Their Political Intrigues,


*^ Like latnbs have zue crept into pcnuer ; like wolves have lue used it ; like dogs have lue been driven otit ; like eagles shall lue rene^u our youths St. Francis Borgia.


Eternal vigilance


the price of liberty


\2r e:N^E '\^xi!L;\jj^i^,




Entered according to Act of Congress in the

j-enr 1871,


In the
office of the

Librarian of Congress, at "Washington.

object of the present






tlie political

nature of






designs with regard to the American republic.

In the course of the following pages the author has



show that the Catholic Church



sically a gigantic conspiracy against the liberties of the

world; ingenious in


construction, opulent in its re-

sources, extensive in its ramifications,

and formidable



In proof of this assertion he submits to

the consideration of the reader a mass of irrefragable

and indisputable
on which he

historical incidents.


chiefly relies are papal bulls,



the canons of Catholic


Catholic periodicals under the supervision of

such as the Civita CattoUca, Bro7iso7is Eevicw,

the Boston Fllot, the Tablet, the Bamhlcr, the Shepherd

of the

Valley, the Faris

Univcrs; also the works of

Dens, the author of the Catholic system of Divinity;
of Llorente, the secretary of the Spanish Inquisition;
of Bellarmine, the celebrated Catholic controversialist; 0^ Ferraris,

the author of the

Catholic Ecclesiastical

of Fra Paola. tlie Catholic ecclesiastical of St. Liquori. of Streams from Faradise . Gavazzi has lec- Hogan. Thomas Aquinas. affirmations of civilized nations. entitled hy the church " the Angelic Doctor. Colton. The author pretends and to no originality. political organiza- tion. tured. have often uttered the cry of warning ." of St. of these authorities the veil of piety which is conceals and decorates the papal church partly drawn and her monarchial character. own. ambitious designs and treasonable principles. By means aside. the records of history. are distinctly presented to view.PKEFACE. and of a host of St. called " the " Honeyed Teacher" and his works Labbeus. the its Protestant pulpit has at intervals startled from drowsy slumbers. but nei- ther the one nor the other has been able to arouse the people from their profound slumber. but the The diction logic are. that the warnings of writers and speakers have died away with the . Bernard. Hopkins have written. and echoed the same alarm ." *' the Fifth Doctor. as faithful sentinels on the watch tower of liberty. Dictionary historian . but so is profound and death-like the torpidity which holds the senses of Americans in indifference. of other oracles of Catholicism. of course his facts and prinavowals official ciples upon which he bases his charges are the of the church." " the Angel of the School." of Moscovius. . and the The Infidels. despotic nature.

yet soon to weep ence. in despair over their present apathy and indijSfer- amid the ruins of their republic.^ Julj^ 4th. Baltimoke. JOHN ALBERGER. 1871. the impending doom overhanging enough 1 country and too soon ! their posterity. .PREPACE. But Americans must awake — thej will awake — if not soon enough to avert their alas. tones in which they were uttered. Md.


. of Perpetual Silence. Vow Vow of Poverty.CO 2^'' TEN TS. • . . . 32 CHAPTER V. . . Vow of Unconditional Obedience. . VII. Vow of Silent Contemplation. " " . 40 46 35 CHAPTER Monastic VI. 6 CHAPTER Political II. . 129 CHAPTER Pagan Origin IX. CHAPTER Monastic VIII. of the Monastic Orders. 22 CHAPTER Monastic IV. . 15 CHAPTER Monastic III. . Third. 136 . Vow Vow of Perpetual Solitude. Part First. . CHAPTER Catholicism a Political Organization. . . . .85 100 CHAPTER Monastic of Celibacy. . Machinery of the Papal Power. I. . Second. .

. Decrees. Oaths and 181 The Papal Monarchy. of Charles IX. Duchess of Tuscany the Title of Pope a Usurpation the Papal Artful . . of Francis . Jurisdiction. Cabinet. . I. of Hugh Capet. . . Popes tlielr Pretensions. Eevenues. of King John of Henry VII. Army . of James II.. The Pope's . CHAPTER X. . on on the Pretended Donation of Charlemagne on the Disputed Bequest of Matilda. of Philip . Papal Political Intrigues in France During the Keigns of Clovis of Childeric III.. . . IV. of Louis . Banner. .. the Forged Decretal Letter of Constantino the Fictitious Gift of Pepin . —Crown. of Pepin of Charlemagne. CHAPTER XIII.226 Machinery . . — . of Henry IV. of William and Mary.CONTENTS...256 . . Elections. 153 CHAPTER The Papal Monarchy XI.. the State of Italy under the Papal Government. of Francis II. . Character and Administrations. . his Opposition to to his Claim Marriage Temporal Power on . . Direct Authority to Slavery . Coinage. . of Louis XIV. Court. of Louis XII.. — . . Intrigues . . . . Spies. . — . and Navy. XIII. England Papal under the Keigns of Henry II. of Charles I. . . 207 CHAPTER Papal Political Intrigues in XII. Policy. of Charles II. . Section Two. .

. Sigismund of Ferdinand Prussia .. - John III.CONTENTS. Henry VII. of II. 348 . Catholics in the Revolutionary late War . Enmity to Civil and an Alliance formed for the the Subversion of the American Republic Duke of Richmond's Letter.. Sancho II. Dionysus Sebastian cesca . . Isabella John VI. lic in Imminent Danger Union the Only Means . of of V. I. I. of Charles .. 323 the Peigns of Recared L. .: Philip IIP. of Louis of . in the Rebellion . . Papal Political Intrigues in Portugal and Spain Under the Peigns of Alphonso I. . . Charles III.. Conclusion. .336 CHAPTER XVI. . . John . Bavaria. .. Philip II. Charles V. Dona Maria. of Henry IV. II. Charles V. . . In Spain Under — . of IV. of Frederic of Frederic II. Papal Political Intrigues in Germany I.. . Charles IV. Catholic . Catholic ImmiProgress of Catholicism the Repubgration Religious Liberty . Joseph . —Under the Henry Conrad of .. of Salvation. and Ferdi.. . . . Philip II. .. Maria FranPedro VL and . .. nand VII. in Papal Intrigues and in the Nether- 289 CHAPTER XV. Emanuel . Charles II. CHAPTER Peigns of Otho XIV. Protestant Persecution . in Austria lands. .. of Albert I. IV. Papal Intrigues Respecting the United States Catholic Persecution . .


between which a broad distinction has little is to be made. some in baptism. some in reverence for the clergy. GuizoT. some in rhapsodies. with nobler duties consist in doing fel- "religious mercy. The Boston Pilot philosophy. signification of the term we may arrive at a : definite conclusion respecting its classical use but if we by the popular acceptation. says: "I say the Christian Church. loving says: ." "There can be no religion without an Inquisition but Thomas Paine.) The Catholic Church it except the name of Christianity. Hindoo religion. a Political Organization. some in observances of church ordinations. and not Christianity. and endeavoring to make our 1* . We have Natural religion. Pagan religion. Civilization.CHAPTER Catholicison I. Among Christian sects some believe religion to consist in individual feeling. and as various as their features. p. thinks justice." which. w^hile *' is secretly a political organization to establish the suprem- acy of the Pope over all persons and things. Lecture 11. speaking of the Christian Church. and some in a are guided in our inquiry species of sentimentalism. according to Bellarmine's view. Hist. "is the main substance of Christianity. 48. we will discover that its definitions are as numerous as the inhabitants of the globe. some in problematical creeds and dogmas." If w^e have recourse to the lexicon to ascertain the religion. Jewish religion. and Mahometan religion. Christian religion." (Gen.

originate from its compound nature adapting it to designate one idea. un- essential to the nature of religion. under such . as every such objection will then become demonstrative proof that the Catholic Church is not only destitute of religion. affairs as made disguise unne- In courting popular favor. to be just. we find all readily admitting that it and correct conduct. it as the casket is and as distinct from from the gem. but even of morality. or a variety of ideas.6 CATHOLICISM A low creatures happy. the recogniand tions which it has made in its official capacity above all. the tendency of its measures. from the avowals it has uttered. Conduct to be correct must be in harmony with the rights of others. or without ceremonial observ- All forms are merely external appendages. is The signification of a corporate organization well understood. But while we rarely encounter two persons exactly concurring in an opinion of what is religion. the sanctions which it has given. it cannot invalidate any objection founded on it to Catholicism. or the body from the vital principle. they must be formed in accordance with truth and reason. an organization concocted to subvert the rights and interests of the ." The diversity and discordance which have arisen respecting the import of this term. If this definition should be construed into a definition of mere morality. but how shall we ascertain its principles . and designs ? Not from the tenor of its professions but from the nature of its constitution. human organism. may exist with According to this definition. a prosperous condition of cessary. and the principles and designs essentially consists in just principles of the religion ances. Principles are the fountains of thought and feeling.

and their ashes thrown into a river to prevent the people from worshipping them. what would be the legitimate inference from such facts ? Would ? it not be that it it claimed to be a political in its estimation to organization question its that was high treason ? its right to this character such a question in heaviest penalty? domains all and that to utter was to provoke its facts Did not these ? occur in Ptome respecting Arnold of Brecia the Reformation. it would then as naturally unfold its latent principles. from his time incarnadined in down to human blood. men should be found who are unquestionably religious or it moral. from.POLITICAL OKGANIZATIOX. people. been And in Catholic history have not similar facts. which pro- fesses to be of an exclusively religious character. a religious organization must be an em- . ? too deeply for audacity to deny or time to obliterate ? But what is a religious organization If religion is moral goodness. than to be a religious would the membership of the same persons to a railroad or municipal corporation prove such a corporation to be a religious and not a secular organization. members should denounce and labor to transform it into a purely religious institution. but when wealth and power had sufficiently fortified its security to enable it to scorn and defy public opinion. its most it irreproachable and credible as a political power. would. motives of policy. But if at periods in its history. If among the members of an organization. this fact would no more prove or moral institution. be 7 prompted to conceal its nature and design . as a summer's sun would hatch an innocently loooking cluster of eggs into a nest of poisonous asps. and for such a /' damnable heresy" were burnt alive.

nor traffic for self-aggrandizement. integrity it must be invulnerable . . nor descend . organizing its departfinancial basis. has any claims to be a religious or moral corporation. It must be the champion of the rights of human nature the friend of freedom. in order to subject them to its despotic domination. to intrigue. and In in harmony with the natural j)rinciples of man.CATHOLICISM A bodiment of its principles. equality of bigotry. the vow of absolute . No church which they form not a distinguishing feature. and liberality the enemy and despotism. nor slan- der an ojDponent. Any departure from them in in an institution. Its hands must be unstained with blood. nor prostitute its principles to political objects. Such are some of the essential characteristics of a religious or moral organization. Its claims must be commended by truth. a practical exemplification of its maxims. nor dissemble. in adherence to right inflexible. nor accom- modate itself to the vices of any age or country. Such an organization must be consistent with itself. enjoining an exclusively ments upon a the on its members vow of unconditional obedience. Now w^hen we see an institution. amid oppression it must always advocate the cause of justice. and amid ignorance general corruption the cause of education. amid bigotry it must always be tolerant. uncompromising. intolerance. in hostility to wrong. proves its secularism. It must never perpetrate a fraud. it Amid must always be pure. and a scheme in measures and policyadapted to extend the observance of its obligations. its measures sanctioned by reason and conscience its triumphs won by argument and persuasion. professing to be of religious character. nor cherish malice.

circumscribing knowledge. attested by the existing Papal Government. That such is cruel. national banner. carrying a war. and political institution. accredited ambassadors. main- taining a standing army. an organization is not a corrupt. from the church when we see it establishing schools to select and mould to its designs the most promising among youth. crushing liberty. . wearing a political crown. of its is established and that it is now what in the by the unanimous testi- mony acknowledged expounders. past it has been. erecting missionary stations among Pagans for the purpose of traffic and emolument. and exercising all the pendent monarchy. a naval force.POLITICAL ORGANIZATION. absolving sins for money. and by the spirit and acts of its past history . committing forgeries. the constitution of the Catholic Church is a fact. torturing who question its supreme authority. instituting universities to enrich itself by the sale of to divert the ecclesiastical possessions their honors. in order to enable them more successfully to administer to the increase of its wealth. manufacturing evidence. inet. Simplicity has been amused by modern Catholic apol- . burning those who oppose its pretensions having a national cab. denouncing reason. declaring concluding national covenants. » poverty. and corrupting and interpolating the text of ancient authors. anathematizing those who those disbelieve in its arbitrary dogmas. the vow of celibacy. despotic. religious military orders to extend and enlarge its domains. ministerial offices. in order to prevent them from having legiti- mate heirs. selling indul- gences for the commission of premeditated crime. it to concede that such rights of an acknowledged indeis more than credulity can admit. coining money.

But the Papal See has never resigned preposterous The bulls and claim to universal temporal sovereignty. authorities of the Catholic Church. must first obliterate the Papal bulls. Russia. . he must go to Pome and . to No ofiicial declaration has announced an abrogation of them." and have These preliminary must be taken before he can avoid absurdity or its the imputation of wilful prevarication. canons asserting this pretension have never been annulled. But this subterfuge can mislead only a superficial. he must attend the coming it his college of Cardinals CEcumenical Council and induce of all the previous Councils. political Eeason and conscience lay at the foundation of all power and if Catholicism is adapted to govern them. or by which the faculties of man have than ever been en- thralled. sovereignty it is absolute dominion over reason and conscience. He who would and the establish the contrary opinion. to annul the canons preceding Popes were " them accordingly excommunicated. temporal sovereignty of the most despotic and unlimited authority. Spain. wJio assert that his former pretensions to universal temporal sovereignty. steps and to declare that all the damnable heretics. ignorant mind. it transcends in despotism the most ingeniously contrived monarchy that tyranny has ever elaborated. convert the present Pope and nay. and that he now merley maintains his right to supreme spiritual authority. or any other government is is less tyrannical in its constitution the Catholic Church. As spiritual .10 CATHOLICISM A the Papal monarch has resigned ogists. the decrees of the Councils. The Pope's and blasphemous claim . una- voidably involves temporal sovereignty nay. They still form the canon law reiterated of the Church.

p. the Pope's organ at It will be all or nothing. what she has expressly or tacitly approved in the past. say : of the Civilita Cattolica. over affections." " Catholicity. 1850). Jan." " The Catholic dogma. abrogating decrees. infallibility precludes the possibility of act. and future In this opinion : all her authorities concur. if the same circumstances occur. and will always continue in every part of the Again: (Review.'"' (Primacy. 11 such a sensible of Infallibility is inconsistent witli change of prin- ciple or error of conduct. 1854). she rules the body. is exactly what she will do. cannot be carried to excess. Feb. remains always unchangeably the same. view. over interests. are tnarlcs Brownson says: "What the Church has done. Again : regard to every subject whatever. over monarchs and their minis- — The Dublin Tablet. when in conflict with To-day. expressly or tacitly approve. over science. and. commands over the ations ters. in view. as in all time. " From the darkness of ) the catacombs she to the subjects of ( the Catholic Church dictated laws Emperors. Jan. 1854). (Rein the future. Jan. Pontiffs Bishop Kendrick says already " All doctrine of definitions made by general Councils and former which no mem can remove. has always been the same from the beginning.." (Re- The editors Rome. the accredited organ . over associrules. 1865. as long as it continues Catholicity. in ruling spirit. in fine.. rules over riches. and when the Church Rome in- arrogates such a divine attribute. 24. 356). she avers that her past history indicates her present character tentions." the spiritual part of man . the Church Catholic ordinances. whether plebeian. world immutable.POLITICAL 0RGANIZATI0I7. senatorial or imperial.

then. Chandler.000 persons perished in consequence of the heresy of WicklifFe." heretic : sary. all bear witness against the The Paris Univers says "A examined and convicted by the Church. realm. is of paramount importance to every freeman. These have subjects only on their own territory. a 1865).000 cannot have less of the of fol- Catholicism than 500. and the Pope interferes and good Christians (Catholics) ^r^o' the Topes authority to that of the State. They also commit evil. It is the unfolding of her treason to the world. ministers. and possible to count the bloodshed caused it would be imby Luther. To understand. and a still greater number is for that of John Huss.. What is it 1 It is the development of her nature. says: lowers.000. De Pratt. and it not yet over!' Pope. and the Pope interferes. formerly an Abbe "The Pope is chief of 150. 2 It is un- .000 The Pope Commands more subjects than any sovereign more than many sovereigns together. the troubles of Piedmont. ! in Governments may and do prohibit good works.12 of CATHOLICISM A at this Komanism in the British. his speech. House of Representatives (of the United States). and I forbear further cj^uotations on this point. the Pope commands subjects on the territory of all sovereigns' — (Flag of the Union.) But the testimony is voluminous. used to be delivered over to the secular authority to be punished with death. Christian (Mr. defending one : class of citizens against the government. Nothing has appeared to us more necesunchristian opinion. denies the right . and in the Jan. the past history of the Catholic Church. says " The Pope is moment interfering in Piedmont. The godless ( non-Catholic ) colleges of Ireland. More than 100.

13 covering the cruelty and despotism concealed under her It is the revelation of her animosreligious profession. she grew in arrogance and despotism. men. When potic throne. and moderated her pretensions. Her trium- phal processions have been the most magnificent when her hands were the bloodiest. because Time. hurled her from her desshe coukl not command. anathematized. if in strength. If in her infancy she did not always designs. she has not her natural thirst for secular power. she always secretly her adversity she has moderated her tone. her monarchical pretensions. she supplicated. As she grew in . skilfully constructed to be a secret for the acquisition of supreme political power. crowned and uncrowned monarchs. as Vicar of Christ. she unsheathed the double sword. and her Te Deurti was chaunted with the most fervor when the smoke of her stakes ascended in the thickest volumes. and It shows her to the exercise of reason and conscience. invaded the rights and liberties of independent nations. and the gore shed by the double sword streamed in the broadest and deepest currents. because she But if she presumes not now to dare not assert them. to the progress of society. by a system of artful intrigues and bold usurpations. and hypoity to the rights of critically disguised under the semblance of religion. the symbol of ecclesiastical and political to rule power.POLITICAL ORGANIZATION. . tortured and burnt all who opposed . the avenger. destroyed freedom everywhere. avow her ambitious cherished them and. with or in preference to Princes. political organization. and when. she had created a colossal power that overawed the united monarchies of Christendom. and asserted her right. shackled.

whose artillery. in a letter dated April 29.. solve this He says: " The Church. who all possesses an ad- mirable gift of discretion. . whom Pope peril to her existence. but at a given time. and covered with a certain obscurity. blessed with an apostolic benediction point. to avenge the insult would be marshalled against her to . for services rendered. by so many bulls. 1854. into light something view. It is not because she has discarded the doc- trines consecrated ties. if she does not now attempt burn at the stake those w-ho reject her absurdities. battles and trea- but because she cannot carry them out without But let Brownson. which was hitherto in (Reconcealment. January. tear the crown from the head of the mighty. and in suitable circumstances. and who w^ould burn her for an attempt the reason of the extraordinary change in her infallible holiness is — palpable. who would if annihilate her for her audacious attempt. Pius IX. she does not now absolve subjects from allegiance to their gov- ernments. 1854).14 CATHOLICISM A POLITICAL OKGANIZATION. has prudently judged that she would not declare would bring things explicitly from the begin- ning.

That its to subjugate all secular Holy Catholic Church is artfully constituted and ecclesiastical power under authority. and the Councils do members. whatever changes the advance of civilization has effected in them. And though they have been suppressed. but to acquire temporal dominion. firmed by Popes and Councils. as the its Pope does head. must be regarded as a mere prudent accommodation to existing circumstances. and that its object is not to advance the the interests of moral goodness. In investigating the intrinsic nature of these orders. These Orders were founded by They have been conCatholic saints and Bishops. fact In they form the body of its its organization. As they are sanctioned by a church which claims the attribute of infallibility. . we are naturally led back to that period of their history which allowed them an unembarrassed development. must be admitted by every one that fully comprehends the principles upon which its religious Orders are organized. to be tolerated no longer than they are imperaIf in 1900 the Catholic Church gain the supremtive. on account of their corrupt tendency and political intrigues.CHAPTER The Political II. They may therefore be regarded as having been authoratively acknowledged to be constituted in harmony with in pontifical bulls they the principles and designs of the Catholic Church. yet have been defended as being the most useful and pious class of the Catholic community. Machinery of the Papal Power. in kingdom after kingdom.

each superior to the ab- who resided at Kome. says " Ever bearing in mind. who was the head and the chief engineer of the Avholo machine. nothing can be taken away — The religious Orders consist of anchorites. but sometimes in communities. although the machinery in some places is somewhat damaged. of perpetual celibacy. Each member was subject to the absolute authority of his superior. that from Avhat has been regularly defined no innovation introduced no addition made. as well as the admonition of Pope St. and is still. were soldiers of the cross. Agatho. solute authority of his general.16 ' POLITICAL MACHINERY acy in the United States which she hopes to gain. nuns and knights. By means of this machinery the monarchical power of the Pope has been. . who resided in the monastery ." there. and each general to the absolute authority of the Pope. They all of unconditional obedience to the rules of their Order. orders differed from one another chiefly in the style of their dress. instituted to defend propagate the Piomish faith by the force of The knights and The arms. with the in perpetual solitude. monks. in his Encyclical Epistle of 1832. and superstition which charPope Gregory XYI. and to the commands of their superior. and in assumed the vow of absolute poverty. The anchorites in general lived separately. as also did the exception of such as devoted themselves to the administration of the public affairs of the church. The nuns lived monks. in degrees of rigidness of discipline. and the assumption of additional vows. she will restore the despotism acterized her domination during the dark ages. the universal church suffers from every novelty. but that it must be preserved untouched as to words and meaning.

in every city. he should escape. but the recluse could only expect disenthralment by death. When and over every Catholic mind in Christendom. because she had arrived at age. By this act of piety he yielded up his personal freedom. or if. who had just passed her sixteenth year. A culprit might hope for liberty when his time would expire. of the institution which he entered. the civil authority Protestant countries has not interfered.OF THE PAPAL POWEE. If disappointed in finding the holiness which he fancied to hallow the place. but in this age of civilization ica. sealed. but Catholic ingenuity has discovered means equally efficacious. or chattel. was carried to a nunnery. the isolating superstition. relieved of the misanthropic gloom. and became ironed with the shackles of an eternal slavery. How many escaped nuns have unaccountably disappeared from society? "What infamous means have Catholic priests adojDted to their nunneries ? A young girl in Baltimore. but in free Amerin. he be- came the absolute property. as irreversibly as if he had signed. yet they were Who unable to reclaim her. and if captured remanded back by the civil authorities to the cold solitude of his Not only have these cruel deeds been prison house. that has any conception of the numerous applications of distracted mothers at the police station-houses 2* . and delivered a deed conveying to it his soul and body. and although her mother and relatives invoked fill the interposition of the civil authorities. —not only in despotic Europe. he was pursued. in every republic. a novice assumed the monastic vovrs. or the delusive representations which had induced him to enter the monastic walls. True. perpetrated in the dark ages. 17 exerted in every kingdom.

as well formed to bless. some of these mysteries might be resolved ? After the ceremonies were concluded which sepulchred the novice forever in his monastic cloister. the only conscience. the only instinct he was at liberty to obey. for their children. v/hen in one day eight mothers called at the dead-bouse to see if the corpse was not that of a that daughter w^hom each had missed). and desires were henceforth to be regulated. The most mind were For to be opened to the inspection of his confessor. and the voice of the Subjected to a superior was the only reason. mechanical automaton. the intrusion of a natural thought he was liable to the infliction of the severest penalty . its branches extended to every section of ChrisIts monasteries tendom. he became a passionless. .18 of rOLITICAL MACHINERY some of our large cities. feelings. the ambition of politicians. can avoid believing if the nunneries were open to public inspection. the ignorance of princes. pray and preach. as to curse. conveniently and strategeti- . his thoughts. it was discovered that w^hile its centre was in Eome. but by the rules of his Order. reason. suppress conscience systematic course of rigid discipline adapted to paralyze and stifle instinct. secret recesses of his not by the operations of the brain. soulless. of the j^riesthood and the intrigues had favored or cultivated the growth of Catholicism until it was matured into a colossal monarchy. and equally ready to do either at the mandate of his superior. who have mysteriously disapj^eared recently published in or that has read the account the New York papers. (of the recovery of the body of a young female who had been drowned. When the superstition of the masses. forge and murder.

children Invisible. states- men. women. none could tell for terrible were the revolutions wrought in the fate of in- . So sudden. men's business or domestic affairs were disarranged. the See of Rome became the recep- tacle of accurate accounts of the condition. men. their superiors with their generals. none could tell for what virtue. 19 cally located in different parts of the world. men were what crime miscreants were ennobled. and all acting in concert in every part of Christendom toward the accomplishment conduct of of one grand design . its best advan- and of commanding in its support the power of its every locality. judges. was felt everywhere. states. colall were objects which its leges. generals. its confess- ors penetrating the secret designs and wishes of states- men and spies. so nothing v/as too minute to escape scrutiny. actors. events characters of the various sections of the globe. its As nothing was too great to transcend aspirations. Monarchs. kings were astounded with ap- plauding subjects. or sat powerless on their thrones. professing all opinions. and its agents in constant communication with their superiors. legislators. armies rushed to battle or grounded their arms . while his power omniscient. none could tell for what cause. and their generals Avith the Pope.OF THE PAPAL POWER. bankers. and entering all associations and societies. merchants. schools. secret and blasted. the Pope was seen nowhere. and and was capable of improving every occurrence to tage. jurists. its spiritual advisers scrutinizing the opulent and distinguished personagas. He touched the secret springs of his machinery and the world was roused to arms or — silenced to submission. its under the license of Papal indulgences. but spiritual machinery sought to control. princes.

and the mystery which concealed the hidden cause led the ignorant and stupefied world to interpret them. that he might cut off its disobedient head at one blow. a despotism that ironed reason and conscience. a malignity that blasted for time and eternity policy in which all the elements of bigotry. who never . terror. an ambition that grasped heaven and earth. the cruelty of Mithri- who fed on poison to escape the secret revenge of his injured subjects. seen in the gloom of superstition has cast upon the to world. When we the Catholic organization. are. . as the manifestations of divine wrath. spared what he could suspect dates.20 POLITICAL MACHINERY dividuals and nations. it with improved which hurried him on to the destruction of the liberties of his country. for its irons are secretly manacling our own limbs. terrible examples of despotism. duplicity and obduracy were incorporated in their most frightful proportion. seems that all the inventions of ancient tyranny were condensed in malignancy. Before this conception we might well shudder. but they were limited to one nation. indeed. The ambition of Caesar. under the instruction of a calmly consider the disposition of it crafty priesthood. utter a solemn admonition the freemen of . mal- But in the — ice. that they seemed like the vengeful interposition of Providence. while he imagined the cold hand of his departed mother clasped his heart the jealousy of Commodus. the inhumanity of Caligula. and left reason and conscience unshackled. written in the blood of has butchered. who wished the world had but one neck. commemorated by the monuments of ecclesiastical rubbish which it it has erected. it the millions Its triumphs. penetrated Papal organization we find a scrutiny which all secrets.

Lis- ten to Pope Pius IX." who says third of The Catholic Church now numbers onethe American population. Grecian civilizaand tremble lest their fate become your own. declares that " the Cath- with its ought to be exclusively Listen to Father Hecker. Think of Egyptian. . olic religion. dominant. Let not confidence beget an apathy that of vigilance. tion. 21 Think not that the present attainment in Upas this all-blasting tree. in such sort that every other worship shall be banished and interdicted. America. Asiatic. whose sap is poison and whose fruit is civilization is proof against this boundless — death. or enervate the may close the eye powers of resistance. and if its member: " ship increase for the next thirty years. and it. in 1900 it has for the Eome will have a majority. Then dream n& more that your liberties are safe. when he rights." be bound to take the country and keep statistics Read the and learn the fearful probability of the ful- fillment of Hecker's prophesy. as thirty years past.OF THE PAPAL POWER.

CHAPTER The Monastic Vow III. this vow. and the latter of the hermits induced entirely. is The the first vow to which we will invite atten- vow of perpetual solitude of and these seclusion. so prodigally furnished by nature. yet they were invariably observed. in barren deserts. Piously^ scorning the salubrious and magnificent localities. of Perpetual Solitude. tion. some on the top of poles. isolated from hu- . and those which shall hereafter examine. we were not formally assumed. lived in solitary seclusion. Some lived under trees. and in the year 529. were the fundamental principle of the growth of the Papal monarchy. the nature and tendency of which The religious Orders we will proceed to investigate in the spirit of candid inquiry. they constructed their huts at the bottom of dismal pits. under the auspices of St. These orders assumed certain tows. Although at the first introduction monastic orders into the church. Catholic Orders that existed the former generally. and inhospitable regions they could hunt up. cheerless. Benedict. The devout misanthropy them to select for their habitations the most gloomy. the hermits and the Benedictine monks and nuns were the only . Until the tenth century. and in solitary wildernesses. Some buried themselves in the gloomy depth of trackless forests. among the clifi"s of rugged rocks. others under shelving rocks. and others in the deserted caverns of wild beasts. the express assumption of them became an indispensable condition of membership.

to subject themselves to voluntary torture. encircled their necks with massive collars. deemed the highest bation which the church so readily conferred on oddity and singularity might but at the first appear surprising. were Whatever conspired w^hatever was pleasurable they avoided as sinful and whatever was absurd. was canonized by the Catholic Church for his extraordinary attainment in sanctification. wild Another class of these eccentric devotees con- structed a number of contiguous dungeons. 23 man contiguity. nor wore any apparel except a shirt. and clothed their legs with heavy greaves. filthy. aliment and give pious advice. severe and bloody flagellations. until they became more horrible. when we recollect the immense pecuniary and . themselves into a sort of monastic community. because more unnatural. they imagined allied them to gods and angels. Anthony.SOLITUDE AND SECLUSION. and formed In the life. to imitate the habits of wild animals. and their aspect horrid and revolting beyond description. In the depth of winter they would immerse themselves in icy water. and covered with a profusion of hair. the to hermits sought to acquire the reputation of saints by attaining the nearest possible approximation beasts. and sometimes walled up. through which to receive In these dungeons they manacled their limbs with ponderous chains. and assimilated in aspect and habits to the brute creation. and disgusting. The approacts of piety. to comfort they considered profane . a small window only was allowed. . who was so holy that he never w^ashed himself. To make themselves revolting . these vaults they imprisoned themselves for door being locked. St. and sing psalms. Their bodies divested of decent apparel.

it sion. Silence. they adapted its forcible summary measures for execution. commanding edifices. they were really de- signed for the infliction of punishment. sublimest prospects of Nature. dreariness and desolation but when secular considerations suggested they occupied picturesque and luxuriant the localities. or who had excited their suspicion. nor avaricious sagacity. we will no longer doubt her motive. localities adapted to excite the sensation of loneliness. would congregate together. A singular custom suggested by this ludicrous institution may be worthy of a passing notice. whose celebrity surpassed their own. and though they were ostensibly constructed for religious purposes. they sterile trackless forests. and were shackled with all the irons with which criminals are punished in ordinary penal institutions . and that to protect him from the contamination of the world. gloom and solitude. order to dispose of a brother abbot.24 political MONASTIC VOW OF advantage slie derived from them. or whose circumventive genius they feared. in The abbots of the monasteries. and declare that the fated brother had arrived at a degree of sanctification that better qualified him for the hermit's cell than for an abbotship of a monastery. jealousy or revenge. were nothing but religious penitentiaries. in accordance . and to enable him to perfect his holiwas necessary to wall him up in eternal seclu- In accordance with this pious regard for their brother's sanctity. ness. These which often rivalled gorgeous palaces. were generally located in and other wastes. in which the inmates endured all the privations. according most congenidense and ally with the designs of the monastic institutions.

135).. Hist. Lect. and name under the In 118). p. and the "heretics'"' who have been confined in them. In fact the mod- ern penitentiary system has originated from them. and conflict with opposing habits and principles.. an abnegation of the claims of consanguinity. It surrenders the personal re- finement and moral strength which may be acquired by social intercourse. what light these religious penitentiaries have been regarded by their inmates their eternal seclusion has prevented them from publicly divulging.PEEPETUAL SOLITUDE. parental and natural This vow in contravention of the obliga- tions imposed on man by Nature. scientific welfare. Hist. contributing to the advancement of political cise. '* : 25 tliis "With regard to code The Catholic Church did not draw up a code like ours. have broken their enthralment. friendship and society and an abjuration of afi'ection. which took account only of those crimes that are at the same time offensive to morals and dangerous to Society. and and consequent development.. to improve society by its financial. Guizot thinks this is one of the great blessings which Catholicism has bestowed on society Civil. criminal more particularly in . It precludes the exer- of the varied powers of the human organism. Civil. vi. — (see Gen. p. have described them as the most intolerable of dungeons. but the few who punished Lee... and punishing them only because Guizot says they bore this two-fold character hut prepared a catalogue of all those actions. x. with the ecclesiastical code. The vow of perpetual seclusion comprises a renuncia- tion of the pleasures and business all is filial. (Gen. all of sins. a moral point of view. of life. social. It ignores the imperative duty of under- 3 .



standing and judiciously relieving liuman want and
misery, and of aiding the execution of efficient schemes
of public utility

and philanthropy.



not only in




noblest principles of


humanity, and the enjoyment, but it debars

the recluse from correcting any error into which he


have been betrayed by false representations, or an overheated fancy or, of modifying his condition according to the change which experience and reflection may have Yet, although such effected in his opinion and feelings.

and injurious consequences of the is proposed by the church of Rome, as the surest means of obtaining the sanctification of the soul and the crown of eternal happiness. If to bury our talents, to wall ourselves up in a dungeon to sit for years upon a pole to scorn the sociare the absurd nature


of perpetual seclusion, it



ety of




to reject the comforts of civil;

to retrograde into barbarism to assume the and acquire the aspect of wild animals to imprison ourselves where we can never respond to the demands of consanguinity, society, friendship and pawhere we can never contribute to the knowltriotism




edge, wealth or prosperity of the country of our nativity





of confirming the

then Catholicism has the honor most revolting condensation of these
really consists in fair dealing,

monstrosities that has ever disgusted the spirit of civilization.


if religion

in noble deeds, in moral integrity

tude, in individual purity

amid moral turpiamid general corruption, in

unwavering virtue among the strongest incentives to guilt, then the organization that sanctions vows subversive


attainments cannot

be admitted, con-




with the most indulgent liberality, to be of a

religious character.



our judgment,

we have presumed


the novices, in assuming their vow, were actuated


the laudable desire of obtaining the highest degree of

moral purity. This worthy ambition was doubtless the governing motive of a proportion of them. Either from the instigations of moral insanity, or from the vagaries of a distempered fancy, or from the misrepresentation of artful

and designing priests, or from the despondency which misfortune is apt to engender in weak, or too sensitive minds, or from a misconception of the natural tendency of solitude, men and women have at
times been led to assume the vows, and submit to the

penancG prescribed by the religious orders.

