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ITIL Foundation - Concepts of Service Management Unit 4 - Problem Management

ITIL Foundation - Concepts of Service Management Unit 4 - Problem Management

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ITIL Foundation - Concepts of Service Management
ITIL Foundation - Concepts of Service Management

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Page 4 - 1

Unit Objectives

Problem Management SIICJB 4-2

> Define Problem Management terms

> Describe the goals of Problem Management > List the activities of Problem Management

> Describe the relationships Problem Management has with ether ITll processes

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Page 4 - 2

IT Service Management

Problem Management Slide 4-3

Service Delivery

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IT Service Management

The above slide highlights the Problem Management process within Service Support.

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Page4-3

What's Next?

I" Problem Management definitions Goals of Problem Management Activities of Problem Management Relationships between Problem Management and other ITIL processes

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Page 4 - 4

Problem Management Definitions

Problem Management Slide 4-5

> Incident - any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service which causes, or may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service

> Problem - the unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents

> Error - an incident or problem for which the root cause is known

> Known Error - a problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which a workaround has been identified

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Page 4 - 5

What's Next?

Problem Management definitions

... Goals of Problem Management Activities of Problem Management Relationships between Problem Management and other ITIL processes

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Problem ~1ani1gement Slide 4-6

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Page 4 - 6

Goals of Problem Management

> Minimize·theadverse impact of incidents and problem.s on the business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure

> Prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors

> Determine the root cause of incidents and initiate actions to improve or correct the situation

Problem Management Slide 4-7

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Goals of Problem Management

The main goals of Problem Management are to minimize the adverse impact of incidents and problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure, and to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors. To achieve these goals, Problem Management seeks to get to the "root cause" of incidents and initiate actions to improve or correct the problematic situation.

Problem management differs from Incident Management in that its main goal is the detection of the underlying causes of an incident, its resolution, and prevention. Incident management is concerned with restoring service as quickly as possible, often through the use of a workaround.

Problem Management is both a reactive and proactive process.

• Reactive is concerned with solving problems related to incidents.

• Proactive is concerned with identifying and solving problems and known errors "before" incidents occur.

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Page 4 -7

What's Next?

Problem Management definitions Goals of Problem Management

... Activities of Prob.lem Management Relationships between Problem Management and other ITIL processes

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Page 4 - 8

Activities of Problem Management

Problem Management 5110124-9

> Reactive

• Problem control

• Error control

• Completion of major problem reviews > Proactive

• Preventing problems

• Obtaining management information from Problem Management data

• Identifying trends

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<bmcsoftware

Activities of Problem Management

The key to an organization's ability to resolve incidents effectively is the availability of relevant and easily applied advice in the early stages of an incident.

The Service Desk receives very few incidents that are new or mysterious to the support staff. The same is true for specialized second-line or third-line support staff, who have already resolved many difficult and unique incidents and problems. Such resolutions should be documented, so that frontline staff can apply them.

The Problem Management process reduces both the number and severity of incidents and problems on the business. It is part of Problem Management's responsibility to ensure that previous information is documented in such a way that it is readily available to first-line and other second-line staff.

(Continued on next page)

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Page 4 - 9

The documentation effort is not a simple task. Information must be:

'1

• Indexed for easy reference by simple and detectable triggers from new incidents

• Regularly inspected to ensure its continued relevance, in the light of:

• changing technology

• available external solutions

• business practices and requirements

• in-house skills

• frequency and impact of recurring incidents

• interpretation of internal best practice

The staff using the information should be trained to:

• Understand the depth and power of the information available

• Access and interpret it

• Provide feedback on its relevance and ease of use

The information, itself, should be stored in a suitable repository. Typically,

" expert system" software is used to facilitate the Problem Management process. It is also important that it includes expert knowledge that is updated with feedback from the staff who use the system.

Problems and known errors can be identified by:

• Analyzing incidents as they occur (this is reactive in nature.)

• Analyzing incidents trends and the IT infrastructure (this is proactive in nature)

• Accessing a knowledge database

• Using data provided by developers/vendors when new products are

introduced

Problem control vs. error control

Problem control focuses on transforming problems into known errors.

Error control focuses on resolving known errors structurally through the Change Management process.

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Page 4 -10

Problem Control

Problem Management Slide 4-11

The unknown, underlying cause of one or more incidents

> Problem identification and recording > Problem classification

> Problem investigation and diagnosis

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Problem control

The objective of Problem Control is to:

• Handle problems in an efficient and effective way

• Identify the root cause, such as the CIs that are at fault

• Provide the Service Desk with information and advice on workarounds when available

The Problem Control process is similar to, and depends on, the quality of the Incident Control process.

• Incident Control focuses on resolving incidents and providing workarounds and temporary fixes for specific incidents.

