage with this kind of technology is that no cover glass can ever be used.2 Switched-Based Technologies Page | 63 In the switch-based technology. or at the color filter factory for the AUO/Cando product. mostly less than 24 inches and AUO has shown a demo of 12 inches and 15 inches displays using this technology. including the back and edge lights. which has received support from AUO and Samsung. there are claims that it requires a simpler controller than any of the other in-pixel technologies described here. CPT and LG Displays. or as a separate sensing subsystem.3 Capacitive-Based Technologies Many of the comments made earlier in this chapter with regard to capacitive sensing also apply to in-pixel capacitive sensing. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. The applications for this technology are small-tomedium displays. But these approaches add costs or (what is the same thing) reduce yields. Reportedly. A Swedish company Integritouch has a technology that uses the existing LCD electrodes instead of ITO for capacitive sensing. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . And unlike the optical technology we just described. The technology is otherwise very similar to projected capacitive technology. This results in an accurate display with low parallax error. it is possible to build a display up to 26 inches using this technology. cost seems to be a major issue with this technology. True in-pixel capacitive displays. although this can be ameliorated by using an optical bonding approach to manufacturing or improved polarizers.14. a switch-based touch-screen display will survive about one-tenth as many touches as an analog resistive display.nanomarkets.net of the screen. There are some limitations on the use of switch-based technologies in terms of size of touch displays manufactured using this technology because of the need to incorporate connecting traces for the sensors. 2. in the LCD cell. but as a practical matter the real target for this technology at the present time is small mobile displays.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. even without such adaptations. this technology can be deployed by the display maker on the color filter LCD cell.

Nonetheless.1 Touchco Touchco was founded in April 2009 to commercialize IFSR (Interpolating Force-Sensitive Resistance) technology developed at New York University’s Media Research Lab. netbooks and notebooks. It holds an exclusive license from NYU granting the right to market and produce the technology in all sectors. not with a stylus. this version works only with fingers. once again.” It has also said that its system can detect any object and “can determine how much pressure is being applied to every point on a sensor simultaneously. many of the new touch-screen technologies have been motivated by the need to develop protectable IP as much as anything else. it seems likely that. Touchco claims that its sensor system uses less power than capacitive sensors and is less expensive to produce. most of them are shared with other touch-screen technologies. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . 2.” The company is funded by Sunstone Capital and Fårö Capital.15. NanoMarkets.15. the technology also has a number of important disadvantages. mostly mobile phones. while at the same time.2 FlatFrog FlatFrog is a Danish company with a proprietary multi-touch display technology. Although this technology has some pluses. it does not work well with a cover glass. As with other capacitive technologies. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. we have included two brief profiles of firms that are selling touch-screen technology that doesn’t (quite) fit any of the technologies discussed above.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. and firms are encouraged in this search by the fact that the use of touch-screen technology is expanding rapidly.15 Other Touch-Screen Technologies Page | 64 New touch-screen technologies are appearing all the time and there is really no reason to suppose that this proliferation of the past few years is anywhere near its end. As an illustration of this.net usual ones. But perhaps the most important limitation on this technology is that.” In addition. The company describes this technology as providing “in-glass multi-touch performance for large and flat displays. 2. most of the touch-screen technologies that appear from here on out are going to look increasingly like one of the touch-screen technologies that we have already discussed. with the exception of a few genuine innovations. The company claims that its multi-touch-capable IFSR sensor technology “revolutionizes the field of multi-touch human-computer interaction by out-performing existing solutions in both price and capabilities. It might also be applied to monitors and AiO systems as well. After all. 2.

There is really not much to say about opaque touch. which allows the system to be completely flush with the surroundings. this is being used to simulate the feel of a real keyboard when the on-screen keyboard is touched. 2.1-mm movements in the screen itself. its support of multi-touch in Windows 7) suggest that ultimately the touch market is bigger than touch screens. the Microsoft Surface product (which is described in some detail earlier in this report) and even the involvement of Microsoft itself in touch technology (including. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . However. notebooks and netbooks.nanomarkets. A good example here is recent work carried out by Nokia researchers. But haptics is beginning to have a more direct impact on touch screens. its system “can fit any existing active and passive display technologies. One aspect of touch technology that has some bearing on touch-screen technology is “haptics” or force feedback. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. FlatFrog’s first product to market will be a 40-inch screen. We have seen this in effect in a marginal way. This is most obvious in the opaque touch panels that are ubiquitous on laptops. who have developed a touch screen that uses real feedback. The company says that its technology can support up to 20plus touches as well as object size recognition and a natural gesture input experience. Some of the controller manufacturers in the opaque touch market have certainly moved into touch-screen controllers. It uses a waveguide solution at the optical level and also embodies an embedded system processor with DSP support for a compact solution.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. which is a mature two-layered projected capacitive technology. involvement in the opaque touch market does provide experience that could be useful in the projected capacitive (and perhaps other) touch-screen markets. The technology uses two piezo sensor pads under the screen that respond to 0. it is hard to ignore the fact that the interest in touch-screen technologies is part of a much larger movement toward using touch to control computer systems. According to FlatFrog. While this NanoMarkets. That there is a lot more to touch than the simple displays on which this report is primarily focused is obvious from the sophistication of the gesturing capability that is already creeping into even garden variety touch-screens. other advantages of its touch-screen technology include the fact that “virtually no bezel is needed. to some extent. According to press reports. in touch sensing.” The technology is also said to cover an impressive range of display sizes—from 5 inches to more than 100-inch screens.net FlatFrog’s multi-touch technology is called Planar Scatter Detection (PSD). with delivery of this product scheduled for Q2 of 2010. In addition.” In addition.” and that it is designed for functioning in “a wide range of ambient light environments. although of course.16 Beyond Touch Screen: The Relationship to Haptics and Other Touch Technology Page | 65 This report is focused on the market for touch-screen technologies.

which can improve on display lifetimes. optical requirements depend on applications as well as on the touch technology being deployed. This suggests that it may be quite some time before commercial displays with this kind of capability appear on the market and this pessimistic assessment may well turn out to be correct. there are (at least) three areas where materials issues can change the economics and performance of touch screens. (2) ITO replacement.1 Optical Films and Coatings in Touch Screens There are several ways to improve the optical experience of touch screens. However. should one of the less widely used technologies take off. one lesson from the game controller market that may be of some value for future “haptic display” market is that there is a major trade-off between cost and fidelity to real life touch experience. However. such as IR LEDs. Sunlight readability—especially with resistive touch screens—is an especially important goal in this regard. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.S.net physical arrangement is not hard to come up with.17. Most of the components used in touch screens are also fairly standard. the reader should remember that force feedback is already widely used in video game controllers and that the U.17 Materials and Components for Touch-Screens Page | 66 Unlike some other parts of the display market—flexible displays. it may provide a new market for certain conventional components.0 billion. 2. which can be improved through the use of certain coatings.nanomarkets. and (3) alternative substrates/encapsulation. it has taken time for Nokia to develop the system that feels genuinely like a real keyboard experience. However. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . The three major issues that involve materials are (1) sunlight readability.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. which may reflect on lifetimes. However. Most of us have had the frustrating experience of trying to read a cell phone in bright sunlight and adding additional layers to accommodate the touch functionality does not help in this regard. and e-paper displays being good examples—touch-screen displays are not actually enabled by new materials. 2. One should also consider the possibility that. durability and cost. the main exception being the controllers. Scratches can be important too and in the case of capacitive touch-screen technology can impair the performance. or photo-detectors. The optical component industry has seen similar things happen as optical communications has moved into data center and optical/laser computer mice have become ubiquitous. the low-end applications such as those used in kiosks and POS terminals do not require the same image quality as a smart phone. So “consumer haptics” is a real world technology. For example. NanoMarkets. according to the Consumer Electronics Association. notebook or AiO. market for such controllers is already around $1.

for instance. The iPhone 3G S is coated with an oleophobic coating. including silica and aluminum. anti-reflective and hydrophobic films. a derivative of Teflon with added ether groups to enhance its repellent effects. scratch. The company offers glass coated with anti-glare.and smudge-resistant— required for touch screens depends on the application.net One way to boost sunlight readability is to use “brute force. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. optical films and coatings of various kinds may find an opportunity as the touch-screen market continues to grow. Optical Coatings.” as it were. However. the way forward seems to be with films or coatings. absent some new backlighting technology. some suppliers sell the glass pre-coated with these optical films. and increase the backlighting to 1. produces tempered anti-reflective glass with special coatings for all types of displays and display protection. For example. Optical bonding: We have previously mentioned that some of the touch-screen display manufacturers have made use of optical bonding as part of their manufacturing processes. this does not seem like a very practical approach. Anti-smudge and oleophobic coatings: These coatings are widely used for touch screens. even the latest LED solutions seem unlikely to fit the bill in this regard. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 67 . it can be used to attach a filter or the entire touch sensor to the front of an LCD display. as we discuss below. light-enhancement. to bend and diffuse light to reduce glare. The type of optical coatings— anti-glare. The basis of anti-smudge coatings is usually a compound called perfluoro alkyl ether. Given that the power consumption of backlights is already an issue for mobile phone displays. While the optical coatings used in touch screens can be supplied separately. Here. Anti-reflective (AR) coatings and index matching (IM) films: AR coatings and IM films can be placed on top of the sensor and claim to be capable of cutting the reflectance of the display system by half. an optically matched adhesive is used. oleophobic.nanomarkets. Anti-reflective materials use alternating layers of material.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. hydrophobic. Brightness enhancing films: Brightness enhancing films are one possibility for improving sunlight readability. they are generally limited to doubling brightness. They are probably the most effective solution to the sunlight readability issue because they improve contrast and these can be combined with polarizers for an even more effective solution. which reduces internal reflections and also ensures that the gap between the main NanoMarkets.000 nits or more. This can be used in a number of ways. but they probably aren’t good enough to make a sufficient difference. for example. Given this. Optical filters and optical bonding are also deployed to add to the visual experience with touch screens. Indeed. They also tend to reduce the viewing angle for the underlying LCD display.

The ClearTek coat also provides antiglare characteristics and enhances the light transmission value to 91. this coating reduces the likelihood of sharp objects scratching the ClearTek hard coat and the ITO conductive coating. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . thus avoiding the attraction of undesirable dust particles. and mobile field sales and service devices. thus preserving the optical quality and extending the life of the touch device. 3Ms light-enhancement films use what the company refers to as “advanced light control films” (ALCF) to provide a “viewer privacy” option for their touch applications. PTS enables touch-screen developers to achieve excellent brightness as well as the “all-in-one substrate” fabrication process.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. self-service kiosks. anti-glare films. Application of a new sheet can then be carried out. 3M’s optical coatings for touch-screens: 3M offers several optical coatings specifically intended for touch-screen displays. optical bonding optimizes the join between the two subsystems to minimize loss and increase the contrast ratio.5 percent. and top-coat and hard-coat films. rugged and harsh applications. manufacturing and warehouse equipment. They also offer protection for product shipping and testing. accumulate debris or fog up. Finally. 3M’s MicroTouch ClearTek hard coat is chemically bonded to the touch screen’s glass substrate to help protect the ITO conductive coating. which lowers manufacturing costs. Fujitsu claims that its protective sheets are suitable for high use. It also makes the surface easier to clean and minimizes contaminants and liquids adhering to the surface. In optical terms. Honeywell Electronics Materials’ coatings: Honeywell’s PTS coating targets capacitive touchscreen technology. even after an extended time. The end user can remove the sheet by hand. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. These include light-enhancement films. Fujitsu’s protector sheets: Fujitsu Components America has developed a self-wetting adhesive protector sheet that reduces surface damage to touch screens in use or during shipping.net display and the subsystem (being glued to it) cannot optically degrade. 3M’s top coat is applied to the glass substrate and fills in the relatively rough surface of the substrate. without leaving any residue or creating static electricity. such as POS terminals. Page | 68 NanoMarkets. Other benefits of optical bonding that may make a difference in the context of touch-screen displays include improved thermal coupling and impact resistance.nanomarkets. also without generating static electricity. According to 3M.

Other TCOs are usually not as conductive as ITO. not all of the touch-screen technologies discussed in this report are quite as demanding of ITO as resistive technologies. But this is always a second preference. Of course. but their attractive feature with regard to their use in resistive touch screens is their inherent flexibility. it is a challenging material in a number of ways. and at the same time the price of ITO has dropped again. So far.net 2. conductive polymers. if only because they are a fraction of the cost of ITO even when ITO prices are low. the problem is the brittleness of ITO. which when subjected to repeated bending tends to degrade and crack. touch screens (which until recently was just about the same thing as saying analog resistive touch screens) seemed like a good place to start their business development. despite a lot of work in the field there have not been huge successes in the field of ITO alternatives. transparent conductors play a very important role in most if not all touch-screen displays.17. It is dominant not only in touch-screen displays but also in all flat-panel displays. Conductive polymers in touch screens: Conductive polymers are weak conductors. which is obviously not desirable in a display. However. Other Transparent Conductors and Touch Screens As even a quick review of the technology descriptions in this chapter will show. This is especially important in the context of analog resistive touch screens since ITO is a poorly performing material for the mechanical demands of resistive touch screens. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . because touch products seemed more in need of an ITO alternative than other products. The high cost of ITO also heightened awareness of ITO’s other drawbacks. because wires are inherently visible. While firms offering these alternatives are interested in getting their products into the broad range of displays. in surface capacitive screens. Alternatives to ITO in touch screens: The three main alternatives to ITO are other transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). The dominant transparent conductor in use today is indium tin oxide (ITO). making the efforts seem less urgent. but they have certainly been used in touch screens. Page | 69 NanoMarkets. especially when it comes to costs and durability. for very large displays especially. which primarily consisted of a tendency to crack after a lot of use. the two types of materials that are being considered most seriously for ITO alternatives in touch displays are conductive polymers and nanomaterials. for example. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.2 ITO.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.000 per kilogram a few years back. the price of ITO and the price of indium are strongly linked and as indium prices rose to near $1. In a few cases. transparent conductors cannot be used because they are not conductive enough and thin wires are used instead. As far as costs are concerned.nanomarkets. and various kinds of nanomaterials. ITO became very expensive causing display makers to look at alternative materials. However.

net which seems to suggest a longer lifetime for them in resistive displays. The company has demonstrated a set of materials and processes that meet the needs of analog resistive touch panels and. The nanomaterials that we are talking about here have some way to go before they reach that stage and it is important to remember that compared with any TCO or polymer their properties are not well understood. consisting of metal nanowires dispersed in solvent. Cambrios entered into a sales and development agreement with Nissha Printing Co. It has a joint development agreement with Touch Panel Laboratories to develop CNT film touch screens for games. although this has not been widely available. Ltd. These materials are—like conductive polymers—inherently flexible and have the potential to be developed into high conductivity materials that would prove significant rivals to current ITO materials. The other firm in the nanocoatings space that is important to us here is Cambrios Technologies Corporation.nanomarkets. which include touch screens. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Although Fujitsu claims sufficient stability in high humidity and ultraviolet exposure. which offers an ITO alternative with its ClearOhm coating material and technology. Unidym is probably the most active in this space. according to one source. Unidym also entered into an agreement with LG Display in May 2009. Starck is also targeting its PEDOT films toward touch screens. both of whom have a strong interest in the touch-screen market for their carbon nanotube (CNT) films. Fujitsu has introduced a resistive touch screen using a polythiophene conductive polymer (the same class of material as PEDOT).C. the company claims a “10-fold longer lifetime compared to touch panels with ITO film” in standard tap and writing tests.. Fujitsu’s claims for the touch screen speak to the potential for ITO alternatives in this market. under which Unidym will develop and sell its CNT products for LGD’s products. Nanomaterials as ITO substitutes: A handful of firms have developed transparent nanocoatings that can be used as ITO replacements. and these firms have targeted the touchscreen market as an opportunity. Two firms in the conductive nanomaterials coating space are Eikos and Unidym. In May 2009. as well as low-cost coating by micro-gravure printing. H. Fujitsu concedes that the conductive polymer depends on an additive and encapsulation to increase its stability and humidity resistance. for the commercialization of Cambrios’ ClearOhm coating material-based products for the touchPage | 70 NanoMarkets. will meet the demands of other touch-panel applications as well.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Within the conductive polymer market. Of these two firms. there have been reports that the polymer electrodes still degrade with heat and light exposure. Agfa claims that its most recent PEDOT:PSS formulations are acceptable in resistive touch screens.

