Figure 2.1.

Sample One-Experiment Paper (The numbers refer to numbered
sections in the Publication Manual.)

Running head: EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION

1

Establishing a title, 2.01; Preparing the manuscript for submission, 8.03
Effects of Age on Detection of Emotional Information Christina M. Leclerc and Elizabeth A. Kensinger Boston College

Formatting the author name (byline) and institutional affiliation, 2.02, Table 2.1

Elements of an author note, 2.03 Author Note

Christina M. Leclerc and Elizabeth A. Kensinger, Department of Psychology, Boston College.

EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION Abstract

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Writing the abstract, 2.04

This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant BCS 0542694 arch Age differences were examined in affective processing, in the context of a visual search task. awarded to Elizabeth A. Kensinger. beth Young and older adults were faster to detect high arousal images compared with low arousal and Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Christina M. Leclerc, ndence neutral items. Younger adults were faster to detect positive high arousal targets compared with Department of Psychology, Boston College, McGuinn Hall, Room 512, 140 Commonwealth sychology, other categories. In contrast, older adults exhibited an overall detection advantage for emotional ut Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467. Email: christina.leclerc.1@bc.edu images compared with neutral images. Together, these findings suggest that older adults do not display valence-based effects on affective processing at relatively automatic stages. Keywords: aging, attention, information processing, emotion, visual search

Double-spaced manuscript, Times Roman typeface, 1-inch margins, 8.03

Paper adapted from “Effects of Age on Detection of Emotional Information,” by C. M. Leclerc and E. A. Kensinger, 2008, Psychology and Aging, 23, pp. 209–215. Copyright 2008 by the American Psychological Association.

2000). Hinojosa. & nded Nummenmaa et al. It is less clear whether these 2005. of ideas. The enhanced detection of emotional information is e. 2006). an obvious service to evolutionary drives Ordering citations within the same parentheses.31 Use of hyphenation for compound words. & Charles. However. time is perceived as increasingly limited. Lang. 2004. & Cuthbert. According to socioemotional selectivity theory. Mecado. & Tapia. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen. Tabira. Asada. Carretie et al. Bradley. recent behavioral research has revealed changes that occur with aging in the regulation and processing of emotion.05 Regions of the brain thought to be important for emotional detection remain relatively intact with aging (reviewed by Chow & Cummings. Raz. 2004.1. Good et al. flowers. Ohman.12 .. spiders. & Uno. Isaacowitz.05 Effects of Age on Detection of Emotional Information Frequently...13. eight flowers and one snake). Ohnishi. The focus of the current research is on determining the extent to which 4 Continuity in presentation aging influences the early. whereas in the remaining half of the 4.16 2000. Carretie. are preserved d (Anderson. 2004. Marin-Loeches. & Calvo. Results indicated that fear.g. Calvo & Lang. eight images were from one category and one image was from a different category (e. with threatening faces (including those n-grabbing (includ ing Calvo & Lang. 1996). Nummenmaa. Juth. 2... 2001. and Esteves (2001) presented participants with 3 × 3 visual Numbers arrays with images representing four categories (snakes. 1995). 4. emotion regulation becomes a primary goal (Carstensen.Figure 2. 2005. emotional aspects of the Citing one work by six or more authors. Participants were asked to indicate whether the matrix included a Numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions.1 ant fear-relevant r fear-irrelevant items. and as a result. despite the preservation of emotion-processing regions with age (or perhaps because of the contrast between the preservation of these regions and age-related declines in cognitive-processing regions. No capitalization in naming theories. regardless of whether itin the environment. & Ohman. 4. Karlsson. 2005.16 Selecting to approach rewarding situations and to avoid threat and danger (Davis & Whalen. 2006). Matsuda. From this research. discrepant stimulus. 4. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 3 Writing the introduction. It is therefore of great importance for one’s attentional processes to select only the most salient information in the environment to which one should attend. 1997. Flykt. a larger search facilitation effects were observed for participants who elevant and arful were fearful of the stimuli. effects 5 across the adult life span. Previous research has suggested that emotional information is privy to attentional selection in young adults (e. 2004. Lundqvist. Hedden & Gabrieli.18 & Vuilleumier. Smilek. 2003. 3. 1992). A similar pattern of results has been observed when examining the EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION attention-grabbing nature of negative facial expressions. not attended to) identified more quickly than positive or neutral faces (Eastwood. with aging. As a consequence of these motivational shifts. people encounter situations in their environment in which it is impossible to attend to all available stimuli. Thus. Merikle. 6. 6. 3. relatively automatic detection of emotional information. Hansen & Hansen. LeDoux. there is evidence thatclear high-arousingadults show detection benefits for ited arousing information is positively or negatively valenced ( detected rapidly. In half expressed in words. mushrooms).32 arrays. 1988). 2001. Hyona. Anderson. all nine images were from the same category. it is plausible that the detection of emotional information remains relatively stable as adults age. 2001. age is associated with an increased motivation to derive emotional meaning from life and a simultaneous decreasing motivation to expand one’s knowledge base.g. the arrays. it seems any that younger stimulus can be not limited to threatening stimuli. Dolan the correct tense. 2004. West. For example.relevant images were more quickly detected than Table 4. 2001. 1999).

