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Chem 18 Lecture 3 Exam 3 Common Ion Effect, Buffers and Indicators

Chem 18 Lecture 3 Exam 3 Common Ion Effect, Buffers and Indicators

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Common Ion Effect, Buffers and Indicators

Common Ion Effect
‡ Shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of a compound having an ion in common with the dissolved substance. ‡ Special case of the Le Châtelier s principle

Common Ion Effect
‡ CH3COONa and CH3COOH in solution CH3COONa(s) CH3COO-(aq) + Na+(aq) CH3COOH(aq) + H2O CH3COO-(aq) + H3O+(aq) Addition of CH3COO- will suppress the ionization of CH3COOH

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
For a weak acid HA: (derive please)

pH = pKa + log
NOTE: we use [ ]i and not [ ]eq as long as [ ]i 0.1M

Calculate .
‡ What is the pH of a 0.30M HCOOH solution? pKa= 3.77 ‡ What will be the pH in the presence of 0.52M HCOOK?

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
‡ For a weak base and a salt with a common ion ‡ pOH = pKb + log

Buffer Solutions
‡ Solution of (1) a weak acid/base and (2) its salt. ‡ Both components must be present ‡ The solution has the ability to resist pH changes upon the addition of either an acid or a base.

Buffer Solutions
‡ For a simple acetic acid/acetate buffer CH3COONa(s) CH3COO-(aq) + Na+(aq)

CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq) CH3COOH(aq) CH3COOH(aq) + OH-(aq) CH3COO-(aq) + H2O

Buffer Solutions
‡ See animation

Analyze .
‡ Which of the following are buffer systems? ‡ KH2PO4/H3PO4 ‡ NaClO4/HClO4 ‡ C5H5N(weak base)/C5H5NHCl (C5H5N+H is a weak acid) ‡ KF/HF ‡ KBr/HBr

Buffering Capacity
‡ Effectiveness of a buffer ‡ Ability to resist pH changes ‡ Depends on the amount of acid and conjugate base ‡ Amount of acid/base needed to decrease/increase the pH by 1.0 ‡ pH = pKa (maximum buffering capacity)

Buffer range/pH range
‡ pH range over which a buffer is effective

pH = pKa ± 1

Calculate .
‡ What is the pH of a buffer system containing 1.0 M CH3COOH and 1.0 M CH3COONa? ‡ What is the pH after adding 0.10 mole of HCl to 1.0 L of the solution? ‡ What is the pH after adding 0.10 mole of NaOH to 1.0 L of the solution? ‡ NOTE: Assume no volume changes

Preparing a buffer solution
‡ If [acid] [conj. base], then log ‡ pH pKa 0

Calculate .
‡ How would you prepare a phosphate buffer with a pH of 7.40?

‡ Ka1= 7.5 x 10-3 ‡ Ka2= 6.2 x 10-8 ‡ Ka3= 4.8 x 10-13

Calculate .
‡ How will you prepare a carbonate buffer at pH 10.10? You are provided with carbonic acid, sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate. ‡ Ka1 = 4.2 x 10-7 ‡ Ka2 = 4.8 x 10-11

Acid-Base Indicators
‡ Weak acids/bases that have distinctly different colors in their HIn and In- forms. ‡ HIn(aq) H+(aq) + In-(aq)

‡ Acidic: HIn color predominates ‡ Basic: In- color predominates

Acid-Base Indicators
‡ ‡ color of HIn predominates color of In- predominates

‡ If [Hin] [In-], combination of 2 colors

Acid-Base Indicators

¿listo? Teneís un QUIZ
‡ What is the pH of a solution that is 0.20 M in NH3 and 0.30 M in NH4Cl? Compare its pH in a 0.20 M NH3 solution. Kb = 1.8 x 10-5 ‡ Mr. Eugenio was asked to prepare a buffer at pH = 8.60, using one of the ff. weak acids, HA (Ka = 2.7 x 10-3), HB (Ka = 4.4 x 10-6), HC (Ka = 2.6 x 10-9) Which acid did Mr. Eugenio choose (well, if he performed it correctly hehehe)?

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