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This Course Description is intended for use by AP® teachers for course and exam preparation in the classroom; permission for any other use must be sought from the Program. Teachers may reproduce it, in whole or in part, in limited quantities, for face-to-face teaching purposes but may not mass distribute the materials, electronically or otherwise. This Course Description and any copies made of it may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here. This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein. The College Board is a national nonprofit membership association dedicated to preparing, inspiring, and connecting students to college and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 3,900 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three million students and their parents, 22,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges, through major programs and services in college admission, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT™, the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®), and Pacesetter®. The College Board is committed to the principles of equity and excellence, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Copyright © 2001 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, APCD, EssayPrep, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. AP Vertical Teams, APIEL, and Pre-AP are trademarks owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Visit College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com/ap.
Dear Colleagues: Last year more than three quarters of a million high school students benefited from the opportunity of studying in AP courses and then taking the challenging AP Exams. These students experienced the power of learning as it comes alive in the classroom, as well as the practical benefits of earning college credit and placement while still in high school. Behind each of these students was a talented, hardworking teacher. Teachers are the secret to the success of AP. They are the heart and soul of the Program. The College Board is committed to supporting the work of AP teachers in as many ways as possible. AP workshops and Summer Institutes held around the globe provide stimulating professional development for 60,000 teachers each year. The College Board Fellows stipends provide funds to support many teachers’ attendance at these institutes, and in 2001, stipends were offered for the first time to teams of Pre-AP™ teachers as well. Perhaps most exciting, the College Board continues to expand an interactive Web site designed specifically to support AP teachers. At this Internet site, teachers have access to a growing array of classroom resources, from textbook reviews to lesson plans, from opinion polls to cutting-edge exam information. I invite all AP teachers, particularly those who are new to the Program, to take advantage of these resources. This AP Course Description provides an outline of content and description of course goals, while still allowing teachers the flexibility to develop their own lesson plans and syllabi, and to bring their individual creativity to the AP classroom. Additional resources, including sample syllabi, can be found in the AP Teacher’s Guide that is available for each AP subject. As we look to the future, the College Board’s goal is to provide access to AP courses in every high school. Reaching this goal will require a lot of hard work. We encourage you to help us build bridges to college and opportunity by finding ways to prepare students in your school to benefit from participation in AP. Sincerely,
Gaston Caperton President The College Board
Welcome to the AP Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AP Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AP Exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Equity and Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 AP European History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Developing an AP Course in European History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Themes in Modern European History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Intellectual and Cultural History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Political and Diplomatic History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Social and Economic History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sample Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Sample Free-Resonse Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Part A: Document-Based Essay Question (DBQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Part B: Thematic Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 AP Program Essentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 The AP Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 AP Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Grade Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 AP and College Credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Why Colleges Give Credit for AP Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Guidelines on Granting Credit for AP Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Finding Colleges That Accept AP Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 AP Scholar Awards and the AP International Diploma . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 AP Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Test Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Teacher Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Pre-AP™ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 AP Publications and Other Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Welcome to the AP Program
The Advanced Placement Program is sponsored by the College Board, a non-profit membership association. AP offers 35 college-level courses and exams in 19 subject areas for highly motivated students in secondary schools. Its reputation for excellence results from the close cooperation among secondary schools, colleges, and the College Board. More than 2,900 universities and colleges worldwide grant credit, advanced placement, or both to students who have performed satisfactorily on the exams, and 1,400 institutions grant sophomore standing to students who meet their requirements. Approximately 13,000 high schools throughout the world participate in the AP Program; in May 2000, they administered more than 1.3 million AP Exams. You will find more information about the AP Program at the back of this Course Description, and at www.collegeboard.com/ap. This Web site is maintained for the AP Program by collegeboard.com, a destination Web site for students and parents.
AP courses are available in the subject areas listed on the next page. (Unless noted, an AP course is equivalent to a full-year college course.) Each course is developed by a committee composed of college faculty and AP teachers. Members of these Development Committees are appointed by the College Board and serve for overlapping terms of up to four years.
For each AP course, an AP Exam is administered at participating schools and multischool centers worldwide. Schools register to participate by completing the AP Participation Form and agreeing to its conditions. For more details, see A Guide to the Advanced Placement Program; information about ordering and downloading this publication can be found at the back of this booklet. Except for Studio Art — which consists of a portfolio assessment — all exams contain a free-response section (either essay or problem-solving) and another section consisting of multiple-choice questions. The modern language exams also contain a speaking component, and the Music Theory exam includes a sight-singing task.
AP Subject Areas Art
Biology Calculus Chemistry Computer Science Economics English
Environmental Science French German Geography Government and Politics History Latin Music Physics Psychology Spanish Statistics
AP Courses and Exams Art History; Studio Art: Drawing Portfolio; Studio Art: 2-D Portfolio; Studio Art: 3-D Portfolio Biology AB; BC Chemistry A*; AB Macroeconomics*; Microeconomics* Language and Composition; Literature and Composition; International English Language (APIEL™) Environmental Science* Language; Literature Language Human Geography* Comparative*; United States* European; United States; World Literature; Vergil Music Theory B; C: Electricity and Magnetism*; C: Mechanics* Psychology* Language; Literature Statistics*
** This subject is the equivalent of a half-year college course.
Equity and Access
The College Board and the Advanced Placement Program encourage teachers, AP Coordinators, and school administrators to make equity and access guiding principles for their AP programs. The College Board is committed to the principle that all students deserve an opportunity to participate in rigorous and academically challenging courses and programs. The Board encourages the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP courses for students from ethnic and racial groups that have been traditionally underrepresented in the AP Program. For more information about equity and access in principle and practice, contact the National Office in New York.
AP European History
Shaded text indicates important new changes in this subject. The AP course and examination in European History are intended for qualiﬁed students who wish to complete studies in secondary school equivalent to college introductory courses in European history. The examination presumes at least one academic year of college-level preparation, a description of which is set forth in this booklet. The inclusion of historical course material in the course description and in the examination is not intended as an endorsement by the College Board or Educational Testing Service of the content, ideas, or values expressed in the material. The material has been selected by historians who serve as members of the AP European History Development Committee. In their judgement, the material printed here reﬂects the course of study on which this examination is based and is therefore appropriate to use to measure the skills and knowledge acquired in this course. The current AP program in European History corresponds to the most recent developments in history curricula at the undergraduate level.* In colleges and universities, European history is increasingly seen in a broad perspective, with teaching methods reﬂecting an awareness of other disciplines and a diversity of techniques of presentation, including visual and statistical materials. Trends such as these are used by the Development Committee to adjust the course and the examination. The examination is divided into three parts: a multiple-choice section dealing with concepts, major historical facts and personalities, and historical analysis; a document-based essay designed speciﬁcally to test students’ ability to work with evidence; and two thematic essays on topics of major signiﬁcance. Together, these three parts of the examination provide students with an opportunity to demonstrate that they are qualiﬁed to pursue upper-level history studies at college.
