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Eco Efficiency pag

Eco Efficiency pag

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01/03/2013

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Transport

US

Europe

Model Year

l / 100 km

Model Year

l / 100 km

Gasoline passenger car

Low-emission vehicle technology

>1996

11.8

Three-way catalyst control

1996

12.0

1989-95

8.5

Early three-way catalyst control

1983

12.5

Oxidation catalyst

1978

16.1

1988-91

8.1

Non-catalystcontrol

1973

22.2

1980-90

8.3

Early non-catalyst controls

1971-79

9.4

Uncontrolled

1964

21.3

pre-1970

11.2

Light duty gasoline trucks

Moderate control

13.6

Low-emission vehicle technology

>1996

16.7

Three-way catalyst control

1996

16.7

Early three-way catalyst control

1983

20.8

Oxidation catalyst

1978

20.8

Non-catalystcontrol

1973

25.0

Uncontrolled

1964

24.4

Heavy duty gasoline vehicle

Three-way catalyst control

1996

43.5

Non-catalystcontrol

1983

43.5

Uncontrolled

1968

55.6

22.5

Dieselpassengercar and lighttrucks

Advanced control

1996

10.0

Moderate control

1983

10.4

7.3

Uncontrolled

1978

13.3

Light duty diesel truck

Advanced control

1996

13.9

Moderate control

1983

13.9

10.9

Uncontrolled

1978

17.5

Heavy duty diesel vehicle

Advanced control

1996

41.7

Moderate control

1983

41.7

29.9

Uncontrolled

1968

45.5

Motorcycles (4 stroke)

Non-catalyst controls

1996

9.3

Uncontrolled

1973

11.2

5.1

Source:IPCC (1996(b)).

Guidelines

33

III.C.3.c.(i)Conversion Factors from Energy Source to Thermal Equivalents for
Fossil Fuel and Biomass Fuels

133.Different energy commodities such as petroleum products, gas, coal, coal
products and biomass fuels all have a different caloric content. To make them
comparable they are converted into thermal equivalents using their
respective net caloric content24

(seeIII.C.3.c.i.A for petroleum products,
III.C.3.c.i.B for coal and coal products, III.C.3.c.i.C for gas and III.C.3.c.i.D for
biomass fuels).

III.C.3.c.i.A.Petroleum Products

134.Petroleum products includeethane, LPG, naphtha, aviation gasoline, motor
gasoline, jet gasoline, jet kerosene, other kerosene, gas/diesel fuel, heavy
fuel oil and petroleum coke.

135.Petroleum products are converted into heat equivalents using the net caloric
content of the energy commodity.

136.If the energy commodity is used in a country for which specific values are
listed then these values should be used. Otherwise the default value should
be applied (Table5).

24

The difference between net caloric value (NCV) and gross caloric value is the latent heat of
vaporization of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. In the case of coal and oil,
NCV is 5 per cent less than gross values, whilefor most gases the difference is between 9 and
10 per cent.(OECD/IEA 2001a).

A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiencyIndicators

34

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