Under the agreement. in terms of transparency. at least as far as transparency is concerned. It also may open a window for cheaper and more efficient methods of ITO deposition that may yield lower transparency at a given conductivity. Resistive touch screens already require at least four layers of ITO: two for the actual touch subsystem in addition to the two layers in the underlying LCD. Page | 71 NanoMarkets. This is because the touch-screen market is not completely focused on display image quality. This may also drive demand for flexible ITO alternatives. and the displays in which it is used are performing well enough and shaking them up with a brand new material is viewed as an unacceptable risk by many display makers. and Nissha has made associated contractual commitments to minimum purchases of these materials from Cambrios. suitable alternative.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Cambrios says that it expects Nissha to introduce touchscreen products based on ClearOhm material and ClearOhm coated films. The future of ITO in touch displays: While all of the potential alternatives to ITO for touchscreens and other displays are to be taken seriously. However. especially if and when the cost of ITO starts going up again. In addition. ITO is still only a few percent of the total bill of materials for most applications.nanomarkets. These additional layers significantly reduce the transparency of the display. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. none of them present major challenges to ITO at the present time. without a practical. may not be as high for these ITO alternatives. at the present time. the companies will collaborate on the development and application of ClearOhm transparent conductive materials and films for use in projective capacitive touch-screen applications. mobile phones and other electronic devices. While ITO prices make users uncomfortable. the potential for inherent flexible displays to be one of the proverbial “next big things” in the display industry means that there will be a greater demand for transparent conductors that are capable of being constantly flexed. And the bar. This essentially lowers the bar for performance of ITO alternatives in resistive touch screens. This is especially true for the resistive touch-screen market.net screen industry. they may in the future. users grit their teeth and hand over their wallets to the ITO makers. relegated to the low end of touch-screen applications while capacitive touch-screens are used in the more high-end applications. including those targeted at notebook computers. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . With the advent of new high-end capacitive touch-screen devices. resistive touch screens as they currently exist appear to be on a path to becoming the “work horse” of the touch-screen market. diminishing image quality. the prospect of redesigning manufacturing processes for a new material is significantly worse. Cambrios’ highest performance projective capacitive ClearOhm products will be exclusive to Nissha for a certain period.

Intrinsically flexible displays (touch or non-touch) do not exist as commercialized products at the present time. Other TCOs can also be a fairly good fit. however.17.net Since capacitive touch screens do not flex. Alternative TCOs may capture sizable portions of the capacitive touch-screen market if they can be applied in a thin enough layer to have transparency similar to that of ITO. They will certainly lag behind flexible OLED displays. However. PET is used. it turns out they are quite hard to manufacture in large quantities. less image quality-sensitive applications. depending on their conductivity and transparency. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Once they do. and there have been some abortive attempts to produce them. 2. Today.3 Substrates and Encapsulation for Touch Screens Page | 72 The opportunity for flexible touch screens: Today’s touch screens are mostly created on a glass substrate in a very conventional way. However.nanomarkets. flexible displays are near enough reality that one can be confident that they will appear in the next few years. we do expect intrinsically flexible touch screens to be commercialized for quite some time. NanoMarkets expects ITO to retain most of the capacitive touch-screen market throughout the forecast period. Flexible substrates certainly present an opportunity for the future. ITO is much better suited to this technology than it is to resistive touch screens. At some point in the future there may be flexible capacitive touch screens. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. In a few cases. but NanoMarkets believes such touch screens are a long way off. The best that can be achieved is curved PET substrates. or if they are used in more cost-sensitive. it will not be long before touch-screen flexible displays become a major effort by the display industry. and the touch screen display is either applied directly to glass or to a plastic film firmly attached to the glass of the NanoMarkets. There is also the possibility of optical in-pixel displays operating on a flexible substrate. the bottom conductive layer of a touch screen is rigid.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. While conductive polymers may be suitable for capacitive touch screens (3M mentions this in one of its patents). a drawback since image quality is emphasized in capacitive touch screens. which are found sometimes in projected capacitive displays. they (PEDOT as well as CNTs) lose much of their appeal in capacitive touch screens since flexibility is not required. Some of the TCOs are better than ITO in their ability to create thinner uniform layers. they are all less transparent than ITO. Such displays are being considered at the present time. which are themselves still a ways off. However. but have yet to be commercialized. with most of the gains in market share going to other TCOs. and there are some related patents. suggesting a day when flexible touch screens will be a reality.

DuPont Teijin Films (DTF) also has UV-stabilized versions of PET. a goal that is reasonably well achieved by some of the touch-screen technologies today and probably best by the force sensing technology. However. The largest supplier of glass to the display industry worldwide is Corning. At the thicknesses used for substrates. so it does not inhibit the transmission of sunlight. the ideal for touch screens is to achieve a high degree of substrate independence. and planarized versions that provide a smoother surface. Thin glass foil material is available. Glass: Glass holds a number of advantages for the fabrication of touch-screen devices. dimensional stability. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . which can be used on architectural surfaces. It has good stiffness. glass is fragile and heavy compared with plastic alternatives. not all touch screens are easy to seal.nanomarkets. an aluminosilicate thin sheet glass that is chemically tempered with an ion-exchange process.6 to 500 μm. and is fairly inexpensive. and the capability to go lower in thickness. and it generally is used in batch processing mode. In addition. The top layer. In some cases— for example. SAW. “when damaged. For the touch-screen market. including transparent conducting oxides such as ITO. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. It is a relatively robust material. and can be supplied with a variety of coatings. This can include heat stabilized films that have improved performance. PET films are readily available in thicknesses ranging from 0. Corning offers its Gorilla glass. analog resistive and surface capacitive—ruggedized substrates are also a possibility. is either glass or a flexible material such as PET. (Encapsulation has been one of the major problems for creating commercialized flexible electronics of all kinds. It is optically clear. Corning claims that.) One only needs to provide an adequate seal between two plates of glass to get a suitably encapsulated device. it is impervious to oxygen and water vapor so it serves as its own encapsulation barrier. optical and certain in-pixel displays are notorious in this regard. which has been highly successful in this area.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. On the downside. although this is used only with traditional infrared touch technology and with vision-based optical touch technology. and optical transparency.0 mm. but is not widely used in R2R processing. which results in a cleaner surface with better resistance to chemical or scratch damage. Special versions of PET films are available from various suppliers. It is formed using Corning’s proprietary fusion draw process with a thickness of 0.5–2. if there is one. Page | 73 NanoMarkets.net underlying display.” PET: Polyester terephthalate (PET) is a semi-crystalline material that is biaxially oriented. One other possibility is acrylic. Gorilla glass retains its strength better than soda lime.

and infrared. such as polycarbonate (GE’s Lexan) and polyethersulfone (Sumitomo Bakelite’s Sumilite). The current environment raises some interesting questions about the requirements for multi-touch in the context of today’s marketplace.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Some of the amorphous films also can absorb more moisture. Most of the discussion of flexible electronics is in the context of plastic substrates. While multi-touch is not new and dates back to the 1980s. The conventional answer to plastic’s porosity is encapsulation. This is a mature technology and until the iPhone and other smart phones started to adopt multi-touch capacitive technology it was the touch-screen technology that most consumers had to deal with in kiosks.18 Key Points Made in this Chapter Page | 74 There are more than a dozen touch-screen technologies that have been commercialized or are near to commercialization. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. etc.” as analog resistive is the dominant technology and it does not support multi-touch. These have Tg specifications of about 150°C and 220°C respectively. o Is multi-touch a must have? The immediate answer is “no. The other three established touch-screen technologies are surface capacitive. 2. Notably.nanomarkets. with analog resistive technology accounting for around two-thirds of the market.net Other plastics that could be used instead of PET include amorphous materials (as opposed to the semi-crystalline structure of PET). ATMs. Another problem area for plastic is heat. the attempt to establish multitouch as a widespread capability of displays is fairly new and knowledge of the history of the technology does not really give an understanding of the market today. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Finally. which make them less attractive for some production processes. surface acoustic wave. This is a relatively new technology. there is the special case of projective capacitive technology. The major hindrance to the advent of flexible FPDs has been the permeability of plastic substrates to oxygen and moisture. The amorphous polymer films tend to have less resistance to solvents than the semi-crystalline materials. but they are already generating substantial revenues and will presumably continue to do so in the future. which led to degeneration and early death for vintage flexible LCDs. which means that extra effort might be necessary to eliminate any moisture during the fabrication process. a plastic substrate will deform. it is being used in the Apple iPhone. however. and is now widely used for smaller displays. All of these have their pros and cons. Multi-touch displays are those that can recognize two or more touch points. Beyond a certain process temperature. we suspect that multi-touch will take a growing share of the touch-screen market NanoMarkets.

the number-two touch-screen technology in terms of revenue generation— projected capacitive technology—already supports an unlimited number of touches. Then the operating system must itself be able to support multi-touch. marketable design at the applications layer is very important. These include: analog/digital. There seems to be (at least) three ways to do this. With such a large number of touch-screen technologies to cope with. multi-touch capability (whether or not they do. Page | 75 NanoMarkets.nanomarkets. o How many touches need to be supported? There is no clear answer to this question at the present time and different observers of the touch-screen display market all have their own ideas. the other technologies will either reach the productization stage or get close. half of them can point to real world products that show this multi-touch capability in use. Others with this capability are LCD-in-pixel and digital resistive technology. the limitation on the number of touches that can be sensed has more to do with the controller electronics than with the sensing technology. what we can say is that the number of touches will most likely not be limited by the technology. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Finally. In all of these cases.net over the coming decade. as consumers begin to expect it from their touchscreen displays. Of the ten touch-screen technologies that are capable of supporting multi-touch. o What is needed to make multi-touch ubiquitous in the marketplace? It will require a lot more than support by the core sensing technology. First.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. support multi-touch). LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. there needs to be support from the controller/driver electronics and related software. Instead the level of multi-touch will be developed to meet the needs of the marketplace. But. it becomes important to identify ways to classify them. to enable information about the multiple touches to be passed on to the operating system. and stage of development (whether the technologies being categorized are new or mature). During 2010. o Which technologies will have multi-touch capabilities in the future? Projected capacitive and vision-based optical are not the only touch technologies that can support unlimited multi-touch. New technologies are likely to produce more opportunities than older technologies and multi-touch technologies are likely to produce more opportunities than technologies that do not offer multi-touch. or could.

scratches in the coatings can cause dead spots on the screens. it is not good enough to protect the performance of the display sufficiently for mobile phone applications. and cost and/or power consumption is a primary concern. The other touch technology that is both mature and does not offer multi-touch is surface capacitive technology. Aside from this. There is no inherent ability to offer multi-touch and the touch object has to be conductive. touch is measured through changes in voltage. They consist of an insulator (typically glass) coated on one side with a transparent conductive layer. Despite the many positives. surface capacitive technology is losing share of the casino machine sector. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . ITO is fairly brittle and when subjected to repeated bending it tends to degrade and crack over time. The applications for today’s resistive touch-screen technology are those where the degradation of ITO is not a problem. Analog resistive technology is very mature. For this technology. typically ITO. costs could be reduced still farther. whether with a finger or a stylus. so a stylus cannot be used. This is a big deal because this limitation effectively precludes the use of surface capacitive displays from the huge mobile phone market. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Surface capacitive touch-screen displays sense touch through the medium of changes in current. this technology has to be low cost to compete with the growing number of rivals that it faces in the marketplace. Surface capacitive technology is showing all of the signs that it is likely to go into decline. Electrodes around the panel’s edge apply a voltage to the conductive layer. They are subject to calibration drift and therefore require regular recalibration. While the EMI shielding is good enough for stationary applications. through the use of new materials and better production process that perhaps use less material.net Analog resistive touch screens are one of the two technologies that fall into the mature/non-multi-touch category.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. which has been something of a sustaining sector for this Page | 76 NanoMarkets. The major drawback of resistive touch screens is that they tend to wear out after a certain number of touches. given its other limitations. the improvements that are possible in this technology will mostly be in improved durability and optical clarity. It is possible that. which creates capacitance. Finally. On the user side of the equation. there are still plenty of limitations on surface capacitive displays. and as such one can only expect so much in terms of improvement from this kind of technology. which are created when an outer coversheet is touched. While this technology is already much less expensive than any other touch-screen technology.nanomarkets.

Force sensing is very different from any of the other touch-screen technologies discussed in this report. it also uses plain glass with four piezoelectric devices at the corners. It is also claimed that real time processing enables DST to be precisely accurate in varying environments and in larger display sizes. and dragging properties. Because of the real-time analysis of position. in the 30-to-40-inch range. This technology is clearly for larger displays. Elo is claiming many benefits for this technology. Dispersive Signal Technology (DST) has a single source. water and other contaminants on the screen. These include excellent optical qualities. DST doesn’t support multi-touch. stability. Unlike analog resistive technology. The most obvious limitation for this technology is the absence of multi-touch capability. Essentially. On the supply side. One important difference lies in the way touch position is calculated. the pure-glass surface of APR displays is resistant to scratches. However. but less costly than projected-capacitive touch screen. It is alone among the technologies considered here in sensing touch directly. expand and rotate gestures. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. 3M. it remains a serious option for applications that are looking for a technology that is more durable than analog-resistive touch screen. glove. In addition. The primary commercial product currently available that NanoMarkets. that is.net technology. while DST uses real-time analysis. reportedly both multi-touch and touch-and-hold capability is being developed for this technology and will appear over the next year or so. it will have to maintain its cost advantages or improve technologically. this technology works by recognizing the sound created when the glass is touched at a given position. The hope is that these will be sufficient for most application developer’s requirements. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 77 . For surface-capacitive technology to survive. 3M’s DST technology was originally introduced in 2005. there is no mechanism to wear out and the systems can operate even when scratched. Like APR. APR uses look-up tables. Nonetheless. as a force. Acoustic pulse recognition (APR) displays consist of a single piece of glass. but once again. and is likely to be used in digital signage and information displays. bare finger and fingernail activation and is supposedly relatively low cost. with four piezoelectric devices at the corners of the glass. 3M has dominated this technology. APR technology will also support stylus. scroll. durability. the system is said to be highly responsive.nanomarkets. but apparently didn’t work well and was reintroduced in 2007. It is also alone in targeting the niche market for architectural touch displays. but it does support some surrogates such as flick. we see a case where the core patents have expired and other firms—notably Chinese and Taiwanese firms—have begun to move in with the inevitable price erosion.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.

Projected capacitive technology is not prone to cracking that resistive touch screens suffer from nor is it subject to drift. There are already a number of different variations on the materials that are used to construct projected capacitive displays. SMK. As this technology finds itself in more as well as higher-end displays. Finally. at least not in its current form. Such wires are durable. This technology can be used to build quite small displays (5 inches or so) all the way up to displays ten times that size. Infrared touch-screen technology is used mainly in larger displays and is supplied by about a dozen firms including Elo. it has been deployed by both Dell and Apple and this technology also enables both very small (2-inch) and very large (100-inch) displays to be built. The big limitations of this technology are the obvious ones—no multi-touch capabilities and a limited market being targeted. PET can be substituted for glass in some cases. which affects surface capacitive touch screens. The other area in which projected capacitive displays can vary materials is in substituting away from the ITO option. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . it has poor outdoor readability—a limitation that NanoMarkets expects to be one of the major areas of development for projected capacitive touch screens. Projected capacitive touch-screen technology is a new technology. but are also visible and really only appropriate for displays that are used intermittently. high optical quality. Its technical advantages are impressive too. PET enables the creation of curved displays.net uses this technology comes from a start-up firm called Vissumo (a subsidiary of QSI). Minato and Nexio.nanomarkets. and unlimited multi-touch capability. its lack of readability in the sun will become more obvious and increasingly a barrier to its use. Power consumption for this technology is not especially impressive when compared to analog resistive technology. this technology does have its limitations. These include a high level of durability. As with other touch screens. In addition to the usual alternative TCOs.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. It cannot work with a regular stylus and perhaps the most important limitation is that this is a costly technology. In terms of commercial success. there are also projected capacitive touch screens that use wires instead of ITO strips. such as PET. It is unlikely that anyone would want to extend force sensing to other markets. However. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. IRTouch. in particular smart phones. but is by far the most successful multi-touch technology to date. But PET is less suitable for outdoor applications. The advantage of PET is that it is less expensive and more flexible than glass. It can also be deployed on a flexible substrate. It offers a high Page | 78 NanoMarkets.