2005). and emotion regulation processes) rather than at the earlier stages of processing involved in the rapid detection of information (see Mather & Knight. Brierley.1. Grühn. & Wilson. 6. & Carstensen. angry.14 Hypotheses and their correspondence to research design. this positivity effect has not gone uncontested. Wadlinger. 2005. physical and cognitive decline). Third. 6. we employed a visual search paradigm to assess young and older adults’ abilities to ed hypotheses seemed to be more plausible than the third alternative. & Corkin. First. principally on positive emotional information and may show facilitated detection of positive.05 emotional information may take on additional importance. This is because there is reason Using the semicolon to separate two independent 6 clauses not joined by a conjunction. Thus. 6. however. leading to similarly n EFFECTS OF AGE ON and older adults. Similarly.. One such strategy. nal groups would show similar or divergent facilitation effects with regard to the effects of emotion The primary goal in the present experiment was to adjudicate among these alternatives. Smith. in which older adults spend proportionately more time processing positive emotional material and less time processing negative emotional material. 2003. three competing hypotheses exist to explain age differences in emotional processing associated with the normal aging process. the critical question was whether the two age not negative.g. older adults may adopt new cognitive strategies.05 Capitalization of words beginning a sentence after a colon.12 adults’ abilities to detect happy. 2006). Carlson.21 to think that the positivity effect may be operating only at later stages of processing (e. Mather & Knight. elaborative. Based on this previously discussed research. When angry faces. motional emotional information may remain important throughout the life span. 4. compared with younger adults. We hypothesized that on the whole. Medford. the first two hypotheses. older adults were more efficient in searching. a couple of prior studies have provided evidence for intact early processing of emotional facial expressions with aging. seemed particularly applicable to early stages of emotional processing. even when no age differences were observed in looking time for negative stimuli (Isaacowitz. inclusion of year within paragraph. Mather and Knight found that like younger adults. On the basis of the existing literature. older adults may focus al slower to detect information than young adults would be (consistent with Hahn. older adults detected threatening faces more quickly than they detected other types of emotional stimuli. some researchers have found evidence inconsistent with the positivity effect (e. compared with positive and neutral faces. sad. for discussion). Mather.Figure 2.2 .. (2006) also found no age differences in efficiency of search time when angry faces were presented in an array of neutral faces. 4. Kensinger. is the positivity effect (Carstensen & Mikels.g. Singer.. 2. 2006). EMOTION facilitated detection of emotional information in youngerDETECTION OF Second. that emotional information maintains its importance across the life span or that emotional information in general takes on greater importance with age. Goren. Indeed. Using the colon between two grammatically complete clauses. Mather and Knight (2006) examined young and older Citing references in text. but e & Gronlund. on item detection. Prefixes and suffixes that do not require hyphens. discussed recently. resulting in older adults’ enhanced n rapidly detect emotional information. Studies examining the influence of emotion on memory (Charles. emotional information. older adults recall proportionally more positive information and proportionally less negative information. Hahn et al.04 Using the comma between elements in a series.g. strategic. with aging. Similar results have been found when examining eye-tracking patterns: Older adults looked at positive images longer than younger adults did.03 Punctuation with citations in parenthetical material. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 5 To maintain positive affect in the face of negative age-related change (e. & Baltes. limited time remaining. Introduction. 2006. served as nontarget distractors in the visual search arrays. Kennedy. older adults would be detection of emotional information in their environment. 4. or neutral faces presented in a complex visual array. the first two previously discussed To do so. 4. Table 4. Growdon.11. & Carstensen. 2002). compared with happy faces in neutral face displays. However. 2004) have found that compared with younger adults. Mather. 2005.

1995). 2. if older adults were more affectively focused than Elements of the Method section. g . All Using numerals to express numbers representing age. 4. and negative low arousal) with their detection of neutral information. for demographics and test scores). we compared young and older adults’ detection of four categories of emotional information (positive high arousal.. Participants were asked to decide whether a different item was included in EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION the array. all of the images were of the same item. There were 30 additional participants. then we would expect similar degrees of facilitation in the detection of emotional t Participants stimuli for the two age groups. neutral. snakes.. low) could be investigated independently of one another. negative) and arousal (high.3 Using abbreviations.1 Participants were compensated $10 per hour for their participation.all of the Mage = 19.. teapots).e.g. older adults should show eitherYounger adults (14 women. positive low arousal.5 years.e. 1991. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 7 negative stimuli were not of equivalent arousal levels (fearful faces typically are more arousing than happy faces. negative low arousal. 1988). There were 10 different types of items (two each of five Valence × Arousal categories: positive high arousal. half contained a target item (i. to more clearly understand emotional processing in the context of aging. Explanation of abbreviations. The positive and negative stimuli were carefully matched on arousal level. Abbreviations used often in APA journals. Within the .23. A total of 90 images were used. 2. 2. In the current research. ung categories. Hansen & Hansen. and the categories of high and low arousal were closely matched on valence to assure that the factors of valence (positive. Plurals of abbreviations. nine men. A total of 360 matrices were presented to each participant. Older adults (15 women. 4.03 were younger adults. Reimann & McNally. negative high arousal. Materials and Procedure Participant (subject) characteristics. and for g y. positive low arousal. Participants were presented with a visual search task including images from these different categories (e. 3. 4. age range: 18–22 years) were faster detection speeds for 10 men.Figure 2.1. therefore. resulting in normal or corrected to normal vision for all participants. Given that arousal is thought to be a key factor in modulating the attentional focus effect (Hansen & Hansen.29 8 items was included. (2001). Table 4. and their reaction times were recorded for each decision. eight items of one type and one target item of another type) and half did not (i.. recruited with flyers posted on the Boston College campus.31 participants were asked to bring corrective eyewear if needed. each containing nine individual exemplars that were used to construct 3 × 3 stimulus matrices. Of primary interest were for the arousing items than shown by the young adults (resulting in an interaction between age differences in response times (RTs) based on the valence and arousal levels of the target ) and arousal). By contrast. each appearing as a target and as a member of a distracting array. cars. Method.1 years. 1988.22. 4.25. the remaining half of the arrays. images depicting cats).06 Aging (see Table 1. age range: 68–84 years) were recruited through the Harvard Cooperative on Identifying subsections within the Method section. We reasoned that if young and older adults were equally focused on emotional Method information. For half of the multi-image arrays. Organizing a manuscript with levels of heading. negative high arousal). all nine images of the same type). Pratto & John.06 The visual search task was adapted from Ohman et al. who provided pilot rating values: five young and five old participants for the assignment of items within individual categories (i. a single target image of a different type from the remaining Prefixed words that require hyphens. and 10 young and 10 old participants for the assignment of images within valence and arousal categories. recruited in the same way as described above. 4.e. utral emotional items (relative to the neutral items) than shown by young adults or greater facilitation Mage = 76. it is necessary to include both positive and negative emotional items with equal levels of arousal.06.