* The Development Committee periodically revises the content and structure of the AP European History Course Description to reﬂect new developments in the discipline, to aid teachers in maintaining the comprehensive quality of their courses, and to assist teachers new to the program. A supplementary booklet, Teacher’s Guide—AP European History, has been prepared; see the back of this booklet for ordering information. For regular updates and the most current information about AP European History, please access the AP Program pages of the College Board’s Web site at www.collegeboard.com/ap www.collegeboard.com/ap 3
All sections of the examination reflect college and university programs in terms of subject matter and approach. Therefore, questions in cultural, diplomatic, economic, intellectual, political, and social history form the basis for the examination. Students are expected to demonstrate a knowledge of basic chronology and of major events and trends from approximately 1450 to the present, that is, from the High Renaissance to the very recent past. The entire chronological scope and a range of approaches are incorporated throughout the examination. In the multiple-choice section, approximately one-half of the questions deal with the period from 1450 to the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era, and one-half from the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era to the present. A number of questions may be cross-chronological or combine several approaches. Students should also have some familiarity with those aspects of the late medieval period that have an impact on post-1450 events, but there will be no essay or multiple-choice question that will have pre-1450 material as its focus.
The study of European history since 1450 introduces students to cultural, economic, political, and social developments that played a fundamental role in shaping the world in which they live. Without this knowledge, we would all lack the context for understanding the development of contemporary institutions, the role of conﬂict and continuity in present-day society and politics, and the evolution of current forms of artistic expression and intellectual discourse. In addition to providing a basic narrative of events and movements, the goals of the AP program in European History are to develop (a) an understanding of some of the principal themes in modern European history, (b) an ability to analyze historical evidence, and (c) an ability to analyze and to express historical understanding in writing.
Developing an AP Course in European History
There is no single, prescriptive model for developing an effective AP course in European History. The Committee, therefore, encourages experimentation and innovation in the schools. Experience gained in the program, however, prompts the Committee to offer some suggestions to schools participating for the ﬁrst time. The Committee strongly recom-
mends that schools schedule a speciﬁc AP class and supply students with college-level textbooks and materials. Virtually all schools that have initiated an AP European History class have found it highly advisable to select the teachers carefully and to provide them with sufﬁcient time and ﬂexibility to deal with the requirements of a stimulating and demanding course. The students who participate in the program should be reasonably qualiﬁed and, just as important, highly motivated. A limited class size is beneﬁcial to intellectual development.
Themes in Modern European History
The outlined themes that follow indicate some of the important areas that might be treated in an AP course in European History. The ideas suggested do not have to be treated explicitly as topics or covered inclusively, nor should they preclude development of other themes. In addition, questions on the examination will often call for students to interrelate categories or to trace developments in a particular category through several chronological periods.* 1. Intellectual and Cultural History Changes in religious thought and institutions Secularization of learning and culture Scientiﬁc and technological developments and their consequences Major trends in literature and the arts Intellectual and cultural developments and their relationship to social values and political events Developments in social, economic, and political thought Developments in literacy, education, and communication The diffusion of new intellectual concepts among different social groups Changes in elite and popular culture, such as the development of new attitudes toward religion, the family, work, and ritual Impact of global expansion on European culture 2. Political and Diplomatic History The rise and functioning of the modern state in its various forms Relations between Europe and other parts of the world: colonialism, imperialism, decolonization, and global interdependence
*Students should understand the designations for centuries; e.g., the seventeenth century is the 1600’s, not the 1700’s.
The evolution of political elites and the development of political parties and ideologies The extension and limitation of rights and liberties (personal, civic, economic, and political); majority and minority political persecutions The growth and changing forms of nationalism Forms of political protest, reform, and revolution Relationship between domestic and foreign policies Efforts to restrain conﬂict: treaties, balance-of-power diplomacy, and international organizations War and civil conflict: origins, developments, technology, and their consequences 3. Social and Economic History The character of and changes in agricultural production and organization The role of urbanization in transforming cultural values and social relationships The shift in social structures from hierarchical orders to modern social classes: the changing distribution of wealth and poverty The inﬂuence of sanitation and health care practices on society; food supply, diet, famine, disease, and their impact The development of commercial practices, patterns of mass production and consumption, and their economic and social impact Changing deﬁnitions of and attitudes toward mainstream groups and groups characterized as the “other” The origins, development, and consequences of industrialization Changes in the demographic structure of Europe, their causes and consequences Gender roles and their inﬂuence on work, social structure, family structure, and interest group formation The growth of competition and interdependence in national and world markets Private and state roles in economic activity Development of racial and ethnic group identities
The examination is three hours and ﬁve minutes in length. It consists of a 55-minute multiple-choice section and a 130-minute free-response section. The multiple-choice section consists of 80 questions designed to measure the student’s knowledge of European history from the High Renaissance to the present. Approximately one-half of the questions deal with the period from 1450 to the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era, and one-half from the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era to the present. Approximately 20 to 30 percent of the questions focus on cultural and intellectual themes, 30 to 40 percent on political and diplomatic themes, and 30 to 40 percent on social and economic themes. Of course, many questions draw on knowledge of more than one chronological period or theme. A student is not expected to be familiar with all the material covered. Section II, the free-response section, begins with a mandatory 15minute reading period followed by Part A, in which students are required to answer a document-based essay question (DBQ) in 45 minutes, and Parts B and C, in which students are asked to answer two thematic questions in 70 minutes. Students choose one essay from the three essays in Parts B and C; they will be advised to spend 5 minutes planning and 30 minutes writing each of their thematic essays. The thematic questions are grouped to ensure that students consider a range of historical periods and approaches.* Students are instructed to spend the introductory 15-minute reading period of Section II analyzing the documents for the DBQ, outlining their answer, and considering the choices of questions offered in Parts B and C. Within the free-response section, the DBQ essay will be weighted 45 percent, and the two thematic essays together will be weighted 55 percent. For the total examination score, the multiple-choice and the free-response sections will be weighted equally. Information about the process employed in grading the AP European History Examination, including the standards used and samples of student answers, can be found in the 1999 AP European History Released Exam and the College Board’s Web site. Ordering information for this and other AP publications can be found at the back of this booklet.
*The criteria for grouping the thematic essays will change for each examination to ensure coverage; grouping is often not chronological.