The other limitations on infrared touch-screen displays are that they tend to be quite expensive and have a fairly low resolution. As far as the latter is concerned. good enough NanoMarkets. It offers unlimited multi-touch. it became dominant in this part of the touch-screen technology market by virtue of ownership of the key patent in this space.net degree of durability and optical performance as well as stable calibration and substrate independence. it is the largest supplier with well over half of the market. which is. which with touch-screen technology can become interactive devices. Vision-based optical is a combination of touch screen and rear screen projector with the touch points indicated either by FTIR (Fourier transform IR) or by reflected IR. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. In addition. but some firms claim that they can build them up to 52 inches. the first use of optical touch in a consumer product came about three years ago with the introduction of the HP TouchSmart and the somewhat later introduction of the Dell Studio One. It uses a display bezel to shield the electronics. Optical touch-screen technologies are already commercialized and are deployed exclusively for larger displays. of course. This technology is primarily used for larger displays. SAW is the other traditional way of approaching multi-touch. resulting in significant price pressures. which makes it a good technology for digital signage.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. However. This patent has now expired. Elo is the firm to watch in this technology. starting in the 6-to-10-inch range. Aside from infrared. as well as some educational applications. this is a very scalable technology and can be used in displays up to 120 inches. which is a design limitation. However. despite the possible future focus of this technology of very large displays.nanomarkets. one of the main applications for this technology at the present time is to be found in consumer monitors and all-in-one (AiO) systems. because the seating of the touch frame is slightly above the screen (this is important because the technology is susceptible to early activation before the finger or stylus has actually touched the surface). They are also very durable and can be protected from vandalism with an additional layer of glass. it is really the only practical solution for most “glass-free” applications. They offer high optical performance and can be activated by many types of soft objects. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 79 . which is obviously a vote in its favor. it is arguably the worst technology for creating a flat display. although the Microsoft version (as discussed below) offers up to 52 touches. This should be seen as a vote for the credibility of this technology. which has allowed Taiwanese and Chinese vendors to enter the market. sunlight can be an important limiting factor in certain environments and certain applications. not just fingers. This technology is supported by Microsoft (under the name Microsoft Surface). Its limitations include the following.

However. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . many of these technologies have proved both costly and bad on power consumption. however. In other versions. There are three kinds of LCD-in-pixel technologies. This technology was originally designed with opaque touch in mind. it is more expensive than analog resistive technology. although single-touch controllers are plentiful. The optical (i. although a few newer designs combine analog and digital designs in various ways. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. This type of technology is only just beginning to emerge. but there is really no good reason why it should not be utilized in any size LCD display. but also to allow the mainstream LCD display makers to enter this market.e. poor optical performance and poor durability. AUO is working on displays up to 40 inches that use this technology. More recently it has been developed for use in touch-display panels. although they have similar characteristics.nanomarkets. For the Microsoft Surface product an IR-reflective object must be used. Significant processing power is required for this technology compared with other approaches. reportedly. One commercial example of this technology is in the JazzMutant Music Controller. Digital resistive is a simple technology that competes directly on cost with projected capacitive technology. because it is intended to enable not just a new way of constructing touch screen displays. this technology has yet to generate any huge revenues in part because multi-touch controllers are hard to come by for this technology.. such as those used on thermostats. They also provide stable calibration and substrate independence.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. it depends on whether the display is in bright light or dim light and the display can switch automatically between the two modes. and tends to offer low resolution. more specifically for simple control panels. since it is essentially a fairly sophisticated image processing technology. photocell approach) to LCD in-cell is fairly simple in conception. There are limitations to the touch objects that can be used. However. they have high optical performance and (because they are integrated in the LCD display itself) are capable of delivering a very flat surfaced screen. Most digital resistive technology uses a technology based on a simple digital switch. In particular. Page | 80 NanoMarkets. only fingers may be used. So far. LCD-in-cell is different from the others discussed in this report.net for most applications. The photocells in the pixels can sense either a shadow of the touch object or the reflection of the LCD backlight on that object. In general this technology can be used to build systems up to about 20 inches or so. This technology has been used mainly in smaller displays to date.

a switch-based touch-screen display will survive about 1/10th as many touches as an analog resistive display. Reportedly. In addition. there are claims that it requires a simpler controller than any of the other in-pixel technologies described here. But perhaps the most important limitation on this technology is that it does not work well with a cover glass. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 81 . including the back and edge lights. and e-paper displays being good examples—touch-screen displays are not actually enabled by new materials. There are some limitations on the use of switch-based technologies in terms of size of touch displays manufactured using this technology because of the need to incorporate connecting traces for the sensors. however. or as a separate sensing subsystem. in the LCD cell. this version works only with fingers. which means that the LCD display is unlikely to have a long life. Sunlight readability can be improved through several types of films.nanomarkets. have capacitive sensors made from ITO and actually positioned in the LCD display. Another disadvantage is that no cover glass can ever be used. (2) ITO replacement. Brightness enhancing films are one possibility. while at the same time.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. not with a stylus. but they probably aren’t good enough to make NanoMarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. However. Although this technology has some pluses. durability and cost. this opens up the possibility of integrating the touch controller into the LCD display driver. The three major issues that involve materials are (1) sunlight readability. either the surface is damaged or the ITO cracks. As with other capacitive technologies. True in-pixel capacitive displays. In-pixel capacitive sensing can be deployed by the display maker on the color filter LCD cell. which may reflect on lifetimes. A Swedish company Integritouch has a technology that uses the existing LCD electrodes instead of ITO for capacitive sensing. the touch object presses on the LCD surface and activates a micro-switch that is deployed in each pixel. The technology is otherwise very similar to projected capacitive technology. And unlike the optical technology. in manner similar to specialist touch sensing subsystem manufacturers. most of them are shared with other touch-screen technologies. which can improve on display lifetimes. the technology also has a number of important disadvantages. this technology is completely independent of light conditions. which can be improved through the use of certain coatings.net In the switch-based LCD in-cell technology. Unlike some other parts of the display market—flexible displays. and (3) alternative substrates/encapsulation. This results in an accurate display with low parallax error. there are (at least) three areas where materials issues can change the economics and performance of touch screens.

and there have been some abortive attempts to produce them. the two types of materials that are being considered most seriously for ITO alternatives in touch displays are conductive polymers and nanomaterials. it is a challenging material in a number of ways. they are generally limited to doubling brightness. So far.000 per kilogram a few years back. Transparent conductors play a very important role in most if not all touch-screen displays. They also tend to reduce the viewing angle for the underlying LCD display. flexible displays are near enough reality that one can be confident that they will appear in the next few years. Anti-reflective (AR) coatings and index matching (IM) films can be placed on top of the sensor and claim to be capable of cutting the reflectance of the display system by half. which primarily consisted of a tendency to crack after a lot of use. making the efforts seem less urgent. Page | 82 NanoMarkets. They are probably the most effective solution to the sunlight readability issue because they improve contrast and these can be combined with polarizers for an even more effective solution. there have not been huge successes in the field of ITO alternatives. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. The price of ITO and the price of indium are strongly linked and as indium prices rose to near $1. it turns out they are quite hard to manufacture in large quantities. conductive polymers.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. but they have certainly been used in touch screens. a derivative of Teflon with added ether groups to enhance its repellent effects. Anti-smudge and oleophobic coatings are widely used for touch screens. The dominant transparent conductor in use today is indium tin oxide (ITO). Other TCOs are usually not as conductive as ITO. It is dominant not only in touch-screen displays but also in all flat panel displays. and at the same time the price of ITO has dropped again. The three main alternatives to ITO are other transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). ITO became very expensive causing display makers to look at alternative materials. despite a lot of work in the field. if only because they are a fraction of the cost of ITO even when ITO prices are low. especially when it comes to costs and durability.nanomarkets. Flexible substrates certainly present an opportunity for the future. However. The basis of anti-smudge coatings is usually a compound called perfluoro alkyl ether. This is especially important in the context of analog resistive touch screens since ITO is a poorly performing material for the mechanical demands of resistive touch-screens. The high cost of ITO also heightened awareness of ITO’s other drawbacks.net sufficient difference. However. However. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . in surface capacitive screens. and various kinds of nanomaterials. Intrinsically flexible displays (touch or non-touch) do not exist as commercialized products at the present time. for example.

Page | 83 NanoMarkets.net Once they do. it will not be long before touch-screen flexible displays become a major effort by the display industry. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .nanomarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.

There were also various attempts in the 1980s to move touch-screen technology out of the kiosk market and into mainstream computing. except in niche applications. is old news. touch-screen displays were being used in computer-assisted learning devices as part of the PLATO project. and displays are typically the largest drain on the battery. easier to use than a keyboard) input devices for decades. They also have required very low power consumption. smart phones and portable games. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. since battery technology has not kept up with the growth in functionality of mobile devices. By 1972. HP had a commercial touch-screen computer—the HP-150—as early as 1983 and Sony had an early infrared touch-screen display based on a CRT. Some proposals such as pen computing and voice input continue to have their advocates. The game industry also has some specialized input devices—joysticks. But then again so are touch-screen displays. All this. From this it was not much of a stretch to use touch-screen technology in ATMs and point-of-sale systems. after kiosks. We also note that there are retarding factors in this market and that attempts to include touch-screen technology in every possible type of electrical and NanoMarkets.1 Current Drivers for Touch-Screen Technology Page | 84 The computer and communications industry has been on a search for more effective (i.e. in which NanoMarkets presents its forecasts for the touch-display market. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .. notably PDAs. The first touchscreen prototypes appeared in the mid-1960s. All this raises the question of why there is so much fuss being made about touch-screen displays at the present time.nanomarkets. In fact. of course. these new mobile applications tended to use a stylus.NanoMarkets Technologies thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. These are reviewed below and are to be considered when reading the next chapter. They then became widely used on public kiosks such as those used in retail and tourist environments. Unlike the kiosk/ATM applications. mostly—but these are unlikely to impact other sectors of the computing/communications industry. Apart from the old-fashioned QWERTY keyboard.net Chapter Three: Market Requirements for Touch-Screen 3. but have never really taken off. the only other input device that has a high penetration of the market is the mouse. the next major surge of touch-screen technology came in the form of smaller consumer devices. However. touch-screen displays have really not caught on with general purpose computing until relatively recently. Why is this technology taking off right now? We see four key drivers for touch-screen technology at the present time.

2 Growing Sophistication of Touch-Screen Technology Page | 85 This factor has been discussed in some depth in the previous chapter. 3.1. Complex electronic systems are also becoming more common as the result of increasing automation in many industries. NanoMarkets. Because of this. LED or fluorescent strips are being replaced by active matrix (AM) LCD displays. simple segmented LCD.1. but as just noted.nanomarkets. compare the simple analog cell phone of (say) 15 years ago with today’s 3G phones. which are proliferating.1 Proliferation of Displays A key driver for touch-screen technology is the obvious but powerful fact that there are a lot more displays around than there used to be. However. therefore. we are now in the “age of the display.1. Multi-touch capability also dates back to the early 1980s. the addressable market for touch-screen technology has grown considerably. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. the point here is that. so it has not been widely used until recently. The cell phone is a good example. Most obviously it can be seen in the rise of multi-touch. As we have suggested earlier in this report. Because multi-touch adds important new capabilities to conventional touch screens. This can be seen in what the Microsoft “Surface” technology is beginning to offer to high-end users.3 Need to Provide Simple Interfaces in a High-Tech Product Environment These supply-side drivers are complemented by a growing need to provide simple interfaces to complex electronic systems. it’s possible that eventually touch-screen technologies without adequate multi-touch capabilities will be confined to low-end products.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.net electronic device are not necessarily fated to succeed. while simple one-touch analog resistive technology has—and will continue to have—many uses. touch-screen technology is now beginning to take on capabilities that go beyond a simple button pushing functionality. Because of these trends. or at the least. 3. it has opened up new markets to touch-screen technology and has inspired new ideas among designers. the dominant touch-screen technology (resistive) does not easily permit multi-touch capabilities. it’s not much of a stretch to envision customers expecting multitouch features as part of the touch-screen experience. adding touch to PCs—a trend that is quite popular at the moment—will not necessarily be successful. In the future.” making it natural to incorporate an input subsystem into the output system—the display itself—thus turning the display into a potent input-output device. The general public has been made especially aware of touch-screen technology by the use of multi-touch in iPhones. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . 3. and the overlap between touchscreen and haptics technology. For example.

NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. again.4 Cost Improvements for Touch-Screen Technology Page | 86 As we discuss in the next chapter. this is the case with simple industrial control applications. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.2.1. but continues apace and is increasingly based on very sophisticated computing systems that must be operated by people with limited skills or education/training. because they provide user-friendly output. a very obvious move is to combine them with touch-technology to turn the display into a complete user-friendly I/O system. One distinct possibility is a “stagflation” scenario. sales staff at a fast food outlet checking out customers. keyboard and mouse systems do not allow a satisfactory. for various macroeconomic reasons. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Of course. which is when the last NanoMarkets.1 Touch-Screen and the Macroeconomic Environment Poor worldwide economic factors certainly played a role in slowing down the touch-screen market in 2009. it seems that simple one-touch displays can do the job required. Displays have a special role to play in this development. in many cases. The underlying computer system is—from the perspective of the person using it—a black box and the real issue is making sure that the I/O subsystems are easy to use.2 Factors Retarding the Touch-Screen Technology Market NanoMarkets also sees three major factors that are—or are likely to—retard the growth of the touch-screen technology market. 3. since many of the economic factors that now exist worldwide are very similar to those in the 1970s. and nurses or paramedics using a sophisticated piece of diagnostic or therapeutic medical equipment. However. This trend may be accelerated by the arrival of in-pixel technology. intuitive. we will continue to see the costs of touch-screen technology absorbed into the products that incorporate it. often. 3. As the cost of including touch-screen technology in products continues to fall and the acceptance of touch-screen increases among consumers.net Automation is an idea that has a long history. 2010 looks as if it will be a much better year than 2009. This reflects increasing production volumes as well as the arrival of low-cost Asian suppliers in the wake of a slew of expired patents. 3. It is far from clear at this point what the economic outlook for 2011 will be. the cost of touch-screen technology is falling fast. However. rapid. or accurate interaction by the user with the display's content. Examples of this include customers using a self-checkout system in a supermarket. However. Therefore. touch-screen technology is not the only way to provide input for emerging automation and control applications. which points to manufacturing efficiencies in the future.nanomarkets.

This certainly delays decisions by OEMs to sample and use this kind of technology. characteristic of a vibrant market. 3. it is also an encouragement for OEMs to put touch-screen displays into every possible device. especially multi-touch capability. it is a very healthy one. This has largely been the result of the arrival on the scene of the iPhone and the Nintendo DS device. some of the technologies are so closely associated with one particular firm that internal problems—financial or management related—will most likely kill off some of the weaker technologies. instead. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . optical performance. Some of these were discussed in the previous chapter. This seems to have occurred to some extent with latest generation of touch-screen PCs. This can produce overreaching. touch screens have now become mainstreamed—or have gone viral according to some people. Here we bring together key performance/design issues that seem particularly likely to shape the touch-screen market as it evolves. but when one counts variations on a theme and emerging technologies. The awareness of the capabilities of touch screens that this brings in its wake is obviously a good thing for the touch-screen industry. both in terms of consumer demand and in terms of investment money for innovation in the industry. NanoMarkets. This kind of creative destruction in the touch technology industry is not in itself a retarding factor. the market for which does not seem to have taken off as fast as some people expected. In any case. it is unlikely that the market will need all of these technologies.2. 3. 3. there are even more. substrate and power consumption.net big period of stagflation occurred.2. On the other hand.2 Over-reaching with the Technology Page | 87 Although people have long been aware of the power of touch technology from its use in kiosks and (more recently) in ATMs. that is including touch-screen displays where consumers do not seem to require them.3 Important Performance Metrics for Touch Screens There are many performance metrics that determine the suitability of a touch-screen technology for a particular application.3 Creative Destruction in the Touch-Technology Industry There are 13 major touch-screen technologies discussed in this report.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. This scenario would not be good for the touch-screen industry. What it does do in the short run is produce some confusion among OEMs about which technology to use. When the current surge of interest in touch-screen technology settles down.

the “Holy Grail” touch screen would be sensitive to any object—a stylus.1 Factors Related to the Touch Device In the current market environment. which is yet another reason why the industry is moving away from analog resistive technology.net 3. Projected capacitive technology can be limiting. there are also ergonomic problems to consider that could favor a dedicated stylus. but no multi-touch capabilities. etc. It has been suggested in the literature that a pointed nail tip might make a good stylus. of course. However. which eventually crack and prevent the touch screen from operating. the analog resistive technology that was all but ubiquitous until very recently provided for a wide range of touch objects.3. Another reason for using a dedicated stylus is that fine motor control is better achieved with a stylus. although we note that there are touch-screen technologies that can provide both respectable multi-touch capabilities and stylus independence.nanomarkets. while the projected capacitive technology offered multi-touch. In public kiosks and ATMs. But. styli would be an open invitation to theft or vandalism. there has been something of a tradeoff between multitouch and stylus independence. there is more accuracy and less smudging of the display surface. less finger pressure is needed. Today. NanoMarkets. Waveguide infrared and digital resistive technologies are examples here. This is not a very satisfactory situation. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. many people are not sufficiently well manicured for this! 3. gloved finger. In any case. which is one reason why a dedicated stylus might be preferable to finger use in some circumstances. from the perspective of stylus independence. because a finger makes a rather broad point of contact with the screen itself. Resistive touch screens—both analog and digital—do not do well on this measure. Specifically.3. On the other hand.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. especially when the device is used in cold weather with the user wearing gloves. but can only be worked with a finger. the problem here is the stress on human fingers when used for more than a few minutes at a time. Specifically. because it touches the screen at a small point. touch-screen displays for which the users— as a practical matter—rely on a separate stylus (as is the case with some smart phones and PDAs) are subject to stylus loss. The basic problem here is that the transparent conductors used in resistive screens (primarily ITO) are typically brittle materials. APR comes as close as any other touch-screen technology in achieving this goal. finger. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .2 Durability and Stability Page | 88 Durability defines the useful lifetime of a touch screen when exposed to a particular environment.

however. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. This. Projected capacitive technology is especially good in this regard and.nanomarkets. Traditional IR technology has been especially poor in providing a flush surface. the high transmissivity of OLEDs makes them more suitable than OLED displays for a touch overlay. The need to frequently calibrate stationary touch displays in ATMs. but this uses a main e-paper display with a touch-panel sub-display for controlling the device.4 Touch Screens and Non-LCD Displays: OLEDs and E-paper The assumption made throughout this report is that the displays into which touch sensors will be integrated will be LCD displays and most sensor providers make this assumption also. almost all of them do better than resistive technology. there is no ridge around the screen. 3. Several of the touch-screen technologies are designed such that the touch sensor display does not come directly in contact with the user or the outside environment. is a problem for resistive technology. A more complex device is the touch version of the Sony e-book reader. of course. which actually incorporates a touch sensor system into the e-paper display. One simple example is the “Nook” e-book reader. inpixel technology is almost by definition a very flat touch-screen technology.. again. One should also remember that the major innovation in displays over the past decade has been “flatness” and this has become an important enough factor that display makers have even tried to incorporate this into CRTs.2. However.3 Flush Surfaces Page | 89 The sensor subsystem in all touch-screen technologies takes up space and in some cases extends above the surface of a display in a manner that some might find unattractive or that would be unacceptable for some market needs. However. Indeed. there are already examples of e-paper/touch combos. Most notably this includes projected capacitive technologies. kiosks. etc. 3. Apple in particular insists that for the technologies that it uses.net There are actually quite a few touch-screen technologies that perform quite well on the durability criterion. NanoMarkets. Another aspect of “durability” is the need for frequent calibration. With regard to the latter. There are also some examples of OLED displays with touch technology built in. could add considerably to maintenance costs. touch technology has been integrated with CRT and other displays and in the future they will have to be integrated with OLED and e-paper displays. most of the other widely used touch technologies offer a respectable performance in this regard. in the past. This can be achieved by sealing the sensor between glass.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.