mushroom. Within the 180 target trials.1. Participants also rated how similar h objects received mean arousal ratings greater than 5. and it remained on the screen until a participant response was recorded.g. Our object selection also assured that the categories differed from one another to a similar degree (e. how similar the mushrooms were to the snakes). the matrix was then presented. on a 1 (entirely dissimilar) to 7 (nearly identical) scale. Location of the target was randomly varied such that no target within an emotion category was presented in the same location in arrays of more than one other emotion category (i..g. etc. For example... High arousal which the objects could differ (size. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION matrix..g.. and positive objects received mean valence ratings of 5. positive high arousal. participants were shown a set of exemplars (e. nine trials were created for each of the combinations with the remaining four other emotion categories (e.5 or lower.e. Ten pilot participants were asked to write down the name corresponding to each object. Further. within-group similarity was held constant across the categories).g. a negative high arousal target appeared in a different location when presented with positive high arousal array images than when presented with neutral array images). Participants made these received mean valence ratings of 2. how similar the mushrooms neutral stimuli) received mean arousal ratings of less than 4. shape. how similar the mushrooms were to one between Similarity ratings. 4. Participants were instructed to respond as quickly as possible with a button marked yes if there was a target present. Each image depicted a photo of the actual object.e. neutral.5 to 4. or a button marked no if no target was present.. similarity. Negative objects ( identical ) mushrooms. orientation). neutral objects received mean valence ratings of ratings on the basis of overall similarity and on the basis of the specific visual di dimensions in 3.e... snake).Figure 2. Each item was rated for within-category and between-categories another) and between objects across sets (i.. of visual similarity among objects within a set (i.g. Items were selected to assure that the categories were equated on withinboth young and older adults agreed on the valence and arousal classifications. a set exem Valence and arousal ratings. We selected categories for which equate were to the snakes). an additional 20 selected such that the arousal difference between positive low arousal and positi high arousal positive pilot participants rated the emotional valence and arousal of the objects and assessed the degree was equal to the difference between negative low arousal and negative high arou arousal.21 ( s (p overall similarity of the object categories (ps > .000 ms. For within-category similarity. any object that did notDETECTIONgenerate R Running head: EFFECTS OF AGE ON consistently OF EMOTION 10 9 Latin abbreviations.26 Numbers expressed in words at beginning of sentence.g. and low arousal objects (including all objects of one category were to objects of another category (e.e. Response latencies and accuracy for each trial were automatically recorded with E-Prime (Version 1. For the remaining images.5 or higher. and stimuli were category and between-categories similarity of specific visual dimensions as well as for the Italicization of anchors of a scale.20).. 4.2) experimental . each of the five emotion categories (e.32 the intended response was eliminated from the set. 4. that the mushrooms were as similar to the snakes as the cats were similar to the snakes).5. within each of the 36 trials for each emotion category. nine trials with eight positive high arousal items and one neutral item). and the items were selected from online databases and photo clipart packages. we selected pa particular h d ti l t th t th h i il t mushrooms and particular cats so that the mushrooms were as similar to one another as were the cats (i. Procedure Each trial began with a white fixation cross presented on a black screen for 1.) was represented in 36 trials. The items within each category of grayscale images shared the same verbal label (e. Valence and arousal were judged on 7-point scales (1 = re of mushrooms) and were asked to rate how similar each mushroom was to the rest of the negative valence or low arousal and 7 = positive valence or high arousal).

31 Nouns followed by numerals or letters. decimal fractions. 4. Because our main interest was in examining the effects of valence and arousal on participants’ target detection times. Median RTs were then calculated for each of the five emotional target categories. subtracting the RT to detect neutral targets from the RT to detect positive high arousal targets). RTs for error trials were excluded (less than 5% of all responses) as were RTs that were ±3 SD from each participant ’s mean (approximately 1. ηp2 = . low]) analysis of variance (ANOVA). p = .. There was no significant main effect for valence. collapsing across array type (see Table 2 for raw RT values for each of the two age groups).45. negative] × Arousal [high. 4. with larger differences between neutral and high arousal images (M = 137) than between neutral and low arousal images (M = 93. Table 4.5% of responses). Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 11 software.05 . 4.46. for example. older] × Valence [positive.5 Numbering and discussing figures in text..16.006. This allowed us to examine. whether participants were faster to detect images of snakes than images of mushrooms. These difference scores were then examined with a 2 × 2 × 2 (Age [young.35 Statistical symbols.Figure 2. Results Elements of the Results section.1. It is critical that the analysis Reporting p values.g. Symbols. 46) = 8. i. F(1. 4.24 arrays containing eight images of a cat and one image of a butterfly because cats and butterflies are both positive low arousal items). high arousal items processed more quickly across both age groups compared with low arousal items. 2.17 regardless of the type of array in which they were presented. 5.07 Analyses focus on participants’ RTs to the 120 trials in which a target was present and was from a different emotional category from the distractor (e. nor was there an interaction between valence and arousal. we created scores for each emotional target category that controlled for the participant’s RTs to detect neutral targets (e. Numbers.g. participants performed 20 practice trials to assure compliance with the task instructions. see Figure 1). This ANOVA revealed only a significant main effect of arousal.. 4.e. RTs were analyzed for 24 trials of each target emotion category. Before beginning the actual task. 4.41. RTs were not included for Abbreviations accepted as words.

