ADJECTIVUL POSESIV TREBUIE UTILIZAT OBLIGATORIU CU: 1Partile corpului 2Obiecte de imbracaminte si incaltaminte 3Alte obiecte din care are

toata lumea Exemple: 1.Ai ceva pe palarie. There is something on your hat 2.Da-mi haina si te rog sa-mi dai inapoi umbrella. Give me your coat and please give me back your umbrella. 3.M-ai calcat pe picior. You stepped on my foot. 4.Ma doare capul. My head aches. a durea = to hurt ( in urma unei rani, dureri provocate din exterior) to ache ( a simti o durere )

I have a head-ache. I have an aching head. I have a sore ( care doare) throat.= Ma doare gatul.

Gradele de comparatie 1)pozitiv = adjectivul nu se schimba 2)comparativ - de inferioritate (2.1.) - de egalitate (2.2.) - de superioritate (2.3.) - relativ (3.1.) - absolut (3.2.)

3) superlativ

2.1. Comparativ de inferioritate •pt adj scurte (mono si bisilabice) se formeaza din: not so/not as + adj + as Ex: This room is not so big as the bedroom. sau This room is not as big as the bedroom. •pt adj lungi se formeaza: less + adj + than Ex: The chair is less comfortable than the bed. 2.2. Comparativ de egalitate Atat pt adj scurte cat si pt lungi: as + adj + as Ex: The bed is as good as the chair. Ideea de egalitate mai poate fi sugerata si prin constructia: the same + subst + as ! as si nu like !!!

Ex: This room is the same size as the other one. Schimbare de valoare gramaticala Adjectiv big, small long, short broad, narrow wide, narrow high, low deep, shallow heavy, light strong, weak Constructii cu comparativul de egalitate: as brave as a lion as blind as a bat as black as coal as busy as a bee as cool as a cucumber as clear as daylight as dry as a bone as easy as ABC as fresh as a daisy as hairy as a gorilla as mad as a hatter (palarier) as poor as a church-mouse as silent as a grave as wise as Solomon as soft as silk as smooth as grass as gentle as a lamb…….etc. 2.3. Comparativul de superioritate - pt adj scurte adj + er + than Modificari ortografice: 1)daca adj se termina in “e”, se adauga doar “r” Ex: nice – nicer 2)daca adj se termina in “y” precedat de consoana, se transforma “y” in “ier” Ex: pretty – prettier Exceptii: shy – shyer sly – slyer wry – wryer (stramb) 3) daca adj se termina in consoana precedata de vocala, dublez consoana finala Ex: big – bigger - pt adj lungi more + adj + than Ex: The book is more interesting than the movie. Adj provenite din latina sunt urmate de “to” si nu de “than” Ex: He is superior to me. 3.1. Superlativul relativ the + adj +est Ex: large – the largest silly – the silliest Modificarile ortografice sunt la fel. Pentru adj lungi: the most+ adj Ex: This is the most expensive thing. Substantiv size (masura) length (lungime) breadth (largime pt ceva concret) width (largime pt ceva abstract) height (inaltime) depth (adancime) weight (greutate) strength (putere)……..etc.

! dupa superlativ urmeaza prepozitiile “of” sau “in” Ex: He is the best of all/the best in my group. ! daca se face comparatie intre 2 elemente, comparativul implica superlativul: the + comparativ Ex: Between you and me, I am the older. 3.2. Superlativul absolut very + adj very poate fi inlocuit cu:

extremely exceptionally tremendously awfully

! nu toate adj au grad de comparatie, unele definesc ideea de unitate (own, complete, proper, perfect, marvelous, maximum, minimum). Altele au sufixe si prefixe: extra – large over – crowded super – fine ultra – short priceless Comparatia neregulata good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst ill – worse – the worst many – more – the most much – more – the most little – less – the least near – nearer – the nearest (cel mai apropiat); next (urmatorul) far – farther – the farthest (in spatiu) far – further – the furthest (in timp) late – later – the latest; the last (ultimul); the latter (ult din 2) Dintre 2, primul este “the former”, nu “the first”. up – upper – the upmost in – inner – the inmost out – outer – the outmost fore – former – the foremost old – older – the oldest old – elder – the eldest (doar atributiv, pt membrii aceleiasi familii) Ex: My elder brother is older than me. (fratele meu mai mare) Constructii adjectivale 1)cu mult mai = much/ a lot + comparativ Ex: It is much warmer today / a lot warmer today 2)de departe cel mai = by far + superlativ Ex: This is by far the hottest day of the year. 3)din ce in ce mai = comp + and + comp Ex: It is warmer and warmer ! pt adj lungi se repeta doar “more” Ex: It is more and more interesting. 4)cu cat mai,… cu atat mai… (the + comparativ …the + comparativ) ! Expresia e obligatoriu sa se repete identic si verbul “to be” lipseste: Ex: The more, the better (cu cat mai mare, cu atat mai bine) ! Mai multe adjective care determina acelasi substantiv se despart prin virgula. Daca nu apare virgula intre ele atunci cel care nu este urmat de virgula este adverb. ! Ordinea adjectivelor care determina un substantiv va tine cont de cele subiective (primele expuse) si de cele obiective (imediat langa substantiv).

/which Which presupune selectie dintr-un numar limitat. our. Ex: How many books do you want? Adjectivul relativ •pozitie mediana •introduce o propozitie secundara •invariabil •determina un substantiv anulandu-i articolul . book = substantiv) This is a good book. Ex: What days of the week do you know? Diferenta how much / how many How much presupune cantitatea si se foloseste pentru substantive nenumarabile. whose. ! Indepartarea in spatiu presupune si indepartarea in timp. Diferenta: what. Adjectivul interogativ •pozitie initiala in propozitie •invariabil ca forma •anuleaza articolul •determina un substantiv •forme: what. its. acestia (plural apropiere) ambele merg cu “here”. their Ex: My book. acesta (singular apropiere) “these” – acestea.! Un adjectiv poate sa determine si un verb. aceia (plural departare) ambele merg cu “there”. Ex: How much money do you want? How many inseamna numar si se foloseste la substantive numarabile. her. how many. (this = pronume) Adjectivul posesiv •invariabil ca forma si numar •anuleaza articolul substantivului •se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care-l determina •forme: my. how much. Ex: I am intelligent He looks happy sau He is happy. “that” – acela. Ex: Which boy is your best friend? What nu presupune selectie. your. which. his. your. Adjectivul demonstrativ •anuleza articolul substantivului •invariabil ca forma (M/F) •se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care il determina •daca nu determina un substantiv devine pronume demonstrativ “this” – aceasta. (this = adjectiv. aceea (singular departare) “those” – acelea. Deci “that” si “those” se vor cupla cu trecutul. Ex: This book is good. Verbul va fi obligatoriu “to be” sau orice alt verb de perceptie care poate fi inlocuit cu “to be”.

niste. Ex: Why are there so many people in some restaurants? Aici.Cand poate fi inlocuitorul lui “certain”. cu sau fara “some” propozitia are aceeasi logica. oricare.In propozitia in care stiu sigur ca primesc raspuns pozitiv.In propozitia interogativa in care intrebarea nu se refera la “some”. al. Adjectivul nehotarat SOME = unii.In propozitia negativa al carui sens este afirmativ. Ex: Certain people/some people believe they are the best. cu greu. Ex: Mother. Ex: I doubt there are any good films in town. Ex: Would you like some coffee? 3. 6.In propozitia care contine o expresie de indoiala: maybe. Ex: You may take 1/ whatever books you want 2/. EVERY (fara particularizare) Ex: Every day I go to my office. vreo.In propozitia enuntiativa dar cu sensul de oricine. ea nu se refera la “some”.In propozitia care contine un adverb negativ de genul: hardly. particularizare) .In propozitia care contine “if”. Ex: I have no friends here. whichever (selectie din numar limitat). Ex: I never go home without buying some chocolate. (fiecare. scarcely (de abia. whose (a.In propozitia enuntiativa urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural. NO Se foloseste numai in propozitia negativa in care verbul este la afirmativ.In propozitia interogativa in care se face o afirmatie sau o invitatie. Ex: Is there any milk left? 2. 4.Propozitia interogativa la care nu stiu ce raspuns voi primi. (nu ma duc chiar in fiecare zi) EACH – (cu particularizare) Ex: Each person has a name. Ex: I have some money / friends. important este “so many” 5. can you give me some money? Aici “some” pp o certitudine comparativ cu “any”. Ex: I hardly eat any bread (nu mananc paine aproape deloc) 4. ai. orice. Sensul real este: I always buy chocolate when I go home. ANY Este inlocuitorul lui “some” in: 1.In propozitia negativa in care verbul este negat.•forme: whatever (fara selectie). Ex: I haven’t any friends here. 6. (if = incertitudine) Ex: If you find any books. deloc). perhaps. ale cui). barely. buy them. 5. cativa Utilizare: 1. 2. Ex: Any book is good for you. 3.

in addition) Ex: Would you like another drink? = vrei inca unul (suplimentar) sau un altul (diferit)? BOTH + substantiv numarabil la plural (pt. Ex: The other child/children can swim. Daca e precedat de “no” poate fi urmat si de numarabil la singular. either sau neither rmeaza substantiv numarabil la singular iar acordul cu verbul se face la singular.EITHER – (fiecare din doi) NEITHER – (nici unul din doi) ! Dupa each. Expresii cu every si each Each other = unul pe altul (pp reciprocitate) Every bit/inch = fiecare bucatica Every right = tot dreptul Every now and than = din cand in cand Every other day = alternativ Every so often = la interval regulat de timp fara a sti exact cand. Ex: Give me other examples. Ex: All books/information must be used. ALL Urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural. . ! Pt perioade de timp se poate folosi si “whole” si “all” Ex: I’m home all the morning/ the whole morning. (whole este cotat ca fiind mai puternic) THE OTHER Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular sau plural. SEVERAL Mai multi intr-un numar nedefinit. Ex: I have such friends/information. every. Ex: This is such a man of honor. + substantiv numarabil la plural. doi) Ex: I like both kids -> acordul in plural Both are intelligent. Ex: We spent several days there. Ex: I was there the other day. Ex: I like the whole book. cere obligatoriu trecutul. (Am fost acolo acum cateva zile) OTHER Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural. ANOTHER + substantiv la singular (different. SUCH (astfel) Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil. Ex: No other man is as good as you are. SUCH A Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular. WHOLE Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular. Expresia “The other day” = some days ago.

Ex. Adjectivele pot exprima: Sentimente sau calitati: Ex. Nationalitatea sau originea: Ex. I will buy another one.: The movie is good. Vârsta: Ex. She is a single mother. to make. alone. 3.: This is the main purpose of the meeting. awake. I'm alone. upset. to appear. Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep. 3.1.3. to turn. the President elect. Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect: Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. poor (=unfortunate) stau numai în fata substantivului determinat: Ex.: A rectangular envelope. marime si masuri: Ex. He is still very young.2. almost a boy. to keep. A round table. That boy is too tall. Ex. (worried.: the Princess Royal. not a steel tray. Unele adjective îsi schimba sensul în functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa.: He wore a cotton shirt. Dimensiuni. Forma adjectivului Adjectivele sunt invariabile. ca de exemplu chief. anxious) The list of the students present is outside.: He's asleep. to seem. That poor woman was living in a garage.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt.: My hat is too old. to feel. annoyed. Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be. alive. Materie / material: Ex.: A very hot potato.: These are the people involved / concerned. etc: Ex.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film. . afraid. really: Ex. to become.: The table is long. alike.MOST = majoritatea + substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil. sorry Ex.: A hot potato. the court martial Câteva adjective. Ex: Most books/information can be read easily. to sound. Pozitia adjectivului De obicei adjectivul se aseaza în fata substantivului determinat: Ex. ENOUGH ! Daca e urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural are pozitie mobila. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian. Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very. I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas. some really hot potatoes. Dupa substantiv în expresii fixe: Ex. concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate în fata substantivului sau dupa acesta. The steel tray was a gift. This cheese tastes different. ! Daca e urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular se aseaza dupa el. present. You seem upset. (the people who have something to do with the matter) They had an involved discussion on the matter. It was a silver tray. complex) I am a concerned mother. to taste. ill. (students who were there) The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. on the door. Ex: I have enough money/money enough to be happy.: They make an original couple. Forma: Ex. Ele nu îsi schimba forma în functie de gen sau numar. Ex: He is man enough to understand me. (current) 3. Adjectivele involved.: A good movie. Culoarea: Ex. some hot potatoes. to smell. main. to look. Functiile adjectivului Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. well. (detailed.

: Grammar is fascinating. black Origin Swedish. Ordinea adjectivelor Atunci când se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv. Forme neregulate Urmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate: Pozitiv Comparativ Superlativ good better best bad worse worst little less least old older / elder oldest / eldest much / many more most far further / farther furthest / farthest 3. A park bench is comfortable. little Shape round. quiet happy happier/ more happy happiest/ most happy yellow yellower/ more yellow yellowest/ most yellow simple simpler/ more simple simplest/ most simple tender tenderer/ more tender tenderest/ most tender Daca nu esti sigur. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor 3. rectangular Colour red. comparativ (mai înalt). blonde.pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte. huge. The show was entertaining. polite. 3. a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest. Formarea comparativului si superlativului Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv (înalt). sunny. Exista mai multe variante. 3. Nota: Adjectivele terminate în -y ca de exemplu happy. Victorian. common. Age/Temperature. comparative + than . square.1. A car is heavy. foloseste more + adj SAU most + adj. pretty. pareri sau opinii: Ex. b.5. tiny Age/Temperature old. -ow + Adjectivele terminate în: -le. A cat is fast. superlativ (cel mai înalt).5.: He makes fewer mistakes than you do. but a sofa is the most comfortable. young. busy. Colour. -er sau -ure + Urmatoarele adjective: handsome. Comparatia adjectivelor the + superlative Ex. hot. Origin. În limba engleza. silver Exemple: a green round plastic bucket an elegant little French clock a small round wooden table 3. lovely. a truck is heavier. Chinese Material plastic. pleasant. c. Material Value/opinion delicious. evenimente sau fiinte: Ex. comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel: Numar de silabe (Pozitiv) Comparativ Superlativ o silaba + -er + -est tall taller tallest Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala: fat fatter fattest big bigger biggest sad sadder saddest doua silabe + -er SAU more + adj + -est SAU most + adj + Adjectivele terminate în: -y. -ly.3.Judecati. Thailand is sunnier than Norway. lucky etc. a restaurant chair is more comfortable. vor înlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma comparativa si superlativa: busy busier busiest trei sau mai multe silabe more + adj most + adj important more important most important expensive more expensive most expensive Exemple: a.: This is the oldest theater in London. Shape.4. wooden. . dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion. charming Size small.5.5. Size. ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. but a train is the heaviest.2.