Sample Multiple-Choice Questions
The following 38 questions are examples of the kinds of multiple-choice questions found on the examination. Their distribution among themes, levels of difﬁculty, and chronological periods approximates the composition of the examination as a whole. Students often ask whether they should guess on the multiple-choice section. AP Examinations have a scoring adjustment to correct for random guessing. Each question has ﬁve answer choices; one-fourth of a point is subtracted for each wrong answer. If the student cannot eliminate even one of the choices, there is little to gain from choosing an answer at random. No points are deducted for leaving an answer blank. If the student is fairly sure that even one of the choices is wrong, it may be worthwhile to answer the question. Of course, if the student is able to eliminate two or three choices as incorrect, the chance of gaining credit becomes even greater. An answer key to the multiple-choice questions can be found on page 22. Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements is followed by ﬁve suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case. 1. In early modern Europe, women were accused of practicing witchcraft more often than were men because of the belief that women (A) lived longer (B) had too much political power (C) had more money (D) were more prone to violence (E) were more vulnerable to temptation
The seventeenth-century picture above illustrates (A) the spread of democratic ideals during this period (B) new developments in architecture (C) emerging differences between medieval and early modern religious practices (D) the increasing emphasis on scientiﬁc measurement and observation (E) astronomers’ rediscovery of the Ptolemaic system
THE BURNDY LIBRARY, DIBNER INSTITUTE FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Europe About 1560
The shaded portions on the map above represent the areas (A) controlled by Protestant rulers (B) where the Renaissance ﬁrst occurred (C) ruled by the Hapsburg family (D) ruled by the Bourbon family (E) affected most by urbanization and the commercial revolution In comparison to a preindustrial economy, the most distinctive feature of a modern economy is its (A) greater capacity to sustain growth over time (B) increased democratization of the workplace (C) lower wages for the literate middle class (D) lack of economic cycles (E) elimination of hunger and poverty
The reign of Peter the Great of Russia (1682-1725) resulted in which of the following? (A) The abolition of the Russian Orthodox Church (B) The territorial expansion of Russia (C) The weakening of serfdom (D) A decrease in the tax burden on poor peasants (E) The emergence of a wealthy middle class Which of the following characterizes the size of the population of Europe during the eighteenth century? (A) It increased rapidly. (B) It stayed about the same. (C) It declined. (D) It dropped drastically in western Europe, but rose in eastern Europe. (E) It dropped drastically in eastern Europe, but rose in western Europe. “Men being by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate and subjected to the political power of another without his own consent, which is done by agreeing with other men, to join and unite into a community for their comfortable, safe, and peaceable living in a secure enjoyment of their properties.’’ The quotation above is from a work by (A) John Locke (B) Francis Bacon (C) Edmund Burke (D) Voltaire (E) Adam Smith
As Great Britain developed economically after 1750, it required all of the following EXCEPT (A) more raw materials from abroad (B) more markets abroad (C) improved transport facilities (D) more investment capital (E) a greater percentage of people employed in agriculture
Frederick the Great (1740-1786) contributed most to the rise of Prussia as a major European power by (A) maintaining traditional dynastic alliances (B) annexing the Hapsburg province of Silesia (C) promoting religious toleration (D) encouraging the arts (E) instituting judicial reforms Which of the following factors led most immediately to the convening of the French Estates-General in May 1789? (A) The conﬂict between the bourgeoisie and the peasantry (B) The Roman Catholic Church’s support of discontented factions in French society (C) The agitation of the peasantry (D) Competition among elitist groups for royal approval (E) The impending bankruptcy of the French government “The power of population is inﬁnitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man. Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometric ratio. Subsistence only increases in an arithmetic ratio. A slight acquaintance with the numbers will show the immensity of the ﬁrst power in comparison with the second.’’ The argument presented above is fundamental to (A) Adam Smith’s belief in the natural laws of production and exchange (B) Hegel’s theory of the process of change (C) Malthus’ belief in the inevitability of working-class poverty (D) Charles Darwin’s theory of biological evolution (E) Marx’s theory of class conﬂict
All of the following are associated with the commercial revolution in early modern Europe EXCEPT (A) an increase in the number of entrepreneurial capitalists (B) the appearance of state-chartered trading companies (C) a large inﬂux of precious metals into Europe (D) an expansion of the guild system (E) a “golden age” for the Netherlands
The Protestant Reformation helped change the social roles of sixteenth-century women by (A) making marriage a sacrament (B) reemphasizing the adoration of the Virgin Mary (C) reducing access to religious orders (D) emphasizing the social equality of men and women (E) denying the right to divorce “I know that society may be formed so as to exist without crime, without poverty, with health greatly improved, with little, if any, misery, and with intelligence and happiness increased a hundred-fold; and no obstacle whatsoever intervenes at this moment, except ignorance, to prevent such a state of society from becoming universal.’’ The quotation above best illustrates the ideology of which of the following? (A) Utopian socialism (B) Classical liberalism (C) Fascism (D) Marxism (E) Syndicalism
All of the following were aspects of the British social welfare program as it developed between 1906 and 1916 EXCEPT (A) a minimum-wage law (B) old-age pensions (C) guaranteed annual income (D) accident and sickness insurance (E) unemployment beneﬁts
“Man Pointing,” by Alberto Giacometti, bronze; 701/2 403/4 163/8 '', at base 12 131/4'', 1947.
A historian would be most likely to cite the sculpture above as an example of the (A) material wealth of post-Second World War Europe (B) alienation in modern society (C) obsession of contemporary European culture with athletic prowess (D) scarcity of sculpting materials in Italy immediately after the Second World War (E) revival of Renaissance Humanism
COURTESY, THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, NEW YORK. GIFT OF MRS. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER PHOTOGRAPH © 2001 THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, NEW YORK.
One of the chief inﬂuences of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars (1789-1815) on Europe outside of France was that they (A) encouraged a spirit of compromise between the nobility and the middle class (B) discouraged the expansion of the growing network of intraEuropean canals and roads (C) strengthened German nationalism (D) led to widespread freeing of the serfs in Eastern Europe (E) opened the way for woman suffrage The aim of the Soviet Union’s First Five-Year Plan was to (A) acquire foreign capital (B) produce an abundance of consumer goods (C) encourage agricultural production by subsidizing the kulaks (D) build up heavy industry (E) put industrial policy in the hands of the proletariat
The British cartoon above refers to (A) the Soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948-1949 (B) Soviet export policies of the 1950’s (C) the installation of Soviet missiles in Cuba in 1962 (D) the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 (E) the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991
ARCHIVE PHOTOS/LONDON DAILY EXPRESS
The writings of Simone de Beauvoir strongly inﬂuenced which of the following intellectual movements? (A) Fascism and Social Darwinism (B) Historicism and Romanticism (C) Christian Socialism and environmentalism (D) Logical Positivism and Marxism (E) Existentialism and feminism Which of the following corresponded with the end of the Cold War in Europe? (A) An increase in ethnic and nationalistic tensions (B) An increase in the political power of trade unions (C) A decline in trade among European nations (D) A decline in the inﬂuence of Germany in European politics (E) An increase in the inﬂuence of Marxist ideology in European politics
The fresco above, The School of Athens, is characteristic of the thought and art of (A) medieval Scholasticism (B) the Rococo period (C) the Italian Renaissance (D) Romanticism (E) the Baroque era A central feature of the Catholic Reformation was the (A) Roman Catholic Church’s inability to correct abuses (B) establishment of new religious orders, such as the Jesuits (C) transfer of authority from Rome to the bishoprics (D) rejection of Baroque art (E) toleration of Protestants in Roman Catholic countries
Which of the following groups was instrumental in ending the Wars of Religion (1562-1598) in France? (A) A group of Roman Catholics and Protestants called the politiques (B) The French Calvinist nobility (C) Roman Catholic priests led by the papal nuncio (D) A coalition between lower-class Calvinists and Roman Catholics (E) The Huguenots Between 1629 and 1639, Charles I of England tried to obtain revenues by all of the following means EXCEPT (A) the levying of ship money (B) income from crown lands (C) forced loans (D) the sale of monopolies (E) grants from Parliament Which of the following is a true statement about marriage in continental Europe from approximately 1600 to 1750? (A) Churches gave their authority over marriage to the state. (B) Marriage was tightly controlled by the law and by parental authority. (C) Love had no place in marriage. (D) Marriage was undertaken without considering the economic implications. (E) Most women married after the age of thirty-ﬁve. The enlightened monarchs of the eighteenth century would most likely have favored which of the following? (A) The Society of Jesus (B) Written constitutions (C) The abolition of organized religion (D) The codiﬁcation of laws (E) Royal succession based on ability instead of birth The Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century England primarily involved new techniques in (A) shoe manufacturing (B) textile production (C) ship construction (D) furniture manufacturing (E) steel production
