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Surveying Fieldwork and Instrumentation Surveying Fieldwork and Instrumentation
Engr. Jeark A. Principe
Department of Geodetic Engineering (DGE) Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry (TCAGP)
• • • •
identify essential information that must be included in a field notebook name different personnel in a survey party and specify their roles and specify their roles gain knowledge on the proper care and handling of surveying instruments orient students with the Engineer’s Transit— its parts, operations and proper care
A. B. C. D.
Survey Field Notes
Characteristics of a good field note The field notebook Types of notes Information Found in a Field notebook
II. Field Survey Party III. Care and Handling of Instruments III. Care and Handling of Instruments IV. The Engineer’s Transit
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Positioning the Tripod Mounting the Transit Attaching the plumb bob Parts of the Transit Leveling the Plate level bubble Reading Transit Verniers Care of the Transit
Characteristics of a good field note The field notebook Types of notes Information Found in a Field Notebook SURVEY FIELD NOTES 4 .
Surveying Field Notes • Constitute the only reliable and permanent record of actual work done in the field • Reliability must be ensured • Forms part of the official survey record • Forms part of the official survey record • Kept for future reference 5 .
concise.Surveying Field Notes Characteristics of a Good Field Note • • • • • Must be complete. legible. comprehensive and logically arranged Should be intelligible to others Must reflect actual observations Must reflect actual observations Must be neatly done as this can be used in a court proceeding 6 .
Surveying Field Notes The Field Notebook Should be: – of good quality rag paper – with stiff board or leather cover – of pocket size – of pocket size 7 .
Surveying Field Notes
Types of Notes
– Drawn freehand and of liberal size – Rarely true to scale – May use conventional survey symbols
– Used for numerical values – Advantages:
Prevents mistakes Allows easy checking
Surveying Field Notes
Types of Notes
3. Explanatory Notes
– Written description of fieldwork – Placed at strategic positions:
Right-hand page of the field notebook Right-hand page of the field notebook Where they do not interfere with other data Close as possible to that which they explain
Surveying Field Notes
Types of Notes
– Most are made algebraically by simple arithmetical steps and trigonometric functions – Graphical solutions using accurately scaled – Graphical solutions using accurately scaled drawings are also used
– Most extensive surveys use the mentioned four types – Depends on the surveyor’s judgment
Weather Conditions – Relative temperature. Equipments/Accessories Used – Include brand and serial/instrument number 11 . State nature or purpose. wind velocity. Should also include location 2. rainy. Group Members and Designations 5. Fieldwork Title – Official name of the survey to be done. Weather Conditions 3.Surveying Field Notes Information Found in a Field Notebook 1. fog 4. cloudy or fine. Date and Time 3.
Chief of Party Assistant Chief of Party Instrument Man Technician Computer Recorder Head Tapeman Rear Tapeman Flagman Rodman Pacer Axeman/Lineman Aidman Utility Men FIELD SURVEY PARTY 12 .
Chief of Party – Responsible for overall direction.Field Survey Party 1. supervision and operational control of the survey party control of the survey party Logistics and technical requirements Consultation with the client or immediate superior Survey reports and records Prepares cost estimates and disbursements – May be called upon as an expert witness in courts 13 .
Assistant Chief of Party – Assists the chief – Responsible for Ground reconnaisance Ground reconnaisance Employment of equipments Preparation of reports and plans to be submitted to the chief 14 .Field Survey Party 2.
Field Survey Party 3. level and operate instruments Checks that instruments are in good working Checks that instruments are in good working condition and in proper adjustments Assists technician in operating electronic equipments Limited supervision over personnel doing manual tasks 15 . Instrument Man – Duties: Set up.
Field Survey Party 4. Computer – Performs survey data computations and checks – Responsible for the use of calculators and other electronic computing equipments – Assists in computerized surveying systems or equipments 16 . Technician – Responsible for : the use and operation of electronic instruments Establishment of two-way communication link by radio for long survey lines or distant stations for long survey lines or distant stations 5.
Field Survey Party 6. employed personnel Clerical jobs related to surveying in the office Clerical jobs related to surveying in the office Undertakes limited cartographic jobs 7. Head Tapeman – Responsible for: Accuracy and speed of taping operations Directs marking of stations and clearing the LOS Checks tape for errors in standard length 17 . schedule of work. Recorder – Duties: Keep a record of field notes.
Flagman 9.Field Survey Party 8. Rear Tapeman – Assists the head tapeman during taping work and in other related work 9. Flagman – Duties: Holds flagpole or range poles at pts directed by the instrument man Helps the tapeman and axeman 18 .
Field Survey Party 10.Pacer – Check measurements by the tapeman – Check measurements by the tapeman – May also be a rodman 12.Rodman – Holds the stadia or leveling rods 11.Axeman/Lineman – Clears any obstruction to the LOS – Ensures the safety of the whole survey party – May also carry firearms 19 .
serve meals. markers and signals 20 . Aidman – – Renders first aid treatments May become an assistant instrument man 14. Utility Men – – – – – Render other forms of assistance as directed by the chief chief Can be designated as the driver Prepares lodging. and ensure the security of the whole survey party Responsible for handling and transporting instruments . accessories and supplies Assists also in the laying of concreter monuments.Field Survey Party 13.
CARE AND HANDLING OF INSTRUMENTS 21 .
Fasten securely to the tripod 3. Clamp-screws should be clamped very lightly when: – Being carried or handled – Putting it back to its case 22 . head of the instrument in front 4.Care and Handling of Instruments 1. Handle with care 2. Carry on your shoulder: – tripod legs forward – Avoid if passing thru doorways or beneath low– Avoid if passing thru doorways or beneath lowhanging branches carry under the arm.
Don’t touch the instrument when observation is being made. Use camel’s hair brush. Never leave the instrument alone. 9. 6. 23 . Protect the instrument from impact and vibration. 10. 8. Never rub the coated lenses of a telescope with the fingers or with a rough cloth. no matter how small it may be.Care and Handling of Instruments 5. Don’t touch the instrument when observation is 8. 7. Inform the officer-in-charge to the instrument for any damage. Tripod legs should not be set too close together but should be firmly planted.
Positioning the Tripod Mounting the Transit Attaching the plumb bob Parts of the Transit Leveling the Plate level bubble Reading Transit Verniers Care of the Transit Care of the Transit THE ENGINEER’S TRANSIT 24 .
who in 1690 used the instrument to observe the passage (transit) of stars across the celestial meridian Essentially a telescope and two large protractors 1 protractor mounted in the horizontal plane and the other in a vertical plane An instrument of precision 25 .Engineer’s Transit Credited to Roemer. a Danish Astronomer.
Setting Up The Transit POSITIONING THE TRIPOD 1. On fairly level ground: tripod is set up near and over the selected point with the legs well spread apart to ensure stability see to it that the tripod head is nearly stable 2. On hillsides or along a slope: 1 of its legs should extend uphill and the 2 downhill each tripod leg is then moved as required to make the tripod head nearly level 3. Set the tripod in a convenient height (no need to stretch or stoop) 26 .
screw the leveling head of the transit firmly onto the tripod head while holding the standards at the other hand 3. Remove the transit from its carrying case by grasping it with both hands at the leveling head assembly or at the upright standards 2.Setting Up The Transit MOUNTING THE TRANSIT 1. screw the leveling head of the transit 2. With one hand. With one hand. The transit should fit snugly and bear firmly. 4. Remove the objective cap and replace with the sunshade 27 .
5 cm above the ground point Bring the plumb bob close to the center of the point by moving or pressing 1 or 2 tripod legs more firmly into the ground 28 .Setting Up The Transit ATTACHING THE PLUMB BOB Plumb bob and a string is attached to the transit by suspending it from the hook and chain that hangs at the bottom of the leveling head. Raise or lower the plumb bob using the sliding loop-knot Raise or lower the plumb bob using the sliding loop-knot Lower down the plumb bob within about 0.
Upper Plate (or Alidade) 2. Leveling Head Assembly 29 . Lower Plate 3.Main Parts of the Transit 1.
Main Parts of the Engineer’s Transit 30 .
Engineer’s Transit I. Upper Plate Consists of the entire top of the transit Contains: Entire assembly rotates about a vertical axis standards supports the telescope and level standards supports the telescope and level tube vertical circle and vernier compass box circular cover plate and plate level vials upper clamp tangent screw needle lifter 31 .
Fixing the direction of LOS 2. Viewing the objects 3. Magnification in the FOV Can be rotated about its horizontal axis Direct position => level vial is above the telescope Reversed position => level vial is below the telescope 32 .Engineer’s Transit I. Viewing the objects 2. Upper Plate a)TELESCOPE Used for: 1.
