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Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies in Okra [Abelmuschus Esculentus (L) Moench]

Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies in Okra [Abelmuschus Esculentus (L) Moench]

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12/06/2012

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An attempt has been made to study the “Genetic

variability and correlation study in okra [

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)
Moench]”.The relevant and available literature on different aspects
studied during the course of this investigation are reviewed here
briefly as :-

2.1

Genotypic coefficient of variation (G.C.V.) and Phenotypic
coefficient of variation (P.C.V.)

2.2

Heritability and Genetic advance

2.3

Correlation studies

2.1 Genotypic coefficient of variation (G.C.V.) and Phenotypic
coefficient of variation (P.C.V.)

Genotypic coefficient of variation gives information on the extent
of genetic variability present for a particular character. Fisher (1918)
proposed the idea of partitioning of genetic variance.

Singh et al. (1974) observed high genotypic coefficient of
variation for plant height, number of effective nodes, number of
branches per plant, fruit yield per plant in okra. High phenotypic
coefficient of variation observed for girth of fruit, number of effective
nodes and low phenotypic coefficient of variation observed for days to
50% flowering and first fruiting in okra.

Thaker et al. (1981) reported high Genotypic coefficient of
variation for plant height, days to 50% flowering, fruit length, fruit
weight, number of effective nodes and fruit yield per plant in okra.

Vijay and Manohar (1990) estimated high Genotypic coefficient
of variation for days to 50% flowering, number of effective nodes,
number of branches per plant, fruit yield per plant and low Genotypic
coefficient of variation observed for first fruiting nodes in okra. High
phenotypic coefficient of variation was observed for internodal length.

3

Patel and Dalal (1992) observed high genotypic coefficient of
variation for plant height and number of branches per plant in okra.

Deo et al. (1996) recorded high genotypic coefficient of variation
for plant height, number of effective nodes, number of branches per
plant, fruit yield per plant and high phenotypic coefficient of variation
recorded for plant height and number of branches per plant in okra.

Bindu et al. (1997) observed high genotypic coefficient of
variation for plant height, fruit weight, number of effective nodes,
number of branches per plant, fruit yield per plant and high phenotypic
coefficient of variation observed for plant height ,number of effective
nodes and number of branches per plant in okra.

Panda and Singh (1997) and Dhankar and Dhankar (2002)
found high genotypic coefficient of variation and high phenotypic
coefficient of variation for number of branches per plant, fruit yield per
plant,number of fruits per plant and plant height.

Dhall et al. (2003) observed high genotypic coefficient of
variation and high phenotypic coefficient of variation for plant height,
total yield per plant, marketable yield per plant, number of fruits per
plant and virus incidence.

Bendale et al. (2003) examined thirty okra genotypes for first
flowering node, pod length, pod weight, plant height, nodes per plant,
internodal length, number of branches per plant, seeds per pod,100
seed weight, number of pods per plant and yield per plant. The
phenotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters was higher
than genotypic coefficient of variation. Number of branches per plant,
yield per plant and number of pods per plant showed high genotypic
coefficient of variation and high phenotypic coefficient of variation.

Bali et al. (2004) evaluated 31 diverse genotypes of okra for
yield and combining characters and noticed high phenotypic
coefficient of variation as well as high genotypic coefficient of variation
for seed yield per plant, number of branches per plant, internodal
length and fruit yield per plant.

4

Singh and Singh (2006) observed high genotypic coefficient of
variation and high phenotypic coefficient of variation for number of
branches per plant, fruit yield per plant, tapering length, plant height
and fruit length.

Singh et al. (2006) estimated high genotypic coefficient of
variation and high phenotypic coefficient of variation for internodal
length, number of branches per plant, number of fruits per plant,
number of seeds per pod and fruit yield per plant.

Jaiprakashnarayan et al. (2006) observed high genotypic
coefficient of variation and high phenotypic coefficient of variation for
plant height at 100 days after sowing, number of branches per plant
and internodal length. Moderate genotypic coefficient of variation and
phenotypic coefficient of variation for number of nodes on main stem,
number of nodes at first flowering and number of leaves at 100 days
after sowing. Low, genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic
coefficient of variation exhibited by days to first flowering and days to
50% flowering.

Singh et al. (2007) observed high magnitude of genotypic
coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient of variation for
number of branches per plant, plant height, number of fruits per plant
and fruit yield. Phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than
corresponding genotypic coefficient of variation.

