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country. The foundations of such towers constitute nearly 20 to 40 percent of the total cost of towers. However, very little information is available on the design procedure of tower foundation. The paper presents the underlying concepts for designing tower foundations efficiently and economically. A computer program in BASIC, which uses these concepts, is also presented. This program may be used to optimally proportion the tower foundations.

N. $Orarnarf and V. Vaser01

**Design of tower foundations
**

sections could be designed by using this program. Different types of soil conditions, viz., normal dry, wet, submerged, partially submerged. black cotton, wet black cotton, soft rock, and hard rock, are considered. Based on this procedure, the authors have designed a 100-m microwave tower foundation which was executed by the Indian Telephone Industries in Rajasthan.

Transmission line towers, antenna towers, towers used for oil well derricks and mine-shaft equipment, beacon supports. and observation platform, etc., are examples of self-supporting towers. Out of these various types of towers, transmission line towers are subjected to torsional forces, in addition to other forces. Normally, the tower foundation constitutes about 20 to 40 percent of the total cost of tower. A rough idea about this cost could be obtained from the relative weights of the foundation and tower. It was observed that for a 100-m high microwave tower, the weight of the foundation concrete was around 410t, while the weight of the structural steel of the tower was only 65t. From the engineering point of view, the foundation design of towers poses a serious problem due to different types of soils encountered and also due to the various forces acting on the foundation. Thus, the structural engineer is faced with a difficult task of producing economical and reliable design'. A very little information is available for the design of such foundations 1-3 ' 5-8 The design of tower foundation is basically an interative procedure. Since the uplift force is predominant, the design poses a number of problems, and hence, is amenable to computerization. However, till now, no program is available in India for the design of these foundations. In this paper a computer program is presented, based on the provisions of the recent Indian Codes of Practice 2 ' 3 ' 4 . A brief outline of the procedure to be used for the design of tower foundations is also described. Salient features of the package developed, ba k ed on this procedure are enumerated. The package has been developed using the BASIC language for use on an IBM PC or compatible machine based on the working stress method of design. Both unreinforced and reinforced concrete

Dr. N. Subramanian, Chief Executive, Computer Design Consultants, 191 North Usman Road, T. Nagar, Madras 600 017. Ms V. Vasanthi, Assistant Manager, Computer Design Consultants, Madras 600 017.

Design

There are two parts in the design. They are: stability analysis, and strength design. Stability analysis aims at removing the possibility of failure by overturning, uprooting, sliding and tilting of the foundation due to soil pressure being in excess of the ultimate capacity of the soil. The strength design consists of proportioning the components of the foundation to the respective maximum moment, shear, pull and thrust or combination of the same. The type of loading that controls the foundation design depends mainly on the kind of towers being designed. The controlling design loads for four-legged lattice towers are vertical uplift, compression and side thrust. Depending on the site condition and the forces acting on the tower legs, one of the following types of foundation is normally employed: (i) drilled and/or belled shaft (ii) pad and chimney (iii) footing with undercut (iv) auger with reaming (v) grillage (vi) special type. Selection of foundation type needs judgement and experience and a careful study of all the parameters. However, in India, pad and chimney type of foundation is employed for a majority of towers, and hence, in this paper, the same type of foundation is considered, Fig 1. The concrete used for the

THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL ♦ MARCH 1990

135

Calculations of the ultimate uplift capacity obtained by these methods show a wide fluctuation as shown in Fig 2'. 3 .50m for wet soil H5 = 750mm for wet soft rock H5 . c. When reinforced concrete foundation is adopted. in the Indian Code 2 . the soil surrounding a tower foundation has also to resist a considerable amount of upward pull and side thrust. Various empirical relationships linking ultimate holding power to the physical properties of the soil. – Mors T ti Stub angle tiC T Balla Matsuo — Earthcone —••-. adequate theory has not yet been established for the accurate assessment of the uplift resistance of the soil mass. the entire footing is assumed to be made of 20mm coarse aggregate .Coulomb shear friction Meyerhof and Adams Base plate 100 t _794 . However. The method proposed by Meyerhof and Adams. but differ significantly for cohesive soils 4 . whose sides 136 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL ♦ MARCH 1990 .94w T. psf 500 30 ° 20° 0. Anchor bolts • • Chimney reinforcement 1 4_ (a) WNW • - x Chimney-pad type foundation Reinforced concrete foundation *N. lb) Stub angle 10 0 300 C./. Hence. strength of the soil and the weight of the foundation. B1 . Design for uplift resistance Apart from resisting the vertical compression. degree Fig 2 Comparison of uplift methods Tw 813 Benching of hard rock C ( ) (d) L Fig 1 Different types of tower foundation foundation is assumed to be of grade M-15 corresponding to 1:2:4 nominal mix with 20mm coarse aggregate for chimney portion and 40mm coarse aggregate for pyramid or slab portion. Matsuo and H1 = 50mm H4 225mm H5 = 750 mm for partially submerged soil H5 1. As a matter of fact. the available uplift resistance of the soil is the deciding factor in selecting the size of the footing. It is generally considered that the resistance to uplift is provided by the shed. the traditional method of assessment of uplift resistance by computing the weight of earth in the inverted frustum of cone/pyramid. unfortunately.0 for dry soil Fig 3 Assumptions and variables used in the computer program Balla have been found to be in close agreement for sands (C = 0). as well as the dimensions of the footing have been proposed on the basis of experimental results 5 .

Stability of a footing under a lateral load will be dependent upon the amount of passive pressure mobilized in the adjoining soil as well as the structural strength of the footing in transmitting the load to the soil. the effective uplift resistance is also affected by the degree of compaction of the soil. Hence. in tower designs. A very little information is available on the soil structure interaction of tower foundations. W. In this program. etc. it is mandatory to compact the backfill with special care.35 has been assumed. the bending and overturning actions will be more. bolted towers. it is permissible to depend on the mobilization of the passive pressure even when the foundation construction involves excavation and provision of backfill. and H3. Solution of this problem involves the study of the soil structure interaction and assessment of the soil pressure for the allowable lateral displacement. but when such passive pressure is relied upon. Though this method is found to give results within ± 15 percent range of the experimental values. which varies between 0.). In practice. (which will be known only after designing the foundation). the earth cone method (i. Check for sliding The shear force acting on the foundation causes bending stresses in the unsupported length of the stub angle as well as in chimney/shaft of the foundation and tends to overturn the foundation. Referring Fig 4. equations were derived for finding the volume of earth resisting the uplift considering the following: normal dry soil and soft rock wet soil submerged or partially-submerged soil if reinforced concrete foundation is chosen. W. H2 is assumed as zero (refer Fig 3) in case where the frustum of earth pyramid of two adjoining legs superimpose each other. Factor of safety against sliding _ varies between 0. the earth frustum is assumed to be truncated by a vertical plane passing through the centre line of the tower base. the volume of earth in the frustum of pyramid for dry normal soil as per IS code is V • D.00 so that the optimum design is achieved.55 In the program it is taken as 0-35 5 22 Fig 4 Stability of tower foundation against sliding THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL ♦ MARCH 1990 137 .. depending upon his needs. (3) * where. and H3 can be changed in order that he can reduce the factor of safety to nearly 1. the conservative value of 0. H2. + 4/3 tan'+ ) (2) where. It should be noted that. it is a common practice to consider the side thrust on the foundation to be resisted by the passive earth pressure mobilized in the adjoining soils due to rotation of the footing. It has to be noted that two values of factor of safety against uplift are printed. When the lateral resistance of the adjoining soil is small or totally neglected as uncertain. the following method is adopted. However. C. and is the coefficient of friction. C is the compressive force acting on the foundation. has been considered. H2. which may be input as the initial values. which is common for the type of foundation shown in Fig 1(a) and (b). This is because the earth cone method neglects adhesion or friction along the failure surface. the ultimate resistance to uplift will be given by U. the results are generally found to be on the conservative side6 • 78 . and the ground water-table at the location of the foundation. when P 4 Pp 3 -2 P C B (IC • M Pp. many designs done on the basis of weight frustum of cone/pyramid with sides making an angle 20° in the case of non-cohesive soils and 30° in the case of cohesive soils have been found to be satisfactory. For square footing.35 to 0. = buoyant weight of the foundation. The user has to check whether the values of B. one without considering passive pressure (IS code method) and the other considering the same. it gives some approximate values as guidance. However. Side thrust (1) where. Do = depth of pyramid = B = breadth of footing 0 = angle of repose of soil. Because of the somewhat larger lateral movement tolerated in the foundation of common self-supporting.make an angle with the vertical equal to the angle of internal friction of the soil. Pi is the sum of passive pressure components of the soil. apart from being a function of the properties of soil (0. The user can choose any one of them for optimization. the IS code method) as well as the method suggested by Meyerhof and Adams are considered. Factor of safety against sliding + IP. Referring to Fig 3. The program prints the values of factor of safety against uplift resistance.35 and 0. Ws weight of soil in frustum of pyramid and 14/. in the program for the unreinforced foundation. In the program.55 depending on the type of soil. Since the program requires the values of B.e. For both these methods.(13 3 + 2tanb BD.