• If a problem is identified for an incident or a group of incidents, available workaroundsand temporary fixes are recorded in the problem record by the Problem Control process. Problem Control also advises on the best workaround available for the problem.

Problem Control's approach should be carefully managed and planned as it is concerned with preventing the recurrence of incidents. In contrast, Incident Control requires a lesser degree of management and planning because its objective is restoration of normal service as quickly as possible.

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Page 4-11

The main activities of Problem Control are:

• Problem identification and recording

• Problem classification

• Problem investigation and diagnosis.

Important: Priority should always be given to the resolution of problems that can cause serious business disruption.

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Page 4 -12

Error Control

Problem Management Slide 4-13

An incident or problem for which the root cause is known

> Identification and recording > Error assessment

> Resolution recording > Error closure

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Error control

Error Control handles the progression of known errors until they are eliminated by the successful implementation of a change via the Change Management process.

The objective of Error Control is to:

• Be aware of errors

• Monitor errors

• Eliminate errors, if feasible and cost effective

Error Control bridges the gap between development (including applications development, enhancement, and maintenance) and live environments. Software errors introduced during the development phase can affect live operations. Therefore, known errors identified in the development or maintenance environment should be handed over to the live environment.

The activities of Error Control are:

• Error identification and recording

• Error assessment recording error resolution

• Error closure

• Monitoring problem and error resolution progress

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Page 4 - 13

What's Next?

Problem fvlanagement Slide 4-14

Problem Management definitions Goals of Problem Ma.nagement Activities of Problem Management

_ Relationships between Problem Management and other ITIL processes

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Page 4-14

Relationships

Proolem Mal'lagement Slide 4-15

Service Delivery

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Relationships

The Problem Management process assists Incident Management by either reactively or proactively determining the root cause of errors in IT.

The cue to search may come from Incident Management and their recognition of certain trends in incident patterns or it may come from their own analysis. Either way, when the root cause of a an error has been determined, it can be dealt with as a known error.

The information is recorded by Configuration Management, so that it can be used by Incident Management and the Service Desk.

H a change is deemed a reasonable solution, then a Request for Change (RFC) is initiated and the Change Management process manages the request.

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Page 4 - 15

Wrap-Up Questions

Problem Management Slide 4-16

1. What are the goals of Problem Management?

2. What are the two sub-processes of Problem Management?

3. What is an incident?

4. What is a problem?

5. What is an error?

6. What is a known error?

7. When does an incident become a problem?

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Page 4 -16

Wrap-Up Questions (Continued)

Problem f1anagement Slide 4-17

8. Which of the following is NOT a Problem Management responsibility?

~ Ownership of an incident throughout its lifecycle b! Investigation&' Diagnosis

c. Raising Requests for Change

d. Maintenance of a known error database

9. Which task lsa Problem Management responsibility?

a. To co-ordinate all modifications to the IT infrastructure

b. To record incidents for later study

@ To approve all modifications made to the Known Error database d. To identify user needs and modify the IT infrastructure based on such needs

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Page 4 -17

Wrap-Up Questions (Continued)

Problem Management Slide 4·18

10. A user complains to the Service Desk that an error continually occurs when using a specific application. This causes the connection with the network to be broken. Which mt process is responsible for tracing the cause?

a. Availability Management

b. Incident Management ~ Problem Management o. Release Management

11. Which of the following best describes a Problem?

a. One or more Known Errors

b. A known cause of one or more disruptions @ The unknown cause of one or more incidents d. A Known Error with one or more incidents

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Page 4 - 18

Wrap-Up Answers

Problem Management Slide 4-19

1. The goals of Problem Management are:

• Minimize the adverse impact of incidents and problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure

• Prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors

• Determine the root cause of incidents and initiate actions to improve or correct the situation

2. The two sub-processes of Problem Management are:

• Problem control

• Error control

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Page 4 - 19

Wrap-Up Answers (Continued)

Problem Management Slide 4-20

3. An incident is "any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service which causes, or may cause, an interruption tOI or a reduction in, the quality of that service,"

4. A problem is "the unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents. "

5. An error is "an incident or problem for which the root cause is known."

6. A known error is "a problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which a workaround has been identified"

7. An incident NEVER becomes a problem!

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Page 4 - 20

Wrap-Up Answers (Continued)

Problem Management Slide 4·21

8. (a) Ownership of an incident throughout its lifecyde

9. (c) To approve all modifications made to the Known Error database

10. (c) Problem Management

11. (c) The unknown cause of one or more incidents

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Page 4 - 21

Unit Summary

Problem Man8gement Slide 4-22

> You are now able to accomplish the following tasks:

• Define Problem Management terms

• Describe the goals of Problem Management

• list the activities of Problem Management

• Describe the relatio.nships Problem Management has with other mt processes

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Page 4 - 22

Problem Management Slide 4"23

Questions

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Page4-23

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Page 4 - 24

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