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PRESENTED AT THE SESSION ON ADVANCES IN l)TORAGE TANK DESIGN API, REFINING
43RD MIDYEAR MEETING SHERATON CENTRE TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA TUESDAY, MAY 9,1978
BASIS ~DF SEISMICDESI'GN P·R9VIS·IONS
FOR
WELDED STEEL OIL STORAGE TANKS
SPONSORED BY
SIC ON PRESSURE VESSELS AND TANKS MANUFACTURERS SIC ON TANKS AND VESSELS
R.S. Wozniak
Chicago Bridge & lron Company Oak Brook, II11nol8
and
W.W. Mitchell
Standard 011 Company of California san Francisco, Callfol1!1la
CBT5359
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BASIS OF SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR WELDED STEEL OIL STORAGE TANKS
R. S. WOzniakl and W. W. Mitchell2
ABSTRACT
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Recommended design provisions are described fGr the seismi,c' design of flat bottom storage tanks which are propos,ed to b~ included in API Standard 650. The basis for establishing design loads is presented including seismic zone coeffi,cients and the essential facilities factor.' The design procedure is based on the approximate method of Professor Housne:r: except that amplification of ground motion is recognized in determining the impulsive response. The derivation of curves is presented which simplify the calcula·tion of the weight:s of the effective masses of tank contants, their centerlS of gravity, and the period of vibration of the sloshirlg mode. The basis of the design lateral force coeffil:ients is given.
·1 !
Resistance to overturning for unanchored tanks is providl:!d by the tank shell and a portion of the tank contents which depends on the width of bottom annular ring which may lift off the foundation. The basis for determining this width is presented. A curve is included in the provisions for calculating the maximum longitudinal compression force in the sh4i!11 for unanchored tanks. The derivation of this curve is pre~:;ented and an approximate formula for the curve given. The fOl~mulas for maximum longitudinal compression force in the sh4i!11 for anchored tanks and required anchorage resistance aze explained. The basis is given for es.tablishing the maximurll allowable shell compression which takes into account the efjEect of int.ernal pressure due to the liquid contents.
I
Supplemental information is presented for calculating the he:LI~ht of sloshing of the liquid contents, for designing roof S\l~port columns to resist forces caused by sloshing, and to calc~late the increase in hoop tension in the shell due to seismi<: forces.
. * * *
1 Ch iCcl'~o Br idge , I ron Company, Oak Brook, I L
2 Standard Oil Company of California, San Francisco, CA
1
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INTRODOC: TION
Fteports of damage from major earthquakes wi thin the last fe~r decades cite cases of damage to flat bottom welded steel storage tanks [1, 2, 3, 4]3. Damage to the tanks falls in four general categories:
1. Buc:k:1ing of the bottom of the tank shell due to longitudinal compressive stresses resulting from overturning forc~es. This buckling is most frequently in the torm of an outward bulge in the bottom foot or two of the tank shell extending partly or completely around the tank terlD.ed an elephant's foot bulge. Damage of this type has generally been limited to unanchored tanks ranging between 10 and 100 feet in diameter. Loss of contents has resulted in some of the more severely buckled tanks.
2. Damiilge to the roof and upper shell of the tank and to int4!rnal roof support columns due to sloshing of the tank con l::en ts •
3. Damcilge to piping and other appurtenances connected to a tan}~ due to movement of the tank.
4. Damclge resul ting from failure of the supporting ground, notcl):,ly from liquefaction, washout due to broken piping, an~ .slope failure due to high edge loads.
~~he damage reports have led 1;0 increasing interest in the seismic design of tanks to be located in seismically active axeas , Tank builders, owners, and, in some instances, regulatcIll:'Y agencies have developed their own criteria for seismic design. To provide uniform guidelines, recommended design i='J::'ovisions have been prepared which are proposed to be included as an appendix (Appendix P) in API Standard 650, Welded S:f~eel Tanks for Oil Storage. Similar provisions are I being de·veloped by the American Water Works Association for wa ter s tc)rage tanks.
SCOPE OFD£SIGN PROVISIONS
. The proposed Appendix P to API Standard 650 covering
seismic clesign of storage tanks is included in Appendix 1 to this papE!r. Detailed requirements are included to assure
3 Refere:n.ces are listed at the end of the text.
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stability of the tank shell against overturning and to preclude buckling of the tank shell due to longitudinal coepress Icn for the level of earthquake ground motion which has a :r:easonable likelihood of not being exceeded during the life c)E the tank in the reg ion in which the tank will be Loca eed ,
A requirement is included to provide suitable flexibilit~r in piping attached to the shell or bottom of the tank. Additi.c)nal items which the tank purchaser may wish to
ccns Idar to minimize or avoid overflow and damage to the roof and upper shell and to roof support columns are noted. These latteI' items normally do not pose a risk to. life safety or to the .sClLEety of surrounding facilities, but may be considered from ~le standpoint of economic risk to the tank itself. Guidelines are included later in this paper for the design to
accomplish these objectives. .
The response of tanKs to earthquake ground motion also Inc ludes an increase in hoop tension in the shell. This has led to rupture of the shell in the past for riveted tanks. The she Ll.s of welded tanks, however, have substantial ductility in hoop tension and can absorb energy resulting from earthquake ground motion through yielding. Current practic:e for the seismic design of welded steel tanks for hoop t.Emsion takes this ductility into account. i'lhen this is done, !Seismic response in hoop tension does not govern the design of the shell for the maximum level of earthquake ground motion proposed for API Standard 650. Consequently, no provisions are included for hoop tension. ~'lhen tanks are designE!d for higher levels of earthquake ground motion, increa~ied hoop tension should be investigated. Guidelines for this are included later in this paper.