Ex: 1. 1.putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia not so/as .: Peter is 24 years old. In apozitie (apozitie = grup de cuvinte pt. a lamuri) The poet Eminescu Cand defineste o categorie The elephant is a big animal.12.Albert is more intelligent than Arthur. Ex: 1. Norway is not as sunny as Thailand ARTICOLUL Tipuri: 1. Ex: 1. Hotarat 2. Ex. Ex: Pt. 1.15.3. Ramona is as happy as Raphael.. A tiger is as dangerous as a lion. 1. evenimete sau obiecte. The Declaration of Independence. 1.14. the Bible. 1. 1. Ex. Peter is as old as John. fiinte. ARTICOLUL HOTARAT Are forma unica “the” Utilizare: 1. as + adjective + as . Ex. The man is tall.6.2. the blind.constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni.11. Ex. Ex: 1. Substantiv urmat de pronume relativ This is the man that loves me.1. not as + adjective + as .10. Zero 1.as: Ex.8. unicitati The Earth.9. Cand substantivul a fost pomenit anterior Ex: I see a man.4. the Moon. Ex. Dinastiile The Tudors Adjectivul la superlativ The best Numerarul ordinal The first Puncte cardinale Turn to the East Numele de familie le plural The Browns Instrumente muzicale daca sunt precedate de “play”the I play the piano Un singur continent The Arctic .: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest. Nehotarat 3.. Ex: 1. locuri. Ex: 1. Ex: 1. the poor.7. (man = substantiv. Ex: 1. Substantive provenite din adjective The reach. între care nu exista diferente: Ex.13. John is 24 years old.5. that = pronume relativ) Cu nationalitati privite ca o entitate The Romanians Documente si perioade istorice: The Middle Ages. the sky.

the Emen. the Flying Dutch Monumente si dotari celebre The Pyramids Orice substantiv care se doreste a fi subliniat The Mary I see is not the Mary I like.30. Toate institutiile de importante in oras (cinema.21.20. the Congo. Ex: 1. Cand substantivul a fost pomenit pentru prima oara. Utilizare 2. the Netherlands. Ex: Tari formate din mai multe state The United States of America Exceptii: The Argentina. Ex: 1.1.1. Ex: 1. teatru.29.26.19. Ex: 1. Ex: 1. ! Cuvantul care incepe cu “u” va primi “a” si nu “an” daca “u” formeaza singur silaba.27.18.25.17. the Sudan. Ex: 1. . Are forma unica “a” care devine “an” atunci cand cuvantul care urmeaza incepe cu o vocala (an egg) sau “h” aspirat (an hour ago). 1. Ex: 1.23. “a u-ni-ver-si-ty” “a u-ni-form” diferit de “an um-bre-lla” Aceeasi regula pentru cuvintele care incepe cu “eu” A European Country ! In fata lui one avem intotdeauna “a” si nu “an” A one hundred dollars bill. Ex: Arhipelaguri The Philippines Un singur oras The Hague O singura strada: The High Street Lanturile muntoase The Alps. the Carpathians Toate formele de relief The Sahara desert Toate apele cu exceptia lacurilor The Black Sea. Ex: 1.24.28. Ex: 1. Ex: 1. Ex: 1. The Danube Canalele The Panama Channel Numele de ziare (revistele nu: Cosmopolitan) The Times Numele de avioane The Titanic. Exceptie: gara si aeroportul The Sofitel Hotel (exceptie: Kennedy airport) Institutiile de invatamant daca sunt precedate de “of” The University of Cambridge/Cambridge University Toate substantivele proprii compuse alcatuite din adjectiv + substantiv The Central Park / Hyde Park The Royal Palace / Buckingham Palace ARTICOLUL NEHOTARAT 2. Ex: 1. Ex: 1.22. restaurant).16.

that you offered me.3. Ex: 3. Ex: 2. In fata lui “little” si “few” pentru a le schimba sensul din negativ in pozitiv. Parti ale corpului Give me your hand (Da-mi mana). religie sau ocupatie.evening At . “to remain” si urmeaza nationalitatea. 2. Ex: 2. One hundred kilometers per hour. chocolate. Ex. Mrs.4.morning . sex.9. Little = almost nothing (sens negativ folosit pentru substantive nenumarabile) Ex: I eat little bread (Nu mananc paine aproape deloc). Ex: 3. Ex: This is a house. Momentele zilei: In the . Exceptie: titluri si functii dobandite temporar de anumite persoane.1. flowers.2.2. Ex: Pentru unitatile de masura ca inlocuitor a lui “per”. Folosit in enumerare I like the books.dawn (zori) articulate . apartenenta politica. 2.5.10. + substantiv propriu si nu cunosc identitatea persoanei. A Mss Brown wants to see you.7.8. Ex: 2. Cand e urmat de Mr. 3.6. “to become”.3. Ex: He is Vice president of a company. Imbracamintea in relatie cu corpul (se prefera adjectiv posesiv) Give me your coat (Da-mi haina). A hundred dollars.5. Ca inlocuitor a lui one.4. Such a beautiful night. He is a doctor.. Ex: 3. In propozitiile exclamative cand este precedat de “what” sau “such” What a lovely dress.. Substantive legate prin “and” sau “or” Give me the book and note book. 2. ARTICOULU ZERO Lipsa articolului 3. Few = almost nothing (sens negativ pt. One hundred kilometers an hour. Cand e precedat de verbul “to be”. sau Mss. Ex: 3. You are an English. Cand caracterizeaza o intreaga categorie A manager is a person who… Cand e precedat de “as” I am dressed as a pirate.Ex: 2. Ex: 2. A little = at least some (are sens pozitiv si se foloseste cu substantive nenumarabile) Ex: I have a little money on me (Am ceva bani la mine).afternoon . Ex: 2. In apozitie John a friend of my mother. substantive numarabile) Ex: I have few friends here (n-am aproape deloc prieteni aici) A few = at least some (are sens pozitiv si se foloseste cu substantive numarabile) Ex: I have a few books to give you (am ceva carti sa-ti dau).

midnoonnearticulate .6. 2.11.: .16. ob. . 3.9. legi (Water boils at 100 degrees). Cape. În propozitii sau fraze în care definim sau identificam anumite persoane sau obiecte: Ex. Mount The Alps / Mount Everest 3. Abstractiunile I go to school.8. Stiinte. Ex: 3.to… From sunrise to sunset From right to left From beginning to end 3. the sun. lunile anului. Articolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza: Articolul hotarât . Articolul hotarât (the) Articolul hotarât se foloseste: Înaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat în contextul respectiv Ex.. the moon. sarbatori Denumirile geografice precedate de: Lake. (la scoala ca studiu) I go to bed. acesta trebuie sa fie însotit de un determinant substantival.noon .10. Cel mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. I speak English / The Romanian you speak is very good. and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose.a / an Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata) Articolele sunt forme invariabile. The girl in red is her neighbor. Mijloace de locomotie daca sunt precedate de prepozitia “by”: By car By train By sub On foot (pe jos) Structuri paralele: Hand in hand Face to face Step by step Arm in arm Day after day Structurile inchise (cap-coada): From….midnight •dusk 3. anotimpuri.: the earth. Ex.midday . Mesele zilei privite ca abstracte: Breakfast is at seven / the breakfast is on the table. de studii.14. Ex: 3.12.the Articolul nehotarât . nationalitati si limbi We are Romanians.7. the stars Ann is in the garden (the garden of this house).1. Alimentele Materialele si substantele Zilele sapt.Where's the bathroom? . (ma duc sa ma culc). 3. Adevaruri universal valabile. Atunci când atât vorbitorul cât si ascultatorul cunosc notiunea exprimata de substantiv.night . Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete înteles într-o propozitie oarecare.15.: An elephant and a mouse fell in love.13.It's on the first floor. 3. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk. desi nu a mai fost mentionat în context.: The man we met yesterday at the bus station. 3.. 3. Referitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice: Ex. adica nu se schimba în functie de numarul sau genul substantivului si se aseaza în fata substantivului determinat. 3.

institutii celebre.Înaintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale first.: the best day. a thousand. Dinner is in the evening. Cu numele profesiilor: . etc): Ex. japonezi. greutatea. the Atlantic Se foloseste înaintea unor nume proprii (muzee.: the Caribbean. the House of Parliament. the Beatles.: the young. vapoare. Laura's basket. the last chapter. we need two boxes.) Dupa cazul posesiv format cu 's: Ex.: My parents went to University in the seventies. nume de famili la plural. the Daily. hoteluri. orchestre.etc): Ex.: French is spoken in Tahiti. a / one million pounds You can take an/ one hour for lunch. the Savoy. 2. etc si only: Ex. the Smiths Decade. e. the beautiful.3.: the National Gallery. 2. atunci când te referi la un singur obiect sau persoana. The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting. i.: Would you like a drink? I've finally got a good job.: Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.2.: a / one pound. Retineti ca se spune a hundred. the best. Articolul nehotarât (a / an) Se foloseste a înaintea substantivelor care încep cu o consoana si an înaintea substantivelor care încep cu o vocala (a. a university. an orange. secole. batrâni. It was a very strange car cu substantice la singular. Dar a/an si one nu înseamna întotdeauna acelasi lucru: Ex.: Lunch is at midday.: a boy. Dr. a house.: Germany is an important economic power. tineri. the Guardian. thirds. mari. se poate folosi fie a/an fie one pentru singular: Ex. a / an si one Atunci când numeri sau masori timpul. grupuri muzicale.: John's coming to the party. the first week. the only way Înaintea unor adjective pentru a te referi în general la un grup de oameni care au în comun o anumita însusire (sunt frumosi. (We need a crate not a box). (Însa: the Queen of England. A înainte de u sau eu atunci când se pronunta ca you: a European. o. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.: His sister's car. Breakfast is the first meal of the day. Mary is training to be a nurse. the Sahara. One box is no good. the Royal Shakespeare. the Spice Girls. (Însa: I'm visiting the United States next week. 2. a million.) Cu numele limbilor: Ex. Pentru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase: Exemple: cu nume de profesii: John is an engineer. pentru a desemna un fel de. second. the British Nume de locuri geografice. ziare. distanta. etc. an apple. Cu numele meselor: Ex. (Însa: We're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow. an opera Exceptii: An înainte de un h mut . a car. Articolul zero Nu se foloseste articol în urmatoarele cazuri: Cu nume de tari (la singular) Ex. Cu numele persoanelor (la singular): Ex. u) Ex. an honor. cu numele zilelor: I was born on a Thursday. the old. râuri. deserturi.) Cu titluri si nume: Ex. He's just returned from Argentina. President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. the Titanic. sau un exemplu de: The mouse had a tiny nose. English uses many words of Latin origin. grupe de ani: Ex.4. the Telegraph. a unit Articolul nehotarât se foloseste: Pentru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data: Ex. the Japanese. the Tower of London. regiuni: Ex. cu instrumente muzicale: Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived. munti. oceane.: A box is no good. dupa cuvinte cum ar fi what si such: What a bluff! He is such a prodigious young man. echivaleaza cu one: I'd like an orange and two lemons please.an hour. George King is my uncle. the Pope. cu nationalitati si religii: John is an Englishman. Kate is a Catholic.

h) conjunctii adversative: but. for instance.: Milk is often added to tea in England. unless. otherwise. at school. in church. . lacuri si insule: Ex. De legatura: as…as.: Engineering is a useful career. Cu nume de magazine: Ex. as if (de parca). War is destructive. tinand seama de) – contrasteaza cu propozitia principala. on foot. and. B. whether…or . in bed. by air.care leaga .: Victoria Station is in the centre of London. on holiday.propozitii intre ele . so long as (atata timp cat). furthermore I wood like to visit England. Ex: I am tall but fat. otherwise (altfel). Can you go to Boots for me? Cu ani: Ex. cu alte cuvinte). statii pentru mijloacele de transport si aeroporturi: Ex. I am talking while you are righting. They're flying from Heathrow. 2. not only…but also. both…and. g) “furthermore” (cu atat mai mult) Ex: I speak English. whereas (pe cata vreme. Can you direct me to Bond Street? She lives in Florence. at work. k) conjunctii disjunctive: or. else. De coordonare a) “and” . 4.parti de vorbire de acelasi fel Ex: I go and stay there for a week b) “as well as” Ex: I work in a school as well as at home. if. d) “not only…but also…” Ex: I am not only intelligent but also pretty. orase. Ex: Would you prefer coffee or tea? Please put your coat else you get whet.: Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska. Cu numele unor munti.: 1948 was a wonderful year. either…or. Do you remember 1995? Cu substantive unice (uncountable nouns): Ex. that’s why. as though (de parca). Learn your lesson otherwise you fail.: I'll get the card at Smith's. c) “neither…nor” Ex: I am neither in the kitchen nor in the bathroom. Dupa functie 1. or else (ori. Locutiuni: as well as. She lives near Lake Windermere. by train.: by car. He'll probably go into medicine. at University. 3. f) “either…or” Ex: They are either brother and sister or husband and wife. Compuse: however. În unele expresii invariabile: Ex. e) “as well” Ex: He is calm and good as well. Dupa aspect 1. Have you visited Long Island? Cu majoritatea numelor de strazi . Simple: but.Ex. neither…nor. on air (in broadcasting) CONJUNCTIA A. in prison. while.

I may take whatever book you want. conditionale: if pt. They acted much as I told them. You must approved of whatever she says. when. Ex: Only one friend of mine left Romania. why. therefore (de aceea). as though pt. for instance. I like do a lot of thinks for instance/example reading. that. whatever. that is to say. which. whoever. De subordonare – acelea care introduc o propozitie secundara. Ex: You depend on what I say. namely Ela. (5) Subordonate prepozitionale – introduse prin: who. (= respectand majoritatea celor spuse de mine) (8) Subordonate conditionale – introduse prin: if. whoever. that. like. if. comparative: as if (de parca). as if. whichever. whom. why. whoever. to what. whether. whoever. whichever. on condition that. wherever. atributive 1)Subordonate predicative – introduse prin: a)“what” Ex: The question is what I must read. in the manner. whatever. when. whom. c) “where” Ex: The question is were I go. … 2. that. predicative sau pt. This is the man whose wife is pretty. b) “what” Ex: It doesn’t matter what you believe. so. just. e…) whatever. to anyone. only if. d) which. I do whatever you want me to do. b) “who” Ex: The question is who is he. although (desi) pt. whether. Ex: pt. (6) Subordonate atributive – introduse prin: whose. why. whichever. concesive: through. This is the boy whom I greeted. completive directe. d) “when” Ex: The question is when I can come. on that account. Ex: I haven’t slept therefore/that is why I am tired. much as. subiective. You interpret whatever she says. whoever. I don’t know whoever want’s my dog. . (4) Subordonate indirecte – introduse prin: to whom. Ex: This is the woman who loves me. as though. dancing. j) conjunctii explicative: for example. how. where. Ex: She sad that she was tired. Ex: I shall come soon if/on condition that I find my passport. I don’t know if you leave Romania. Ex: No one speaks like you do. why (2) Subordonate subiective – introduse prin: a) “that” Ex: It is necessary that you should understand this rule. were. then. (7) Subordonate adverbiale – introduse prin: as. Ex: I may give the flowers to whom you want.i) conjunctiile concluzive: consequently. (3) Subordonate completive directe (cele cu forma de complement): if. namely. Unele dintre ele sunt specializate pe anumite tipuri de propozitii. that is why (iata de ce). c) “who” Ex: It hasn’t be decided who is the leader of the team. how daca sunt precedate de o prepoziitie. how.