2.2 Heritability and genetic advance

The relative amount of heritable portion of total variation was
found out with the help of heritability estimates with the help of
heritability estimates and genetic advance. Lush (1940) defined the
broad sense heritability as the ratio of genetic variance to the total
variance. Robinson et al. (1949) defined the narrow sense heritability
as the ratio of additive genetic variance to phenotypic variance.

Larner (1954) and Johnson et al. (1955) emphasized that
heritability estimates when studied in conjunction with genetic

5

advance would provide more appropriate information than the study of
heritability alone.

Pratap et al. (1979) studied the yield and its components in okra
and found high narrow sense heritability for all characters except yield
per plant, number of fruits per plant and plant height in okra.

Thaker et al. (1981) reported moderate heritability and high
genetic advance for plant height and number of effective nodes. High
genetic advance was observed for days taken to first flowering, fruit
weight and yield per plant and low genetic advance recorded for fruit
length in okra.

Vijay and Manohar (1990) observed high heritability for plant
height, fruit weight, number of branches per plant and low genetic
advance was observed for fruit length and fruit girth.

Jeypandi and Balakrishnan (1992) noticed that heritability
coupled with genetic advance were highest for yield per plant and
plant height.

Patel and Dalal (1992) reported high heritability estimates for
yield and its components in seven genotypes and their F

1 hybrids. Pod

attributes were found to have moderate heritability estimates.

Sood et al. (1995) observed high heritability and genetic
advance on twelve characters. The node at which the first fruit set,
plant height and nodes per plant had high heritability values coupled
with high to moderate genetic advance.

Bindu et al. (1997) reported high heritability for plant height, fruit
length, fruit weight, number of effective nodes, while moderate
heritability number of branches per plant.

Panda and Singh (1997) reported high heritability estimates
coupled with high genetic advance for plant height, number of pods
and total pod yield per plant and suggested to improve these traits
through selection.

6

Paiva et al. (1998) conducted an experiment in 11 okra cultivars
and estimated high heritability for fruit length, diameter, fruit weight,
plant height and number of branches per plant.

Dhall et al. (2001) recorded that characters like fruit length,
plant height, number of fruits per plant and virus incidence exhibited
high heritability along with high genetic advance indicating the
dominant gene action.

Dhankar and Dhankar (2002) reported that fruit yield, number of
fruits per plant and plant height showed moderate to high heritability in
both the years. The genetic advance was found medium to low for all
the traits which indicates that there is limited scope for improvement
through selection procedures.

Bali et al. (2004) reported high heritability along with high
genetic advance for seed yield per plant, number of seeds per pod,
number of fruits per plant, internodal length and total fruit yield per
plant indicating the influence of additive gene effect.

Patro and Ravisankar (2004) observed high heritability for
number of branches per plant, yield per plant and high genetic
advance for fruit yield per plant and plant height.

Indurani and Veerargavathatham (2005) noticed high heritability
coupled with high genetic advance for characters such as plant height
at first flower bud appearance, number of fruits per plant and yield per
plant.

Singh et al. (2006) observed high heritability coupled with high
genetic advance for number of seeds per pod, internodal length,
number of branches per plant, fruit yield per plant, number of fruits per
plant, plant height and 100 seed weight.

Jaiprakashnarayan et al. (2006) observed high heritability
coupled with high genetic advance for plant height 100 days after
sowing, internodal length, number of nodes on main stem, number of
nodes at first flowering and number of leaves at 45 days after sowing.

7

High heritability with low genetic advance observed for days to first
flower and days to 50% flowering in okra.

Singh and Singh (2006) noted high heritability days to first
flowering, first fruiting node length and high heritability with high
genetic advance was observed for first fruiting node length, number of
branches per plant, tapering length and fruit yield per plant.

Sunil et al. (2007) observed high heritability coupled with
moderate genetic advance for days to flowering, number of node per
plant, internodal length, fruit number per plant and yield per plant.
High heritability coupled with low genetic advance was observed for
plant height. Low heritability coupled with high genetic advance for
fruit width, tapering length of fruit and low heritability with low genetic
advance for fruit length in okra.

Singh et al. (2007) estimated high values of heritability for plant
height, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield, fruit length, fruit girth and
number of branches per plant. High heritability coupled with moderate
genetic advance for all the characters except for nodes at which first
flower appear, indicating that additive gene affects were more
important for these characters.

2.3 Correlation studies

Yield is the complex character hence it is necessary to know the
importance and association of various yield contributing components
with yield and within themselves. This is possible by determining the
correlation coefficients (r) between the combining traits and yield.