Both the age group.Figure 2. as well as the Age Group × Target Category interaction. the arousal-mediated effects on detection time appeared stable in young and older adults. ts(23) < –1. positive high arousal targets were detected faster than targets from all other categories.001. with no other target categories differing significantly from one another (although there were trends for negative high arousal and negative low arousal targets to be detected more rapidly than neutral targets (p < . p < . and the ta rget category.12).p < . 2.001. 2 ηp2 = . This interaction appeared to reflect the fact that for the younger adults. these results provided some evidence that older adults may show a broader advantage for detection of any type of emotional information. older adults could show a greater advantage for .90. Thus. Discussion Capitalize effects or variables when they appear with multiplication signs. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION revealed only a main effect of age but no interactions with age. ts(23) > 2.1.56. we submitted the RTs to the five categories of targets to a 2 × 5 (Age [young. 184) = 8. 4.20 Elements of the Discussion section. For older adults.46 F(4. and punctuation of mathematical copy. whereas young adults’ benefit may be more narrowly restricted to only certain categories of emotional information. 4.017. there were three plausible alternatives for young and older adults’ performance on the visual search task: The two age groups could show a similar pattern of enhanced detection of emotional information. negative low arousal. neutral. and RTs to the different emotion categories of targets did not differ significantly from one another.98.92.32. F(4.001. Thus. η p2 = . 184) = 3. all emotional categories of targets were detected more rapidly than were neutral targets. old] × Target Category [positive high arousal. p < . main effects were significant. F(1. The results described above suggested that there was no influence of age on the 12 influences of emotion. η p2 = .44 positive low arousal.008. p = . 4. 46) = 540.08 As outlined previously. negative high arousal]) repeated measures ANOVA.59. Spacing. p < . To further test the validity of this hypothesis.07. alignment.16. Statistics in text.

Wilson. Mather & Knight. older adults were equally fast to detect positive and age groups. Nummenmaa et This pattern suggests a broader influence of emotion onan advantage for negative information (e.. & Gabrieli. 2002. In the f processing. emotional information Bono. In line with the first alternative. Ohman & Mineka. de becomes more salient. 2004. De Rosa. Bradley. younger adults were more efficient and in some past research. overall advantage for detecting all emotional images compared with neutral images. Panitz.... Reimann & hat Hansen. during consciously controlled processing). Mather & Knight. When examining RTs results for the young adults has the five categories of emotional targets. 2006. we Description of an em dash. Juth et al. 1997. 1993). Discussion.06. given that for detecting high arousal information. ent consistent with prior research that indicated that older adults often attend equally to positive and age-related enhancement) in the detection of emotionalet al.g. when this effect is observed in older adults. whereas older adults displayed an Anderson. whereas in other studies. there are two lines of evidence suggesting that the construct examined in the current .al. This result is consistent with prior studies that indicated that arousing information can be detected rapidly and automatically by young adults (Anderson.g. This equivalent detection ffect older adults detected both positive and negative stimuli at equal of positive and negative information provides evidence that older adults display an advantage for Use of an em dash to indicate an interruption the detection of emotional information that is not valence-specific. providing support for the hypothesis that as individuals age. it makes sense that older adults would remain able nnings 3 14 Clear statement of support or nonsupport of hypotheses. 4. it is likely due to age-related changes in emotion regulation goals that operate at later stages of processing (i. Mathews. 2006) that the positivity effect does not arise through automatic attentional influences. although younger and older adults exhibited somewhat divergent patterns of sentence. & Painter. or older adults could show a greater facilitation than young adults only for the detection of positive information.. 2004.1.. Gabrieli. 2005. continue to display a threat detection advantage when searching for negative facial targets in arrays of positive and neutral distractors (Hahn et al. Christoff. Hansen & nfluence have shown older adults’ detection of stimuli. Jennings & Jacoby.. Rather. Carretie 2 facilitated detection of positive information (e. the hypothesis that the positivity effect in older adults operates at relatively automatic stages of information rates. Bienias. the present study did provide some evidence for age-related change (specifically. Pratto & John. Given the nd 6 relative preservation of automatic processing with aging (Fleischman.g. both age groups showed only an arousal effect.Figure 2. 1995. 2001) and that older adults. 1988.e. emotional detection on a task reliant on early. despite the similarity in arousal-mediated effects on detection between the two negative information. 2006). The results lent some support to the first two alternatives. relatively automatic stages of processing. no effects of age were found when the influence of valence and arousal on target detection times was examined. 1991. 2003. & MacLeod. 2005. 2005). 2004. like younger adults. However.08 to take advantage of these automatic alerting systemsno effects of valence were observed in older adults’ detection speed. young adults ting et al. It is interesting that this second set of findings is clearly inconsistent with 1996)—what is important to note is that the ng McNally. but no evidence was found to support the third alternative. 4. in the continuity of a Thus.. The lack of a positivity focus in the older adults is in keeping with the proposal (e. espite present study. once information has been attended to and once the emotional nature of the stimulus has been discerned.. Although we cannot conclusively say that the current task relies strictly on automatic processes.13 found no evidence of an age-related positivity effect. Calvo & Lang. 2. Armony & Dolan. Mogg. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 13 emotional detection than young adults. 2006). young adults have shown differed across studies—in the present study in detecting positive high arousal images (as presented in Table 2). Williams. Although the pattern offor ment) negative stimuli (Rosler information. n EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION & Bennett.

T.. J. & Steer. Mather & Knight.1037/0022-006X.22. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 15 research examines relatively automatic processing.. ely rapid detection automatic processing of threat facial 23. F.0000040153. 154. Second. 2. D. Together. Martin-Loeches. 56. Across both studies. doi:10..331 Carstensen. the 3445. 817–826. Hinojosa. (2003). 2003.2. First. (2004). Carstensen & Mikels. 7.. 6. Christoff. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Motivation and Emotion .23 Discussion section ending with comments on importance of findings. Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory. R.1037/0096idence Journal in older adults’ Psychology: General. M.’s (2001) study and the present study.ed Carretie. L. Although further work is required to gain a more complete understanding of the agerelated changes in the early processing of emotional information. 2005.g. (2005). (2004). Neuropsychologia. 5627– 5633. regardless of their location. R. Brown. No significant RT differences based on the number of images presented in the arrays were found. J. It isthe attentional dynamics supporting awareness. The current ults EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION study provides further evidence that mechanisms associated with relatively automatic processing her Use of parallel construction with coordinating conjunctions used in pairs. doi:10.1037/0882-7974. Modulation of spatial attention by fear-conditioned stimuli: An event-related fMRI study. & Dolan. Human Brain Mapping . De Rosa E. although there is evidence for a positive focusof Experimental controlled processing of emotional doi:10. Affective influences on critical that. 103– 123. K. Leclerc & Hess.. 893– 897. K.258 present results suggest that the tendency to focus on the positive does not always . K.56. J. emotional targets were detected more quickly than were neutral targets. in both Ohman et al. 3. Motivation and Emotion. information (e.1016/S0028-3932%2801%2900178-6 Beck..arise& Gabrieli. L. 2. 3 Anderson. & Lang. 221–243. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.. L.. in their previous work. A. 1993. N. A.20037 Carstensen. G. Journal of Neuroscience.1. (2001) compared RTs with both 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 arrays.. General desciption of references. A. 2004. D. Panitz.1002/hbm. and across both age groups in the current work. Charles et al. (1992). 2005). Mecado. S.. J. M. 2005). J. 290–299. doi: 10.Figure 2.. (2002). & Charles.. Fung. Socioemotional selectivity theory and the regulation of emotion in the second half of life. 258– 281.. G. Epstein. doi:10. 27.6.08 16 of emotional images are well maintained throughout the latter portion of References s the life span Construction of an accurate and complete reference list.26156. A. M. 22.893 Calvo. L. Gaze patterns when looking at emotional pictures: Motivationally biased attention.134.7.. (1988). signals. . Armony. doi:10. 331–338.11 (Fleischman et al.. analyses were performed to examine the influence of target location on RT. A. H. P.. L.. Automatic attention to emotional stimuli: Neural correlates.3. 28. E. when tasks require relatively automatic and correlates of theof information in the environment. Psychology and Aging. L. these findings suggest that task performance is dependent on relatively automatic detection processes rather than on controlled search processes. 40. & Tapia. Ohman et al. Jennings & Jacoby. (2003).1023/B%3AMOEM.. Neural est Anderson. our findings indicate that he young and older adults are similar in their early detection of emotional images.

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doi: 10. B. doi:10... 108... H. Psychological Review. More broadly. Journal of the Neurological Ohnishi. C. L. ..120. E. 61. the effects of emotion on target detection were not aging and cognition (2nd ed.483 Changes with aging and early subcortical vascular dementia..120. W. and preparedness: Toward an evolved module d modu Rosler.2004. Footnotes Pratto. (2006).108.jns.61. (2001). Ohman. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 20 Nummenmaa.229. Changes in brain morphology orphol Sciences.1037/0022-3514. Eye movement assessment of selective attentional capture by emotional pictures. Manual for the State–Trait Inventory.1016/j.. images. N. 466–478. 257–268. (1996). Emotion drives attention: Detecting the snake in the Example 2 grass. S. . C. C.. 483–522. M. D. I. Emslie. 272– 292.. 120. San Antonio. 380–391. 120. doi: Wechsler. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.Shipley Institute of Living Scale.1. P. A. An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. doi: 10. O. 3 psychopathology.1037/0033-2909.. ology. P. hames England: Thames Valley Test Company. Alderman. 20. M.. Flykt. 6. A.. B. & Esteves. 7. e l Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome. J. Sterzer. (1996).. (1997).380 on the pattern or magnitude of the results. CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. F. Ulrich..257 seven authors. with no resulting social information.... Flempton. Fears. T. (2001). & Mineka. C. 22. Petrides.1037/00333(2005). & Calvo. Psychological Bulletin. Bernhardt. New York. Emotion. P. I. with the Handbook cal 2 Psychological Bulletin. doi:10. (1982).3. structural and functional findings. A. R. D. Wechsler Memory Scale— Revised. Neuroradiology. (1995). Tabira.1016/0028Palo Alto. 9. 2 These the were and analyzed on cognitive performance: Integration of Raz. doi:10. 249–262. rk. Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal. M. (2000). 1–90). F. of fear and fear learning. Weidauer . Burgess.272 272–292. 3– 24.3. & Milner. A. results remaining andboo ok category when presented only in arrays M..466 21 Ohman. S. 109–116. M. Asada.. ofqualitatively the same. J.2. Matsuda. T. A. (1991).2. Wilson. D. athews Williams.007 in Alzheimer’s disease and exaggerated aging process? American Journal of Shipley.).1.Figure 2. influences of these variables III.6. 10. T. A.1037/1528- Article with more than 3542. lobe lesions in man. NY: The Psychological Corporation. CA: Western Psychological Services. Edmunds.01. mation. (1986). The emotional Stroop task and Reimann. …Kleinschmidt. & Evans... In F. L. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2.3 Cognition and Emotion. Aging ofdata brain also its impactwith a 2 × 5 ANOVA to examine the effect of target West. & McNally. TX: Psychological Scale— ). The erman. N.11. Hyona .and temporalempora alSpielberger. B.12 negative negative 1 Analyses of covariance were conducted with these covariates.. qualitatively impacted by the distractor category. R. Los Angeles. T. J. (2001). H. Billino. 130.3.. 324–340. 1680–1685. & Uno. Cognitive processing of personally relevant information. Mathews . Neuropsychologia.130. Effects of arousing emotional scenes on the distribution of visuospatial attention: 295X. Craik & T. J. A. & MacLeod. Mahwah. r 22 Placement and format Corporation.. A. containing neutral Salthouse (Eds. (1970). & John.1037/0033-2909. (1987). J. pp. doi: 10. EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 3932%2882%2990100-2 Wechsler.. Automatic vigilance: The attention-grabbing power of of footnotes. phobias. Technical manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory Scale– ). W. . C.. doi:10. NJ: Erlbaum.1037/00967/0096 EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 3445. Gorsuch. R. & Lushene.. G. Bury St. (1996)..

A.002 .16 .25 3. collapsing across array type and excluding arrays from Wechsler (1987). (1988).34 BADS– DEX 20.39 24 p <. the Behavioral Assessment of the Raw Response Time (RT) Scores for Young and Older Adults esponse Dysexecutive Syndrome—Dysexecutive Questionnaire (BADS–DEX) is from Wilson et al.08 3.75 5.797 Negative high arousal ive 1.08 Vocabulary 33.38 8.96 3.95 9.79 7.06 13.383 .98 35.39 5. Digit Span–Backward.e.32 3.70 8. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 23 Table 1 Participant Characteristics Younger group Measure M SD Years of education 13. Neutral 912 al 1.41.00 3. The Vocabulary measure is from Shipley (1986).70 table layout.02 77.11 23.18 4.82 Self-Ordered Pointing 1.043 . Values represent median response times. 4.79 4. and S.578 Generative naming 885 represent the total number of words produced in 60 s each for letter scores Negative low arousal ive 896 1. the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) measures are from Spielberger et al.33 0. neutral.64 4.18 Logical and effective Generative naming 46. Digit Symbol Substitution 49. and Arithmetic Wechsler Adult ve 825 1.43 6. 46) 18. ed Elements of table notes..58 3.52 .07 0.17 12.36 0.Figure 2. The Beck Anxiety Inventory is from Beck et al.15 31.066 .306 .56 47.52 Digit Span– Backward 8.92 1.46 1.580 Positive low arousal ve 899 1. 5.25 2. . positive high arousal represents the median RT to respond to (1982).23 F (1.62 3.40 1. 5.001 .001 .25 6.58 Selecting effective STAI–State 45.13 9. arousal.1.54 10. the Mental Control measure is Note.182 <.84 40.001 .25 9.50 presentation.625 F.29 47.83 3.15 14.004 4.963 <. collapsing across positive low arousal. (1996).58 6.73 2.33 2.28 Beck Anxiety Inventory 9.62 7.75 Mental Control 32. and negative low arousal array categories).48 45.66 Table 2 Older group M SD 16. negative high e All values represent raw.001 .53 EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION CTS WCST perseverative errors 0. nonstandardized scores.78 1. and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) measure is from Nelson (1976).09 Arithmetic 16. the Self-Ordered Pointing measure was adapted from Petrides and Milner of the same category as targets (i.44 STAI–Trait 45.81 2.951 .60 13.636 Intelligence Scale—III and Wechsler Memory Scale—III measures are from Wechsler (1997).042 Note.14 2. positive high arousal targets. (1970). The median response time values were recorded in milliseconds. Category ory y Young group gg p Older group g p and Positive high arousalthe Digit Symbol Substitution.

Figure 2. planning. and preparation of figures.20–5. Standard errors are represented in the figure by the error bars attached to each column. types of figures. 5. Figure legends and captions. 5. Sample One-Experiment Paper (continued) EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 25 Principles of figure use and construction. Mean difference values (ms) representing detection speed for each target category subtracted from the mean detection speed for neutral targets. No age differences were found in the arousal-mediated effects on detection speed.25 . Figure 1.23 . standards.1.

In an example of the importance of onset time. 1980). 1995).…[section continues]. Dannenbring & Bregman. & Peters. Listeners Elements of empirical studies.” by S. However.) INHIBITORY INFLUENCES ON ASYCHRONY Inhibitory Influences on Asychrony as a Cue for Auditory Segregation Auditory grouping involves the formation of auditory objects from the sound mixture reaching the ears. Darwin & Sutherland. 1986)... 1.g.…[section continues].… [section continues]. Bregman. an abstract page. 1997. 2006..g. 32. Darwin (1984a. 1978) and harmonic 1 relations (e. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. pp. 1984a.g. 1990. Stimuli Amplitude and phase values for the vowel harmonics were obtained from the vocal-tract transfer function using cascaded formant resonators (Klatt. Of course. Darwin.Figure 2. This abridged manuscript illustrates the organizational structure characteristic of multiple-experiment papers. Brunstrom & Roberts. 1984b) showed that increasing the level of a harmonic near the first formant (F1) frequency by adding a synchronous pure tone changes the phonetic quality of a vowel. Rasch. Glasberg. Copyright 2006 by the American Psychological Association. and so forth. Holmes and B. it was essentially removed from the vowel percept. Darwin & Carlyon. a complete multipleexperiment paper would include a title page. 1978. 1998. 1231–1242. D. General Method Overview In the experiments reported here. The cues used to integrate or segregate these sounds and so form auditory objects have been defined by several authors (e. .01 Paper adapted from “Inhibitory Influences on Asychrony as a Cue for Auditory Segregation. Moore. Roberts. when the added tone began a few hundred milliseconds before the vowel. The key acoustic cues for segregating concurrent acoustic elements are differences in onset time (e. 1984).2. Sample Two-Experiment Paper (The numbers refer to numbered sections in the Publication Manual. we used a paradigm developed by Darwin to assess the perceptual integration of additional energy in the F1 region of a vowel through its effect on phonetic quality (Darwin. 1984b. F1 values varied in 10-Hz steps from 360–550 Hz—except in Experiment 3. which used values from 350– 540 Hz—to produce a continuum of 20 tokens.

Figure 2.39. 4. a lagging-fourth condition (analogous to the leading-fourth condition used elsewhere).2. A lag time of 240 ms was used for the added 500-Hz tone. incremented fourth.19 number of conditions in a particular experiment.27. Method and leading fourth) plus three captor conditions and their controls. … [section continues].… [section continues] Results and Discussion . The restoration effects are shown above the histogram bars both as a boundary shift in hertz and as a percentage of the difference in boundary position between the incremented-fourth and leading-fourth conditions. we used noise-band captors and compared their efficacy with that of a ach . The phoneme boundary was defined as the mean of the probit function (the 50% point). fourth). 2. Experiment 2 This experiment considers the case where the added 500-Hz tone begins at the same time as the vowel but continues after the vowel ends. This gave between 85 and 100 randomized trials. Results and Discussion 3 Abbreviating units of measurement. 1971) to a listener ’s identification data for each condition. the warm-up block consisted of one block of all the experimental stimuli or every second or fourth F1 step in that block.… [section continues]. In this experiment. Multiple Experiments. Each noise-band captor had INFLUENCES ON that of the corresponding pure purenter tone captor and a center frequency equal to the frequency of this tonal captor…[section There were nine conditions: the three standard ones (vowel alone.40 and a captor condition and its control.09 Experiment 1 pe e t iment. Sample Two-Experiment Paper (continued) INHIBITORY INFLUENCES ON ASYCHRONY Listeners were volunteers recruited from the student population of the University of Birmingham and were paid for their participation. Data Analysis The data for each listener consisted of the number of /I/ responses out of 10 repetitions for each nominal F1 value in each condition. 4. For each experiment.4 Figure 4 shows the mean phoneme boundaries for all conditions and the restoration effect for each captor type. continues].… [section continues]. An estimate of the F1 frequency at the phoneme boundary was obtained by fitting a probit function (Finney. All listeners were native speakers of British English who reported normal hearing and had successfully completed a screening procedure (described below). Method There were five conditions: two of the standard ones (vowel alone and incremented Policy on metrication. the data for 12 listeners are presented. 4. 3.… [section continues]. Procedure At the start of each session. Table 4.INHIBITORY the same energy as ASYCHRONY pure-tone captor. Depending on the 2 Plural forms of nouns of foreign origin.…[section continues].…[section continues]. listeners took part in a warm-up block. A lead time of 240 ms was used for the added 500-Hz tone. Style for metric units.

This experiment used a gap between captor offset and vowel onset to measure the decay time of the captor effect …[section continues].001. 2006).10. Needham & Paolini. leaving the remainder of the extra energy to integrate into the vowel percept… . tables.] . There was a highly Use of statistical term rather than symbol in text. p < . 176) = 39. and figure captions. [Follow the form of the one-experiment sample paper to type references. Summary and Concluding Discussion Darwin and Sutherland (1984) first demonstrated that accompanying the leading portion of additional energy in the F1 region of a vowel with a captor tone partly reversed the effect of the onset asynchrony on perceived vowel quality. Sample Two-Experiment Paper (continued) INHIBITORY INFLUENCES ON ASYCHRONY 1984.2. Roberts & Holmes. Incrementing the level of the fourth harmonic lowered the phoneme boundary relative to the vowel-alone condition (by 58 Hz. and leading fourth). on the basis o their common of onset time and harmonic relationship.[section continues]. A lead time of 320 ms was used for the added 500-Hz tone. of various durations. 2003).…[section continues].g.1-kHz pure-tone captor.Figure 2.. incremented fourth. 4. which indicates that the extra energy was integrated into the vowel percept.45 significant effect of condition on the phoneme boundary values. p < . footnotes. This finding was attributed to the formation of Running head: INHIBITORY INFLUENCES ON ASYCHRONY 5 a perceptual group between the leading portion and the captor tone. five captor conditions and their controls.…[section continues]. Results Figure 6 shows the mean phoneme boundaries for all conditions. Discussion The results of this experiment show that the effect of the captor disappears somewhere between 80 and 160 ms after captor offset.001). F(16. Method 4 There were 17 conditions: the three standard ones (vowel alone.…[section continues]. and four additional conditions (described separately below). the author note. This indicates that the captor effect takes quite a long time to decay away relative to the time constants typically found for cells in the CN using physiological measures (e. The captor conditions were created by adding a 1. to each member of the leading-fourth continuum.

2004. 1999).10. propaganda. Thus. including PsycINFO rocedures. We only included studies that involved the presentation of a communication containing Social-Science-Citation-Index (1956– 2003). Kumkale and D. recipients of communications about a political candidate may discount a message coming from a representative of the opponent party because they do not perceive the source of the message as credible (e. Sample of Studies Identification of elements in a series within a sentence.e. This abridged manuscript illustrates the organizational structure characteristic of reports of meta-analyses. source credibility. 3.…[section retention. child abuse)..) THE SLEEPER EFFECT IN PERSUASION The Sleeper Effect in Persuasion: A Meta-Analytic Review 1 Persuasive messages are often accompanied by information that induces suspicions of invalidity.…[section continues] .e. attitude and decay. recipients of an otherwise influential message may recall the message but not the noncredible source and thus become more persuaded by the message at that time than they were immediately following the communication. First.02. using the keywords sleeper effect.. recipients may not be persuaded by the advocacy immediately after they receive the communication..g. or other unpublished document) of each report as well as (c) the sample composition (i. r involving delayed effects of an early event (e. attitude and memory. asked to make a speech that contradicted their opinions.g. We used the following criteria to select studies for inclusion in the meta-analysis. and so forth. Over time.21 sage memory of the message recipients (Hovland. and the (1967–2003). an abstract page. We also excluded developmental studies persistence. Of course. tion-Index (1956–2003). noncredible source) becomes unavailable or “dissociated” from the communication in the THE SLEEPER EFFECT IN PERSUASION 2 Italicize key terms. attitude and memory. We also coded each experiment in terms of . Sample Meta-Analysis (The numbers refer to numbered sections in the Publication Manual. Guidelines for reporting meta-analysis.3. Second. or other) and (d) the country in which the study was conducted. ERIC (1967– 2003). unpublished dissertations and theses.” by G.04 Moderators For descriptive purposes. Because the source of the political message serves as a discounting cue and temporarily decreases the impact of the message. we excluded studies in which the participants played a role or were credibility. delayed-action. pp. see We retrieved reports related to the sleeper effect that were available by March 2003 by also Appendix d Selection Criteria means of multiple procedures. Albarracin. persuasion.…[section continues]. Copyright 2004 by the American Psychological Association. (1887–2003). Because researchers often use the terms opinion and belief. & Sheffield. . 130. instead of attitude. Dissertation Abstracts International (1861– 2003). Description of meta-analysis. 4. journal article. Paper adapted from “The Sleeper Effect in Persuasion: A Meta-Analytic Review. The term sleeper effect was used to denote such a delayed increase in persuasion observed when the discounting cue (e. 6 t persuasive arguments. Studies were coded independently by the first author and another graduate student.g. attitude change. and persuasion and decay . For instance. which sometimes are also referred to as sleeper effects. Lumsdaine. Psychological Bulletin. … [section continues]. attitude redibility. 1. we searched computerized databases. Lariscy & Tinkham. a complete meta-analysis would include a title page. we recorded (a) the year and (b) source (i. attitude maintenance. university students. however. 2. discounting cue. 143–172. 1949)..Figure 2.. source expertise. we conducted searches using these substitute terms as Method well. high-school students. rtation 7 1.

sleeper effect.…[section continues]. 1994). acceptance-cue. THE SLEEPER EFFECT IN PERSUASION ontinues]. QE(123) = 193.…[sectionto aggregate the effect sizes and to e of both models.…[section continues]. Confidence intervals that do not include zero indicate significant changes over time. and zero effects denote stability in persuasion. Relevant statistics corresponding to average changes in Overview of the Average Effect Sizes from the immediate to the delayed posttest appear in Table 4. one needs to rule out a nonpersisting l increase in persuasion represents an absolute Sample of Studies and Datasets boomerang effect.02 The data analysis included a description of the experimentsboomerang effect. QB (1) = 58.e. p < . random-effects. different conditions we requires examining (a) the betweencondition differences at each time message-onlyas (b) the within-condition changes that take es and point as well control).23). an estimation of overall effects. d + = –0. in meta-analysis a reverse effect (see included in the present meta-analysis appear Table 2. The studies often contained several independent datasets such as different messages and different experiments. Characteristics of the individual studies included in this review are presented in Table 1. The characteristics that distinguish different datasets within a report appear on the second column of the table. Analyses of Effect Sizes There are two major models used in meta-analysis: fixed-effects and randommeta-analysis: wo a s effects. To determine whether or not a delayed alysis Ruling out a nonpersisting we summarized. Average sleeper effect. organized by the verage persuasion A thorough understanding of the sleeper effectconsidered (i. 4 conduct analyses using both approaches..…[section continues].08). but no absolute sleeper effect.…[section continues]. (fixed-effects. To benefit from the strengths place over time. Next.Figure 2.3.. It is important to note that change in discounting-cue conditions significantly differed from change in acceptance-cue conditions.82. moderator analyses. discounting-cue. In contrast to the decay in persuasion for recipients of acceptance cues. Dependent Measures and Computation of Effect Sizes We calculated effect sizes for (a) persuasion and (b) recall–recognition of the message content. B = –0. We resolved disagreements by discussion and consultation with colleagues. positive effect sizes indicate increases in persuasion over time. there was a slight increase in persuasion for recipients of discounting cues over time (d + = 0.21. Summary and variability of the overall effect. . which takes place when a message initially backfires but later loses this Descriptive characteristics of the datasets panel A of Figure 1). The overall analyses identified a relative sleeper effect in persuasion.0001.…[section continues]. In Table 4.…[section continues]. SE = 0.29. d + = –0. The first row of Table 4 shows that recipients of acceptance cues agreed with the message less as time went by (fixed-effects. p < . 3. Sample Meta-Analysis (continued) THE SLEEPER EFFECT IN PERSUASION 3 was satisfactory (Orwin. negative effect sizes indicate decay in persuasion.04). no-message control. we Results agreement with the communication (boomerang effect). The latter was not surprising.0001.…[section continues]. because the sleeper effect was expected to emerge under specific conditions. first examined whether discounting cues led to a decrease in ing In light of these requirements. Calculations were based on the data described in the primary reports as well as available responses of the authors to requests of further information.…[section continues]. and tests of mediation.15. Use at least two subheadings in a section. we chose continues].

26 THE SLEEPER EFFECT IN PERSUASION References References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis. The effects of message repetitions on immediate and delayed attitude change.. Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. Format for references included in a meta-analysis with less than 50 references. 179–183..g. M. doi:10. 9. T. doi:10. Therefore. Effects of involvement in persuasion: A meta-analysis. 106. pp. & Poprick. Albarracín. M. Psychological Bulletin. A. B. H.] . Cognition in persuasion: An analysis of information processing in 6 response to persuasive communications. Torcivia. Psychonomic Science.1317 . 6.1016/S0065-2601(02)80004-1 … [references continue] Johnson.). tables.. H.1037/0033-2909. 290–314. 34. Effects of source credibility on the relationship between authoritarianism and attitude change. (1989). . [references continue] [Follow the form of the one-experiment sample paper to type the author note. Zanna (Ed.1006/jesp. (1997). H. Diehl. P. P. doi:10. more consistent with the absolute pattern in Panel B1 of Figure 1) when…[section continues]. the variability in the change observed in discounting-cue conditions makes it unlikely that the same effect was present under all conditions. 101–103. H... (1968). J. Sample Meta-Analysis (continued) THE SLEEPER EFFECT IN PERSUASION Moderator Analyses 5 Although overall effects have descriptive value. & Watkins. (1971). 33. A...106. K. 22. (2002). A. 61–130).1037/h0021250 *Johnson. & Bromer. . 190–210.3.Figure 2. T. In M.1996. D.290 *Johnson. we tested the hypotheses that the sleeper effect would be more likely (e. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. M. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. & Eagly. H. Jonas. doi:10.2. Effects of attitudinal ambivalence on information processing and attitude-intention consistency. footnotes. and figure captions.

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