.altfel. c) conjunc[ii disjunctive (Disjunctive Conjunctions). nici). or (sau)... how \i why... Not] Pronumele relative who. both . Ex: I was waiting at the entrance but neither Sam nor his brother waited for me. Ex: It was a warm day therefore we decided to go to do some park evangelism. El a =nceput s] studieze Cuvqntul. spre deosebire de conjunc[ii. dar nici Sam. care exprim] alternativa: either . however (how + ever) . in order that (ca s]). Ex: He started studying the Word in order that he would become a preacher.. Era un om foarte r]u. afar] de). else (altfel). d) conjunc[ii conclusive (Illative Conjunctions). for (pentru). nor (nici. conse`uently (=n consecin[]). cqt \i). b)Este neflexibil] din punct de vedere morfologic... construc[ii alc]tuite din p]r[i de vorbire combinate cu conjunc[ii sau cu alte p]r[i de vorbire cu sens unitar \i valoare de conjunc[ie: on condition that/ provided that (cu condi[ia ca).. so (a\adar).than (deabia. as soon as (=ndat] ce. Lui Luca =i place s] cqnte la vioar] =n timp ce fratelui s]u =i place s] =noate. imediat ce). Conjuncţia este partea de vorbire care exprimă: a)Raporturi de coordonare sau subordonare =ntre dou] propozi[ii..totu\i etc. Ex: Luke likes playing the violin while his brother likes to swim.and (atqt. so that (astfel =ncqt). Acestea se sub=mpart =n: a) conjunc[ii copulative (Copulative Conjunctions) indic] o no[iune care se adaug] alteia: and (\i).. precum \i adverbele where. or (sau). neither . raporturi de coordonare =ntre dou] p]r[i de propozi[ie sau =ntre o parte de propozi[ie \i o propozi[ie. e) Locu[iuni conjunc[ionale (Conjunctional Phrases).. however (totu\i).. Ex: He was calm as long as David sang a psalm.. El se calma atqta timp cqt David cqnta un psalm. 2) Conjunc[iile subordonatoare (Subordinating Conjunctions) leag] propozi[iile subordonate de propozi[ia regent] de care depind.cqnd). Ex: Besides the old desk he also ordered a new lamp. b) Compuse (Compound). yet.sau)..or (sau.ci \i). not only. de aceea ne-am hot]rqt s] mergem s] evangheliz]m prin parc. that (c]). Ex: He was a very bad man.de\i.sau).. only (numai c]).or (sau. A venit un b]rbat \i a trebuit s] deschid u\a. Am a\teptat la intrare. dar. accordingly. Era o zi cald].but also (nu numai . or else (sau dac] nu). Clasificare..Defini[ie. Dup] form] conjunc[iile pot fi: a) Simple (Simple). otherwise (other + wise) . +l cunosc pe b]rbatul care i-a ajutat. conjunc[iile se =mpart =n: 1) Conjunc[ii coordonatoare (Coordinating Conjunctions) 2) Conjunc[ii subordontoare (Subordinating Conjunctions) 1) Conjunc[iile coordonatoare leag] dou] p]r[i de propozi[ie care au aceea\i func[ie sintactic] sau dou] propozi[ii de acela\i fel. pentru a deveni predicator.... that is why (de aceea). nici fratele lui nu m-au a\teptat. if (dac]).nici). neither .. dar marchează raporturile de coordonare şi subordonare în cadrul propoziţiei şi al frazei. when... nor (nici). Deabia s-a apucat Mary s] se roage. therefore (de aceea). nevertheless the Lord changed him into an honest man. Ex: I know the man that helped them. formate dintr-un singur cuvqnt: and (\i). c) Nu îndeplineşte nici o funcţie sintactică în propoziţie. both .. while (=n timp ce). no sooner. as well as (precum \i). intr] =n =ns]\i structura propozi[iei (ca parte a propozi[iei). conjunc[iile subordonatoare apar[in urm]toarelor categorii: a) conjunc[ii de loc (Conjunctions of Place). that \i what. prin urmare). care introduc subordonate circumstan[iale de loc: where (unde). c) Complexe (Complex) formate din dou] conjunc[ii sau conjunc[ii asociate cu adverbe sau prepozi[ii: as if/ as though (ca \i cqnd/ ca \i cum). sice (deoarece) etc.. wherever ..nor (nici.. exprim] o concluzie: hence (deci.... d) Corelative (Correlative): either . formate din dou] sau mai multe p]r[i de vorbire scrise =ntr-un singur cuvqnt: although (all + though) . +n afar] de biroul cel vechi el a mai comandat \i o lustr] nou]. leag] propozi[iile =ntre ele. which. Ex: A man came in and I had to open the door. whereas (=n timp ce).. +n func[ie de raporturile pe care le stabilesc. no matter how (indiferent). totu\i Domnul l-a schimbat =ntr-un om cinstit. Dup] func[ie \i con[inut.. cqt \i). cqnd el a =nceput s] cqnte. =ns]). as long as (atqt timp cqt). otherwise (altfel). still (totu\i). b) conjunc[ii adversative (Adversative Conjunctions) exprim] un contrast: but (dar..and (atqt. besides (pe lqng]. Ex: No sooner has Mary started to pray than he began to sing.

. Conjunc[iile either…or (sau…sau) =n propozi[ii afirmative \i interogative implic] alternativa.. ca nu cumva s]). g) conjunc[ii concesive (Conjunctions of Concession). Ea nu \i-a putut folosi vocea =n serviciul de =nchinare. ca \i cum): as.cqt). care introduc subordonate temporale: when (cqnd). Ex: She couldn’t use her voice in the worship service. as long as (atqt timp cqt). Sarcina mea nu este atqt de u\oar] pe cqt p]rea la =nceput. however (oricqt de). although (cu toate c]. Ex: We left earlier for fear that we could lose the plane. in case. . Ex: I will go wherever the Lord sends me. as (nu atqt. nor/ neither did she play the guitar. c) conjunc[ii de mod (Conjunctions of Manner). unless (dac] nu). i) conjunc[ii comparative (Conjunctions of Comparison). pentru c]. now that (acum c]). on condition that. whence (de unde). cqt \i de subordonare. =ntrucqt). so far as (=n m]sura =n care).. Ex: John and his brother James followed the Lord Jesus. as. El a f]cut asta pentru c] a \tiut c] are o cauz] dreapt]. a) Conjunc[iile that \i whether pot introduce: . h) conjunc[ii consecutive (Conjunctions of Result). care introduc subordonate cauzale.. as (tot atqt.. Ioan \i fratele lui Iacov L-au urmat pe Domnul Isus. care introduc subordonate consecutive: (so). fie so[ia va fi acas] la acea or].. de\i). till/ until (pqn] cqnd). Fie eu. Ex: He did that for he knew his cause was right. Voi merge oriunde m] va trimite Domnul. as if. whither (=ncotro). Ex: Either myself or my wife will be at home at that time. no matter (indiferent).. care introduc subordonate modale: as (a\a cum). in spite of (=n ciuda faptului c]).Cu valoare final]. d) conjunc[ii de cauz] (Conjunctions of Cause). Ex: He said he would follow Him and finally he didn’t. Ex: It was such a sunny day that I had to turn on the air conditioning. as though (de parc].(oriunde). just as (=ntocmai cum). I went to the library. de\i tipic copulativ]. exactly as (exact cum). Ex: Come to me all you who are weary and burdened and I will give you rest. in order that (ca s]. +ntr-o fraz] alc]tuit] din dou] propozi[ii negative coordonate. Ex: My task is not so easy as it seemed in the beginning...subordonate subiective . cu scopul de a). because. while (=n timp ce). Ex: I will be protected as long as I follow the Lord. as long as/ so long as (cu condi[ia s]). for fear that (de team] s] nu).. nici nu a cqntat la chitar]. whenever (ori de cqte ori). Veni[i la mine. Not]. 2) Conjunc[iile subordonatoare sunt folosite pentru a stabili raporturi =ntre propozi[iile subordonate \i propozi[iile regente dintr-o fraz]. such.. as soon as (=ndat] ce).. Mi-a spus c] John urma s] vin]. conjunc[iile neither sau nor sunt utilizate =n cea de-a doua propozi[ie cu schimbarea ordinii cuvintelor. Ex: In spite of being tired. that (astfel =ncqt). f) conjunc[ii condi[ionale (Conditional Conjunctions). not so. after (dup] ce). Unele conjunc[ii subordonatoare sunt universale.subordonate completive directe Ex: He told me that John was coming. voi care sunte[i osteni[i \i =mpov]ra[i \i v] voi da odihn]. poate exprima \i alte raporturi.Cu valoare adversativ]. care introduc subordonate concesive: though. since. before (=nainte). Ex: Men will reap as they sow. b) conjunc[ii de timp (Conjunctions of Time). ever since (=ncq de cqnd). Ex: I will not go unless all the others agree to join us. Nu voi pleca dac] nu consimt \i to[i ceilal[i s] ni se al]ture. care introduc subordonatele finale: so that (ca s]). cqt). Iat] cqteva din acestea: . Utilizarea conjunc[iilor 1) Conjunc[iile coordonatoare sunt folosite pentru a lega dou] sau mai multe unit][i sintactice de acela\i nivel (p]r[i de propozi[ie sau propozi[ii =ntr-o fraz]). Am plecat mai devreme de team] s] nu pierdem avionul. that (a\a =ncqt). . putqnd introduce mai multe tipuri de subordonate. Era a\a de cald c] a trebuit s] dau drumul aerului condi[ionat. lest (ca s] nu. atqt de coordonare. +n ciuda faptului c] eram obosit. considering that (avqnd =n vedere c]). Cum =[i a\terni a\a dormi. care introduc subordonate condi[ionale: if (dac]). e) conjunc[ii de scop (Conjunctions of Purpose). seeing that (dat fiind c]). Voi fi protejat atqta timp cqt +l urmez pe Domnul. m-am dus la bibliotec]. even if/ even though (chiar dac]). Conjunc[ia and. for (fiindc]. since (de (cqnd)). El a spus c]-L va urma pe El \i pqn] la urm] nu L-a urmat. care introduc subordonate comparative: than (decqt).. deoarece.

a) MAIN CLAUSE + CONJUNCTION + SECONDARY CLAUSE Ex: We are happy because the Lord granted us salvation. Judec] cum crezi c] e mai bine. . I-am v]zut pe Paul \i June venind =mpreun] la birou ieri.de loc . . 3) Conjunc[iile subordonatoare sunt a\ezate la =nceputul subordonatei care: a) precede sau b) urmeaz] propozi[ia regent].subordonate subiective Ex: It is not known if she came here last night. I should go straight there now. Ex: I saw Paul and June coming together at the office yesterday. against – rezemat – impotriva Ex: The man is against the wall. la. . . pentru spatii reduse Ex: I live at Sinaia. fie so[ia mea. pentru spatii mari Ex: I live in Bucharest. . Deoarece era pe drumul gre\it. m-a\ duce direct acolo acum. as he missed them very much. Prepozitia de loc Se foloseste cu verbe statice: to be/to stay/to exist/to stand. Ex: We are against them.subordonate predicative Ex: The problem was if we could get the van we needed. Problema e dac] el va avea ceva =mpotriva acestui program. la.Ex: It is essential that he comes with me to the church. Ex: Either I or my wife will meet you at the airport.subordonate condi[ionale Ex: If I were you. b) Conjunc[ia if poate introduce: . S-a hot]rqt s] mearg] s] le fac] o vizit].subordonate completive directe Ex: We wondered if he was a Christian. Suntem ferici[i pentru c] Domnul ne-a promis mqntuirea. at – in. 2) Conjunc[iile corelative sunt alc]tuite din doi termeni a\eza[i =naintea p]r[ilor de vorbire cu aceea\i func[ie sintactic]. . etc. Este esen[ial ca el s] vin] cu mine la biseric]. Nu se \tie dac] ea a venit aici asear]. un cre\ PREPOZITIA Este de trei feluri: . pentru suprafete restranse Ex: A lot of words have been said within these walls.de timp 1. b) CONJUNCTION + SECONDARY CLAUSE + MAIN CLAUSE Ex: As he was on the wrong way. Dac] a\ fi =n locul t]u. Ne =ntrebam dac] el este cre\tin. c) Conjunc[ia as poate introduce: .subordonate predicative Ex: The problem is whether he would mind this change of schedule. Problema era dac] puteam face rost de microbuzul de care aveam nevoie. within – in cadrul. -subordonate circumstan[iale de timp Ex: He thought itis best to solve it as he returned home.subordonate circumstan[iale de mod Ex: Judge as you think fit. Poziţia conjuncţiilor 1) Conjunc[iile coordonatoare sunt a\ezate =ntre unit][ile sintactice pe care le leag].de miscare . fiindc] =i era foarte dor de ei. a Christian shared with him about Jesus. Fie te voi primi eu la aeroport. in – in. S-a gqndit c] e cel mai bine s-o rezolve cqnd s-a =ntors acas].subordonate circumstan[iale de cauz] Ex: He decided to go to pay them a visit.

pt ca sunt in miscare) . din Ex: Take it from my bag. fara un tel precis) Ex: I dance around the fire. (to queue = a se aseza la coada) between – intre 2 among – printre (mai mult de 2) 2. near by. past – langa (pp apropierea imediata prin miscare) Ex: I drive past the university (si nu near the university!. Pentru apropiere: •imediata: next to. Ex: The plane takes off. beside •apropiere: near. catre (pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go to school. after – dupa before – inainte (pentru oameni. by Pozitia pe verticala: over – deasupra under – dedesubt (fara raportare la un punct fix) above – deasupra below – dedesubt (cu raportare la un punct fix) Ex: above zero. catre (nu pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go towards office. through – prin (pp traversare si patrundere) Ex: I walk through the park. Prepozitia de miscare se foloseste numai cu verbe de miscare to – la. Onto – pe (pp miscarea pe o suprafata orizontala. de pe. pentru a indica ordinea) Ex: I’m before you at the queue. Ex: Get out of my house. (este cea mai de jos carte) Pozitia pe orizontala: in front of – in fata behind – in spate (pentru lucruri pentru a indica pozitia) Ex: The tree is in front of the house. towards – la. Into – in (pp patrunderea intr-un spatiu) Ex: Put the bag into the house. along – de-a lungul (pp miscarea pe o suprafata plana si lunga) Ex: I’m walking along the beech. Ex: I walk about town (prin oras. across – traversare (nu si patrundere) about – prin (arata o miscare nedefinita) around – in jurul (pp o miscare circulara) out of – pp iesirea dintr-un volum off – pp desprinderea de o suprafata Ex: I run across the street.se pune “on”daca sta)The cat is running onto the floor. close to. below the water level underneath – punctul cel mai de jos on top of – punctul cel mai de sus (prin atingere) Ex: The green book is underneath. from – de la. up-and-down – in sus si in jos pe un plan vertical Ex: The children run up-and-down the stairs.on – pe (pozitia pe o suprafata) Ex: The book is on the table.

(I am an engineer) about despre Ex: Let’s talk about sex. across traversare pe jos Ex: I’m across the ocean. folosit academic Ex: Give me a book on Economics. mesele zilei (at lunch time). anotimpuri. nu de toata perioada) before si after – inainte si dupa. in the afternoon. data (on the 15th of June) si day – cand este vorba de ziua de Craciun. at midnight on – pentru orice moment al zilei atunci cand exista un atribut Ex: In the morning dar On a fine day At night dar On a starry night . at midday. over pp traversarea peste un obstacol Ex: I’m over the ocean. sarbatorile (on Christmas throughout / althrough – de-a lungul. functie. pentru varsta (at the age of 15).) Ex: Despite the bad weather I left. (cu barca) in spite of dupa urmeaza genitiv Ex: In spite of the bad weather I left. cu raportare la un punct fix by – nu mai tarziu de Ex: Try to arrive by ten. dar pe perioade scurte Ex: Read it over the week-end. in the evening) at – pentru ora (at 10 o’clock). in anumite momente ale zilei (in the morning. due to datorita (doar dupa “to be”) Ex: My success is due to her. (cu avionul) despite dupa urmeaza CD (niciodata sub. during – in timpul over – in timpul. perioade ale vietii (in my childhood). Prepozitia de timp in – pentru ani. like pentru comparatie Ex: I talk like a teacher. at dusk). in cele din urma in pentru ceva cu care esti imbracat Ex: A woman in trousers. in the afternoon.3. in anumite momente ale zilei (at noon. owing to datorita (restul inafara de “to be”) Ex: Owing to my work I succeeded. on time la fix at the end la capatul (urmeaza un substantiv) with pentru o trasatura fizica A woman with long hair. (I am a teacher) on in legatura cu. dar pe o prioada lunga de timp Ex: Althrough the years. lunile anului. Diferentiere intre prepozitii in time cu ceva timp inainte in the end finally. as pentru rol. in the evening at – at dawn. made of – recunosc materialul Ex: made of gold made from – deduc ceva elemente Ex: the cake is made from cocoa made with – recunosc 1 element Ex: a chocolate made with milk (dar laptele nu este elementul de baza) in – in the morning. cu week-end (at the week-end) si in sarbatori (at Christmas) on – cu zilele saptamanii (on Sunday). at midnight. pozitie Ex: I work as a teacher.

babies Unele substantive terminate în o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s. piano .bitch.: church+es=churches. mouse. Ex.: men drivers. Ex. box+es=boxes 1. passers-by. bush+es=bushes.companies. wife.roofs.wives.2.3.1 Felul substantivelor Substantivele în limba engleza se pot împarti în patru categorii: substantive comune: cat. hangers-on. giraffe Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile. în majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul feminin. storm Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular: Ex. peace. in the car that you bought me on – pentru toate celelalte in afara de autovehicule daca sunt determinate Ex: on my father’s plane.feet. girl.: company . by plane (dar on foot!) in – pentru autovehicule.wolves Exceptii: roof . wife . gulf .1. VIPs (very important persons) . photo . Ex. baby . Ex.aunt.: foot .pianos. factory . group. man .halves. world. lookers-on. x se formeaza adaugând es la singular.: man. baby Exceptii: tarile.cow.girl. self . son .leaves. by bus. girl. Mr Smith. team 1.lives. women teachers. sheep. copila). joy substantive colective: crowd. Numarul Numarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai multe obiecte sau fiinte. dog . break-ins. cook (bucatar. bush+es=bushes. wolf . life . Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. husband .3.selves. uncle .sister. Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog. bull . substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului. father . bucatareasa). London.: boy-friends. fish 1. navele. day+s=days. runners-up Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s Ex. handkerchief .daughter. house.: child (copil. boy. half .Pentru mijloace de locomotie by – cu orice mijloc de transport. Pluralul neregulat Substantive terminate în consoana+y fac pluralul în ies: Ex.: leaf . sh.3.: aircraft. deer. dog Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin: Ex. potato+es=potatoes. girl. o.gulfs.2 Pluralul substantivelor compuse În cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvânt va trece la plural. brother .: cat+s=cats. daca sunt determinate Ex: in my father’s car. king queen 1.: world. Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin: Ex. tooth . courage. love.: MPs (Members of Parliament).: boy .: sisters-in-law. men servants În cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie / adverb + substantiv. Mary substantive abstracte: beauty.sopranos. teacher (profesor. Ex.factories. Ex. wharf .: soprano . plantele.handkerchiefs.wharfs/ wharves Câteva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interne Ex.: woman.photos Unele substantive terminate în f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea în ves. Genul Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin: Ex.men. s. lamp substantive proprii: England.mother.teeth Pluralul substantivului child este children. series. men-of-war. animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este cunoscut (pronume: it/they): Ex. profesoara). travel agents Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente. species. Unele substantive ramân identice la plural Ex. fear. cat.wife. Substantivele care intra în aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe: Ex. on the tube/subway/underground 1. world+s=worlds Pluralul substantivelor teminate în ch. class+es=classes. daca nu este determinat Ex: by car. lion.