The proposed Appendix P does not address soil stability since this does not affect the design of the tank. However, it is important that soil conditions at prospective tank sites in seismically active areas be investigated for potential instability including liquefaction during an earthquake.
DESIGN LOADING
The design procedure presented in Appendix P is based on the simplified procedure developed by Professor G. W. Housner [5] and included in Chapter 6 and Appendix F of ERDA TID 70~:4 [6] with modifications as suggested by Professor A. S. VelEttsos [7]. As noted in the Introduction to Appendix P, the pr,c1cedure considers two response modes of the tank and
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its COlrltents: the response of the tank shell and roof togeth4er with a portion of the contents which moves in unison with the shell, and the fundamental sloshing mode of the ccnt.enes , The forces associated with these modes are normally termed the impulsive force and the convective force, respec1~ively. The design overturning moment at the bottom of the sh.~ll resu1 ting from these forces is given by the following formula in Section P.3.1:
(1)
.In this formula, Cl and C2 are the respective lateral force c~)efficients for the impulsive and convective forces and W1 41nd W2 are the corresponding weights of the effective
_ masses 4)f the tank contents. Curves for determining WI and W~ as 21 ratio to the total weight of tank contents, N,!, are glven In Figure P2 of Appendix P for various ratios of tank diametE~l~, D, to maximum filling height, H. These curves are based on the formulas developed by Housner and presented in TID 70:2:4. For the weight of the liquid contributing to the impulsi.~re force, WI' Housner presents the following formula for tanks where the ratio of filling height to radius is less than I.!> (D/H greater than 1.333):
tanh O.86sfl 0.866 *
(2a)
'''!here the ratio of filling height to radius is greater than 1.5 (D/H less than 1.333), Housner's procedure considers the 1iq,uid contents in the lower part of the tank below a depth e'gual to 1.5 times the radius to respond as a rigid body as far as impulsive forces are concerned. The effective weight 4:lf the uppeLportion of the contents is determined from fOlt'lIlula (2a) using DIH • 1.333. The total effective weight ·is determined by adding the full weight of the lower portion of the contents to the effective weight of the upper portion.. This leads to the formula:
(2b)
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..... _ _._ ... 
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The formula for the weight of the effective contents used ee determine the convective force, which is based on Housne:I:" s corrected version of TID 7024, is as follows:
(3)
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The heights Xl and X2 fro. the bottom of the tank shell 1;0 the centroids of tne lateral seismic f~rces applied to WI Clnd W2' respectively, as ratios to the maximum filling heignt.,. H, are given in Figure P3 of Appendix P for various D/H rat~ios. Again, these are based on the work of Housner •. For tarLks where the ratio of filling height to radius is less ~an 1 •. 5 (D/H greater than 1.333), the formula for the height to the centroid of the impulsive force is:
/
Xl _ 0.315 H
(4a)
C·
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Where the ratio of filling height to radius is greater than 1.5. (D/H less than 1.333):
x, _ 0.500 o.09LQ H  H
(4b)
The formula for the height to the centroid of the convect.I ve force is..:
X
.2 = 1.0 H
il.67} COSh \i5iH 1.0
(5)
3.67 sinh (J.61)
'O/H OIH
As noted at the end of paragraph P.3.l, the overturningr moment calculated in accordance with formula (1) is that applied to the bottom of the shell. The total overturni~91 mC?ment, applieq to the foundation can be determined by substlt~lltlng Xl and X2 from the following formulas for Xl and X2' res:pectively, in formula (1):
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~> .1.333:
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XH: = 0.375 f,.0 +1.333 ( 0.866 i  1.0) ]
l tanh 0.866*
(6a)
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H 
( 3.67 cosh D/H
(7 )
)1.937
1.0 
(3.67 )
D/H
3.67 sinh D/H
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Tanks on the ground are inherently rigid. In his work, Housner considered the tank to be infinitely rigid so . that t.he motion of the tank shell and roof together wi th that por t Icn of the contents that moves in unison with the shell coincides with ground motion. In reality, tanks are not infinitely rigid. Storage tanks typically have natural periolds of vibration in the range of 0.10 to 0.25 seconds. Velet:sos, in this_study of thin wall flexible tanks, concll~des that the impulsive force can be reasonably well estim'!IIted from the solutions derived for a rigid tank except repla1cing the maximum ground acceleration with the spectral value of the pseudoacceleration corresponding to the fundamental natural frequency of the tankfluid system.
Since the calculation of the fundamental period is complex for tillnks which do not experience uplift and unknown for those that do, a constant value is proposed in Appendix P for Cl which represents the maximum amplified ground motion. The value of 0.24 is consistent with the Uniform Building Code maximu:1D value for structures other than buildings (It • 2.0) exclucUng any soil factor. The soil factor does not appear appropriate for structures with a very low natural period of vibra1~ion. The high value of Cl in comparison with buildings
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is appropriate because of the low d.amping inherent for stora~le tanks, the lack of .nonstructural load bearing elemetkts, and the lack of ductility of the tank shell in longitudinal compression.
For some tanks, taking Cl as ·the maximum amplified grouncl motion may be overc:onservative. For very rigid tanks which are anchored, it may be desirable to calculate the fundaalental period and use a lower spectral acceleration value.
The period of the first sloshing mode is relatively long lind the corresponding value. of spectral acceleration falls in the region of maximum spectral velocity or disp11Icement •.. The formula presented for C2. is based on a maximt~ spectral velocity of 1.5 to 2.3 ft/sec and a maximum spectz'a1 displacement of 1.1 to 1.65 feet, depending on soil type.