But there

were other motives equally, and perhaps more generally, active. Ludicrous as were their holy isolation and penance, still the sanctity which the monks imitated, and
the tortures which they self-imposed, were rewarded


world with profound homage and admiration. By undergoing sufferings which appeared intolerable to human fortitude, they
a credulous and

acquired the reputation of being sustained by divine



and, as their popularity increased in propor-

tion to their wretchedness, they labored to extend their

fame by adding to their misery.

Their sufferings and

fortitude alike incomprehensible to


reason, an

awe-struck fancy betrayed the public into the delusion




was the

results of


sanctity of a sublime elevation above ordinary humanity and of the interposition of divine power. These

misconceptions, artfully cultivated by the priesthood,



extended the fame of the self-tormentors Leyond the Kings and celebrity of heroes, poets and philosophers.
queens visited them with superstitious reverence


them on abstruse questions of governmental policy peace and war were made at their mandates and pilgrims from remote regions bowed at their feet and begged their blessing. Thus favored by the profound homage of all classes of Christendom, they were enabled with more facility than any other profession to become opulent bishops, royal cardinals, or monarchical popes. Such being their eligibility to the honors and emoluments of the spiritual dignities of the church, vanity was quick to perceive that the anchorite's hut and the monk's cloister were the surest paths to
; ;


universal adulation


religion, that

they were the most

respectable methods of becoming honored in


worshipped after death


avarice, that

they were

most available means of obtaining lucrative positions and ambition, that thay were the shortest roads to dignity and power. Yv^ith these attractive facts glaring on
the eye of sacred aspirants,

requires but little knowl-

edge of


nature to conceive with what avidity

ambitious would crowd into the most repulsive


with what eagerness they would adopt the

revolting habits and ludicrous privations of the recluse

and with what ingenuity they would indurate and torture the body, in order to win the applause of the world, and the privilege of selecting its most advangeous positions.
their cells

Accordingly, monastery after monas-

tery arose with sudden and astonishing rapidity,


became supplied not with aspirants after holiness and heaven but with aspirants after secular



and ecclesiastical dignities, and the indolence, luxury, and licentiousness which, they afforded. The pious flattery that was lavished on voluntary suffering, and the distinguished rewards which recompensed it, strongly tempted the feeble conscience of

monks and

hermits, to task their ingenuity in inventfor

ing contrivances





diminishing the real sufferings of their self-imposed By the aid of an improved invention an torture.
artful hypocrite could procure a greater reputation for

sanctity than a contrite penitent,

the worldly honors


thirty years,

and become more eliand emoluments of the Simeon Stylites, who sat upon a pole for convinced Christendom, by his wonderful

was miraculously supported while living he enjoyed its profoundest respect, and when dead was canonized by the Catholic Church. But an observer by describing the numerous gesticulations of this sainted mountebank, diclosed the secret of his artiBy means of a system of gymnastics, he kept up fice. a vigorous circulation of blood through his frame, and thus acqired a health and longevity which would have been incompatible with a state of inactivity. But it appears that he was tormented with an ulcer on the thigh, inflicted by the devil, who had tempted him to
absurdity, that he
imitate Elijah in flying to heaven, but

smote him upon

his raising his foot to

who maliciously make the ascenshortened the


mystical gesticulations

not healing, but

probably inflaming the wound,

may have

natural term of his miserable existence. As he had gradually arisen from a pole of seven feet high to one and of fifty feet high, if had not been for his vanity


his evil



company he might have gained a still higher but whether by this means he would ever have reached heaven may be questioned by astronomy and heresy but there is no doubt he acquired by his folly and artifice the beatification of the Catholic


The apathy with which the self-tormenters endured and the severe rigors of the seasons, was chiefly the effect of artificial callousness, induced by an ingenious discipline, calculated to destroy
their excruciating penance

the susceptibility of the nervous system to the influence
similar course of training has of external agents. always been practiced by the religious orders of the


Hindoos and the Mohametans, who, like those of the Catholic Church, endure self-imposed torture which seems to surpass human fortitude, and acquire by this species of ambition unbounded popularity. Even the
uncleanness of the holy brotherhood was an
skin, which,


formed a protecting incrustation on the surface of the

by covering the the
destroying their


the sentient,





enable the hermits to endure without apparent emotion
the cold winters and bleak winds of inhospitable forests.




known and


by some





consequently inof supersti-

flicted as a

penalty for crimes.

To the eye

clouded v/ith ignorance, and fascinated by the ignes

fatui of sacred fiction, the calmness of the

monks and

hermits under torments and exposures which seemed


humanity, appeared a palpable demoninterposition,


of miraculous

and consecrated
however, were as


in its estimation.





mucli tricka as are the mysterious capers of a conjurer.


the more artful and callous could endure the sever-

ity of penitential acts with, greater indifference than

the candid and sensitive they acquired a higher reputation for holiness,

advanced to the enjoyment



distinguished honors, and finally became canonized as

paragons of virtue and objects of adoration.

Such are the nature and consequences of the vow of Such is a portion of the " doctrinal definition already made by the general councils and former pontiffs," which, according to Bishop Kendrick, " are landmarks which no man can remove," Such are some of the Catholic (Primacy, p. 356).
perpetual seclusion.

dogmas, which, " in regard to every subject whatever,' according to Brownson " have been always the same

from the beginning, remain always unchangeably the same, and will always continue in every part of the world immutable." (Review, January, 1850). Such is in part "what the church has done, what she has tacitly or expressly approved in the past," and according to the same authority "is exactly what she will
tacitly or expressly

approve in the future,


the same

circumstances occur."

(Review, January, 1854).


same citcumstances"

the universal church, which Je-

suit Hecker, in his recent speech in Chicago, thinks the United States needs, and which the people (Catholics) will at no distant day proclaim.

Tlie Monastic



of Perpetual Silence.



of perpetual

religious orders




of austerity.

was assumed by several was observed with different deSome monks passed their whole

lives in

profound silence

others spoke on certain days

week and others at particular hours of speciThe modern penitentiary regulations respectfied days.
of the

ing the conversation of prisoners seem to have been

derived from the singular customs of the



The members
cealing their

cf the


orders, perpetually con-




and their

thoughts by their silence, appear to have concluded
that secrecy was the substance of religion.

He who

could conceal the best, and preserve silence the


the devout the useful credit of possess-

ing the most grace.


effusion of the

Holy Ghost,

which, by a prodigal distribution of tongues, and their
clashing jargon,


the primitive

an uproar, and which, by




had turned




down, had a very

different effect

on the silent

orders of the Catholic Church.

AVhile to the former

the latter


of all languages, to

interdicted as profane the use of any.


pass an entire

ered by the
of their


without uttering a word, was considfriars, as an unquestionable evidence

having received the unutterable fulness of the

and such the silent cowardice of error. I speak not of the secret signs by which benevolent societies recognize their members. is But the question of truth and error is of a less intriTruth is candid. murder. the one opens . Catholic "Whether the primitive church and the orders were blest with the influence of the same Holy Ghost. open and fearless error hidden. investigation the other denounces it . its breast to the. The one challenges . but of those associations which. is Secrecy able designs most generally adopted to cover objectionand. the profounder the former is. Although guilt. and every other infraction of greatest secrecy. seems to require some proof. or whether the divine spirit politely accommodates the nature of his unction to the demands of particular ecclesiastical exigencies. intolerant and cowardly. more objectionable are the latter. scrutinizing gaze of the world the other conceals If such its is features from the most intimate associate. the fearlessness of truth. before it can be rationally admitted that profound silence and distracting discord are effects of the same cause. . shrink from the public gaze. 33 Holy Ghost. while they are professedly designed for religious purposes. civil ordinations seek to shroud their intentions and machinations in the The traitor and the highwayman/ . less the to secrecy of the orders commends them inspires. the . Eobbery.PERPETUAL SILENCE. the confidence which candor than to the suspicion which secrecy begets. conceal their principles and projects from public view. in be suggested by discretion. cate nature. yet some other respects secrecy may sometimes it is often suggested by off"end All that against the natural sentiments of propriety.

All the devout who contemplated the commission of the crimes of murder. they acquired the confidence of the most desperate criminals. confessed to without alarming the fears of temporal none but to the silent monks. Secrecy is. The Jesuits. frequently murder. to hold their conclaves is crime that its perpetration can generally only be established by circumstantial evidence. it seldom means good . inaccessible retreats. These dumb friars were confessors. Evasion. always some ]3lot so antagonistical to reason and the welfare society that its projectors are conscious that publicity would endanger. but what unutterable deeds the taciturnity of the may mute monks sanctioned not be so clearly proved as naturally imagined. sedition. and as they never uttered a word. or treason. prevarication and disguise are the inseparable concomitants of guilt. The shocking crimes which the pious monasteries concealed have frequently been divulged by those who have escaped from their cloisters. bosom ceive through their agency the absolution ence of and reand indulgthe Holy Roman Catholic Church. it generally means evil . someof times robbery. naturally calculated to excite suspicion . caverns. But the commanded only by connivance of the church at criminal deeds could be the power of gold and the amount . . who could not disclose the startling secrets of their order princes. re- and dismal and plot schemes of blood and depredation. So tire to solitary forests.34 MONASTIC VOW OF afar from the searching scrutiny of the inquisitive. and perhaps defeat its execution. preferred to untheir designs to the taciturn fraternity. That it was exceedingly profitable will appear evident upon a moment's reflection. often treason. secret therefore.

curse or bless. of the confessional. without incurring responsibility. Although grimace and gesticulation were more clumsy and less varied in their signs than is vocal articulation. by way of explanation. violating any legal enactment. as the commission of the highest misdemeanors most imminently endangered the life and liberty of the perpetrators. rendering themselves amenable to any tribunal. to describe. the confessional The secrets of may be communicated from one priest to when a confessor desires to make public another . The dumb not less artful than secret. impugn. anathematize any power. it is as easy to see the munificent pecuniary advantages which perpetatrociousness of the crime. and. use of any in- formation which has been confessed to him. It it is to see that the most flagitious criminals would prefer disclosing may here be remarked. . elabor- ated a system of sacred gesticulations. as occasion suggested. supplicate. yet by this means the dumb monks contrived. slander to threaten any dignity. . as their intentions to the most silent lips. deny.TERPETUAL SILENCE. scorn. by which they managed to express their wants and desires with as much have done with their tongues. This odd device was well force as they could adapted to the non-committal policy of the religious orders. that confessors are not bound. command. imprecate. or answerable for the breach of any code of honor. is generally supposed. ual silence obtained for the monks. as it enabled them to aflirm. he adopts the artifice of requesting the informer to communicate the matter to him out friars. and commit any crime of which language is capable. requisite for expiation 85 was always in proportion to tKe Now. as to inviolate secrecy.

humor. and gratuitously assumed all the disadvantages that the greatest calamity could have imposed. cious It is mostly by the means of the judi- employment of speech that the ignorant are in- and the cause of truth and freedom defended. It is by it that error is detected. that It among the most prominent the characteristics distinguish human from the brute creation. it is is sometimes an un- ruly member. the lore art. The natural privations sons. but also the noblest blessing of the is human organism. find . the animating power of debate. science. The interchange sallies of wit. the burst of eloquence. affords an instance of the singular duplicity into ous craft of being may betray human is born a mute which the subtilty of piThe misfortune nature. of opinion. and superstition and despotism are structed. of such a person elicit in his favor the condoling sympathies of all considerate per- Yet in order to accomplish secret purposes of ambition or cupidity. exposed. and the If there aversion of the prudent. vice intimidated. the searching inquisition of truth. was nothing reprehensible in the taciturn fraternity but this curious departure from the natural use of the human faculties. the dumb monks resigned the most important advantages with which Nature had enriched them. the afflicted consoled. The tongue. the spontaneous the exhilarating effusions of of philosophy.36 MONASTIC VOW OF The adoption of this ingenious device to avoid com- pliance with unnatural obligations. justly classed among the most afflict deplorable calamities that can a human being. all the natural overflowing of the soul. it alone would be sufficient to subject them to the suspicion of the candid. it must be confessed.

TERPETUAL SILENCE. it is the most improving the moral and intellectual more powerful than legal enactments. convince the understanding. She is the great redeemer of the moral world. and all the prescriptions of tyranny combined. riches the more prodigally it is dispensed . slavery. and moulds the nature of man into order and justice. and him upon whom propriety ex- None can use with their vocal powers without improving them. It is action. . 4 . and has been more successful than dungeons. Her touch has healed her her voice has calmed its storms its disorders public opinion. bestows equality on all. spirit has reanimated its dead. She enters the halls of legislation and erects right into law. . but neither can mode of tone of society. Such being her mission. sifts opinions. it it blesses is him who ercised. most available avenues for the outlet of their respective treasures. It is a means which all possess of imparting consolation w^hich en. in the varied 37 of speecli tlieir and expressive functions is it. Speech exercises a reflective blessing. Laws may interdict and gibbets terrify. racks. and enthrones in power She enters a nation of slaves and makes them a nation of sovereigns. nor purify the sources of But freedom of speech enters the soul. trammeled by the efficacious fetters which is and sometimes the speech is free and unWhen of intolerance. often the most valuable. She enters the court and gives equity to judicial proceedShe enters a community and breaks the irons of ings. only one that can avail. none can instruct without being instructed. none can advocate truth without being enlightened by its beams. con- verses with the intellect. . which the always the poorest may bestow on the richest cheapest.

to human progress. it is not consistent with the instinctive prompting of knowledge or of natural sympathy. the reason. and to human sympathy. A slavery so abject. ent with the secret designs of any religious order to iron the faculties of speech in eternal silence. If it is consistent with the obligations of any religious organization to prohibit the exercise of those powers by which error is checked. an enemy to human knowledge. none but impostors need fear her scrutiny none but bigots need dread her vengeance none but tyrants . it atones not for the good it has prohibited the monks from doing. or the sorrows it might heal. nor the progress of it is not of dictate man. Yet. and a despotism so monstrous. consistent with the designs of Nature. and the world enlightened. the silent monks have resigned all right to its use and sought Whatever motives an equality with dumb brutes. is ^ a curse to the world. of religion may have mingled with the consummation of this atrocious folly. notwithstanding the immense advantages the power of speech confers on its possessors. virtue fortified. obligations and principles are consistent with the faith and practice of the Catholic Church. If it is consistent with the princijjles of any version of religion to view with dumb indifference the errors it might correct. nor the luxurious If it is consistpleasure it has obliged them to forego. And if such designs. need tremble at her approach. and the noblest virtues of his nature. an absurdity so gross. at variance with the general most sacred rights of man. the purest instincts of his being. she truth promoted. opposed to the .38 MONASTIC VOW OF . interests of society. it is not consistent with the obligations of man.

and her holiness to the scorn and ridicule of all enlightened nations and ages. as that 39 her rev- whicK she sanctions. .PERPETUAL SILENCE. should consign erence to contempt.

The Monastic Vow 37npi of Silc7it Coiiterrvplatioji PAKT FIRST Meditation not the Source of Knowledge. and depressed by what is gloomy. objects on It derives its it merit or demerit from the employs sion and the manner in w^hich it The mind receiving its impresfrom external objects. profundity being in proportion to the constancy with which they are contemplated. and where the faculties are cawakened to their severest and most rigid scrutiny. its faculties. and their vividness and which dwells. is the great college in which the under. and equally incompatible with a fulfilment of the obligations of reason and humanity. contracted by w^hat is illiberal. we as naturally become enlightened by what is true. Meditation. abstractly considered. Amid objects of reality. as we are misguided by w^hat is erroneous.* CHAPTER Y. amid scenes of grandeur. Similar in nature to the vow of seclusion and silence. and that ascend- standing is is invigorated and improved . ennobled and chastened in . expanded by what is liberal. fancy in which the which the mind acquires those maxims of wisdom. where the subjects are the most numerous and varied. is neither a virtue nor a vice. was the vow of silent contemplation assumed by many of the religious orders. and animated by what is pleasing.

and whose investiga4* faculties. None of are so absurd as knowledge history. tracing the chain of cause and Knowledge is the its material with which it works . But the processes the acquisition to expect to obtain a of meditation are not adapted to of knowledge. and. to acquire anything but profound ignorance or . of meditation is the act of comparing deducing conclusions. the intellect of a Gibbon. . with the expectation that by possessed the penetration of a such means. in proportion to accuracy and extent. will be the value and greatness of our elaborations. The process facts. powers. or of the laws grammar. or the versatility of a Voltaire. would be as ridiculous as to attempt to make our feet perform the hands. smelling. ency over impulse and illusion in conformity Avhicli 41 enable it to act with the principles of happiness and of the human organism. analyzing compounds. astronomy. arithmetic. and endeavor by the guess-work of meditation to acquire even a knowledge of the alj)habet.SILENT COXTEMPLATIOX. tasting and touching are the only avenues by which knowledge can reach the mind. He whose observation has been the most comprehensive. any ideas but what were unnatural. avoiding the objects of Nature and an insociety. and properties of matter. were we mure ourselves tercourse with in the gloom and silence of perpetual confinement. and effect. distorted and misshapen. ofBce of our to im- Not less absurd would it be. To obtain knowledge we must exercise the perceptive The senses of seeing. though we Locke. by the mere exercise of the contemplative To retire into solitude. hearing.

with which he has stored his mind. of in the vestibule of truth. scenes. . in order to be . events. sublimer periods than the pen He stands perpetually superstition ever recorded. The distinct and graphic imagery of men. inhale and enjoy the ecstatic delights which scientific truth empire of alone can confer. inducted into the secret by which science has achieved all her victories. clearhis ness to Possessing the judgment. and truth to his conclusions. elements of correctness. adapted to deal with objects of different natures.42 tiong MONASTIC VOW OF have been the most thorough and accurate. enabled to imbibe the fervor. He is pages of rocks and enabled to open the volume stars. they are differently organized and ers. But the acquisition of these exalted attainments embraces the exercise of all the intellectual power on apThe mental. is enabled to exercise the contemplative powers with the pleasure and advantage. objects and their properties. strewed with objects of reality. and read. before the blaze of ^vhose overpowering grandeur the throne and of Nature. are various . variety to his mental operations. will give correctness to his ideas. the inspiration. he will also possess the elements of happiness and success. in her He is fancy dwindle into insignificance. all require to be exercised judiciously. and which in intensity and purity so He is far transcend the fanatic's wildest excitement. opening on the fields of immensity. and. and by which she has erected in such solid grace ical structures and grandeur those literary and philosophwhich stand like imperishable columns amid the ruin of temples and kingdoms. like the corporeal powpropriate objects.greatest comprehensiveness to his intellectual view.

and marked with deformity and all all But when the moral faculties are properly employed. . another and a third paralyzed. in this condition. class enfeebled. it will lose its natural strength. their In consequence of a harmony. and a proportionable degree of strength imparted by one and. tion. . and others impoverished or enervated. effects The of indo- and the invigorating consequences of exercise. and decreased by inertia. defective.SILENT COKTEMPLATIOK 4a kept in a healthy tone. if any faculty is of the mind is disused. it will be deprived of its natural energy . a superabundant volume of blood will be distributed to them. distortion. they will receive their appropriate nourishment and maintain natural vigor. physiological cause of the enervating lence. Now. and our grotesque. and body only when each faculty of mind properly exercised that the health and It is vigor of the whole organism can be maintained. or those partial. the ideas which is the mind. One class of the mental powers thus becoming over-excited. some and either inflamed or constipated. capable of elaborating. whereby the blood is increased in a member by exercise. are found in those laws of the human organism. and they will absorb the aliment necessary for the subThe establishment of this insistence of the others. resembling those nightmares that in monsters which are born without limbs. . equality in the distribution of the blood will derange the harmonious condition of the cerebral organs will be overcharged. subtracted by the other. the faculties employed in the process of meditacomprehend but a small number of the mental powers and if they are exclusively exercised. disjointed flit must necessarily be sleep. If any member of the body is disused.

and. memory it. and the reproductive system transforms it into animal fluids and solids. to . Exerrepose. in storing it up. is A period of rest after labor of the health cise indispensable to the maintenance of the cerebral and vigor organs. . action — all knowledge. whose powers of contemplation seemed almost superhuman. conclusions from judgment in deducing what is most appropriate. raise may never afterward be enabled to tenth part of what was within his former and Sir Isaac Newton. is derived from the which all the faculties are calmed. fancy in adorning it. not only re- stores their vigor but increases their healthy volume. except those whose functions are destined to recuperate and vitalize the entire system. thus powers will be preserved in healthy the perceptives in furnishing the mind with tlie induced. and all proceeding as naturally as the vital organ elaborates and vitalizes the blood. ability . emanalogy in comparing taste iu selecting braced in the act of meditation. unity MONASTIC VOW OF and reciprocity of mental action. not only disproportionately develops the cerebral organs . consequent- prevent them from becoming vitalized. but deranges those which it labors to keep in incessant activity. To labor to keep the meditative faculties in constant action is to The invigorating efl'ect of sleep profound slumber into interrupt the process of recuperation ly. increases the flow of blood to their parts by inducing the process of recuperation. But the partial exercise of the mental faculties.44 equality. order in classifyit. after he had enervated his faculties by impelling them to constant the . The man who attempts to lift a weight beyond the capacity of his - muscular vigor. ing it.

appetite crave. has furnished the -world of the imbecility it engendered. particular nor particular kinds of will. by means of the theological subterfuge that the involuntary actions of the cerebral functions are the suggestion of impure and malignant fiends. over whom. But the principle of self-preservation inherent in the human mind. and that in the attempt to exercise one class of faculties and to concentrate : have grappled with a it them perpetually on one class giant. in conjunction with the natural condition of the system. We may.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. thought intrude. the sensations of contrition. than can storms and earthquakes. passion yearn. but this device will not exorcise them. ^Ye shall find that in the effort to become automata. wo are men . In spite of resistance the blood will pursue its natural course to the different organs of the brain. of objects. 45 with an and excessive illustration exercise. It -is impossible to think and feel by rule. or any other sentiment or feeling can no more be created by an act of volition. of hope. ties. a moral volcano will burn and heave. rebels against the destruction of its facul- Habitually to exercise the contemplative faculties class of objects is a on one superhuman task. There is a secret power acting on the nervous system. . by his works on the prophecies. of devotion. distraction ensue and under the external semblance of sanctity. apologize to our conscience for the intrusion of profane and worldly thoughts. and by virtue of this fact. trains of thought. if we we triumph Neither Belief or will be in our death-struggle. emotion arise. emotion are at the command of the unbelief. instinct will prompt. over which the will has no control.

46 MONASTIC VOW OF state of the atmosphere. all like unseen spirits stir the soul's depths with ideas and passions. he may discover new secrets in the and come forth from retirement a realms more useful member and a brighter ornament of society. the circumstances of the present. PART SECOND. not only against the constitution of the against the powers and elements of human mind. and the valuable results of an erudite industry. but Nature. is to war. the sanity of the system. of Nature. that they may be conjured and shaped by its mandflash. and sometimes as abruptly as an electri- cal ideas so To attempt to subject the laws by which and emotions are created to the power of the will. a philosopher may find in solitude an influence congenial to his high . he should maintain perlife in petual silence. of silent contemplation is cal- "When liberal education has disciplined the intellectual powers. The Natural Effects of the Monastic Vow of Silent Con- templation. . and study has enriched the mind with the facts and principles of science and literature. and continue for a secluded abode. ates. But if with distinguished abilities. The the unconscious power of imbibed principles. and the prospects of the future. always involuntary. the recollections of the past. Let us consider the character and products of the mind which the monastic vow culated to create. pursuits and with his scientific instruments enlarging his field of vision.

47 "win nor deserve the homage which they accord to scientific phers. in fact. fit themselves for the society of God and anThat such a motive has at times mingled with the causes which have induced individuals to assume the monastic vow. secluded from the distractions of and oc- cupied in silent contemplation on death and judgment. or to acquire either scientific or literary information. Some of their orders actually interdicted as profane any Filled attempt to cultivate the intellectual powers. and who had fled before the victorious it could not be exdeprived of social communion. been alleged in favor of monastic institutions of affording It has that they have originated and were sustained from a pious intention the devout an life. Such a plea. prisoned in solitude. pected that the monasteries with such material. he would be of no benefit to mankind. im- enervated in mental capacity. unnatural and pernicious. But the monks were very far from being philosoThey were in general exceedingly illiterate. would only prove that monastic they might gels. where. but had it been in every instance the only incentive it would not have made the act less irrational. and neither benefactors. . asylum. with mechanics whose scanty wages had precluded the possibility of a rudi- mental education. with abject and obscene pilgrims.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. or to anything but mental imbecility and moral monstrosities. with slaves who knew of nothing but manual labor. could ever give birth to philosophers. but that of war. is undoubtedly true. and restricted in the exercise of their intellectual powers. with soldiers who had no knowledge barbarian into obscurity for safety.

broken down by fatigue. in- congruity would become tasteful. fiends. and silent contemplation concentrated in on terrible and incomprehensible subjects. and angels take possession of the The productions of such a mind. The monastic vows and regulations were ill calculated to make men either happy. motive pure . prostrated yet urged to action. Encaverned in solitude. religious orders existed in India.48 MONASTIC VOW OF piety was identical with Pagan piety. but everything as disfigured. the monks could not become extensively acquainted with the objects of Nature preserving perpetual silence. Long before the origin of Christianity. being a transcript of its impressions. all another inflamed to frenzy. Mis- inharmoniously blended. one class of the faculties paralyzed. impossibilities credible. partial or complete insanity would ensue realities. act But an is may . which sought by means of the destruction of all corporeality and intellectual activity. or useful. and the realization of a state of perfect happiness. enlightened. exaggerations natural. they could not materially enlarge each others' information . . or superlatively gigantic. be absurd and pernicious. . visions. fBhadows and mind. or incarcerated in a monastic up in a dungeon. walled cell. while its and it is always absurd when its objects are imaginary. and pernicious when they are in violation of the dictate of reason. shadowy. exercising but one class of the mental organs. the mind overtasked with labor. an incorporation with the nature of God. lated from human contiguity. indistinct. would present nothing as real or symmetrical . Iso- they could not form the numerous order of conceptions perfected only by the review of all the faculties.

animals variously compounded of the limbs. claws. war and wound with material swords. with asses reproving prophets. They might regale credulity with an account of cities fifteen hundred miles high. women w^ith fishes' scales. nor but its an incongruous mixture of them all. and natural offspring. The scenery. huge giants. caught from the gloom of caves or where color but would be shape. nor fishes. Bhapen dwarfs. adaptation and utility would be transgressed in their creations. but whose forms were so hugely disproPatmos. men. the scene which he would probably would there naturally wear an infernal aspect. nor birds. and with angels whose heads reached the stars. sea. all in violation of the natural order of Nature. cloisters. 49. . and where corjDoreality and incorporeality would be compounded in every variety and degree of inconsistency. with immaterial beings fluttering on ponderable pinions. with snakes con- versing with women. nor demons. the other would rest on a portioned. . beings that were neither beasts. in horrible profusion All ideas of proportion. would be beasts with Men with birds' wings. human heads. nor angels. and incompatible with the laws of life. . If in the intervals of the monk's gloomy ravings he should attempt a more cheerful picture. . that while one foot rested on an insignificant portion of the isle of like portion of the Mediterranean forests. and beaks. but no symmetry where immaterial beings no contrast nor harmony would be represented as tormented with the flames and where they suffocating effects of liquid brimstone would shriek and groan without vocal organs.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. would spring from the distorted imagination of the monks.

assisted by the trumpets and harps invented by mortals and had pianos. the other recreations would prob. formed by the distempered brains of hermits and monks. of perfect happiness and of perfect misery. while they might be awfully effulgent or insupportably horrible. palaces of Christian Eome. The music might be loud enough to shake Nature to its foundation.50 MONASTIC VOW OF portray miglit glitter with. alters. of phantoms. . would be conflicting in their parts. that human enjoyment. fiddles and accordians been early enough invented. but it would naturally be monotonous. the monks conrules. would probably have chimed in the grand chorus. and by a splendor wbicli would be terrifying. is realities of truth. of metaphysical and of theological dogmas. or and such a strange commingling of inconof things gruities as might remind reflections of the huts and . inconsistent with pure ideas of men. What reason would naturally deduce from the char- acter of the monastic firmed by the facts of history. perhaps consisting of one tone and one song. vows and templated not the but the fictions of a first distempered fancy and while they scorned the as . Beside the music of the operatic troupe. and make the monk's very heaven so awfully common sense would prudently shrink from partaking of its glory. gold and gems AvHere they would be of no service but it would be pervaded by an awfulness whicli vs^ould be depressing. temples and palaces of Pagan Rome. gloomy companions. ignorant and amply conHoused with silent. which are constructed of the tombs. ably be so incompatible with the principles of repulsive. Thus the conceptions of virtue and of vice. eternally sung by beings without throats. . they too.

gave a vivid distinctness the and give so brought out the mental complexion perspective the and dis- . they rendered themselves The percepbeings. and the fancy combining them only into monstrous and hideous shapes. they punished themselves as criminals. After having manacled their limbs with the heaviest and lacerated their bodies in the most horrible manner. Conceiving the deity . and as they were incapable reasoning themselves. press to against these impressions. they trembled as less pit a fiery and bottom- yawned at their feet. distending the blood vessels of the visual and auditory organs. they accepted as truth whatever their ecclesiastical tyrants dictated. the temper of a slave As of they imagined freedom of thought sinful. they attempted to dislodge them by making abode as uncomfortable as possible. they trembled before the second as a dread reality. the mind became perpetually filled with the most horrible images. they thought of him as a tyrant and believing their nature depraved. appetites . 51 profane. and inflamed by disease. furnishing nothing but extravagant and perverted ideas. The superabundant volume of blood consequent on overwrought excitement. as a monarch. "While they labored fit by monastic rules and exercises to society of themselves for the God and angels. as to organs. they acquired . and regarding themselves if still as objects of divine wrath. they were surprised at finding that they had not yet destroyed their constitutional principles and chains.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. and causing them unnaturally to unfit for the society of human tive powers uninformed. Impressed with the their fancy that demons had taken possession of their bodies.

for it is certain that the more successfully he warred against nature and himself. the more extravagant his conceptions. not only with real disease. This fact is not surprising. realities. his sooty and sulphurous odor. they regarded the contrivances of animals as the undoubted fruit of a nocturnal adventure of the infernal inhabitants.52 tinctness of MONASTIC VOW OP reality. Less refined in their mythology than the Pagans. the sights and sounds ceived by fancy were recognized as real by the ceptive organs. and. yet they frequently had the uncommon fortitude of sustaining long conversations with him. foot. but with imaginary demons. w^ho regarded the earth. In consequence of the condiconper- tion of mind thus induced. with all his distin- guishing appendages. the more frequently he was honored with the company of demons. Although his visitations were most formidable in the shape of a woman. They often conceived that they saw His Satanic Majesty. the life The senses thus recognizing visions as of the recluse was doomed to become an incessant struggle. such as his cloven aspect. air and water as peopled with genii. they supposed that they had a hand in regulating the operations of Nature . the more diseased would become his brain. the more discordant his imagination. his peculiar horns. the more susceptible his senses to false impresions. . The more jjious a monk was. too unacquainted with the habits of the brute creation to understand their me- chanical capacity. naiads and fairies. and heard their diabolical whispers. illiterate or obtuse to account for natural phenomena. they conceived them inhabited by malignant fiends. The monks Too often fancied that they saw the misshapen forms of demons.

and its degree orthodoxly estimated by the degrees of personal familiarity with the Devil.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. whose condition was replete with causes calculated to create them. and with greater facility obtained the emolu- ments of ecclesiastical sinecures. the aspiring were too frail to resist the temptation of increasing their celebrity by multiplying the number of and as they could draw on an inexhaustSatanic visits ible mine of conscienceless inventions. had assumed the same obligaProfessedly despising pleasure and fortune. had with sincerity of purpose assumed the monastic obligation. the auditory. odors which are the mere products of fancy. The sense of touch not being equally susceptible of false impressions with the . the visual oigans may recognize images which have no real existence. the 53 pear. Sanctification having become the passport to worldly honors. but tions. they far outstripped the reputation of the sincere. more frequent and terrible would apparitions apand the better he would be suited for the company of fiends and spirits. and deliberately adorn them with the terrific and interesting incidents of . how much more vividly would analogous deceptions be likely to occur in the minds of monks and anchorites. If in the vigorous and wholesome bustle of life. secretly laboring to acquire their possession. and the olfactory. But there were others who. more ambitious of fame than of internal purity. aspiring after superhuman sanctification. they manufactured with more facility diabolical apparitions. sounds which are imaginary. romance. than those whichs pontaneously psrang from the over- wrought brain of the sincere. Such was the melancholy condition of those monks who.