(Parul ei este negru. the plane's wings.: My father-in-law's guitar. Aceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata. notiuni abstracte. glass. a shilling's worth of stamps În alte expresii uzuale: Ex. in five years' time.: for heaven's sake.5. Ex. tari. women's clothes Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina în s. coffee. Nume de substante: bread. Ex. the Johnsons' residence Numele proprii terminate în s vor primi fie doar apostrof ('). ten minutes' break În expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth Ex. Ex. (Casa lor este din lemn.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). Sens Unic / Sens Comun Her hair is black. any. the PM's speech Forma posesiva se foloseste în general când vorbim de oameni. Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv. pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some. fie 's Ex. piece of.) She found a hair in the milk.: ten dollars' worth of bananas. the present. este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci când sensul comunicarii este clar (magazine. reading. astfel devenind substantive comune si comportându-se ca atare (primes a/an la singular. literature Alte substantive: baggage. oil.: the walls of the town. locuinta). (A gasit un fir de par în lapte. slice of. the water's edge. shopping. theory. obiecte puternic individualizate. animale. experience. The piece of advice you gave me helped. Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's (office). a winter's day. weather Substantivele unice sunt întotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular: Ex. The weather was dreadful. birouri. horror. I need some information. the people's choice. Ex. friendship. Yeats's / Yeats' poems În cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvânt va primi 's Ex. information. damage. Nota: Multe dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara. help. gold. Nu sunt precedate de a/an.: Mr Jones's / Mr Jones' car. nature. Henry the Eighth's wives 's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri.) We picnicked in the woods. This slice of bread is hard. 2)love = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la tenis (15-0 = fifteen-love) 3)nil = (nothing) = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la fotbal 4)naught = zero cand face parte din partea zecimala a unui numar 5)oh = zero pentru numere de telefon . Se foloseste de asemenea în urmatoarele cazuri: În expresii temporale Ex. pot avea plural). cantitatea Numeralul zero 1)zero = pentru calcul matematic si pentru exprimarea temperaturii Ex: It’s ten degrees above zero. parking.: yesterday's newspaper.4. oficii.: a boys' school.: a child's voice. The kids went to Bobby's (house). a horse's mouth. beauty. Numeralul cardinal Arata numarul. wood Abstractiuni: earth. etc. paradise. Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns) Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable) deoarece reprezinta fie unicate.) 1.1.: I do not want any help.: The CEO's assistant. the roof of the church. news. Forma posesiva Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina în s: Ex. luggage.: This coffee is cold. the train's departure În cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv. bit.) Their house was made of wood. (Am mers la picnic în padure. stone. death. knowledge. the keys of the house I took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and went to buy the book. paper. a little. NUMERALUL Este de doua feluri: •cardinal (1) •ordinal (2) 1. advice. cloth. Ex. no. casa.

care este scurt si cu accentul pe prima silaba.cube root = radical de ordinul 3 . De la 20 la 90 avem (numeral cardinal + “ty”). Utilizarea numeralului cardinal: 1)pentru exprimarea temperaturii (cu verbul “to be”) 2)pentru calcule matematice: Addition (to add = a aduna) 2 + 3 = 5 two plus/and three is/are/equals five (acordul se face in sg si in pl) Subtraction (to subtract = a scadea) 5 – 3 = 2 five minus/take away is two (acordul se face doar in sg) Multiplication (to multiply = a inmulti) 2 x 3 = 6 two multiplied by three/twice three/3 times 2 is/are/equals six (acordul se face in sg si in pl) Division (to divide = a imparti) 6 : 3 = 2 six divided by three is two (acordul se face doar in sg) “reminder” = rest Root = radical .000 Aceleasi reguli ca la suta.De la 1 la 12 avem forme distincte De la 13 la 19 avem (numeral simplu + “teen”). One million = 1.000 Fara “s” la TOEFL.000. Este substantiv cand: a)este urmat de “of”: Ex: hundreds of pages b)nu determina alt substantiv: Ex: hundreds are here Numeralul compus peste suta se scrie cu prepozitia “and” la englezi si fara la americani. Ex: 210 = two hundred and ten One thousand = 1.000.square root = radical de ordinul 2 Power = putere More than = > Less than = < Equal to = egal Unequal to = diferit de Parallel to = paralel Perpendicular to = perpendicular Angle = unghi Right angle = unghi drept Straight angle = unghi de 180 grade Circle angle = unghi de 360 grade Even = par Odd = impar . One billion = 1. dar este corect si cu “s” (2 millions) in engleza. la care accentul cade pe sufix si “i”-ul este lung. Ex: 40 = forty (nu mai are “u”!) Numeralele compuse se scriu cu cratima Ex: 42 = forty-two One hundred = 100 Ca numeral nu poate avea plural.000. dar are ca substantiv.000 Americanii zic milliard.

oh. (before Christ) 6)pentru exprimarea numerelor zecimale (“decimal fractions”).n. iar anii formati din mai putin de 4 cifre se citesc ca un numeral. (ante domini) sau in the year of Lord •inaintea erei noastre = b.3)pentru exprimarea unitatii monetare: coin = moneda bill/note = bancnota nickel = 5 centi dime = 10 centi quarter of a dollar = 25 centi half of a dollar = 50 centi 4)pentru unitati de masura – la timpul potrivit (cand primim I20) !!! 5)pentru exprimarea anilor: se citesc cifrele 2 cate 2. Ex: 223700 – double two.c. Aproximarea varstei se face cu: almost.03 = twenty point naught three ! daca intregul este <1. 3.00 = midnight . over. sau I’m aged twenty.d. ! zero nu se citeste in cadrul acestor 4 cifre ale anilor Ex: 1907 = nineteen seven •era noastra (e. punct in loc de virgula. 7. intregul se citeste ca atare. iar partea zecimala cifra cu cifra Ex: 20. Regula nu se aplica pentru zero. seconds hand) Pentru ora exacta: a)It’s seven o’clock sharp PM/AM b)00. nu se citeste Ex: 0. under Ex: I’m in my twenties (am douazeci si) I’m mid-twenty (25 ani) 8)pentru exprimarea numerelor de telefon to dial = a forma un numar figure = cifra slot = orificiu pentru ban booth = cabina telefonica receiver = receptor long-distance call = convorbire la distanta call collector = convorbire cu taxa inversa operator = centralista extension = interior to be through = a avea legatura to hang on = a ramane pe fir to hang up = a inchide Numerele de telefon se citesc cifra cu cifra cu exceptia cifrei repetate daca este la inceputul sau la sfarsitul numarului.) = a.1 = point one 7)pentru exprimarea varstei (cu verbul “to be”) Ex: I’m twenty (years old) / I’m twenty years of age. about (around). oh 9)pentru exprimarea orei: •formal •informal Ex: What’s the time? What time is it? What’s the time by your watch? My watch is fast = ceasul meu e inainte My watch is slow = ceasul meu e in urma My watch is wrong = ceasul meu nu merge bine My watch is broken = ceasul meu e stricat face = cadran belt = curelusa hand = limba de ceas (minutes hand.

2nd. 31. … 101. …21st. etc. 23. 22nd. 1001. incaltaminte. 32. numitorul va fi in plural Ex: 2/3 = two thirds Intregul = the whole Fractia pe 100 = per cent Procentaj = percentage Numeralul distributiv Arata distributia lucrurilor: One by one = unul cate unul . 22. 3rd. unelte cu structuri paralele) Ex: a pair of shoes yoke = team = 2 pentru animale Ex: a yoke of cattle = 2 vite a team of oxen = 2 boi brace = 2 pentru vanat Ex: I have brace duck (am 2 rate salbatice) score = 20 half a score = 10 dozen = 12 gross = 144 (12 duzini) 2. 1002. 33. 4th. couple of minutes = 2 minute pair = 2 pereche (pt imbracaminte. etc) Prescurtari: 1st.00 = midday c)It’s half past … (e si jumate) d)It’s a quarter past/to … (e si un sfert/ fara un sfert) e)It’s ten minutes past/to (e si/fara zece) Ora oficiala: 08:00 = oh eight hundred hours 23:24 = twenty three twenty four Numerale speciale: couple = 2 (pt oameni si pt timp). Numeralul ordinal Se formeaza din: the + numeral cardinal + th Exceptii: the first (primul) the second (al doilea) the third (al treilea) + toate celelalte numerale compuse care contin una din aceste exceptii (21. ! “th” se aplica doar ultimei cifre ! Modificari ortografice: five – the fifth eight – the eighth nine – the ninth twelve – the twelfth twenty – the twentieth (+ toate cele terminate in “ty”) Utilizarea numeralului ordinal: 1)exprimarea datei (in 2 forme) a)luna/zi/an b)zi/luna/an 2)exprimarea ordinii intr-o insiruire Ex: Henry the eighth the first floor the second World War 3)pentru numeralul fractionar (common fraction/vulgar fraction) numerator = numaratorul (cardinal) denominator = numitorul (ordinal) Ex: 1/3 = one third ! daca numaratorul > 1.12. 102.

tight = tightly (sunt echivalente) 5.fair = fairly 4. il desfac in adjectiv + ly Ex: usually = usual + ly bitterly = bitter + ly awfully = awful + ly Adverbe care au 2 forme cu acelasi inteles (oricare din ele este corect) 1.Two at a time = 2 odata By twos / in twos = cate 2 Numeralul adverbial Arata de cate ori se repeta o actiune: once = o data twice = de 2 ori 3 times 4 times.cheap = cheaply Ex: The sun shines bright / brightly. se transforma in “i” si se adauga “ily” Ex: pretty – prettily gay – gaily Exceptii: shy – shyly wry – wryly coy – coyly (sfios) 6)adjectivul “good” face adverbul “well” ! ca sa verific L-urile unui adverb.sound = soundly 3. acesta se pastreaza “ely” Ex: nice – nicely Exceptii: due – duly (datorat) true – truly whole – wholly 2)daca adjectivul se termina in “le”. se adauga “ally” Ex: automatic – automatically 5)daca adjectivul se termina in “y”. se adauga doar “lly” Ex: full – fully 4)daca adjectivul se termina in “ic”. dar nu tot ce are “ly” este adverb. Modificari ortografice: 1)daca adjectivul se termina in “e”. . ! nu exista “twice more”. In general adverbul este terminat in “ly”. se transforma “e” in “y”/ “ly” Ex: capable – capably 3)daca adjectivul se termina in “ll”. ci “twice as much as” = de 2 ori mai mult Numeralul multiplicativ Arata de cate ori creste o cantitate: double = twofold = indoit (de 2 ori) tenfold = inzecit ADVERBUL •Determina un verb in sensul lui concret. de baza •Determina un adjectiv Ex: He runs quickly because he is extremely quick. etc. indiferent daca este precedat de vocala sau de consoana.dear = dearly 6.dead = deadly 7. De regula se formeaza din adjectiv + “ly”.bright = brightly 2.

clar sharp = fix sharply = intr-o maniera taioasa short = brusc shortly = imediat Ex: They went due South. (si nu “he is dead tired”).! forma in “ly” se va prefera totusi cand adverbul determina un adjectiv Ex: He is deadly tired. intr-o maniera extinsa hard = greu hardly = de-abia. aproape deloc high = sus highly = foarte just = tocmai justly = asa cum se cuvine late = tarziu lately = in ultima vreme large = extins largely = pe scara larga most = majoritatea mostly = cu precadere near = langa nearly = aproape ca pretty = foarte prettily = intr-o maniera draguta right = exact rightly = cu precizie. Ex: Take it easy! . cu greu. to sell. dar We traveled cheaply. Adverbe cu 2 forme cu 2 intelesuri diferite clean = complet cleanly = intr-o maniera curata clear = exact clearly = intr-o maniera clara close = apropiat closely = indeaproape deep = adanc deeply = profund direct = direct directly = imediat due = spre (la busola) duly = punctual easy = usor easily = intr-o maniera lejera free = gratis freely = pe sleau. deschis full = complet fully = pe scara larga. to get) Ex: She bought it cheap. Adverbul cheap se va folosi in loc de cheaply doar pentru a caracteriza activitati comerciale (to buy.

for – arata durata unei actiuni fara a prezenta momentul de inceput si sfarsit al actiunii. ! daca raportarea se face fata de un moment trecut. se comporta ca un adjectiv scurt (gradele se fac cu “er” si “est”) Ex: I run fast / not so fast as / as fast as / faster than / the fastest of all / very fast 2)daca adverbul se obtine din adjectiv + ly. prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului perfect continuu. for centuries) ! nu se pune “for” dupa verbele: Este specific . adv coward = las (substantiv) cowardly = las (adjectiv) in a cowardly manner = cu lasitate (adverb) Gradele de comparatie Se construiesc astfel: 1)daca adjectivul si adverbul au aceeasi forma. el devine adverb prin contructia in a + adj + manner Ex: He is a friendly person. Ex: I haven’t met her for two years.Adverbe si adjective cu aceeasi forma si inteles fast far early alike alone past solo straight next little outside ! daca adjectivul se termina in “ly”. ! pentru perioade lungi de timp (for ages. face gradele de comparatie ca un adjectiv lung (cu “more” si “the most”) Ex: He runs quickly / less quickly than / as quickly as / more quickly than / the most quickly of all / very quickly Comparatia regulata well – better – the best badly – worse – the worst much – more – the most far – farther – the farthest – further – the furthest near – nearer – the next little – less – the least late – later – the last Adverbe de timp ago – se foloseste cand raportarea se face fata de un moment prezent Ex: I saw her one hour ago. ! se poate intalni si cu timpul trecut Ex: I was a student for two years (I’m no longer a student). in loc de ago se pune before Ex: I told her that I had met her one hour before. adj He speaks to me in a friendly way / manner.