The calculation of the naltural period of the amplification factor, S. the ell:pression:
c~ requires the determination of flrst sloshing mode and the site The period can be determined from
T • kD~
(8)
where k is obtained from Figure P4 for various DIH ratios. This c~mes from the formula:
T = 21T0
..; 3.679 tanh (3.67) D/H
(9)
Substituting 9 • 32.2 ft/sec2, k is then:
0.578
k = Vtanh(~~)
(10 )
. The site amplification factor, S, is determined from Table P2 and varies from 1.0 for rocklike soils to 1.5 for soft ee medium stiff soils. These amplifications factors correspond to those recommended in the Final Review Draft of
7
Recomm~mded Comprehensive Seismic Design Provisions for Buildings (B} prepared by the Applied Technology Council in a study ~Project ATC3) sponsored by the National Science Fqundation and the National Bureau of Standards.
The lateral force coefficients, Cl and C2' are appliccible for the areas of highest seisluici ty and for tanks which are not required to be functional for emergency post earthqt:lake operations. The zone coefficient, Z, and. the essenti.al facilities factor, I, are included in for;uula (1) for the! design overturning moment to provide an adjustment for tarliks located in less seismically active areas and for tanks '11,ilhich are required to be functional for emergency operations after an earthquake. The value of the zone coefficient, Z, is obtained from Table Pl for the various zones ,defined in Figure Pl. The values of Z correspond to those ;specified in the Uniform Building Code. The zone maps are based on peak ground motion acceleration contour maps
Lnc luded in the Final Review Draft of the ATC3 Project. For the 48 contiguous states, the map used is that where the accelerations are a measure of effective peak velocity so to be appropriate for the long period convective force as well as the short period impulsive force. The ATC3 map depicts ccnt.our s of approximately equal seismic risk and is
cons Ide red to be an improvement over the zone map included in the Uniform Building Code which is based on historic earthquake damage levels. The ATC3 map is for use in establishing ultimate design loads and the acceleration values depicted should be reduced for application in working stress design procedures. The relationships between the zones shown on the Claps included in Appendix Pand the contour ranges shown on the ATC3 maps are as follows:
Appendix P Seismic Zone
ATC3 Map Contour Ranges
4 3 2 1 o
OVer 0.4 0.2 to 0.4 0.1 to 0.2 0.05 to 0.1 Under 0.05
~~he essential facilities factor, I, corresponds to the Occupancy Importance Factor specified in the Uniform Building Code. ~~he UBC requires that "structures or buildings which must be: safe and usable for emergency ourposes after an earthquake in order to preserve the health and safety of the general public" be designed for a factor of 1.5. For oil storage4, this should apply to tanks such as those storing
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fuel fc)r power generating facilities which are essential for emergency postearthquake operations.
RESIS'I'JWCE TO OVERTUIU~ING

The factors which may contribute to resistance of the overtulmin9 moment are noted in para9raph P.4. The wei9ht of the COil tents which may be utilized to resist overturning is based on the calculated reaction at the tank shell of an. elemen1~al strip of the bottom plate perpendicular to the shell '''hich can be lifted off the ground. The calculation is based on small deflection theory and assumes the development of tWCI plastic hinges, one at the junction to the shell and the other at some distance inward from the shell. The assumE!d loading, deflection and moment diagram are shown below::
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The equilibrium solution leads to the following rel,cltionships:
(11)
and
L=
w 1.101 _!:...
w
•
(12)
substituting
and W = 62.I.GH.
(13)
and
L = 0,0274
(14)
Practice has been to limit the uplift length, L, to 6 to 7 ipercent of the tank radius [9). The limitation of ilL to 1.25 ~:;HO limits L to about 6.9\ of the radius. Recent shaki.ng table model tests of tanks [lO) show significant chanqas in the response characteristics which. are not accounted for by current design procedures when greater amount:s of uplift occur.
The above procedure to establish the maximum resist:ance of the liquid contents to overturning of the tank is conservative since it doe~ not take into account membrane stres:ses which will develop in the bottom upon uplift. Further studies need to be undertaken to better determine the uplift resistance and to account for the changes in response when large amount.s of uplift occur.
SHELL COMPRESSION
. Methods for determinin; the maxi."1lum longitudinal ccnpreas Icn force, b, at the bottom of the tank shell are
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giverll in Paragraphs P.S.l and P.5.2. For unanchored tanks wherEI there is no uplift and for anchored tanks the compr'ession force can be determined readily from the formula:
1.273M 02
(15)
•
which assumes that the force varies directly with ·the dist4lnce from the centerline of the tank in the direction of the lateral loading. For tanks which experience uplift, b can be determined from the value of the compressive force parameter obtained from Figure P5 as a function of the overturning moment parameter.
The curve in Figure P5 is derived from the following assWl!ed load distribution around the shell of the tank:
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11
4. •
.C '.,USN Ci. .* .. ._..,_., ~ _ • ~~~..,~._ __ •• ~ ••• _._ __ ~_ .. _ _. _   _.
'''''1'.:
~~""~/.A/A a""'dA..4~
t
1 _
I~ i>
1.
Prom the summation of vertical forces and overturning . moments, the following expressions are obtained:
71' (1 cosB)
sin8Scos8
(16)
I 
M
_ 1T
 ,..