could accomodate any number of devils. it was as convenient a hall of audience in which to receive His Satanic Majesty. and cutting up their impalpable substances in such a horrible manner that. they could not so well recognize them by means of meled by this ive faculties But the hypocritical. As the monkish cell. relate how comvanquished the they Devil by their elo- quence and the ingenuity of their arguments. a hypocrite was encouraged to labor to outrival the fame of an antagonist by the boldness of his assertions. Even at the period of the Reformation. the extravagance of his fables. and to look upon hell at any time.54 otlier senses. The crown of sanctification being awarded to the most unscrupulous inventor of pious ficitons. untramwould create by their inventany number of personal encounters and contact. yet they oftener tell how valorously they triumphed over him after a desperate struggle with his superhuman strength. like the human brain. and the incredibleness of his fabrications. and not seldom. as it was an area for the scientific manoeuvering of his legions. they retreated in. the popular belief recognized the Devil and his imps as often vis- . how alone and single-handed they encountered him in command of a battalion of fiends. bleeding and demoralized. limitation. inflicting on the spiritual bodies of the demons such deep gashes. Under such circumstances we are not astonished to find that some claimed to have obtained a perfection in holiness that enabled them to see the Devil anywhere. terrific battles Although the monks sometimes pletely with the armies of the infernal regions. wild disorder. MONASTIC VOW OF while the sincere might see demons and hear their voices. wounded.

even at the present day. PART THIRD. passing through the dusky form and striking the wall beyond. for the purpose of embarrassing him in the execution of his useful design. 55 Martin Luther. he threw at His Satanic Majesty an inkstand. while engaged in translating the Bible. Annoyed at this unceremonious and impertinent intrusion.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. It has been alleged. conceived that he saw the Devil enter his study. wuth apparent plausibility. that history has sometimes been led into the error of recording them as real events . gave such credit to their extrav- agant productions. this noble virtue can be justly claimed for only a few of them sense. fortunately. un- favor of monastic institutions. . in But. ible. still a measure the and to contaminate the creed and ritual of reformed churches. that they were during the middle ages the protectors of learning. they continue superstition. The Ignorance and Corruption induced hy the Monastic Vow of Silent Contemplation. that. left a stain which is visible to this day. which. and the craft or credulity of the church in incorporating them in her devotional books has so deepened and perto govern in petuated reverence for them. The profound homage won by the monks from igno- rance and superstition. and for that Some of the inmates being unfit for few in but a limited more remu- .

and abject servitude Avere versions. as that they w^ould mar them wdth errors. and interpolate them with forgeries furnish authentic and wilful corruptions. The aged and monks were thus employed is and. was the literary honesty of the religious and such likely to be the character of their manuscripts. were to be burnt. as the multiplication of manuscripts of preserving the most efficient mode what is written on the perishable material of paper and parchment. manu- scripts. them to The learned Eeuchlen earnestly remonstrated against the imperial decree. not to produce accurate copies. converted to w^orks. it is not as likely that the monks would and reliable transcripts. all of Old pernicious tendency. on others as a penance. and succeeded ia the latter. illustrate the incredible ignorance of the ages. obstinate bigotry. the not to truth. Catholic clergy during the Christianity' but dark A Jew. but to consume time or do penance. But invetr erate prejudice. at the horrible revelatation. the ignorance and superstition of the age favored rather than obstructed the perpetration of any A few facts will pious fraud they might contemplate. ordered . embellish them with fancies. and governed by the misleading principles of their order.56 nerative MONASTIC VOW OP employment were subjected . to the drudgery of copying manuscript Benedictine sometimes the task w^as imposed infirm of the . having persuaded the Emperor Maximilian that the Hebrew Testament excepted. gross ignorance. while they ill qualified to render correct were well adapted to the perpetraTranscribing tion of fraud and corruption. "While such orders. these monks have contributed to the preservation of learning.

the former was induced to appoint as umpire the archbishop of Spires. nor the African clergy understood the Latin language. 1186). they denounced its alphabetical char- of some profane So obstinate was their opposition to Hebrew the diabolical invention literature that they declared their readiness to support their cause at the point of the sword. was regarded magician converse with infernal demons. would comprehend among their the true It . composed of the most influential bishops.. god. Bible. Hebrew acters as sorcerer. Neither the Pope nor the cardinals having sufficient learning to decide on the merits of the question. believe it. St. Pope Sylvester as a from the whose literary attainments were superior to those of the clergy of his age. 63.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. pronounced the doctrine of the antipodes a blasphemous heresy and Pope Zachariah degraded a friar for in. might reasonably be supposed that the ecclesiastical councils. and as for the years ensued. who was ignorant of the Greek tongue. A controversy So grossly ignorant were the clergy that not one of them with whom Reuchlen debated had ever seen a Greek Testament. who held unhallowed Augustin. {Hilar. c. nor the Vandal clergy. St. p. having of ten its 67 execution postponed until the matter of the allegation could be critically examined. whose decision happily rescued oriental literature II. and excommunicated all Catholics who should The patriarch Cyrille declared that neither he. priests and abbots. and whose learning was sufficiently superficial to prepare him for canonization. Hilary asserts from his personal knowledge that but few of the prelates in the ten provinces of Asia preserved the knowledge of dorsing it. de Synodis. flames of the stake.

bishop of Heraclea. though few could write their names. Speaking of : canons the author says " These canons are inaccessible to the majority of the American people. formerly a Catholic priest of Philadelphia.58 MONASTIC YOW OF scholars. lords Among the crowd of slaves. comprising an essay as it is. the sign of ignorance." and Cassian charges the Egyptian monks of having ignorantly preached Epicurean Paganism as the gospel of Christ. the Nicene bishops were "a set of illiterate. time were composed of men. He who argues with Catholic priests must have had his education with them. the sign of the cross. " A Synopsis of Popery. not only ignorant of but of the scriptures. and priests that thronged the convents. members many distinguished the authority of Pope Gregory the councils at his letters. meaning and with the purport or who have been educated Catholic priests have much or any acquaintance.. by Silas Andrew and Son." published at Hartford. simple creatures that understood nothing. " Auricular Confession and Popish Nunneries. even of theologians. According to the testimony of Sabinus. he must be of them and from of them none but those . yet according to II. soldiers. That the literary progress of the church has not kept pace with the progress of the world." entitled. as it was and and another entitled. in 1850 a work that may be profitably consulted by parents who educate their daughters at nunnery schools. and by gentlemen who contemplate forming matrimonial alliances with ladies who have — been accomplished at such the ecclesiastical institutions. was a general of executing contracts. will be attested by a few extracts from a work written by William Hogan. as all could mode make it.

he must submit implicitly to what bishops teach.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. p. to some of them dated from 300 1000 years before they were written or thought of. this is all they are required to learn and hence it is that these people are unacquainted with the pretensions of the . and for which they are willing tion to fight. canons. excommunications and interdicts. fundamentally or not fundamentally. under pain of the great mass of Catholics ' its popes. showing more clearly than perhaps anything else the extreme ignorance of mankind between the third and ninth century. he must know that they will scruple at no forgery ivhen they desire to establish any point of doctrine. in driven into their controversies with Protestants. He must know from experience that they will stop at no falsehood where the good of the church is concerned . This know of . that it is infallible. bulls. I am is not even hazarding an asser- them that has read knows any more about the religion he professes than he does about the Koran of Mohammed. 10). Again. priests and that and is all damnation/ religion . and that if still diffi- culty they will have recourse to the archives of the church. He Is told by the priest that Christ estabI say there when not one of the gospel through." " when these forgeries were 9. which that is not taught by the church . where they keep piles of decretals. he observes: The majority of Catholics in this country know no- thing of the religion which they profess. or that lished a church on earth . and shed the blood of their fellow beings. to admit nothing and deny everything. palmed on the {Synopsis. world. he must be aware all it is a standing rule with the Popish priests. ready for all such emergencies. contend. receipts. 59 among tliem.

and so grossly superstitious.- Speaking of the theological education " During the four years I spent of the priests. UnI scarcely ever heard of a Bible. It was. they (the scriptures) nopsis. formed no portion of the education of the students." (Au7'ic. know may be I not of one in any parish of Munster. in fact. that out of the large number of students there for the ministry. The pen of transcribers. A doctrines of those raving dreamers called holy fathers. The Bible. 79.60 MONASTIC VOW OF Pope. Confess. 1. so generally ignorant. the metaphysics and mystic . except such as are found in detached passages. we had no veneration for. as he pleases. except it a Latin one. Wc were taught to rely upon them morals. right of private judgment was entirely denied us. and dealt with accordingly. fathers of the But . but a dead letter in the college 'sealed book to us." (Si. 29). I studied closely the holy as our sole guide in church so did most of the students. he says in the college of Maynooth. and the only correct interpreters of the Bible. But to return to the consideration of the monks. p. vol. in works of controversy til I went to college between Catholics and Protestants. the sophistry. there was not one who read the gospels through. and the imposition practised on them by : their bishops and priests. of whom. it was a in truth. is It my firm conviction. 80). if now living would be deemed mad. which each priest may or may not have. many p. the intrigues of the Jesuits. could not render authentic manu- .. though there were not an equal number of students who were obliged to study more closely the sayings. nor even portions of them. and represented as the source of multifarious errors.

to corrupt such parts as might by perversion be made to administer to its support . instituted. Had the New Testament been sub- jected to a similar ordeal. scripts . concurred in establishing Catholicism. the copyists would esteem a Christian duty to omit such parts of a manuscript as militated against the truth of their religion . such for instance as the to the gospels. and to interpolate such parts with occurrences and apparent incidental allusions to the omission of which was fatal to its credand thus by a system of typographical frauds. and the monkish corruptions which once perverted the meaning. learned Strauss. the love of truth supplanted by a careful regard to the interests of the church. As ignorance could and it not transcribe masterly.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. ibility . deliberate falsehoods and artful perversions. intentionally. the impossibility of its effectual perform- ance will appear without a doubt. defending the grossest frauds and the boldest interpolations. unlike the canonical scriptures. contrive to make it appear that all Jewish and Pagan literature events. so superstition would pervert Conscience paralyzed by bigotry. in his Life of Christ. 6 . have been subjected to the purifying process of rigid criticism. Infidels might have fewer objections and the credit of these sacred books be far better sustained than it has been by voluminous commentaries. The classics. are in a great measure eradicated from modern editions. 61 when w^e even when actuated by the best intention and recollect that the task which required the exercise of an enlightened and vigorous intellect was devolved on the most diseased and infirm of the religious orders. declamatory sermons and conflicting polemical works.

happening once to find a proscribed volume. Young Chrysostom. in the destruction of the Alexandrian library. which refute. For this purpose the secular power was invoked. declared he had been scourged by an angel for reading the productions of Virgil. baffled the talent The bare thought of the existence of works and learning of the church to irritated the sensitive piety of the monks beyond endurance. consigned to the flames the literary treasures of antiquity. and vengence had not left a vestige of any of them remaining. With not less bias- . in order from perusing any of the heathen authors. The persecution against philosophers and their libraries was carried on with such pious insanity that besides its causing piles of manuscripts to be destroyed. lest some vol- ume contained in them should jeopardize their lives. letters men of burned their elegant libraries. St. the Church boasted that God had not left a work of hostile literature in existence. and laws were framed prescribing the severest penalty for those who should read or possess a Pagan production. Jerome. led also to wage an exterminating it war against those profane productions which could not satisfactorily answer. except what was quoted or perverted in the works of Christian apologists. gave himself up to deter his readers for lost. The Orthodox Theodosius.62 MONASTIC VOW OF which induced it Tlie bigotry or fear of the church. They pursued the masterly productions them was of Celsus and Porphery with an unscrupulousness which seemed to indicate that the annihilation of to in- dispensable the existence of Christianity. it to corrupt the works of ancient authors. After malice had ferreted every crevice where a proscribed volume could be secreted.

in transmitting to Pome a report of all important events occurring within the limits of his jurisdiction . ridiculous fancies are presented. 63 phemy and bigotry lias tlie same absurdity been echoed by dishonest. are the following passages conceded by in all scholars to be entire fabrications. . prefect of Judsea at the time of Christ. Prominent among the numerous instances of this disregard to truth. of the faith that destroyed Beside the destructive hostility of the monks to the formidable literary obstacles which embarrassed the vindication of their theological subtleties. their zeal led them to perpetrate the grossest forgeries in order to manufacture historical data in their favor. Phlegon. for the massacre of a. which according to prefectorial custom was encumbent on him. and the alarm and weakness them. that it has left no work in existence belonging and hence where knowledge is to the period of Christ the most needed the historian finds the least and where the facts might be expected to be the most abundant and of the clearest description. ignorant theologians of all ages. in a governmental despatch. in which he of the sun is The passage the works of made to speak of a total eclipse . The necessity for this destruction proves the power of the works destroyed.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. which represents the author as incidentally referring to the death of a son of his as having occurred in consequence of a jealous order issued by Herod .11 children under two years old the Epistle of Lentulus. and a simultaneous earthquake a passage in Macrobius. So wide and unsparing was the monkish war against classic literature. who is represented as describing the person and character of Christ. the wildest and most .

son of near Tangiers. The monk Jerome. relating to a robber called Nun and all the passages found in Jo. that but few of them adopted it. and thereby impressing his features on it. Tiberius. in the fourth century. was declared by the Council of Trent. in which he is made to relate the alleged cir. to be " authentic in all lectures. the Vulgate. in 1546. king of Edessa. The product by compiling a Bible with genuine of this laborious exertion was. sermons presume to reject But in attempting and expositions. politely accommodated the legation the Epistle of Pontius Pilate to the Emperor . so unsatisfactory to the theological tastes of the churches. sent ambassadors to Christ to solicit the favor of his portrait. this base species of dishonesty seems to have fearfully increased with the growth of the Church. which is a modification of his Bible. complains own works had been altered and the practice of . Although Jerome's labors were but imperfectly appreciated during his life." to execute this decrts^. that his who wrote in the second century. or to the results of their critical examinations.ted Joshua. cumstances of the death and resurrection of Christ the fabulous inscriptions on two fabulous columns. and no one shall it under any pretence whatever. sephus in reference to Christ.64 MONASTIC VOW OF it is the legend of the Veronica handkerchief in which related how Abgarus. said to be situo. the startling . and how wiping his face with a handkerchief. finding the versions of the scriptures which were received by the churches as authentic exceedingly conflicting. how- ever. it caused. Origen. as he had materially approximated toward furnish- ing a catholic desideratum. undertook to abate the scandal text. dis- putations. yet.

ingenuity. the Pope appointed a learned committee to prepare a Bible which should have genuine text. or having none. he anathematized all who should alter its text or reject his authority.. but the task exceeding his learning and Pius V. Pope Pius IV. who also made a Bible which his judgment or prejudice pronounced to be authentic. the greater number of the churches were actually in a situation which made them unconscious infidel conclaves. not having the fear of his infallible predecessor's anathema before his eyes.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. in consequence of the liberty which translators had taken with the essentially differed from one another . Determined that Christendom should be reduced to the alternative of accepting his version. To relieve them from this perilous predicament. of the Vulgate. In 1590 Pope Sixtus V. his efforts were alike unproductive of satisfac- tory results. in which he consigned to the care of the Devil and his angels all 6* .. He was followed by Pope labored in vain. it only increased the confusion it had attempted to remedy. next tried his hand at perfecting and correcting the scriptural text . and that as the Council. But Pope Clement VIII. not according with the Pope's theological fancies or secret designs. and promulgated it from his throne as genuine and authoritative. amid a heavy storm of Vatican thunder. that each church believed in a different Bible \vas impossible to that it determine which divine book was . made another Bible. had forgotten to designate which copy of the Vulgate was the genuine one. fact 65 became evident that the copies text. was rejected. inspired by the Holy Ghost. But the Bible elaborated by this comthe least corrupted mittee. If disbelief in the Bible is infidelity.

A year had. however. to whose joint scrutiny the Bible . and Bishop Belson. Notwithstanding an incessant tinkering for ages by the ablest theologians. The manuscripts from which they made their translations being exceedingly corrupted and discordant. is the product of forty- seven celebrated Biblical scholars. to correct its glaring inconsistencies incurring the vengeance of his own anathemas. Cardi- nal Bellarmine. to mend the numerous flaws in the Catholic word of God. who was deeply versed in Biblical erudi- of popularity for sanctity. and decided which was the correct rendering by the authority of a majority of sufBut this logic was not appreciated by Dr. of the holy scrip- known as James' Bible. that in order to any agreement. every well-informed Eomanist admits. they put the question concerning a disagreement to vote. that to and who in life had obtained such an eminent degree when he died a guard had be placed over his corpse. scarcely elapsed when he him- was obliged self . or said in favor of the received version that it is the best that has been made. after three years' labor. to prevent the devout from it robbing of its garments vend them as relics — who wished preserve — declares that the most that can be to is. tion.66 MONASTIC VOW OF wlio should presume to correct the work of his infallible hands. and prevent the production of as many Bibles as there were translators. the one in present use is far from being perfect. The authorized English version tures. Smith frages. the renderings consequently were so irreconcilable on conflicting and any principle of philological or exeefi'ect getical criticism. that while all the previously received versions of the Vulgate are too grossly corrupted to be defended.

perversions. The doxology at the conclusion of the Lord's prayer. Jude. John. Lardner Hebrews. that in comparing the documents together 130. afi'ecting the word out of six. John. they have equally extorted from Protestants the unwilling admission that their version is corrupted with undoubted forgeries. John. rejects the Gospel of St. it to a further process of purifica- W hile philological criticism. the Second Epistle of St. James. most distinguished among Biblical scholars go further.253 words. The Greek Testament comprehends 181. Matthew. St. yet such is the number of mistakes. the Epistle of St. and they accordingly subjected tion. and the book of Revelations. have wrung from Catholics the reluctant concession that the Vulgate needs a revision. Peter and the First Epistle of St. Those discrepmere spelling of a word in some in- . Bretschneider. the Second Epistle of Peter. scripts showing that the manufrom which the Nev/ Testament is translated. the Gospel of Luke. the story of the rich arus. the Epistle of St. are universally conceded by scholars to bo wilful fabrications. the friend and confident of Joseph IL of Austria. St. 67 tHus manufactured was afterwards submitted. the story of the man and Lazand the story of the adulteress. and investigations con- cerning the genuineness of the sacred text. the Epistle to First the Colossians. the Gospel of St.000 various readings are detected. the Epistle of St. Dr. forgeries and interpolations in the existing manuscripts. Mark. Evanson rejects the Gospel of St. the Epistle to the Ephesians. the Epistle to the Romans. The pool of Bethsaida.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. are not correct in one ancies. rejects the Epistle to the Dr.

and. has suffered many a mischance at the hands of those who have used and studied it. . and for sale find by the New the York booksellers." duction. . they it . when they arise from his carelessness. like Luther's. between the second and fourth centuries Scholgreater antiquity than those of as well as others in Latin. 2). since its origin in the first century. the sense of a passage. Erasmus and Stephens and Gothic. into which languages the sacred text was translated. The conviction is equally irresistible that those . "When mistakes in a mianuscript arise. in otiiers. publislied by Tauch- English. they are demonstrations that he did not believe in its divine inspiration. of far . from the ignorance or incompetency of the copyist. than the tenth century. they invalidate its authority . vSince the sixteenth century Greek manuscripts have been discovered. . at Leipzig. is as undeniable as all that they deliberately and intentionally marred the Biblical manuscripts that passed through their hands. . That the religious orders did not believe in the divine inspiration it is of the holy scriptures. are of all degrees of importance. 1. was made from a Greek text which Erasmus in 1516. are proofs that he entertained no reverence for and when they to corrupt occur from a deliberate intention on his part and to interpolate it.68 MONASTIC VOW OF stances. The authorized version. and Eobert Stephens in 1550. had formed from manuscripts of later date . the following: "But Greek text of the apostolic writings. p. in New we Testament. Syriac. Coptic ars are much divided in opinion as to the readings {Intro- which most exactly convey the word of God. In Tischendorf 's nitz.

) ( All the letters and desimilar frauds are numerous. good of the Church. and his into the people to hands of the perfidious Saracens. p.of Conupon first reading. pronounced to be the work of a drunken man. 6§ by using in defi- who sanction the corruptions of the sacred text as authority. . them and those who defend them ance of the irrefragable proof of their spurious character. and will confess the obligation . Pope Stephen II. Patriarch . to Pope Gregory the Great are The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinth- . merous works ascribed genuine.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. the saints. unan- adopted sons. to which I will Of this description is the Decretal Epistle of Constantine the Elder. forged a letter. that riches. and that eternal damnation will be the penalty if they suffer his tomb. forfeit all claim to a reputation of common honesty. that . In document.. he is still active in the spirit that they now hear and must obey the voice of the founder and guardian of the Roman Church that the virgins. victory and paradise will crown their pious enterprise. vol. the of France. attributed this its authorship to the spirit of St. and after his death. of the Pope's claim to temporal sovereignty and also the Creed of Athanasius. and the nobles dead in the flesh. forged two hundred years and which Gennadius. according to Gibbon.. stantinople. All ranks of the Church seemed to have become infatuated with an ambition to be forgers. xlix. There is another class of forgeries perpetrated for the briefly advert. and all the host of heaven. the clergy. imously urge the request. Peter. " The apostle assures his King. v. chap. addressed to Pope Sylvester —the foundation . But few of the nucretals of Clementine are spurious. The evidences of 26. fall Dec. his temple.

To establish a historical basis for some pious imposition. . that every doctrine for which they have been fabricated to prove. p. and intent only on supporting to ambitious pretentions of the Pope. at the suggestion of interest. altered. designs of the church. Sirmund shows that the Kicene canons have been corrupted. the existence of . Kig second Epistle to the Corinthians.credit of their dogmas. The Apocalypse was rejected as spurious at the Council of Laodicea. 1-234). are entire fabrications. and bulls of Popes have been forged. Peter and all his apostolic canons. aud falsely attributed to the pen of some distinguished author. scrupled not destroy the finest models of literary taste.70 ians is MONASTIC VOW OF egregeously corrupted and interpolated is . or obstruct the consummation of their designs. by an artful adulteration be made accessory to them. militate against the.. absurd ecclesiastical claim or arbitrary usurpation. which he is made to take a journey with St. but whatever was in its nature too inflexibly inimical to the success of them. . Without moral the principle. the the letters of bishops. distorted. decrees of councils. iv. . marred. that but a fragment of in it so much mutilated remains his autobiography. or what might. they la- The unavoidable deduction from the monkish forgeries is. and the sentence was almost universally confirmed by the churches of Christendom. they might piously spare bored to annihilate. by the seven churches to which it was addressed. and to perWhat could not petrate the most audacious forgeries. interpolated Volume after volume has been written or destroyed. in order to obtain respect and authority for an abridged. the religious orders. and forged to accommodate them to the {Tom.

is an acknowledgment that the successful vindication of their creed and pretensions required proof which did not exist and the cargoes of their forgeries. At length the holy charm which. 71 for wliicli is and that every doctrine and event they have been manufactured to disprove. inaugurated by profane genius. and consequently an undeniable objection to the validity of the authority upon which they rest their claims. they left the surrounding region enveloped in midnight gloom. took. in general. The manuscripts transcribed or perverted by the monks were stowed away as useless rubbish. each instance of which being a demonstration of these assertions. and destroy their own credibility. sures of classic literature. the monastic orders. 13 false . had bound the church in stupid ignorance. and the penetrate the massive walls ignorance. of these huge castles of Resembling more a taper placed under a bushel than a light set upon a hill. Unconscious or regardless of . show the vast amount of labor the monks have undergone to disprove their own doctrines. was happily dissolved. In the revival of learning. such as Cosmo Medici.SILENT CONTEMPLATION.. which possessed the trea- works were fatal to their claims facture artificial proof . catching a spark of the fire Pope Nichowhich burned in the breast of his lay associates. no active part. The mutilation and the religious orders destruction of ancient authors by a positive admission that such . The literary fires cast which smouldered in their in- stitutions but a sickly glare upon the darkness feeble rays could not be expected to within. became ignited. his own. is true. for ages. too. the attempt to manuby corrupting and interpolating them. las v.

be alleged as an exception to the usual hatred manifested by the church to the cause of educa- But may tion. respectable libraries were formed.. his The apprehensions of Kicholas. who is ranked among the most generous of the pontifical patrons of the classics. that the Pope did. speaking in the clear tones of reason and philosophy. viev/s. Diligently improving the auspicious moment. and the world was enlightened by recovered versions of Xenophon. suggested probably by knowledge of the nature and past conduct of the church. Polybius. ing manuscripts from the monasteries. prohibited the transla- tion of them it into the vernacular language.72 MONASTIC YOW OF lie tte liberalizing tendency of classical literature. while his coadjuBy the tors sent vessels to gather them from abroad. united labors of the Pope and his opulent laymen. he collected the dusky and moulder- came enthusiastic in its cause. The Pagan authors of Greece and Rome. establish colleges and . Diodorus. The dark conspiracy to deceive and enslave mankind. were too well founded not to be confirmed by subsequent history. at times. Thuycidides and other eminent authors. could derive no aid from a liberal diffusion of Pagan erudition. be- and inaugurated a pursuit wbicli bas exposed tbe forgeries and legends of the Whatever Catholic Church to scorn and contempt. which constitutes a per- manent feature of Catholic polity. could not subserve the purposes of ecclesiastical fraud and intolerance. his public example and asserwere his private tions indicate that he had arrived at a firm conviction that the papal chair would not soon again be filled with another friend to the classics. Hence Leo X. and the systematized measures to keep the world in ignorance.

she [the church] was to promote these she had her schools. for a charter. that p. He also very generously created twenty-six secretaryships. established several universities but he required tus from each. founded a university but it for its charter.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. 73 This fact is undeniably true.000 to 20. 7* .000 scudi . and a host of other offices. tined for These schools were all theological. for the instruction of the priesthood. Pope SixIV. from 10. and colleges. to assist the labors of education. was very slow and indirect. Pope Alexander VI. nor appointed a professor. and all other institutions which the de- actively alive . Civ. also founded a university. though from the intimacy civil between the and religious orders they could not it but have some influence on the rest of the world. her colleges. 132). zot says : " For the development of the clergy. Hist. Pope Innocent III. and desthe clergy. without receiving pay for it.. and. collegiate title and office.. plorable state of society would permit. Guizot might have added with truth. vi. but he sold appointments to at them very exorbitant prices. Guimagnificent bonus ." (Gen. 10. it is true. Sect. universities.000 ducats.000 ducats and for each . even for her own clergy the church never tolerated an educational institution without receiving an exorbitant pecuniary consideration. and selling the appointments at 850 scudi each. also was on condition that he received 50. . But after all what was the object of these institutions? Was it to advance the capacities of individual man? Was it to enlighten society at large ? Not at all. or any other officer. but it was in consideration of a and he even further displayed his magnanimity by nominating eighty writers of popish briefs.

89). according to their own logic. in State. From the monastic vows and agreeably surprised if we might be the literary productions of those . . MONASTIC VOW OF Hs ''Systematic Theology. But this we should be sorry ." If this logic is Dens. to witness. therefore also are heretics. and human progress have a deep inter. who are forgers of the faith. and authority into such utter insignificance and in proportion to the warmth of its zeal adds weight to the contempt it has earned.74 Dens. monks and priests can avoid conceding justice the right of putting them to death. of malignant feet. and other disturbers of the are justly punished with death. it is difficult to perceive how Popes. Yet when its polluting finger presumes to touch the sacred page of when it would annihilate all historical authorby base interpolations. they have been forgers of the faith and. as experience ( shows. and load the shelves of libraries with its spurious trash. and which must be protected against the intrusion regulations.'' reasons thus: " Because forgers of money. it has invaded a province sacred to the rights of the world a province in which truth. sinks its character . be more justly put to death. greatly disturb the State. est. which so clearly proves what it asserts at every step . as by the universal testimony of history and the acknowledgment of the ablest Catholic authors. reason. sound. as they have been greater forgers than Protestants. and. cardinals. and left to the crushing jeer of history ity its own ludicrousness. The efforts of the church to manufacture evidence in dis- support of gratuitous assumptions. they may. 88. might be considered unworthy the notice of sober reason. 2.

bigotry and superstition could prompt. This reasonable presumption well confirmed for the credit of we shall human nature. in order to command the dominion and luxuries of the world. enforced upon the ac- ceptance of the obstinate by the terrors of the Inquisition. fictitious. and. 75 who were governed by them were anything but models of absurdity and puerility.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. rarely possessing the merit of ingenuity. and rendered misshapen by the habit of conversing exclusively with their own meditations and that their literary productions would be rife with all the inventions to which . absolutely puerile. and sometimes mistaken by history for actual events. find too in those legends and theological disquisitions which have often puzzled the credulous. yet have the monkish legends been consecrated as divine in the Catholic Mass-book. absolved from the and obligations of humanity. It would naturally be sus- pected that the ideas of the monks would be shaded by the gloom of their melancholy abode. and in part of person- ages and details entirely spurious. This ludicrous mass consists in part of magnified and distorted events of true history. in general. but of the much oftener curled the lip§ more enlightened Palpably into a smile of philosophical contempt. isolated from society. immunities and privileges. It is elaborately ornamented. or degraded with circumstancial accounts . and exclusively devoted to the defense and aggrandizement of an organization which aimed at monopolizing all secular rights. contracted by the influence of their solitary confinement. and with all the craft and unscrupulousness that could serve the purties poses of unpolished and unnatural fraternities.

they have furnished a record of absurdities. in his description of Eutopia. of hell . she was often compelled to decide whether she valued her virtue higher than she did her religion her faith imperiled . when a Pagan female embraced Christianity. though it must be conceded that they are less entertaining and invisible. and miraculously rescued her from a . or no place. Had they. transcribing their own vitiated taste and unscrupulous conscience and decorating their narratives with coarse scenes of blood and bigotry. with reports which never took place. and. and Sir of a total depravity in principle unparalleled in the history of deception and imposition. instructive. which never could have en- tered the more cultivated brain of a Roman emperor.76 of miracles of debates MONASTIC VOW OF which were never performed. anddemons. and with details of Faithful only in battles which were never fought. they could scarcely have been less imaginary. Passing over the polemical rubbish. when the inflexibility of her innocence. a city and a river w^hich was waterless. of a depth of hypocrisy. fanciful they have grotesquely magnified. their some amusing legends. of death and horror. of discussion orders. According to the story of these visionists. a divine power always interposed. which have been consecrated wo will briefly allude to of as sacred history in the devotional books of the church. The actual sufferings and deaths of the primitive Christians. of an audacity in fabrication. described a people which was which were no people. the absurd topics and the ludicrous logic of the monastic which would be too tedious for a reader of the nineteenth century. and invented modes of torture. like Thomas Moore.

dangerous predicament jected to similar 77 modes of ingenious torture. As her piety had rendered her invulner- able to the effects of boiling water. and was once chained naked to a bed of flowers. the marriage was on the eve of being consummated. and. desisted from further effort convinced that the accomr plishment of the task exceeded his constitutional vigor. but her father disregarding the unnatural obligation. the execuAccordingly she was laid upon the block . by crowning them both with wreaths of spiritual roses and flower garden. . of this lilies. a Eoman prefect. Amachius. St. In spite of all remonstrances to the contrary. Her it piety obliging her to disobey the royal injunction. The male converts were subA young saint. but he saved his chastity by biting off his tongue. wontonly assaulted by a beautiful courtezan. and the virgin for the obstinacy of her resolution. in the passion of his iirst love. when an angel interposed. between the nuptial rewarded the groom for the relinquishment of his bride. The coldness of divine grace howit ever sufficiently impregnated her body to protect from injury.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. after satisfactorily adjusting matters parties. commanded Cecilia to sacrifice to the gods. according to their authority. betrothed her to a prince. and exposed condition. tioner gave her neck three scientific strokes. culled from heaven's Sometime after the eventful occurences wedding party. but perr ceiving her head still attached by its integuments. the emperor ordered the executioner to try the virtue of a ponderous axe. was de- termined that the majesty of the law should be vindicated by having her boiled three days and three nights in a pot of water. Cecilia made a in this hapless vow of perpetual virginity.

Hubert's monastery. sons on one cow. touching the mutilated frame recovered the lost flesh which had been digested by the swine. and w^as placed in a lunatic asylum. On landing. at least. still preserved in St. and two wild boars. the rights of ^^roperty. a The miraculous long time after all nations had acquired some proficiency. Hubert vrent dragon ( a lizard ). St. regarded as an infallible remedy for the hydro-. lost overboard a crucifix. St. at Ardennes.78 MONASTIC VOW OF feat of this saint in inventing music. Dennis walked tvro miles after his head had been cut off. George slew a which was about to swallow a kings daughter. and stood before the saint perfectly proportioned in all its parts. however. Patrick found a lost boy. . This charitable saint once fed 1. assuming the ently laid it at his feet. with his holy hand. whom the hogs had nearly devoured. St. Eespecting. on a hunting excursion. trived the while traversing the ocean. he so adroitly con- management of his miracle that the cow had been eaten up by the people. John of God displayed so much whimsical zeal that he was supposed to be demented. which is a bishop. and with- On it out a wound. and perceiving that to be benevolent at another's expense was a suspicious species of morality.400 pertwo stags. Xavier. and seeing a stag v. in its principles. St. was seen the next day well and hearty. a crab brought it in his claw.-ith a cross between its antlers. pastures as if nothing had happened. St. and reverThe Devil. Peter. lias often been the theme of pious historians. became converted by the vision into He received a key from St. orators and poets. and which which belonged to a poor widow. and is phobia. and as comfortably grazing in her usual St.