the chimney width is increased. Fig 5.: (i) the foundation tilts about a point in its base at a distance of 1/6th of its width from the toe (ii) the weight of the footing acts at the centre of the base (iii) mainly that part of the cone which stands over the heel. It is assumed to act at the tip of the heel. be increased by 25 percent if the loading considered includes dead load and wind or earthquake loads as per IS code. and W = total vertical thrust including that of the footing. since the governing load is the wind load. However. Passive pressure horizontal projected area of the potential failure cone. - The maximum pressure on the soil so obtained should not exceed the safe bearing capacity of the soil. Uprooting of stub Normally. W(1 fie') Side thrust (4) (5) If the factor of safety is less than the specified value. in which M = the maximum moment of the loads taken at the level and mid point of the base. In this case. If it exceeds. The unit maximum toe pressure P on the soil can be determined from the equation: P. this may be taken equal to half the weight of the cone of earth acting on the base. where A and B are the base dimensions of the footing and e' = %. However. Ap 4y 2 4 y 2 rc > T Fig 5 Stability of tower foundation against overturning Fig 6 Stability of tower foundation against uprooting of stub 138 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL ♦ MARCH 1990 . The safe bearing pressure may. Maximum horizontal shear on tower leg Wf . When the footing is under biaxial moment.dh 2 Neglecting dh. Ap ( 2y • dh ) 2 . AB B — — P. for design purposes. Fig 5. Stability against overturning Stability of the foundation against overturning may be checked by the following criteria. the maximum pressure at the critical corner should be worked out accordingly. the soil pressure at this level will not be Stub angle 1 pp4 CNI I31_4 Section A-A pp3 Pp 2 Pn 1 1-• 568 8/6 13/2 For stability against overturning Factor of safety - (W2/2)5 613 / (T .• Weight of footing P p . When the vertical load acts eccentrically or the horizontal shear at the top of the pedestal is transferred to the soil below the footing. the size of the footing is to be increased.tension and side thrust are acting (which is the critical condition). causes the stabilising moment. the above equation is rewritten as Factor of safety E uniform. this increase is not allowed in the program. the stub angle is taken inside the pad portion and anchored by cleat angle and keying rods. the Design for downward load The maximum soil pressure below the base of the foundation (toe pressure) will depend on the vertical thrust on the foot ing and the moment at the base level due to the horizontal and other eccentric loadings.Wf ) 8 /3 • S(D e • H4 ) -E Pp. y 13/2 tan cc (13/2 . Equation (5) is applicable when the result lies within the middle third. however.y) (1 • tan a ) Where W2 Weight of soil in the cone pyramid for stability T Uplift on the leg of tower S. L a i 4 22 tan a .