28 sin28 sin188cos8
u
(17)
By substituting values of ~ from 0 to 71'radians in these expressions, the relationship between the two paramElters on the lefthand side of the expressions is obtairled. This relationship applies for values of the moment parametter from 1f/4 where uplift commences to 71'/2 where the shell becomes unstable. The relationship may be approximated
wi th 19'ood accuracy up to a value of the moment parameter of t 1.54 11i1i'i th the following formula:
1
= O.62620.'8667~F.~~M~~::r217
~h+~
(18)
Formulas for determining the maximum allowable 10ngit:1udinal compussion in the shell are given in paragraph :P.5.3.. These were established to provide a safety factor agains't buckling of about 1.5. Excluding the effect of intenl41ll pressure, the critical stress for very thin wall ahellli; was established as 0.125 Bt/R where E is the modulus of elalsticity, t the shell thickness, and R the shell radius. This J.IS based on the work of C. D. Miller (ll) of Chicago Bridge' , Iron Company. Osing£. 29,000,000 psi and a safety factor' of about 1.5, this leads to an allowable stress of:
(1
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12
':..:.:.;.::....'.: .... : .'. : :.~:: .. . :~ .~~ i > "  ._ '. ''. "::
., ...
.. _ ..  . .:::_"::=.::_::=:: _ .. ~_ .. __ ' . ';';';"';"_;_4·~'_"_".· : __ . _·_,.P"='" ... ....., ... ' ·7~·.·~
_.   _ _ _.'_
400,000t o
(19)
....
where 11: is in inches and D is the diameter in feet •
.
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Lo, Crate and Schwartz [12] determined through theoretical analysis and experimental tests that the cri~ical buckl~~g stress in compression for thin wall cylinders incre~n:Bes with internal pressure. Theoretically, with sufficient internal pressure the critical buckli~g stress will reach the classical limit of 0.6 Et/R. However, only limited tests ltlave been made to date. The tests made by Lo, Crate and Schwartz showed a doubling of the critical buckling
streS!i as the nondimensional parameter ; Eo r~rrn~reased from :i~ero (no internal pressure) to a value of 0.1028. This value is reached when the value of GHo2/t2 is about 200,000. Based en this, the allowable longitudinal coepreas Ive stress for thin wall tanks for values of GHo2/t2 greater than 200,000 was established as:
A·
.
~.
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80Q.000l o
(20)
I
The tests of Lo, Crate and Schwartz showed a nearly
linear increase in critical buckling stress with internal pressllre up to the limits of their tests. Thus, for values of GHI)2/t2 less than ,200,000 the allowable compressive stress was e!;tablished as:
400,OOOt + o
2GHO t
(21)
Formula (21) will normally apply only to very small tanks where the shell thickness is established by minimum valuel; rather than by hoop stress.
As the thickness of the shell in proportion to the diame11:er of the tank becomes relatively large, formulas (20)
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and (2J.) are no longer applicable. Miller presents formulas for crltical buckling of shells without internal pressure for intermEtdiate and thick shells leading to a maximum value of criticcLI buckling stress equal to the yield stress. The limit c.f Fa • 0.5 Ft is established in Appendix P to maintain an adequate safity factor throughout the intermediate range c,f thickness to diameter ratio. This limit will normall.y apply only to small diameter tanks (under 15 ft diamete!r) •
,
•
The longitudinal compressive buckling stress of tank shells is a subject whiCh needs further study. The presence of internal pressure and the radial restrain provided by the bottom leads to a different form of buckling than has been experienced in most experimental work on the buckling of c:ylind,ers under axial and bending loads.
ANCHOR.4~GE OF TAUKS
Generally, tanks need not be anchored when the requirl!d resistance to overturning can be provided by the tank shell and internal contents without exceeding the maximum value permitted for wJ;.. When anchorage is required, careful attention should be g1ven to the attachment of the anchors to the shell to avoid the possibility of tearing the shell. The specified anchorage resistance given in paragraph P. 6 fOl~ anchored tanks provides a factor of safety in that the re!;istance provided by the weight of the tank shell is
not considered. ~
SLOSHING WAVE HEIGHT
In some cases it may be desirable to provide freeboard in the 'tank above the maximum filling height to minimize or avoid o',erflow and damage to the roof and upper shell due to sloshil1l9 of the li_g_uid contents. The h,eight of the sloshing wave ma,y be determined from the followi'ng formula based on Housnet'" s corrected version of TID 7024:
d = 1.124ZIC2r2 lanl\ (,." ff )
(22)
ROOF SUEPORTIUG COLUfolNS
~~en it is desired to design roof supporting columns to resis:t the forces caused by the sloshing of the liquid
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contents, these forces may be determined as described in Appendix 2 of this paper.
SOOP ~l'ENSION

•
When it is desired to analyze the tank shell for increC!Lsed hoop tension due to earthquake ground motion, the increaLsed hoop tension Ps per inch of shell height can be
obtailLed from the followlng expression: •
(23)
where Pl is the tension due to the impulsive force and P2 is that °ld,ue to the convective force.
For tanks where O/S is great~er than 1.333, Pl may be deterllll,ined from the following formula:
(24)
t.
. .c~)V

/
(
where Y is the distance in feet from the liquid surface to the ~)int under consideration. As can be seen, PI is zero at the s11rface and maximum at the bottom (Y • B). Wfiere O/H is less 1than 1.333, PI may be determined as follows:
Y <0 .. 750:
PI = 2011ZICIG02 [ y 1
[0.150  T
(25a)
(25b)
The convective hoop tension, P2 may be determinedfrom the fo'Jllowing formula:
15 _
( HY.\
cosh 3.68 OJ
cosh (3.68 ~)
(26)
The increased hoop tension du~ to earthquakeground motion should be added to the hoop tension due to hydrostatic pressure. The hydrodynamic portion of tbe stress, Pe' should be dhrided by a ductility factor of 2.0 for applicatlon in . the dE!.sign at normal allowable design tensile stresses.