At this exploit St. on a drunken contest of disintegration frolic. At . imal. the patron saint of drunkards. and with humility adore thy God. in a debate with a heretic. John. Andrew laughed. was so disgusted at this coarse vulgarity. St. I command thee. being a gentleman. saint that he spit into consubstantiation. the angel Gabriel put him together again. once made indelicate proposals to him. horse to come. chained them to the ground. and by a company of imps with clubs. Andrew being assaulted by the devil with an axe. advanced to the host and fell upon its knees bestanding of a horse. he addressed it thus : fore it. This piece of impudence so enraged the His Satanic Majesty's angelic The Devil. finally converted his antagonist by an appeal to the under- Holding up the host before the an" In virtue and in the name of thy creator. whose festival was formerly celebrated by the devout with banqueting. called for assistance on St. . Martin of Tours. 79 shape of a charming woman. having cut St. and put together again by the anatomical skill of the other. pieces. divided his garments with a poor soldier. who responded with a regiment of angels and capturing the devils. Ten times a day for ten consecutive days was the saint cut into ten pieces by the malice of the one. This and recomposition was carried on with much spirit between Maximus and Gabriel." The horse. after exhausting the strength of the Catholic arguments in favor of face. St. hilarity and carousals.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. once. instantly left the corn which it was eating. Anthony of Padua. Apia Tell into ten St. The Emperor Maximus. that he ever afterward shunned Xavier's society. at the request of the saint.

to war steed redeem with the generous sum of 100 ducats. two it lions seeing his difficulty. Vet. refusing to disget absolution. and being too much . which was raised to give him a death blow. and life to reanimate her frame. seeing a hyena standing near his cave. Holy father. he proposed besides. caused her head and body to reunite. who had cut off the head of his mistress for her having refused to marry him. Finding the corpse of the hermit Paul in the wilderness. St. to her husband . Palladus. by saying mass over the remains of the unfortunate lady. probably deranged. prostrated through fasting to bury it. face of this saint His mind became so impressed. St. he beheld Christ wearing the identical garment he had given away. voidable necessity. St. " 47 ). Nepomuk." close the secret confessions of a queen. " the odor of thy sanctity has reached me. made him a was it rich donation and as the hero's in the saint's stable. politely offered their assist- ance and after digging a grave and depositing in the hermit's corpse. in a dream. raise the He wrought many . Ant. He then. addressing asked: " What's the matter ?" I killed a sheep last night. St. and for not having suffered his feet to be contaminated with ( it except in cases of unac." replied the beast. The was so sanctimonious that it once paralyzed the arm of a robber. Clovis. could dead to life. it. miracles . but the pious horse refused to move until the sum was doubled. respectfully vanished away. and want to confess and Beuno caused the earth to open and swallow a disappointed lover. Anthony saw a centaur in the desert. St. after his Gothic victory. Athanasius compliments him on account of his holy abhorence of clean water. that he turned Catholic.80 MONASTIC VOW OF night.

warmly commended the inhuman edicts of Honorius against the Donatists. Ambrose. This saint was canonized by Pope his Innocent III. A monk astery of Tebenoe was visited banished several thousands of their priests. been indisputably proved that no such person as Nepomuk ever existed. The inhuman blood. ing psalms to approaching it he discov- ered that the bees were adoring the eucharist. A priest On once travelling along a solitary road. unfortunately for the infallibility of His Holines. distracted the land with tumult and and drove a large number of them by invoking martyrdom. to seek relief saint rejoiced . and their successors. most conspicuous virtue was an uncompomising hatred of heretics.. Epistle xl. The same saint justified the conduct of a bishop who had been convicted by the court of setting fire to a Jewish Synagogue. 946 ). Augustine. originated in their Catholic education. and singresiding at the monby an angel who dictated to him a liturgy. This divine work is preferred by the learned Cassion. deprived their laymen rights of citizens. 81 to suffer was doomed death by drowning. heard a most harmonious sound pro- ceeding from a beehive. . and tomb is shown to this day. St. stripped of the them of their possessions. which proscribed and its honor. it But has St.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. St. piously inhuman. and that an emperor is guilty of the crime he neglects to punish. ii. All the intolerant laws and horrible religious butcheries which disgraced the administrations of these princes. carefully instilled into the youthful minds of Theodosius and Gratian the spirit and maxims of religious persecution. whose ( Tom. p. He taught them that the worship of idols was a crime against God. wlio suspected her of infidelity.

Keadily and maliciously he coincided with the opinion of Theophilus. and he was incarcerated in a dungeon. that Chrysostom had delivered his soul to the Devil to be adulterated and when zeal in the cause of virtue had brought upon the head of Chrysostom the wrath of the emperor and the court. so that he her immense possessions. of inducing her to abandon her infant son at Rome. these two lights of the church had the decency to regret that some punishment more adequate to his guilt was not inflicted. fortune of To these charges he replied With the Paula he built four monasteries. Cyril. of profanely bestow- mother-in-law of God. as the patriotic Novitians obstructed his designs. piously . and. St. of exercising an undue influence on her beautiful daughter. of assign- ing himself the chief place in her will. plun- . St. Jerome justly denounced the disgraceful practice of the clergy in defrauding the natural heirs out of their inheritance. who boldly de- nounced the corruption and licentiousness of the clergy and imperial court. plunder. he closed their churches. in which was comprehended the city of Necropolis. that he was merely the steward of the poor.82 at the despair MONASTIC VOW OF these unfortunate persons. and vindicated the governmental edicts to obstruct this system^atic . took forcible possession of their sacred utensils. as their and madness whicli shortened the lives of it would hereafter lessen torments in hell. lusted after temporal power. of Alexandria. But his brother monks recriminated charged him with being the lover ing on her the title of of Paula. He was to bitterly opposed St Chrysostom. and of inducmight encounter no obstacles in inheriting ing the mother to consecrate her to perpetual virginity.

as . until the church became the simple dupe of its own forgeries. unblemished character. "crammed full of fictitious or much-colored anecdotes are founded on of saints. and punctured to death with tiles. 83 and then seizing on the Jewish synagogue. Catholic Professor of the Theological Faculty fictitious of Freiburg. the fables and impositions with which it had humbugged former ages.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. requires a thorough revision Some Masses stories not sufficiently proved. and extraordinary literary acquirements. will satisfy the more curious. The Missil." says he. and of the atrocious acts of canonized saints. a lady from the city and pillaged interposed . was. dered tKe dwelling of Theapentus. might be continued until it filled huge volumes but well-informed holy forces of . some of w^hich consist of fifty folio volumes. so blunted public perception to truth that the events and personages invented by one age were believed by the succeeding. The governor hundred armed monks surrounded him and attempted to murder him. and selfcursed by accepting. but five celebrated for her personal charms. the Glories of Mary and other Catholic com- pendia. Meldegg. The profound homage paid to and the inquisitorial terrors which -were brought to bear in favor of their frauds. assaulted by the St. the monks for supposed sanctity. their bishop . or palpably ficttcious. affords the following testimony in favorof what has been stated : " The old breviary. as matters of fact. Hypatia. dragged from her carriage. Cyril. Catholics will be thankful that this notice is so brief. The enumeration of the fables of the monks. with passages of indecorous import. drove the Jews their houses. on account of her Novitian proclivities.

which it has incited them its and contemptible productions which it has induced them to elaborate and its immorality. &c. in the frauds. luctance.84 MONASTIC VOW OF SILENT CONTEMPLATION. its pernicious tendency." The ludicrousness temjDlation is of the monastic vow of silent con- visible in the misshapen ideas of the monks sions. in the puerile . perver- distortions and interpolation w^hich . it has led them to perpetrate its bigotry. in the wide destruction . the Mass of the Lancea Christi. . in that coarseness and vulgarity in their literature. so offensive to a sense of propriety. the Inventio Crusis. . and which sometimes makes an allusion to their works a matter of reof ancient literature to absurdness.

variously by the terms of different monastic charters. The vow of poverty assumed by ths monks was adopted either from the instigations of an artful policy. But the vow of poverty. both antecedent and and seclusion. however. w^ere assumed by all the religious orders. This privilege was. The vow of poverty embraced an unqualified abjura- tion of all right to acquire or hold individual property. which will hereafter be considered.CHAPTER The Monastic Vow VI. As these orders as- sumed silence obligations incompatible with the observance of vows imposing them were not which will be the subject of the present chapter. of Poverty. subsequent to the thirteenth century. or from a conviction that poverty was a blessing and 8 . possession of personal property while the Franciscans estate or j^ersonal were not allowed to hold either real property. the Dominicans were limited to the . considered in the all foregoing chapters were assumed hj the religious that period At orders were inaugurated to assist in the administration of the public affairs of the church. to acquire wealth with the reputation of despising it. The monachal vows which we have orders prior to the thirteenth century. but granted the privilege of owning property in a corporate capacity. and the vow of celibacy and obedience. The Carmelites and the Augustines were permitted to hold such an amount of real estate as would be sufficient restricted for their support . the enjoined.

allowing no interval for mental culture. in man his inborn sense of personal inde- pendence to debase his . is A condition of poverty. it was absolutely absurd. might have added lustre to the female character. abstractly considered. and talents good. the assumption of the vow was exceedingly reprehensible if the second. Poverty begetting despair. have sometimes led principles. the powers of genius sunk into the torpidity and the strength of a lion slumbered in The chill w^hich poverty the inactivity of a sloth. when their constitutional unwarped by indigence. mind with notions of fictitious by inducing and to lead him to sacrifice his conscious equality to the demands of artiThe incessant toil imposed by poverty on ficial rank. permits nothing . had tolerable means protected against the cravings of hunger. and always of inconvenience and embarrassment. is to weaken . of stupefaction. Its general tendency . a subsistence for themselves by honest natural dependents.86 wealtli an evil. It is sometimes a source of degredation often of crime. to interrupt or soften its difficulties tendency. inferiority to degrade his social dignity . MONASTIC VOW OF If the first hypothesis is correct. which. the incentive depredators to action. upon society. and heroes. breathes over the mind is as unfriendly to the unfold- . The mortifying and their them to become experienced by this class of society to obtain. labor. statesmen and scholars to the scroll of fame. a matter of neither praise nor censure. extinguished on scaffolds. and despair destroying hope. sycophantic and obsequious habits the energies of the poor obdurates their nature and. would have secured their obedience to law and their labors for the public Graces have been lost in brothels.

1»0VERTY. without books or instruments. barbarism first . or philosopher. prudence and every domestic and social obligation. as the icy atmosphere of winter poet is to the fructification of vegetable seed. its honest acquisition is always consistent with the severest prin. The and gem. and the tear of want . with spare meals his brightest gloomy forebodings. However sweetly Burns may sing or Otway melt. has dimmed the lustre of the other. so also a condition of wealth. yet. as well as the sole remedy for the evils of poverty. in the "Wealth. is abstract. scientific hoveled in penury. or however importantly other sons of indigence may have contributed to the augmentation of the volume of science and literature. the ablest means of ad- vancing individual and social progress. As a condition of poverty is. nor read their brightest period for the groan of penury has marred the harmony of the one. however. never creates nor solves his profoundest problem. 87 ing of the intellectual germs. as eficence. the element of civilization and the principal source of . ciples of rectitude and its pursuit is recommended by the honorable pride of personal responsibility. it amplifies the means of benand protects the weakness of human nature against temptation arising from indigence. yet the world has never heard their sweetest song. stupidity. or as an apology for the ignorance. If it cannot be adduced as a ground of esteem or of respectability. vanity and vulgarity with which it may adventitiously be associated. the mo- and the consideration of Without its aid the world would have remained in a state of primal tives of forecast. a subject is of neither praise nor blame. pomposity. the commercial intercourse of nations.

but. rights of property. by which goods w^ere pursalaries paid. tic production. dering barbarians. tual prejudices. tages of exchanging with one-another the products of and which. by dissipating muand self-conceit. mechanical and mining interests. as the first temples were market-houses built for the accommodation of the traffic of the caravans. as the inflicts on humanity it its worst evils. unstimulated by the lucrative traffic of supplying a foreign demand for surplus domes. As neither a condition of poverty nor a condition of is wealth former a subject of praise nor censure . vanity . and the lat- ter confers on incalculable advantages. would never have existed and. manufacturing. translated by Bancroft).88 MONASTIC VOW OF national prosperity. would never have been known agricultural. as the first altars were erected their different climates. who understood had it not the conventional not been for the fact that in the pursuit of wealth. a vow of pov- . and the power created by the pecuniary advan. power and greatness. the knowledge. for the exposure of ofi'erings w^ere merchandise for sale. suspicion. penalties satisfied. and to protect the goods against plunfriendship expressed . and amity and and. ( See Heeron's Historical Researches. and the improvments in the comforts and conveniences of civilized life derived from international trade. the exotic luxuries. could never have been obtained the great bond of the amity of nations. has united them in friendly and beneficial intercourse. would never have been extensively de- veloped. communities felt the importance of establishing convenient centres of trade and modes of exchange. as the first the currency chased. the ceremonies of religion would never have been invented.

No one can be indigent without decreasing the wealth of another. poverty. manufacturing. we may but also a patriotic incentive in availing ourselves of any pecuniary right of our being. When further considered that there a modifying reciprocity incessantly acting between the conditions of the different members of the human family. erty can have no innate sanctity to 89 commend it is it. influences. demoralize the social state of paupers. but must have all constituents it is that can render objectionable. as the vow and obligations created by the mutual dependence and reciprocal influence of the condition and circumstances of mankind on each other as it fosters all the evils that of poverty inconsistent with the virtues . nor opulent without contributing to the subsistence of others. the more generally and intimately are the interests of the people interwoven with the fabric of the 8* . is Now. . as it multiplies the number of in- discourages industry. prosperity of one advantageous to making the and the indifind not gence of one disadvantageous to only a selfish. nor indolent without consuming that for which he renders no equivalent. and commercial interests developed. the more independent and responsible are the the more energetically are the agricultural. nor industrious without adding to the sum of national wealth. is National wealth. all. and the more equally it is distriless are the evils of buted among the inhabitants. the citizens. mineral. the aggregate of individual wealth in The greater is the amount of individual a nation.POVERTY. interests of at variance with the man and wealth th^j)rosperity of government. all. sanctifies pernicious and burdens society with the support it is dolent and useless members.

and to annul the immunities. pleasing to infinite intel- ligence to renounce the best means of self-improvement. not only of moral principle. the more formidable ternal condition. . sanctions poverty. criminal to protect human integrity against the assaults originating in a condition of poverty. are ideas of such an absurd nature that the inference can scarcely be avoided. Its principles Its measures must tend to aid his fullest development. of and which aims at a mo- itself the source of political inequal- despotic government and of popular servitude can advance no claim to a magnanimous mission. the parasite that feeds on the vitals of society. and of individual and national improvement which inculcates indolence. A reformatory institution. the great element of civilization. ity. condition. which tious dignity. its arms. the most prolific source of crime which denounces individual wealth. pendence and responsibility nopoly of wealth. but of common sense. and corrupt the few by luxury and fictiBut the monachal institution. privileges and monopolies which degrade the masses by indigence and invidious distinctions. avocations of industry. the parent of personal inde. To e&teem it a virtue to be poor. to remove whatever vitiates his sense of independence. that the source whence they originated must have been utterly destitute. which discourages the . to incite his industry by making labor honorable and its rewards certain.90 MONASTIC VOW OF government. the more peaceful its inand the more durable its prosperity. to be efficacious. the greater will be the nation's prosperity. must be adapted to the nature of man and his socia must be his principles. exemjDtions. To accomplish this object it must seek to abolish all restrictions on his rights.

It won a reputation for the holy beggars. but to become opulent. as could not fail to reveal the hypocrisy and craft that dictated them. always fanatical. betrayed into the adoption of this crafty policy but.POVERTY. It was a financial manoeuvre. that humbled imperial . in her own palace. they have endeavored to accomplish objects by pretending to oppose them. but. has invariably been . The church never being from the injustice of their designs too strongly fortified in holiness not to practise the ad- vantageous vices of the world. The vow of poverty was not assumed to become indigent. Not only has she denied her real designs. While the assumption of unnatural vows invested the mendicant monks with the credit and importance of supernatural beings. that these singular abnegations have not sprung from a sanctity that has elevated the avowers above human nature. she has never been discreet. passion and interests. an ordinary knowledge of the craft ciples are of ambition is apt to suggest a suspicion. 91 But whenever conduct becomes enigmatical. it opened to their . conceal them. designed to facilitate the routine of business and it proved a very efficacious means of self-emolument. Martin of Tours. nity of emperors and empresses. esteemed it a high honor to be permitted to wait as a servant on St. until a Theodosius refused sustenance him. in order to such an absurd and inconsistent import. and elevated them above the dig- by absolution. at her own table. has imposed vows of dignity at their feet. and prin^ avowed contradictory to human reason. Conscious that candor would be defeat. nullified it monk who had anathematized The Empress of Maximus. but and the profundity of their dissimulation.



avarice the treasures of the world, and enabled

not only to


their coflfers with the people's

them money?

but to win their blessing in the act of defrauding them. Such was the haughty indifference of the Abbot Pambo,

who seemed

to imagine, with his church, that he


the owner of the wealth of the world, that
his monastery,

when Mala-

a rich sinner, presented him a donation of plate for and intimated that its weight was about

three hundred pounds^ replied
or to

" Offer


this to




If to God,

who weighs

the mountains in a

balance, he need not be informed of the weight of your

The real design and value of the monastic vows was once forcibly expressed by a Benedictine monk,

"My vow of poverty has given me one hundred thousand crowns a year my vow of obedience has raised me to the rank of a sovereign prince."
who remarked:


incident occurred in Paris, in relation to two eccle-

siastical dignitaries


illustrates the cupidity

and and

unapostolic character of the church.

Innocent IX, and
in Paris,

Thomas Aquinas having met together
plate, piled

with gold, the proceeds of the sale of indulgences, being brought into the room in which they were seated, the enraptured Pope exclaimed

a capacious

Behold, the days are past


the church could say,
saint truthfully

gold and silver have


But the

remarked: "The days are also past when the church could say to the paralytic, arise and walk." Praetaxtatus, a Pagan philosopher, viewing the princely revenues of the church, declared that
bishop of Rome,
it if he could become might even remove his scruples

about believing in Christianity.

Assuming the strongest

possible obligations to main-

tain a perpetual






monks yet found

compatible with the principles and

teachings of the church, to convert their religious organizations into a financial corporation, and to conceal

character and design under a veil of angelic piety. The wealth which they apparently scorned, they unscrupulously amassed the power which they scoffed at

as profane, they attempted to monopolize




they seemed the most indifferent, they the most sedulously labored to acquire

and whatever they professed

with their


they violated in their practice.

consummate hypocrisy might be condemned by the pro* fane sceptic, but the means crowned the end with too high a degree of success not to be justified by the piety
of the religious orders.

The measures and designs

of this false

and crafty

policy harmonized too well with the pretensions of the

Pope, and furnished his purposes with too able and ingenious an auxiliary, not to


his fostering care

and protection. Equal in duplicity and rapaciousness, he exempted the mendicant orders from all secular and ecclesiastical jurisdiction, privileged them to demand alms without restriction, invested them with the exclusive power of selling indulgences, and conferred on them the lucrative prerogative of accepting legacies under the evasive name of offerings. By this munificent lavishment of spiritual favors, the mendicant orders soon found themselves transported from an apparent

condition of pauperism to a real condition of princely

wealth and power; enjoying at the same time all the sympathy that indigence could excite, and all the luxury that money could purchase. Exempted from secu*



were empowered to plunder, ravish and murder with impunity privileged to demand alms of all, they were the masters of the fortunes of all endowed with the exclusive power of vending indulgences, they enjoyed a monopoly of the most lucrative
lar jurisdiction, they

trade that was ever projected; and, allowed to receive

they were enabled, after having wheedled the devout out of their treasure while in health, to take

advantage of their dotage, and to stand over their dying pillow, and dictate the terms of their last testa-


to the

advantage of the church, and to the disadis

vantage of natural heirs.
Avarice, like the cormorant,
it is



the more
this rapa-

gorged, the keener

is its




demon having taken complete

possession of the

monastic body, every dollar that its craft wrung from the devout only inflamed its greediness the more.

had exhausted the gold of a penitent, its covebecame fascinated by his land and, what avarice craved, financial sagacity quickly perceived an available method of obtaining. The church possessing no inherent moral vitality, sank with the middle ages into barbarism her power was then supreme, but insecurity of life and property prevailed, and under her auspices temporal power degenerated to a system of rapine and plunder. Had she been divine, she would then have beamed as a lone star on a tempestuous ocean but being earthy, she resembled the other earthy compounds nor could she well be distinguished from the barbarians and savages with whom she mingled, except by her imperfect notions of morality and justice, and her superior financial skill


tous eye





in speculating on public calamity.


support of their

The barons, in tbe interminable wars, had taxed their
which produced general

subjects to an extent


the monasteries enjoyed inviolability and

freedom from taxation, they offered the disaffected a refuge from an oppressive taxation, if they would become lay monastic members, and convey their worldly
wish to inhale the supposed goods to the church. holy atmosphere of the monasteries, to partake of their luxuries, to enjoy the indulgence they accorded to the
sin, to evade an impoverishing taxation, same time to retain some degree of personal freedom, induced wealthy persons of both sexes to conclude contracts with the monasteries, by which they became penniless, wholly dependent for subsistence on


commission of


at the

them, and irrevocably subjected to their despotic domination.

Beside this shrewd speculation on public calamity,
the excitement and irruption of the crusades afforded

monks another opportunity for the exercise of their With the instinctive foresight of cupidity, they had perceived the pecuniary advantages which would accrue to their order in the course of the holy war about to be inaugurated and as they had fanned
financial skill.

its first

sparks into a general conflagration, they could

hardly have any conscientious scruples in remunerating themselves, by concluding such sharp and profitable
bargains as occasion presented and vows facilitated.

They well knew the commercial

art of bartering that

which was worthless for that which was valuable and of advancing the market price of an article by a monopoly of it, or depressing its value by increasing the


In consequence of the

supply beyond the demand.
in value,

public excitement real estate became greatly depressed

and holy war-horses, clubs, lances, battle^ and other sacred instruments of destruction, proportionally advanced in price. The sagacious providence of the monks having in advance accomulated vast military stores, very obligingly accommodated the devout crusader, by exchanging an inconsiderable portion of them for a very considerable tract of his land.

By such operations the church obtained very extensive domains in exchange for objects of trifling value, or for very inadequate sums of money. The success of the sacerdotal financiers becoming notorious, land speculation grew into a contagious mania. Even kings came into the market to buy up the domains of their deluded vassels. The competition between monks and monbut sacerdotal it was amusing The oil was the more successful negotiator. with which the priests had been anointed at their ordination was supposed to endow them with the power of bestowing blessings and curses at will, and the high reputation for sanctity which they had acquired by vows 'of absolute poverty, conferred advantages of trade on them which crowns and sceptres could not command. Kings could purchase only with money but the monasteries had an exhaustless bank of indulgences, of parting blessings, of promised prayers, and of promised masses for departed souls. This bogus currency may provoke the levity of the profane, but it was, nevertheless, prized by the saints above the value of silver or gold, and held by the monasteries at its highest market;

archs was as great as


able price.

With the command

of such unlimited re-








and purchase without impoverishment what
air of piety

monarchs could not without bankruptcy.

With an

and benevolence, but with an

unscrupulousness that regarded neither truth nor printhe

monks invented every

and adopted

every possible method of augmenting the stores of their

aware that human piety



inflamed by the prospect of gold than by the prospect
of heaven,

they manufactured extravagant reports of
of of

the wealth






a vast


gems and precious metal.


were these descriptions that the piety of the crusaders

became excited into frenzy, and their devotion into
pressible vociferousness


a delightful anticipation rapt


into heavenly ecstacies

and impatience

for the

glorious results of the coming combat appeared to be

the only unpleasant ingredient that marred their happiness.


huts and farms, on palaces and domains,

they looked

down with

scornful indifference




that wealth surpassing the treasures of the Indies,

and palaces more gorgeous than Europe could would inevitably raward their pious adventure.


cool-headed priest, too well informed to partake of the,
general delusion, deliberately viewed the enthusiasm,

and calmly calculated by what means
tained and augmented, and
ciously be


might be




could most judi-


to administer to the

pecuniary advan-

tage of the church.

While the coldness with which the

reason and conscience of priests secretly regarded the

the contrary, were all flame and fury, and wrought

was well disguised, the masses, on up



to suck a pitcB. of anxiety to wrest the lioly land from

the Infidels and appropriate


to themselves^ that they


indifferent to the treasure-

and land that they

already possessed.

In this unhealthy state of the pubfor spiritual advisers to



was an easy task

relieve their confiding pupils of their revenues,



timately to become the proprietors of


of their


The method by which

this magnificent object



complished, was not only by the treachery of exchang-

ing trumpery for valuables, but also by inducing the
soldiers of the cross to devolve, during their absence,
.the care of their

land and revenues on the monasteries,

make them their heirs-at-law in case of death abroad. As but few of the crusaders of some of the expeditions ever returned, as many of all of them perished abroad, we must accord the credit of extraordiand


shrewdness to the calculating

cupidity of the

monks, who could make the love, devotion, lunacy and enthusiasm of the devout, their life at home and death
abroad, equally advantageous to the monastic


the infatuation, so beneficial to the church, was gen;


as the convulsions of the times rendered property

of all descriptions exceedingly insecure

and, as


restrained, either

were by infirmity or other circumstances, from embarking in the holy enterprise, it was not diffiof the devout, equally frantic with the crusaders,
cult for the monks, amid the general frenzy, to induce such persons to become lay members of the monasteries,

those powerful institutions

and to place their domains under the protection of an advantageous encumbrance which they always assumed with obliging avidity.

the traffic of merchants. The Jesuits. generally constructed with stupendous proportions. —the modomains of of governments. under the pretext of civilizing them and saving their .1>0VEETY. luxury. who enjoyed all the privileges of the mendicant and secular orders. by the assumption of the vow of absolute poverty. and who subsequently scorned the profi'ers of lucrative dignities. St. monachal power and opulence erect ten monasteries. From the fifth century. the mendi- cant orders. and the political power Under such circumstances monastic opulence. and their domains augmented to provinces. could. renounced a considerable private inheritance. unprincipled zeal for the emolument of their order. and sumptuous style furnished with every species of and polluted by every description of vice. and even kings submit to his dictation. in every section of Chris- tendom. as a virtue. who. they established mission-houses among savage nations. 99 With such money-making tices. and released and ecclesiastical jurisdiction. seemed. must have prodigiously increased. enjoying the protection of the Pope. nevertheless. devices and sharp prac- and many others of a similar nature. excelled them both in Animated by a crafty and duplicity and rapaciousnes. to be rapidly while abjuring the possession of property as a crime. Bernard. and professing poverty nopolizing the wealth of the world princes. monastery after monastery continued to rise. by means of his in . make nobles and Popes tremble at his authority. united in an avaricious and arrogant confederacy. without the intervention of a miracle. confidence and from all secular and the homage of Christendom.

ing the arts of civilized society. and wheedling the devout at home out of liberal donations. nor for converting idolaters. and success^ They fully to impose on their ignorance and simplicity. under which was concealed an infamous scheme of swindling the natives abroad out of property. than they did at plotting schemes of plunder. MONASTIC VOW OF But this specious pretext was but a pious mask. but to defraud them out of their land and gold. but contented themselves with entreating their converts simply to adore Christ and his mother ing the images of their gods. as they were the grand resort of the people for ex- change of commodities. whose names they bear. Their extensive mission-houses were neither designed for temples of devotion. boasted of having induced multitudes to embrace Christianity but as their object was not to convert Pagans from idolatry. . they were enabled to astonish the natives with miracles. gave to the numerous villages. manding a renunciation of the practice of idolatry.100 souls. recent churches. and no sooner had the gold and gems of the natives inflamed the zeal and sharpened the shrewdness of the monks. they tunes out of the devout at home and savages abroad. like the former. mosques and as centres of trade to facilitate they were designed commercial transactions rise and. Pagan simplicity has never been a match for monkish craft. they. and splendid legacies. and more fairs. than they were wrung Possessfrom them by some swindling transaction. nessed the their walls less frequently wit- monks at devotion. but insinuating modification of Christianity. Like ancient temples. they were careful not to offend them by de. towns and cities. when worshipmade for- "With this ambiguous.

as a political organization projected for the acquisition of power and riches. more liberal paired to and the necessity of inaugurating a and enlightened commercial policy. This opposition. states of France. that in a short time they monopolized the trade of that island.POVERTY. In conformity with of their history. deciding in favor of the consignors. apparently justified by self-preservation. and as of the surrounding islands. who. mand. and unprincipled in their ambition. a formidable opposition was easily fomented against them. with whom the French were at war. An appeal was consequently taken to the King of France. These cargoes were captured by the English. and refused to give the satisfaction asked. able conduct led the king to investigate the principles and finally to abrogate it in all the of their order . At this stage which culminated in their disgrace. 9* . ima considerable extent the interest and popu- larity of the sacerdotal establishments. demanded the Jesuits to make the required restitution. Their success naturally excited the jealousy of the secular merchants. did they manage their Christianizing business operations. and they were generally regarded as destitute of commercial honor. tills avaricious sacerdotal order establislied a mission-house at the island Marti nic[ue and so adroitly . 101 In 1743. the consignors demanded indemnity of The Jesuits denied the legality of the dethe Jesuits. Two valuable cargoes had been consigned to them by their French correspondents. But their presumptuous piety led them to scorn his authority in the same temper in which they had rejected the prayer This insolent and treasonof his mercantile subjects. a circumstance occured maritime usage.

while they by arms. with the vow of poverty on their lips. were exclusively military the sword Avas the only argument they used. donations. such a prodigious amount of wealth that they erected nine thousand vast and princely palaces. treaty ceded to Portugal seven districts of these domains. Spain having by a commercial of wealth. The Knights of St. each enriched with extensive territory. and acquired an immense amount In 1750. and swore kingdom they were never to allow its possession to tarnish their sanctity. by the force of arms. forced loans. compelled the contracting nations to annul the treaty but an attempt being afterwards made . but with the sword of con. John. the solemnest obligation to maintain a perpetual conThese holy organizations dition of absolute poverty. vowed The Knights Templars. like the monks. the monks at the head of an army of fourteen thousand men. located. the government declared the order of the Jesuits to be a treasonable and confiscated all their posssessions in The order of the Catholic Knights. the Jesuits ruled the natives with despotic power. the dominion. incorporated for the defense and propagation of the true faith. rapaciously acquired an incredible amount of riches w^hile under organization. acquired nity from the jurisdiction of the savereign in whose The Teutonic Knights.102 HONASTIC YOW OF of tlieir Cliristianizing establisliinents in By means Paraguay and Uruguay. . that they gave their chief an annual salary of one million guilders. while they abjured the rights of property. quest in their hand. and all powerful enough to maintain immuabsolute poverty. amassed such extensive domains. bequests and other means. to assassinate the King of Portugal.

will exclaim: "Peace be with you. magnificent revenues. the variety and prodigious traffic which has distinguished its career. of the Hindoo and Mohammedan monks. been and contempt of common sense and it is possible that under the same circumstances.POVERTY. was a scene of perjury. would sink to the same level. it seems like some . in Christian countries. The hypocritical devices of the ancient and modern Brahmins. and impious adulation they secured." and thrust a lance in his heart. and of obtaining the luxurious indolence. idolatrous reverence. and of the priests and prophets of ancient Pagan nations have. when meeting a foe. reported by travellers that the Shaggians. whose and whose life monachal and military orders of the vows were meant for imposition. the monks. and claims are candidly investigated. where no prejudice pleads in their favor. which resemble them as nearly as a type can its prototype. and observe the on the monastic institution. cardinals or popes. on which it is organized. a barbarous tribe of Egypt. the immense treasure and domains calmly reflect When we financial principles it has acquired by fraud and artifice. and enjoyed the fairest prospects of becoming either bishops. ceremonies and dogmas .of Catholicism. 103 that extends from It is wrung from Sweden the Oder along its all tlie territory hanks to the Gulf of Finland. The wild mockery of these uncouth savages at avowed principles has been far exceeded by the conduct and profession of the Catholic Church. priests. and where their origin justly exposed to the scoffs . By the aid of the various orders of the religious paupers were enabled successfully to negotiate for the most lucrative dignities of the church.

projected for speculating making money by the tricks of trade. regardless of maxim of justice. and all their profanity. whose object is money. to law to violate the principles of rectitude professing absolute indigence to demand. whose right is might. dripping with human gore. the favor of God. becoming superior . their rapacity. And when we remember that the Koman Catholic Church has incorporated these infamous religious orders in her constitution. she seems like some black and midnight monster. thus sanctioned and made her own. the duplicity it has practised. it appears to be a in land. mind the avarice by which it has been actuated. an emtheir . and has officially pro- nounced them all to be her most useful members.104 MONASTIC VOW OF gigantic financial corporation. all highway robbery. and whose profession is to plunder. and merchandise heaven and hell. and for When we call to make money. and every principle of honor. traffic in the hearts and souls of men. and the impositions of which it has been guilty. like a highwayman. sport with their hojDes and fears. immunity for guilt. time and eternity. tion of fiends appears like a corpora- which arrogates the ^prerogatives of deity. all their swindling operations. and has all their duplicity. yet with an anathema at its more dreaded by the superstitious than thousands of pistols. When we reflect on its pre- tention of vending for gold the pardon of sin. immorality and blasphemy. and protection against the it future retribution of heaven. When we consider how basely it has prostituted its corporation organized to every privileges and immunities . it looms up before the imagination as a corporation of outlaws. a tribute of every one it chanced to meet. if not with a pistol in disposal its hand.

and a just representation of the character and principles of the archfiend. hideous and unsightly demon.POVERTY. . 105 bodiment of every deformity. an incarnation of every loathsome.

and of that agreeable association of strength and urbanity which is best fitted to cope with the alliance of difficulties . It identifies the honor and interests of parents and children. to the formation of that equanimity of character which is the in happy medium between extremes. securing affectionate protectors for helpless infancy. and developing benefits. conjugal union. it rewards the solicitude . By the reciprocal relations. faithful guardians for inexperienced youth. its She has endowed him requirements sures . Vow of Celibacy. and the noblest graces of the human character. and it interested tutors for fitting the rising generation for . with powers adapted to its with passions that aspire after plea- gratified only and with sensibilities that can be by the performance of its obligations. By an life. and the amiable intercourse which it establishes between the sexes. and imparts energy to the other and thus contributes. By blendtakes . it furnishes an attractive means of mutual improvement.CHAPTER Monastic VII. ing masculine boldness with feminine delicacy. refining the grossness of the sensual propensities. and the most complete and undisturbed enjoyment of their benefits. the useful and noble stations of society and while thus provides for children. Nature has organized man for the.ncident to life. it mutual affection and interests for secures their highest development. it rudeness from the one. an eminent degree.