Which of the following was an outcome of the settlement at the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)? (A) The restoration to power of many of the dynasties deposed by the French Revolution and by Napoleon I (B) The division of Europe based on the principle of aligning territorial boundaries with the national sentiments of the inhabitants (C) The award of overseas colonial territories to several countries that made signiﬁcant contributions to the defeat of Napoleon I (D) The recognition of the right of a people to choose whom they would accept as their lawful ruler (E) The creation of a uniﬁed German state through the reestablishment of the Holy Roman Empire The close relationship between Romanticism and religion during the nineteenth century was strengthened by the fact that both (A) found a common ground in the Enlightenment (B) emphasized the beneﬁts to society of new industrial technology (C) appealed almost exclusively to the middle class (D) opposed imperialist expansion (E) stressed the unity of the emotions and the will Year 1740 1788 1796 1806 1844 Units Produced 17,000 68,000 125,000 260,000 3,000,000
The ﬁgures in the table above most likely refer to increases in British production of (A) sulphuric acid (B) salted cod (C) wheat (D) iron (E) copper Which of the following nineteenth-century Italian ﬁgures actively sought to prevent the uniﬁcation of Italy? (A) Camillo di Cavour (B) Giuseppe Mazzini (C) Victor Emmanuel II (D) Giuseppe Garibaldi (E) Pius IX
The Eiffel Tower, dedicated in Paris in 1889, was conceived and built for all of the following reasons EXCEPT to (A) create a laboratory for meteorological and astronomical observations (B) express the technological optimism of the late nineteenth century (C) enhance France’s self-image after its defeat by Germany (D) create a center for a vast international radio network (E) commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the French Revolution Which of the following occurred at the Munich Conference in September 1938? (A) Britain and France approved the surrender of the Sudetenland to Germany. (B) The Soviet Union left the conference after seeing the terms of the agreement. (C) Italy refused to support Germany. (D) Germany was given all of Czechoslovakia. (E) Winston Churchill convinced all parties to agree to a reasonable compromise. Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity proposed (A) a new structure for the atom (B) a new conception of space and time (C) the fundamental concepts for developing the computer (D) the origin of the universe from the explosion of a single mass (E) the particulate nature of light
SOVIET AGRICULTURAL LABORERS, 1959
Which of the following statements is best supported by the graph above? (A) Women agricultural workers tended to be younger than their male counterparts. (B) Women were shut out of agricultural labor when the overall number of farm laborers decreased. (C) Women worked more as skilled professionals than as unskilled agricultural workers. (D) When women reached childbearing age, they stopped working in agriculture. (E) The majority of Soviet farm workers were women. The term “collective security’’ would most likely be discussed in which of the following studies? (A) A book on the twentieth-century welfare state (B) A monograph on Soviet agricultural policy during the 1920’s (C) A book on Bismarckian imperialism (D) A treatise on Social Darwinism (E) A work on European diplomacy during the 1930’s
After the Second World War, most Western European states sought to develop policies that (A) made individuals responsible for paying most of their own health care costs (B) provided improved medical and social services for women and children (C) eliminated unemployment for the working class (D) abolished private enterprise, replacing it with government ownership of all businesses (E) reestablished the churches and private charities as the primary sources of aid to the poor
Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions 1–E 7–A 13–C 19–D 25–E 31–D 2–D 8–E 14–A 20–E 26–B 32–E 3–C 9–B 15–C 21–A 27–D 33–D 4–A 10–E 16–B 22–C 28–B 34–A 5–B 11–C 17–C 23–B 29–A 35–B 6–A 12–D 18–D 24–A 30–E 36–E
Sample Free-Response Questions
Students have 2 hours and 10 minutes to plan and write three essays in the free-response section of the examination. It is extremely important for students to manage their time so that they can give adequate attention to each essay. Effective answers to essay questions depend in part upon a clear understanding (and execution) of the meanings of important directive words, some examples of which follow. These are the words that indicate the way in which the material is to be presented. For example, if students only describe when they are asked to compare, or if they merely list causes when they have been asked to evaluate them, their responses will be less than satisfactory. An essay can only begin to be correct if it answers directly the question that is asked. Individual teachers can provide what AP Examinations cannot—help with the meanings and applications of some frequently used terms like these: 1. Analyze: determine their component parts; examine their nature and relationship. “Analyze the major social and technological changes that took place in European warfare between 1789 and 1871.’’
2. Assess/Evaluate: judge the value or character of something; appraise; evaluate the positive points and the negative ones; give an opinion regarding the value of; discuss the advantages and disadvantages of. “‘Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative.’ Evaluate this statement with respect to Luther’s responses to the political and social questions of his day.’’ 3. Compare: examine for the purpose of noting similarities and differences. “Compare the rise to power of fascism in Italy and in Germany.’’ 4. Contrast: examine in order to show dissimilarities or points of difference. “Contrast the ways in which European skilled artisans of the mid-eighteenth century and European factory workers of the late nineteenth century differed in their work behavior and in their attitudes toward work.” 5. Describe: give an account of; tell about; give a word picture of. “Describe the steps taken between 1832 and 1918 to extend the suffrage in England. What groups and movements contributed to the extension of the vote?” 6. Discuss: talk over; write about; consider or examine by argument or from various points of view; debate; present the different sides of. “Discuss the extent to which nineteenth-century Romanticism was or was not a conservative cultural and intellectual movement.” 7. Explain: make clear or plain; make clear the causes or reasons for; make known in detail; tell the meaning of. “Explain how economic, political, and religious factors promoted European explorations from about 1450 to about 1525.” Part A: Document-Based Essay Question (DBQ) The primary purpose of the document-based essay question is not to test students’ prior knowledge of subject matter but rather to evaluate their ability to formulate and support an answer from documentary evidence. Depending on the topic and focus of a particular DBQ, the question may or may not require students to discuss change over time in their essays. It is assumed students have taken the course and understand the broader historical context. Documents are chosen on the basis of both the information they convey about the topic and the perspective that they offer on other documents used in the exercise. Thus the fullest understanding of any particular document emerges only when that document is viewed within the wider context of the entire series. Designed to test skills
analogous to those of the historian at work on source materials, the document-based exercise differs from the task of actual historians mainly in the time available for analysis and the prearranged selection of the documents, which may help illuminate the speciﬁcs of the question. There is no single “correct” answer; instead, various approaches and responses are possible, depending on the students’ ability to understand the documents and ultimately to judge their signiﬁcance. In writing the essay, candidates might ﬁnd it useful to consider the following points. The document-based question is an exercise in both analysis and synthesis. It requires that students ﬁrst read and analyze the documents individually and then plan and construct an appropriate response to the essay question based upon their interpretation of the documentary evidence as a whole. What is desired is a uniﬁed essay which integrates analysis of documents with treatment of the topic. Speciﬁc mention of individual documents should always occur within the framework of the overall topic, serving to substantiate and illustrate points made in the essay. It is not necessary that every document be cited in the essay, but essays should cite a majority of the documents. The way in which students approach the topic provides a good indication of their understanding of the question and their ability to weigh the evidence. In no case should documents simply be cited and summarized; reference to the documentary material must always be closely tied to the essay topic. Evidence from the documents should be used both to construct and to illustrate responses. Better essays will group documents in various ways. Students may cite documents by naming the author and/or by naming the document number. One way to approach the documents is to read all of them in order of presentation, returning to the more important ones for further study. There are no irrelevant or deliberately misleading documents. Some documents are more central to an understanding of the topic than others, but every one is related to the question and can be used by students in the preparation of their essays. Even a superior essay does not have to make implicit or explicit use of all the documents, because different combinations of documents may be used to support various lines of reasoning. Critical judgment is essential to a good document-based essay. Acknowledgement of the documents’ sources and their authors’ points of view requires students to demonstrate the skills of critical reading and inference. Students should pay attention to both internal evidence (the content and tone of each document in relation to the others) and external evidence (identiﬁcations of authors, the documents’ purpose or intended audience, and the date when each document was written).
The crucial skill that readers are looking for in a student's approach to documents is the awareness that documents are not statements of facts, but descriptions, interpretations, or opinions of events and developments made by particular people at particular places and times, and often for speciﬁc reasons. Too often, students write essays in which they take the documents as objective fact. Instead, students should be applying critical thinking skills to documents, evaluating whether they are likely to be accurate and complete, and in what ways the author of the document may be revealing bias.* A student reading critically may group or juxtapose documents in a variety of ways (for instance, according to their ideas or points of view*); suggest reasons for similarities or differences in perspective among the documents; and identify possible bias or inconsistencies within documents. The most common errors in student responses to document-based questions include: simply paraphrasing or summarizing the documents, failing to integrate the documents with the essay, failing to answer the question that is being asked, failing to analyze the documents or determine their signiﬁcance, and failing to demonstrate that independent thought has gone into the essay. Students may refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents as long as these references are accurate and relevant. As a result, the AP European History Development Committee strongly urges teachers to ensure that students know how to do what is asked of them. For example, students should be instructed to read carefully the directions and the questions, to evaluate sources and authors’ points of view, and to exercise critical judgment. The number of DBQ documents ranges from 10 to 12, and each document’s author and source appear above the document to encourage students to make interpretative use of this information. Since the 2000 exam administration, readers have used the core-scoring method to score the DBQ. This method assigns a point to each historical skill considered essential to the analysis of documents. The scoring scale remains 0 to 9. These essential historical skills form the basic core score and total 6 points. Every student who takes an AP European History course is expected to demonstrate these basic skills. In order to get a score higher than 6, a student must demonstrate minimal competence in the basic core and then go beyond in one or more areas. A generic version of the corescoring guide for the DBQ follows. The speciﬁc core-scoring guide for the 2000 DBQ, including examples of its application, is on the College Board’s Web site at: www.collegeboard.com/ap/european-history/
*Please access the AP European History section in the AP pages of the College Board Web site at www.collegeboard.com/ap for further elaboration of what point of view is and for examples from the 2000 DBQ. www.collegeboard.com/ap 25
Generic Core-Scoring Guide for AP European History Document-Based Question (Score scale 0 – 9) BASIC CORE 1. Has acceptable thesis. 2. Uses a majority of documents. Points 1 1 EXPANDED CORE Expands beyond basic core of 1 – 6 points. A student must earn 6 points in the basic core area before earning points in the expanded core area. Examples: • Has a clear, analytical and comprehensive thesis. • Uses all or almost all documents. • Uses documents persuasively as evidence. • Shows careful and insightful analysis of the documents. • Analyzes bias or point of view in at least four documents cited in the essay. • Analyzes the documents in additional ways—additional groupings or other forms of analysis. • Brings in relevant “outside” historical content. Subtotal TOTAL 3 9 Points 0–3
1 3. Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from documents. 4. Understands the basic meaning of documents cited in the essay. (May misinterpret one document.) 5. Analyzes bias or point of view in at least two or three documents. 6. Analyzes documents by grouping them in one (or two or three) ways, depending on DBQ question. 1
Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1–11. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet. This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that: • Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. • Uses a majority of the documents. • Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually. • Takes into account both the sources of the documents and the authors’ points of view. You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents. 1. Describe and analyze the views of those who were concerned about the problems of the political, economic, and social order in the German states before the revolutions of 1848. Historical background: In the eighteenth century, the Germans were divided among more than three hundred states, ranging from great powers (Austria and Prussia) to small city-states and principalities, all grouped under the Holy Roman Empire. During the Napoleonic Wars, some Germans hoped for German uniﬁcation under a single constitutional monarchy. In 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon, much of the previous social and political order was restored. There were thirty-eight states loosely tied together in the Germanic Confederation. The map on the following page shows the major states of that confederation.
Source: Ernst Moritz Arndt, German poet and professor, 1813.
Where is the German’s Fatherland? Is it Bavaria? Is it the Prussian-land? Is it Tyrol? Is it where the Swiss dwell? Ah! Austria surely it must be? Oh no! More great, more grand Must be the German’s Fatherland! Where is the German’s Fatherland? Wherever resounds the German tongue!
Source: Joseph von* Goerres, German publicist and scholar in exile in France, pamphlet entitled “Germany and the Revolution,” 1819.
In Germany I am pleased a new idea is added to those that caused the revolution in France—the idea of national unity, which will render the ferment stronger than ever. A German revolution must end with the expulsion of the reigning princes, the overthrow of all ecclesiastical establishments, the destruction of the nobles, and the introduction of a republican constitution.
*The term “von” is a sign of aristocratic status.
Source: Klemens von Metternich, Austrian chief minister, memorandum to the Austrian emperor, 1819.
Formerly the German revolutionaries were separated by the states in which they lived. It was clear to those conspirators that under such circumstances they could strike no effective blow. Some of these men now take the correct road from a revolutionary point of view. They direct their eyes to the union of all Germans in one Germany. This evil must be conquered.
Source: David Hansemann, an industrialist in the Prussian Rhineland, private letter, 1830.
We liberals insist that no one suffer distress, and so one institution after another is founded to feed the poor, to educate their children, to care for the old, to help poor mothers, etc. But herein lies the most direct invitation to wastefulness and laziness, the two vices which will most effectively nourish good-for-nothings among the lower classes. These good-for-nothings are dangerous to the public safety.