3-inch AMOLED with a projected capacitive touch screen. Therefore. NanoMarkets. Finally. the addressable market for touch-screen technology has grown considerably. because they provide user-friendly output. o There are a lot more displays around than there used to be. The general public has been made especially aware of touch-screen technology by the use of multi-touch in iPhones. For example. a very obvious move is to combine them with touch-technology to turn the display into a complete user-friendly I/O system. with an AMOLED. Because multi-touch adds important new capabilities to conventional touch screens. or at the least. 3. Because of this. Fraunhofer IPMS has demonstrated a touch-sensitive OLED light that goes on or off with a gesture. There is also a small personal media player (PMP) on the market from Cowen that combines a 3. Sony also has an OLED PMP with a touch screen. Samsung has demonstrated a projected capacitive touch screen. Because of these trends. LED or fluorescent strips are being replaced by active matrix (AM) LCD displays. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. touch-screen technology is now beginning to take on capabilities that go beyond a simple button pushing functionality. o These supply-side drivers are complemented by a growing need to provide simple interfaces to complex electronic systems.5 Key Points Made in this Chapter Page | 90 NanoMarkets sees four key drivers for touch-screen technology at the present time. in Germany. we are now in the “age of the display. which are proliferating. take multi-touch. Displays have a special role to play in this development.net RiTdisplay has demonstrated a small projected capacitive touch screen on a PMOLED display.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. again. it has opened up new markets to touch-screen technology and has inspired new ideas among designers. but. And there are examples of resistive touch technology being combined with OLED as is the case of the OQO mini-notebook PC. o While simple one-touch analog resistive technology has—and will continue to have—many uses. simple segmented LCD.nanomarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . in this case.” making it natural to incorporate an input subsystem into the output system—the display itself—thus turning the display into a potent input-output device.

o The awareness of the capabilities of touch screens could encourage OEMs to put touch-screen displays into every possible device. while the projected capacitive technology offers multi-touch. there has been something of a tradeoff between multi-touch and stylus independence. since many of the economic factors that now exist worldwide are very similar to those in the 1970s. but only works with a finger. One distinct possibility is a “stagflation” scenario.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. There is no “perfect” touch-screen technology and there are always trade-offs to be made. and durability. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . this kind of creative destruction will produce some confusion among OEMs about which technology to use. which include multi-touch capability. Specifically. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. the analog resistive technology provides for a wide range of touch objects. which is when the last big period of stagflation occurred. Trade-offs exist between the different performance factors. In the current market environment. It is far from clear at this point what the economic outlook for 2011 will be. stylus independence. NanoMarkets also sees three major factors that are—or are likely to—retard the growth of the touch-screen technology market. This scenario would not be good for the touchscreen industry. This can produce overreaching. the market for which does not seem to have taken off as fast as some people expected. o More than 13 major touch-screen technologies currently exist. From Page | 91 NanoMarkets. 2010 looks as if it will be a much better year than 2009. However.net o The cost of touch-screen technology is falling fast. This reflects increasing production volumes as well as the arrival of low-cost Asian suppliers in the wake of a slew of expired patents. that is including touch-screen displays where consumers do not seem to require them. o Poor worldwide economic factors certainly played a role in slowing down the touch-screen market in 2009. for various macroeconomic reasons. In the short run. both in terms of consumer demand and in terms of investment money for innovation in the industry. and when the current surge of interest in touch-screen technology settles down. it is unlikely that the market will need all of these technologies. This certainly delays decisions by OEMs to sample and use this kind of technology. but no multi-touch capabilities.nanomarkets. This seems to have occurred to some extent with latest generation of touch-screen PCs.

gloved finger. again. However. which is yet another reason why the industry is moving away from analog resistive technology. The need to frequently calibrate stationary touch displays in ATMs. most notably this includes projected capacitive technologies. Another aspect of “durability” is the need for frequent calibration. in the past. especially when the device is used in cold weather with the user wearing gloves.. Durability defines the useful lifetime of a touch screen when exposed to a particular environment.nanomarkets. is a problem for resistive technology. Page | 92 NanoMarkets. the “Holy Grail” touch screen would be sensitive to any object—a stylus. APR comes as close as any other touch-screen technology in achieving this goal. kiosks. Projected capacitive technology can be limiting. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. This. etc. could add considerably to maintenance costs. touch technology has been integrated with CRT and other displays and in the future they will have to be integrated with OLED and e-paper displays. Resistive touch screens do not do well on this measure. finger. The assumption made throughout this report is that the displays into which touchsensors will be integrated will be LCD displays and most sensor providers make this assumption also.net the perspective of stylus independence. There are actually quite a few touch-screen technologies that perform quite well on the durability criterion.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Today. etc. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .

By assessing price trends we are able to turn these volume forecasts into value forecasts. kiosks.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Applications: As far as the application areas go. For example. but consists of indoor and outdoor kiosks. the kiosk market is not just a unified whole. we have not included a detailed forecast of these niche applications. and which often have special requirements. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. These comprise areas that offer genuine opportunities.1 Forecasting Methodology Page | 93 The forecasting methodology used in this report is based on examining the size and growth expected for the addressable market of each of the key application areas for touch-screen technologies. In the forecasts. we have focused primarily on areas such as mobile devices. which are already large. After that we base our assessment of the market for touch-screen technologies on the penetration of each of the application areas by each of the major touch technologies considered here. there are not only applications to be considered but also sub-applications. vending kiosks.nanomarkets. An example here would be medical or military applications. for example. At the end of this process we arrive at an overall forecast by type of technology in volume terms. We have also provided detailed coverage of areas that seem to be emerging and where significant revenue from touch displays can be reasonably expected in time. it also begs some questions. 4. in a report of this kind.1 Which Applications and Technologies Should We Forecast? While this describes the basic process that we use here. touch-screen technology could be applied in some way to almost any display application. There are other interesting niches for touch-screen technologies that are discussed in this chapter. For the most part. it is not possible to cover each application in detail. NanoMarkets. information kiosks and so on.net Chapter Four: Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technologies and Applications 4. Indeed. As a practical matter. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . established markets for touch technology. but which do not (and are not likely to) represent a “mass market” for touch technology. One of these is what constitutes a “key application area?” Another is what is a “major touch technology?” The problem in both cases is that there seem to be too many items to handle.1. so a rigorously complete analysis of touch-screen applications would really require discussing almost every display application that exists. ATMs and POS terminals. Digital signage would be such an area.

we have provided a projection of in-pixel technology. we believe that it will achieve low enough costs to allow it to retain a significant market share of some applications throughout the forecast period. say. Page | 94 NanoMarkets. seriously impacting the fortunes of the other technologies considered here and the firms that supply those technologies. which is what we have assumed here. more if one considers the in-pixel technology variations as separate technologies. because it represents not just another way of doing touch screens. but then fade when touch screens are no longer so hot. there are at least 13. but a new way of restructuring the entire touchscreen business. or when these new technologies exhibit unexpected problems or fail to win OEM customers. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . we assume that by the end of the forecast period they perhaps account for 20 percent of the touch-screen display market. it is unlikely that they will completely take over the market. the dominant touch-screen technology at the present time is resistive technology. As we discuss earlier this report. In our analysis. However. Industry does not abandon older technologies quickly and so it seems likely that these will continue to be used throughout the period considered in this report. It is perfectly plausible for a technology that occupies. with projected capacitive technology coming up fast. It is harder to be certain about the other technologies. so we have somewhat begged that question by dumping most of the newer technologies into an “other” category. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. We have also assumed as a matter of forecasting methodology that all the other mature technologies survive. Because of its lack of multi-touch capability. This is by no means guaranteed. But it is also the kind of endeavor that could prove to be a good idea that can never really cut it in the real world. It is more or less impossible to forecast discrete events such as major technical problems.nanomarkets. However. In this report. in-pixel technologies are mostly in the early phase of development and have some serious problems in need of solutions.net Technologies: There are fewer technologies to consider here than there are applications. Some of the newer technologies that we have discussed here—especially the ones that are associated with just one company—may receive a lot of attention during the current period of high levels of interest in touch screens.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. just a 5 percent share of the market to completely disappear over the period of time we consider in this report. the likelihood is that analog resistive technology will come under a lot of market pressure in the next few years and its ability to withstand this pressure will depend heavily on its low cost. Even if the in-pixel technologies are successful. as we note elsewhere in this report. The in-pixel “project” is exactly the type of endeavor that could prove to be immensely successful.

4.00 Up to $5. pricing depends on quantities ordered and for consumer products these quantities can be quite large—50. Although we have not specifically taken this into consideration in our forecasts. We note that.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.000 to 200. The potential for price declines is perhaps best illustrated by the price of the iPhone display. for example.00 Lower prices come from lesser-known Chinese suppliers.000 units per product. any such adjustment is unlikely to make much impact on the final forecast. although the number of digital kiosks is growing fast. Our expectation is that it could go down to $2.00 or even less before the price stabilizes.1.2 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in Kiosks Exhibit 4-2 provides NanoMarkets’ forecasts for kiosks. The projected capacitive display for this device cost around $28 for the first iPhones and costs less than half of this now.00 $2. according to one source.0 $3.nanomarkets. although we anticipate that shipments will grow quickly now that the technology for digital kiosks is stable. stable user interface and no user is interested in spending time learning how to use a kiosk. this is true for some public photo-processing kiosks. Such kiosks need moderate sized displays—10 inches to 12 inches would seem definitive—and are located in public locations. Exhibit 4-1 Pricing for Touch-Screen Technology Price ($/Diagonal Inch) Page | 95 Technology Analog Resistive Projected Capacitive (small displays) Projected Capacitive (larger displays) Infrared Optical (1) $0. even by the end of the forecasting period.00 (1) $3. This suggests shipments of a few hundred thousand displays.2 Pricing Assumptions The prices for touch-screen technologies vary considerably depending on the specific technology. We also note that a few kiosks actually contain more than one touch screen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . vandal proof and have long lifetimes.75 to 1. industry assessments don’t usually place the total installed at more than a few million. We believe that touch-screen displays are also likely to experience significant price declines in the near future. suggesting that they need to be durable. both indoor and outdoor. We have been fairly generous in our assumption about how many of these will be touch screens since kiosks seem to cry out for a simple. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. In Exhibit 4-1. we summarize some current pricing for leading touch-screen technologies.net 4. Obviously. NanoMarkets.

5 50.7 0.2 80 2.2 44.7 719 26.8 131.00 9.8 45.7 70.1 214.8 0.0 78.5 259.00 9.7 45 0.7 47.3 298 13.4 18.4 108.00 2.160 Page | 96 72.102 83 914 2017 1.8 10.5 310.9 210.3 0.6 87.1 60.0 40.8 65.0 0.25 1.4 50.11 1.0 58.5 90 1.3 60.9 65.4 100 96.00 0.0 0.1 55 0.00 10.5 8.1 241 12.8 70 0.85 1.6 60.0 31.18 1.2 40.1 82.1 18.9 36.3 46.2 15.3 30 0.9 42.9 23.1 182.8 75 3.2 30.160 35.00 1.5 50.00 0.6 151.1 45.3 570 23.0 25.0 19.7 155.333 87 1.00 8.7 182.1 31.2 9.6 NanoMarkets.2 46.5 13.5 369 17.0 30.8 456 19.0 43.4 0.1 10.4 55.6 110 1.0 65 5.0 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.5 38.1 50.00 4.5 64.7 9.1 75. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .0 0.9 25.3 65 0.00 2.7 128.1 13.nanomarkets.3 45.8 13.00 0.00 0.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.1 9.2 34.0 40.7 8.00 1.0 154.5 0.46 1.2 25.7 6.1 105.9 7.0 0.00 9.00 0.3 64.00 4.00 7.00 10.9 4.0 55.0 5.2 40.3 87.0 2.9 62.07 1.00 11.0 0.00 1.3 13.00 3. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.6 0.7 216.00 6.1 85 2.00 6.2 290.00 2.4 55.2 914 31.2 111.43 1.4 0.00 7.00 2.00 1.0 11.0 34.30 1.8 35.9 0.8 35 0.6 46.7 48.00 11.7 371.0 0.0 40 0.6 36.8 83.6 6.0 10.0 0.0 70 4.5 50 0.9 35.00 0.8 1.net Exhibit 4-2 Worldwide Market for Kiosk Touch Screens Kiosks sold (000s) Percentage with touch-screens Number of touch screens shipped (000s) Of which: ANALOG RESISTIVE: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) PROJECTED CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) SURFACE CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) INFRARED: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) SAW: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) OPTICAL: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) IN-PIXEL TECHNOLOGY: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) OTHER: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) TOTAL: Volume shipped (000s) Market value ($ Million) 2010 388 62 241 2011 459 65 298 2012 543 68 369 2013 642 71 456 2014 761 75 570 2015 911 79 719 2016 1.1 18.

nanomarkets. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Other In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive NanoMarkets.0 5.0 2010 © NanoMarkets.0 15.0 Revenues ($ Millions) 25.000 800 600 400 200 0 In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive Page | 97 2010 © NanoMarkets.0 20. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 10. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Worldwide Market for Kiosk Touch-Screens 40.400 Other 1.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .200 Volume Shipped (000s) 1.0 35.net Worldwide Market for Kiosk Touch-Screens 1.0 30.0 0.

and probably the one where most of us saw touch technology for the first time. are otherwise like regular kiosks. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Examples would include gas pumps and outdoor information kiosks.1 Information Kiosks Information kiosks were one of the first applications for touch-screen technology. primarily that the user can get to the information he or she needs faster. 4. large public buildings.2.2. it has more physical presence than a mere POS terminal and marketers use this to educate customers. In general.nanomarkets. There are also outdoor kiosks that already do—or might some day—use touch-screen technology. These kiosks have been commonly found in museums. which may not have the physical presence mentioned earlier. and other similar locations for many years. Displays used in these kiosks need special ruggedization. The crossover point between these and POS terminals is very fuzzy.3 Kiosk Industry Trends and the Need for Touch-Screen Technology In terms of market expansion.2. Kiosks are also used increasingly to provide in-store access to online products. apart from size. The arguments for such information kiosks are the usual ones made for interactivity. we note that there is a trend toward smaller kiosks. Examples of commerce kiosks that use touch screens include kiosks for digital photo printing. it is important for the display to be readable in sunlight and this capability can be achieved in many different ways. build brand loyalty. The commerce kiosk is closely related to the concept of the touch operated point-of-sales terminal. for obvious reasons. and also kiosk-like countertop displays that are 25 percent–50 percent of the footprint of a freestanding kiosk enclosure. or issuing boarding cards at an airport.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Such kiosks are in especial need of touch screens that are durable—able to withstand potentially harsh weather conditions and frequent use. image quality and multi-touch capability are not as critical in kiosks as in other touch-screen applications. but with a somewhat larger physical structure. as multi-touch technology becomes more mainstream users NanoMarkets.net 4. although the touch-screen industry still seems very comfortable in making the distinction. users will be able to explore the information available with others. as well as be more likely remember the information. These smaller kiosks include both mini-kiosks that. the most important thing is that they are readable. For outside kiosks. 4.2 Commerce Kiosks Page | 98 A somewhat different kind of kiosk—and one that is much more widely deployed—is the kiosk designed for commerce. However. What most of the applications listed above have in common is they are indoor applications. dispensing stamps at post offices. As multi-touch is added to these kiosks. etc. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. but do offer lower costs and more flexibility of deployment.