CONCLWSION
. ~ ~;'~:~ .,...
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The basis has been presented for the seismic design prOV1~il:LOnS for oil storage tanks which have been proposed as an appttndix (Appendix P) to API Standard 650. The formulas have been given for the curves included in the proposed revisic)n to facilitate design calculations. Supplemental informcltion has been presented to determine the sloshing wave height, the forces on roof supporting columns caused by
s Iosh Inq and the increased ,hoop tension due to earthquake ground motion for use when it is desired to take these factors: into consideration in the seismic design •
It has been seen that the design provisions are based on the simplified procedure developed by Housner for rigid tanks except that the maximum ground acceleration is replaced with the spectral value of the pseudoacceleration corresponding to the fundamental natural frequency of the tankfluid sys cem as suggested by Veletsos. Provisions are includt~d to insure stability of the tank shell against overtul:'ning and to preclude buckling of the tank shell due to longitudinal compressioni however, further study of these effect!:; are recommended.
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___ "~~:: ._._ ... :...'~ ~.~ .. = .. ~::::...~.:___. ....... 40".4 .1:.,';. ~ c"J.!*'pw.
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NOMENCLATURE
b .a~ximum longitudinal shell compression force, Ibs/ft of . lihell circumference
• lateral earthquake coefficients for impulsive and convective forces, respectively
d • beight of sloshing wave above mean depth, ft
•
;
•
D  t~ank diameter, ft
•
E • I~dulus of elasticity, psi
Fa •
I~ximum allowable longitudinal compressive stress in 1~ank she 11, ps i
• minimum specified yield strength of bottom annular ring and tank shell, respectively, psi
4!lcceleration due to gravity = 32.2 ft/sec2
~.
't
i
9 •
G 
B 
Bt 
I 
k 
L 
M  lsp'ecific gravity (1.0 for water) IDaximum filling height of tank, ft total height of tank shell, ft
essential facilities factor
:~arameter for cal cul a ting T, (sec2 If t) ~ bottom uplift length, ft
overturning_moment applied to bottom of tank shell, ftlbs
Hp· plastic bending moment in bottom annular ring, in.lbs/in.
p • internal pressure, psi
increased hoop tension in tank shell due to impulsive, convective, and total earthquake force, respectively, lbs/in.
R • tank radius, in.
s  site amplification factor
17
t • thickness of cylindrical shell, in. When used in formulas for tank design applies to thickness of bottom shell course excluding corrosion allowance.
tb· thickness of bottom annular ring, in.
T • sloshing wave period, sec
w • unit weight on tank bottom, lbs/sq ft
A s:
I
•
a
maximum weight of tank contents which may be utilized to resist shell overturning moment, lbs/ft of shell circumference.
'~eight of tank shell, lbs/ft of shell circumference total weight oftank roof plus portion of snow load, if any , lbs
total weight of tank shell, lbs total weight of tank contents, lbs
~ weight of effective masses of tank contents for determining impulsive and convective lateral earthquake forces, lbs
Xs  height from bottom of tank shell to center of gravity e)f shell, ft
r
\
• height from bottom of tank shell to centroids of impulsive and convective lateral earthquake forces, respectively, for computing H, ft
• height from bottom of tank shell to centroids of _~ulsive and convective lateral earthquake forces, respectively, for computing total overturning moment on foundation, ft
Y • 'rertical distance from liquid surface to point on shell being analyzed for hoop tension, ft
Z • sleismic zone coefficient
B • c:entral angle between axis of tank in the direction of etarthquake ground motion and point on circumference ",here shell uplift cocunences, radians.
'"_ .. _. __ .
.. .. /'
18
 '  \ .
REFERENCES
•
1. J., E. Rinne, Oil Storage Tanks, Alaska Earthquake of lSIIS4,· The prince William Sound, Alaska, Earth uake of 151154, Vo ume IIA, U.S. Department 0 Commerce, Coast ir.~rGeodetic Survey, 1967 •
R. ·D. Hanson, ·Sehavior of Liquid Storage Tanks,'· The GZ:'I~at Alaska Earthquake of 1964, Engineering, National Ac:ndemy of Sciences, Washington, D. C., 1913.
2.
._. 3.
P •. C. Jennings, Damage of Storage Tanks,· Engineering Fecltures of the San Fernando Earthquake, February 9, n~'I, Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory, csi, Tec:ii., June 1911.
4.
R. Husid, A. F. Espinosa and J. de las Casas, The Lima Eal~thquake of October 3, 1974: Damage Distribution,· Bulletin of the seismol2?ical societ, of America, Volume ii; No. 5, pp. 1441147 , October 19 7.
s. G. w. Housner, ·Dynamic Pressures on Accelerated Fluid Co:n.tainers,  Bulletin of the Seismological Society of ~~rica, Volume 47, pp. 1535, January 1957.
6. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation and Holmes & Narver, Inc., NUI:lear Reactors and Earthquakes, Chapter 6 and Appendix P;EROA TID 7024, pp. 183195 and 367390, August 1963.
7. A. S. Veletsos and J. Y. Yang, Earthquake Response of Lic~uidStorage Tanks,· Advances in Civil Engineering Th]~OU9h Engineerini Mechanics, Proceedin;s Second Annual En~Jlneering Mechanlcs Dlvision Special ty Conference, . ASC:E, pp. 124r May 1977.
I
8. ATC·305, Recommended Comprehensive Seismic Design Prc>',isions for Buildings, Final Review Draft, Applied~·· Tec:hnology Council, Palo AI to, California, January 1977.