the laws of human happi- and neglect the fulfilment of the most important design of the organism of man. A cloud that obscures the sun and casts a gloom over earth. An act so unnatural is.CELIBACY. Without them marriage w^ould be a source of privation. But while such are the inducements of marriage. yet a regard to personal interest and happiness might deter a considerate person from assuming its obligations. without motive. in either sex. perhaps. sin- always fluctuating. unrestrained by any prudential consideration. When. when clining age. fortune has withheld these essentials of con- jugal happiness. therefore. 107 of parents with a shelter in adversity. celibacy. or under the singular delusions of which religious fanaticism is so prolific. is more honor- But to stifle the instincts that prompt to this union. and ungraciously to spurn the incalculable benefits it proffers. has sometimes induced the weak and ness. or pecuniary resources are insufficient to meet the domestic demands in a satisfactory manner. a support in de- and a name in posterity. able than matrimony. seldom contemplated. Disappointed love. soon passes away. Pecuniary competency and similarity of taste and disposition are requisites indispensable to connubial felicity. either a suitable companion has not been found. vow of perpetual ori- ginated in cere. superstitious to assume the monastic celibacy. . or the hope of becoming insensible to the wants of humanity by acquiring supernatural perfection. except under extreme mental depression. . it is The motive of such conduct has always emotion and though emotion is alwaya . reverses of fortune. difficulty and alienation and family a painful encumbrance. is to violate.

more. or political relations subsist in society. which This revulsion is inevitable. Not less ephemeral is the mental gloom which adversity or superstition may throw over the human mind. which they generate. over the mind. Though despair may for a time throw a wintry gloom . it new and unexpected events. avarice will again sigh for wealth. But these despondent sensations are ephemeral they are the results of a temporary repose of passions which are rooted in the constitution of our nature. so must be the vows and resolutions with Each day brings which abrogate or modify the emotions and resolves which the circumstances of the preceding day had suggested nay. When the energies of acquisitiveness have been prostrated by repeated pecuof ambition . As emotions are ephemeral. and that of love are broken forever. and compel us to seek its appropriate gratification in the social.108 MONASTIC VOW OF its leaving the former in natural brightness. that its hopes of disits have perished. and every passion resuming natural energy will again create the emotions for which it was organized. when the warmth has been chilled by the wounds of reputation when the currents of love have been frozen by the cold breath of disappointment. conjugal. niary misfortunes . and which can be destroyed only with our being. and the lat- ter in its usual attractiveness. into its ordinary peaceful all roll. . It is as certain as the subsidence of a tempestuous torrent after having ex- hausted all its energy. . yet hope will again bud and bloom. love will again yearn for comits panionship. the desolated heart struggle for subsistence tinction is may ties feel that its vain. ambition will again thirst for distinction.

however innocently committed. reason. in a situation where we cannot respond to the demands of our nature. either of these conditions of mind. and punishes the aggressors of them with deformity and imbecility. can soften the Although the desire of perfection is a natural and noble one. rigor of her justice. her vengeance neither pleas of conscientious motives. she knows no Neither tears nor penitence can mitigate . These laws are intelligible. 109 the antithetical emotions thus created are always pro- portionably strong to those which they supplant. forgiveness. extraordinary mental depression when he is under and obligations as- sumed under life. we shall have placed ourselves by any mistake. Human perfection clearly 10 .CELIBACY. nor of ignorance of her ordinations. we will find that we have doomed our- when hope — selves to perpetual misery. if and reason and reflection to impulse and fanaticism. philosophy of things. Nor orable will any degree of purity or sanctity of motive is arrest the evils of mistaken conduct. Nature inex- she inflicts punishment on the violators of her laws without regard to the motives by which they have been actuated. and when all the passions and powers of our nature shall resume their natural operation if then. She admits no apology . and the regular course . tal excitement. will be found inconsistent with the ordinary obligations of when that usual current of thought and emotion shall set in. Hence? vows assumed by any person under extraordinary menwill be repudiated . which always flows in harmony with human and happiness. . If w^hen this condition shall supervene shall succeed to despair. yet she has established laws by which alone it is to be obtained.

conscience the controller of the passions. variety of the natural sources of the pleasures of reduces activity in the vital system. and thereby obtrudes an insu- perable obstacle to the full development of the character. and thereby saps the fundamenta' trength . and thereby number and life. It human stimulates those which it cultivates to incessant activity. but to maintain all in that natural and reasonable condition in which. Exercise is the only means by which these faculties can be developed. brium engendered which is peace that condensation which is energy and that perfection which is essential . while they are alternately relieved they are tually strengthened. to genius. It permits the exercise of only a limited number of these powers.110 MONASTIC VOW OF all compreliends the perfect development of the physical. judgment the guide fancy. . The monastic vow of perpetual celibacy is clearly un- favorable to this general exercise of the powers of hu- man nature. inactivity the bulk of the lessens the human It faculties. vated by incessant or overstrained exertion . and thereby distorts and deforms their It fetters in organisms by an abnormal development. and that equili. mu- By the discipline of such a sys- tem of exercise knowledge will gradually become the of foundation of reason. The system of exercise adapted to the attainment of this end must embrace a judicious employment of every acuity belonging to the human organism allowing none to depreciate by indolence none to become ener. the vital orgains the recuperator of the physical and mental faculties . mental and moral powers of man. a healthy reciprocity all and modifying action will be maintained between the powers.

The monastic vow of celibacy. organism. it is If they are ever sources of dis- laws of when they are exercised in violation of the human nature. mental principles. they can be especially if by a on made to administer to evils If . or when prudence has not reguwhen abuse has made their cravings unnatural. But whether these ecclesiastical absurdities are more insane than idiotical. it they is lated their gratification. thought or action. is as weak in its funda. are ever tormentors. founded on the ascetic delusion.CELIBACY. engendering those physical and moral diseases. rusted to Fven if wisdom w^ould teach us that sion of ages. we respectfully submit to the acumen of the OEcumenical Council. But this is a by tha abrathe propensities were evils. un- troubled by desire. as are evils. they should be regulated judicious regulation. But they are not the contrary. Ill of the whole organization. that the sensual passions and that human perfection and happiness consist in the attainment of a passive state of mind. It would dry up the springs of a it river. in order to protect it against the shocks of earthquakes. It prohibits the exercise of those faculties by which alone the design of the human organism can be accomplished. It is it is absurd in its discipline. whenever it shall resume its session at Eome. Brahminical absurdity. and permits but a few of them to be exercised in order to attain the highest degree of perfection. If they ever become impotent . they are unmeasurable benefits. yet its core as they are a result of our . in order to increase the volume of its current would weaken the foundation of an edifice. the pleasures of existence. ease. and death often the only remedy. which render life joyless.

they become sources of pleasure and vigor. and yearn the more the deeper is the stillness. under such circum. are as incapable of arresting the progress of the passions. incentives to industry and enterprise.112 MONASTIC VOW OF it is in the production of pleasure. stances. when the animal passions chastened by virtue. misers. sities. and nothing to appease their appetites and consequently. their powers must be felt under whatever obligaVows. and nothing to divide their power every thing to inflame. Another fundamental error of the vow of celibacy. by innumerable different their attention . is divided among a variety of attractions and each finds its appropriate gratification its taste. constantly offered to But in solitude there is every thing to concentrate. governed by conscience. . Amid the bustle and tumult of the world they are excited objects . as they are of stopping the pulsations of the heart. resolutions and solitude tion we may assume. their powers must be the most ungovernable. The propensities are constituted essential portions of our being. directed by reason. and exercised with a considerate regard to the integrity of the other powers. still Amid the deepest silence and solitude they will yearn for expression. or But some similar compound of human depravity. ment is and eminently contribute towards the advanceand happiness of our being. are refined by knowledge. sots. the delusion that man may by means of solitude and of the perfection resolution arrest the natural promptings of the propen- by nature and accordingly we must cati-y them with us into whatever solitude we may aud as their emotions are naturally irrepresretire sible. debauchees. . . ors when their possess-* have become gluttons.

but this w^as not always "Whatever sincerity or sanctity may have priests. in dispensing instruc- and consoand dying. . her true dignity and beauty acquires the deepest enchantment. lation to the sick 10* . where she which she alone is priestess. have in general furnished a reason- amount of evidence in favor of their chastity. of their craving the most unsupport- sumption. obliges her to shrink from the rude battle of public life her weakness instructs her in the importance of placing herself under . which is noblest employed when it best protects the weak . ' 113 and the torments able. in adin the . its Her organization preeminently qual- her for conditions and The sen- sitiveness peculiar to her nervous system. that the The foregoing observations were made on the prevovv' of perpetual chastity was asCatholic orders with sincere intentions of its sumed by the conforming to the case. able formed. nor nor bishops. and her characteristic instincts and capacities lead her to seek her chief employment and happiness finds the temple of modest retirement of domestic life. tion to her children. with the motives that prompted its assumption. neither monks nor nuns. care to her household. nor popes. the guardianship of the more muscular power of man.CELIBACY. but almost indispensrelations. in some cases. woman. requirements . ministering her sacred profession. able to ifies is invaluable to man. mingled. Whatever the mental and personal charms of a female may be. The natural and efficient regulator of the animal The conjugal union. judiciously passions is marriage. the the altars on idols which excite her purest devotion which she lavishes her choicest gifts and where.

in the name Holy Trin- ity and all the saints and angels. notwithstanding these plain facts. this monster in horror at the profane and unorthodox expressions. it expresses not the full ." stitute "Whosoever shall say. and to obtain this end interests of society. let him be acursed.114 MONASTIC VOW OF - the true excellence of her character can never be seen or appreciated. Yet. the Cath- Church has the unpardonable presumption to pronounce a curse on her. responds. answers " Let her be accursed. that the church could not inimpediments annulling marriage. except in the practice of the amiable virtues which constitute the wife woman knows." ( Canon of the Council of Trent ). if she should prefer a union so olic essential to her happiness perpetual virginity. to be joined in Every time her nature prompts her to say. " Let her be accursed." that. this she feels. let him be accursed. this religious preferable to virginof the monster. Atrocious as is this decree. and the concur in authorizing her to adopt every available means. that the marriage state is preferable to a state of virginity. the rights of her nature. that matrimonial causes do not belong to the ecclesiastical judges. This. or celibacy. than to be joined in matrimony. and the mother. or that in instituting them she has erred." " Whosoever shall affirm. or that it is not more blessed to remain in a state of virginity or celibacy." Hear it from the lips of the holy mother herself: " Whosoever shall say. let him be accursed. marriage is more blessed than to remain in a state of virginity. and usefulness to a state of Every time her common sense is teaches her to say that marriage ity.

"Marriage cannot be given. and their children bastards. one and at the same time a sacrement. of civilization with regard to Catholics but non-Cathit who do not conciliate her holy aversion to by such presents. olics the rites For while with pal- pable inconsistency. she incurs on her own soul the curse she pronounces on others. 115 measure of Catholic arrogance. their wives prostitutes. thus officially enunciated. so often condemned by the church. made in virtue of what civil law soever. are living in a state of " shameful concubinage.CELIBACY. consequently that any other union between man and woman among Christians. So in the j udgment of the present Pope. this Hear from the lips of Pope Pius IX. the marriage rites of whose parents have not been perolics in the formed by a Catholic divested of parents. but accepts marriage presents^ which may perhaps have softened her olics malignity to this product . United States consist of strumpets and According to the principles of the Catholic Church. is an illegitimate offspring legal right to inherit property of his If the church shall ever gain in America the . is nothing else than a shameful and miserable concubinage. She requires no fee for her mat- rimonial services. the church solemnizes among Cath- which she anathematizes them for prefering. she pronounces them profligates. the non-Cathbastards."" It would seem that by consummating the union which she holds men and women accursed for desiring. every person. all priest." ( Allocution on the State of Affairs in New Grenada ). unless there be. she declares that all those whose marriage ceremonies have not been celebrated according to her fantastic requirements.

A ters in the heart of the Catholic Church. what will be the consequence to non-Catholics ? Will she declare them legitimate. that Infidels and Protestants have no right where Catholicism is triumphant. that and raised the sacred secretly the superstitious might behold the horrible of duplicity. an ordinary knowledge of human nature would have warranted the suspicion that the priests were innocence. veil. and murder which pollutes the interior of the institutions which they rev- But these fitful revelations. nor the nunneries asylums of But history has not been silent she has . and the interior of Catholic nunneries remained a profound secret. or who was disgusted beyond endurance at the corruption that fesspoken distinctly. unprincipled. although appeal- ing to the noblest sympathies of mankind. or respect their property titles ? Have not her priests made this land ring with the assertion. Like bursts . which has been dripping with is thirsting for more. nun escaped from her prison-house. not models of chastity. and licentious priests The cold that ever disgraced the name of religion. yet. and the real conduct of Catholic priests. for wliicli she is striving. is A not only undeni- but it is even frightful. yet church. Who body of are they that prate about chastity? the most corrupt. is But who principles? she that has the audacity to proclaim such A the blood of innocence for ages. Had history been silent. lust. dissoluteness of the Catholic orders able. have seldom produced an effect equal to the exigency.116 MONASTIC VOW OF numerical strengtB. or a priest not yet steeled by hypocrisy to^ all the pleadings of virtue. has furnished history with startling records. compound erence. and spoken often.

avarice. priests conceal mode by which " The secular orders." says he. who. but soon rumbled into silence and forgetfulness. which they may be secular priests. 117 of unexpected thunder. they have startled for a moment. whose duty it is to hear their parishioners. " are composed chiefly of parish priests and their curates. and the from publicity their acts of seduction and adultery. by the records of Catholic authority of the highest order. and are detected by them that one of those friars shall immedi- . posed of orders. found themselves entrapped in a den of infamy. The orders of regulars are comwho are subdivided into several minor duties to dis- and who have no particular charge. Such is the general infatuation. They it is will reverently bow to a priest without thinking possible that under the guise of his chaste and holy supreme. to be profaned by holy confessors But reluctantly as char! ity would believe these statements." An insight into the mysteries of Catholicism. lust They will and murder may reign heedlessly pass a nunnery without how many broken hearts may there be hopeimprisoned how many gifted and accomplished .CELIBACY. friars. unless especially deputed to do so or the deputy of the diocese into by the bishop. thinking lessly profession. may be learned from the following extract from Hogan's "Auricular Confession. while they sought an abode of unsullied chastity. It is so managed by the whenever they fail in seducing their penitents. they are substantiated beyond the possibility of doubt or denial. females may there be pining in anguish and despair. that people seldom question that around which the sanctions of religion are thrown. and when they do the doubt is soon obliterated. that divided.

Confess. monks the vow While the Catholic Church imposes on the priests and of celibacy. know the questions which a priest puts to their famthe confessional ilies at Do husbands know the ques- tions which priests put to their wives at the confession ? . the practice of the church in allowing bishops and priests to keep concubines. 168 ).118 ately be at females. — fancy those ideas put into plain lanof questions guage. 170. it accords them the privwith impunity. mothers. while it forbids them to marry under pain of excommunication.. which takes place between a priest and your If after two or three examinathey ( tions. still continue vir- tuous. on condition that they never reveal to moral being the thoughtless pecca- dillos of their parish priest. is asserted and . The adaptation of the confessional to prepare the way for seduction and adultery may be comprehended by Synopsis of Popery" by the following extract from the ' the same author.. Fathers. and that by way and answers. they are rare examples. shall MONASTIC VOW OF hand to hear the confessions of all such and forgive their sins. " " Do any ? of these families. written olic. In the life by an eminent Cath- ilege of acting licentiously of Bishop Scipio de Eicci. ii. 171)." asks he. himself. who for the moment forgot and whose tears of penitence now moisten the ground on which he walks. vol." ( Auric." Synopsis. p. in that sacred tribunal. guardians and husbands fancy to yourself the most indelicate. libidinous questions which the most immoral and profligate mind can conceive. immodest.. p. and you tion will then have a faint conception of the conversa- hitheito pure daughter.



The Council

of Toledo passed a

bidding priests to keep more

than one concubine in

William Hogan

asserts that every priest keeps

a concubine, and every teacher in a school attached to
a Catholic nunnery, has been seduced by her teacher.

The adultery, obscenity and impiety beyond description. St. Chrysostom thinks the number of them that will be saved, bears a very small proportion to those who will be damned. Cardinal Oonpaggio asserts that " the priest who marries commits a more grievous sin than if he kept many concubines." Pope Paul protected houses of ill-fame, and acquired great riches by selling them licenses. The Council of Augsburg ordered that all suspected females should be driven by whips from the dwellings of the clergy, and have their hair cut off. A monk relates
Chamancis says


of the priests are

that he once


a contract with the Devil that



w^ould cease to


mind with

lascivious ideas, he

would omit some prayers
decorated the walls of his

to the saints

whose pictures

but upon communi-

cating the substance of the agreement to the bishop, he

was informed by him, that " rather than abstain from adoring Christ and mother in their holy images it would be better to enter every brothel and visit every prostitute in the city." Richard of England replied to Fulk Nuelly, the legate of Pope Innocent III., commissioned to blow the trumpet of another crusade advise




to dismiss


three daughters, Pride,

and Incontinence.



bequeath them to the most pride to the Knights Templars my av;

arice to the


of Ciste




incontinence to

the prelates."

Pope John XXIII. was deposed by the



Council of Constance for having committed seventy
different sorts of crimes,


among the number of which commerce with three hundred nuns. The Trappists, a menkish order of highway robbers, were constantly employed in abducting females, confining them in their monastery, and perpetrating the most

atrocious rapes.


the Council of Canterbury
of the


Edgar declared that the houses
nothing but brothels.

clergy were

Petrarch laments over the fact

that the clergy at the papal court were shamefully

Cardinals lived openly with their concuit




became a question

of etiquette

whether a

bishop's concubine should not, at the court of His Holiness,

precede other ladies.

Llorente, chief secretary

of the Spanish Inquisition in 1789, relates that the inquisitors having granted permission to the females of a

certain locality to denounce their guilty confessors, the



denounced was so great that thirty were employed for sixty days in taking down depositions, and that the profligacy of the clergy so far
of priests


all calculation



was concluded

to sus-




to destroy the records of the


The extent and depth of clerical depravity can never be divulged by those who know it, for St. Bernard asserts that " Bishops and priests commit acts in private which it would be scandalous to ex-



such a character, what

nunneries governed and visited by priests of Chais the logical inference ?

mancis, an unimpeachable Catholic authority, answers " To veil a woman in these this question when he says




to prostituting her."





General Coraicil of Nice prohibited the erection of

double convents for the accommodation of both sexes

but the prohibition was not regarde^i.
every nunnery has attached to

In Europe

a foundling asylum
Llorente relates a

in the United States, a grave-yard.

curious account of Aquida, an abbess of a Carmelite

nunnery at Liemo,


appears that this female had, on

several occasions, professed to have become pregnant

with stones, and to have retired for the purpose of giving


birth. She had often exhibited her miracuprogeny to the credulous, and pretended to be



by their divine nature, Her success in working

to cure diseases


miracles by

them pro-

cured for her the reputation of a

ate for her eventual canonization, a

But unfortunrumor became cur-

rent that instead of having given birth to stones, she

had given birth to children, and strangled them and that she had obliged the holy nuns under her supervision to practise the same iniquity. The informant,

an inmate of the nunnery, pointed out the place where
the murdered babes were buried

and subsequent excathat half the tale of

vation revealed the horrible


blood had not been told.

The following additional



by William

Hogan, as having transpired under

his personal cogniz-

ance, afford further confirmative proof of the general

character of priests and nuns, and that


remains as


has always been, in

all countries,


at all periods of

" The Eoman Catholics of Albany," says he, *' had, about three years previous to my coming among them, three Irish priests among them^ occasionally preaching,




but always hearing confessions

As soon as I got settled in Albany I bad, of course, to- attend to the duty of auricular confession, and in less than two months found that the priests, during the time they were there, were the fathers of between sixty and one hundred children, besides having debauched many who had left the place previous to their confinement." (Auricular Confession, p. 46).

my coming to this counbeing installed as confessor in the Pvomish Church, I became intimately acquainted with a family of great respectability. This family consisted of a widowed father and two daughters, and never in my life have I met with more interesting young ladies than the daughters were In less than


short time previous to

and soon


two months after my first visit to this family, at their peaceful and respectable breakfast table, I observed the chair which had been usually occupied by the elder of the two ladies occupied by the younger, and that of the latter to be vacant. I inquired the cause, and was informed by the father that lie had just accompanied her to the coach, which had left that morning for Dublin, and that she went on a visit to the Kev. B. K. It seems that both of the daughters of whom I have spoken went to the school attached to the nunnery of the city of The confessor whose duty it was to hear the duty of the pupils of the institute, was one RbTs.,B. K., a friar of the Franciscan order, who, as soon a?*"i^is plans were properly laid, and circumstances rendered them ripe for execution, seduced the elder lady and finding the fact could no longer be concealed, arranged matters with a Dublin friend She was eonfined at the house of his friend, and her illicit offspring given to the managers of the foundling hospital in Dublin No sooner was this elder lady provided for, than this incarnate demon, B. K., commenced the seduction of the younger lady. He succeeded, and ruined her too. But there was no difficulty in provid-





ing for them. They both became nuns. .... I saw them in the convent at Mount Benedict. They were They were spoken great favorites of Bishop Fenton. of by some of the females of Boston as models of (Auricular Confession, p. 100-106). piety." ** Soon after my arrival in Philadelphia, ... a Roman Catholic priest by the name of 0. S. called on me,

and showed me letters had from Bishop T., of


recommendation which he

Ireland, and countersigned by the Roman Catholic bishop of New York, to Bishop England, of South Carolina. .... He arrived at Charleston, and was well received by Bishop England. There lived in the parish to which this reverend confessor


was appointed, a gentleman of respectability and Bishop England supplied this new missionary with letters of strong recommendation to this gentleman, advising him to place his children under his charge, assuring him they would be brought up in the The Rev. fear of God and love of religion

Popish wretch seduced the eldest daughter of his beneand the father becoming aware of the fact, armed himself with a case of pistols, and determined to shoot the seducer. But there was in the house a good Catholic sevant [ a spy ] who advised the seducer to He soon arrived in Charleston the right reverend fly. bishop understood his case, advised him to go to confessent him sion, and absolved him from his sins His victim after a on his way to New York little time, having given birth to a fine boy, goes to






ters of Charity residing in

of sin to the Sisto be taken care of As soon as the child was able to as a nullius filius. walk a Roman Catholic lady adopted it as her own. The real mother of the child soon removed to the city

confession herself,

and sends the child

told the whole transaction to the Roman of who knowing that she had Catholic bishop of a handsome property, introduced her to a highly respectable Protestant gentleman,' who soon married her. He ( the bishop ) soon after introduced the gentleman



to the Sisters of Charity who had provided for the illicit ojSFspring of the priest, concealing its parentage, and The gentlerepresenting it as having no father living.

man was

pleased with the boy, and the holy bishop on him. and his wife to adopt it as his own." (Auric. Confess, p. 111-115). "When quite young and just emerging from childhood, I became acquainted with a Protestant family, reIt considing in the neighborhood of my birthplace. sisted of a mother (a widow), and three interesting In the children, two sons and one daughter
finally prevailed

course of time the sons grew up, and their guardian in compliance with their wishes, and to gratify their ambition, procured them commissions in the army As soon as the sons left to join their respective regiments, which were then on the Continent, the mother There was then and daughter were much alone in the neighborhood only twenty miles from this family,

To this nunnery was a nunnery of the order of Jesuits. attached a school superintended by the nuns of that order The mother yielded, in this case, to the sent her beautiful malign influence of fashion daughter, her earthly treasure, to the school of these Soon after the daughter was sent to school, nuns. I entered the college of Manooth as a theological student, and in due time was ordained a Catholic priest. There was a An interval of some years passed large party given, at which among others I happened to be present; and there meeting with my friends and interchanging the usual courtesies on such occasions, she sportingly, as I then imagined, asked me whether I would preach her reception sermon, as she intended I heard no becoming a nun and taking the veil more of the aifair until about two months, when I received a note from her designating the chapel in which On the reception of she expected my services my friend's note a cold chill crept over me, I anticipated and trembled, and felt there must be foul play. Having no connection with the convent in which . .













she was immured, I did not see her for three m^onths At the expiration of that time one of the following. I found my lay sisters delivered me a note young friend wished to see me on something important, I of course lost no time in calling on her, and being a
priest, I

was immediately admitted


but never have


forgotten, never can I forget, the melancholy picture of lost beauty and fallen humanity which met my astonished gaze in the person of my once beautiful and vir'I sent for you, my friend, to tuous friend death, .... I am in the see you once before "


family-way and must



then proceeds to relate, that in the course of a

conversation which ensued he learned from the nun
that she had* been seduced by her confessor, (which fact precluded any appeal or redress), and that the lady ab-

had proposed to procure an abortion, but that an inmate had informed her that the medicine which the lady abbess would give would contain poison. He promised to renew his visit within a few days he did


but the foul deed was done.

Boes not the blood curdle in ? Does not man and woman blush at their dishonored nature ? Is there a God that

every vein at such recitak

can allow the use of his name to sanction such execrable
depravity; that can look with indifference on


avowing chastity




in order to allure the

purest of their sex to destruction

or that can be in-

sensible to the imprecations of injured innocence, pro-

faned in holy houses?


God a




dream ? No a monastery or a nunnery While avenging power
retribution a

While a thunderbolt leaves in existence, lightning has nq





But it may be interests.126 MONASTIC VOW OF the existence of retributive justice in may well douLt human affairs. to have the fact week after week attested by an investigating committee composed of their opponents. . and the authority of the common law maintained over them? Is it because they are too tutions. nullifying its jurisdiction over them? Why are not the interior of monastic institutions constantly and thoroughly inspected. But does society exercise its authority in the matter any more visibly than deity ? Society enacts laws and prescribes penalties respecting murder. and irregular interments. pious to violate the law of the land it ? If this were so. abortions procured. She also investigates all alleged infractions of these laws. false imprisonment. l^ut much good. said. rape. brothels. But is not the contrary the fact of personal liberty dungeons inflict ? Do they not deprive their inmates Do they not imprison them in Do they not punish them ? Do they not ? ? on them barbarous chastisements ? its sacerdotal brothels? Are they not Has not every age and country given testimony to show that kidnapped men and women have been imprisoned for life in their cells that there nuns have been poisoned. would do them no harm. except when they involve the honor of monastic insti- But why are these dens exempted from the common law of the land ? Why are they allowed to bar their doors against the authority which all others must respect? Why are they allowed to organize within a government an independent government. that God has delegated to society its the power to punish offences committed against moral and therefore does not himself interfere in the matter.

alleged by kings and statesmen. It erects in the most magni- . and parental affection. "babes 127 priests. by arresting It degrades the dignity of the the tide of population. and defeats the object of the huorganism. the impulse and gratifi. extinguishes filial. cation of her pride of family. It strikes at by abrogating their mutual connection. why does it allow institutions among it where every crime tnay be committed secretly. inspect also the more secret and suspicious nunneries ? We man have now described the nature and consequences of the monastic vow It of celibacy. by increasing the number of illegitimate children. nuns. and acknowledged by monks. It severs the ties that bind the inIt injures both the present terests of society together. and man's holiest ties. murdered. No ! They are the true records of monastic history. lates the law of the land. This obligation conjugal. It anathematizes woman's purest aspirations. and with impunity ? Why do not grand juries. and asylums. love of parental control. the noblest incentive to social refinement and civilization the basis of woman's hope and happiness. and the future. community. It converts the ardor of chastity into snares for tion. penitentiaries. the root of national greatness. It wars against marriage. pishops. With such an array of evidence before society. is opposed to the nature.CELIBACY. priests. who visit other jails. proved before councils. and desire to live in posterity. and popes. women outraged by and every ? law. human or divine violated with impunity ? Are these sensational declamations Would for the credit of human nature they were. its seducIt vio- It sanctifies prostitution and adultery.

secret doors. betrays priests. with. virtue. cloisters. inaccessible to guarded windows. nor to a law for redress.128 MONASTIC VOW OF CELIBACY. where no groan can meet the public ear. false floors. where they can never into the tell them the story of their wrong. grated priests. Within and while pretending to purity. fit and talent. the inspection of law. walls. but acces- sible at all hours of night or day by it these wails allures beauty. massive ficent parts of a city its spacious brothels. nor appeal to a heart for sympathy. them for the society of infinite power of unprincipled and imprisons them in eternal seclusion. .

" Accordingly. he was bound to obey the order immediately. the superiors to . it who. or to occupy any station that he The superior's decision was final. as he : was imhad it not of thee whether was impossible or not. I-commanded thee if to build it. or seem to hesitate was a crime. Vow of Unconditional Obedience. on being informed by his general that ordered. and fully to hesitate. to perform any work. at the - the task assigned the recluse exceeded. By the obligation of this vow the members absolute of the convents were subjected to the absolute authority of the superiors . criminal or not. for any purpose. and from it there was no appeal. w^as universally assumed by the was the vow of unconditional obe- dience. The Jesuit's general was empowered to inflict and remit punishment at option.CHAPTER Monastic VIII. mandate of a superior a subordinate was obliged to go on any errand. his mental or physical capacity. to depart on any mission. to undertake any enterprise. . or not. and to expel any member of the order without It mattered not whether the form of charge or trial. and by the penal code of some of the . Another vow which religious orders. thou failest thou shalt be strangled. required of him. officials The authority of these holy strongly resembled that of the oriental despot. the au- thority of the generals the generals to the absolute authority of the pope. replied " I inquired possible to build the bridge over the river.

the most loathsome. a sensitive being into a brute. . . and remorseless in piety . In order to subdue and habituate the will to implicit and mechanical obedience. debilitate the power of resistance. recourse had to be had to penance. to all that could stifle doubt and inquiry. of solitude the had stifled the social instincts had paralyzed the powers of speech. The most menial services. self into a cold. to remove enormous rocks. w^ater to plant stafi^s in the them until they should grow. infliction of one hundred But into to reduce a human being to . and sealed up the lips of wisdom. in defiance of suff'er was doomed to the torments of an excruciating penance. They were required to suck the putrid sores of invalids. to cast their infants into ponds of water. or reof the independence of his nahis circumspection. maining consciousness ture. mended ful son for his attainments was combut the unfaith- who could not but betray some emotion. cruel. disgusting. and absurd offices were consequently asssigned to the probationists. two were always the one a constant and conscious spy on the emotions The faithful son who could harden himstatue. ground and to They were never to be together allowed to be alone of the other. machine a rational being into an irrational was not the work of a moment. but of years and discipline. senseless To transform an a spiritless automaton . and degrade conscious dignity in the dust. to walk unflinchingly into fiery furnaces. to trials.130 MONASTIC VOW OF tlie monasteries punished by lashes. such an absolute serviactive being tude was no easy task. knowledge and eloquence the vow of contemjilation had subjugated the The vow vow of silence .

. all the mental. . His perceptive faculties. Atrocious as were the other vows. is antagonistical to the Jewish religion. had completed the monk's slavery in the ruin of every noble and valuable attribute of his nature. and even at the risk of his life. books. his sense of obligation and accountability. It consummated the destruction of his nature. he was to tremble. his love of liberty and justice. and obey a spiritual despot. moral. intellectual faculties to the 131 domination of fancy. the last exceeded the combined atrocity of them all. and . and the executive powers to the absolute control of a superior. the bewilderments of ignorance the vow of poverty had shackled the . and physical powers which constitute his being.UNCONDITIONAL OBEDIENCE. nor any power . a thority of the deity . — despotic will. and forever. his conscious independence. The Jewish and the Christian is unconditional obedience to God alone. improvement and enterprise the vow of celibacy had extinguished connubial and parental affection and now the vow of unconditional obedience. an abrogation of the aua usurpation of the throne of religion require Heaven. to whom he became a slave in mind and body. to It is the Christian religion. nullification of all religion . and to Natural religion. After its assumption his reason was not to guide him his knowledge was not to direct him his conscience was not to admonish him but in defiance of them all. basely surrendered to an absolute lord. the pope In their sacred is nowhere mentioned. It was the grave of his manhood the tomb in which he buried himself alive. conscience. by subjugating reason. The blind obedience which the pope demands to his faculties of . were by this vow. .

but to the pope alone. in the Egyptian and Persian High Priest we may find something analagous to the claims of the Pope of Rome. in the Grand Lama. he is no more deserving of is commendation its for uesful acts. man is not accountable to reason. bids him to obey the laws of his country. than a locomotive for obedience to the will of an engineer. between government and subjects. It leaves no sense of duty or obligation existing in the constitution of man. According to it. and all law. Natural re- and conscience as tiie sujDreme guide of man and reason and conscience reject the papal authority as absurd and unjust. In the Hierophant of the Elysian mysteries. but nowhere else. claims. It obtrudes between man and his conscience. and forbids him to listen to its voice. abrogation of all obligation. nor God. The pope is therefore " more than God. It obtrudes between man and his civil obligations. It obtrudes between man and his reason.132 MONASTIC VOW OF lie referred to analagous to what ligion prescribes reason . and fornone ." . nor conscience. inconsistent with The unconditional obedience required by the pope all ideas of merit and demerit conduct. between mankind and their creator. but from the secret orders of another. accountable to and that he is capable of nullifying all obligations between man and man. If is in human man acts not from the independ- ent suggestion of his reason and conscience. The unconditional obedience demanded by the pope It is an inconsistent with human accountability. It assumes is that the pope is above all authority . and forbids him to obey its dictates. in the Apostolic Successor of Buddha. nor society.

yet such a degree of power entrusted to them would be detrimental to the interests of society. conscience. 133 and God is no God or an the pope is For one man. often regret over the mistakes which they have committed in giving counsel. as one of his titles asserts . to be driven by the spurs and whips In short. and who owns no acthe annals of tyranny and arrogance. The unconditional obedience enforced by subversive of the rights of the world. principle of action. men are abject slaves to the pope. It is to declare that all It is to deny that any has a right above a brute that is bridled. is great. whose interest is antagonistical to those of his subjects. whose nature has been religiously pruned of human sensibilities. Parents whose welfare and honor are so intimately interwoven with the welfare and honor of their children. For a sj^iritual despot.UNCONDITIONAL OBEDIENCE. but con- the papal claim of absolute dominion over science human and reason. or yoked. or the privilege of exercising the powers which they have inherited with their being. is A claim of absolute authority always absurd . harnessed. it is to crush all liberty and the of its owner. generals. to require the united intelli- human to family to submit to his arbitrary deny their right to an independent or reason. inferior one to him. will. surpasses and popes all absurdity recorded in Even were suand virtuous as humanity permitted. as wise countability for the proper exercise of his functions. however good or gence of the dictation. rights of human nature. for such an inhuman monster to be entrusted with exclusive 12 . whose mind has been contracted within the bigoted circle of spiritual ideas. periors.

and interests of another. investigation able ally ? most formid- And had these noble principles been avail- able in supporting the pretension of the pope. immoral. and that as a class. conscience. It suggests a strong jDre. they have been ignorant. Had been otherwise would he have denied their authority ? "Were he confident that his pretensions are founded in truth. would he have prohibited investigation its ? Is its not reason the clearest guide to truth. superiors. cruel and intriguing. conscience most powerful advocate. But the papal claim of absolute control over reason and conscience refutes itself. in the hands of such men. would he have had the stupidity to denounce them? . but render them instruments of the most flagitious purposes. would as inevitably complete his arrogance of his and tyranny subordinate. wisdom by folly. as it would the misery and slavery Less than such a result could not be ex- pected from the best of superiors.134 control MONASTIC VOW OF over tlie reason. can we wonder that monks. generals and popes were the basest and most licentious of men that the convents were rife with prostitution and murder that the papal court was the most profligate in the world and that the most prosperous period of Catholicism was the darkest age of mankind. or monks. such power. virtue by vice. But when the past history of these holy men has shown that they have invariably labored for their selfaggrandizement. sumption that he it is conscious that he can make no successful appeal to either reason or conscience. would not only extinguish all virtue in the breast of the governed. When by means of an ecclesiastical despotism. . learning was governed by ignorance. generals.

but destructive of the rights of man. that they may be driven under his lash whither- soever his pleasure or interest ate the faculties that distinguish may require men from . . then is the papal despotism not only subversive of religion. a machine of the world to harness mankind in the gears of an ecclesiastical despot. of the obligations of virtue. to obliter- brutes . and blaspheme Omnipotence by the ridicule of assuming his prerogatives then the absolute. to deny the existence of a God by abrogating his attributes. and unhesitating obedience enjoined on the religious orders by the Catholic Church is in accordance with its spirit and design. humanity in its purest character. If it is 135 consistent with religion beings. and reason . in its freest exercise. implicit.UNCONDITIONAL OBEDIENCE. But if religion is morality in its highest development. slaves of to make automata of human men. and dangerous to the liberty and interests of the world.