net will come to expect it in touch screens. since the functionality of ATM display content is fairly limited. Force sensing is also a possible choice. it needs to be vandal proof to a degree that would not be true for most other kiosk products. projected capacitive technology is the best choice for outdoor kiosks and store window applications that may be exposed to harsh weather conditions. although SAW technology is also widely used and may actually be more ubiquitous than resistive technology in the kiosk world at this point in time.3 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in ATMs 4. although there is a potential contamination problem. analog resistive technology has often served well enough in kiosk touch displays and will presumably continue to do so for years to come. although low-cost kiosks will probably continue to be sold and installed with only single-touch capabilities. According to Elo. And multi-touch may also be less important because single-touch seems more than adequate for controlling the functionality expected from an ATM and presumably no one wants more than one person operating an ATM at the same time. Several technologies are capable of meeting the needs of the ruggedized kiosk. of which they are. Surface capacitive is likely to do well in this part of the market when compared to analog resistive on durability grounds. 4. In addition. which makes durability and ability to withstand dust and NanoMarkets. but this technology is intended primarily for specialized architectural applications as described in a previous chapter. SAW and traditional IR. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. 4. These include surface capacitive. SAW and surface capacitive technology look likely to become the dominant technologies in the kiosk market.3. It is very durable and can be vandal proofed. They use similar-sized displays to the small-to-medium kiosks. projected capacitive. indeed less so than for information kiosks.4 Touch-Screen Technologies Used in Kiosks Apart from the ruggedized outdoor kiosks.2. First. ATMs located in busy shopping or financial areas are likely to be used more frequently than the average kiosk. However. an example. SAW is attractive for a number of reasons. Image quality again doesn’t matter all that much. the ATM also differs form other kiosk-type systems in important ways.1 The Need for Touch-Screen Technologies in ATMs Page | 99 ATMs have very similar needs to kiosks. In the long run. and it is also helped by the fact that it is highly resistant to contamination. The fact that it can also be activated with a gloved hand could also be important.nanomarkets. in a sense. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Both SAW and surface capacitive technology can be additionally ruggedized.

0 0.00 0.0 0.281 89 1.0 0.0 0.7 33.7 111.6 60.9 25.8 0.2 50.60 1.0 0.94 2.391 2017 1.0 10.0 0.4 624 36.0 1.4 706. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.695 Page | 100 0.3 0.0 0.nanomarkets.00 0.0 0.00 1.9 45.9 95 10.3 70 18.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.00 0.9 37.4 764 40.6 0.0 0.4 55.3 332.00 24.3 45.7 39.00 25.0 10.5 262.0 37.8 0.0 74.695 54.5 68.00 23.0 111.0 169.3 228.4 0.5 45.00 0.00 1.5 114.00 1.7 43.0 46.7 25.0 0.0 18.0 0.00 2.9 60 21.0 0.70 2.00 25.2 1.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 21.6 484.8 61. Exhibit 4-3 provides NanoMarkets’ forecasts for touch-screen technology in ATMs.5 35.98 2.0 0.3 70.0 0.0 0.00 18.086 86 934 2015 1.00 0.51 2.2 85 13.2 355.8 162.5 26.9 35.6 31.5 16.0 15.0 NanoMarkets.0 28.2 426 29.7 35.9 848. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .140 48.8 306.3 515 33.0 0.7 0.00 0.4 999.8 47.6 934 44.00 1.9 276.391 51.00 0.7 80 15.00 16.0 6.0 87.8 1.61 3.00 2.0 0.0 0.9 42.00 1.512 92 1.net dirt important.0 0.00 0.0 0.4 30.0 0.2 588.0 0.0 0.4 36.0 0.5 30.21 1.00 20. Exhibit 4-3 Worldwide Market for ATM Touch Screens ATM shipments (000s) Percentage with touch-screens Number of touch screens shipped Of which: ANALOG RESISTIVE: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) PROJECTED CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) SURFACE CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) INFRARED: Volume shipped Price ($) Market value SAW: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) OPTICAL: Volume shipped Price ($) Market value IN-PIXEL TECHNOLOGY: Volume shipped Price ($) Market value OTHER: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) TOTAL: Volume shipped (000s) Market value ($ Million) 2010 560 76 426 2011 661 78 515 2012 780 80 624 2013 920 83 764 2014 1.140 2016 1.0 0.0 0.9 40.0 0.0 65 19.5 0.1 0.7 136.0 0.2 41.0 0.0 0.7 0.6 33.1 20.0 194.0 41.784 95 1.00 0.0 0.7 54.0 0.0 57.0 0.0 8.0 12.0 0.0 30.8 75 17.2 40.6 90 12.00 1.6 32.00 21.3 18.8 28.0 0.2 54.0 4.8 399.

0 10.0 2010 2011 © NanoMarkets.0 30. and just like kiosks. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .600 thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 50.400 Volume Shipped (000s) 1.net Worldwide Market for ATM Touch Screens Other 1.0 20. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 Revenues ($ Millions) 40.nanomarkets. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Worldwide Market for ATM Touch Screens 60. LC 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Other In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive A review of public data of firms shipping ATMs suggests that the market is similar in size to the kiosk market.200 Page | 101 In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive 1. The reasons why touch screens would be used in ATMs are much the same as in digital kiosks. in fact ATMs are really NanoMarkets.NanoMarkets 1. we expect this segment to grow fast especially in international locations where ATMs have not been widely available.800 1.0 0.000 800 600 400 200 0 2010 © NanoMarkets.

0 82 12.4 15. 4.3 8.4 2015 22.2 Touch-Screen Technologies Used in ATMs Page | 102 This fairly demanding set of requirements set out above for touch-screen displays used in ATMs is backed up by the fact that there are high consequences to failure in ATMs.18 92.nanomarkets.4 90 18.2 84 13.00 15.0 10.6 2014 20.5 0.8 10. Exhibit 4-4 provides NanoMarkets’ eight-year forecasts for touch screens in POS terminals.00 15. ordering fast food and the like.25 66. However. Indeed. at best customers are severely disappointed.5 0. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.6 7. POS terminals have much in common with ATMs and kiosks in the size of display and the fact that they are frequently used.5 35. touch POS can also reduce training time. the penetration of touch is expected to be even higher. specialty chains.5 30. They are seldom located outdoors though.8 NanoMarkets.6 25. They may be used either by employees or the customers themselves.6 9.6 6.2 45.3 40.6 10.1 8.7 0. However. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . even though the person using the POS terminal may have limited skills in that regard. 4.0 16.5 86 15.43 102.1 9. and convenience stores.9 18.5 0. These types of displays are increasingly used in department stores.7 96 24.3 2016 23. but we assume a fairly high penetration of touch in future shipments for similar reasons to those given for the kiosk market.07 83.3 0.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. The three touch-screen technologies that seem to fit the bill best in the context of ATMs are surface capacitive.11 75.3 11. the general idea of using touch is to make check out at supermarkets and hotels.00 16.7 8.4 1.9 88 16.00 15. grocery stores.85 110.3 2011 16.8 9. Projected capacitive has also been used.net a special instance of digital kiosks. SAW and traditional IR.00 14.0 92 20.3.8 13.00 15. In industries in which employee turnover is high.0 2013 18.1 0.3 10. at worst money is stolen. the displays are a little smaller on average.4 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in POS Terminals Again.8 94 22. Exhibit 4-4 Worldwide Market for POS Terminal Touch Screens POS terminals sold (million) Percentage with touch-screens Number of touch screens shipped (million) Of which: ANALOG RESISTIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) PROJECTED CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) 2010 15.0 0. because the functionality of an ATM is simpler and better defined than for the average digital kiosk.00 11.46 119.4 2017 25.6 10. quick and accurate.6 2012 17.30 128. There are still many ATMs in the installed base that do not use touch displays.00 13.7 20.

7 22.2 35.0 0.0 0.3 18.00 63.5 1.00 18.5 12.00 99.3 2.00 42.nanomarkets.2 0.8 90 159.3 4.1 24.00 31.0 0.7 25.00 34.3 0.00 51.0 0.9 2017 3.0 0.6 2011 1.4 590.2 50.3 566.4 45.6 0.00 92.00 8.4 31.4 1.0 0.00 105.2 43.8 37.7 Page | 103 NanoMarkets.0 0. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 0.0 477.00 56.5 39.4 536.3 2.2 70.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 41.1 1.0 0.1 0.7 40.2 2013 1.00 12.net Exhibit 4-4 Worldwide Market for POS Terminal Touch Screens 2010 SURFACE CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) INFRARED: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) SAW: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) OPTICAL: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) IN-PIXEL TECHNOLOGY: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) OTHER: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) TOTAL: Volume shipped (million) Market value ($ Million) 1.3 2016 2.8 13.0 65 261. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .00 114.9 75 220.0 0.6 4.9 1.00 60.3 15.00 78.0 0.9 30.00 86.8 20.0 1.0 0.7 60 281.3 422.00 34.00 92.1 33.4 70 241.0 1.0 0.0 0.6 504.0 0.5 45.2 2.1 45.2 0.9 55.0 0.5 80 199.00 5.3 3.4 65.7 2012 1.9 40.0 0.1 3.0 35.3 2015 2.00 87.2 2.00 116.6 449.0 0.9 60.2 1.0 0.2 50.8 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.00 66.7 0.7 2014 2.0 0.0 55.0 0.0 0.7 60.3 35.2 16.7 614.00 110.5 95 140.5 0.0 1.00 116.1 1.1 85 179.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 0.0 0.

nanomarkets. however. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. LC 2011 thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. LC The POS terminal market is different from the two previous markets we discussed in a number of ways.net Worldwide Market for POS Terminal Touch Screens Other In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive Page | 104 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Worldwide Market for POS Terminal Touch Screens 700 600 Revenues ($ Millions) 500 400 SAW Other In-Pixel Optical 300 200 100 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive © NanoMarkets.0 25.0 2010 © NanoMarkets. At some level this is obvious. There seems.NanoMarkets 30. the addressable market is much larger.0 Volume Shipped (Millions) 20. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . First. POS terminals—or many such systems—can be found in any retail store that one enters.0 15. to be no industry agreement on how many POS terminals are shipped and NanoMarkets.0 0.0 5.0 10.

and MP3 players. The volumes sold of these other devices are quite small compared with cell phones. despite all the possible capabilities that POS terminals can include. Touch-screen technologies that have been used for POS terminals include analog resistive.4. both in terms of volume shipments and in the functionality of the devices being sold. Nokia and Motorola. but they still run into millions—or even tens of millions—of units. several dedicated devices (e. 4. In addition. Using multi-touch.. NanoMarkets. The reader should note that Apple is by no means the only phone maker selling touch-based phones in volume. Touch is now widely used on even the simplest POS terminals and it may be used directly by a customer or by a check-out clerk. there is little comparison between what can be done by the simple analog phone of yesteryear and today’s smart phones. Exhibit 4-5 provides NanoMarkets’ eight-year projections for mobile touch displays. e-book readers) have larger displays than those in cell phones. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .1 Mobile Industry Trends The handheld electronics market has exploded over the past decade. but there are numerous others including e-book readers. games. HTC. GPS systems. which magnifies their interest to display makers. APR and force sensing are also possible technologies for POS terminals. POS terminals are designed in a number of form factors. However.1 The Need and Use of Touch-Screen Technologies in POS Terminals Page | 105 Multi-touch can be added to POS to better enable customers to evaluate and compare complex products. Among the newer technologies. 4.5 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in Handheld Mobile Devices 4.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. surface capacitive. although most typically they are sized to fit on top of a countertop or check-out desk. PDAs. surface wave. The most obvious example of today’s mobile device is the cell phone. and thus analog resistive technology will continue to take the largest share of the market.nanomarkets.net industry sources to which we have had access variously place shipments for 2008 at around 10 million to around 14 million. and traditional IR.5. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. At least one company—Elo—offers touch screens for this market with integrated magnetic stripe readers (MSR) and rear-facing customer displays.g. chances are that most of them will be quite simple for the foreseeable future. the customer can experience a product before purchase. Touch technology has also been adopted by Ericsson.

nanomarkets.0 571.83 305.0 0.0 0.23 53.0 0.75 1.9 6.6 0.7 151 1.3 7.0 3.0 0.68 348.1 100 9.30 234.8 10.4 0.13 702.0 15.4 0.172.20 0.0 0.8 2.1 21.362.1 30.943.0 15.0 0.4 8.0 74.0 0.144 30 2017 2.1 9.1 396 3.5 213 1.net Exhibit 4-5 Worldwide Market for Mobile Touch Screens Mobile displays sold (million) Percentage with touch-screens Of which: ANALOG RESISTIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) PROJECTED CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped Price ($) Market value ($ million) SURFACE CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) INFRARED: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) SAW: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) OPTICAL: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) IN-PIXEL TECHNOLOGY: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) OTHER: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) TOTAL: Volume shipped Market value ($ Million) 2010 1.00 46.40 1.0 50.4 0.68 1.14 173.60 91.3 13.7 0.8 6.0 0.97 1.0 0.0 NanoMarkets.3 3.00 13.0 0.00 0.0 0.9 0.330.5 1.680 20 2012 1.00 900.1 0.0 0.251 32 Page | 106 184 2.0 2.081.0 0.4 155 6.764 22 2013 1.4 7.4 2.13 35.0 0.3 7.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.18 1.1 444.0 102.2 2.470.2 334 4.5 0.62 4.92 18.0 31.0 0.2 180 1.77 82. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .5 207 1.3 210 2.0 2.238.92 984.0 0.7 13.0 0.0 0.17 454.0 1.13 1.7 124 7.5 11.8 200 1.6 336.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.945 26 2015 2.0 0.22 9.0 136.0 6.0 6.44 66.0 13.0 0.1 233 5.0 288.7 14.7 280 4.398.9 16.9 5.10 527.22 71.0 0. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.56 179.600 18 2011 1.110.0 0.7 2.457.7 5.48 295.0 0.0 0.9 10.0 0.9 0.0 0.3 0.5 9.0 1.0 720.6 8.0 0.255.465.0 5.0 0.03 621.97 26.0 0.852 24 2014 1.4 3.80 516.3 388.9 4.0 0.35 422.0 0.773.5 643.9 6.14 49.8 8.46 496.0 1.0 0.9 3.1 1.1 191 6.601.4 11.0 0.50 28.3 505.0 0.21 97.0 0.1 0.0 0.042 28 2016 2.6 0.4 7.2 202 2.91 407.00 8.