Thus. the following formula has been used in the program. acting on the projected tensile stress area.. )2. Neglecting the effect of anchor plate. the length of anchor rods is increased. is complicated and tedious for routine design works. Id = development length of anchor rods.' (6) where. dh = diameter of the anchor plate. (8) where. The comparatively slender chimney shall rather act as a cantilever beam embedded in elastic soil and fixed at the base. the failure is assumed to be a cone surface plus a surface within the concrete having the same diameter as the anchor bolt head (in the case of headed anchors) or the anchor bolt body (in the case of headless anchors). Analysis of such a foundation and design of the chimney/shaft for combined bending and direct pull/thrust are. Converting it to metric units.f. The program also checks for the failure of rock mass. and UBC = ultimate bearing capacity of soil. the horizontal projected area of the potential failure cone is given by A. which involves thorough understanding of soil-structure interaction and the coefficient of sub-grade reaction. This bond will increase when deformed bars or bars with indentation are used instead of plain rods.85 has been suggested by the ACI code. If equation (17) is not satisfied. where fck is in kg/cm 2 .65 or 0. anchor capacity is calculated as where. However.=Dir(D+d. the value of tensile stress is given as 0. then the breadth of excavation is found out by B / UBC 2D (14) D is initially assumed as 1. f 4 where. However. fox-bolts or threaded rods can also increase the uplift capacity. with the stub angle inside. F. Incidentally. d. It has to be noted that B should be greater than (2D + dh ). Incidentally. Moreover. rigorous analysis of these footings. This value has been suggested by the American Code and is in British units. Then. Then. if the uprooting of stub should not take place A. ACI :318-77 has specified two 0 factors. When the anchor heads are beyond the far face reinforcement. where fek = characteristic strength of concrete in N/mm 2 . If this factor of safety is less than 1. — T I 1 where.06Vfck . As per IS :456. which is given as input. A.0 m in the program. therefore. The average resistance provided by the concrete can be taken as 4 VP. the slender chimney is not likely to act as a rigid body due to the heavy shear force. 40-mm diameter rods are used in the rock foundation for anchorage. this may be taken as 1. ft = direct tensile stress of concrete as discussed earlier. works as a composite member. the principal tensile stress in the concrete along the potential pull-out failure plane is assumed to vary from a maximum at the mechanical anchor on the end of the steel embedment to zero at the surface of the concrete s . factor of safety against uplift is A. 0 = 0. very important for structural safety of the foundation. %/LT where. (9) Benching of hard rock If benching is used for rock foundation. assuming a bond stress between the rod and rock as 3 kg/cm 2 . Use of eye-bolts. ft = nominal direct tension stress of concrete. In this type of foundation. as shown in Fig 1 (d). The horizontal projected area of the potential failure cone is given by A. T.65. Assuming that the stub angle is anchored in the footing as shown in Fig 6. . d h = diameter of the anchor plate or bolt head. Reinforced concrete foundation When the forces acting on the foundation are high. n = number of anchor rods. the entire depth is involved in the failure and hence a 0 factor of 0.chimney. = (7) where. the following condition has to be satisfied. = (2y + d. this factor of safety is equal to the factor of safety against uprooting of stub. reinforced concrete foundation as shown in Fig 1 (b) is adopted.7 Vf. in view of the large number of Rock foundation Anchor type foundation for hard rock Uplift resistance to anchored footing is provided by the bond between the grouted steel and rock through the grouting materials which is usually decided by experiments. The base width of foundation and depth of concrete are found out by and Then. When the anchor head is between the far face reinforcement and the near face concrete. the value of y is increased.85.) (15) where. Neglecting the effect of anchor plate.. the value of D is increased. If equation (8) is not satisfied.k . it is desirable to keep the effective size of anchor head as small as possible to reduce embedment requirements 9 . The program assumes that 2000-mm long. To take into account the effect of other factors. Based on the above discussions. the pull-out strength of the concrete is dependent primarily on the tensile strength of the concrete and the 0 factor is to be assumed as 0. Wi = weight of footing.