We have nastic shown vows are in the previous chapters that the in conflict. that she is rather a political than a religious institution and that while politics form her nature and principles. they constitute the Catholic Church. but for the ambitious purpose of obtaining riches. and the . also. that they were assumed not for the humble purpose of acquiring spiritual perfection. we have inferred . the Apostles. but with the dictates of reason. We will now adduce a few facts tending to show that monkish orders originated. as their founder. powder. not from Christianity that they existed in pre-historic ages and that so far as . From these considerations. Orders. "We have shown. . and the interests and progress of society. Ilonastic — Concluding mo- Fiemarhs. the prophet. the principles of personal improvement. they enumerate all Pythagoras.CHAPTER Pagan Origin of the IX. and not a Christian It is institution. religion is assumed as an ornament and disguise. well known that the Carmelite monks claim the an- Elijah. the Gallic Druids. she is a heathen. Among cient personages whom they assert belonged to their order. ion. the Essen es. the prophets and holy men mentioned in the Old and New Testament. not only with the require- ments of moral goodness. and dominand from the fact that the monachal orders form an elementary part of the constitution of the Catholic Church.

which taught that through the observance of ascetic practices the animal passions could be destroyed. The monks resided in monasThey both practised teries. and a beatific state attained whose tranquility nothing could disturb. fraternities. places the antiquity of the monachal order remotely beyond that of Christianity acknowledges its institution to have originated from Judaism and grants that its rules and principles were adopted by ancient Pagan . This permission. The Gymnosophists. born in Cashmere B.CONCLUDING REMARKS. who practised the most excruciatin pure. allowed the Carmelites to erect in the Vatican the statue of Elijah as the founder of their order. That identical institutions have flourished in Asia from the remotest historical periods. The different orders of the monks and hermits which originated from his allegorical and mystical teaching. admits not of a question. but in their conduct and principles they 12* . assumed the vows of unconditional obedience and absolute poverty. ancient liermlts. 1027. their eagerness to and who. strenuously advocated monachal institutions. this claim has rigorously been contested. were an order of monks. . the most rigorous penance. become The God Fo. 137 Althougli amid the wrangling of the monastic orders for preeminence. yet Pope Benedict III. ing penance . C. professed to aspire after absolute puritv. so far as the concession of the infallible fixther is authority. the naked philosophers of India. the soul purified and assimilated to God. the author of the Braminical religion. and the hermits in deserts. The present Sufism of Arabia is but a modified form of an ancient system of pantheistical mysticism. sometimes burnt themselves alive.

The monks lived in monasteries. From the above enumerated facts the conclusion is irresistable. aud nate miracles resemble those of Jesus Christ. and acquire the veneration of the populace by the practice of absurd and cruel penance. intriguing. C. retire monks who vow obedience. are classes of celibacy. The Essenes. vents were governed by superiors who were subject to the absolute authority of the patriarch. assumed the vows of obedience. foundHis coned the monastic order of the Buddhists. were an organization of monks fore who derived their theological principles from the God Theuth. who flourished in Egypt and Palestine bethe Christian era. born B.") alludes in his discourses to monks and her- mits as being at his time ancient.138 PAGAN ORIGIN OF THE were grovelling. and admitted virgins to social in- and authority of the Buddhistic superiors . the founder of the Egyptian religious ceremonies. that the Catholic monastic orders are neither of Christian origin. pass their time in silent contemplation. A Eomish missionary who visited China. as he was officially styled. the Apostolic Successor. poverty and from the world. (see "Bible in India. or. nor inconsistent with the doctrines and worship of Paganism. two years after Fo. born B. 0. whose birth. tercourse. poverty and celibacy. Buddha. The func- tions similar to those of the Catholic orders were and the pretensions and dignity of the patriarch were one and the same with those of the Pope of Kome. 3. observing the similarity which subsisted between the Chinese and . 1029. Jeseus Christna. profligate and ambitious. life. flourishing and venThe Hindoo and Mohammedan Fakirs erated orders.500. the incarredeemer of the Hindoos.

lest it should in- validate their title to vast possessions which they held. with a few general remarks. selves to remain forever poor. modified. which assumed the vow of perpetual and absolute poverty. artfully labored to amass fortunes. upon a vow of perpetual ignorance. The Franciscans. they abroriches. and soon betrayed a secret design of acquiring hierachal importance and supremacy. but that Paganism converted Catholicism. The mendicant orders.MONASTIC ORDERS. more learned but less pious authority concluded from the same analogy. they assumed. that Catholicism did not convert Paganism. but a crafty de- riches. gated their vow of perpetual poverty. and wishing to duplicity wield its immense power and lucrative patronage in be- . abjuring the acquisition of any intellectual accomplishment. yet they were evaded. 139 the Catholic religion. and consecrating themselves strictly to the preaching of the gospel. declared that the devil must have preceded him. convents. Although they were assumed by the monks as perpetual obligations. incessantly grasped after When they had built nunneries. or abrogated as interest and policy suggested. With equal their first organization. and became the proprietors of extensive domains. But becoming enchanted with the magnificence of the papal crown. A We olic will now conclude our examination of the Cath- monastic orders. The monastic vows are not only a bold abnegation of the authority of reason and conscience. and converted the nation to Christianity. and secretly to acquire power and influence. who solemnly obligated themvice to delude the credulous. in order to cheat the church out of the credit of the enterprise. and ambition.

The Dominicans.140 PAGAN ORIGIN OF THE half of their order. and cringing sycophancy. and to bers of its make the memits order superior to those of any other. Having acquired immense wealth and popularity. they annulled their vow of perpetual ignorance. these un- scrupulous by no other monks obtained rights and privileges enjoyed They not only ecclesiastical corporation. adopted at the commencement of their career the money-making devices of the mendicant orders . opulent legacies. lest the profane avarisive that they secular power. all civil obtained exemption from and episcopal taxes. they placed on the apostolic throne.. The riches. While this pious fraternity resolved not to accept any ecclesiastical dignity. and perceiving that literary ac- quirements would facilitate the accomplishment of this object. and removed by art or bribery every obstacle to the success of their ambition. Alexander V. and the pecuniary means of erecting numerous stately structures. and their domains so exten- had attracted a covetous glance from the vows by which they had been acquired.. from their own order. vast tracts of land. . and general next in power and importance to the pope. it secretly all and artfully labored to acquire the privileges of the mendicant orders. who were established to preach against infidels and heretics. intrigue.. and Clement XIV. and began to devote themselves to the acquisition of some degree of profane erudition. they prudently annulled the ciousness of princes should cause their sequestration. Sixtus IV. By hypocrisy. but when their reven- ues had become so great. all the ad- vantages of the secular clergy. Nicholas V. Jesuits professed to have a holy abhorrence of but thankfully accepted costly presents.

and tutors of schools. and under the mask of any external appearance to prosecute in secret what might excite opposition if openly avowed. to be accommodating and complaisant while pursuing a political enterprise. and of acquiring churches and domains without restriction. in They became the governors power order to grasp secular revenues. They were privileged also to suit their dress to circumstances. their profession to the views of others. privileges. and from of the all sins all . the confessors of princes. They established for seminaries and boarding schools both sexes. mechanics. ized on the principles of deception. showmen. their conduct to peculiarities. they secretly labored for their own aggrandizement. that they might select the brightest minds of the rising generation. while they publicly professed to be their sacrificing their interests to the salvation of mankind. ferret out their secrets. that they might avail themselves of They became their influence and control their wealth.MONASTIC ORDERS. and unrestricted in actors. that they might penetrate their intentions. in . and mould them to their purposes. and to exercise the political in behalf of their interests. They became the spiritual guides of females of rank and opulence. and enslave and govern their minds. 141 amenability to any other power than that but also the authority of absolving from ecclesiastical penalties. watch over They became professors of universities their conduct. and to throw Organoff the mask whenever they thought expedient. of colonies. of changing the pope and of the object vows of the laity. They were allowed to become actual merchants. facilitate the and to adopt any profession calculated to accomplishment of a design.

being. the source and blind submisThe most absurd and criminal injunctions of a superior or general were obeyed without compunction or remorse. in order to manufacture public opinion. passing their lives in caves. in order to dis. yet an object of uni- veneration. If they aspired after perfection. and influence the general tone of society in their favor. sought to cover all they dominion over the young occupy the confessional. If they strove to obtain law^s of their personal purity. to credulity sacrificing the virtues of life. Under direction the monks flattered every power they were object. . domestic and governmental secrets and they labored to monopolize the pulpit. in in nights days without food. the riches they contemned. it was by violating the to atone for offences They sought by scourging their backs. by luxury and tyranny they sought and obtained power . divisions into which the religious its or- ders were divided. without sleep. ironing their limbs. chaining themselves to focks. obsequiousness by duplicity and fraud they amassed fortunes. and the dignity they abjured. They were a palpable versal deception. propagating without women. acquiring the respect of the world they despised. it was by of natural sentiment. they sion sacrificed freedom.142 order to I^AGAN OBIGIN OF acquire THE . and blushed at no sycophancy that facilitated the accomplishment of an Governed by unnatural vows. By cunning and . ordered to subvert. and their different degrees of aus- enabled the church to suit policy to the cor- ruption or purity. The numerous terity. the ignorance nation it or learning of the its sought to proselyte and govern. in years without speaking sub- sisting without money.

the criminal thought differently from what he said or done .of the maxims by which they sought to justify the crimes In 1809. and an artful ambiguity of language. so the license of their sop]?iistry enabled them to construe the maxims of virtue according to any standard that would justify the conduct dictated by their interest tion. or of any treaty. 143 Every species of absurdity. and issued bulls in conformity with the demands of temporal princes.MONASTIC ORDERS. the startling fact became public that the holy fathers had been in the habit of availing themselves of It then pious subterfuges. of virtue of others. By the pliancy of their moral code they consecrated the basest means to pious ends. The doctrines which they taught were often as pernicious as their professions were false. They taught that offences were justified. and their conduct crafty. or sycophancy. ambition and despotism. appeared that while they had made contracts. if. the By subterfuge of perplexing interpretations. when committed. mental reservations. they oppressed the world. when the papal archives were brought to France. art. of any contract. . The perversions. and that a mental reservation nullified the obligation of any promise. by virtue of mental reservations. or any mode of life that would favor the success of a design. they had at the same time nullified. under the guise of sanctity was embodied in their organiza- and illustrated in their conduct. As the accommodating morality of their religion allowed them to adopt any profession. such of them as were obnoxious. hypocrisy. they applied to their own conduct in the broadest sense. they excused and sanctioned perjury and every other crime. avarice.

were. declared to divinely appointed methods of guilt of rape. in . According to the doctrines of Catholicity the guilt of every crime may be expiated by the performance of penance. which he as carefully as prudently concealed from the eyes of the intelligent. Long fasting would starve him long abstinence from business would empoverish him and either expedient would prevent him from being a source of revenue to the church and. it is for the performance of the easy to see that an ordinary Cath- olic sinner was in eminent danger of incurring a debt which would require several centuries of penance to liquidate. These offences being veryhenious in their nature. Fasts. of robbery. . thought or deed and a uniformity in the administration of penal prescriptions was maintained. by the use of this code. for the commission of any offence of word. and time being required atoning penance. to underof punishment. fessor pretended to be guided self-torture. of fornication. . All priests were enabled. of adultery. . which harmonized with the divine inspiration by which the con.144 IMMORALITY OF THE absurdities The and perniciousness of their moral code were not exceeded by those of their penal code. abstinence from business. expiating the by the authority be the of the ecclesiastical code. To regulate the priest in prescribing this mode him with an body of laws. the church furnished ecclesiastical stand the true orthodox degree of punishment which had been authoratively decided should be inflicted on penitents. of murder. and of every degree and species of crime. prayers. in the matter. Here was a dilemma. and very frequently committed by those who believed in the ability of the church to absolve them from their guilt.

13 . two hundred pounds The liqui- dation of such an obligation during the dark ages would consume a small fortune but the expansive benevolence . itable discrimination. Whoever could not pay with their purse had to pay with their body. By this happy expedient provision was made for the relief of all criminals at stipulated prices.MONASTIC ORDERS. by the payment of nine shillings Yet even by this indulgence and charticular offence. and fifteen thousand lashes and the repetition of the whole Psalter. penance imposed on a rich sinner A for one year's indulgence in the commission of a par- by this crafty device. touched at the sorrows of her contrite members. Three thousand lashes. graciously accepted their land after she had exhausted their purse. As crime had its degrees of turpitude. 145 ance. few sinners than a debt of three hundred sterling. allowed to be cancelled by the payment of twenty shillings to the priest and if the sinner was poor.a century's at three hundred thousand lashes. were prescribed as an indispensable satisfaction for any crime whose penance required a year to discharge. graduated according to their pecuniary circumstances. A year's penance was taxed at three thousand lashes. as every separate offence required the atonement of a less separate escaped incurring years. was. fact. and the repetition of a portion of the Psalter. . or of penance. of the church. the ecclesiastical code prescribed degrees of severity in punishing it. defeat the object of the holy sacrament of penTo obviate this difficulty the ingenious method of indulgences was adopted. and five centuries at fifteen hundred thousand lashes. for any crime whose penance required five years to discharge..

they have generally usurped the fortunes of their patrons. was not objected to. or can pretend to claim. and improvement in virtue. and restricting If they have been schools for the correction freedom. they have impaired their authority by numerous corruptions and interpolations. tions. penance. of error. by vigorit demanded on the back of an The skill and hardihood of St. oppressive corpora- have at times preserved the literary treasures of the ancients. than any usefulness or virtue which they could possess. they have always been the means of oppressing industry. have flicted deeper injury on the cause of truth. If they have sometimes established institutions for the education of youth. They were financial inThe labor performed by their inmates as a stitutions. The monasteries were ambiguous. Dominic was able to discharge the penitential lashes of a century in six days and his pious example was attempted to be imitated even by ladies of fashion and . pair the revenues of the church.146 IMMORALITY OF THE These scourgings were always sanctified by tKe repetiAs vicarious flagellation did not imtion of psalms. was articles made a lucrative source of revenue. and on the can be atoned for by interest of public morals. Their virtues were accidents their vices natural offsprings. and a sinner would often expiate his guilt ously laying the stripes accommodating friend. The which they manufactured were represented as capable of imparting a peculiar blessing to the pur- . and in- crimes notoriously practised therein. If they have ever been places of refuge for the proscribed. it quality. yet the absurdities If they and immoralities taught within their the sanctuaries.

MONASTIC ORDERS. badge of a religious order. all the prerogatives of heaven. . chaser. Gold being the source of power and luxury. the confessors with and the the spiritual guides which they supplied princes. had to be liberal. which all had inherited from the forbidden fruit which Adam had eaten. . As it sinned. released sinners from purgatory. to which. the church converted not only the crimes of her members. to guilt the gates of Paradise. and all the privileges of earth. all all had to pay and as all were totally depraved. empowered a priest to demand of a penitent the surrender of the whole of his fortune. chandised every spiritual blessing. The sin of total depravity. with which they provided the affluent of both sexes. and opened more ably than any thing else increased the power and dominion of the church. Gold sup- plied the place of contrition. 147 A simple making them cheap at any price. a more precious savior than Christ. to lay members at the price of a respectable The tutors with which the monasteries fur- nished schools. he was likely to be exorbitant in the demand. were ascribed divine virtue. was sold fortune. were benevolently granted upon sums of money. but the . the professors which they gave to colleges. atoned for the offences of criminals. it became the governing principle of the church. and an unlimited amount of indulgences. "With extraordinary financial ingenuity. a more sancAs all had tifying possession than the Holy Ghost. it was a more adorable object than the deity. For it she granted indulgences to violate the laws of heaven and earth threatened and repealed excommunications and mer- payment of exorbitant . The confessor was judge and as he was interested in the amount.

and it finding exceedingly remunerative. which had slept for five hundred years in Palestine. This discovery induced an industrious search for their graves. and a careful excavation of them. to traffic her inveterate disposition led her to examine the saints more carefully. the judge of Isreal. into a lucrative source of revenue. The exhaustlessness of the store. and informed him where his corpse reposed. yet they all vanished upon opening the for such celestial . were exhumed and transported to Rome. of whom had Happily conceiving that the saints. she inferred that the supera- bundant quantity of their goodness might be dealt out to the destitute without detriment to the owners. the church laid claim to these works of supererogation. had per- formed more good works than was necessary for the salvation of their souls.148 IMMORALITY OF THE virtues of her departed saints. and began to vend them at exorbitant prices. Stephen having appeared in a dream to a pious man. and see if they had not other disposable material for the exercise of her commercial ingenuity. but some honest doubts arose in as to it being the identical . which St. The bones of Samuel. St. She was not long in discovering that the bones of the saints were likely to be deemed as valuable as their virtues had been. some been executed as malefactors. and the scarcity of the article among her members. Stephen had been deposited coffin.to the existence of a grave. by bishops and Unmistakable one proofs appeared as. and might prove as marketable. With more cupidity than reason. the locality was immediately examined priests in company with the dreamer. After disposing of a great portion of heaven. made the enterprise a very profitable speculation.

and such. they did not prove as unfortunate as might have been expected for until anatomy and history had rectified them. were too self-evident to be concealed from the eyes of mankind and too revolting to escape the animadversion of some of the more noble and courageous members of their fraternitv. of jackals. were as eagerly sought after and what is very remarkable. of dogs. But however mortifying were such errors. did not in some instances render valuable aid to the cause of education and humanity The sanctity and disinterestedness with which their profession was invested. and . and of malefactors. it was natural for the church to seek for it with great eagerness. 149 odors arose from the corpse. performed as many and . were sometimes real. as great miracles. and of jackals for those of saints. We do not pretend to assert that the religious orders. and as both classes have often been regarded by law as synonymous. that the most sceptical was satisfied of the genuineness of the relics. devout reverence was manifested by the trees and rocks in the vicinity. A saint's tomb being equal in value to a gold mine. and as there is no between the bones of thieves and murderers and those of saints. Some of the clergy. But the deep earnestness of her enthusiasm blunted the acuteness of her judgment. brought as good prices as the veritable bones of saints. It sometimes led her to mistake the bones of difference cats. and interred together in the same field. 13* . though generally assumed. the bones of pigs. even the most objectionable of them. the former were frequently gathered up in mistake for the latter.MONASTIC ORDERS. But the corrupt and pernicious principles which entered into their constitution.

sunk them in the estimation of the enlightened and philanthropic. dignation which their outrageous conduct had created in the public mind. Eeforms. by which they labored to advance the pope's pretension to supreme dominion. rendered their existence in a government a political solecism. some powerful monarch had surpassed the limits of his It was then that the discontent and inforbearance. until their arrogant conduct towards superstitious dread of their anathemas. the and the servile temper which monarchical government engenders in the minds of subjects. and the base accommodation of principle to circumstances. their busy and intriguing spirit. The temporal re- and spiritual powers of the monastic orders were . their cunning and obsequiousness.150 ABEOGATION OF THE of the learned many men of the age boldly complained of their base immorality. their privileges nullifying the their jurisdiction the civil authority over them. and the powerful confederacy of their orders. but peremptorily enforced. broke forth in bold and explicit demands for reformation. and the worldly policy which characterized their religious profession. the force of habit and of education. Their aversion to reform. all conspired to conciliate Christendom to the deep degradation inflicted on society by the monastic orders. w^ere not only projected. made them obThe nujects of suspicion to jurists and statesmen. Their pernicious intermeddling in political affairs. the deep-rooted reverence which mind for the spiritual guides. but which superstition had held in check. consequently. merous exemptions which they enjoyed under the protection of the of laws. But notwithstanding existed in the public these palpable facts. overgrown power.

subverting the authority of government. and substitut- ing in their stead all sorts of superstition. as the decree expresses. and generally all passions and wickedness tion . . the most inordi- nate and criminal impiety. The different orders. because " Their doctrine destroys the law of nature. with magic. their sanction of homicide and parracide fine. stricted 151 Sovtheir to by the abolisliment of their exemptions. teaching the nefarious principle of secret compensation.. . for conspiring against the government in Italy for licentiousness and in France. or to purchase exemp- an enormous rate. in overthrowing tho practice and foundation of religion. one were abrogated on account of some intolerable conduct. man. perjury. and. equivocation . the nations to affords They attempted dethrone Queen Elizabeth. blasphemy. and sometimes to own Even Catholic princes obliged the monks submit to unpleasant restrictions.MONASTIC ORDERS. and its colonies. falsehood. They caused the They endea- . and adultery. reigns appropriated tion many of their rich estates to educa. The Jesuists were abolished in England on account of the political plotting of its members in Holland for having caused the assassination of Maufice de Nassau in Portugal for an attempt to murder Joseph I. her. extirpating every sentiment and mental reservaof humanity in . that rule of morals which God has inscribed on the heart of tion at after the other. in Spain. and charitable purposes use. Their dogmas break all bounds of civil society. authorizing theft. but de- feated in that." history of all That their conduct and melancholy evidence. sought to murder assassination of the Prince of Orange. principles are of the most execrable description. .

for having attempted to abolish them. so principles. and Louis XV. which may gather into a storm. and by all enlightened men and governments.. so dangerous to public peace so justly reprobated and morals. Again these monks are travprogress of science. But notwithstanding execrable in its all this. the others rapidly incurred the sentence of the same degradation. although he did reservations. until despotism dares insult the ears of its with the boldness of prophecies .. vored to poison Maximillion King of Austria. and plotting treason and rebellion in the advancement of the pope's claims to supreme temporal and spiritual dominion.. whose rain will be the blood of nations. was restored by Pope Pius VII. . and as they the most powerful of the monastic orders.' who intimated that it would reappear in the same authority in which ersing it fell. and the were curses of nations. They poisoned Pope Clement XIII. I. atoms. and Pope Clement XIX. with mental of ages. the Jesuistical order. the world. Loaded with the crimes Europe for it having ab- rogated their order. until the foundation of independent government begins to quake .152 ABROGATION OF MONASTIC ORDERS.. arresting the demoralizing society. and whose thunder will shake governments to ter . they were abolished with different limitations in every part of .. They attempted to murder Henry IV. until the pillars of constitutional liberty begin to tot- freemen and until statesmen and patriots turn pale as they view the portentous vapors darkling the political horizon.

X. " Pius v." &c." "The Bearer of Eternal Life. our reigning pope." "The Chief High Priest and Prince of God . their Pretensions. plant. Some : of the pope's ac- The Father of all Fathers.." "Priest of the World." Later an Canon." " More than God." "The Oracle of Religion. and A That we may tiie dministrations. and the pope by nobody." "Our Lord God the Pope." "The Divine Majesty. " All mortals are judged by the pope. cal the canons of her councils." "The Most Holy Father. and from the assertions of her acknowledged authorities. Character. we will inquire v/hat are her pretensions before arraigning An unequivoanswer to this inquiry may ba obtained from the import of her titles." " The Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world. ruin and build." Trent." "God's Vicar General on Earth . from her reason or justice in making them. &c. 13* .." "The Regent of the House of the Lord ." " The Victorious God and Man in the See of Rome. and ho has power to pluck up." "Our Most Holy Lord God. is prince over all nations and kingdoms. not commifc the error of attributing to holy mother absurdities which she repudiates." " The Mo§t High and Mighty God credited titles are the following " on Earth. scatCano7i of the Council of ter. Elections. from the bulls of her popes.CHAPTEK JPopes.

and all the isles on which Christ. . " He ** The pope is supreme over all the world. No chapter. and destroy crowns and castles for the preSt. Diet. the holysun of righteousness hath shone. Every Eoman Bull of Grepontiff when ordained becomes holy. (the pope) alone has the right to assume emAll nations must kiss his feet. " Ireland." " The pope is crowned with a triple crown. Peter and the holy Catholic Church" Bull of Pope Adrian. He has the right to depose emperors. and is constituted over his (God's) hand to regulate concerning all inferiors he opens heaven. whatsoever are forbidden to condemn him who is called The Church of Home is never to the apostolic chair. do belong to the patrimony of St." Antonius of Florence. No council can call itself general without the consent of the pope. Vicar of God. " It is necessary to salvation that all Christians be subject to the pope. may impose taxes. no book can be reputed canonical without his authority. All persons others. 40." " things mine. the only . " The pope all over his power is is* the only Vicar of God the world. servation of Christianity. Thomas Aquinas. Si Papa. who has supreme power and empire over . It is the only name in the world.154 POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS." gory VII pire. wrong. Pagan as well as Christian." Po-pe Boniface VIII. No one can invalidate his sentence he can abrogate those of all He cannot be judged by any. confirms emperors. The supremacy of the pope over all persons and Bellaris the main substance of Christianity. sends the guilty to hell. and orders the clerical orders. and will never fall into error. His name is the only one to be uttered in the churches. .

46. and in tian princes Brovius. " The pope is the Lord of the whole world. 1. character and conduct. The pope has temporal power." — From the loftiness of these pretensions." Cap. 19. same. 10. Jure Princep. above angels so that if it were possible that angels could err from the faith. p.'—Blareus. 2.. 2. Be Rom. and duty into sin." Bur and. his temporal power is most 3fareminent. their place put others. of the esiith. 4. sec. remits to Bens. He is also as king of heaven. king. Be Rom.ELECIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. All other powers depend on the pope. is empowered by God to do all things that he him- self can." cinus. Pontiff. cap. " God's tribunal and the pope's tribunal are the 3foscovius. Rom. " The bishop ' of Eome cannot even sin without being praised. Art. If they possess the moral attributes of the deity. Bib. Eccl. of earth." Feraris in Papa. 11. "The pope is divine monarch. . the debt of a plighted promise. M. The vicar of God in the place of God. ' Iloscovius. " The pope can transubstantiate sin into duty. they must . supreme emperor "and Hence the pope is crowned with a triple crown. all princes 155 and kings 5. '* The pope has supreme power over kings and Chrishe may remove them from office." — Tiba. and of hell." " " man and The pope can do all things that he wishes to do. 62. 134. Art. they could be judged and excommunicated by the pope. . we are involuntarily impelled to look to the holy fathers for corresponding principles.

and supereminent to him in authorIf the pope can transubstantiate sin into duty and ity. by presuming to exercise a superior degree of executive and judicial authority. and convert the worship of God into sin. order. out of the patrimony of St. superior to him in jurisdiction. of God Almighty. physical attributes and if they pos- sess his physical attributes. If.156 possess also POPES liis —THEIR PRETENSIONS. he can annihilate all distinction between and wrong. a and the adoration of himself into a duty. then are their pretensions not only presumptous but ridiculous. not only arrogant but blasphemous of . . if he pope's tribunal and God's tribunal are the same above all in heaven would be the proper judge. . the Peter. and territory of the earth. refragable proofs of unsupported by . they can much easier create some world out of nothing over which than they can create a claim to all to domineer. who was never worth a cent. . then he must be the associate judge . right duty into sin. should any of them fall if he can annul the obligation of any oath which man is under to his maker. equal to him in dignity. indeed. and trampling under foot his name and character. if But irif these extraordinary pretensions. divine power and virtue the administrative abilitiesof thejDopes have not transcended and if their those of infinite wisdom and goodness monarchy is not such a just embodiment of unquestionable and universally accepted principles as has produced and maintained among their subjects on earth a degree of peace. the crowns. riches. subsists among the angels in heaven. contemning his authority by usurping his prerogatives. denying the existence God by claiming equality with him. and concord superior to that which . and anathematizer of angels.

claiming the right to arbitrate between rival candidates. But the despotism of the church. As the populace claimed and enjoyed the prerogative of confirming or rejecting the choice of the bishops. also. although it cannot be denied that the persons whom they have se- lected were in general the weakest and most corrupt men of their ase. on the demise of a pope. the papal elections were always scenes of excitement. and to maintain it by force of arms. o In the course of time and experience it became the custom of the bishops. 157 In selecting a person among mortals capable of filling a throne so exalted above the thrones of earth and heaven. from suitable selfish and ambitious motives. and to convene synods for the purpose of trying any of the holy fathers who should be charged with criminal conduct. often interfered in the proceedings.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. to assert independence of his election should be inspected the secular powers. The jealousy commend to the suffrages of the college of cardinals of emperors interfered in the matter. and as nobles. to interdict the consecration of any pope elect until the forms of by their deputies. to re- a person for his successor. naturally increasing with her power. and approved by themselves. however to have succeeded hy the aid of divine inspiration. and sometimes of disorder. enabled her eventually to relievo herself of these unpleasant restrictions. we perceive the great embarrassment under which those must have labored on whom the difficult task was devolved. They claim. This papal triumph removing the wholesome check which had hitherto restrained and softened the 14 . and to punishing such of them a^ should be found guilty.

competitors insulted. Clement II. were.. was force on the apostolic throne. and the election of his successor a bloody struggle for political interest. Through the influence and intrigues of two royal harlots.. . when he was filled with their lovers. but in the administration of a pope. to dis- . at the command of Henry III. and placed him by military Pope John XIII. and excite them to ungovernable fury. and Pope Benedict IX.. Pope John XII was deposed for ingratitude and treachery by the Emperor Otho I. ecclesiastical Eival aspirants appeared in the acrimonious contests ensued . Boniface I. They often obliged the inspired college to select such a . and Pope Clement III. Pope Clement II. Emperors would interpose not only in the election. eighteen years old. To defeat a hostile or elect a friendly candidate. candidate as suited their interest sometimes they prevented. ad- herents were bought. tlie violence of episcopal ambition..158 POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS.. Peter was Pope John XII. nobles and princes would appeal to the passions of the mob. elevated to the papal dignity. peace of Christendom endangered. through the wealth and power of those prostitutes. the chair of St. arena . Clement III. votes exRome polluted with blood and the torted by threats . left claims of rival candidates for the vicarship of Christ to the anathemas of the clergy be disputed by mob. the inspired college at the command of Otho elected by II.. who caused the inspired college to elect Leo VII.. at the Command of Henry IV. to displace Gregory VII. Theodora and Marozia. and the frenzy of the The knell of a pope's death became the tocsin of war. and at other times anticipated its action. was elected to displace Benedict IX. when he was twelve years..

the inspired college itself was often So rent into revengeful and irreconcilable violent sometimes were these lege conflicts. the two popes was the genuine holy Sometimes this question was decided by priorsometimes popular ity in the moment of an election of .. and the other over another fathers and at another time three it. of St. and the intermeddling of princes in their elec- tions in order to secure a pliant instrument for their political designs. to determine which father. three cotemporaneous holy fathers. John XIV. popes. presented him to the people as having been chosen inspiration. it became difficult. that the col- became divided into two parties. Peter. and Benedict XII. without the aid of another inspired college. 159 place Dioscorus. and canonical law. supported different At one period two popes divided the patrimony it. XII. disposed of his rival by violence carcerated his in a dungeon. each other as anti-popes. in- in ^yhich he starved to Besides the rivalship which infuriated opposing candidates. and tax their Benedict . The antagonistic al popes would mutually denounce ingenuity to effect each other's destruction. death. sanction or imperial preference resolved the difficulty and at other times different sections of Christendom arriving at opposite conclusions. popes asserted jurisdiction over These rival holy would incessantly encounter one another with . by divine Two antagonistical popes thus being elected in accordance with papal usages. to displace Jolin XXII. divine inspiration. each of its which favor- proceeded to separate churches. Gregory XII. and Martin V.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. and electing ite. factions. the one reigning over one portion of .

of the benefits of a holy father. sometimes of years. but all Europe. The passions and private interests of the members of the sacred college their wish to secure the honors and emoluments . throne .. Pope Alexander chosen in 1179. an independent reign their insidious machinations to become popes themselves often deprived the church. and their tumultuous and bloody schisms. and after . would ensue between the death of a pope and of .160 bulls. under the new electoral method. and swords arms in their support would distract. anathemas. But still the disorderly elements which shook the church could not be entirely eradicated without the abolishment of the papal throne. . and invested the sole right in mode of electing a the college of cardinals. promised the crown of both of the Sicilies to Charles of Anjou. with their irreconcilable controversies.. abolished the pope in which the clergy and people participated. The ambition and corruption of the cardinals having kept the papal throne vacant for three years previous to the election of Gregory X. the election of his successor. In order to abate the calamity of the papal elections. and invoking foreign not only Kome. Pope Clement IV.. . III. An interregnum of months. after expending large sums of money on an election. while disgraceful negotiations were always visible. excommunicated the obstinate cardinals who had refused to vote for him. requiring the members of the college to assemble in Rome nine days after the demise of a pope. This expedient prevented the frequency of double elections. he issued a bull in 1265. POPES —THEIE PRETENSIONS. on condition that he would use his influence with the inspired college in favor of his election to the papal and Pope Boniface VIII.

abridged to a single dish at dinner within eight days these privations should be insufficient to quicken the divine influence on the grossness of tne cardinals were then human nature. the and supper. is by which the holy fathers continue still to be elected. of the to If within three days the influence Holy Ghost should not be sufficiently powerful enable them to arrive at a canonical agreement. ineed. nevertheless. in 1348. taking an oath to abjure retire all 161 previous understanding. The inspired college having assembled in accordance with the requirements of the canon.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. But the corruption of the Holy See was the growth of and had carefully been systematized by the hand of experienced craft. but it was insufficient to prevent one of seventy years' duration. It could not therefore be entirely eradicated by any modification in the papal electoral forms. divided on the question whether a Frenchman or an Italian should 14* . has. and still if luxury of their repast was to be. which occurred on the death of Pope Benedict XI. ages. and to remain there until they should be able to agree on a choice. The stimulus of this regimen has seldom failed to produce a speedy and harmonious agreement. prevented the former frequency of schisms. although improvements might be introduced. making them the electoral occasion of less scandal. The bull of Pope Gregory X. The fact that an attendant on a cardinal during the session of an worth an independent fortune. condemned to subsist on a small allowance of bread. sworn to abjure all precollege is significant of the corrupt machinations vious understanding. water and wine. became. to with a single attendant into a common apartment.