Ex: Your dress is quite unique. Locutiuni adverbiale subst + after + subst day after day year after year month after month during – urmat intotdeauna de substantiv. de-a dreptul. much / a lot = se cupleaza cu comparativul Ex: He is much faster than I am. “quite” capata sensul de absolut. pentru ca until nu presupune cunoasterea momentului de sfarsit al actiunii Ex: I work until I die. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului continuu. complet. (si nu it lasts for five seconds). very – Este cel mai cunoscut si se cupleaza cu orice (pozitiv. dar nu extraordinar Ex: Your story is fairly interesting. This is rather a difficult exercise. (si nu I’ve been waiting for ten minutes). ! cand se refera la adjective sau adverbe care nu au grade de comparatie. Poate fi precedat si urmat de articolul “a” Ex: This is a rather difficult exercise. . Ex: This car is rather expensive. A nu se confunda cu while (in timp ce). since – arata inceputul perioadei fara a preciza durata si momentul final. He is very much faster than I am. intre prieteni) Ex: I’m pretty tired. ! until nu poate fi cuprins in expresia from … to in loc de “to” Adverbul de mod fairly – foarte. care presupune actiuni paralele. pretty – foarte (familiar. (nu stiu cand) I get up at 8 o’clock and work till 10 o’clock. During poate fi inlocuit cu “in” daca se refera la perioade de timp Ex: during my life = in my life from … to – poate fi inlocuit cu till. quite – este mai puternic decat fairly. It lasts five seconds. Se foloseste cand vreau sa fac o apreciere favorabila. neasteptat de. comparativ sau superlativ) Ex: I do my very best.to last to take to wait to spend to stay Ex: I’ve been waiting ten minutes. rather – se foloseste cand am de facut o apreciere nefavorabila si sensul este = foarte. dar niciodata cu until. Fairly se cupleaza intotdeauna cu adjectivul la gradul pozitiv. Ex: This car is quite cheap. Ex: I haven’t met her since Monday. Se foloseste numai cu caracteristici negative.

due . cât de frecvent sau în ce măsura are loc o actiune. so – se cupleaza . fast.probably.1. Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum . lucky . Sau chiar propozitii intregi: Perhaps we'll see you again next year. hard.: basic . care au sensuri diferite: Adjectiv Forme adverbiale Exemple deep 1. (adverb) 4. slow slowly He walked slowly to the door.easily.2.: The bus moved slowly.: probable .luckily Când avem un -le terminal (-able.: easy .publicly Forme neregulate Ex. too – se cupleaza cu pozitivul Ex: He is too fast. deep 2. (cum?) I am going home tomorrow. tragic . Unele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivele: Ex. dar se aseaza dupa el Ex: He is fast enough for a champion.economically. deeply He looked deep into her eyes. -le). I have so many friends / so much money. wrong Compara: This is a hard exercise.2. (când?) Adverbele pot determina si adjective: You look absolutely fabulous! Sau alte adverbe: She played the violin extremely well. Ex. 4. Functia adverbelor Astfel. whole . -ible. Ex.wholly 4. angry .by far = se cupleaza cu superlativul Ex: He is by far the fastest of all.terribly. (adanc) . few + substantiv . late. când. economic . dispare -e si este inlocuit cu -y.2. Unor adjective le corespund doua forme adverbiale. near. terrible .tragically Exceptie: public . little. many.cu adjectiv / adverb la pozitiv Ex: It is so difficult.2. Forma adverbelor 4. They are such interesting persons. Modificari ortografice: Daca adjectivul se termina in -y.substantiv numarabil la sg precedat de “a” .duly.de constructia adjectiv + substantiv la pl He is such a man. 4. Adverbele se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea unui -ly la forma de singular a adjectivului: Adjectiv Adverb (Adjectiv + ly) Exemple careful carefully He carefully picked up a tie.3. (adverb) We saw many high buildings. enough – se cupleaza cu pozitivul.angrily. (adjectiv) The bird flew high in the sky.truly.1.2. such – urmat de Ex: . (adjectiv) He works hard.gently Adjectivele terminate in -ic adauga -ally. high. straight. You're speaking too quietly. There is so little time left. gentle .: true .basically. adverbele determina în general verbe: Ex. Ex. acesta se va inlocui cu -i + -ly.: early.cu much. quick quickly Time goes quickly. unde.

worse .most De retinut! Uneori most poate avea sensul de very: We were most grateful for your help. 2.. Ele se aseaza in propozitie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia. pâna peste cap) direct 1. 1.. out. Corect: He ate the chocolate cake greedily.. then my brothers and sisters. loudly. John looked . (dupa verb) He ran. back. She plays the piano well. atunci acesta modifica întregul sens exprimat în propozitie. much . little . Adverbul de mod nu se aseaza între verb si complement: Incorect: He ate greedily the chocolate cake.. Daca adverbul este asezat dupa o propozitie. direct 2.. James coughed loudly to attract her attention.5. near. (profund. I'm going . short.4.better best.3.She is deeply in love. Exemple: Dupa verb: I looked everywhere. durata si frecventa Adverbe de probabilitate Adverbe de grad 4. firstly My mother came in first. around. Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor Adverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca si adjectivele (vezi: 3. prett. rapidly.. wrong. (= cererea lui a fost facuta în liniste) He asked me to leave the house quietly. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor): Adauga -er pentru comparativ si -est pentru superlativ la adverbele dintr-o singura silaba: hard . Clasificarea adverbelor Adverbe de mod Adverbe de loc si directie Adverbe de timp.less ..least. down. Pozitia adverbului în propozitie este foarte importanta mai ales atunci când exista mai multe verbe în propozitie. softly.more . I am most impressed by this application. She spoke. (în mod direct) He went there directly. in ce mod are loc o actiune... She is a good pianist. (= plecarea a fost facuta în liniste) 4. just. They swim well.1.. Exemple: He swims well. quickly.. Observa diferentele de sens în functie de locul adverbului în propozitie: He quietly asked me to leave the house.most seriously Unele adverbe au forme neregulate la comparativ si superlativ: badly . round.away.harder . light.. Adverbe de loc si directie Ne arata unde are loc actiunea verbului.worst. most. first 2. well . (în primul rând) Alte exemple: hard. 4.4. He plays the flute beautifully.hardest Adauga more pentru comparativ si most pentru superlativ la adverbele formate din doua sau mai multe silabe si la cele terminate in -ly: seriously .2.home. (întâi) Firstly. 4.more seriously . (dupa complement) He ate the chocolate cake greedily. right. Dupa complement: . late. They are good swimmers. up. (direct. Adverbe de mod Adverbele de mod ne arata cum. fara întârziere) first 1. I would like to welcome you here. slowly. last. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau complementul sau.4. aggressively. directly You can dial New York direct. Well / Good Well este adverbul care corespunde formei adjectivale good.

pentru cât timp: all day. often.: She stayed in the house all day. for two centuries. Ex. My mother lived in France for a year. later. A. (in fata verbului principal) You must always fasten your seat belt. downwards. over here. B. indoors. Cats don't usually walk backwards. frequently. They haven't met him yet.3. often. here exprima ideea de înspre/ cu / împreuna cu vorbitorul. She ran towards me. now. Adverbe care exprima atât locul cât si directia: ahead. 2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year. yearly De obicei. under here. C. 4. Do you still work for the BBC? Ordinea adverbelor de timp Daca este nevoie de mai multe adverbe de timp in aceeasi propozitie ordinea lor va fi: Ordinea Exemple 1: adverbe de durata 2: adverbe de frecventa 3: adverbe de timp 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day. occasionally. regularly. durata si frecventa Arata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii. must): I often eat vegetarian food. Here / there. onwards. generally.: backwards. sideways.exprima ideea de miscare într-o anumita directie: Ex. last year Durata. not yet. westwards. adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfârsitul propozitiei sau emfatic.: Come here (= spre mine) It's in here (= vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi) Put it there (= departe de mine) It's in there (= du-te singur sa vezi) Expresii cu here/ there: down here. . inwards. Since este intotdeauna urmat expresia unui moment punctual în timp: since Monday. astfel încât va fi întotdeauna urmat de un substantiv sau pronume: Ex. Later the boy understood the story. Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal. fara participarea vorbitorului: Ex. Cu verbe de miscare. abroad. since the last war. Adverbe de fecventa: frequently. la începutul ei: Ex. Adverbele de loc terminate în -wards . outdoors. homewards. uphill. since last year Cât de frecvent: sometimes. usually. never. De retinut! Towards este prepozitie. iar there contrariul. Still exprima ideea de continuitate. northwards. She took the child outside. dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be. 1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year. (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului principal forgotten) Unele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la sfarsitul prepozitiei: This magazine is published monthly. normally.: Când: today. southwards. sometimes. Adverbe de timp.They built a house nearby. 1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last year. for several years. not long. forwards. since 1997. under there. for a week. down there. Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei: Ex. up there. He visits his mother once a week. I am still hungry.: One of my children wrote to me yesterday. downhill.: He walked towards the car. outwards. eastwards. have. De retinut! For este intotdeauna urmat de o expresie de durata: for three days. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative. for a while. upwards. yesterday. nu adverb. may.4. De retinut! Yet se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative: Have you finished your work yet? No. The ship sailed westwards. overseas. departe. up here. over there. (dupa verbul auxiliar must) I have never forgotten my first kiss.

obviously.4.4. probably. She has almost finished. extremely. Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely. Winston Churchill was a great politician." si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului: This coffee is too hot. possibly. rather. maybe. Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate Acestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il relateaza: certainly. too Enough inseamna "pana la punctul necesar pentru a. Locul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina. really.nu se poate forma decat pentru persoana a II-a sg si pl din infinitivul scurt al verbului .pentru celelalte persoane se formeaza din let + pronume personal in AC + V infinitiv scurt . Pentru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor. hardly. won’t you? Tag-ul se poate folosi si in afirmativ Ex: Just write your exercise. someone! ! orice propozitie imperativa are tag question in viitor Ex: Listen carefully. definitely. adjectiv sau adverb: almost.pentru subliniere se poate pune “do” si la persoana a II-a Ex: Do sit down! (stai dracului jos!) ! propozitiile impersonale care contin un pronume nehotarat (somebody. someone.. just.4. (adverb) Very intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora: The girl was very beautiful. De retinut! Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de adevarul unei afirmatii.: Undoubtedly. too. rather. (adverb) De retinut! Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very: Very exprima un fapt: He speaks very quickly. not especially. vor putea pune subiectul si in fata si dupa verb Ex: Someone give us a helpful hand! Answer the phone..: He has certainly forgotten the meeting. Enough. He was just leaving.5. will you? ! orice propozitie imperativa devine in vorbirea indirecta infinitiv lung Ex: Come here! => He told me to come.) ca subiect.. (adjectiv) He worked very quickly. fairly. Adverbe de grad Aceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb. quite. pretty. (adverb) Too = "mai mult decat este necesar pentru. very.: The water was extremely cold. particularly. dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you've got a bicycle? 4. especially. (adjective) He works too hard. nearly. very. not particularly.imperativul negativ are in fata negatia “don’t” .. se aseaza în debutul frazei: Ex. enough. perhaps. quite. IMPERATIVUL . fie in fata verbului principal: Ex. etc. Se aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal. undoubtedly.4.nu are nevoie de subiect ." si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb: Is your coffee hot enough? (adjectiv) He didn't work hard enough. Ex. PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIVA) . surely. Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand). completely. scarcely.

An egg will have been eaten. el poate de asemenea sa lipseasca DIATEZA ACTIVA DIATEZA PASIVA 1) I eat an egg. (si nu have been sold) The shoes wore comfortably. S CD 2) The letter is written by me. (si nu have been worn) ! verbul “to grow” nu poate avea sens de diateza pasiva pentru ca este de la sine INFINITIVUL Este de 2 feluri: a)– scurt (fara “to” in fata) – care este prezent (to come) si perfect (to have come) b)– lung (cu “to” in fata) Utilizare: 1) dupa verbele modale Ex: I can do it. An egg has been eaten. – poate sa lipseasca ! daca subiectul este impersonal (somebody / someone). An egg was eaten. 3) I have eaten an egg. 4) I have been eating an egg. 6) I was eating an egg. 11) I am to eat an egg. etc. Everybody laughed at him. to read. ! atentie la prepozitiile care se aseaza la final (vor rezulta 2 prepozitii una dupa alta) Ex: They sent for the doctor. Ex: 1) I write the letter. 5) I ate an egg.in diateza pasiva. iar verbul de baza va fi la forma: V III + by + C agent ! o propozitie care are atat CD cat si CI are 2 forme de pasiv. The doctor was sent for by them. S Aspectul si timpul predicatului din activa se mentin in pasiva. CI CD devine The book is given to him by me. An egg had been eaten. subiectul face actiunea . An egg is going to be eaten. He was laughed at by everybody.. S C agent Diateza pasiva presupune un verb “to be”. actiunea facuta de subiect se repercuteaza asupra acestuia Subiectul din diateza activa devine complement de agent.in diateza activa. . 10) I’m going to eat an egg. Ex: These books sold quickly. 9) I shall eat an egg. fiecare complement devenind pe rand subiect Ex: I give him my book. An egg is about to be eaten. ! complementul de agent poate sa lipseasca daca este un pronume Ex: I read the book. to wash. An egg is to be eaten. An egg was being eaten. to feel. An egg is being eaten. 2) I am eating an egg. An egg is eaten. 13) … I should eat an egg. The book is read (by me). … an egg would be eaten. to perform) nu pot avea forma pasiva cand vrei sa spui ca sunt de foarte buna calitate / se vand singure / se poarta singure. 8) I had been eating an egg. S He is given the book by me. 7) I had eaten an egg. 12) I’m about to eat an egg. ! anumite verbe (to eat. 14) I shall have eaten an egg. An egg will be eaten. to sell. to wear. iar CD din diateza activa devine subiect in pasiva.

to enable. etc. You seem to know the answer. it is important. to choose. to intend. to hear.se foloseste dupa 1)verbe de perceptie Ex: I saw her cross the street. to get) Ex: Let her go! 3) dupa expresiile had best had better would rather had rather would sooner had sooner need hardly ! conditia este sa fie acelasi subiect ca sa punem infinitivul scurt Ex: I would rather go there. 2)verbe de dorinta (to want. to help. 6)dupa verbele (to advise. to consider. He would rather go there. 2)anumite verbe in diateza activa to chance to appear to happen to prove to seem Ex: You happened to be there. to oblige) Ex: My mother allowed us to leave. 4) alte utilizari ale infinitivului a) pronume/subst in AC + infinitiv . to feel) + (to make. 4)verbe care exprima permisiunea (to allow. to order. b) pronume/subst in N + infinitiv . to let. to expect) Ex: I imagine him to be right. to desire.) Ex: I want you to understand the lesson. to warn. I know her to live in this flat.2) dupa verbele de perceptie (to see. 3)in constructiile impersonale to be lucky to be unlucky to be fortunate to be unfortunate to be likely to be sure to be negative / positive Ex: I’m lucky to be your friend. 3)verbe care arata o activitate mentala (to believe. diferit de I would rather you didn’t go there. . It is difficult for her to understand this problem. 5)in constructii impersonale (it is difficult.se foloseste dupa 1)anumite verbe in diateza pasiva to believe to expect to hear to imagine to know to notice to say Ex: You are known to be a very good teacher. it is necessary) Ex: It is difficult to understand this problem. to challenge) Ex: She advised me not to leave. to convince.

3)gerunziu Ex: Reading. difficult) Ex: It si difficult to get there. 2)participiu prezent (in constructia timpurilor continue) Ex: I’m doing my homework. 6)dupa adjectivele de genul (dangerous. 11)in vorbirea indirecta (dupa imperativ) GERUNZIUL Forma: V + ing Are mai multe valori: 1)substantiv Ex: Reading is important. 7)dupa “the only” Ex: He is the only person to understand me. generous. hard.Alte ulitizari ale infinitivului 1)in ordine / comenzi Ex: Go and close the window! 2)pentru a exprima un scop Ex: I went to the doctor to cure my desease. 3)dupa adjective (brave. 9)dupa “enough” Ex: You are clever enough not to do it again. 8)dupa “too” Ex: It’s too hot to breathe there. 10)in proverbe Ex: To forgive is to forget. kind) Ex: It’s kind of her to say this. 4)dupa numeralul ordinal Ex: He is the first to come. I understood all my problems. Urmatoarele verbe cer gerunziu: admit advise anticipate avoid begin consider continue delay denny detest dislike enjoy escape excuse finish forgive forget hate imagine intend involve like love mind miss omit . foolish. 5)dupa adjectiv la superlativ Ex: He is the best to do it. curageous.

postpone practise recollect remember regret resist risk save start stop suggest try understand Expresii cu verbe: accuse of aim at agree with approve of consist in count on excuse from insist on prevent from rely on result in succeed in think of be afraid of be agreeable of be annoyed at averse to be capable of be intent on be interested in be responsible for be suitable for be surprised at be tired of get used to / be used to get accustomed to / be accustomed to go on keep on give up put off can’t help can’t stand it’s no good / it’s no use be looking forward to be worth feel like Expresii cu substantive: appology for art of change of dissapointment at experience in habbit of necessity of objection to opportunity of pleasure of possibility of process of reason for right of skill in surprise at way of .

dupa care (in temporala sau . Future-in-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singura data. ci in fraze. 2)daca in principala avem viitor. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte. he took my hand. Present Tense Continuous. Past Tense Continuous.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala. Present Perfect Simple. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. Ex.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara.) He said he was going to school.) She promised her mother she would help her. in secundara putem avea orice Ex: I know she is / will be / was here. in secundara avem prezent a)simplu – daca depinde de un program b)continuu – daca depinde de subiect c)perfect – daca a inceput intr-un moment anterior 3)daca in principala avem trecut. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex. (El a spus ca este bolnav. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. Past Perfect Simple. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. (El a spus ca merge la scola. Propozitia principala 1.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before.Dupa prepozitiile: as than like as well as Ex: Living here is like dying little by little. Atentionari / indicatoare: no parking / no smoking CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR 1)daca in principala avem prezent. desigur. b)anterioritate => in secundara avem past perfect Ex: I told him I had met her before.un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. nu in propozitii. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill. ! pt adevaruri universal valabile nu se respecta regula cu trecutul Ex: He told me that the sun rises from East. (El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. in secundara avem 3 raporturi: a)simultaneitate (actiuni paralele) => in secundara avem trecut Ex: While I was dancing. c)posterioritate => in secundara avem future in the past Ex: I told him I should go there. CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple.

Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. În mod inedit poate apărea “should” cu sau fară inversiune (“dacă cumva” sau “dacă din întâmplare”): Should I meet him.Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. tell me.conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). He said he would come to see me when he had time. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp. = Spune-mi. If you know. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa. . I tell you. SUBORDONATA CONDIŢIONALĂ .) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC.ATENŢIE ! unless nu se f oloseşte decât cu verbul la afirmativ.Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: a. If I should meet him. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza.) 1. dacă ştii ! Obs. Last year I worked more than I have done this year.un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. Ex. . Se poate intâlni. 2.) I will have finished studying when you come home.) b. o să-ţi spun. Condiţie posibilă si realizabilă If you know. I will tell You. Ex. Ex. sa ajunga regula. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. If you know. cu timpul.există 3 tipuri principale de astfel de subordonate: Tipul subordonatei Principală Viitor Prezent Imperativ Secundară Prezent I. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me".) Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor 1. = Dacă vei şti. 3. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu.când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. îmi spui. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul.este introdusă prin “if” sau “unless”. Condiţie ipotetică. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. îmi vei spune. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. care nu pot include un verb la viitor.Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa.când propozitia secundara este atributiva. realizare ipotetică Condiţional prezent Past Tense . (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp. Pentru moment insa. you tell me. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. II. you will tell me. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. Ex. de exemplu. = Dacă cumva o să-l vad. = Dacă ştii.) He said he would buy a car if he had money.

Observaţii: 1) tipurile II si III la negativ pot lua şi forma “but for” + subst. I would tell you. Condiţional trecut Past Perfect Propoziţia Tipul 1 : condiţională . = Dacă va sufla vântul nu voi putea să înalţ zmeul. If it rains I will take my umbrela . – Dacă aş fi în locul tău n-aş mânca mâncarea asta . 2) alte subordonate condiţionale mascate ar fi: a) Weather permiting we will swim. / Toată lumea ar fi putut învăţa lecţia dacă ai fi explicat-o mai clar . = Dacă n-ar fi fost Mary. ( exprimă situaţii ipotetice ) Exemple : If I had known you were caming I would have met you at the station . Observaţie : But for poate înlocui construcţia if not . Where I you I would stay home. te-aş fi insotit. b) The wind blowing I wouldn’t be able to fly the kite. pronume. În propoziţia principală avem future tense . = Dacă n-ar veni te-aş ajuta. – Nu te-aş chema dacă n-aş avea nevoie de tine . Tipul 2 : present În propoziţia principală avem would ( la persoana 1 poate apărea şi should ) . Should it rains I will take my umbrela . în propoziţia condiţională avem past simple . Condiţia nu s-a realizat If I had been there. If Mary goes home now she will have enought time to get dresses . iar în propoziţia condiţională avem past perfect . = Dacă aş fi cumpărat casa aş fi fost dezamăgit. If he were here he would solve your problem . III. Had I bought the house. iar în propoziţia condiţională avem simple . I would have been disappointed. I would help you. dispare “if”: Did I know I would tell you. aş sta acasă.se poate face inversiunea. ( exprimă situaţii reale ) Exemple : If you keep driving like that you will have an accident . = Dacă aş şti ţi-aş spune. – Dacă ar fi aici ţi-ar rezolva problema ( dar nu este ) . If I were you I wouldn’t eat that food . vb+ing But for Mary. ( exprimă situaţii imaginare ) Exemple : If I knew the answer I would tell you . . Everybody could have understood the lesson if you had explained it more clearly .If I knew. Observaţie : În locul lui if poate să apară should . I would have told you. = Dacă aş fi fost acolo ţi-aş fi spus. . = Dacă vremea va fi bună vom înota. But for your help we would have been in trouble . = Dacă aş fi in locul tău. If it hadn’t been for Mary But for their coming. Tipul 3 : În propoziţia principală avem would have + V 3 . I would have joined you. I wouldn’t call you unless I needed you .

now . probabil perfect trebui în să Should folosit în propoziţia subordonată sugerează că acţiunea este foarte puţin să se întâmple în viitor . – Dacă ar fi fost aici ar găseşti un bileţel . If you would sit down we could talk for a while . introduce în special propoziţii în care există şi alte elemente negative ( decvi if…not nu poate fi folosit ) They wouldn’t have come unless you had invited them . poate avea şi nuanţa ori de câte ori . – Since you haven’t … UNLESS – dacă nu ( if…not ) . de ceea ce s-ar that I bring it back today . – Dacă s-ar întâmpla cumva să vină mama spune-I că mă întorc curând . at present … If he had been here you should find a note . ON CONDITION – PROVIDED ( that ) / cu condiţia ca . Iregular Adjectives Pozitiv good bad many (pt subst care se numără) much (invers) little far Comparativ as good as not so good as better than as bad as not so bad as worse than as many/ much as not so many/ much as more than as little as not so little as less than as far as not so far as farther than (mai departe decât) / further than (în plus/ suplimentar faţă de) as near as not so near as nearer than as old as not so old as Superlativ the best very good the worst very bad the most very many/ much the least very little the farthest/ the furthest very far near old the nearest/ the next very near the oldest/ the eldest very old . – Dacă ar vrea să vină acum i-aş da banii . – Dacă aţi vrea să luaţi loc am putea sta un pic de vorbă . întrucât . Tom can lend me his bicycle on condition/ provided precauţie faţă verb afirmativ ) . Would folosit în propoziţia subordonată poate avea fie sens de verb modal ( a voi ) .If poate fi omis şi se poate face inversiunea subiect – verb auxiliar . – When I have … If you haven’t written your homework I can’t correct it . – if you hadn’t invited them … IN CASE – dacă . fie de construcţie politicoasă . în caz că . Had I known you were coming … Cazuri speciale : Condiţionalul present în principală poate fi folosit alături de subjonctivul subordonată . If I have money I like to buy a good book . ( este urmat întotdeauna de un He is taking a coat in case it is cold later on . If mother should come tell her that I will be back soon . introduce o propoziţie care exprimă o putea întâmpla în viitor . He will take a coat if it is later on . Conjuncţiile care introduce propoziţia condiţională : IF – dacă . atunci când este însoţit de still . deoarece . If he would come now I could give him the money .

late older than/ elder than as late as not so late as later than (mai târziu)/ latter than (ultimul dintre 2) the latest (cel mai recent) / the last (ultimul şi nu mai urmează nimic!) very late Ex: This is a house and this is a cottage The latter was repaired last year His latest book was a success (recent) His last book was a success (a murit şi nu mai publică MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. ai merge. la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ . ar merge etc. wouldn’t. Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat).).

si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come . tell her I am out. If the police should find out the truth. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine.) I will stay at home if it rains. in case. we would be fined. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna. ar fi mers etc. De asemenea. In caz ca telefoneaza.). Ex. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua. noi am fi amendati. providing. In acest caz. Ex. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. este posibila omiterea lui if. suppose. What shall we do.Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. should). (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua. cu exceptia verbului „to be". unde se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. ai fi mers. If she should ring up. supposing.) I would stay at home if it rained. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. in loc de Present Simple.) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. daca s-ar intâmpla ca. Ex. had. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila.) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. were. dar improbabila. (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. should se traduce cu: in caz ca. spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me.

1. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. He said „I will do the exercise". He said he had been ill. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor.Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. He said: „She gave me a book". Ex.Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. Ex. He said he would do the exercise.Se schimba pronumele. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week . 1. He said he was ill. – He said „I am ill". 2. in functie de sens. He said she had given him a book.VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. He said he had been working hard. He said „I was ill". trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. o o o He said „I have been working hard. in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex.

He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow". 3. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. I would have stayed at home. 1. Ex. on holiday. à He said (that) he was ill. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). Ex. He said: „I’ll be at home today". Ex. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvntul interogativ respectiv. should.Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains. ceea ce este o greseala. 2." He said if itrained he would stay at home.Verbele modale would. Ex. Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta 1. could. Pasivul se formeaza conjugnd verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. 3.Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) Ex.Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. He asked me if I liked music. à He said he would be at home on that day. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: "If it rained. la care se adauga forma III . "If it had rained. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. I will stay at home. I would stay at home. ought to. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. Where have you been? I’ve been away. à He told me to go out. Ex. He said „Go out". He asked me where I had been." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. He said: „I might be late" He said he might be late. He said: „I am ill". à He said he was going to do that translation the next day." He said if it rained he would stay at home. He said „Don’t go out" à He told me not to go out.two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex. Intruct aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvnt interogativ.

Activ: She looked after the child. Desigur. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). I had been asked.(participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. While I am in hospital. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. In aceste situatii. Ex. Diateza activa o o o o Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Forma -ing. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. in unele cazuri. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. I will be asked. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. iar complementul indirect este him. complementul indirect si. While I was in hospital. de asemenea. Unde complementul direct este a book. se omite formularea by. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). punctuality este un complement prepozitional. In limba romna. I am asked. my flat is being painted. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. I have been asked. diateza si timpuri. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. Complement direct à Subiect A book was given to him. Diateza activa o o Diateza pasiva o nedefinit: being called nedefinit: calling perfect: having called . Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). In limba engleza. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. In this office punctuality is insisted on. I was asked. Ex. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. (by me) Complement indirect à Subiect He was given a book. Ex. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. In multe cazuri. care. Activ: I gave him a book. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. my flat was being painted. MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. complementul prepozitional. Ex. de la sfrsitul propozitiei. Ex. pasivul se foloseste atunci cnd nu este important cine face actiunea.

el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false.o perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate.) f. Ex.verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. to suppose. Ex.) I want John to do this. to declare. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. to make. Ex. He considered the news to be false.) I let him go out and play. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. to wish. to order. Ex. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. to believe. to know. He was made to study English. to consider. I rely on you to do this.folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. . to consider.verbe declarative: to state. to know. I consider him to be a good student.cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. to believe. to hear. He is said to be a good writer. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. Ex. Ex.) 1. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. in cazul verbelor neregulate. He admitted the news to be false. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal.Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. I made him study English.) He ordered the door to be locked. I want you to go now. (Consider ca el este un bun student. I saw him leave the room. to say. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). Ex. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. Ex. I’d like him to come with me. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. to hate.Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. to like. The news was considered to be false. to count upon/on . to admit.) e. a.verbe exprimând un ordin.) d. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. to understand. to watch. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). to expect. I made him study English. I consider him to be a good student.) b. to allow.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. to cause.) c. to dislike. to hear.) They declared him to be the man of the year.) I expected him to come in time. to expect. to feel.verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. to suppose. He is considered to be a good student. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine.

(Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. (Ea a fost auzita cântând. 2. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriu-zisa. a. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. Ex.cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala.For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving. ii voi spune unde esti. to turn out. Ex. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. 1. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. am mers acasa. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. to seem.) She was heard singing. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist.They declared him to be the man of the year. (E usor sa fac asta. She is sure to come in time. He proved to be a good journalist. It is necessary that I (should) go there. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. (El a fost vazut plecând. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. Ex: The classes being over. I will tell him where you are.) It is impossible for him to come.) If I happen to meet him.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este.Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina.) Weather permitting. to leave. precum si cu verbele to find.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. we shall go to the beach. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". we went home. It is easy for me to do this.) I left / found her crying. b. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. It is impossible that I (should) come. (Orele fiind terminate.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului.) I happened to meet him in the street. to hear. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. (Am auzit-o cântând. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1. Ex.) It is necessary for me to go there. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. to watch. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el.) This remains for him to decide. to smell. to prove. . He was declared to be the man of the year. de obicei.) I heard her singing.cu verbele: to happen.) 3.Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see.

Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill.(Daca vremea va permite. CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. Present Perfect Simple.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. Present Tense Continuous.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. Future-inthe-Past se poate folosi numai o singura data. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. un timp „present" Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. (El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). He said he would come to see me when he had time.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. I had my bedroom window broken. Present Perfect Continuous . vom merge la plaja. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani. Past Tense Continuous.) He said he was going to school. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex. She had two sons killed in the war.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. Ex.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. nu in propozitii. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. (El a spus ca merge la scola.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. Ex.) Present Tense Simple.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before. Past Perfect Simple. (El a spus ca este bolnav. Propozitia principala 1.) She promised her mother she would help her. desigur. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp. Ex. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. ci in fraze.) I will have my hair done.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day.

Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: a. când propozitia secundara este atributiva. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa. 2. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. Afirmativ . Last year I worked more than I have done this year. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp.1. la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. 3. ai merge. Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. Ex. Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. LECTIA III MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III.) Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor 1. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa.) b.) I will have finished studying when you come home. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale.). Ex. wouldn’t. Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). Ex. ar merge etc. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC.

(Voi sta acasa daca va ploua. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna.) I would stay at home if it rained. Ex. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat.) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna.) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. In acest caz. suppose. (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. tell her I am out.I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers. Ex. supposing.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). in case. dar improbabila. daca s-ar intâmpla ca. ai fi mers.). What shall we do.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. If the police should find out the truth. in loc de Present Simple. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me.) I will stay at home if it rains. unde se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. we would be fined. cu exceptia verbului „to be". atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. De asemenea. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. should se traduce cu: in caz ca. providing. In caz ca telefoneaza. . ar fi mers etc. If she should ring up. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua.

1. in functie de sens. Ex. should). noi am fi amendati.(In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. He said: „She gave me a book". trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. He said he had been ill. – He said „I am ill". He said „I will do the exercise". today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that . had. 2. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. He said she had given him a book. were. in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. He said „I was ill".) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. He said he had been working hard. He said „I have been working hard. Ex. Ex. o o o 1. He said he was ill. Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. este posibila omiterea lui if. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. Se schimba pronumele. He said he would do the exercise.

Ex. Ex. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. à He said he would be at home on that day. He said: „I am ill". Infinitivul poate avea aspect. Where have you been? I’ve been away. 2. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb. He asked me if I liked music. on holiday. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. I would stay at home. He said: „I might be late" He said he might be late. could. MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. à He said he was going to do that translation the next day. Ex. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut." He said if itrained he would stay at home. Verbele modale would. ought to. I will stay at home.these those here there Ex. He asked me where I had been. Ex. ceea ce este o greseala. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta 1. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. 1." He said if it rained he would stay at home. He said: „I’ll be at home today". He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow". à He told me to go out. "If it had rained. à He said (that) he was ill. 3. Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: "If it rained. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) Ex. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. He said „Go out". might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. diateza si timpuri. He said „Don’t go out" à He told me not to go out. 3. Ex. I would have stayed at home. should. Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains. Diateza activa o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling .

) I want John to do this. to expect. in cazul verbelor neregulate. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. to dislike.) cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. f. to believe. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). Ex. to suppose.) verbe declarative: to state. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. to like. to admit. Ex. to order. I made him study English. to watch. to consider. to hate. to declare. Diateza activa o o Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. Ex. Ex. to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o 1. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza.) I expected him to come in time. to wish.) They declared him to be the man of the year. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum.) He ordered the door to be locked. I want you to go now. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling).) I let him go out and play. (Consider ca el este un bun student. to cause.) verbe exprimând un ordin. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului.o o Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. to understand. to know. d. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. He admitted the news to be false. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. I’d like him to come with me. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. to allow. Ex. b. Ex. e. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. to hear. I consider him to be a good student. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta.) verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. to count upon/on . c.) verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. to feel. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. I saw him leave the room. .

) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. b. Ex.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. He is considered to be a good student. de obicei. He is said to be a good writer.) If I happen to meet him. They declared him to be the man of the year. He was declared to be the man of the year. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. I made him study English. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. Nominativ cu infinitiv folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. ii voi spune unde esti. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. to prove. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. (E usor sa fac asta. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. He was made to study English. Ex. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". He proved to be a good journalist. Ex. In timp ce I saw her . Ex.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. cu verbele: to happen. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. I rely on you to do this. Ex.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. 1.) I left / found her crying. to hear. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. It is easy for me to do this. to watch. to believe. to seem. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta.) I heard her singing. a. a. to hear. to know. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. to turn out. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. I will tell him where you are. It is impossible that I (should) come. I consider him to be a good student. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. to smell. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1. to leave. precum si cu verbele to find.) It is impossible for him to come.Ex. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriu-zisa. to suppose.) 1. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el.) I happened to meet him in the street.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. The news was considered to be false. to appear o la diateza activa: Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv.) This remains for him to decide.) It is necessary for me to go there. (Am auzit-o cântând. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. to consider. to make. It is necessary that I (should) go there. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. to expect. He considered the news to be false. She is sure to come in time. to say.

dar are ca substantiv.) Nominativul absolut 3.leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. (Ea a fost auzita cântând. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. Ex. (El a fost vazut plecând.) Weather permitting.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. Este substantiv cand: a)este urmat de “of”: Ex: hundreds of pages b)nu determina alt substantiv: Ex: hundreds are here . am mers acasa. Ex: The classes being over. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect.) I will have my hair done. NUMERALUL Este de doua feluri: •cardinal (1) •ordinal (2) 1. 2)love = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la tenis (15-0 = fifteen-love) 3)nil = (nothing) = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la fotbal 4)naught = zero cand face parte din partea zecimala a unui numar 5)oh = zero pentru numere de telefon De la 1 la 12 avem forme distincte De la 13 la 19 avem (numeral simplu + “teen”).) She was heard singing. vom merge la plaja.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. (Daca vremea va permite. care este scurt si cu accentul pe prima silaba. we shall go to the beach. we went home. cantitatea Numeralul zero 1)zero = pentru calcul matematic si pentru exprimarea temperaturii Ex: It’s ten degrees above zero. la care accentul cade pe sufix si “i”-ul este lung. She had two sons killed in the war. Ex: 40 = forty (nu mai are “u”!) Numeralele compuse se scriu cu cratima Ex: 42 = forty-two One hundred = 100 Ca numeral nu poate avea plural. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. (Orele fiind terminate. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. I had my bedroom window broken. 2. De la 20 la 90 avem (numeral cardinal + “ty”). Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. Numeralul cardinal Arata numarul. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving.

n.d.c.000 Americanii zic milliard.000.03 = twenty point naught three ! daca intregul este <1. dar este corect si cu “s” (2 millions) in engleza. (ante domini) sau in the year of Lord •inaintea erei noastre = b. (before Christ) 6)pentru exprimarea numerelor zecimale (“decimal fractions”). One billion = 1. ! zero nu se citeste in cadrul acestor 4 cifre ale anilor Ex: 1907 = nineteen seven •era noastra (e. Ex: 210 = two hundred and ten One thousand = 1.square root = radical de ordinul 2 Power = putere More than = > Less than = < Equal to = egal Unequal to = diferit de Parallel to = paralel Perpendicular to = perpendicular Angle = unghi Right angle = unghi drept Straight angle = unghi de 180 grade Circle angle = unghi de 360 grade Even = par Odd = impar 3)pentru exprimarea unitatii monetare: coin = moneda bill/note = bancnota nickel = 5 centi dime = 10 centi quarter of a dollar = 25 centi half of a dollar = 50 centi 4)pentru unitati de masura – la timpul potrivit (cand primim I20) !!! 5)pentru exprimarea anilor: se citesc cifrele 2 cate 2. iar anii formati din mai putin de 4 cifre se citesc ca un numeral.000. intregul se citeste ca atare. punct in loc de virgula.) = a.cube root = radical de ordinul 3 .1 = point one . One million = 1. Utilizarea numeralului cardinal: 1)pentru exprimarea temperaturii (cu verbul “to be”) 2)pentru calcule matematice: Addition (to add = a aduna) 2 + 3 = 5 two plus/and three is/are/equals five (acordul se face in sg si in pl) Subtraction (to subtract = a scadea) 5 – 3 = 2 five minus/take away is two (acordul se face doar in sg) Multiplication (to multiply = a inmulti) 2 x 3 = 6 two multiplied by three/twice three/3 times 2 is/are/equals six (acordul se face in sg si in pl) Division (to divide = a imparti) 6 : 3 = 2 six divided by three is two (acordul se face doar in sg) “reminder” = rest Root = radical . iar partea zecimala cifra cu cifra Ex: 20.000 Fara “s” la TOEFL.000. nu se citeste Ex: 0.Numeralul compus peste suta se scrie cu prepozitia “and” la englezi si fara la americani.000 Aceleasi reguli ca la suta.

7)pentru exprimarea varstei (cu verbul “to be”) Ex: I’m twenty (years old) / I’m twenty years of age. sau I’m aged twenty. Aproximarea varstei se face cu: almost, about (around), over, under Ex: I’m in my twenties (am douazeci si) I’m mid-twenty (25 ani) 8)pentru exprimarea numerelor de telefon to dial = a forma un numar figure = cifra slot = orificiu pentru ban booth = cabina telefonica receiver = receptor long-distance call = convorbire la distanta call collector = convorbire cu taxa inversa operator = centralista extension = interior to be through = a avea legatura to hang on = a ramane pe fir to hang up = a inchide Numerele de telefon se citesc cifra cu cifra cu exceptia cifrei repetate daca este la inceputul sau la sfarsitul numarului. Regula nu se aplica pentru zero. Ex: 223700 – double two, 3, 7, oh, oh 9)pentru exprimarea orei: •formal •informal Ex: What’s the time? What time is it? What’s the time by your watch? My watch is fast = ceasul meu e inainte My watch is slow = ceasul meu e in urma My watch is wrong = ceasul meu nu merge bine My watch is broken = ceasul meu e stricat face = cadran belt = curelusa hand = limba de ceas (minutes hand, seconds hand) Pentru ora exacta: a)It’s seven o’clock sharp PM/AM b)00.00 = midnight 12.00 = midday c)It’s half past … (e si jumate) d)It’s a quarter past/to … (e si un sfert/ fara un sfert) e)It’s ten minutes past/to (e si/fara zece) Ora oficiala: 08:00 = oh eight hundred hours 23:24 = twenty three twenty four

Numerale speciale: couple = 2 (pt oameni si pt timp); couple of minutes = 2 minute pair = 2 pereche (pt imbracaminte, incaltaminte, unelte cu structuri paralele) Ex: a pair of shoes yoke = team = 2 pentru animale Ex: a yoke of cattle = 2 vite a team of oxen = 2 boi brace = 2 pentru vanat Ex: I have brace duck (am 2 rate salbatice) score = 20 half a score = 10 dozen = 12 gross = 144 (12 duzini) 2. Numeralul ordinal Se formeaza din: the + numeral cardinal + th Exceptii: the first (primul) the second (al doilea) the third (al treilea) +

toate celelalte numerale compuse care contin una din aceste exceptii (21, 22, 23, 31, 32, 33, … 101, 102, 1001, 1002, etc) Prescurtari: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, …21st, 22nd, etc. ! “th” se aplica doar ultimei cifre ! Modificari ortografice: five – the fifth eight – the eighth nine – the ninth twelve – the twelfth twenty – the twentieth (+ toate cele terminate in “ty”) Utilizarea numeralului ordinal: 1)exprimarea datei (in 2 forme) a)luna/zi/an b)zi/luna/an 2)exprimarea ordinii intr-o insiruire Ex: Henry the eighth the first floor the second World War 3)pentru numeralul fractionar (common fraction/vulgar fraction) numerator = numaratorul (cardinal) denominator = numitorul (ordinal) Ex: 1/3 = one third ! daca numaratorul > 1, numitorul va fi in plural Ex: 2/3 = two thirds Intregul = the whole Fractia pe 100 = per cent Procentaj = percentage Numeralul distributiv Arata distributia lucrurilor: One by one = unul cate unul Two at a time = 2 odata By twos / in twos = cate 2 Numeralul adverbial Arata de cate ori se repeta o actiune: once = o data twice = de 2 ori 3 times 4 times, etc. ! nu exista “twice more”, ci “twice as much as” = de 2 ori mai mult Numeralul multiplicativ Arata de cate ori creste o cantitate: double = twofold = indoit (de 2 ori) tenfold = inzecit

Numeralul Ordinal the 1st / first = primul the 2nd / second = al doilea the 3rd / third = al treilea the 4th / fourth = al patrulea the 5th / fifth = al cincilea the 6th sixth = al saselea the 7th / seventh = al saptelea the 8th / eighth = al optulea the 9th / nineth = al noualea the 10th / tenth = al zecelea the 11th / eleventh = al unsprezecelea the 12th / twelfth = al doisprezecelea the 13th / thirteenth = al treisprezecelea the 14th / fourteenth = al patrusprezecelea the 15th / fifteenth = al cincisprezecelea

the 16th / sixteenth = al saisprezecelea the 17th / seventeenth = al saptesprezecelea the 18th / eighteenth = al optusprezecelea the 19th / nineteenth = al nouasprezecelea the 20th / twentieth = al douazecilea the 21st / twenty-first = al douazecilea the 22nd / twenty-second = al douazecisiunulea the 23rd / twenty-third = al douazecisidoilea the 24th / twenty-fourth = al douazecisipatrulea the 30th / thirtieth = al treizecilea the 50th / fiftieth = al cincizecilea the 100th / hundredth = al o sutalea

Past Tense Continuous Exprima o actiune in desfasurare , incheiata care a avut loc intr-un moment trecut. Se foloseste cu: * at this time ** at X o’clock Este echivalent cu imperfectul din romana. Past Simple am dormit am invatat Affirmative: Past Continuous dormeam invatam S + was/were + Vb-ing

Eu dormeam cand tu ai sunat. I was sleeping when you phoned. Interrogative: Was/Were + S + Vb-ing

Conduceai tu cand ai vazut acel accident? Were you driving when you saw that accident? Negative: S+Wasn’t/Waren’t + Vb-ing

Ei nu studiau cand tu ai batut la usa. They waren’t studying when you knoked at the dor.

THE PREPOSITION Definiţie. Prepoziţia este partea de vorbire neflexibilă care: a) exprimă raporturi sintactice de dependenţă între părţile unei propoziţii. Ea leagă părţi de vorbire diferite: substantive, adjective, verbe sau adverbe de substantive sau substitute ale acestora. Ex: I was pleased at the thought of going to the theatre. Am fost încântat la gândul că voi merge la teatru. b) este neflexibilă, din punct de vedere morfologic; c) prepoziţia nu îndeplineşte o funcţie sintactică în propoziţie, ci marchează funcţii sintactice. Ex: I gave the book to Mary (complement indirect). I-am dat cartea Mariei. The roof of the house (atribut) is red. Acoperişul casei este roşu. Caracteristicile prepoziţiilor Prepoziţiile englezeşti cer cazul acuzativ: Ex: Look at him. I am before her. Uită-te la el. Eu stau înaintea ei. Prepoziţiile of, to şi for prezintă o situaţie specială. Construcţia cu prepoziţia of este folosită ca echivalent al

Ex: What is he writing about? Despre ce scrie el? b) în propoziţii relative. După raporturile pe care le stabilesc.locuţiuni prepoziţionale: in front of.questions).conceal. Ex: They did nothing but laugh. Haina băiatului este nouă. Ex: The flat I live in is on the 10-th floor. invitation. good + at. upon.derivate cu prefixe: along. Clasificarea prepoziţiilor În limba engleză prepoziţiile se clasifică astfel: După formă. Verbele precedate de prepoziţii iau forma în -ing (Gerund). Excepţii. . throughout. without. Ex: The children were looked after by their grandmother. Prepoziţiile to şi for marchează cazul dativ : Ex: I gave it to him. Utilizarea prepoziţiilor Unele cuvinte sunt urmate în mod obligatoriu de anumite prepoziţii: a) Substantive: interest. . . . Sunt bun în ce priveşte memorarea numelor oamenilor. -exception. După formă. I-am dat-o lui. c) Verbe : . opportunity + of. with. end. shiver. because of. successful + in. before. sure + of. progress. Aceasta este o firmă bună (cu care se poate lucra bine). full.alarmed. Copiii sunt în clasă. within. with the help of. underneath. on. După raporturile pe care le stabilesc între diferitele părţi de vorbire. tremble + with. e) în construcţii infinitivale. thanks to. in spite of. prepoziţiile pot fi: simple: at.compuse: into.complete. . Ex: What photos they are looking at! Ce poze văd! d) în construcţii pasive. Apartamentul meu este la etajul 10. to. Ex: This is a good firm to work with. Ex. under. -cause. c) în exclamaţii. round. Ex: I am good at remembering people's names. instead of. b) Adjective : . free + from. ask. arrive +at. fie mişcarea (direcţia): at. Copiii au fost îngrijiţi de bunica lor. on. beside. Ea este folosită după acesta : a) în întrebări speciale (wh.aim.afraid.anxious. in. Poziţia Prepoziţia apare în general înaintea cuvântului la care se referă. behind. aware. above.bound. Ex: The pupils are in the classroom. among. . I bought it for her. chance. by/ . enthusiastic +about. shake.account. for.complexe. at the back of. die. between. sorry + for. ashamed. up to. out of. Am cumpărat-o pentru ea. . kindness + to.: The boy's coat The coat of the boy is new. . fit. care. amazed. clever. But şi except sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt. differ. leave + for. . threaten. prepoziţiile pot fi: Spaţiale.believe. . eager. . in the middle of. formate dintr-un adverb + prepoziţie sau conjuncţie: along with. .unei construcţii genitivale.rich . fail + in. fond. arătând fie starea pe loc. N-au făcut nimic altceva decât să râdă. satisfaction + in.

on account of.because of . înş felul/ modul) . un mare număr de prepoziţii se aseamănă cu particule adverbiale. around (idem). out of. Ex: The book is underneath the papers. for. ca. in front of. (în[ăuntru]) . Ei l-au adus pe olog la Isus. ahead of (înaintea. Insula este departe de continent.into = pătrunderea. in . Ei au contramandat şedinţa din nou. d) Prepoziţiile care indică succesiunea (în spaţiu şi timp): after (după. El a luat cartea din dulap. din/ detaşarea). under (sub). El a lucrat la şcoală toată noaptea pentru examen.vecinatatea imediată (lângă. On se asociază cu substantive pentru a indica locul stării sau acţiunii. below (dedesubt). către) . over. (particulă) They tried until they were off the shore.onto = mişcarea pe o suprafaţă. beneath (pe sub). underneath (sub). in front of.in spite of. Ex: He took the book from the cupboard. e) desprinderea.durata.spaţiul în general sau locul în interiorul căruia are loc acţiunea. în urma cuiva/ a ceva). on top of (pe). (prep. El era lângă uşa ta.to = mişcarea până la un punct. (la) within . i) suprapunerea: above (deasupra). concerning.near.referinţa.during. in the middle of (în mijlocul). through. spre) . regarding. ocupaţia. Temporale: till/ until. Ex: They have put off the meeting again.mod. like. without. since. before. of. by . (datorită) . în faţa) Ex: He came and stood before us for forty days.) Present Perfect Continuous .poziţia într-un spaţiu limitat. (cu.. Ex: He was next to your door. g) traversarea spaţiului: across (peste.direcţia. alongside (de-a lungul). towards . off (de pe). about. Raporturile stabilite de prepoziţii În combinaţie cu alte părţi de vorbire. by. Ei s-au uitat în spate.for .scop. (în) Ex: He worked at school all night for the exam. Cartea este dedesubtul hârtiilor. prepoziţia exprimă raporturi variate. throughout. past. behind (în spatele). Ele se deosebesc prin funcţie. (în timpul. out of (din. on. over (peste). owing to. Ex: They brought the lame man over to Jesus. Ele nu trebuie confundate cu acestea. as far . fără.un punct în spaţiu. as to. through the roof of the house. to. by/ past (pe lângă). onto.cauza. on/ upon (pe). among (printre . f) apropierea: about (în jurul). Ex: He was standing between the Farisees and the people. by. (în interiorul) in . vis-à-vis). for. mai poate înlocui pe at atunci când este vorba de verbe care exprimă activitatea. beside/ by (lângă. into. Forma prepoziţiilor În limba engleză. Ex: He has stayed for three years on a deserted island. cantitate. next to. over (peste). El a stat trei ani pe o insulă pustie. over . h) situarea la mijloc: between (între). cu un mijloc de transport) to. atături). against (împotriva). extracţia: from (de la. Ex: They were looking behind. Ei au încercat până când s-au îndepărtat de coastă. from. Finale: for Ale referinţei: about.as to.manner/ way . a) Ele pot indica locul: at . dar nu era nici o fantomă. Particulele adverbiale modifică sensul verbelor pe care le însoţesc. into. b) Următoarele prepoziţii sunt folosite cu verbe de mişcare pentru a indica direcţia: .. din interiorul). (cât despre) . despite . but there was no ghost. transformându-le în verbe cu particule adverbiale. El stătea între farisei şi popor. prin acoperişul casei. (la. during. peste) .se referă la mai mult de două obiecte. thanks to.with. as for.concesie (în ciuda) c) Prepoziţiile care urmează indică precedenţa în spaţiu: before. (pentru) . close to (foarte aproape de). de [către]. (spre. through/ by (prin). The island is off the main land. for. adverbe sau conjuncţii. pentru. towards. Cauzale: because of. near. El a venit şi a stat înaintea noastră timp de patruzeci de zile. presupunând o omogenizare a lor). instrument. along (de-a lungul).