Simplified solutions are. the chimney is treated as a composite member with the stub angle inside the chimney working as rigid reinforcement. as shown in Fig 1 (b). Aeq = +m Yes (Cross sectional area of stub ) (18) (Input: Ultimate tension. ( 21 /3 + (23) Check for downward load - cre. If / >H3 then I = Now the following check is made: + tr. . When equation (22) is not satisfied. the bending moment in the other axis is simply added in the expression for a b.e. the shaft is designed for and reinforced against tension/thrust plus the bending stresses from the moments — uniaxial or biaxial — as the case may be. Design the chimney for combined thrust/ compression and bending i. y = weight of soil. Equivalent concrete Area. the results will always be of questionable nature for practical designs. Yes 1 = =+ m . A typical output for normal dry soil (unreinforced foundation) is shown in Appendix I.+ 1. The macro flow chart of this program is shown in Fig 7. Details of the foundations for other types of soils for the same compression. 33 ( 22) va where. Equivalent moment of inertia about x-x axis. To check the validity of this program.)1(1+ sat 0] H3 (21) Calculate Hi based on bending moment where. if the stub angle is embedded in the chimney to its full depth and anchored to The base-slab. which may be taken as 18 for M15 concrete. Ira of stub angle 12 (19) = I. A. the footing is assumed to behave as a flexural member cantilevered from the chimney portion. m = modular ratio. As shown above. z (24) If biaxial bending is there. Hence. the size of stub is increased or extra reinforcement is provided.. H3 H2 Position of maximum bending moment in chimney 1 / stn. shea77 j type of soil and its particulars where. The base slab is designed as per simple bending theory. tension and shear are shown in Table 1. For the foundation shown in Fig 6. therefore. several examples were worked out by hand and checked with the computer output. ac = working direct compressive stress. The following procedure.H2. (20) 'Print approximate values of 13. =IP 140 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL ♦ MARCH 1990 Design the reinforcement at top and bottom of pad Fig 7 Macro flow chart of the tower foundation program . When the leg of the tower is fixed at the top of the shaft by anchor bolts./ B.assumptions inherent in such a solution. compression. formulae commonly used in the design of reinforced concrete flexural members are made use of in this program 4 ' 10 . preferred. a ' . Crbc = working bending stress. as recommended by National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) is adopted in the program for the design of the chimney for combined bending moment and pull..