They were ready to flatter any power. agree . cardinals were in favor of a Frenchman. the one having France. but a mob of " Death thirty thousand Romans preferred an Italian. The disappointed cardinals disguised their mortification under the warmest congratulations to the newly elected pope. according to usage. the other dignity of at Avignon m of The aspirants to the the vicarship its Christ endeavored. in general. but gratified their secret malice by entering into clandestine negotiation with Philip IV. stipulating with hinr to King accommodate of France. an to the and presenting him populace declared. excommunicating him. Under the college terror of these the inspired .162 POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS.. Two-thirds of the be elected as the vicar of Christ. his interest in the place of Urban. and made preparations for burning anv of the inspired college M'ho should vote French candidate. its capitol at Rome. to obtain holy honors by the employment of artifice and intrigue. submitted to the Italian. or an Italian Pope. and by electing a pope flattery. intimidations. pealed for a . The papal monarchy hence became divided into two antagonistical bodies. forth an ominous warning." shouted an infuriated crowd. to Fundi. that they had been inspired to choose him through the influence of the Holy Ghost. in harmony with the discordant clamor of the mob. wishes of the mob and electing Urban VI. and professions and. who should After having by conform to his washes in all things. while the cathedral bells. they retired sufficiently deceived the vicar of Christ. assume any semblance. elected Pope Clement in his place. of friendship and allegiance. as it gathered around the Vatican..

and openly began a course of dissipation and luxurious indulcrence. but recanted his heresy as soon as he ob- tained the triple crown. was and Kearis. and scarcely able to hobble on a crutch and who desired nothing but obscurity. Pope Alexander VIL. Peter. assumed the semblance of great humility and sanctity. and evaded the scrutiny of cardinals. blind. he raised himself from his former stooping position. in the presence of the cardinals. and profess any sentiment that promised their to favor design. while a cardinal. elected by bribing Cardinals Cibo.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. No sooner had the electoral formalities been conconcluded than. simulation he gained the confidence of kings and nobles. At the council of Constance. Having transformed himself into the semblance of such a convenient tool as the members of it of the college desired to place on the apostolic throne. con- temptuously threw away liis crutch. In order to deceive the carman. advocated the most cal reforms. Spozza Pope Alexander VI. liberal ecclesiasti- Pope Martin V. they chose him unanimously but repented unanimously immediately afterwards. Sixtus VL played a deep and crafty game to win the papal crown. but a man of . dinals he assumed the appearance of an infirm old deaf. informed himself of the wishes of princes and the secret Under a mask of profound disdesigns of cardinals. to 165 any terms. but no sooner had he become a successor of St. devotion and By the agency of the confessional he correctly repose. bounding and vigorous step displayed consternation of the sacred college that for and to it with a the horror had chosen a holy father. not a pliant simpleton. than he threw ojQf the cumbrous mask by which he gained the honor.

determination. twenty-seven months their the cardinals had kept the papal conciliate elect throne without differences an incumbent. more business capacity.. who possessed . have frequently been met with contempt and insurrecThe cardinals have at times tion by the populace. headed by the holy fathers. authority. while on the apostolic throne. who was intellectual deficiency When this and profound ignorance of the world. The priests have been caught by mobs. But his incapability of transacting the ordinary business the Holy See. pusillanimously imprisoned him for life. he symbolically rode upon an ass. and trodden under foot. the subjects of Rome scoffed with impunity at its insolent pretenThe tyranny and corruption of the holy fathers sions.164 POPES —THEIR solely PRETENSIONS. beaten. holy father entered Apulea after his consecration. have sent them as admonitions to the pope. been stripped. and fearing the his simple and instability of the apostolic throne while he was at moral integrity large. and endeavor by the aid of the Holy Ghost to select a more suitable vicar of Christ. agreed his for To to they finally celebrated Celestine. It succeeded in electing Boniface VIII. after digging out their eyes. which. obliged the sacred college to reassemble. sagacity. processions. The vicegerents of God. It is a singular fact that while distant potentates trembled at the thunders of the Vatican. but less and who. tine and For Pope Celes- was elected disputes of on account of his ignorance and mental the imbecility. standing in mortal dread of unaspiring predecessor. and crowning their heads with ludicrous mitres. have been saluted with showers of stones. have The sacred .

Notwithstanding the ostentatious sanctity and gor- geous show with which the church invests her external form. on subjects. and from all their crime. often been . plundered the citizens. and their bodies cast into the streets. torn from Laudislaus. violated the virgins. once entered Avignon.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. When the Avignon. one occasion they had. compelled the pope and cardinals to ransom . and to absolve him and his fellow robbers from the guilt of the transaction. rudely buffeted.'' in consideration of serviceb rendered. assailed by subjects at home and princes abroad. themselves by the payment of an enormous sum of gold. her liberal indulgence to moral turpiturd. and levied armies to chastise them . 165 been seized by the throat. in a friendly conference. Sometimes they retaliated the insults of their Catholic and. The holy fathers. and tumults which were The were transplanted along with it. the characteristic Holy See was transplanted from Pome to vices. eleven deputies of the people murdered in cold blood. Perugia. and worshipped at the shrine of St. plundered the people and churches. entitled " GenKing of Naples. sulted. were constantly fleeing from the insecure patrimony of St. her throne has never been occupied by a distinguised paragon of virtue nor has it. or some other locality. their chair and incarcerated in dungeons. whom the pope had eral of the Church. Peter. profaned the churches. corruption. Yiterbo. Anangni. thrice afterwards entered Rome as a master. Peter to find refuge in France. same popular insubordination and papal insecurity prethe people were seditious and the popes invailed A Catholic freebooter at the head of his band. notwithstanding .

the Great. licentiousness. He induced Eecared. Look at Pope Gregory. duplicity and tyranny. Cimons. and immured himself in them. While pretending to wish to be unknown. High principled and lofty minded men have scorned to aspire to her dignities and had they not. pride all restraints and superciliousness. cupidity. overacted his part by secreting himself in a wilderness. finally. ho devoted his patrimony to the use of convents. and by addressing an in artful remonstrance against its confirmation to the emperor. To pave way to the pontifical throne. and. they still could not have stooped to the dishonorable means by which they are to be obWith pretensions demoralizing her officials by tained. he secured his election his . piring and unscrupulous despot ? we always see despotism. skill His financial was unquestioned. to convey him secretly from Rome . and often profligacy and cruelty. did he not employ every device to become the most notorious man of his age. revenge. whom God. King of .166 POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS. destroying their sense of moral accountability. he removed every obstacle To disguise more the way of his consecration. he solicited a merchant. fostering their vanity. and generally duplicity. By seeming to resist. and dissolving it on the instigations of malice. deeply his ambition. the inspired college has chosen vicegerent of to Where we might expect see the Solons. would be absurdity to expect to find in their character any Look at those exalted degree of moral excellence. and building a fire that his retreat might be discovered. graced by those whom she dared to canonize for the purity of their conduct. whom he knew could not accommodate him. Was he not an asCatos of the age.

" This prophecy was soon Phocus sent to the private dwelling of Maurice assassins.ELECIONS AND ADMINISTBATIONS. From this model pope elected in 956. Spain. it was alleged. the Baptist. Never having heard of the Phocus before. he inquired of his general name of who he was. Pope Gregory. general dissatisfaction among the troops. "a great coward. who. an obscure soldier. the annals of history scarcely furnish an equal compound of moral deformity. and then consummated the horrible tragedy with the murder of the emperor himself. fulfilled. perhaps. and a valuJohn a key which. in cruelty inexorable. ing tranquility to the nation.. magnanimously abdicated the purple. complimented Phocus on his good fortune. Peter had been shackled while in a dungeon. the Emperor Maurice attempted to reduce them to order by the enforcement of This effort produced a rigorous military discipline. let us turn to Pope John XII. In ambition unprincipled. ever perpetrated. a piece of the true cross. and rejoiced that his piety and benignity had raised him to the imperial throne. After this barbarous act had been perpetrated. desirous of restorthe place of Maurice. to exchange a great 167 amount of gold able collection of jewels for a few hairs of St. Elevated to the papal throne through . before the eyes of their father coldly butchered his five sons. and I fear will be a murderer. He also sanctified the most atrocious assassination that The Roman legions was." replied he. in The emperor. contained some grains of a chain with which St. " Alas. which culminated in the election of Phocus. although he owed his elevation to the indulgence of Maurice. in dissoluteness cold and calculating . having become demoralized.

and a murderer. what and insolence have been consecrated as holy in the character of a vicar of Christ. avarice. that female pilgrims were deterred from visiting the tomb of St.. elected in 1075. trickery. He was a drunkard. For this insolent proceed- ure the emperor determined to depose him. . he his patroness the made the principles of of his conduct. because that prince had exercised the right of investiture contrary to the interdiction of the papal bulls. libility. the influence of a prostitute.168 POPES —THEIR maxims PRETENSIONS. to invoke his aid in the practice of chastity and piety. a profligate. Now see advert to Gregory VII. He public adultery with swore by the Pagan Gods and Goddesses. Protected from reproach by his claim to infal- he presumed to outrage the sense of common decency by living with the Countess Matilda under suspicious circumstances dowed with supreme power over ments. peror of Em- Germany and Italy. wives. and He lived in He converted it made a school for education in the arts of prostitution. a blasphemer. punish them. and virgins were so frequent. Roman matrons. he undertook to dethrone Henry IV. the papal palace into a brothel. it by buying the adherence of the but this movement was effectually counterpoised by the emperor's purchasing the support He also convened acouncil at of the Italian nobility. His rapes of widows. he attempted to defeat Italian populace.. and drive him from Rome. Penetrating the emperor's design. for fear of being violated by the holy father while kneeling at his shrine. and baseness. Peter. and that if and conceiting that he was enall kings and governthey resist his authority he must . He passed his time in hunting and gambling.

plundering dwel- profaning churches. of Apulia. and Gregory was delivered from his perilous situation. The formidable allies of the holy father. during his administration. but reduced the greater portion of to ashes. They nor commenced murdering the lings. tocsin of a The elevation of this Pope was the war which.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. A furious sedition happen- Duke ing to arise in the city among the inhabitants. The sacred college not being able canonically to concur in 15 . 169 by whicli Gregory was deposed and another at Brisen at which Clement III. comprehended a nu^aerous band of Saracens who hated the Christian name and capital. elected in 1130. was their revenge satiated populated the it until they had.. citizens. his design of placing Clement III. was elected. although they had for money and the license of war been induced to take up arms in defence of the sacerdotal monarch. . its Finding himself universally detested as author. he to had to flee for safety to Salerno. not only de- city. kept Rome and Italy in a state of violent convulsion. without opposition. leaving consummate. and firing buildings. Henry formed a coalition with the Emj^eror Alexius: to defeat this project Gregory formed an alliance with Robert Guiscard. The arms of Robert were victorious. But victory sometimes is as disastrous as defeat. upon the apostolic throne. let us turn a glance at pope Innocent II. To place Clement in possession of the papal dignity. This catastrophe completed the disgrace of Gregory. Henry From the conduct of this crafty and talented sacerdo- tal despot. the Sara- cens eagerly availed themselves of gratify their hatred of the occasion to Rome and of Christianity. which success had introduced into the city of Rome.

enabled him to secure a sufficient army to effect his return. Robert declared war against Pope Innocent and taking him prisoner. obliged him to abhim from the sentence of the excommunication. lie was. Anaclitus having the heavier artillery drove Innocent from Rome. . until death settled the sanguinary controversy by the removal Relieved of the terrors of a powerful of Anaclitus. nevertheless.. cent Let us now direct a moment's attention to Pope InnoIII. Two implacable despots being thus authorized to claim the papal throne. elected in 1198. adversary. obliged to limit his papal jurisdiction to one portion of the city. who.170 His election. when receiving the " The church has given me a triple crown exclaimed : crown as a symbol of temporalities she has conferred token of spiritual power . his antagonist being too strongly entrenched in the other to be dislodged.— a mitre for on me a mitre m . Capua. POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS. each of whicb elected a vicegerent of God the one being Pope Innocent II. hate. and again reinstated by the forces of the temporal power. The two holy fathers continued to persecute and anathematize each other. and excommunicated Rogers of Sicily for having supported the schismatic. . solve and to invest him with the papal provinces of Apulia. a furious holy war was inevitable. On account of this papal insolence. became divided into two obstinate factions. convoked the Lateran Council. in which one thousand bishops condemned the soul of Anaclitus. Innocent II. but France and Germany espousing the cause of the fugitive. and the other Pope Anaclitns. But even from this limited domain he was again driven by the arms of his formidable rival. and Calibria.

whet said to have exclaimed : thyself for vengeance. obliged him to resign his kingdom to the See of Rome. plant and build whenever a notion happened to inHe arbitrarily obliged spire his presumptuous brain. ses. " Sword. and that he had a divine light to pluck up. and consider the character and administration of Pope BoniPliable and revengeful. " 171 thighs. a crown for the kingdom making me him who bears on his garments and The King of Kings. ruin. established inqisisitorial tribunals. of England." ornament of the papal throne. sword. face VIII. and to hold his throne as a papal to declare fief. elected in 1295. and compromise his sovof He to confirm the election of a bishop deposed King John. to pay large sums of money for absolution. he is suspended religious worship by interand urged the cruel persecution of the AlbigenWhen his military forces were ready for combat. With a despotic hand he wrung Spoleto from Duke Conrad. dicts. Eomagna. Turn from this presumptuous and ambitious. . for refusing instigated France . he sought to make tools of . deprived him of the duchy of Mark Ancona. destroy.'" of Inflated with this popular conceit he imagined that he was supreme prince over all nations and kingdoms. war against him. He exercised an oppressive despotism over the temporal provinces of Christendom. He excommunicated Philip of France for having repudiated his wife. the priesthood the vicar ' . and Lord of Lords. of de- manded royal homage Marguard upon the refusal of that prince to reignty by submitting to such unwarrantable dictations. and obliged him to sue for mercy at his feet.ELECIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. scatter. the prefect of Eome to swear allegiance to him..

however. soon released In view of his flagitious and undeniable acts of duplicity. Under the protection liberation he died in a Look at the character of of Frederic I. But fortune eventually favoring him. simony. and kept the Holy See in a state of perpetual insurrection. a coun- Lyons purpose of deposing him but the chastisement of incarceration which he had undergone so mortified his pride. the King of Hungary and the King of Sicily. severely kicked and cuffed. that within three days after his paroxysm of rage and fury. heads waited on him at table as menials. He laid Scotland under an interdict. after his election. and a scuffle ensued in which the vicegerent of God was rudely seized by the throat. in token of their inferior rank. and Calaxtus successively arose against . in fancied security. re. and slaves of subjects. profligacy. Pascal III. him . and to hold the stirrup of his horse. sometimes to Anangni ...172 princes. fortress of of France. III. held the bridle of his horse and with crowns on their . peatedly driving him from Ptome sometimes to France and sometimes to Venice. William of Nosgeret sur- rounded the palace with three hundred horse.. the anti-popes Victor III. distracted all Europe. but cowardly sought to escape the penalty by taking refuge in the Anangni. POPES —THEIR PEETENSIONS. . Pope Alexander III. He obliged Frederic to kiss his feet.. On his way to the Lateran palace. While luxuriating in this sumpu- ous retreat. usurpation and cast into prison. He boldly excommunicated Philip IV.. he wreaked the heaviest vengeance on the heads of his antagonists. A King Philip had resolved for the to summon . and him from confinement. who. elected in 1159. cil at mob. demoralized and misled by papal pretensions.

173 He restored the thrones of England and Germany on in the ex- conditions that augmented his power. In the prosecution of the interests of the Holy See. gross simony. He undertoolj to seize on the methods. He seduced his own daughter and gave notorious evidence of the profligacy of his life by five illegitimate Italian provinces He attempted . Ambi- tious of military renown. His policy. children.. treach- erous and execrable. was base... He conspired with his son. ercise of his apostolic authority And tous proof that ecclesiastical gave the world calamisupremacy is incompatible with the peace of the world. Behold Clement V.. besieged Muandolo. 15* . who perfected in his papal character the dissipation w^hich had disgraced his youth. elected in 1505. Cardinal Ccesar Borgia. colleagued against the republic of Venice. elected in 1305. Look at his savage. both domestic and foreign. gave Navara to Spain. nepotism. but the conspirators drinking the poison themselves. and mark the and arrogance which disgraced Hear him excommunicating Henry his administration. King of France. and mark and warlike character. Pope Julius II. elected in 1523. he commanded his army in person.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. and without regard to the rights of nations or individuals gratified his lust of power and dominion. to poison four cardinals. ferocious. Regard for an instant the character of Pope Alex- ander VI. and made war upon Louis XII. by the most cruel and dishonorable to extort money from the different sections of Christendom by fraud and force. became the victims of their own treachery. he excommunicated the Duke of Ferrara.

for Lis refusing to . precocious In his youth a pirate.. elected in 1550. public or private. and comparing them with Judith and Hear Alexander I.. murder. This holy father died in transcending jail. and see if any debarred a candidate from the papal throne. exclaim Eleazer. Although he may have amused himself with the popish conceit that a holy father cannot sin without being praised. yet the Council of Constance. of Germany. him and Robert . pro- nouncing a eulogy on the assassinators of Henry III. men.. over the . with boys. at Julius III. as he excommunicated Queen Elizabeth. in 1410.. and absolving' the subjects from obedience to the laws. rape. Turn to John XXII. abolishing their governmental offices. : " I have this day set thee over the nations. meand hear him pro- nouncing a curse on the Venitians for their refusing to submit to his dictation declaring them infamous. and his diate between allies. Frederic. and even cardi- Hear Sixtus V. dred nuns. the sanctity of his pontifical character neither restrained nor concealed the viciousness w^hich he had manifested. exclaim thou tread upon the lion and the adder. all licentiousness its gratification whose unnatural bounds of decency. as he placed his foot on " Thus shalt King of Denmark." Hear Pius v. and with three hunpapal dignity. and degraded him from the Among the crimes for which he was deposed were simony. and illicit intercourse with his brother's wife. sodomy. King of France. Look sought nals.174 POPES —THEIR PEETEXSIOKS. confiscating their gold and war vessels. of thirty-seven on the testimony good Catholic witnesses. in the college of cardinals. VII. elected vice. found seventy indictments against him.

" and ultimately in the acts. hear the . then between the sons themselves. of the worl investing him with all the titles. . . then tampering with the officers of the imperial army. the claim of the subsequent popes to the dominion of the Csesars. and to the astonish- ment ors. . honWitness and regal ornaments of the Caesars. were anti-popes were compelled twenty-six were deposed to .ELECTIONS AXD AD^-IINISTRATIOXS. fomenting discord between Charlemagne and his sons. by virtue of the donation of Charlemagne. . to build up and ruptly to crowning throw down. nineteen abandon Rome twenty-eight were kept on their throne only by foreign intervention fiftyfour were obliged to rule over foreign parts sixty-four died by violence one was eighteen were poisoned shut up in a cage one was strangled one smothered one died by having nails driven in his temples one by a noose around his neck and only one hundred and fifty-three out of the whole number have proved them. selves at all worthy. Read the papal annals . son and successor of Charlemagne. and say if prrofane history affords a catalogue of monarchs so unprincipled in ambition. so so black with crime. 175 kingdoms. Look at the that have filled the papal chair two hundred and ninety-seven popes Twenty-four of them : . . abCharlemagne. . to destroy. Gregory IV. then absolving them from their oath of allegiance. to root out. . to pull down. frequent and atrocious anathemas of the popes mark the vices that have continued century after century to disgrace the administrations of the holy fathers. . . that arrogant assertion : " Know my chair see is above the design of emperor's throne these atrocious .." AVitness Pope Leo III. . then uttering to Louis I.

an like his master. and duty into sin. they affirm that they have been chosen by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. means to obtain an end. a staff. that they might rule kings with abso- They claimed that they could not sin without being praised. by arms and clubs. by mobs. and by every species of corruption. do whatever God himself could do. a suit of unfashionable garments. perhaps. case that the dullest of fool as to believe in it is not a supposable them was such a stupendous the validity of his own pretensions. emperors. humble fisherman. Their pretensions were made but to justify intended usurnot from conscious right. who had not where to lay his head. . they seriously pretend that they are the successors of St. with the keys of heaven and hell in their hands. gold and. revenues. that they might be worBut while they had the shijDped and feared as Gods. remorseless in revenge. domains. and the pro- prietors of all the thrones. in order to forge a They claimed the prerogative of absolving subjects from their oaths of allegiance. some old And while they have been elected by fishing nets. and. Peter. with an assertion on their lips that th«y are the king of kings. gems of the earth. They claimed all the authority and holiness of heaven. They claimed to be endowed with power to pations. audacity to prefer these claims. and whose patrimony. They claimed the ability of transubstantiating sin into duty. that they might justify themselves in adopting any lute authority. by bribery. must have consisted at most of but an empty purse. which they claim to inherit. that they might commit any crime without being censured. With a triple crown on their heads.176 POPES — THEIR PRETENSIONS. plea for governing the world as despots.

and in conformity with a policy dictated by this design. and protected every vice that appeared to favor their success. and doomed many of them to confinement in the dungeons of a penitentiary. fix they have rendered them nugatory by neglecting to the time and place to their meeting. 177 The papal monarchy was neither designed nor calculated to foster the growth of either truth. When circumstances have obliged popes to issue orders for the convocation of such assemblages.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTKATIONS. In fact they must have been conscious that a rigid system of reform would have swept them from their thrones. to defeat the object which they were obliged to sanction. it has destroyed every virtue that obtruded an obstacle to the accomplishment of its purposes. When summons had been issued by temporal princes for the assembling of councils for purposes of reformation. but to make it ad- minister to the importance of of its coffers. they have endeavored. the pontiffs frequently forbid obedience to them. the popes strenuously opposed the project as a dangerous innovation. some clergymen. Accordingly we see that while temporal princes. it could not be hoped that the holy fathers would be the friends of truth and reform. The policy and measures w^hich it adopted were never intended to correct vice. When their cautious . and numerous laymen loudly demanded reform in the head and body of the church. reason or virtue. Its design its power. by changing the time and place for holding a proposed council. and the wealth has always been to reign su- preme . to be When compelled more definite in their conduct and language. Such being the principles of the papal government.

reformatory decrees have been passed by councils. and . peal to a council. trickery or nethreats glect. and defeat its useobstacles they fulness. and intrigues. When to a crit- ical state of public affairs had led Pope Paul imagine that he could shape the proceedings of an inspired council according to his private interest. When in defiance of papal remonstrances. of one after it Pope Gregory declared that a council could be useful Pius II. and a council for reform had been assembled. have been summarily arrested. the popes have-. he adopted no measure in compliance "with his word. he convoked the Council of Trent . the Council of Basle enacted decrees of reform. nevertheless. was soon apparent that his zeal for reform was his ambition to be elevated to the papal throne. When the united voice of princes and subjects compelled Pius VII. to When pledge his word to prosecute certain specified reforms. only under a Catholic prince. they edeavored by base and corrupt means to control its action. of the artifice When Pope Eugenius rendered them of no the Council of Constance. forbid an apJulius II. but finding his intrigues inade- quate to his ambition. attempted to nullify them by evasion. he induced his legates to exhaust its time in frivolous ceremonies and useless excursions. elected Martin V. the Council of Pisa obliged Alexander VII. interdicted the assembling had been summoned.178 vacillations POPES — THEIR PRETENSIONS. he nullified his own summons by neglecting to fit the time for its meeting. When avail. in consideration of the zeal with which he it had advocated church reform. to call a council. and all the had obtruded removed. after deposing three rival popes.

sides monstosities. after obnoxious order of the Jesuists. every expedient to counteract them. they were like . and in violation of the obligations of honor and gratitude. When the papal throne was restored by England. the popes not only defended. ancl from the other parts of Europe for execrable conduct. the pope. and Russia. restored the barbarous inquisition. anathemas and intrigues. a schismatic. Ambition. but recommended them as the most pious and useful members of the church. The holy mother. that cure. treachery. If ness. from Portugal for attempts at assassination. When the Jesuists were banished from England for treasonable machinations. defended them with ferocious zeal. in conjunction with the Catholic had been abolished by France. vicious- and immorality are deeply featured in their countenances. and adopted When the vicar of Christ. has given birth to little beThe features and principles of her offspring cast a dark suspicion on her chastity.. They usually wear the lineament. duplicity. proposed to introduce into his kingdom. if not the cloven foot of the arch-fiend. the it powers. there were some honorable exceptions. by means of bulls. the tyranny and profligacy of the monastic orders had awakened the indignation of all Christendom. in defiance of the wishes and resolutions of his liberators. indeed.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. it 179 all had expired as soon as his election was sePope Pius denounced the reforms which Joseph of Austria. and some of them seem to be an incarnation of every crime that could entitle a human being to be considered as the off'spring and heir of hell. a heretic. from Italy for profligacy. II. and the superstitious practices of the dark ages.

prepared measures that have successfully met future exegencies but their sagacity has been quickened by . Hence we hear Nicholas V. Some popes.. it is incurable. PRETENSIONS. say " Take this. as he bestowed an office on the worthy. have been great governors men of great foresight and enterprise men who. been wasted on duplicity and intrigue. obscured by the heavy mist through which they shone. looking beyond their age. and their great talents have The less exceptionable of them have acknowledged and deplored the corruption of the Holy See but they seem to think ambition and avarice . it is true. you will not always have a Nicholas to bestow a gift on the ground of merit. on a stormy night." : . have .180 stars POPES —THEIR . . for their hopes of the future are always darkened by the recollection of the past.

and the right to reduce all governments. to deck the animals which they . but which altars in the course of time became applied. These in- symbolical headdresses were originally garlands. and his do- mains. claiming to be the only legitimate sovereignty on earth. under her absolute authority.16 . is is The pope. SECTION ONE. were the States of the Church. vented by Prometheus in imitation of the chains which he had worn for the redemption of mankind.e- a7id Spies. PAPAL MONARCHY. his capital the city of Rome. the head of this unlimited monarchv. to adorn the doors of their misby the devout. by the "[Iranian . until recently. by fair or foul means. Whatever plausibility the creed and ritual Catholic church may throw around of the her religious preten- sions. The Papa I Crown —Banner— Cah — Court— Decrees —Jwrisprudence— Coinage—Army and Navy— venues — Oaths — inet P. the According to a practice observed at the coronation of pope is invested with national authority by dress ascending the Chair of State.CHAPTER TSJB XI. princes. ical a polit- prince . the fact is undeniable that she is a temporal power. and receiving a head- emblematical of temporal sovereignty. priestesses to decorate themselves aud their tressees : by lovers.

elected in 1295. tion to the slaves whom the exposed for sale by . added a second. however.. ventured to encircle his sacerdotal mitre with a regal diadem. to dePope Urban note the pope's supreme spiritual and temporal power over Europe.. elected in 1363. V. aspiring to be considered rather as the successor of kings than fisherman. by slave owners. that the popes . and had become associated with ideas of greatness. VIII. nor prescribed to them facts the adoption authority over of it. Asia and Africa. when they were transformed into a variety of fantastical shapes. to have been moved by the Holy Ghost in adopting their head decorations but if this pretension absolves them from the vice of their ambition. a fourth it is crown to symbolize their rational to infer from these that he intended to infer by his silence. to THE PAPAL sacrifice . they were exclusively appropriated by kings to symbolize the regal authority. who was elected in 1159. same time their authority to The Holy Ghost not having intimated the existence of America in his social interit limits at the course with the 23apal monarchs. Pope Alexander of a III. ambition.. but They claim. gems and pearls. The adoption of these regal emblems by the holy fathers may seem in the . this practice having become fashionable among the royal classes. to attract atten. In the ninth century. in the dark ages. rela- embellish the corpse of a deceased friend and finally. power and authority.182 devoted to tives. to symbolize the pope's universal temporal power and to this crown added a third. profusely decorated with gold. Asia and Africa. emblematical of universal To this crown Pope Boniface spiritual sovereignty. Europe. eyes of the profane to represent not their rights.

the he had wrested the Lombards. the statue of St. erected in the seventh century. Peter. a temporal crown. conjointly. in token of the submission of the inhabitants to his authority. . the symbol of the rising sun. government is restricted to Europe.MONARCHY. these emis blems poral may intimate that there to be no peace until the claims of the pope to universal spiritual and tem- sovereignty is acknowledged by all nations. its through its officials. consists of a white flag with a device of cross-keys its white color may signify peace . affirmed In conformity by the popes King of France. and regal ornaments. to denote their office of opening conquered city to present to the victor the keys of gates. on the American continent. are represented with keys in and shutIt is thought by some that the ting the gates of day. Peter. triple crown. that Pepin. If the pope's regalia have any significance. Apollo. society or institution. Asia and Africa. but a political banner. and that he has no right to exercise either temporal or spiritual authority over any it is that his church. after Exarcate from the possession of See on the tomb of St. But in sight of the pope's monarchical palace. The pope as an independent sovereign has not only This ensign . 183 have no right whatever of exercising any jurisdiction over its territory. that . But it was the custom of a their hands. and Pluto. the symbol of the closing day. idea of the papal keys was borrowed from these emblems of the Pagan Gods. wearing a simple mitre. precities to sented the keys of the subjugated the Holy They assert also. stands scoffing at them in eternal derision. the cross-keys the pos- session of earth and heaven and. it is with this ancient custom.

as an independent sovereign. The cardinals they wear a purple mantle. or near the throne. bishops archbish- and priests. . can have any claim to either keys or banners. and the remainder of which he governed as his own with the most jealous scrupulosity until the day of his death. The generals of the Catholic orders. the . and disposed of by the holy father for money. is the cardinal secretary . the abbots. which are located in different parts of the world. As an independent sovereign the pope has an impe- In the grades of this court he himself enrial court. and his ministers of finance and police are the priests of different grades and orders. on the right of kings. it is difficult to perceive how the popes. has also a His privy council is the college of national cabinet. cardinals his minister of internal and foreign affairs But if the story of Pepin's gift of St. and nuncios which he accredits to foreign powers his governors and lieutenant-governors are the Catholic bishops and archbishops. consider their titles as royal. emblem of royalty tendom equal with and sat formerly they ranked in Chriskings. . is . ops. preceded princes of blood. his viceroys are the legates . The civil offices of the papal monarchy have always been filled by members of the sacerdotal orders.184 THE PAPAL Charlemagne presented the pope with a banner. and in some respects above him. of the and if Charlemagne's donation corpse of the apostle of cities. is as empty as the tomb and always has been. by virtue of these gifts. . The pope. joys the first rank. and authorized him to unfurl it in the cause of the church. at Rome. most of which he never pessessed. being placed on an equality with stand next to princes God. Peter.

sovereign the pope has the power to issue absolute decrees. As an independent sovereign the pope has always when possible. maintained. apostolic and encyclical letters. presiding officer is sovereign the pope has exercised the governmental prerogative of coining money. the pope evidently claims the right of inter- fering not only in the ecclesiastical. regulates the pope's domains The members of The apostolical court and collects the taxes. They all have the most of them the trijDle crown and some of them are inscribed with the word Dominus. an army and a navy. the Liber Sextus. but also in the political affairs of all nations. and all except the Extravagantes have the full authority of law.MONARCHY. the Concordantia Discordantiwni or Decretiutn Graiiani the Noni . are the exercise of sov- ereign power. cross-keys . The canonlaw by which he governs his monarchy consists of Decratales Gregorii . The As an independent papal coins have various devices. sometimes moderated by fear. The papal system of the Extravagantes administrative justice consists of a chief court. From the despotic tone of these docu- ments. the court are always bishops. by Boniface VIII all of the Extravagantes Johannis XXII CoraTnunes. As an independent briefs. but never from inclination. . The papal bulls. a civil court. and the Clementinus which are known under the general name of Corpus Juris Canonica. and the generally a cardinal. Pope 16* . As an independent of j urisprudence ical sovereign the pope has a system and administrative j ustice. and maintain that in consideration of 185 them they should be exempted from the jurisdiction of civil magistrates. and an apostolical court.