Source: Friedrich List, Württemberg economist and academic, pamphlet, 1834.
Thirty-eight customs borders dividing the German states cripple our internal commerce and bring about the same effect as binding up every part of the human body so that blood cannot ﬂow from one to the other.
Source: Essay by Johann Riegel, a bookseller in a university town in Württemberg, 1842.
We live in a transitional period. Factories are taking the place of craft production. Nearly all the crafts are either in decline or in the grip of drastic changes in their shops to meet the competition of industrialization.
Source: Bettina von Arnim, author and wife of a Prussian aristocrat, This is the Responsibility of the King, book dedicated to King Frederick William IV of Prussia, 1843.
The father weaves cloth for jackets and pants, but he himself is in rags. The children are naked, trying to warm themselves in the straw. The mother spins threads from daylight to dark, but her efforts can never satisfy the needs of her children. The state demands taxes from the family, and they must pay their rent or the landlord will evict them.
Source: General Joseph von Radowitz, advisor to King Frederick William IV of Prussia, Concerning State and Church, book, 1846.
Our German princes still have the resources to survive the struggle against the triumphant mediocrity of the middle classes. Let our princes have the courage to turn to the masses. There, among the lower and most numerous classes of the population, are their natural allies. The bourgeoisie has been corrupted by the evil education of the times and has lost its loyalty and faith.
Source: Newspaper illustration of a bread riot in the Prussian town of Stettin, 1847.
Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz
Source: Hans von Gagern, government ofﬁcial in Hesse, speech before the Hessian State Assembly, 1847.
A new spirit is now irresistibly asserting itself in Germany. It is a strengthened public spirit, and in our times the German people cannot be put off as they were in previous years. It is the unquestionable conviction of the whole people that only by developing the principle of a representative and constitutional monarchy throughout Germany can the unity of the fatherland be strengthened, freedom come forth, and the rule of law be secured for our future public life.
Source: Anonymous pamphlet conﬁscated by the police in Frankfurt, 1847.
Men of the Proletariat! German workers! You are the heart of the people. Show what you are worth. It is an honor to be called “the proletariat.” Be worthy of this honor, and show that you were not born to be hunted like wild animals by the prince’s police. When it comes time to ﬁght—attack!
END OF PART A
Parts B and C: Thematic Essay Questions The free-response thematic essay questions provide an opportunity for students to demonstrate the range of the skills and information mastered in the course in two broad interpretive essays. The questions in this part reﬂect the three thematic categories described on pages 5–6. (Suggested planning and writing time—70 minutes. Percent of Section II score—55.) Part B: Directions: You are to answer ONE question from the three questions below. Make your selection carefully, choosing the question that you are best prepared to answer thoroughly in the time permitted. In writing your essay, use speciﬁc examples to support your answer. You should spend 5 minutes organizing or outlining your answer. 2. Using speciﬁc examples from Eastern and Western Europe, discuss economic development during the period 1945 to the present, focusing on ONE of the following. a) Economic recovery and integration b) Development of the welfare state and its subsequent decline 3. Compare and contrast the roles of British working women in the preindustrial economy (before 1750) with their roles in the era 1850 to 1920. 4. To what extent and in what ways did nationalist tensions in the Balkans between 1870 and 1914 contribute to the outbreak of the First World War? Part C: Directions: You are to answer ONE question from the three questions below. Make your selection carefully, choosing the question that you are best prepared to answer thoroughly in the time permitted. In writing your essay, use speciﬁc examples to support your answer. You should spend 5 minutes organizing or outlining your answer. 5. To what extent did the Enlightenment express optimistic ideas in eighteenth-century Europe? Illustrate your answer with references to speciﬁc individuals and their works. 6. Compare and contrast the Lutheran Reformation and the Catholic Reformation of the sixteenth century regarding the reform of both religious doctrines and religious practices. 7. Discuss how Renaissance ideas are expressed in the Italian art of the period, referring to speciﬁc works and artists.
AP Program Essentials
The AP Reading
In June, the free-response sections of the exams, as well as the portfolios in Studio Art, are scored by college and secondary school teachers at the AP Reading. Thousands of these faculty consultants participate, under the direction of a Chief Faculty Consultant in each field. The experience offers both significant professional development and the opportunity to network with like-minded educators; if you are an AP teacher or a member of a college faculty and would like to serve as a faculty consultant, you can apply online in the AP section of the College Board’s Web site. Alternatively, send an e-mail message to firstname.lastname@example.org, or call Performance Scoring Services at 609 406-5383.
The faculty consultants’ judgments on the essay and problem-solving questions are combined with the results of the computer-scored multiple-choice questions, and the total raw scores are converted to AP’s 5-point scale: AP GRADE 5 4 3 2 1 QUALIFICATION Extremely Well Qualified Well Qualified Qualified Possibly Qualified No Recommendation
Many teachers want to compare their students’ grades with the national percentiles. Grade distribution charts are available in the subject pages of the AP Web site, as is information on how the cut-off points for each AP grade are calculated.
AP and College Credit
Advanced placement and/or credit is awarded by the college or university, not the College Board or the AP Program. The best source of specific and up-to-date information about an individual institution’s policy is its catalog or Web site.
Why Colleges Give Credit for AP Grades
Colleges need to know that the AP grades they receive for their incoming students represent a level of achievement equivalent to that of students who take the same course in the colleges’ own classrooms. That equivalency is assured through several Advanced Placement Program processes: • College faculty serve on the committees that develop the course descriptions and examinations in each AP subject. • College faculty are responsible for standard setting and are involved in the evaluation of student responses at the AP Reading. • AP courses and exams are updated regularly, based on both the results of curriculum surveys at up to 200 colleges and universities and the interactions of committee members with professional organizations in their discipline. • College comparability studies are undertaken in which the performance of college students on AP Exams is compared with that of AP students to confirm that the AP grade scale of 1–5 is properly aligned with current college standards. In addition, the College Board has commissioned studies that use a “bottom-line” approach to validating AP Exam grades by comparing the achievement of AP versus non-AP students in higher-level college courses. For example, in the 1998 Morgan and Ramist “21-College” study, AP students who were exempted from introductory courses and who completed a higher-level course in college are compared, on the basis of their college grades, with students who completed the prerequisite first course in college, then took the second, higher-level course in the subject area. Such studies answer the question of greatest concern to colleges — are their AP students who are exempted from introductory courses as well prepared to continue in a subject area as students who took their first course in college? To see the results of several college validity studies, go to the AP pages of the College Board’s Web site. (The aforementioned Morgan and Ramist study can be downloaded from the site in its entirety.)
Guidelines on Granting Credit for AP Grades
If you are an admission administrator and need guidance on setting a policy for your college, you will find the College and University Guide to the Advanced Placement Program useful; see the back of this booklet for ordering information. Alternatively, contact your local College Board Regional Office, as noted on the inside back cover of this booklet.