Singh et al. (1975) reported moderate to high positive
correlation between days to flowering and maturity, plant height with
internodal length and pod length with pod width.

Ajimal et al. (1979) observed positive correlation of yield with
number of fruits per plant, number of nodes and internodal length.
Number of days to first flowering showed direct contribution to yield
followed by number of nodes and number of fruits per plant.

8

Mishra and Singh (1985) observed that plant height, pod weight,
number of nodes on main stem had significant and positive correlation
with yield per plant where as days to 50 % flowering showed negative
association with yield per plant.

Shukla (1990) reported in his studies with 19 okra cultivars that
fruit yield had a significant positive correlation with number of fruits per
plant, number of nodes per plant and fruit length.

Sood et al. (1995) reported correlation among all combinations
of 12 characters and observed nodes per plant, duration of edible
pods, plant height and pod length had strong positive correlation with
yield.

Yadav (1996) found significant and positive correlation between
yield per plant and number of fruits per plant. He also observed that
days to fruiting showed significant and positive correlation with length
of fruit and width of fruit. Likewise height of plant showed significant
and positive correlation with length of fruit.

Rajani and Manju (1997) reported that nodes per plant, duration
of availability of edible pods, plant height and pod length had strong
positive correlation with yield.

Paiva et al. (1998) reported in an experiment with 11 okra
cultivars revealed that number of fruiting nodes on main stem, plant
height, number of fruits, earliness and yield were highly correlated.
The investigation indicated that possibilities of developing early, short
and high yielding cultivars by exploiting aforesaid associationship.

Hazare and Basu (2000) observed that fruits yield per plant was
significantly and positively associated with plant height, where as days
to days to first flowering showed negative association with number of
fruits per plant.

Dhall et al. (2000) reported that marketable yield per plant, fruit
weight, fruit length, number of fruits per plant and plant height were
significantly and positively associated with total yield per plant in okra.

9

Gandhi et al. (2002) reported that the dry fruit yield was highly
and significantly dependent on number of nodes per plant, internodal
length, number of fruits per plant and seed yield per plant. The
interdependency of other characters on each others was also
recorded.

Dhankar and Dhankar (2002) observed that fruit yield was
significantly and positively correlated with the number of fruits and
branches per plant and plant height but was negatively correlated with
days to 50% flowering. The number of fruits per plant was positively
associated with number of branches per plant and plant height was
negatively correlated with days to 50% flowering. Fruit yield can be
improved through selection for higher number of fruits and branches
and medium height.

Singh and Singh (2002) observed that plant height, fruit length
and number of fruits were positively associated with fruit weight per
plant in F2 generation.

Kamal et al. (2003) estimated that yield per plant was positively
and highly significantly correlated with number of nodes per plant,
width of fruit and number of fruits per plant.

Bendale et al. (2003) examined 30 okra genotypes and found
that pod length, pod weight, plant height, nodes per plant and number
of pods per plant were positively correlated with the yield.

Niranjan and Mishra (2003) observed that fruit yield was
positively and significantly correlated with edibility period of fruits,
number of fruits per plant, fruit length, number of seeds per fruit, fruit
weight, plant height and number of branches per plant at both
genotypic and phenotypic levels. Associations were significant at the
genotypic levels only between edibility period of fruit and number of
branches per plant. All characters had positive and significant
association among each other at both levels.

Jaiprakashnarayan and Mulge (2004) noticed that total yield per
plant was positively and significantly correlated with number of fruits

10

per plant, average fruit weight, number of nodes on main stem, fruit
length, plant height at 60 and 100 days after sowing and number of
leaves at 45 and 100 days, but negatively and significantly correlated
with number of locules per fruit, number of nodes at first flowering and
first fruiting.

Singh et al. (2006) reported that fruit yield per plant was
positively and significantly correlated with fruit length, fruit diameter,
fruit weight and number of fruits per plant.

Patro and Sankar (2006) observed that yield per plant showed a
highly significant and positive correlation with germination percentage,
number of branches per plant, number of ridges per fruit, fruit weight,
number of seeds per fruit and 100 seed weight.

Mohapatra et al. (2007) evaluated 23 genotype of okra for
different yield traits as well as yellow vein mosaic virus and estimated
that total fresh yield per plant had a positive and significant phenotypic
and genotypic correlation with number of fruits per plant, fruit girth,
fruit diameter, internodal distance and fruit weight.

Singh et al. (2007) observed that fruit yield had significant
positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with number of fruit, fruit
length and plant height. Number of fruit showed significant positive
genotypic and phenotypic associations with plant height and fruit
length.

11

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