9. R. I;. Wozniak, ·Lateral Seismic Loads on Flat Bottomed Talll]~s,· Chicago aridge , Iron Company, The Water Tower, Nov'mnber 1971.
10. D. 1'. Clough, Experimental Evaluation of Seismic Design Methods for Broad Cylindrical Tanks,· University of CalIfornia Ear·thquake Engineering Research Center Report Number UC9/EERC77/l0, May 1977.
19
11.
12.
•
~ r
(
\
' ........
~
F~·
. ••.• ~ •• ~:",,!!"," .... .
C. 10. Miller, Buckling of Axially Compressed Cylinders,· Journal of the Structural Division, ASCI, VollWlle 103, No. 51'3, Proc. Paper 12823, pp. 695721, Marich 1977.
B. J[.o, B. Crate and E. 8. Schwartz, ·Suckling of ThinlWalled Cylinders Under Axial Compression and Intltrnal pressure,· NACA TN 2021, 1950 •
t
20
,
lb
..
APPENDIX 1
PROPOSED APPENDIX P TO API STANDARD 650
SEISMtC DESIGN OF STORAGE TANKS
P.l lSCOPE
 ... ;
This clppendix establishes reco~mended minimum b~sic requirements for the design of storage tanks subjec~ed to seismic load as specified by purchaser. These requirements represent accept;ed practice for application to flat bO.tto.JI tanks. HowevEH', jt is recognized that other procedures and applicable fact~I~S or additional requirements may be specified by the purchaser or jurisd ictional author ities. 'Any deviation from the rE!I;Juireluents herein must be by agreement between purchaser and :Il2L1'lufacturer.
P. 2 l]~TRODUCTION
The de~l;i9n procedure considers two response modes of the tank and it,:; contents: (1) the relatively high frequency amplified responHe to lateral ground motion of the tank shell and roof togethur with a portion of the liquid contents which moves in unison with the shell, and (2) the relatively low frequency amplifj.ed response of a portion of the liquid cO.ntents in the fundamE!Rtal sloshing mode. The design requires the determination of the hydrodynamic mass associated with each mode and the lateral force and overturning fIloment applied to the shell resulting from the response of the masses to lateral ground motion. Provisions are included to assure stability of the tank shell against overturning and to preclude buckling of the tank sbell due to longitudinal compression.
No pro'lIisions are .included regarding the increase. in hoop
. tensio~n. due to seismic forces since this does not affect shell thickn.ess for the lateral force coefficients soecified herein taking into account generally accepted increased allowable stress and ductility ratios.
P.l DI~SIGN LOADING .
P.l.l Overturning Moment
The overturning moment due to sei~ic forces applied to the bOttom of the shell shall be determined as follows:
21
~ _ ,.. '" . .
} .  
(
J 
"r
,
~
J
.
•
,
. Where:
M • Overturning moment in foot pounds applied to bOttom of tank shell •
I • Zone coefficient from Figure P~l and Table Pl.
I • Essential facilities ~actor. I· I.Safor tanks which must be functional for emergency post earthquake operations and 1.0 for all other tanks.
Cl and C2 • Lateral earthquake forcoe coefficients
determined per paragraph P.3.3.
Total weight in pounds of tank shell. Height in feet from bottom of tank shell to center of gravity of shell.
Total weight in pounds of tank roof plus portion of snow load, if any, as specified by purchaser.
Total height in feet of tank shell.
Weight in pounds of effective mass of tank f
contents which moves in unison with tank shell,
determined per paragraph P.3.2(a).
Xl· Height in feet from botto. of tank shell to centroid of lateral seismic force applied to WI' determined per para3raph P.3.2(b).
W2· Weight in pounds of effective mass of first mode sloshing contents of tank, determined per paragraph P.3.2(a).
Ws •
Xs •
Wr •
Bt •
r Nl • Note:
Height in feet from botto. of tank shell to centroid of lateral seismic force applied to w2' determined per paragraph P.3.2(b)~
,
The overturning moment deter.ined per this paragraph is that applied to the bottom of the shell only. The tank foundation is subjected to an additional overturning moment due to lateral displacement of the tank contents which may need to be considered in the design of some foundations such as pile supported concrete mats.
22
p.3.2
Ef[ective Ma~s of Tank Contents
a, The eff\.~ctivc mass lIl' Clnd the effective mass H2' may be determined by mul tiplying '"IT' by the rutioG ''11/'11' and U2/'tlT' respect ively, obtained from Figure P2 fc;,r the ratio D/U.
•
Where:
•
TOta' weight in pounds of tank contents (product specific gravity specified by.purchaser).
Tank diameter in feet.
D =
14aximum filling height of tank in feet from bottom of shell to top of top angle or overflow which limits filling height.
b. 1'he heights from the bottom of the tank shell to the centroids of the lateral seismic forces applied to WI and W2' Xl and X2' may be determined by mutiplying H, by the ratios XI/H and X2/H, respectively, obtained
from Figure P3 for the ratio of 0/8. .
u =
c. The curves in Figures P2 and P3 are based on a modification of the equations presented in ERDA Technical Information Document 7024*. Alternatively, WI' W2' Xl and X2 may be determined by other analytical procedures based on the dynamic characteristics of the tank.
P.3.3 L~teral Force CoefficIents
a. The lateralforce coefficient CI shall be taken as 0.24.
* Techn:Lcal Information Document 7024, Nuclear Reactors and Earth~luakes, prepared by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, and Bo1me~; , Narver, Inc., for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commi£l:sion, August 1963.
23
f
b. The lateral force coefficient C2 shall be deter~ined as a function of the natural period of the first mode sloshing, T, and the soil conditions at the tank site.
When T is less than 4.5:
0.30 S
• C2 •
T
iihen T is greater than 4.5:
1.35 S
C2 •
T2 Where:
s • Site amplification factor fro~ Table P2. T = Natural period in seconds of first mode sloshing. T may be determined from the following expression:
T • kD~
k • Factor obtained from Figure P4 for the ratio D/H.
c. Alternatively, Cl and C~ may be deter~ined from response spectra establlshed for th~ specific site of the tank and for the dynamic characteristics of the tank. The spectrum for Cl should be established for a damping coefficient of 2' of critical and scal~~ to a maximum am~ified acceleration of 0.24 times the acceleration of gravity. The spectrum for C~ should correspond to the spectrum for Cl except modlfied for a damping coefficient of 0.5' of critical.
P. 4 Il~CSISTANCE TO OVERTUJUoJING
a. Re'!;istance to the overturning moment at the bottol1l of the shnll may be provided by the weight of the tank shell and by' the weight of a portion of the tank contents adjacent to the shell for unanchored tanks or by anchorage of the tarlk shell. For unanchored tanks, the portion of the corltents which may be utiliz.ed to resist overturning is
r t
24
d4!pendent on the width of the bottom annular ring which lifts off the foundation and may be determined as follows:
•
elt,c:ept tha t wL shall not exceed 1. 25GHD.
wtlll!re:
•
,
• Maximum weight of tank contents in pounds per foot of shell circumference whicb may be utilized to resist the shell overturning ~oment.
• Thickness of bottom annular ring in inches.
• Minimum specified yield strength in pounds per square inch of bottom annular ring.
a Design specific gravity of contents as specified by purchaser.
b. ThE~ thickness of the bottom annular ring, tb'. shall not exceed the thickness of the bottom shell course, or % inc:h, whichever is greater. Where the bottom annular ring is thicker than the remainder of the bottom, the width of . thle annular ring in feet shall be equal to or greater th,a.n:
G
0.0274 wL Gii
p • 5 SI!ELL COMPRESS ION P.S.l Unanchored Tanks
• ThE! maximum longitudinal compression force at the bottom of the sbell may be determined as follows:
M
NhE!J'l is equal to or less than 0.785:
02 (Wt+vL)
b •
25
(
When
M
2 is greater than 0.785:
o (WtflfL)
b+WL b 'aay be computed from the value of the parameter ~Wt+¥L
obtained froID Pigure PS.
Whlere:
•
b • Maximum longitudinal shell compression force in pounds per foot of shell circumference.
Weight of tank shell in pounds per foot of shell circumference.
P.5.2 ~nchored Tanks
The maximum: longitud inal compression force at the bottom of the shell may 'be determined as follows:
b • Wt + 1.273 M
. D2
P.S.3 Maximum Allowable Shell Compression
The maximum longitudinal compressive stress in the shell, b, shall not exceed the maximum allowable
ITt
stress, Fa' determined as follows:
l~en the value of GHD2 is greater than 200,000:
tT

800,000 t D
0
I
'~en the value of GaD2 is less than 200,000:
tT

400,000 t + 2 GHD
D t .
Itxcept that in no case shall the value of Fa exceed 0.5 Ilty•
to
26
.. ' ,'_.' ..
Where:
t • ThiCkness in inches, excluding corrosion allowance, of the bottom shell course.
,
'. • Maximum allowable longitudinal compressive strels in the Ihell in pounds per square inch. 'rile above formulas for '. take into account the effect of internal pressure due to the liquid contents.
rty. Minimum specified yield strength of the shell in pounds per square inch.
p • 6 AJ~CBORAGE OF TANKS
Anchor,ilge of tanks shall be designed to provide a minimum anchor,iIIge resistance in pounds per foot of shell circumference of:
If'
r
1.273 M
D2
The stl~esses due to anchor forces in the tank shell at the points of attachment of the anchors shall be investigated.
P.7 P:[PING

Provis:lons for suitable flexibility in all piping attached to the sh4!11 or bottom of the tank shall be considered. On unanchc)red tanks subject to bottom uplift, piping connected to the bol~tom shall be free to lift with the bottom or shall be locatec! so that the horizontal distance Ileasured from the shell 1~o the edge of the connecting reinforcement shall be the width e)f the bottOm hold down as calculate~ in paragraph
P. 4 (b) :plus 12 inches.
P.8 AI~OITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS .
a. Ttut purchaser shall specify any freeboard desirea to airalmize or avoid overflow and damage to the roof and UP5)ier abell due to sloshing of ~e liquid contents.
b. ThE! base of the roof supporting col~s shall be rel!I'~rained to prevent lateral movement during earthquakes. WhE!ll specified by the purchaser, the columns shall be desi:lgned to resist the forces caused by the sloshing of the! liquid contents.
27
•
f
AL.A.KA
,
,
•••• MIC ZaN. MA~ PIClU .... ~.
( , .
r
••
£
0.8
NI'"
:II :II 0.6
• ..
0
'0.4
:a" I ~
1::>.2
..
0 ....
0  ... ._....... .....  ,..., ...
:~'"
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
D/H
FIGURE P2
~ 
..... ' Jl.O
,
,
( •• 8 ~
B
~I= "'
e.s
k "
0
~'= 0.4
ID.2 Xl
H
, .
0
" .
0 1.0 . 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
D/R
nCiORE P3 
F r
+
.0
t
FIGURE P4
to .. . .
1,.' '1' ~j . i::=t
..  t .
M  ..•
When > 1.5, =  =r=:
  __ ~ +'1'
. ~ .• 0 _ =._,.......,
_
. ..___
~
.~ 
I~~. ~.:
':,o.,..~' .