LC 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 While cell phones are the most important mobile handheld devices in terms of volumes shipped. MP3 players and GPS systems are not as challenged..g. NanoMarkets. This has been especially true for PDA. low-cost dedicated MP3 players continue to be in demand. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .net Worldwide Market for Mobile Touch Screens Other In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Page | 107 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 3.nanomarkets. the core functionalities of these systems are now being built into cell phones themselves and there has been a decline in dedicated handheld nonphone devices.000 1. MP3 players and GPS systems have experienced similar trends. For some markets (e. Indeed.000 500 0 Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive 2010 2011 © NanoMarkets.500 1. teenagers).500 Revenues ($ Millions) Worldwide Market for Mobile Touch Screens Other In-Pixel 2. other handheld devices including PDAs.000 2.NanoMarkets 800 700 Volume Shipped (Millions) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2010 2011 © NanoMarkets. And in-vehicle GPS systems obviously have no strong need for cell-phone functionality. LC 2012 thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.

nanomarkets. this market seems to be more settled on its touch technology. In addition. multitouch can be very useful in controlling complex functionality within a small physical space. and RPO is targeting the mobile sector with its waveguide IR systems. we expect that many of the mobile devices will continue to make effective use of analog resistive technology throughout the period considered in this report. Apart from analog resistive and projected capacitive technologies. Where an outlier technology is only found in one or two mobile products. Also. which is usually just a few inches. mobile phones are widely used throughout the world and the other mobile device markets are much smaller than the phone market. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. it is tempting to assume that capacitive multi-touch capabilities will be the wave of the future. in the mobile touch sector. First. analog resistive is losing market share to projected capacitive for the simple and obvious reason that the latter can offer multi-touch capability. There are. a number of caveats to all of this. However. most obviously in the size of the displays needed. Wacom has a version of surface capacitive technology that will work in a mobile environment. the underlying addressable market is relatively slow growing.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Whether any such systems that are largely confined to one supplier will ever take off will depend on discrete factors that go well beyond those that are directly related to the touch technology used. however. so their rapid growth has relatively little impact on the market as a whole. This is because the mainstream LCD display makers already have a strong presence in the mobile display sector and at the present time. Elo has started to offer APR systems for mobile applications.2 The Need and Use of Touch Screens in Mobile Devices While the three markets for touch screens that we have discussed so far have much in common. is the in-pixel technology. how well those specific products do in the marketplace will be important NanoMarkets. the reader of this report should note that one technology—or class of technologies—that seems likely to make some penetration into this sector. Also. As the Apple iPhone exemplifies. the mobile device market is very different from the others. many of them seem to be looking to the mobile phone sector as a sweet spot for their in-pixel technologies. how well technology suppliers are plugged into supply chains may depend on numerous factors that have nothing to do with touch. analog resistive and projected capacitive technology seem very well established in this sector and this is one reason why many of the newer touch suppliers are looking at markets outside of mobile devices. While a number of touch technologies might be deployed for mobile systems. In particular. Because the Apple iPhone is seen as an iconic product. given time. Neonode has a cell phone using traditional IR.net 4. Fujitsu has developed a prototype of a SAW-based cell phone.5. there are also some “outlier” technologies that may have some promise in the handheld mobile sector. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 Page | 108 .

In particular. cell phones may not just be the only phones that these people own. is just one big display. there are many encouraging signs for any touch-screen technology supplier targeting this market. copiers NanoMarkets.6. This is because the capabilities of mobile devices are becoming more complex and therefore in need of powerful but simple input subsystems—a need that touch is likely to fulfill. In other words.1 The Need and Use of Touch Screens in Office Automation and PCs Page | 109 The office automation market is clearly one of the largest markets for displays. but the only phone that they want to own or are likely to own. The other factor is that we are likely to see a growing need for touch in mobile devices. With regard to voice features. Nonetheless. In addition. in the case of most—or at least a growing number of—handheld mobile devices a lot of functionality is packed into a device that is just a few square inches in size. outdoor readability and (the factor that is true for all mobile systems) low power consumption. the small QWERTY keyboards that are often embedded in these devices are often difficult to use for all but the smallest fingers. the telecommunications market is in the midst of a transition from wired phones to cell phones. today’s cell phone. anyone who has owned an early-generation PDA knows how awkward they can be to use. In addition. The bottom line here is that the number of mobile phones and similar devices that could potentially use touch technologies is expanding.nanomarkets. For one thing. This is all within a business environment that expects very low prices. 4. PDA. For many young people and for people in lesserdeveloped nations. This presents a challenge from the perspective of the designer of man-machine interface. These include Nissha (Japan) and Nikka (Taiwan). even the most basic cell phones now support features that a few decades ago would not have been supported by even the most advanced business phone systems.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . Touch technology suppliers operating in this market may find it rather demanding. there are already a few touch-screen technology suppliers that have big shares of this market. including Internet TV.6 Eight-Year Forecasts for Touch Screens in Office Automation and PCs 4. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Competitive factors that are likely to be of growing importance will include image quality. The current generation of phones (3G) supports advanced Internet functionality and the next generation (4G) will support more video. fax machines.net and again touch may not be the key determinant. All PCs are equipped with some kind of monitor and increasingly so are printers. despite all these limitations on the opportunities for touch screen in the mobile device sector. from the perspective of the end user. MP3 player or GPS system.

Elo. it appears that the technology is available and is also improving—something we chronicle throughout this report. of course. notably the (physical) QWERTY keyboard and the mouse. The touch interface will have to compete with existing technologies. there is a big push by the computer companies to differentiate their (increasingly commoditized) products in a manner that will get consumers to upgrade PCs—a hard-toachieve goal under current economic conditions. In January 2009. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . The use of touch control is reviving the idea of tablet PCs. Small analog resistive displays would seem to fit the bill very well in this application. Page | 110 NanoMarkets. laptop or desktop. including Aurum Ventures. HP and Lenovo. These products tend to be ones that stand out at the office equipment or PC store and garner considerable attention from store visitors. has been shipping its APR technology for monitors since 2006 and more recently projected capacitive and optical touch technology has been creeping into this market.nanomarkets. touch monitors and AiO systems are becoming more common. However. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. netbook. Ltd. for example. since users expect very high performance from computer input subsystems and they are unlikely to compromise in this regard. a technology that many people do not especially like. Working against the deployment of touch technologies is the fact that “pen computing” has been around for a while and has never taken off and most people associate “touch” in the context of PC computing with opaque touch pads. touch displays are becoming features of even low-cost peripheral products. Challenger. Canaan Partners.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Touch-screen technology may well be one way to achieve this goal and we note again that the fact that Windows 7 supports touch is a big step forward to bringing touch into the PC world The poster boy of touch-in-PCs is N-trig. Nonetheless. Some in-pixel technologies might be applicable here—especially capacitive sensing and optical—and there would be a natural fit in that the supply chain from display makers to OEMs is very well established. Second. notebook. the use of touch in a computer is an especially demanding application. Several factors help counteract the negatives for touch in this sector.. For computer monitors themselves the reasons for deploying touch are less obvious and the products of this kind that use touch are still fairly few and far between. whether in a tablet. whose technology (called DuoSense) is being used in PCs from Dell. although. N-trig received funding totaling $24 million from a group of investors. First. Increasingly. In the case of the peripheral products. the displays are specifically intended to make the products easier to use and touch would seem to be a very good technology to include to make this happen.net and other peripherals. these visitors will not necessarily also be buyers.

68 119.13 1.4 15.8 6. The current industry-wide expectation is that touch-based PCs are about to get a market boost from Apple’s foray into the tablet PC business.7 8.48 101.6 12.1 6.46 141.7 2013 430.30 89. which increasingly has seen the deployment of small touch screens as a means of controlling the system.9 7.1 2015 488.2 4.8 Page | 111 4.84 4.3 174 21 36.92 5.92 1.1 6.6 153 19 29.1 0.0 186 22 40.97 1.46 3.4 5.3 3.5 7.1 19.5 35.3 18. but.80 93.3 21.00 1.64 4.3 7. Such PCs have been around for a while now.18 157.13 85.6 2016 521.net Evergreen Venture Partners and Microsoft. DuoSense combines pen and capacitive touch technology.9 1. printers and copiers) Price ($.8 4. printers and copiers) Price ($.3 24.1 3.1 123 16 19.7 21.92 46.3 29.9 32. monitors) Price ($.3 10.5 2017 556. As the Exhibit illustrates.97 66.0 11.0 15.4 163 20 32.0 134 17 22.0 31.0 2.62 2.1 2.00 23.4 13.0 42.0 2011 370.6 25.00 9.2 0.5 1.9 3.6 0.8 7.35 6.3 26. monitors) Price ($. there is nothing yet to make us sure of a touch/tablet PC boomlet in the near-term future.5 5.7 2012 401.1 7.7 9. Exhibit 4-6 provides projections of the deployment of touch-screen technologies in office automation equipment.68 188.9 2.0 24.5 20.5 7. printers and copiers) Market value ($ million) PROJECTED CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (millions. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .79 6.70 7.0 17.8 4. there are really two parts to this market. which sounds like a lot.8 11.8 2014 458. The other part of the market consists of PCs in which the monitor itself is a touch screen. copiers and all-in-ones and we would expect that ratio to increase over the period with which this report is concerned.9 30.00 2. but is a drop in the bucket when considered as a percentage of the PC market as a whole.40 103. monitors) Volume shipped (millions. These touch screens are now fairly common on even low-end printers.1 5.91 130.5 14.2 144 18 25.75 124.20 2. printers and copiers) Market value ($ Million) 2010 339.0 0.5 7. One is the printer/copier (and to a lesser extent) fax machine market.0 110 15 7.4 6.22 1.0 2.0 39. monitors) Volume shipped (millions. of course.1 8.4 35.14 73.0 8. but have never really taken off in the marketplace.7 13.17 137.9 NanoMarkets.9 5. They have sold at a rate of a few million a year.8 4. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. Exhibit 4-6 Worldwide Market for PCs and Office Automation Equipment PCs shipped (millions) Percentage with touch-screens Number of touch screens shipped (millions) Printers and copiers shipped (millions) Percentage with touch-screens Number of touch screens shipped Of which: ANALOG RESISTIVE: Volume shipped (millions.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.

08 11.0 0.0 60.3 0.9 0.6 29.41 4. monitors) Price ($. monitors) Price ($.2 0.5 0.9 0.5 627.0 0.7 0.88 232.0 26.0 14.36 173.net Exhibit 4-6 Worldwide Market for PCs and Office Automation Equipment 2010 SURFACE CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (millions.8 0. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .0 0.1 0.0 36.51 188.75 21.63 8.1 0.2 25.9 0. printers and copiers) Market value ($ Million) SAW: Volume shipped (millions.1 4. printers and copiers) Price ($.8 0.08 157.93 21.0 0.0 0. monitors) Price ($.0 2.1 0.3 0.0 0. monitors) Volume shipped (millions.7 0.4 32.3 5.0 212.7 0. monitors) Volume shipped (millions.0 0. monitors) Price ($.7 0. printers and copiers) Price ($.96 13.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 13.0 0.45 5.0 32.2 0.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 Page | 112 0. monitors) Volume shipped (millions.0 2017 1.0 19.1 19.1 0.1 500.0 19.2 0.0 43.6 0.0 7.5 0.0 22.7 337.5 11.2 0.0 24.9 0.7 0.0 23.7 402.0 0.00 0.29 115.0 2011 0.0 31.6 39.8 4.0 36.0 75.8 454.0 0.25 9.7 24.3 0. printers and copiers) Price ($.6 0.35 2.3 2.0 2013 0. printers and copiers) Market value ($ Million) INFRARED: Volume shipped (millions.6 546.2 0.4 0. printers and copiers) Price ($.70 117.00 78.0 44.0 0.8 0.0 28.0 54. printers and copiers) Market value ($ Million) TOTAL: Volume shipped (millions.0 16.00 0.06 55.0 2016 1.0 2014 0. monitors) Volume shipped (millions.0 0. printers and copiers) Price ($.7 1.1 17.0 65.0 22.0 39.8 0. printers and copiers) Market value ($ Million) OTHER: Volume shipped (millions.0 51.0 26.55 2.00 4.5 1.2 0. printers and copiers) Price ($.5 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.62 6.07 7.0 11.0 0.4 0. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 7.2 0.0 27.00 3.1 0.80 138.22 14.3 36.2 0.5 9.0 0.0 24.3 0.0 33.2 0.2 0.6 20.0 0.23 10.0 28.0 33.85 3. printers and copiers) Market value ($ Million) IN-PIXEL TECHNOLOGY: Volume shipped (millions. monitors) Price ($.84 24. monitors) Volume shipped (millions.0 0.5 0.0 22.0 63.04 140.1 0.5 6.92 17.38 212. printers and copiers) Market value ($ Million) OPTICAL: Volume shipped (millions.0 0.7 0.28 89.nanomarkets.2 0. monitors) Volume shipped (millions.0 52.6 0.4 0. monitors) Price ($.1 0.5 0.0 43.84 36.2 31.51 30.0 55.0 2012 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.4 3.32 5.8 698.2 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.9 NanoMarkets.1 0.0 39. monitors) Volume shipped (millions.0 46.8 0. printers and copiers) Market value ($ Million) 0.0 62.0 19.0 0.0 46.2 0.3 0.0 2015 0.78 16.0 40.0 38.2 5.0 31.0 1.19 38.15 72.00 10.

0 80.0 10. However. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. we are principally NanoMarkets.0 Volume Shipped (Millions) 70.0 50. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . in this section.0 Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive 2010 © NanoMarkets.0 30.0 0.0 20.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.nanomarkets. LC 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Other In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive 4.0 60.net Worldwide Market for PCs and Office Automation Equipment 90.0 SAW Page | 113 Other In-Pixel Optical 40. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Worldwide Market for PCs and Office Automation Equipment 800 700 Revenues ($ Millions) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2010 2011 © NanoMarkets.7 Eight-Year Forecasts for Touch Screens in Gaming Systems Touch-screen technology is used in a wide variety of gaming systems and Nintendo has made especially effective use of it in its DS device.

sensitivity. The relatively small size of the market is confirmed by an analysis of available data from major companies. there are many interesting possibilities for using touch in the future. In a few cases. Exhibit 4-7 provides NanoMarkets’ projections for touch screens in large gaming systems. Players can place bets with virtual chips. One reason for the small size of the market is that gaming machines—whether of the sort used in the amusement arcades and casinos. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. these requirements go well beyond what one might expect from touch alone and would include additional functionality to create a complex virtual environment. or of the of the kind used in residential basements and play rooms—are just not that common. haptics may be involved in this requirement mix. durability. The requirements for touch screen use in such gaming environments vary. Although this market receives a lot of attention in discussions of touch technology. In addition. we don’t believe that it is really very large compared with other available markets for touch-screen technology. In some cases. this technology is just being deployed in simple control functionality. using hardware/software combos such as Microsoft’s Surface enables a piece of furniture—such as a bar—to convert into a complex electronic board game. NanoMarkets. and reliability.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. However. games need no longer be in completely dedicated systems. In addition. but frequently include the need to support many simultaneous touches and for optical clarity.nanomarkets. these amusement games are coin operated. In some cases.net concerned with what is generally called “legal” or casino gambling and with other large electronic amusement gaming systems such as those that are used in a public place or a large home.7. one source suggests an air hockey table that instantly converts into a billiard or shuffleboard table. 4. In some cases. In a casino—at least in theory—a touch-based card table can support eight or 10 simultaneous players and convert from a blackjack table to a roulette table. buy more chips without leaving the table and order drinks or food by touching a button on a display.1 The Need and Use of Touch Screens in Large Gaming Systems Page | 114 Casino machines already use a lot of touch technology. In addition. the use of touch screens in gaming machines is still at a fairly early stage of deployment. These include enabling more complex games (because the user interface is simpler) or adding multiple users with the addition of multitouch.

2 50.0 2011 158 12 18.00 0.3 0.6 0.8 0.00 0.00 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.1 52 2.98 0.0 19 1.00 0.0 0.6 34.0 0.4 70.0 0.0 1.00 0.0 6.2 24.7 50.00 0.6 39.0 0.00 1.8 65.0 0.1 44 2.0 9.5 2014 182 20 36.9 51.0 7 0.0 30 1.2 35.1 70.00 0.00 1.00 1.3 28.0 0.0 0.00 0.0 13.0 0.1 61 2.00 0.0 30.nanomarkets.6 35.0 1.2 45.6 0.0 0. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .0 0.0 0.0 0.7 80.0 0.5 36.7 0.0 1.6 55.4 32.2 2013 174 17 29.0 0.0 0.65 0.0 0.9 2012 165 14 23.0 0.0 17.1 75.0 1.0 0.58 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 2015 191 23 44.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.00 1.1 70.8 60.8 45.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.00 1.6 55.0 0.8 30.2 Page | 115 0.0 19.0 0.0 0.6 55.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 NanoMarkets.00 1.4 0.0 0.1 20.00 0.0 0.5 60.9 45.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.7 58.net Exhibit 4-7 Worldwide Market for Casino and Large Amusement Gaming Touch Screens Games shipped (000s) Percentage with touch-screens Number of touch screens shipped (000s) Of which: ANALOG RESISTIVE: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) PROJECTED CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) SURFACE CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) INFRARED: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) SAW: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) OPTICAL: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) IN-PIXEL TECHNOLOGY: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) OTHER: Volume shipped (000s) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) TOTAL: Volume shipped (000s) Market value ($ Million) 2010 150 10 7.4 0.0 5.00 0.0 0.08 0.8 0.0 0.00 0.6 0.00 0.0 2016 201 26 52.0 0.1 50.3 2017 211 29 61.0 1.1 44.4 0.11 0.0 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 36 2.0 0.0 0.3 39.2 40.2 75.0 1.9 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.8 0.6 66.0 0.0 0.4 65.0 23 1.0 0.00 0.0 0. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 0.0 0.83 0.0 0.0 40.0 0.8 65.00 0.0 0.0 0.

LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Worldwide Market for Casino and Large Amusement Gaming Touch Screens 3.0 Worldwide Market for Casino and Large Amusement Gaming Touch Screens Other In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive Page | 116 2010 © NanoMarkets.0 2. LC 4.0 20.5 0.2 Touch-Screen Technology Used in Large Gaming Systems Today.0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive © NanoMarkets. which is a glaring disadvantage. Others NanoMarkets.5 1.0 10.0 0. For this reason.net 70.0 Volume Shipped (000s) 50.7.0 30.5 Revenues ($ Millions) 2. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . about 90 percent of all casino systems use surface capacitive technology.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. but surface capacitive technology doesn’t offer multi-touch.0 60. surface capacitive technology is losing market share to other technologies. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 40.0 SAW Other In-Pixel Optical 1.nanomarkets.0 0.

not just the display. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. digital signage has become much more sophisticated and now often involves multiple HD video streams. and that in Asia as a whole would exceed $1.S.8 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in Digital Signage Page | 117 Today. However. multi-touch systems could transform a one-way advertisement to an interactive experience that could (in theory) lead to a purchase. The high touch sensitivity of surface capacitive technology is highly valued in a casino environment. NanoMarkets. estimated that the digital signage market for Japan alone in 2009 would exceed $730 million.1 Touch-Screen Technology for the Digital Signage Market The use of touch-screen technology in digital signage has barely been explored.net that have been used or considered include projected capacitive. and in most geographical regions worldwide. much of the future digital signage market is expected to emerge in Asia. making the deployment of digital signage more cost effective. The interest in real-time updates of large outdoor signs has also arrived in conjunction with the commoditization of LCD displays. high-end HD signage is now being deployed in major cities and large public locations across the U. Complex outdoor digital signage emerged in the 2002–2007 period in an understated and almost covert fashion. this includes cabling and electronics. For example. In addition. As a result. as well as the possibilities of targeted narrowcasting of their message at scheduled times.2 billion. of course. Approximately 32 percent of the entire cost of a digital sign is related to hardware. and the arrival of content-management. which seems to be recovering from the economic downturn faster than other regions of the world. Casino and theater ads with HD still images or simple animation was one of the first applications. networked digital signage is attracting consumer’s attention everywhere. either shopping separately or as a family/group of friends. admittedly in part because of the mathematics of starting with a very small base. but since these early days. Research On Asia.nanomarkets. While advertising in general has been down in the past year because of the worldwide recession. 4. there seems to be plenty of potential for a clever advertising agency to investigate. SAW and APR.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. The global total for digital signage could approach $3 billion for 2009. a consulting firm. Advertisers appreciate the benefits of multicasting information across locations instantly. However. these newer technologies are likely to see more deployment initially in amusement games. digital signage seems to have continued its rapid growth. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . more than one person could be involved in this experience. Potentially. although. The interactivity of touch takes digital signage one step further. 4. where the user is interacting with a machine with accuracy and at high speed.8.

8 0.04 65.2 0.80 1.0 1.16 44. Exhibit 4-8 provides NanoMarkets’ projections for sales of touch-screen technology into the digital signage market.0 0. etc. at the present time. rather than the technology that is optimal in the long run.0 0.0 0.0 0.39 34. or even how large the market is.9 11 0.00 0.74 13.2 0.01 74.32 39.7 0. but there seems to be no real agreement on how fast the market is.09 50.6 2016 14.93 3.10 50.8 21 3.0 0. or a content-aggregation specialist that serves the role of “prime contractor.0 0.0 0.).1 0. one that would do well in an outdoor environment and presumably also support multi-touch.2 2012 4. APR and DST.7 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.97 5.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.47 12.3 120 33.86 7.0 0.0 0.93 4.0 0.9 0.0 0. In addition to IR and optical. a retail chain.5 100 54.82 1.0 0.2 0. It is often an advertising agency.74 19.03 65.7 2017 18.4 110 40.16 44.0 0.7 15 1.0 0. but the optical share of the market may be growing.9 13 1.0 0.01 85.82 2.06 57.8 18 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 2015 10.9 Page | 118 0.1 140 13.4 2013 6.0 0.0 0.0 0. The danger here is that they may be led to consider the cheapest solution.02 74.0 0. SAW.6 0.7 0.08 57.2 90 110.00 0.0 0.net Although only a small part of the digital signage market is using touch screens at the present time.nanomarkets.0 0.0 0.7 0.6 0.9 95 83.5 0.0 150 4.6 0. a hospitality property (hotel. Exhibit 4-8 Worldwide Market for Touch Screens in Digital Signage Digital signs shipped (millions) Percentage with touch-screens Number of touch screens shipped (millions) Of which: ANALOG RESISTIVE: Volume shipped (millions) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) PROJECTED CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (millions) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) SURFACE CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (millions) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) INFRARED: Volume shipped (millions) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) SAW: Volume shipped (millions) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) 2010 1.0 0.” Such contractors really know little about the details of touch-screen technology. where touch-based digital signage is being deployed it is roughly divided between IR and optical technology.80 1.47 10.55 34. casino. How far the market can be penetrated by touch technology is also a topic of some speculation.4 7 0.0 0. the other technologies that are used or have been considered for the digital signage market include projected capacitive. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .5 9 0.1 2011 3.00 85.86 7.2 130 20.8 2014 7.97 4.2 0.27 39. This part of the touch screen market is clearly looking for a highly scalable technology.7 NanoMarkets.4 0. Almost everyone in the signage business is expecting fast growth from the digital signage market.1 0.5 5 0.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 0.

2 2015 0.nanomarkets.6 0.15 36.0 0. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.78 13.20 0.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.6 0.0 2013 0.0 0.1 0.99 37.1 3.1 47.0 0.net Exhibit 4-8 Worldwide Market for Touch Screens in Digital Signage 2010 OPTICAL: Volume shipped (millions) Price ($) Market value IN-PIXEL TECHNOLOGY: Volume shipped (millions) Price ($) Market value ($ millions) OTHER: Volume shipped (millions) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) TOTAL: Volume shipped (millions) Market value ($ Million) 0.4 36.66 152.24 23.17 61.08 8.95 10.0 0.6 0.0 0.76 60.2 0.50 4.52 16.97 3.00 0.8 2016 0.2 2011 0.0 0.6 0.9 2.03 80.0 61. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 NanoMarkets.3 1.2 2017 1.00 0.22 25.0 0.1 1.69 46.3 0.7 0.50 6.0 69.03 73.2 41.0 90.0 0.0 0.5 2014 0.0 0.4 2012 0.3 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.00 Volume Shipped (Millions) 3.0 0.70 1.00 2.30 54.1 53.61 100.98 19. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .40 47.1 0.50 2.00 SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive 1.42 32.61 42.33 2.0 79.80 8.50 Optical Other In-Pixel 3.40 7.41 36.6 Page | 119 Worldwide Market for Touch Screens in Digital Signage 4.0 0.10 70.50 0.00 2.50 1.0 0.0 0.00 2010 © NanoMarkets.95 202.

there is no tolerance for false touches). While automobile sales have fallen dramatically in the past year due to the recession. However.nanomarkets. and waveguide IR and SAW have also been used (or suggested for use) in this application. At the present time. and fast refresh rates. Exhibit 4-9 presents NanoMarkets’ latest projections for touch-screen technologies in vehicles. high-resolution. Some requirements that are shared for all types of vehicular touch-screen displays are: accuracy (when moving at high speed.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Within the vehicular sector. planes. etc. LC 4. NanoMarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . the vehicular display market includes both the mass market for displays used in cars. These smaller volume markets are nonetheless likely to be less price sensitive and have especially demanding requirements. established analog resistive and projected capacitive technology may be good enough for most applications.net Worldwide Market for Touch Screens in Digital Signage 250 Other 200 Revenues ($ Millions) 150 In-Pixel Optical SAW Page | 120 100 50 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive © NanoMarkets. ability to be read in sunlight. the two areas where touch technology is widely used in transportation-related markets are in GPS systems and in-flight entertainment centers. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. robustness. buses and trucks and the more specialist touch display markets used in smaller volumes in large boats.9 Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Technology in Vehicular Displays For our purposes. the vehicular display is still one of the fastest growing segments of the display industry. LG Philips has exhibited a touch-screen in-pixel display.

0 0.0 0.0 0.44 55.6 4.4 2016 190 12 22.2 22.1 8.0 0.79 20.7 16.4 2014 175 7 12.45 40.78 109.9 2013 169 5 8.0 0.92 1.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 6.6 0.0 0.04 15.0 0.0 0.0 0.00 1.3 12.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 7.8 15.2 7.81 7.5 2. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .net Exhibit 4-9 Worldwide Market for Touch Screens in Vehicular Applications 2010 Vehicular displays shipped (million) Percentage with touch-screens Number of touch screens shipped Of which: ANALOG RESISTIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) PROJECTED CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) SURFACE CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) INFRARED: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) SAW: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) OPTICAL: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) IN-PIXEL TECHNOLOGY: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) OTHER: Volume shipped (millions) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) TOTAL: Volume shipped (millions) Market value ($ Million) 1.2 1.0 0.2 20.22 0.20 27.0 0.3 0.0 0.5 13.24 3.80 51.14 27.1 0.0 0.61 129.2 0.9 0.0 0.22 58.97 3.0 12.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 2017 197 15 29.0 0.00 1.00 9.67 13.2 2011 156 1.4 6.40 47.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 17.0 0.1 9.0 0.87 35.0 0.0 0.6 Page | 121 NanoMarkets.0 0.9 3.4 0.0 0.3 2012 162 3 4.28 72.nanomarkets.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 8.0 0.27 78.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 150 0.0 0.4 10.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.1 10.68 36.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 4.0 0.0 0.2 0.9 10.0 0.0 0.5 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 14.0 0.20 0.0 0.72 70.3 1. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.0 0.1 2.0 0.5 5.0 15.4 0.8 1.0 13.34 18.0 0.0 0.9 29.0 9.4 0.0 11.9 18.13 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 6.0 0.7 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 24.42 88.3 2015 182 9 16.0 0.0 0.9 3.3 0.0 0.1 23.0 0.0 0.4 7.0 0.0 0.20 10.00 0.0 3.3 2.5 2.62 0.

NanoMarkets. and communications features as a way of attracting customers to the latest model. LC Worldwide Market for Touch Screens in Vehicular Applications 140 Other 120 Revenues ($ Millions) 100 80 60 40 20 0 2010 © NanoMarkets.0 Other Page | 122 In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive 10.0 0.9. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive 4.0 Volume Shipped (Millions) 25.nanomarkets.0 5.0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 © NanoMarkets.0 30.0 20.0 15.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. comfort.net Worldwide Market for Touch Screens in Vehicular Applications 35.1 The Automobile/Truck Market for Touch-Screen Displays The business model of most large automobile manufacturers has long been to add security. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .

net The idea is to attract buyers into a market that. are several possible examples. We have not forecast these specifically in this report. Such touch screens might be thought of as a user-friendly feature and also as a security feature. these all broadly fall into the application/product categories that we have already discussed above. On the other hand. it has been harder to sell cars in the developed world and this difficulty is likely to continue for a couple more years. is largely saturated and where it would be easy for consumers to put off making a purchase. For example. museums make considerable use of kiosks. and gas stations increasingly deploy touch-control gas pumps.nanomarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . keeping that threeyear old car going for another three years. NanoMarkets. in the developed world. some of the fastest growing parts of the automobile market are in India and China. since they make it easier to change a setting without taking the eyes off the road in some cases.10 Other Touch-Screen Applications in Specific Industries Page | 123 The kiosk and POS terminals discussed above are very broadly deployed across industries. educational applications and household appliances. medical equipment and industrial equipment. although a few industries have shown themselves to be especially interested in touch technology. There are several other industries that have more specific needs or show some potential for the future. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. This includes control panels for appliances. simple cars—cars that don’t need touch screens. given the world financial problems of the past year. communicating with the kitchen in a restaurant. Touch-screen controls are exactly the kind of feature that would fit in with the kind of strategy discussed above. there are many potential applications. However. The restaurant and hospitality industry also increasingly make use of touch screens for check out and food ordering. Perhaps the use of touch-screens in automobiles might be a small part of the solution.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. medical/healthcare equipment. These include factory automation. ordering fast food in a franchise. although they have not been deployed widely as yet. Also. The automobile market is the only mass market for touch-screen displays within the “transportation” category. In this industry. 4. but have rather included them in an “other category” forecast in Exhibit 4-10. where the market includes a large number of first-time buyers who are interested in low-cost. or booking rooms at the front desk of a hotel or motel.

0 0.04 31.05 46.66 10.0 0.70 9.01 13.9 4.92 14.12 6.9 2.99 0.60 6.85 0.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.2 0.5 5.9 NanoMarkets.7 7 1.1 0.0 0.29 0.3 0.60 0.0 0.51 1.0 6.0 0.5 2.0 0.2 10.89 2.70 0.03 32.1 0.3 9 1.60 0.66 1.7 1.46 2.0 0.00 0.53 7.52 1.04 27.00 60. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.5 3 0.79 6.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 15 3.0 26.03 9.4 0.04 32.3 0.9 11 2.05 28.2 0.7 0.3 0.01 48.0 0.2 6.3 0.1 23.0 2.59 0.3 0.00 0.55 0.05 52.0 0.8 0.67 0. medical and industrial applications (millions) Percentage with touch-screens Number of touch screens shipped (millions) Of which: ANALOG RESISTIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) PROJECTED CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) SURFACE CAPACITIVE: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) INFRARED: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ Million) SAW: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) OPTICAL: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) IN-PIXEL TECHNOLOGY: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) OTHER: Volume shipped (million) Price ($) Market value ($ million) TOTAL: Volume shipped (million) Market value ($ million) 2010 18.2 0.2 20.28 2.09 5.80 2.0 0.41 14.7 3.0 0.0 1.0 0.17 0.02 41.04 24.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.3 0.9 0.0 0.99 0.1 0.86 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.8 0.3 Page | 124 0.0 0.98 0.0 0.3 4.net Exhibit 4-10 Worldwide Market for Touch Screens Used for Control Panels for Appliances.65 4.1 1.00 70.01 47.4 8.3 2016 21.39 3.1 0.3 0.01 11.3 0.61 1.00 55.2 0.2 18.1 5 1.00 61.5 13 2.04 25.90 3.0 0.05 35.24 1.01 15.48 0.63 0.01 42.17 6.0 30.04 8.00 0. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.4 2014 20.0 0.4 2.nanomarkets.40 0.7 9.4 2.0 0.02 37.49 0.8 2015 20.5 0.48 1.3 0.00 0.00 17.60 0.0 0.0 2013 19.0 34.00 1.5 0.0 39.4 0.8 0.0 0.03 29.2 2011 18.0 1 0.94 1.7 0.0 45.01 54.0 0.1 3.2 7.1 0.8 2017 22.03 1.00 20.02 10.0 0.45 7.2 10.05 40.54 1.98 1.34 12.00 0.0 0.6 2012 19.0 0. Medical Devices and Industrial Equipment Displays shipped for appliance.0 0.7 11.06 22.0 0.21 0.03 36.98 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.75 2.0 0.0 0.

0 10.0 Revenues ($ Millions) 12.5 1.5 0.0 1.5 thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 0.0 4.0 Volume Shipped (Millions) 2. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. Touch screens NanoMarkets.NanoMarkets 3. LC 4.5 2.0 SAW Other In-Pixel Optical 8.net Worldwide Market for Touch Screens Used for Other Applications Other 3. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive Page | 125 Worldwide Market for Touch Screens Used for Other Applications 16.10.1 Factory Automation The example given earlier of the use of touch screens in a fast food restaurant is also an excellent example of automation in general.0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Surface Capacitive Projected Capacitive Analog Resistive © NanoMarkets.0 2010 © NanoMarkets.0 Infrared 6.0 14. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .0 2.0 0. including factory automation.

Two major requirements for touch technologies within the industrial environment are ruggedness and reliability. factory automation covers a broad range of display sizes. from a 3-inch display that provides simple control of (say) a small printing machine. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. This may mean that diagnostics are more likely to be brought to the patient’s bedside than a lab. One of these is the trend toward bringing diagnostics and therapeutic equipment closer to the point-of-care. aluminum or some other suitable metal. 4. Or it may mean that more diagnostics will be performed at home by the NanoMarkets. In addition. Ruggedness includes the requirement that the technology is reasonably impervious to dust and (possibly corrosive) liquid spills. along with a few of the newer ones. at least. In addition.. it may also be more or less essential that the touch technology be workable with a gloved hand. in some applications force sensing might be deployed. This ensures maximum reliability and protection from shock/vibration. In the factory environment. The opportunity for touch-technology in this sector has largely been created by the fact that user interfaces for many machines are hard to understand and require extensive training.2 Medical and Healthcare Equipment Applications Page | 126 As with factory automation.10. without additional operator training. to a 12-inch-to-20-inch display that monitors the performance of a large processing plant.net enable an employee to carry out a relatively complex task by the press of one button. Most of the applications for touch technology within the factory are designed to enable machine operators to control machines in ways that are natural and intuitive. but the fact that the image on the screen (i. However. simple and accurate user interfaces for complex equipment is also important for medical equipment and lives are even more likely to be at stake with such systems than in the area of industrial control.nanomarkets. the number type or designation of the buttons) can be changed adds a lot of flexibility to the function. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . it is possible to ruggedize the displays by encasing them in steel. This could also be achieved by the use of a physical button. wide temperature range operation and harsh environmental conditions. reliability is not only of economic importance but also a safety issue.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. These include analog and digital resistive. surface capacitive. Some important general trends in the medical/healthcare sector should be encouraging to touch-screen technology providers looking to supply into this market. it is possible to add more functionality to the machine itself.e. the applications in industrial control are sufficiently diverse that several of the established touch-screen technologies would seem to be viable in this application. by simplifying the user interface in this way. SAW and IR. With heavy machinery. Indeed. In addition.

NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. as well as the offices of alternative medicine practitioners. NanoMarkets. In addition. physicians’ offices and dentists’ offices. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. Medical touch screens may also have special requirements with regard to response and accuracy and (as with the touch-screens used in industrial control) they may also need to be sealable against liquid splashes and chemical spills. However. some of them will certainly limit which touch-screen technologies are viable for the more demanding medical/health care applications. which again implies the need for an easy-to-use user interface. many of the applications within this sector will need to be operated with gloved hands. which again would seem to rule out some of the touch-screen technologies that do not seal well. Also. which rules out a number of technologies that would work well in other industries. medical equipment is in need of extensive testing. However.3 Educational and Training Applications Page | 127 As we noted at the very beginning of this report. Although not all of these requirements apply in all medical/healthcare applications. in the recent history of touch screens this area has not been as prominent as other applications for touch-screen technology. on the positive side from the perspective of the touch-screen technology supplier is the rapidly growing number of older people in the population and the consequent swelling of the market for people who need medical care of some kind. although not for home diagnostics. as with the industrial control sector. hospitals. Other requirements that one might expect of medical touch screens include durability and the ability to keep them clean. Again.10. and the ability to operate in a sterile environment. which is within the forecasting period considered in this report. in terms of actual revenue generation. The technologies that might be used in this sector are fairly diverse as are the sizes of the displays that may be used. the end-user market is itself diverse including. A useful factoid here is that in 2016. With this in mind. optical clarity (so that they can be read easily). as it does. education and training applications were one of the very first applications in which touch screens were deployed several decades ago. 4. while control interfaces for general industrial machinery can be invented. medical labs. this trend means that less experienced personnel will be using equipment.net patient (or by members of the patient’s family) rather than in a doctor’s office or hospital. Either way. there are many niches within this sector and we would expect to see many of these applications make do with low-cost analog resistive technology. On the other hand. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . built and immediately marketed. projected capacitive technology that seems to be doing well in other markets might have some problems for certain kinds of equipment. since all that is required is a simple control panel.nanomarkets. the first baby boomers will turn 70. That said.

Obviously. So multi-touch technologies would seem to be confined to SAW.” The RFG299 includes a 7. Like the other industrial areas covered in this section. There are also ovens. The addition of touch displays is one way to achieve this goal. and unit conversions. with uses being found in all segments from kindergarten to higher education to executive training. schedules. the belief is that touch (and especially multi-touch) are intuitive.nanomarkets. One example is Samsung Electronics America’s RFG299 “French Door Refrigerator. intelligence and experience of the users. the meaning of this will vary with geography.0-inch LCD touch screen above the ice and water dispenser. Much of this effort relies on building brand image.5-quart slow cooker that has a touch-screen user interface.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. warmers and even a barbeque that use touch panel interfaces. These include interactive whiteboards to group worktables. nutrition facts.net there seem to be many potential applications for touch technology throughout the educational sector. they must be able to survive in the outdoor environment. a 6. which displays calendars. microwaves. the applications layer software for education will vary a lot depending on the age. some touch applications will have to look elsewhere for an underlying sensor technology. user-friendly interfaces that make the learning experience more enjoyable. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . dishwashers. Another example is the eLume Programmable Slow Cooker. photos. First. Second.10. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. We have not forecast this segment specifically. Some high-end appliances have already been introduced with touch-screen technology. infrared and optical technologies for the more ambitious applications in this sector.11 A Note on Architectural Applications Several factors go into choosing displays that will be integrated into a building in some way. although the use of integrated touch-screen displays in NanoMarkets. 4. 4. Most of these applications are likely to use analog resistive technology. Of course. displays must be fairly large. once again. analog resistive technology will probably do for simple applications. One issue here is that in most educational/training applications. there are many potential implementations of touch technology in the educational training sector. In many cases. but increasingly appliance makers have become interested in making their products look different than their rivals or to find ways to make them easier to use. but since multi-touch seems to be highly valued in the educational/training sector.4 Household Appliances Page | 128 The household appliance market is highly mature and manufacturers are in a constant search to make their products stand out against similar performing products in the market. certainly over 10 inches. since we believe it is quite small at this time. However.

9 152. and probably faster.0 1. 4.2 162.3 397.3 95.6 736.050.5 112.4 2014 618.nanomarkets.and contamination-proof.net buildings does not logically imply that these displays will be used a lot. because it cuts across the other segments.1 217. and vandal.0 2012 734.0 2.8 143.3 3.2 219.0 56. Exhibit 4-11 Eight-Year Forecasts of Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays by Technology ($ Millions) 2010 Analog resistive Projected capacitive Surface capacitive Infrared SAW Optical In-Pixel Other Total 748.12 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of Touch-Screen Displays Page | 129 Exhibits 4-11 and 4-12 summarize the forecasts that we have derived above with breakouts by technology and application.9 81. One aspect here is that the display chosen must be substrate independent.5 361.7 2.1 115.0 336.508.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.7 455.3 154.8 127. As we discussed in Chapter Two.8 2016 477.4 2011 776.2 3. “sustainability” and other “green” factors are an increasingly important issue in architecture and design today.292. but as touch-screen technology becomes increasingly ubiquitous.6 NanoMarkets. this seems highly likely.1 2.3 149.941.402.0 260.174.9 295.8 617.1 142.2 124. But another option would be digital resistive technology.4 1.2 3.9 1.9 2017 400.6 103. In addition.8 4.8 1.3 76.8 249.8 1. an ATM in a heavily used public place would be a good example here. force sensing is the only touch-screen technology that is tailor made for architectural applications and architects and designers who are faced with deployment of building-integrated touch-screen displays are likely to be led in this direction.4 156.6 17.7 122.4 937. The combination of these demands essentially rules out most of the touch-screen technologies that we analyze in this report.4 110.168.5 174.7 842.7 193.6 495. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.6 180. A display used in this environment must therefore be up to heavy treatment.9 2013 687. We have not provided a forecast of this segment of the market as a whole. Freedom to innovate is of obvious and significant interest to the architectural community.7 75.1 150.2 184.8 3. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . which means it must be durable.6 84.2 279.6 1.6 40. In addition.089.5 111.734.2 124.3 94. we would expect to see it grow at least as fast as the touch-screen market as a whole.9 214.5 75.3 170.373. there is an aesthetic side to display choice in this market.217.485.5 133.5 2015 547.624.786.629.7 1.

943.4 3.9 2.1 3.470.7 536.4 202.5 2015 26.9 2.8 88.7 10.0 3.000 thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.238.8 0.0 9.362.089.8 40.1 566.5 454.000 500 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 © NanoMarkets.4 3.6 422.3 2.9 2013 19.0 449.465. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . LC Exhibit 4-12 Eight-Year Forecasts of Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays by Application ($ Millions) 2010 Kiosks ATMs POS terminals Mobile Office automation and computer monitors Casino and large amusement games Digital signage Vehicular Appliances.1 1.373.1 7.168.9 4.8 504.5 2.7 1.3 2.2 36.7 48.6 1.6 33.7 1. Total 12.3 2.2 72.0 614.3 2.500 Revenues ($ Millions) 3.net Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays by Technology Other In-Pixel Optical SAW Infrared Surface capacitive Projected capacitive Analog resistive Page | 130 1.8 2.nanomarkets.9 2017 35.2 546.2 10.9 1. etc.786. Industrial Control.1 51.2 1.8 500.0 1.7 627.0 2012 17.000 2.500 1. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.7 54.4 590.1 2.0 35.500 4.110.601.217.7 2.0 698.NanoMarkets 4.4 2014 23.1 73.773.4 23.6 NanoMarkets.4 14.5 55.2 12.7 2.6 6.5 1.2 109.629.4 2011 13.3 337.3 100.000 3.485.6 129.4 18.5 402.6 8.941.6 477.0 44.2 212.4 152.500 2.9 14.8 29.8 2016 31.9 60.6 36. Medical.

22 2017 720 0.06 21.nanomarkets. Exhibit 4-13 shows the expansion of the market in terms of the available opportunity for materials suppliers in terms of growth in the substrate material required.66 NanoMarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.07 165 0.04 6.005 3.59 9.005 2.98 139 0.93 3.68 2012 388 0.14 351 0.85 7. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .92 17.500 2.86 2016 643 0.44 2011 336 0.005 1.025 1.net Revenues from Touch-Screen Displays by Application 4.12 207 0.53 2015 572 0.000 2.500 1.005 2.02 0.000 1. Vehicular Digital signage Casino and large amusement games Office automation and computer monitors Mobile POS terminals ATMs Kiosks Page | 131 4.05 13. Components and Other Materials Used in TouchScreen Displays The touch-screen market is getting to be large enough that it represents an opportunity for materials and component suppliers.045 9.19 77 0.61 101 0. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Appliances.22 2014 506 0. Exhibit 4-13 Forecast of Volume Demand for Materials Requirements in Touch-Screen Displays 2010 Handheld Touch Screens: Number Shipped (Millions) Average Size (Square Meters) Substrate Required (Millions of Square Meters) Other Touch Screens: Number Shipped (Millions) Average Size (Square Meters) Substrate Required (Millions of Square Meters) Total substrate Requirement (Millions of Square Meters) 288 0.03 3.005 2. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.005 1.035 4.005 3.75 2.04 4.500 4.94 2013 445 0.06 24.31 12.000 500 0 2010 © NanoMarkets. Industrial Control.005 1.17 278 0.500 Revenues ($ Millions) 3.000 3. etc. Medical.60 38 0.13 Eight-Year Forecasts of Coatings.

the cost of which is likely to increase in the near-term future and eat into the margins of the touch-screen display makers.0 Other 10. In Exhibit 4-14 we provide a forecast of the transparent conductive materials that will be required for touch screens in the future. NanoMarkets.0 Millions Sq Meters 20.0 0. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . However. We haven’t quantified this specifically but we don’t believe that the opportunity will be large enough to attract new firms into the market.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 15.net Forecast of Volume Demand for Materials Requirements in Touch-Screen Displays 30.0 5. the current direction of the touch-screen market suggests that this market may open up opportunities for firms already supplying infrared devices. LC 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Page | 132 Handheld In terms of components.0 25. it does seem that the only way that touch-screen technology will reach the price points that it needs to achieve are with very low-cost transparent conductors and the reality is that high-end touch screens will have to use ITO. However. The exact shares that ITO alternatives hold are quite speculative.0 2010 © NanoMarkets. there may well be a niche opportunity for makers of infrared sources.nanomarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen. since some of the faster growing segments of the touch-screen market rely on infrared technology.

5 0.27 38.00 72.7 8.09 0.nanomarkets.5 37.2 14 3.5 0.70 112.5 7.4 387.0 8 0.0 1.1 0.4 3.7 130.1 5.2 5.5 15.5 2.2 2.1 54.2 12 0. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .1 4.0 30.9 3.0 0.9 459.81 54.2 1.6 240.00 3.0 0.98 25.1 31.6 8.7 13.8 0.1 12.5 0.5 2.7 22.net Exhibit 4-14 Forecast of Transparent Conductive Materials Use by Type in Touch-Screen Displays 2011 86.8 7.2 21.7 1.0 2013 64.5 0.1 1.9 4 0.4 33.9 3.5 22.6 5.0 5 0.00 2.1 1.0 0.0 2017 20.0 4.3 2.9 38.4 0.6 20.2 4.14 168.0 1.1 31.0 4.3 7.8 8.0 2.28 83.0 0.85 74.83 89.3 4.3 2.1 15.6 2 0.00 10.0 2016 29.3 42.1 43.64 188.1 35.90 0.0 2012 78.1 70.4 9 3.30 3.0 0.5 thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.0 1.0 94.7 326.5 2.20 1.5 0.NanoMarkets 2010 ITO Classic: Penetration (%) Usage (Million Square Meters) Expenditure per Square Meter ($) Market ($ Millions) ITO Inks and Pastes: Penetration (%) Usage (Million Square Meters) Expenditure per Square Meter ($) Market ($ Millions) Other TCOs: Penetration (%) Usage (Million Square Meters) Price per Square Meter ($) Market ($ Millions) Penetration (%) Usage (Square Meters) Price per Square Meter ($) Market ($ Millions) Penetration (%) Usage (Square Meters) Price per Square Meter ($) Market ($ Millions) Penetration (%) Usage (Square Meters) Price per Square Meter ($) Market ($ Millions) TOTAL MARKET ($ Millions) 0.6 4.31 18.80 0.7 27.9 8.4 78.0 9.0 34.0 17.40 21.3 38.8 4.6 33.1 35.6 5. Composites.1 3.5 11 1.5 2015 40.6 0.2 32.4 17 1.2 8 1.2 19.2 3.9 20.0 1.99 0.7 6 0.76 6.5 33.0 25. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.2 5.9 36.1 39.2 2 0.20 205.7 5.5 8.82 62.1 68.3 5.3 5.5 0.8 20.1 4.89 177.7 37.5 0.0 0.3 1.1 40.5 27 4.2 9.0 9.0 2.41 6.20 5.1 32 7.5 0.0 85.6 1. and Metals: Transparent Organic Conductors: NanoMarkets.8 1.52 47.3 22.8 34.2 3.42 200.4 54.9 7.6 2.4 22 2.8 2014 51.41 141.0 90.0 0.2 5.0 30.5 280.6 176.1 63.51 12.4 Page | 133 Carbon Nanotube-Based Formulations: Other Nanomaterials.4 0.0 4.0 0.5 34.71 12.

LC 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Other TCOs ITO Inks and Pastes ITO Classic Transparent Organic Conductors Other Nanomaterials.net Revenues from Major Touch-Screen Display Materials and Components 500 450 400 Revenues ($ Millions) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2010 2011 © NanoMarkets.NanoMarkets thin film | organic | printable | electronics www. Composites. Metals Carbon Nanotubes Page | 134 NanoMarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .

VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 .net Abbreviations and Acronyms Used In this Report Alternating Current All in One Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Acoustic Pulse Recognition Anti-Reflective Automatic Teller Machine Computer-Aided Design Carbon Nanotube Cathode Ray Tube Direct Current Dispersive Signal Technology Electromagnetic Interference Electromagnetic Resonance Global Positioning System Index Matching Intellectual Property Infrared Indium Tin Oxide Liquid Crystal Diode Light Emitting Diode Original Equipment Manufacturer Personal Digital Assistant Planar Scatter Detection Research and Development Reversing Ramped Field Capacitive Surface Acoustic Wave Transparent Conductive Oxide Page | 135 NanoMarkets. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets.NanoMarkets AC AiO AMOLED APR AR ATM CAD CNT CRT DC DST EMI EMR GPS IM IP IR ITO LCD LED OEM PDA PSD R&D RRFC SAW TCO thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.

Mr. LC | PO Box 3840 | Glen Allen.nanomarkets. Honeywell. nanosensors. organic and thin-film electronics.) and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute. Gasman is focusing on markets for printable. IBM. printable electronics. Mr.NanoMarkets About the Author thin film | organic | printable | electronics www.net Lawrence Gasman is the principal analyst at NanoMarkets. Red Herring and Small Times. a Senior Associate of the Foresight Nanotech Institute (where he serves on the editorial board. and semiconductor lasers. Fujitsu. nano-enabled computer memories. He has also written widely on telecommunications and IT and has authored three books in that area.0. “think tank. Intel. Panasonic. Gasman’s latest book is on the commercialization of nanotechnology for Artech House and has been a speaker at many conferences on printable and organic electronics and nanotechnology. Cabot. He is a member of the IEEE. NEC. photonic integration. Hewlett-Packard. displays. Cisco. Page | 136 NanoMarkets. a leading Washington. VA 23058 | TEL: 804-360-2967 | FAX: 804-270-7017 . British Telecom. Gasman has been quoted a wide range of publications including The Wall Street Journal. MEMS. D. Gasman has almost 30 years experience of analyzing the commercialization potential of complex technologies and in the recent past has conducted demanding market research on organic electronics. as well as testifying to Congress on the future of the FCC.” Mr. His consulting clients have included Analog Devices. Tellabs and a large number of high-tech start-ups and investment firms. At NanoMarkets. Business 2. Nortel. Investor’s Business Daily.C.

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