I sometimes miss the first class in the morning.often(des).since(arata momentul cnd a inceput momentul sa se desfasoare actiunea) 1for(arata perioada de timp in care se desfasoara) Aff: S + have/has + been + Vb-ing. The lady joins the group in the middle of the stage. To earn=a castiga As a rule=de regula To succeed=a reusii Kite= zmeu PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE Afirmativ: S + VB(short infinitive) Negativ : S + DO/DOES + NOT + VB(short infinitive) . Present Simple Exprima: A)-o actiune simpla. Int: Have/has + S + been + Vb-ing? Eg: Citesti tu de 2 ore? Have you been reading for 2 hours? Neg: S + haven’t/hasn’t + been + Vb-ing. C)-se foloseste in comentarii sportive sau indicatii scenice: The football player passes the ball to Ronaldinho and this scores. I have been reading for 2 hours. He doesn’t belive she loves him. He usually calls me when I sleep.generally. Eg: I often spend my winter holiday in the mountains. Se foloseste cu:. I haven’t been reading for 2 hours. B)-adevaruri general valabile. Eg: Eu nu citesc de 2 ore.every. Eg: Eu citesc de 2 ore. Interrogative: Do/Does + S +Vb Eg: Do you wake up early in the morning? Does he drives his car? Negative: S + don’t/doesn’t + Vb Eg: I don’t know the answer to this question .Exprima o actiune in desfasurare inceputa in trecut care se continua si in present. Water boils at 100^C. Affirmative: S+Vb Pers a 3a singular + S/ES la Vb.seldom(rar).repetata:usually.

her Gen: masculin .Interog : DO/DOES + S + VB(short infinitive) * la persoana a-III-a singular se adauga –s . which. care se intampla spontan Ex: I walk every day. many) sau compuse (everybody. He reads after dinner. Pronumele personale NominativGenitiv Dativ Acuzativ Singular I mine (to) me me you yours (to) you you he his (to) him him she hers (to) her her . plural .to her. obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau cunoscuta de catre interlocutor. functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv.she. Who did all the work? 5.2. Clasificarea pronumelor Dupa continut si functie pronumele pot fi: Personale Reflexive Nehotarate Demonstrative Relative De întarire Interogative Reciproce 5. Se foloseste pentru a exprima: -actiuni care au character general .: John did all the work.1. neutru .3.hers. My parents are coming in at this moment PRONUME I YOU HE/SHE WE YOU THEY ME YOU HIM/HER US YOU THEM ADJECTIVE POSESIVE MY MINE YOUR YOURS HIS/HER HIS/HERS OUR OURS YOUR YOURS THEIR THEIRS 5. Ele nu denumesc si nu caracterizeaza nimic. Genitiv . no one). 5.this. Dativ .it Pronumele pot fi simple (you. Acuzativ . Ex. He did all the work. Forma pronumelui Pronumele au forme specifice in functie de: Numar: singular . whatever.she.these Caz: Nominativ . Functia pronumelui Pronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Afirmativ: S + TO BE +VB(-ing) Negativ Interog : S + TO BE + NOT + VB(-ing) : TO BE + S + VB(-ing) Se foloseste pentru a exprima: -actiuni care se petrec in momentul vorbirii sau acum. Ex: I am listening to the news now. -es. She watches TV every evening. facand astfel referire la o idee.3. Feminin .he. They are talking about the weather right now.1.

it will automatically turn itself down. Atat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana. exprimand starea vremii. Forme: Singular: myself. everything. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana. Is it Monday? How hot it is! How far is it to the station? It demostrativ Ex. anything. anybody.3.: You have to drive on the other side of the road in Great Britain. They say she's very clever. You can do these tasks by yourself or with a partner. It's a pleasure to him.2. -body. After five minutes. 5. everybody.3. somebody. themselves Ex. -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate: anyone. no-one. These books are ours. It was spring. anybody. (to) thee I gave him the book.: I wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me. Ex. Pronumele reflexive Acestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Its (pronume) nu are apostrof. something. everybody. pronumele nehotarate anyone. Pronumele nehotarate Some. They built the house themselves. somebody. herself. It's vine de la it is sau it has! Forme arhaice si poetice: pers.: Who is it? It's the postman. . II sg. Is this pen yours or mine? You / They impersonal . no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular.it Plural you they its we yours theirs (to) it ours (to) you (to) them it (to) us you them us I se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula.: It's 7 o'clock. everyone.3. yourself.putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre oameni in general. thine. everyone. Let's buy ourselves a chair for the garden. He ran the London Marathon. distante sau in contructii pasive) Ex. himself.poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta: It impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale. itself Plural: ourselves. It's the children. someone. every se pot combina cu -one. She fell off the ladder and injured herself. yourselves. any.thou. I only played against her once. It . . 5. someone. No poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody.

: Who said that? Whose are those books? I do not remember to whom I gave my sweater. In general. many. (referring to an explanation just made) This si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala. Pronumele reciproce Forme: each other si one another. idei. 5. whoever. most. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre fiinte.: The man who hijacked the plane wanted to get to Cuba.3. This (book in my hand) is well written. The couple who live next door have the radio on all night. fewer. themselves Ex. much. himself.: I myself don't know the answer. Ex.3. De retinut! Daca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume. yourselves. all. Aceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva: Ex. lucruri. 5.3. over there. de unul singur Ex.3. more. neither.: That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw) I will never forget this.4. less. Din contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule. herself.5. on the table) is trash. This is the program which won the prize. . pe cand that si those sugereaza ideea de departare. yourself. Ex. We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell. Alegerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale studentilor la limba engleza. Ex. Pronumele de intarire Insoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. every.: Few will be chosen.: The student who studies hardest usually does the best. Ex. 5. Pronumele relative sunt : who. Those (pancakes that I had yesterday morning) were even better. Who si formele sale se refera la persoane. fewer will finish. Mary did all this herself. few. propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte.) Can you belive I would have bought that? 5.: Are you going to wear these? (They are awful. Din acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in general intre virgule. which se refera la lucruri. little. Ex. none. Forme: who? what? which? whose? (to) whom? Ex. several. Ca forma sunt identice cu pronumele reflexive: Singular: myself. Pronumele demonstrativ Pronumele demostrative: this.7.Alte pronume nehotarate: enough. that.: These (pancakes sitting here now on my plate) are delicious. which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze. which. that (book that I'm pointing to.3. Pronumele interogativ Pronumele interogative introduc intrebari. I do not like them at all. ci determinanti substantivali. either. Little Jane read the story by herself. Ex. The team that won the championship received a great reception. Little is expected. cat si ca determinanti substantivali. iar that poate face referire la ambele. Mary herself did all this. such pot functiona atat ca pronume. both. any. (referring to a recent experience) Such is my belief. we can say that they gave each other books. explicatii suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul frazei.6. that. What happened? What's the weather like? 5. itself Plural: ourselves. Pronumele relative Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul aterior (antecedent) si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat. Expresii: by myself = singur. those.8. each. some. these.: I worked by myself.: If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas.

Daca adverbele respective se refera la o perioada trecuta. vom folosi trecutul simplu. She has taken her medicine. Ex. Ex. Ex. I've (have) not seen this movie. Ex. for an hour se pot folosi atat cu prezentul perfect cat si cu trecutul simplu. pe cand one another face referire la mai mult de doua obiecte sau fiinte. au cunostinte despre Mexic dar nu stiu prea multe despre Africa de Sud).1. Ex. De retinut! Each other se refera la doua obiecte. I have run the Boston Marathon (dar acest lucru s-a intamplat demult). folosirea timpului prezent perfect arata ca rezultatul evenimetului sau actiunii care apartine momentului prezent este cel care conteaza si nu momentul in care a avut loc actiunea.: Washington encouraged his troops.) Brazil has won the World Cup four times. A fost asemanat cu un pod care face legatura dintre trecut si prezent. Prezentul perfect 7.: I haven't been to Spain. pe acum.My mother and I give each other a hard time. Obiceiuri sau evenimente si actiuni frecvente in decursul unei perioade de timp care conduc la momentul prezentului. this month. Dar vom folosi trecutul simplu pentru a relata sau anunta evenimente care au luat sfarsit si apartin trecutului indepartat. Ex.: Have I met you before? Have they built the house? 7.: I have walked two miles already (dar continui sa merg). Prezentul perfect este un timp apartinand prezentului. Hockey players hit one another quite frequently. The critics have praised the film Saving Private Ryan since it came out (si continua sa il laude).: She has studied English for four years (si inca mai studiaza engleza. They borrowed each other's ideas.: You have worked hard. Prezentul perfect exprima o actiune incheiata sau "perfectata" in trecut si care se extinde pana in momentul prezent: Ex. Dar accentul se pune pe momentul vorbirii. Functii Prezentul perfect este una dintre particularitatile limbii engleze. Expresii adverbiale cum ar fi: today. Ex. 7. acest timp neavand corespondent in limba romana.: I have studied up to now/lately/already. Actiuni sau evenimente din trecut care conduc pana in momentul prezent. Ex. Adverbe Alegerea intre prezentul perfect si trecutul simplu este de multe ori influentata si de adverbele care insotesc verbul. In acest caz. Interogativul: Ex. Cu adverbe care marcheaza un inceput in trecut si conduct pana la momentul prezentului.: I worked/have worked hard today. Forma Prezentul auxiliarului have (have/ has) + participiul trecut al verbului (regulat sau neregulat).: He has bought a new car (si acum au o masina noua). 7. Conjugare singular I have walked you have walked he/she/it has walked plural we have walked you have walked they have walked singular I have slept you have slept he/she/it have slept plural we have slept you have slept they have slept . Negativul: Ex. They have been to Mexico but they have not been to South Africa (in consecinta.: The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment.2.: I studied all night/yesterday/on Wednesday. Exista tendinta de a folosi prezentul perfect pentru a anunta un eveniment din trecutul recent. Ex. 7. vom folosi prezentul perfect.4.: The company's current CEO has lied repeatedly to her employees.3.

Diferenta dintre forma prezentului perfect si cea a prezentului perfect continuu este ca forma continua accentueaza durata actiunii sau a starii. Se foloseste pentru a descrie stari sau sentimente care au debutat in trecut si au continuat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp si sunt inca prezente pana in momentul vorbirii. Aceastea sunt: since. Vaughan has batted clean-up since he came to the Redsox. Forma . How long has it been since the last time we met? 8. . For .1. Forma Have/has + been + participiul prezent (-ing) Ex. for. pe durata.: Have they been feeling unwell? 8. 8. Functii Si aceasta forma verbala apartine timpului prezent si se raporteaza la momentul prezent.singular plural I have been we have been you have been you have been he/she/it has been they have been Exemple: For five generations. Folosirea adverbelor cu prezentul perfect Exista cateva expresii adverbiale care se folosesc in mod frecvent cu formele prezentului perfect. Ex. members of my family have been doctors. The Redsox have been losing games since the All-Star break [and they continue to do so]. trecut. . Have you ever been to Romania? I have never seen a purple cow. Conjugare singular I have been walking you have been walking he/she/it has been walking plural we have been walking you have been walking they have been walking singular I have been sleeping you have been sleeping he/she/it has been sleeping plural we have been sleeping you have been sleeping they have been sleeping singular There is no present perfect progressive for the "to be" verb. Prezent perfect continuu 8. Ex. pentru o perioada de timp.: I have been waiting for an hour.1.are sensul de: in timpul.poate fi folosit atat cu trecutul simplu cat si cu formele perfecte (prezent.: You haven't been talking too much. They haven't seen him since 1989. Trecutul perfect 9.se foloseste doar cu formele perfecte.: There have been 92 accidents since the beginning of the year. John has been working on his thesis for two years. etc. Negativul: Ex. She has swum the English Channel every summer." plural Exemple: Maria has been writing her dissertation for the last six years[.3.are sensul de incepand de la un moment dat.2.4. Since . but she finished yesterday]. Have we been telling the truth to consumers about tobacco? Haven't we been lying to teenagers about smoking? 8.: It has been raining for two days (and it's still raining). never. ever. Interogativul: Ex. viitor perfect). "Have been being" is expressed simply as "have been": "We have been being successful in the past. since. 9. so far.

"perfectat" la un moment din trecut inainte ca un alt eveniment sa se produca. Had they been cheating on the exams before the school put monitors in the classroom? 11. Aunt Glad had invested heavily in the air-conditioning industry before the Great Crash of 1988. I will have run successfully in three marathons if I can finish this one. Charles will have finished four chapters in his new novel. I had run three other marathons before entering the Boston Marathon. Ex.2. She had swum the English Channel every summer until 1997.: I had walked two miles by lunchtime. Before he sees his publisher. Viitorul perfect Forma: Will + have + participiul trecut al verbului Viitorul perfect indica o actiune care va fi fost incheiata la un moment dat din viitor. Gesualdo will have been studying nothing but parasites for four years. 9. A Democratic president will have been in the White House for nearly half of the twentieth century.: By the time he finishes this semester. Conjugare singular I had walked you had walked he/she/it had walked plural we had walked you had walked they had walked singular I had slept you had slept he/she/it had slept plural we had slept you had slept they had slept singular I had been you had been he/she/it had been plural we had been you had been they had been Exemple: Prior to the Revolutionary War.Had + participiu trecut al verbului Trecutul perfect indica faptul ca o actiune s-a incheiat. I will have worked on this project for twenty days. Viitorul perfect continuu Forma: Will + have + been + participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului Acest timp indica a actiune continua care va fi incheiata la un moment dat din viitor. Will they have been testing these materials in the lab before we even get there? . Ex. Exemple: Hemingway had been losing his self-confidence for years before the publication of Old Man and the Sea. By this time next week. Ex. Trecutul perfect continuu Forma: Had + been + participiu prezent (-ing) Acest timp indica o actiune continua care s-a incheiat la un moment dat din trecut.: I will have spent all my money by this time next year. How long had it been since you saw each other? 10. How long will it have been since we were together? 12. Washington had been a surveyor and land speculator.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful