IMPORTANCE OF TISSUE CULTURE IN AGRICULTURE Agricultural diversification to meet our future needs call for the adoption of new technologies in agriculture. Utilization of the best cultural practices, fertilization, pest control measures will not give the necessary results without the use of best planting material. Tissue culture is now a significant horticultural propagation method which has revolutionized the horticultural industry. Use of this technique should be considered for mass propagation and the establishment of disease free stock material. This type of material is not seasonal as it can be produced throughout the year in the laboratory. Results have been promising and the possibility of using tissue culture plantlets to improve banana cultivation in Mauritius is desirable. Most banana producing countries have now adopted this technology. Another crop which can benefit from tissue culture is the potato. Potato production in several Asian countries is based on tissue culture plantlets.

Tissue culture, micropropagation and growing in vitro are now significant horticultural propagation methods which are experiencing rapid acceptance and have revolutionized the horticultural industry. Tissue culture is an important new method of plant propagation available to growers. Farmers consider tissue culture for two reasons: (1) Mass production (2) To establish or maintain "virus-free" stock. Other uses include somatic hybridization, the induction and selection of mutants and biosynthesis of secondary products. ioreactors

Every year, excessive amount of grower time, labour and room are spent on unproductive seeds, cuttings and grafts, significant numbers of young plants are lost to viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects, animals or other environmental factors. Disease free plants derived from tissue culture can retrieve much of the time now lost by growers because of the higher percentage of clean, viable, mature plants produced.

Tissue culture plantlets are not immune to attack and disaster but by the time they are hardened off, are well started plants with a good root system and a supply of nutrients. Healthy plants are the first line of defence against diseases.

. 4 races of Fusarium Oxysporum fsp cubense and viruses such as cucumber mosaic and bunchy top. 6. The expected advantages of this practice are the following: very high yield in a short time. 9. 3. Plants can be rapidly multiplied from a mother plant of known desirable characters. The use of single-cycle high density banana plantations could be adopted more widely. saving expenditure on infrastructure. 1. plants are cheaper and easier to propagate and transport. 5. 7. 2. 8. 4. Saving of hand labour. Plants for in vitro plantlets grow faster in the early growing stages than those from sucker.THOMPSON HUMPHREY SC/BCH/07/0028 Healthy plants can be grown in the laboratory at any time of the year. Short harvesting period. The use of in vitro plantlets in areas not infected with nematodes avoids the use of nematicides. For example establishment of new banana plantations can be done through 3 types of materials: (1) Large suckers (2) Small suckers (3) in-vitro plantlets The inconvenience of the first two lies in their carrying of pathogens and pests especially nematodes such as Radhopholus similis. In comparison with the suckers. Selected and screened plants can be maintained free from serious diseases and pests. 98% survival under field conditions. Working conditions in the laboratory are ideal and therefore conducive to year round production scheduling. Tissue culture is not limited by the time of the year or weather. It also saves an enormous amount of daily care required by conventional cuttings and seedlings. In Vitro plantlets provide an excellent alternative material free of these pests and diseases for use in areas of cultivation. Uniformity of flowering. the banana borer Cosmopolites sordidus. the possible use of poor land marginal for permanent cultivation. efficient controlled flowering and harvesting time. The main advantages of in vitro plantlets are given below. especially for the window market.

THOMPSON HUMPHREY SC/BCH/07/0028 10. with low levels of adverse effects. IMPORTANCE OF TISSUE CULTURE IN MEDICINE Animal tissue culture role in medical filed are enormous. 3. This discovery leads to the possibility of curing various diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Tissue culture methods have helped develop vaccines against virus such as poliomyelitis in virology studies. or as a tool to produce cellular-derived protein products that really helps in medical advancement. Regenerative medicine This is a technology that cures the injured part of the body such as blood vessel by replacing it with a new one gained from culturing the same thing Other important application of tissue culture in medicine include. this has helped in organ transplants to serve the life of many people with problems of various organs. The material produced is true to type and conform to the characters of the mother plants. the use of the monoclonal antibodies to produce more antibodies that have longer life span. Increased yield of up to 20% as compared to conventional material. Tissue cultures are often used for the analysis of the cells themselves. Other application of animal tissue culture gives a predictable. 2. the widespread presence of somaclonal variations has been detected from negligible levels up to 40% of a field. 11. animal tissue culture provides a way to produce monoclonal antibody that makes it possible to produce antibody that have specificity restricted to a certain pathogen. the assessment of the cell's response to chemicals.e. With the increased use of in vitro multiplication. As discussed before. References . 1. Tissue culture techniques have helped in the production of antibodies i. There are important advantages regarding germplasm conservation and the possibilities of international transfer. The production of organs from tissues of organs. rapid and responsive method for production of welltolerated and effective vaccines. 12.

213-27. E. July 1994. 1993. & Skelton. Nettleship. Report of the Task Force on Seds and Planting Material. Cultivation of adult tissues and organs outside of the body. ss. & Burrows. Schilling. R. Commercial Micropropagation of banana in Proceedings of the Workshop on Biotechnology Applications for Banana and Plantain Improvement. F. R. T. (1971). ARIAS. 4. pp. Ass. R. (1943). .. Straus.THOMPSON HUMPHREY SC/BCH/07/0028 ANON. L. W.. High Powered Committee on Agricultural Diversification. Regulation of gene expression in somatic cell hybrids: a review. Earle.. Cancer Inst. M. Production of malignancy in vitro. E. AmMed. (1993). Natn. M. INIBAP. J. A. 1379-81. V. N.. A. Brown. L. O. J. Stark. 139-142. Davidson. (1910). (1994). 411-26. H. Results of injections of cultures into mice. Carrel. In vitro 6. T..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful