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With praises to God Al Mighty for every prize, gift and grant for writer team so that be able to finish this paper with title: AMPHIBIAN GASTRULATION Writer team realize that this paper can not be finish completely and well without any help and guidance from God Al Mighty and help from every party so that in this moment, writer would to thank and honor as big as can for every people who help this paper done. This paper is done for Animal Reproduction Task Chapter Gastrulation. As already known before that Blastulation and Gastrulation Proess give any differences in every taxon. Gastrulation in amphioxus, Toad, Chicken and pig has certain and different phase of dynamically of part maker area. This paper specially discuss about Gastrulation in Amphibia. Writer realize that this paper is far from perfect in matters and way to write although writer have already done all the best effort that can be given, therefore writer would like to accept every suggestion and idea for perfecting this paper. Finally, writer hopes this paper can give advantages for every reader.
Surabaya, 1st of May 2011
Gastrulation During gastrulation. . many of the cells at or near the surface of the embryo move to a new. into a multi-layered organism. more interior location. cell movements result in a massive reorganization of the embryo from a simple spherical ball of cells. During gastrulation. the blastula.
Layer formation on the frog fondation (lembaga) occurs through three main morfogenik movement. This substance can give color but not damage cell it self. Movement of per each group are continuation from gastrulation and the result can be draw in destiny map (peta nasib). Embryo surrounded by cell which can form ectoderm and certain part of cell will be mesoderm cell. 2. Gastrulation in frog embryos can be interpreted various ways. Invagination. This technic using color substance like netral red or nile blue sulfate.AMPHIBIAN GASTRULATION Amphibian blastula s surface identic with echinodermata. is the jumping of cells towards grey region. and meet in ventral area so forming lateral lips and blastoporous ventral. that is have inside part that function to form ectodermal organ. Blastoporous it self formed a ring which In the middle of it contain yolk plug . The movement of cells in amphibian can be visualization by supravital color technic. is the spread of mikromer from anima pole to vegetatif pole. are: 1. because of it so cells growth in lateral and ventral direction. thus forming the blastoporus in part of dorsal and blastoporus lip dorsal dorsal blastoporus. Epiboli.
Embryo is surrounded by ectoderm and placed inside. cell migrates from lateral side and ventral blastophore lip inside the embryo. lateral lips met.E) Late gastrulation. through lips blastoporus and high activity in the dorsal lip blastoporus. Bottle cell move from lateral to the inside to form dorsal blastophore from blastosol. Involution. Mesoderm cell is placed between endoderm and ectoderm. Cells from animal hemisphere migrate to the vegetal hemisphere.D) Middle gastrulation. occurs simultaneously with epiboli. Archenteron formation and the movement of blastosol. So that blastophore is moved to the region which is near with vegetal hemisphere. (D. Cells movement through frog gastrulation (A.3. Blastocol disappears. . and primitive area formed. Next blastoporus will be small.B) Early gastrulation. (C.
Dorsal Lip of Blastopor firstly formed from invaginated bottle cells to form margin of next-achenteron. mesoderm and endoderm Next phase is involution from marginal cells and animal cells do epibolic move. In this area. which in this area the cell s constitution is different with other area. they turn to inside and move through the inner surface from the outer cell of embryo. we can see this picture to clarify the phases. and almost all blastomer placed in vegetal. In that area. this initiate almost not in vegetal area. the endoderm cell not like yolk or big. This is called grey area. When the marginal cells migrated until the darsal lip from blastopor. These cells replaced lip from blastopor and keep changing constantly. One of factor that make that high mobility is those cells ad changed form to be bottle line which the neck of cells is orientating to the surface so it is possible to cell for move inside.Gastrulation in Toad different than in Sea Urchin. firstly happen indentation that following by invagination and migration of cell. Bottle cells formed line that initiating archenteron. the surface tense is lower and the cells are mobile. Each color show the part of cell that will be ectoderm. but in lateral/marginal area close with equator from blastula. which will be faringeal cells and next ileum in next . in place which animal and vegetal meet.
The last endodermal cells on the surface appear as the yolk plug 6. completely surrounding the surface of the embryo until a ventral lip of blastopore forms. These cells involution to inside the blastopor so that the lip of blastopor is formed from embryo involunated cells. cells called chordamesoderm involution inside the embryo through the darsal lip. 3. 4. With formation of ventral lip. Gatrulation begins at the future dorsal side. blastopor lip enlarge to laerial side ventrally as process of producing bottle cells and involution carry on from blastopor. 5. The marginal zone undergo involution at the dorsal lip of the blastopore.phase. After the bottle cells. blastopor has circular shape which surrounding by big endoderm cells which is exposed in vegetal surface. and the mesoderm of notochord. The enlargement of blastopor along the development of lateral lip and finally ventral lip above formed from additional of mesoderm precursor and endoderm. the animal cells undergo epiboly. After that. Simultaneously. gastrulation centrifuge about 400 happen in plug yolk area in opposite of clockwise so that many yolk clot which firstly is in posterior of embryo move to be ventral area or the next-stomach. the next cells that enter the embryo form the prechordal plate (head mesoderm). this addition of endodermis is called yolk plug. At embolic and epibolic process. For quick overview of amphibian gastrulation is : 1. 2. These cell will form notochord. Blastocoels move to opponent side of blastopor dorsal lip. below the equator (marginal zone) when prospective endodermal cells (bottle cells) invaginated and form a slit (blastopore). The bottle cells line the early archentheron. In other side. The yolk plug is eventually covered by ectoderm .
First form of cell b. a. f. Cell do centrifuge about 400. the ectoderm cells from animal pole cells start to wrapping the cell. c. much smalle and the archenteron go bigger. d. Blastocoels is very small and archenteron is big. e. avoid the blastopore. Cell start to do centrifuge in opposite of clock wise whereas the blastocoels . folded to inside and go forward to animal pole. The remain of endoderm form yolk plug. This marginal cells will became the mesoderm.This picture show the completely phase and the centrifuge move of the cell. Three layer of dermal is perfectly formed. Blastocoels start to became cone and archentron start to formed. Endoderm and mesoderm cell will do involution. Folded of dorsal lip is formed from marginal cell that do invagination. Three layers of dermal inside the cell start to formed.
pushing Vegetal cells inside.Movement of Cells and Formation of Archenteron Gastrulation begins when marginal endodermal cells on the dorsal surface of the blastula sink into the embryo. A small group of cells change shape. involution and the formation blastopor continue. When the bottle cells removed after formation. The constricted cells are called bottle cells. called apical constriction. due to their shape (like an upside down bottle in these images). The strangeness of this bottle is needed to initiate gastrulation. narrowing at the exterior edge of the blastula. However. This change in cell shape. This is an event constriction of cells that have the power to pull in the marginal zone. after the movement began cells. which pushes more interior cells upwards and begins to roll a sheet of cells towards the interior. The outer or apical surface of these cells contract while the inner (basal) surface expands. cells from Xenopus bottle does not require lengthening again. Bottle cells of Xenopus have an important role to initiate involution of marginal zone as a bottle-shaped cells. the cells are not essential for gastrulation further. creates a local invagination. .
Radial intercalation / insertion of IMZ cells. E. pulling along the superficial cells and cells of the bottle with involution. IMZ below consists of the anterior and posterior mesoderm candidate B. F. The below marginal cells become flat and the superficial cells form the archenteron wall. Radial interaction is shown in the dorsal blastopore lip. Constriction of bottle cells encourage prospective of anterior mesoderm and play out IMZ to the outside. Anterior mesoderm and pharyngeal endoderm precursors led the movement from the mesoderm into blastosol. On NIMZ and the top of IMZ. D. Mesoderm moves into the animal pole. C.Integration model of cell movement through beginning gastrulation process in Xenopus : Explanation of the picture : A. the bottom (mesoderm cells) interact radially to create a thin rope ties of .
there is elongation and narrowing of the axial mesoderm. Superficial layer of the archenteron forms the line because of the bond to enable the migration of cells down.flat cells. The other two layers are the ectoderm(outside layer) and endoderm (inside layer). with the mesoderm as the middle layer between them. Involution is a process cell layer turned into inside and far into the internal surface. In the upper blastopore lip. After involution above / beyond lip. Mesoderm formation during Xenopus gastrulation The mesoderm is one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo. The flat layers that cause cell elongation is to form part of the blastopore lip. There will Involution be happen in IMZ(Involution Marginal Zone). mid-lateral intercalation of cells produce attractive that can emphasis IMZ toward the lip. mid-lateral intercalation continued. . The picture (20 D-F)will show us about cells in Involution Marginal Zone(IMZ). Involuting cells will form blastopore(lip blastopore ). The main factor in movement into the embryonic cells appear to involute of marginal cell surface more than the superficial layer. The transfer of the cells under the dorsal marginal region and replaced with cells of the animal who will stop the formation of archenteron.. The transfer of bottles of cells does not affect the involution of the cells below.
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Notice that the cells that will become endoderm are NOT internal! from LIFE The Science of Biology. the the middle germ layer. cells whose fate is to become mesoderm in red. This fate map diagram of a Xenopus blastula shows cells whose fate is to become ectoderm in blue and green. Pur es et al. brain. Ectoderm. and ectoderm) are formed and organi ed in their proper locations during gastrulation. and cells whose fate is to become endoderm in yellow. Endoderm. the most internal germ layer. Mesoderm. forms the lining of the gut and other internal organs. the most exterior germ layer. 1998 . forms muscle. forms s in.It will form ectoderm It will form mesoderm It will form endoderm Th pri r ger layers (endoder mesoderm. the s eletal system. and the circulatory system. and other external tissues. the ner ous system.
Movement of mesoderm involution IMZ(Involution Marginal Zone) is consist of initial cell(calon) of archenteron in superficial surface and initial cell(calon) of mesoderm cells. central notochord will separate frommesoderm. animal pole and marginal pole that doesn t do involution will expand by epibolai movement to close ambryo. include notochor. and from vegetal blastopore will form to be archtenteron. It cause blastopotre lip to go to ventral . In the end of gastrulation. blood. Epibolai movement is. The dorsal part of marginal cells that don t do involution will expand faster than the cells in ventral side. while mesoderm cells come into blastopore. then grow to be axis dorsal. that is located under the IMZ. There is expanding process of mesoderm to form midleline of embryo. and bone. And the residual mesoderm will form heart. ren. During the gastrulation process. . cell layer that expand by attenuating the cell shape. Endoderm from under the IMZ cells will form line of archtenteron cap. This process is also supported by elongation of every cells along anterior-posterior axis.
Kuswahyuning.devel. Nur.hendrasono.com/2010/06/gastrulation. Unesa University Press Free download web from http://faculty.com/2010/08/gastrulasi-dan-neurulasi. 2006 . Surabaya .REFERENCES Ducha.ncwc.com/2010/03/gastrulasi-dan-neurulasi.html downloaded on 23rd of April 2011 Free Free Free . Struktur Perkembangan Hewan I (SPH I).Early.blogspot.htm downloaded on 23rd of April 2011 download blog from http://catatankuliah heri.html downloaded on 23rd of April 2011 download blog from http://gastrulationani.html downloaded on 23rd of April 2011 download blog from http://amphibian-gastrulationprocess.edu/ddaley/B308.blogspot.blogspot.Amph.
edu/courses/biol114/Chap14/Chapter_14.ultranet/BiologyPages/F/FrogEmbryology.turn inward & travel along the inner surface of the outer animal hemisphere Thus lip cells constantly change The bottle cells are the first cells of the dorsal lip of the blastopore .kenyon.edu/NatSci/sgilber1/DB_lab/Course/Bio_24/Gastru lation%20projects/Wed_amphibian/sld001.htm downloaded on 27th of April 2011 download web from http://users.html downloaded on 27th of April 2011 from Free download web from http://www.at the same time animal cells undergo epiboly and convergence at the blastopore When these cells reach the dorsal lip of the blastopore .form the leading edge of the archenteron Become foregut cells .ma.rcn.swarthmore.Free download web http://biology.com/jkimball.where the animal and vegetal hemispheres meet Next is involution of the marginal zone cells .form a slit-like blastopore Bottle cells (called this because of their shape) line the archenteron as it forms This beginning region is called the marginal zone . html downloaded on 27th of April 2011 Free Amphibian Gastrulation Process : Starts on the future dorsal side of the embryo Cells invaginate .
Pembelahan awal yang terjadi pada embrio katak bersifat sinkron atau bersamaan waktunya. Sementara itu rongga blastocoel mulai tereliminasi sedikit demi sedikit. Pada daerah tersebut mula-mula terjadi indentasi atau pelengkungan yang disusul dengan terjadinya invaginasi dan pada akhirnya terjadi migrasi sel Lapisan pertama yang berpindah adalah sebagian kecil dari endoderem yang disusul dengan berpindahnya kordamesoderem. bergerak. Pada katak. padat. Salah satu factor yang menyebabkan sel-sel pada daerah kelabu memiliki mobilitas yang tinggi adalah karena sel-sel mengalami perubahan bentuk menjadi sel-sel botol yang lehernya terorientasi ke permukaan sehingga memungkinkan berlangsungnya perpindahan sel ke dalam. yaitu kumpulan membentuk Blastula terbentuk ketika sel embrio katak (struktur blastomer) terus membelah. . Sejalan dengan itu terbentuk suatu rongga baru yang disebut rongga arkenteron yang tumbuh semakin besar sejalan dengan berlangsungnya gastrulasi.the yoke plug Embryogenesis amphibia. tegangan permukaan sel lebih rendah dan sel-sel lebih bersifat mobil. Pada daerah ini. dan membentuk rongga pada bagian dalam (membentuk struktur bola berongga). notokord terbentuk dari mesoderm dorsal yang berkondensasi persis di atas arkenteron. Perbedaan pembelahan ini dipengaruhi oleh kutub yang terjadipada sel embrio hewan. Gastrulasi dimulai dengan terbentuknya suatu celah di bawah bidang equator kurang lebih pada daerah kelabu. Pada daerah kelabu memiliki konstitusi sel-sel yang berbeda dengan daerah lain. Tabung neuron berawal sebagai lempengan ektoderm dorsal. persis diatas notokord yang berkembang. namun membentuk struktur yang asimetris. rongga ini disebutblastocoel dan terisi cairan internal yang dibatasi oleh sel epitel. bagian kutub vegetal yang berisi kuning telur terdapat dalam struktur jumlah yang lebih sel sedikit yang atau membelah lebih bola sedikit.Next dorsal lip becomes composed of cells that will be mesoderm & eventually the cells that will be the notochord The blastopore will eventually form a ventral lip & will be a ring around endodermal cells . Sel embriogenik ini akan terus membelah dan membentuk struktur blastomer. yaitu kutub animal dan kutub vegetal. Neurulasi pada Katak. Pada katak.
lempeng neuron melipat ke arah dalam dan menggulung menjadi Tabung neuron (neural tube) yang akan menjadi sistem saraf pusat (otak dan sumsum tulang belakang). Use the control panel to move through the image in order to see all of cell migrations occuring during this complex and dynamic process! .Setelah notokord terbentuk. This mov ie was constructed from a series of cross-sectional images taken by confocal microscopy during Xenopus gastrulation. The animal pole is up. and dorsal is to the right.
The blastopore continues to develop from the early "frown" until it can be observed as a complete circular ring of involuting cells. the dorsal lip of the blastopore forms due to the contraction of bottle cells. Convergent extension closes the blastopore at the yolk plug and elongates the embryo along the anterior--posterior axis. Early on. .This video show the surface of a Xenopus embryo surface during gastrulation.
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