Engineer’s Transit I. Elevate or depress the telescope by rotating on an axis perpendicular to the LOS 33 . Upper Plate b) STANDARDS Integral parts of the upper plate Used to: 1. Hold into position the horizontal axle level 2.
Upper Plate c) COMPASS BOX Used to: 1. Establish magnetic meridian 1. Establish magnetic meridian 2. To allow rough checks on measured angles Magnetic needle can be lifted from its pivot by the needle lifter 34 .Engineer’s Transit I.
Engineer’s Transit I. Upper Plate d) PLATE LEVEL VIALS Positioned at right angles to each other Used to: Establish the upper and lower plates in a horizontal plane 35 .
Upper Plate e) VERTICAL CIRCLE Attached to the telescope and rotates with it Used to: measure vertical angles 36 .Engineer’s Transit I.
Upper Plate f) PLATE VERNIERS Two opposite verniers (A & B) A vernier A vernier adjacent to the eyepiece where it is easily used B vernier 180o from A vernier 37 .Engineer’s Transit I.
Upper Plate g) OPTICAL PLUMMET Small telescope thru the vertical center of the transit Small telescope thru the vertical center of the transit Enables the instrument to be centered over a given point quickly and precisely by means of an optical system 38 .Engineer’s Transit I.
Upper Plate h) TELESCOPE CLAMP Tightened to hold the telescope horizontal or at any desired inclination any desired inclination Located near the horizontal axle of the transit 39 .Engineer’s Transit I.
k. vertical circle tangent screw Enables the telescope to be rotated in small movements about the horizontal axis when the telescope clamp is tightened Useful when setting the cross hairs precisely on a distant point sighted 40 .Engineer’s Transit I.a. Upper Plate i) TELESCOPE TANGENT SCREW a.
Upper Plate j) UPPER CLAMP A locking device A locking device When tightened. it causes the upper and lower plates to lock together Most have round heads and usually turn in the direction tangent to the motion they control 41 .Engineer’s Transit I.
can be rotated also with the upper plate The underside is attached to a vertical and tapering spindle called the outer spindle 42 . Lower Plate Or horizontal circle Where horizontal angles are measured Graduated on its upper face and divided around its circumference into 360o and further subdivisions circumference into 360o and further subdivisions Can be held stationary while the upper plate is rotated or can be rotated independently As one unit.Engineer’s Transit II.
Engineer’s Transit II. Lower Plate a)LOWER CLAMP Attached to the horizontal circle Does not rotate with the horizontal circle Does not rotate with the horizontal circle Used to control the rotation of the horizontal circle Stops any motion between the leveling head and the lower plate 43 .
Lower Plate b) LOWER TANGENT SCREW Used to make precise settings after the lower clamp is Used to make precise settings after the lower clamp is tightened It moves the lower plate to a desired exact position using a small range of movement 44 .Engineer’s Transit II.
Engineer’s Transit III. Leveling Head Assembly Lower part of the transit Allows the transit to be leveled and centered over a point a point Consists of: bottom horizontal foot plate 3 leveling screws plumb bob chain a device that permits small lateral movements of the transit 45 .
no movement 46 .CLASS EXERCISE Observe what will be the effect of the different combinations of tightening and loosening of lower and upper clamps: CLAMP CONDITIONS UPPER CLAMP loosened loosened tightened tightened LOWER CLAMP Effects loosened A horizontal angle can be set tightened New horizontal Angle can be read loosened Preserved reading. target can be sighted tightened Fixed position.
Engineer’s Transit III. Leveling Head Assembly a) LEVELING SCREWS Used for leveling the instrument by the plate levels Operate in pairs and always turned in opposite directions Screws are loosened when desired to shift transit laterally with respect to the foot plate 47 .
Engineer’s Transit III. Leveling Head Assembly b) PLUMB BOB CHAIN Chain with a hook: Suspended from the bottom part of the leveling head assembly head assembly Hangs between the tripod legs Used for attaching a string an a plumb bob so that the instrument may be set exactly over the selected point on the ground Plumb bob string always hang vertical due to gravity 48 .
Setting Up The Transit FINAL CENTERING • See to it that the wing nuts of the tripod is tightened • Shift the leveling head of the transit along the foot plate to exactly center the plumb bob • Use the optical plummet if available for accurate centering: look at the optical plummet shift the instrument until the reticle is precisely centered on the ground point 49 .
LEVELING THE PLATE LEVEL BUBBLE • The bubble is centered by rotating screws 1 and 2 in opposite directions the rotations (see figure) will cause the bubble to the rotations (see figure) will cause the bubble to move from left to right 50 .
LEVELING THE PLATE LEVEL BUBBLE 51 .
rotate the instrument so that the one end of the bubble tube is aligned with the remaining screw • Center the bubble in this position by rotating this • Center the bubble in this position by rotating this remaining screw • The rotation indicated in the figure will cause the bubble to move away from level screw 3 52 .LEVELING THE PLATE LEVEL BUBBLE • Next.
LEVELING THE PLATE LEVEL BUBBLE 53 .
LEVELING THE PLATE LEVEL BUBBLE • Return to the original position and check centering of the bubble • Rotate through 180 so that end A of the bubble tube • Rotate through 180o so that end A of the bubble tube is on line with level screw 1 • Repeat the previous steps so that all bubble tubes are leveled in every direction. 54 .
READING TRANSIT VERNIERS 55 .
VERNIER A short auxiliary scale placed alongside the graduated scale of an instrument by means of which fractional parts of the least division of the main scale can be measured precisely 56 .
vernier divisions. s LC = n LC Least Count s value of the smallest division on the main scale n # of divisions on the vernier 57 .PRINCIPLE OF THE VERNIER LEAST COUNT Fineness of reading of the vernier and main scale Determined by dividing the length of the smallest division on the main scale by the total number of vernier divisions.
READING TRANSIT VERNIERS EXAMPLE: Least Count s = 30 min n = 30 LC = 30 min/30 LC = 1 min 58 .
20.READING TRANSIT VERNIERS • A horizontal or vertical angle is read by finding the graduation on the vernier scale w/c coincides with a graduation on the main (circle) scale used • In case of double vernier. there will always be 2 coincident line line 1 for a CW angle & the other for a CCW angle • The index mark of the vernier will show the number of degrees or fractional part of a degree (usually in multiples of 30. 15 or 10 min) passed over on the main scale • Addt’l fractional parts of a degree (to be added to the main scale rdg) are to be determined from the coincident graduation on the vernier 59 .
Reading Horizontal Angles using a Vernier inner circle reading outer circle reading LC = s/n = 30 min/30 = 1 min Inner Circle Reading (CW) = 1840 (main scale) + 18’ (vernier) = 1840 18’ Outer Circle Reading (CCW) = 175030’ (main scale) + 12’ (vernier) = 175042’ Solution Check: Inner Circle Reading + Outer Circle Reading = 360000’ 60 .
dry it off with absorbent cloth or 3. Store the transit in its carrying case when not in use 2.CARE OF THE TRANSIT 1. dry it off with absorbent cloth or preferably in sunlight 4. The objective lens should not be wiped as it is easily scratched clean it by rubbing gently with a piece of soft cloth moistened in alcohol or with a piece of lens paper finish off with a camel’s hair brush 61 . If it becomes went or damp. Remove the transit from the tripod and carry it in its box when transporting in a vehicle or over a long walking distance 3. If it becomes went or damp.
Protect the instrument at all times from any shock or sudden jolt never allow the instrument to fall or drop 6.CARE OF THE TRANSIT 5. Hold the transit in the arms with the tripod sticking out to the side or behind NOT on the shoulder do this when: • • carrying it inside a building There is danger of striking the instrument against any obstructions 62 .
playing children. Tripod legs should be spread apart to make it stable 9. stray animals. boulders. The transit should be lifted from the carrying case by grasping the standards and NOT by the telescope 8. wind or maybe stolen 11. and steel plates 63 . It should never be left unattended because it may be upset by passing vehicles.CARE OF THE TRANSIT 7. Avoid setting the transit on concrete slabs. Tripod shoes should be sunk firmly to the ground 10.
Tighten clamps in a definite and firm manner. 14. not too severe 15.CARE OF THE TRANSIT 12. showers and thunderstorms. Tarnished surfaces should be cleaned by applying a thin film of oil which is left for a few hours and then wiped off with a soft oil which is left for a few hours and then wiped off with a soft clean rag. 13. 64 . This will tarnish their surfaces. A waterproof cover for the transit should always be brought along in case of rains. Graduated circles and verniers should not be touched with the fingers.
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