. R. Journal of the Power Division.663 39.288 85. L. References 1.K. January 1986. the program gives a choice between resistance with and without passive pressure. April 1966. July 1962..503844 FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST DOWN THRUST 1. . Fully-submerged 5. ed.3675 1.036 10. Analysis and design of tower foundations. 1985.UPLIFT 31900 xo SOIL DENSITY SHEAR 6248 KO EASE WIDTH 85D CM ULT.. THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL ♦ MARCH 1990 141 . reinforcement. R. WEIGHT.THRUST 48400 KG COOK-ANOLZ ULT. Po.2500 3. March 1977. New Delhi.. IEEE Std.W. 2. Using some iterations. Central Board of Irrigation and Power. July 1980. FOUNDATION 1440 KO/CU. EDwARD.S. 550 MM PYRAMID HT. A.6800 1. DALLAS. For resisting uplift.1250 1. Po. ASCE. T. 8..362 CU. Microwave and TV Tower Foundations.3675 1.612 CU.848 10.L. Journal of the Power Division. 2. Uplift resistance of transmission tower footings. Wet black cotton 7 Soft rock 8 Wet soft rock 1450 2050 2180 2450 2150 3080 1480 2320 Conclusions The procedures involved in the design of tower foundations are given. etc.MT 26600 KG/SO.639 CU. 450 MN CHIMNEY HT. Bureau of Indian Standards. SyAL. 92. 4. Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete (Third Revision). concrete. Inc. The features of the computer program that has been developed based on these concepts are explained. 4 4 519. July 1981. New Delhi. September 1979. mm 450 820 820 1000 800 1350 540 950 mm 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 Concrete volume m3 5. 1984. Vol.119 yi kg/m3 1440 1440 1440 940 1600 1080 1440 1440 0 degree 30 15 15 15 30 0 20 10 UBC kg/cm2 2.EIZARING CAPACITY NORMAL DRY 38 DIG DETAILS OF NIXIE. 2.1985.479 76.586 Volume of excavation m3 37. Wheeler and Company Pvt. 1 WWI TYPE UPPER 1500 MM NORMAL ORY SOIL LOWER -STRATA SUBMERGED SOIL • PART-SUBM.. CANNON. and Goo_ A.T. Wet 3.265 93. Vol. Po.431 141. March 1969. 6. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.A. IS: 4091 . which may involve only a few seconds work on a personal computer.D. Limited. Allahabad.775 6. ASCE. F. Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Foundations for Transmission Line Towers and Poles (First Revision). Sundara Raj for the fruitful discussions.. The program also gives printouts of the quantities of earthwork excavation.313 24. Similarly. foundations on rocks could also be designed by this program. 2725 MX Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Mr Venkataraman of Indian Telephone Industries and Mr M.3675 1.3675 6. Thus. Concrete International.M VOLUM& EARTHWORK EXCAVATION FOR TOWER 37.775 74. 1. LC. 5. it reduces the tedicus task of tower foundation design. Dry 2. Journal of the Power Division. Reinforced Concrete Structures.MT. 4 9 by using our ready to use Civil Structural Engg. AGAINST UPLIFT WITHOUT PASSIVE PRESSURE 1.S0 PAD THK. I.H.ST.80 KG VOLUME OF MAT CONCRETE FOR TOWER 0.Nagar. 691. New Delhi. No. Bureau of Indian Standards. Manual on Transmission Line Towers. Bureau of Indian Standards. pp 28-41.M MT OF TOTAL STEEL IN FOUNDATION FOR TOWER 0.M DEPTH. New Delhi. GODFREY. Analysis and design IBM-PC Compatible Software anchor bolts and other steel embedments. KHANNA.8 KG FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST UPROOTING OF STUB 3. Madras-600 017 Ph:825 0633 10. No. 3. A.1979. North Usman Road. 50 PIM DETAILS OF 1ARTn-PYRAMID VOLUME OF EARTH 38.TYPZ UPPER 750 MN NORMAL DRY SOIL LOWER STRATA SUBMERGED SOIL DETAILS OF NORMAL DRY TYPE FOUNDATION BASE.508476 F. mm 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 H2 H3 mm 2500 2130 2130 1950 2150 1600 2410 2000 H. Appendix 1 Typical output of tower foundation design for normal dry soil (unreinforced foundation) 408 KV DOUBLE CIRCUIT SPIC TOWER DETAILS TOWER TYPE TANGENT SOIL DETAILS SOIL TYPE MAX. the optimum foundation details could be arrived at.638 14... 95.639 9. IS: 456-1978. and MOREADITH. Guide to the design of Write or contact for free brochures and details : COMPUTER DESIGN CONSULTANTS 191. IEEE Trail Guide for Transmission Structures Foundation Design. Transmission tower foundations. D. No. 7. ASCE.W.1450 MM. and CHICARZZI. Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Radar Antenna.96464 CU. IS: 11233 . Dry black cotton 6. RICHARD. This program takes into account reinforced as well as unreinforced foundations. R. 5000 MN CHIMNEY WIDTH.004495 VOLUME OF CONCRETE FOR TOWER 5.L.007 12.3675 1.TABLE 1 Type of soil Details of foundation for different types of soil B MM H. 88.979 68. Vol. Partly-submerged 4.

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