Finding Colleges That Accept AP Grades
In addition to contacting colleges directly for their AP policies, students and teachers can use College Search, an online resource maintained by the College Board through its Annual Survey of Colleges. College Search can be accessed via the College Board’s Web site (www.collegeboard.com). It is worth remembering, though, that policies are subject to change. Contact the college directly to get the most up-to-date information.
AP Scholar Awards and the AP International Diploma
The AP Program offers a number of awards to recognize high school students who have demonstrated college-level achievement through AP courses and exams. In addition, the AP International Diploma (APID) certifies the achievement of successful AP candidates who plan to apply to a university outside the United States. For detailed information on AP Scholar Awards and the APID, including qualification criteria, visit the AP Web site or contact the College Board’s National Office. Students’ questions are also answered in the AP Bulletin for Students and Parents; information about ordering and downloading the Bulletin can be found at the back of this booklet.
To get an idea of the various events associated with running an AP program and administering the AP Exams, please refer to this year’s edition of A Guide to the Advanced Placement Program; information about ordering and downloading the Guide can be found at the back of this booklet.
The entire AP Exam must be kept secure until the scheduled administration date. Except during the actual exam administration, exam materials must be placed in locked storage. Forty-eight hours after the exam has been administered, the green and blue inserts from the free-response section (Section II) are available for teacher and student review.* However, the multiple-choice section (Section I) must remain secure both before and after the exam administration. No one other than candidates taking
*The alternate (make-up) form of the free-response section is NOT released. www.collegeboard.com/ap 37
the exam can ever have access to or see the questions contained in this section — this includes AP Coordinators and AP teachers. The multiple-choice section must never be shared or copied in any manner. Various combinations of selected multiple-choice questions are reused from year to year to provide an essential method of establishing high exam reliability, controlled levels of difficulty, and comparability with earlier exams. These goals can only be attained when the multiple-choice questions remain secure. This is why teachers cannot view the questions and students cannot share information about these questions with anyone following the exam administration. To ensure that all students have an equal chance to perform on the exam, AP Exams must be administered in a uniform manner. It is extremely important to follow the administration schedule and all procedures outlined in detail in the most recent AP Coordinator’s Manual. The manual also includes directions on how to deal with misconduct and other security problems. Any breach of security should be reported immediately through the test security hot line (call 800 353-8570, e-mail email@example.com, or fax 609 406-9709).
Look for these enhanced Web resources at www.collegeboard.com/ap • Information about AP Exam development, administration, scoring and grading, fees, and scheduling. • Program news, such as exam format changes, opinion polls (teacher surveys, ad hoc polls), and profiles of successful teachers and AP programs. • A searchable catalog of teaching resources, including: course topic outlines, sample syllabi and lesson plans, strategies and tips, topic briefs, links, and textbook reviews. • A searchable catalog of professional development opportunities (e.g., workshops, summer institutes, conferences). New and experienced AP teachers are invited to attend workshops and institutes to learn the fundamentals of teaching an AP course, as well as the latest expectations for each course and exam. Sessions ranging from one day to three weeks in length are held year-round. Dates, locations, topics, and fee information are also available through the College Board’s Regional Offices.
• Online forums for exchanging ideas with AP teachers. • Sample multiple-choice and free-response questions. To supplement these online resources, there are a number of AP publications, CD-ROMs, and videos that can assist AP teachers. Please see the following pages for an overview and for ordering information.
Preparing Students for Challenging Courses; Preparing Teachers for Student Success
Pre-AP has two objectives: (1) to promote access to AP for all students; (2) to provide professional development through content-specific strategies to build a rigorous curriculum. Teachers employ Pre-AP strategies and materials to introduce skills, concepts, and assessment methods that prepare students for success when they take AP and other challenging academic courses. Schools use Pre-AP strategies to strengthen and align the curriculum across grade levels, and to increase the academic challenge for all students. Pre-AP professional development is available to teachers through Building Success workshops and through AP Vertical Teams™ conferences and workshops. • Building Success is a two-day workshop that assists English and history teachers in designing curricula for grade 7 and above. Teachers learn strategies to help students engage in active questioning, analysis, and constructing arguments. Workshop topics include assessment, interdisciplinary teaching and learning, and vertical planning. • AP Vertical Teams are trained via one-day workshops, two-day conferences, and five-day summer institutes; they enable middle school and high school teachers to prepare Pre-AP students for academic success in AP courses and in college. Topics include organizing effective teams, aligning curricula, and developing content-specific teaching strategies. • Setting the Cornerstones: Building the Foundation of AP Vertical Teams is a two-day workshop designed to provide information about the College Board and the AP Program, and to suggest strategies for establishing coherence, commitment, collegiality, and collaboration among the members of an AP Vertical Team.
For more information about Building Success workshops and for schedules of AP Vertical Teams workshops and conferences, contact your College Board Regional Office. Alternatively, contact Mondy Raibon, Pre-AP Initiatives, AP Program, The College Board, 45 Columbus Avenue, New York, NY 10023-6992; 212 713-8156; firstname.lastname@example.org.
AP Publications and Other Resources
A number of AP publications, CD-ROMs, and videos are available to help students, parents, AP Coordinators, and high school and college faculty learn more about the AP Program and its courses and exams. To identify resources that may be of particular use to you, refer to the following key. Students and Parents Teachers SP T AP Coordinators and Administrators College Faculty
You have several options for ordering publications: • Online. Visit the College Board store to see descriptions and pictures of AP publications and to place your order. • By mail. Send a completed order form with your payment or credit card information to: Advanced Placement Program, Dept. E-06, P.O. Box 6670, Princeton, NJ 08541-6670. If you need a copy of the order form, you can download one from the AP Library (www.collegeboard.com/ap/library). • By fax. Credit card orders can be faxed to AP Order Services at 609 771-7385. • By phone. Call AP Order Services at 609 771-7243, Monday through Friday 8:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., and Saturday 9:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m. ET. Have your American Express, MasterCard, or VISA information ready. This phone number is for credit card orders only. Payment must accompany all orders not on an institutional purchase order or credit card, and checks should be made payable to the College Board. The College Board pays fourth-class book rate postage (or its equivalent) on all prepaid orders; you should allow two to three weeks for delivery. Postage will be charged on all orders requiring billing and/or requesting a faster method of shipment.
Publications may be returned within 15 days of receipt if postage is prepaid and publications are in resalable condition and still in print. Unless otherwise specified, orders will be filled with the currently available edition; prices are subject to change without notice.
Items marked with a computer mouse icon can be downloaded for free from the AP Library (www.collegeboard.com/ap/library).
m AP Bulletin for Students and Parents: Free
This bulletin provides a general description of the AP Program, including policies and procedures for preparing to take the exams, and registering for the AP courses. It describes each AP Exam, lists the advantages of taking the exams, describes the grade reporting and award options available to students, and includes the upcoming exam schedule. College and University Guide to the AP Program: $10 C, A
This guide is intended to help college and university faculty and administrators understand the benefits of having a coherent, equitable AP policy. Topics included are validity of AP grades; developing and maintaining scoring standards; ensuring equivalent achievement; state legislation supporting AP; and quantitative profiles of AP students by each AP subject.
m Course Descriptions: $12
SP, T, A, C
Course Descriptions provide an outline of the AP course content, explain the kinds of skills students are expected to demonstrate in the corresponding introductory college-level course, and describe the AP Exam. They also provide sample multiple-choice questions with an answer key, as well as sample free-response questions. A complete set of Course Descriptions is available for $100.
m A Guide to the Advanced Placement Program: Free
Written for both administrators and AP Coordinators, this guide is divided into two sections. The first section provides general information about AP, such as how to organize an AP program at your high school, the kind of training and support that is available for AP teachers, and a look at the AP Exams and grades. The second section contains more specific details about testing procedures and policies and is intended for AP Coordinators.
Interpreting and Using AP Grades: Free
A, C, T
A booklet containing information on the development of scoring standards, the AP Reading, grade-setting procedures, and suggestions on how to interpret AP grades.
m Pre-AP: Achieving Equity, Emphasizing Excellence: Free
An informational brochure describing the Pre-AP concept and outlining the characteristics of a successful Pre-AP program. Released Exams: $20 ($30 for “double” subjects: Calculus, Computer Science, Latin, Physics)
About every four years, on a staggered schedule, the AP Program releases a complete copy of each exam. In addition to providing the multiple-choice questions and answers, the publication describes the process of scoring the free-response questions and includes examples of students’ actual responses, the scoring standards, and commentary that explains why the responses received the scores they did. Packets of 10: $30. For each subject with a released exam, you can purchase a packet of 10 copies of that year’s exam for use in your classroom (e.g., to simulate an AP Exam administration). Secondary School Guide to the AP Program: $10 A, T
This guide is a comprehensive consideration of the AP Program. It covers topics such as developing or expanding an AP program; gaining faculty, administration, and community support; AP Grade Reports, their use and interpretation; AP Scholar Awards; receiving college credit for AP; AP teacher training resources; descriptions of successful AP programs in nine schools around the country; and “Voices of Experience,” a collection of ideas and tips from AP teachers and administrators. Student Guides (available for Calculus, English, and U.S. History): $12
These are course and exam preparation manuals designed for high school students who are thinking about or taking a specific AP course. Each guide answers questions about the AP course and exam, suggests helpful study resources and test-taking strategies, provides sample questions with answers, and discusses how the free-response questions are scored.
Teacher’s Guides: $12
For those about to teach an AP course for the first time, or for experienced AP teachers who would like to get some fresh ideas for the classroom, the Teacher’s Guide is an excellent resource. Each Teacher’s Guide contains syllabi developed by high school teachers currently teaching the AP course and college faculty who teach the equivalent course at colleges and universities. Along with detailed course outlines and innovative teaching tips, you’ll also find extensive lists of recommended teaching resources. AP Vertical Team Guides T, A
An AP Vertical Team (APVT) is made up of teachers from different grade levels who work together to develop and implement a sequential curriculum in a given discipline. The team’s goal is to help students acquire the skills necessary for success in AP. To help teachers and administrators who are interested in establishing an APVT at their school, the College Board has published three guides: AP Vertical Teams in Science, Social Studies, Foreign Language, Studio Art, and Music Theory: An Introduction ($12); A Guide for Advanced Placement English Vertical Teams ($10); and Advanced Placement Program Mathematics Vertical Teams Toolkit ($35). A discussion of the English Vertical Teams guide, and the APVT concept, is also available on a 15-minute VHS videotape ($10).
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EssayPrep is available through the AP subject pages of the College Board’s Web site. Students can select an essay topic, type a response, and get an evaluation from an experienced reader. The service is offered for the freeresponse portions of the AP Biology, English Language and Composition, English Literature and Composition, and U.S. History Exams. The fee is $15 per response for each evaluation. SAT® II: Writing Subject Test topics are also offered for a fee of $10. Multiple evaluations can be purchased at a 10–20% discount.
APCD®: $49 (home version), $450 (multi-network site license)
These CD-ROMs are available for Calculus AB, English Language, English Literature, European History, Spanish Language, and U.S. History. They each include actual AP Exams, interactive tutorials, and other features including exam descriptions, answers to frequently asked questions, studyskill suggestions, and test-taking strategies. There is also a listing of resources for further study and a planner to help students schedule and organize their study time. Videoconference Tapes: $15 SP, T, C
AP has conducted live, interactive videoconferences for various subjects, enabling AP teachers and students to talk directly with the Development Committees that design and develop the AP courses and exams. Tapes of these events are available in VHS format and are approximately 90 minutes long. AP: Pathway to Success (video — available in English and Spanish): $15
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This 25-minute video takes a look at the AP Program through the eyes of people who know AP: students, parents, teachers, and college admission staff. They answer such questions as: “Why do it?” “Who teaches AP courses?” and “Is AP for you?” College students discuss the advantages they gained through taking AP courses, such as academic self-confidence, improved writing skills, and college credit. AP teachers explain what the challenge of teaching AP courses means to them and their school, and admission staff explain how they view students who have stretched themselves by taking AP Exams. There is also a discussion of the impact that an AP program has on an entire school and its community, and a look at resources available to assist AP teachers, such as regional workshops, teacher conferences, and summer institutes.
College Board Regional Offices
45 Columbus Avenue, New York, NY 10023-6992 212 713-8066 E-mail: email@example.com
Serving Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Puerto Rico 3440 Market Street, Suite 410, Philadelphia, PA 19104-3338 215 387-7600 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Serving Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, West Virginia, and Wisconsin 1560 Sherman Avenue, Suite 1001, Evanston, IL 60201-4805 847 866-1700 E-mail: email@example.com
Serving Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont 470 Totten Pond Road, Waltham, MA 02451-1982 781 890-9150 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Serving Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia 100 Crescent Centre Parkway, Suite 340, Tucker, GA 30084-7039 770 908-9737 E-mail: email@example.com
Serving Arkansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas 4330 South MoPac Expressway, Suite 200, Austin, TX 78735-6734 512 891-8400 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex AP Office
Box 19666, 600 South West Street, Room 108, Arlington, TX 76019 817 272-7200 E-mail: email@example.com
Serving Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming 2099 Gateway Place, Suite 480, San Jose, CA 95110-1017 408 452-1400 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1233 20th Street, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036-2304 202 822-5900 E-mail: email@example.com
1708 Dolphin Avenue, Suite 406, Kelowna, BC, Canada V1Y 9S4 250 861-9050; 800 667-4548 in Canada only E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2002 Exam Date: Friday, May 10, afternoon session 2003 Exam Date: Friday, May 9, afternoon session
2000-01 Development Committee and Chief Faculty Consultant
David L. Longfellow, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, Chair Belinda Davis, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey Christopher W. Freiler, Hinsdale Central High School, Illinois Kenneth Gouwens, University of Connecticut, Storrs Kelly Saenz, Westwood High School, Austin, Texas Diane W. Wells, York House School, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Chief Faculty Consultant: Michael Galgano, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia ETS Consultants: Lawrence R. Beaber, Despina O. Danos
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