.. .__.
M <0.785,
rf! (Vt+L') ~  : ~"1:
.... ~ ~  
=_  __ ~ b c: wt + 1.273 M 3::==  _~ ~ "t::::.f
~ ± _. ._ =~:.._ _ .
 _~ I u . T~===r.: __ =.f
1::::=::::+11 _ !... ._j_ ._~ •. 11.. .. ':.!:::r.::: __ .l=. _. :._. :::.::t: ._.':' .. : .r.';.' :
o _ ~~ · .... __~_ ..... ·t_::··:_· _.....I·'.t~~.· , too :...1' ._,.. :"':':':~"::'1:.::::t=·.~.
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.~ 1.6
M
=t
,... +=_.+
=
+
;'
_ _

~~.o: _ ... _
 ~ .. =t= When
""""T"'
.....
1,;
f· T='f~r = ,. 
1.490
.__.__f:t.
_1_ ;.=_:;:::;::E
~, ~
'1' .!
.# __ ·1
iiL
11 
~F 'i:
=T
.·t· _
 t:
.
 .
~i~, ...
J;::: _ ••
_ 1 t
_.~  .!
~ 1:
30
,
p.
,
ZONE COEFFICIENT
Seismic Zone Per Figure Pl
1
2
__!_ 0.75
1..0
0.1875
0.375
Z
No earthquake design required" for Zone o.
TABLE pl
SOIL PROFILE COEFFICIENT
Soil Profile Type
A

B
C

1.0
1.2
1.5
S
SOIL PROFILE TYPE A is a profile with:
1. Rock of any characteristic, either shalelike or crystalline in nature. Such material 1Ilay be characterized by ,I!l shear wave velocity ;reater than 2,500 feet per sec:1)nd, or
2. Stl.Ef soil conditions wbere the soil deptb is less than 20CI feet and the soil types over lyin; rock are stable def~sits of sands, gravels, or stiff clays~
SOIL Pll~()FILE TYPE 8 is a profile with deep cohesionless or stiff c::Lay conditions, including sites where the soil depth exceeds 200 feet and the soil types overlying rock are stable deposit!5 of sands, gravels, or stiff clays.
SOIL PRC.FILE TYPE C is a profile" with softtolDediumstiff clays arId sands, characterized by 30 feet or aore of softto'm~diumstiff clay with or without intervening layers of sand or other cobensionless soils.
In locations where the soil profile type is not known in sufficilent detail to determine the soil profile type, SOil Profile C shall be assumed.
TABLE P2
31
"
APPE~~DIX 2
HORIZONTAL FORCES ON COLUMNS CAUSED BY SLOSHING OF FLUID IN CYLINDRICAL TANKS
~he follOwing presentation is considered a reasonable approximation for the determination of seisaic induced loads
on co:lumns. ' a
!be total horizontal force acting per foot of column length includes the drag force, inertial fo~ce, acceleration force of the column mass, and the acceleration force of an effecl~ive ,column of water. The acceleration force of the ' column and its effective water lIass are functions of the seism:Lc' factor. The drag and inertial forces are functions of th.! fluid velocity, u, and acceleration, u.
2dgT u=
o.
(HY) T' X
cosh Tr 0 cos 2fT T cos 1T 1f
coShfTt
( 1)
, 4fTdg
u= 0
n{HY) T X
cosh 1r sin 2fT Tcos fT 1f
cOshTrt
(2)
The average force per foot of column is:
ul~1  2
•
u
32
•
. "
.:.~ t7
y
Equation (3) may be applied to circular and rectalilgular shaped interior columns. Por circular columns, Dc' j~:s the maximWD dimension of the member crosssection as show~1 in P igure 1. The analysis for rectangular columns is based on an equivalent circular column with diameter Dc. Tbe drag jE~ctor is corrected for rectangular column to account for tJle additional resistance to flow.
a
FIG 1
Substituting Equation (1) and (2) into Equation (3) and i~lte9rating yields the following average force per foot of column:
cos21TT't cos1T~lcos 21T~ cos7rXI f.. H H\
_ ...... _= U __ ~~I_ .... 1J1_ \"'" 21T rr+21T W
. COSha_(1T*)
The solution of Equation (4) loca ti,on of the column In the tank. over t~be period of the sloshing wave out tll'e maximum colWln load.
is a function of time and An iteration with time is necessary to search
For simplicity, the design of the column for combined beamc:~)lumn action is made assuming the sei_ie load acts unifol~IDly over the full height of the column rather than the fluid beight. It is recommended that AISC primary column allowclll)les be used in the beamcolumn design since secondary
33
. ..
i
columrl allowables have safety factors too low to allow an additi'onal increase for the seismic load.
NOME~CLATURE rOR APPENDIX 2
•
~e following defines terms used in Appendix 2 only.
For ot,ner terms I see the Nomenclature following the main body of thE! paper.
• drag coefficient. A value of 1.0 is recommended for round columns and 1.6 for wide flange structural shapes.
CM • mass coefficient. A value of 2.0 is recommended.
Dc • maximum crosssection dimension of column, ft. 'd and'i • drag and inertia force on colUmn, lb/ft.
H • average total force on column, lb/ft. mc • column weight, lb/ft.
mw • weight of effective column of water, lb/ft. u • fluid particle velocity, ft/sec.
u • fluid particle acceleration, ft/sec.2
x • horizontal distance in direction of earthquake force from center of tank to center of column, ft.
1fDc· ~
I'nw = "4 _..
P • mass of fl~id, Ibsec2/ft.4
~ • time from beginning of wave cycle, sec. ~ varies from 0 to T.
,.
34