1577. poverty and unconditional obedience. amounted his foreign revenue is . and the Knight Templars. Ancona. to 13. pope absolved them from all human obligations. the Knights of St. official This revenue is domestic and foreign. and they were required to sunder all human ties. Ravenna and Ferrara. army of three hundred thousand men. a army was formed consisting of cavalry and The papal military organizations have been of the most formidable description. fully equipped interest. commanded an army consisting of Italian volunteers. From reports the pope's domestic revenue. and seven hundred Suabians. from acknowledging any protector but the pope. They were interdicted.000. They enjoyed all the immunities and privileges of the religious orders and in conjunction with them formed a standing . by the terms of their charter.186 THE PAPAL Clement VIII. at the head of a powerful army conquered Bologna. As an independent sovereign the pope has a national revenue. for war. raised an army of reguand volunteers of thirty thousand foot and three thousand cavalry.000 florins . elected in 1523. the Teutonic Knights. instituted for the defence and propagation of Catholicism by the force of arms. the ity. Pope Leo IX. The Dominican Knights. Pope Alexander lars VI. and were made independent of any other authorfully organized Upon becoming initiated into their orders. They assumed the vows of celibacy. Eome from Avignon. After the rein turn of the pope to standing infantry. John. exclusively devoted to the pope's and ready at his call to serve him by land or sea. several bands of robbers. were skiland rigorously disciplined. in 1853.

000. be called scapulu. at the moderate estimate of one scapula annually tp . was chiefly built from the proceeds of William Hogan furnishes some this species of traffic. in the future. every scapula sold in the United States costs at least five dollars. 176. by which Peters Church. purchase a scapula in a year. but at present the various streams of wealth destined for the church. by Catholic authority.000 crowns. while others might purchase a hundred but . Some of the papal subjects would not. at 150. on an average. He says: " They (the pope and the propagandi) resolved that indulgences should. ecclesiastical 187 In the dark ages half of the revenues of Europe flowed into the church treasury at Home . it is necessary that he should cause some masses to be said I may safely say that. are diverted to convenient scribed curious.MONARCHY. 177.000. As the subject is somewhat we are tempted to inquire into some of the is sources of the papal revenue. which cost 45. localities. singular facts respecting this ingenious device. to be disbursed according to regulations pre- by the holy father. The number of Catholics in the world is computed. source of the pope's revenue St. not publicly known. The priest who sells it tells him that in order to make it thoroughly efficacious.000. perhaps. to her pecuniary advantage.% and thus piously enable all Catholic priests and bishops to swear on the Holy Evangelists that no indulgences were sold in the United States The scapula costs the purchaser one dollar." Synopds^ pp. One gences. the sale of indul- Rome. at the church accommodates the wishes of the members in the commission of sin. situated in different parts of the world.

Another source of the pope's revenue are the masses which the church requires to be said for the deliverance of the souls of deceased Catholics out of purgatory. " to be said for the benefit of his poor soul. it is not reasonable that either the pope or his priests would encourage their Catholic subjects in conduct that would render them of no value to them and that would injure the sale and lessen the demand of their articles of trade. which bequeaths to a brother priest the sum of one hundred dollars to pay for two hundred masses. Md. the more virtuous they were the less would they be necessitated to con- and as merchants and traders always scheme to create a demand for their goods. of masses are requisite for conjuring a Cotholic layman's soul up from purgatory. luxuries are so much augmented. how much does she demand of a layman priest recorded in for a similar purpose? It of a priest ought enable her to get gatorial <l€vil fire. What number . be in proportion to the wickedness of the church members. . the pope would derive from this source an annual revenue of 750.. These masses were sold before the rebellion at a piece . The sale of the scapula would." If the church will not release the soul of a priest from purgatory for less than one hundred dollars. I have not the means of ascertaining.000 dollars. and release would seem that the sanctity him out of the purhim from the clutches of the of for a much less sum m6ney than would be .1^6 THE PAPAL each Catholic. of course.000. fifty cents value in proportion to other whether they have since risen in articles. I am not informed but there is a will of a Towsontown. by which their treasure and tribute to the coffers of the church .

she has cause to of her finances. rejoice over the improvement Another source pictures. These articles of pious merchandise are blest by the . are in the world. amulets. has been prosecuted in such an oppressive manner that her members have sometimes been provoked to remonstrate. of the pope's revenue are the prorelics. in the souls of men by the church. members. this pious fraud his service in opening the gates of purgatory to the devout must be prodigious it is . pesti- bereavements of friends. which The pretext on was attempted to be based was a plea that the mother of the youth had bequeathed to the priest a house of hers. in payment of a sufficient number of masses for the release of her soul from purThe annual revenue derived by the pope for gatory. beads. which are calamities to families and nations.MONARCHY. ceeds derived from the sale of crosses. and articles made by monks and nuns. but the secrecy with which veiled renders a reliable computation exceedingly If difficult. I once knew of a young Catholic who charged his priest with having forged a will in order to swindle him out of a great portion of his maternal inheritance. requisite for the 189 in the case of same purpose This traffic an undead anointed layman. "Wars. number of Catholics that and the probable annual number of deaths that occur among them. we may form some conception of the vast- we consider the ness of this resource of papal revenue. lence. are pecuniary advantages to the church and in proportion to the mortality of her . and calculate the sum of money which would be necessary to deliver the average number that die yearly out of the flames of purgatory.

church. benefit he derives from the church furnaces. the adex- ceedingly remunerative. no data enabling calculate the "We have amount of in- revenue derived by the pope from this source of come but we may be allowed to conclude from fact that. and exacts a dollar a month from each of the faithful. girl who paid one dollar every autumn towards furnish- ing the church with winter fuel. trinsic value. insure him good luck.0000 and if each one contributes one dollar annually for the . I do not What little fuel costs the know . as the church has availed herself of its vantages in all countries and ages. female servants. . and sometimes at They are supposed by the purchaser to fairs.000. which. perhaps or nothing. however. it has proved . the pope receives from this source an annual income of 10. and I know of a servant others of the industrial classes. and of mining. this is not the only method by which the laboring classes are filched out of their honest gains by the holy mother. and to keep evil from his dweland although they are often an unsightly set of ling trumpery yet as they are consecrated by the bishop s Catholic .190 bistop.000 dollars. On the regular monthly pay-day of contract- ors for public works. (and I am But credibly informed he does). . THE PAPAL and sold sometimes privately. The number of Catholics in the United States are computed by Catholic authority to amount to 10. Another source of the papal revenue are the contri- butions extorted from laborers. manufacturing and mechanical companies. blessing. rather depreciates their inthey are prized by the cajoled Catholics us to as exceeding in value either gold or gems. the priest makes his appearance.000.

A stranger. they are threatened to such it and their a degree that they consider prudent to yield to the This system demand. of the industrial classes of the Catholic must furnish his coffers with an . When we consider the vast proportion of poor to rich Cathobranch of lics in the world. who makes it his busi- ness to see that he is not disappointed in getting his dollar a month. handed to the cashier of the establishment but before any money was paid on its account it was discovered that the priest was a spurious one. employed on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. solicited in behalf of his necessities. professing to be a Catholic priest.MONARCHY. favorite of the Catholic priest. it seems evident that this machinery. he was soon enabled to exult in the subscription of a very respectable amount by his workmen. monthly donation. Promptly heading a subscription two dollars and fellow fifty with the generous sum of cents. and that the money he solicited was not intended for the . in accordance with usage. An engineer of this description. in his avidity to accommodate the priesthood narrowly escaped being victimized by a secular sharper. interest. his charity list and influence. are non-Catliolics among life who hesitate to contribute the insulted. Catholic periodicals. but for the pocket of an unconsecrated impostor. intimidated. or seek employment among the workmen by some of extortion is engineered elsewhere. by which he wins a dolfinancial the pope's tar a month from each church. treasury of the pope. If there Wl the employes. with com- mendable regard to their patrons' have fre- quently published instances in which pretended priests and monks have successfully gulled the faithful. The list was.

The papal foreign property sometimes held in the name of the pope. the' any object that can touch the tender or religious sympathies of the community. The eloquence mutilated limbs.192 THE PAPAL - ^ annual revenue exceeding that of any other government. mo-- thers with babes in their arms. blind. his foreign possessions. and every other is species of property. nunneries. has been enabled to perfect a system of extraordinary comprehensiveness. This description of medicants sometimes openly solicit alms for the holy father. the cripple. mask of profound dissimnoses. and under and eiE-.' Another source structed tions all of the pope's revenue are alms col- lected by an order of lay mendicants. children. The church. private dwellings. from a sense of religious duty. are employed as beggars for the pope of Eome. the deaf. mission houses. but at other times endeavor to conceal their mission under a ulation. and sometimes in that of a corporation. inby the practice of mendication among all naand classes. colleges. but from the liberality with which Catholics respond. edifices for schools. Organ grinders. it may. bead counters. reasonably be presumed that it is not inconsiderable. and tattered garments. tracts of land. men without legs. of broken distorted forms. asylums. monasteries. at all periods of history. papal monarch. sharpness ciency. real or . are made his to plead with touching pathos in behalf of the The revenue which he derives from numerous crowd of professional beggars. These possessions consist of churches.' Another source of the pope's revenue is derived from. and Protestants from prudential motives. sometimes in that of a priest. is one of the secrets of the Holy See. hospitals. circumstances.

refusing to obey the order of the pope's agents. 36).. and sus-- the action of the defendants. Chester County. The trustees. Holland. (See Hogan's Synopsis. for the destruction of St. B. pastor of St. Judge Tilghman presided at the tained He decided that the pope could legally hold no property in the United States. pp. Augustine's Church at Philadelphia. pastor at Coffee Run. pastor at Bedford. Pa. and J. foundly secret was the existence of this company kept. In 1822 the pope claiming to be the pro- prietor of St. So pro- Patrick Henry. and as it the public documents contained no enrolment of in accordance with the requirement of law. a suit of ejectment was brought against them in the Supreme Court trial. Mary's to a foreign priest. Pa. was proThe value of it . in order that he may legally be qualified to hold propis erty for the benefit of the church. Prince Gallager. that no laymen or priest outside of the pretended cor- porators had ever heard of it before the trial. Lewis de Earth. pastor at Lancaster. sis. Augustine's Church by a mob of the American party. pastor of St. 114). Hermits of Augustine. Mary's Church at Philadelphia. leased it and sent him over to tahe charge of and ^Yilliam Hogan. ers of the order of In a suit brought by the brothSt. nounced entirely spurious and 17 invalid. ( consistent See Hogan's Synop- p. whether he considers or not with his ordination oath. against the county of Philadelphia. required to take it the oath of allegiance. it. 193 to the Every priest coming United States. it was discovered that the alleged corporation was entirely spurious. Church at Philadelphia. of Pensylvania.MONARCHY pretended. Pa. The pretended corporators consisted of Mi- cheal Hurly. 113. the recognized encumbent..

or deeper craft. they must scheme to work out the other proprietors. Even in cities where the Catholic population is deemed numerically insignificant. and it ishing if. under pain of her Splendid palaces and gorgeous church edi- power. under cover of fictitious names or otherwise. &c). p. or in efi'ect the market value would be exceedingly aston- financial corporations. not invariably be successful. by means of a church or an asylum. 2. failed to acquire this pliance with penalties. was computed at 5. Their covetous eye is always fixed on some magnificent farm. that can of lands or stocks . entering wedge in a block of buildings. priests. (See Hogan's Auric. she has it alone are not adequate to satisfy the cravings of her avarice. she must have lands and every species of Wherever her priests have effected a pious wealth. 204. Confess. fices still exacted a comfrom her members. and monopolize the whole themselves. and their active speculation.000 dollars. millions worth of property of which the inhabitants have not the slightest conception. Whenever the church has obtained sufficient power she has made a bequest to the coffers of the church a conand where she has dition to the validity of a w^ill . with every contemplative movement in the general or State government. in evasion of the laws of the United States. thousand dollars by a single land speculation.194 THE PAPAI* the property held in the name of this pretended corporation. their speculations should In possession of such . has enabled them to become in possession of very desirable I know of a priest who netted ten tracts of land. with this advantage.. all become accurately acquainted w4th secrets. The by means of the confessional. is owned by the pope. vol.000.

and sometimes indirectly. has become a princely domain. and every debelongs to the Bcription of property held . its extending over Christendom. rigorous in exactions . crown of Portugal. possessions he exercises supreme.MONARCHY. as lord paramount. the church has in every age accumulated prodigious wealth. however poor now. In California and Mexico. there are three In China. "With a fiscal for purposes of ecclesiastical revsystem principally based on them. sometimes directly. each succeeding generation destined to see them augmented until every bishopric. We have now enumerated some of the sources of the pope's revenue but we have mentioned but a few of them. Before the secularization of the monastic property in Europe. Every Catholic pope the real edifice in the world. despotic dominion. title. may have induced . In fact the rites of the Catholic church partake so 23lainly of a financial character. the ecclesiastical domains and revenues were so great that the benefices were bestowed by kings on royal heirs. governed by a titled priest. even at this day. 195* means. with a princely revenue. The and possessions of the Catholic priests render them the wealthiest citizens of the country in which they reside as no heir can inherit their is estates. her mission-houses owned nearly all the territory of the State. previous to the revolution that caused the sequestration of the church domains. bishoprics endowed by the which hold seven provinces and . the bishops of the Apostolic Vicars hold several others. have been instituted enue. that they seem to in him. by a priest. being vested whatever ostensible title policy or necessity Over these the church to adopt.

prise and the world may yet be startled from its slumber by the martial assertion of the church to her pretensions of supreme dominion over the world and . While rolling in opulence and luxury. must contemplate the undertaking of some gigantic enterher officials. to the utmost of power I shall and will defend this doctrine. to disinherit taking advantage of ignorance and superstition. and political The policy that dictates the accumulation and reservation of this vast amount of treasure. measures so oppressive and unjustifiable. . The immense sum fiscal of gold which she has. sovereign the pope has oaths of allegiance which he prescribes to such of his subjects According to the authority of "William Hogan. . that were it not for her religious aspect she might be mistaken for cipled.196 on ' THE PAPAL. corruption. she stoops to the basest trickery to filch from laborers and servant girls their wages. and his holiness's rights and ** customs against all usurpers. the cliurcli unites a rapacity so unprin- all Classes. deeds so horrible and arrogations so presumptuous. and heretical and Pro" testant authority whatsoever C3pecially against the " new pretended authority of the Church of England. my . by the fact that she is better organized for war. the demon of avarice. been visible out- had no let except what has been expended in the support of and on bribery. the consecration oath of the Jesuistical bishops is as follows : *' " Therefore. has system. the soul in the eternal world. and better furnished with its sinews than any other power. by means of her piling up in her coffers for ages. As an independent as he judges proper. and pretending to regulate the condition of lawful heirs . intrigue.

or of obedience to any of their inferior magistrates or officers. augment " and extend the rights. to observe. regal or otherwise. ^ Huguenots.MONAECHY. and do my best to extirpate the heretical Protestant doctrines. and with all . by you my ghostly father. honors. as they entrust me. and privileges of the " Lord Pope and his successors . I do renounce and disown my allegiance as due to any heretical king. and do call all the heavenly and glorious hosts to witness these my real intentions to keep this and ' ' * * ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' * ' ' * ' ' * * ' ' * ' my : oath. in England. to keep secret and private all her agent's councils from time to time. ' 197 all adherents. and of the other named Potestants to be damnable. directly or indirectly. " before Almighty God. to defend the domains of St. aiid they themselves are damned." of a Catholic bishop is The consecration oath lows " I as fol- do solemnly swear on the Ploly Evangelists. A. or by any of his sacred convents. or in any other kingdom I shall come to. assist. and to be " damned. or discovered unto me. that will not forsake them. All which I. to assume any other religion heretical for the propagation of the mother church's interest. by word. advise all wherever I shall be. or circumstance whatever. and on my part to keep inviolably. in regard that they and she be usurpal and heretical. that notwithstanding I am dispensed with. but to execute all that shall be proposed. B. opposing the true mother church of Rome. and of Calvinists. I do further de*clare that I will help. given in charge. I do further promise and declare. I do further declare the doctrine of the Church of England. and blessed Sacraments which I am now to receive. writing. " Peter against every aggressor to preserve. to perform. and . and destroy all their pretending powers. Scotland. or State named Protestant. prince. do swear by the blessed Trinity. and not to divulge. Ireland.

in 1818. . reserva"tions. have." It is said that by rescript of Pope Pius VII.... B.198 THE PAPAL " miglit to enforce his decrees. " they dissenting from the mother chuich and her com" mands. lished omitted by the bishops subject to the British It is also omitted in the following oath. the clause relating to " heretics" in the bishop's oath. either to deprive them of their crowns.. elect of the church N. and to his succes" sors canonically chosen. N. doctrines. in her sacred orders. estates. and further " her interests. pubU7iion. or its authority under her appoint" ment being so permitted. shall be from this "hour henceforward obedient to Blessed Peter the " Apostle. and " to the most blessed father Pope N. then to act. without leave of its " supreme power. against any man whatever. I shall assist them to retain " and defend. or commands. and to the holy Roman Catholic Church. 1856 "I. A. tenets. " and his successors. of this oath is similar to the foregoing Maynooth. ordinances. His Holiness . or ought to have. or powders "whatsoever. do declare not to act or conduct any mat- ter or thing prejudicial to her. or to set up others in lieu thereof.. princes. the su" premacy over all kings. who form the vast majority assume the following obligation to the church The priests of of Catholic priests in this country. and all dispositions whatsoever. is crown. by the Nashville American April 6. to the last extremity "heretics and schismatics. " to persecute and combat. more than my own earthly good and " earthly pleasures as she and her head. and all who will not pay " the sovereign Pope all the obedience which he shall my "require. : " •' •' I." The remainder Jesuistical oath. " or governments. provisions. the Roman .

was as follows " I swear to elevate the altar and the throne upon the " infamous Liberals." " man Pontiff. and authority of the holy Roman *' Church. privileges. or dispositions and mandates •' of the Apostolic See." Williain Hogan. by the very fact. of the Pope." The next clause declares the willingness of the bishop to attend synods. nor mortgage. " the penalties specified in the constitutions published " on this subject. " enfeoff anew. the rules of the Holy Fathers. and to exterminate them without " pity for the cries of their children. " honors. and his successors aforesaid. speaking of the instructions given him previous to his embarkation for America. . and obey such apostolic mandate The oath concludes thus : as he shall receive. The Sanfideste's oath. " I shall not sell. describes it as follows " Let it be your first duty to extirpate heretics. but be cautious as to the manner of doing it. and if there be no bishop there. give an account to the pope of every thing appertaining to the church and his flock. nor in any way alienate the possessions " belonging to table. exacted by Pope Gregory of : his military forces. and cause to " be observed by others. . " the decrees. Do nothing without consulting the bishop of the diocese in which you may be located. defend and promote the rights. " With my whole strength I shall observe. or the tears of "their old men. 199 " Popedom. by his bishop. without the leave of the Ro- my And should I proceed to any alienation " of them.MONARCHY. without prejudice to my rank and shall " take care to preserve. ordinances. nor give away. I am willing to contract.

" 4 : 134. or the interests of the pope. to the command of North America. make it known to your bishop. 2. Let the land be purchased for the Pope. he says: {2b. that for a just cause cation. 1. The confessional v. and to deceive by mental reservations. p. St. It is the source of all heresy. 135)." (Theol.200 THE PAPAL advise with the metropolitan bishop.'ill enable you to know the people by degrees with the aid of that holy tribunal. Wherever you see an opportunity of building a church. 41. Dens says or to feign is. Kever yield or give up the divine right which the head of the church has. Liqnori all says: " It is certain. lawful to use equivo- and to confirm it with an oath. " Notwithstanding is boldly defended by the highest authorities of the Catholic church. we may expect at no distant day. are declared by the universal authority of the . and he understands the character of Be sure not to permit the members of the holy church who may be under your charge to read the Bible. " The Vicar the debt of of God. He has instruc- Rome. n. pp. 47). 2.. vol. 111. to bring over North America to our holy church. 116). 110." — (Less. v/ho are guided by the spirit of God. and when there is not a necessity of confessing. to dissimulate.. : it is not lawful to lie. however. and the bishops. what not. Again. and a common opinion among it is divines. in the place of God. remits to man a plighted promise. tions from the people." Synopsis. and his successors in office. for a just cause. by virtue of the keys. it is lawful to dissemble what or to cover the truth with words. The obligation of all oaths of allegiance in conflict with the papal clerical oaths. or other ambiguous or doubtful signs. ch. as well as every other country. it is The is atrocious doctrine that proper to equivocate.

p." — Decret." — (Pithon. p. p.. who : withstands God and p. and of all dominion whatsoever sworn to her to be forever disPope Innocent III. who opposes God and his saints." electedin 1198." — (Pithon. p." (Do Eccles. but coactive power over the faithful. Bron" As the guardian and son. Bronson says: "Rome . 1. but on the contrary you are freely bid Good-speed in standing against kings for the rights and honors of that very church.) And again asserts You are not bound by an oath of this kind." : —Vol. The pope hath also not only directive. from all fealty. says " Subare not bound to observe the fealty which they : swear to a Christian prince. 17 p. said : — — " We do declare her to be deprived of her pretended right to the kingdom. are bound to obey the Roman pontiff.MONARCHY. " The fealty which Pope Gregory IX says subjects have sworn to a Christian king. also 201 : Dens says " All the faith- bishops and patriarchs. elected in 1087. 439)." Vol. ful. 241J). the saints.. church to be null and void. jects Pope Urban. 360). solved from any such oath. 2. 358. and to judge whether or not it does conform to the condition and requirement of its trust." (Rev. — 94. Jan.. Pope Pius v. and to pronounce sentence accordingly. 260).. and even in legislatively defending your own peculiar privileges. No. speaking of the church says judge of law she must have power to take cognizance of the State. and obe- and also the subjects dience.. homage. in relation to Queen Elizabeth. 1854). 648). vol. Again he he says is : " An " oath contrary to the utility of the church not to be observed. 2. they are not bound by any author- ity to perform. and condemns the precepts. "Freed all that were bound to those who had fallen into heresy.

I had the " . objectionable feature of the papal monarchy a system of searching espionage which it attempts to establish over society. we submit the following facts furnished by William Hogan : Soon after my arrival in Philadelphia. In addi- tion to the confessors and spiritual guides by which the pope seeks to discover the thoughts. civil rights and we still. Y. " dated March 28th. 1855. and sends cardinals to England 1854)." says he. twenty ways outside the and doing it more largely do. he says : Now in seems to meddle with our religion. as well as our . Louis. in the capacity of servants scrutinize the domestic affairs of non-Catholics. shall find intricate web of its prohibitions for doing. notwithstanding the laws that not thus be divided. and direct the conduct of his Catholic subjects. Buifalo. he employs a set of men and women who." Bev. shall London. mark their con- and communicate all important facts through their superior. and base incivility of this department of the papal government. and published in the Free- man s this it Journal. April. As an illustration of the disrespectful inquisitiveness." the very thing wishes us not to A curious and very is. duct. 1855 passed an act defining ecclesiastical In a letter of Bishop Hughes.202 THE PAPAL divided her British territory into dioceses. at N. respecting this law. having refused comply with the canons of the Council of Trent in violating the trust laws of the State of to New York. the legislature of tenure. to him at Rome. — The trustees of the church of to St. versation. " I became acqainted with a Protestant family. the bishop proceeded In consequence of this con- excommunicate them...

and of all . ter belonging to the order of Jesuists in Stonyhurst. calling to see him was shown up stairs to a garret room. 'I am armed as well as you are. and the character of the being that stood before me. you have taken me for a young man. 203 pleasure of dining occasionally with them. I will not hurt you. and wear this dagger to protect myself. The Sisters of Charity took immediate charge of her.' said the now young woman. England. and announcement of my name. I was admitted He deliberately turned out of his bed.' taking from under her jacket an eleto sit ' . who Not long after this a meswaited at the table senger called at my room to say that Theodore was taken a? a I was then officiating see me. and and very respectfully handed me a chair. she en- course this lay for her zeal . and asked me down as he had something very important to tell me Sir. and tightened my grasp on Feel no a sword-cane which I carried in my hand. ill. alarm. and having clothed her in an appropriate dress. I discovered from her that she had arrived in New Orleans some time previous. but not so young as I appeared in my boy's dress. and confess to you before I leave the city. sister.. lost no time in entering on her mission. and wished to Romish priest.' chair farther from the bed.' You must explain yourI answered. and could not help noticing a seemingly delicate young man.MONARCHY. I knew now where I was. into which. ' ' I am a lay sisgant poignard. recommended her as a chambermaid to one of the most respectable Protestant families in that city. Jesuists are active and diligent in the discharge of duties to their superiors. with ' due recommendation to the priests and nuns of that city They received her with all due caution as far as could be seen by the public but privately in the warmest manner. I sent for you because I want to get a character. locked the door. after a loud rap. I moved my self more fully before you can do either. but you are mistaken I am a girl. who was chosen from among many and craft. There was no longer any mystery in the matter.

she arrived in Baltimore. than even the This very individuls with whom she associated lay sistr. until she became better the pecuniary means. . .204 THE PAPAL So great a tered on lier employment favorite did she become in the family. and the young ladies on whom she waited made her presents of every article of dress necessary for her comfort and convenience. this excellent chambermaid. wished to come North to a better climate Americans can be gulled. This friend went around to the American families where this chambermaid had lived from time to time. from those of the father to those of the smallest child. . . that in a short time she became acquainted with all the circumstances and secrets. stories if there were secrets among them they were known to her and. . " According to the custom universally ija vogue. that it was a pity to have her travel as a steerage passenger a person of her virtue and correct deportment should not be placed in a situation where she might be liable to insult handsome purse was and rude treatment soon made up. The /Sisters of Charity have always in readiness some friend to supply them with the means of performing corporeal acts of mercy. . or lay Jesuist sister. now become acquainted with the secret circumstances of acquainted with the ligious opinions. but depositing them with the mother abbess especially deputed to take charge of them Thus did this lay sister continue to go from place to place. never carrying them about her. having made herself acquainted with the secrets of New Orleans. . politics. reto the propagation of popery in this country. a cabin passage was engaged. . . . A . . told them she wanted to come as far as Baltimore. she kept notes of every circumstance which Mfay tend to elucidate the character of the family. from family to family. and whether favorable or not . She was the depository of all their love and she knew the names of their lovers. She took possession of a place as soon as convenient. Having and spent several months in that city.

was enabled to give more correct information of the actual state of things in this country. and with the best recommendations for intelligence and capacity.' . This smart and tidy looking young Those senators man got instant employment on whom he waited. dressed her in a smart looking waiter's jacket and trowsers. looked as an example of piety and chastity. was their confidence in him. as they' went out Theodore.. and made her report to the mother abbess of the nunnery of her order in that city.. Now it was known v/hether Henry Clay was a gambler whether Daniel Webster was a libertine whether John C. were entirely thrown off their guard. My business is not done yet. through the general of the Jesuist order in Rome. that I confessed to you.MONARCHY. where the Sisters of Charity will find a 17* ' : . on whom many of the wives of our national representatives. Calhoun was an honest but credulous man In fact this lay sister in male uniform. Such. applied for a situation as Waiter in Gadsby's Hotel. take care of my room and papers. that their most important papers and letters were left loose upon the table. You must state in it that I have complied with my duty. and after advising with the mother abbess of the convent. than the whole corpse of diplomats from foreign countries then residing at our seat of government I want a written character from you.. you must say that you visited me in my sick room. in Washington city.. and in their conversations with one another seemed to forget their usual caution. in' short. * . . satisfied by saying. received the viaticum. and as it is necessary that I should w^ear a cap for a while. I must go to New York. and even grave senators. not suspecting that he had the ordinary curiosity of servants in general. and had just recovered from a violent fever. but a waiter in Gadsby's Hotel. " By advice of this venerable lady and holy prioress. she returned to the District of Columbia. she cut her hair. she determined to change her apparent charal|ter and apparel.- 205^ almost every Protestant family of note in Baltimore.

and to direct their conduct in the of his interest.206 place for sion. Through the instrumentality of this execrable sys- volume 2 tem of espionage. any part of the advancement by the most prudent and enlightened . with the private inten- government with the incipiency and progress of every seditious and treasonable project and is prepared at all times. by the accuracy and compre." : Auricular Confes- pp. THE PAPAL me as a waiting maid. to instruct his generals in the actual state of affairs existing in w^orld. and acts of every important private and public personage with the nature and ob. ject of every secret society. council. the pope becomes acquainted with the character. 99-108. intentions. tions of every . hensiveness of his information.

of Halle. imprisoned for blasphemy for having expressed a doubt of the pope's infallibility. He claims to be invested by divine right with supreme sovereignty over earth. SECTION TWO. hea- ven and hell. a Jew who had been converted to the Catholic faith. and who had advocated liberty in a dispute which had occurred between the pope and the Venitian government. was summoned to Rome to answer for his criminal assertions and con- . was. Joseph Wolf. The Popes Direct Authority His Opposition to Mar^ riage To Slavery His Claim to Temporal Power on the forged Decretal Letter of Constantine titious tion — On Fie— On Pretended Donation of Gift of Pepin Charlemagne— on Disputed Bequest of Matilda^ Duchess of Tuscany — The of Pope a Usurpa— The Papal Artful Policy— The State of Ltaly the the — — — the Title under the Papal Government. and subjects in every part of the world. while studying divinity at the Seminarium Romanum. who had expressed in a private letter that so far from coveting the dignities of Rome he held them in abomination. and has been punished as blasphemous by his authority. which has seat in Rome. 207 THE PAPAL MONARCHY.MONARCHY. To question the legitimacy of this claim is condemned. Fra Paola. We have now sketched its the pope's temporal its mon- archy.

and friends on friends. parental. filial and social relations. the direct wife." the Pope. he would nullify the conjugal. By separating as much as possible the husband from the rents. Women and Children. and institutions of friendship and families. and to maintain the predominence of his direct authority. Michelet. His authority over mind and body must be direct. and all influences or institutions that obstruct it must be annihilated. is a very jealous "more than God." has explained the ingenious method by which this obist. . he pronounces a curse on all who say that marriage is preferable to celibacy. Should the prompt- ing of the social instincts be too strong to be repressed by the terrors of canonical anathemas. provoked the censure of the holy father by asserting in a publication that the pope's influence in temporal matters was not direct but indirect. Hence Cardinal Ballarmine. the distinguished papal controvesial- who was so devout a Catholic that w^hen he died he bequeathed one half of his soul to Jesus Christ and the ist. ject is efl'ected. But the " More than God. other half to the Virgin Mary. Hence in a canon of the Council of Trent. parents on children. As husbands obstruct the direct influence of popes on wives. the philosophical historian and celebrated controversialin a work entitled " Priests. in natural indiff'erence to them still connections. THE PAPAL and though acquitted of the allegations preferred against him. narrowly escaped the assassin's dagger." He allows no master to stand between him and his subjects. he has a clerical machinery skilfully adapted to moder- ate their influences and reciprocities.208 duct . and should they create the bonds. and the children from their pais papal influence. through the priest.

she as practically ignores as tity dogma and marriage she .. that the church has used its influence to restrain it the clergy in general. several popes. The pope hates slavery. Hence the Catholic church has always been opposed to slavery. not because he wishes men free. over their minds. and loudly enveighed against keeping Christians in bondage. The whip he holds over the back of his slave. her popes. Chastolerates because she cannot do but in the lives of her monks. VI. in a letter addressed to the bishops of Kubi Pope Paul HI.MONARCHY. made the Catholic church a " free love" institution. and the defenceless children in nunnery schools policy are portrayed by " and Catholic asylums. enforced the manumission of slaves as a duty incumbent on laymen." The logical consequence of the of the pope's direct authority has.. in 1462. 132). and the power he has over his life. on the lonely wife at home.. The jealous claim of the pope to a direct influence on mind of his subjects. and therefore he wishes him removed." (Gen. 18* in 1590. in fact. Lect. in his Wandering Jew. Examples of a similar Eugene Sue.. however. '209 exerted on the isolated husband abroad. has unavoidably made the church an inveterate enemy of human slavery. p. and especially . in an apostolic letter . a Catholic. annihilates all other influences. Hist. No influence is equal to that of a master. in his apostolic letter to the cardinal bishops of Toledo .. otherwise she consistently hates them. the but because he wishes to exercise a direct authority The master nullifies the pope's influence on the slave. her priests. 1537. respecting feudal slavery "It cannot : be denied. Pope Pius II. Pope Urban VII. Guizot remarks. in — . and her saints.

that same traffic said practices as that same authority in blacks. under any pretext or color whatever. in his apostolic letter to the clergy of Brazil and Pope Pius VII. censure all the afore- unworthy the Christian name. suggested as a less wrong that negroes should be purchased of the Portuguese settlements in Africa. then." "We are aw^are that African slavery origin to a Catholic priest. in his apostolic letter of 1839 says: "We. and the practical beguilement of her warmest by the consummate craft with which she plots to achieve her objects.210 to the Collector THE PAPAL Jurium of the apostolic churches of PorPope Benedict XIV.. tugal . of The perversion friends.. or in any w^ay whatever publicly or privately to teach in opposition to these things which we have made owes the its the subject of our admonition in this our apostolic letter. who. and demanded that every species of Pope Gregory. but whatever w^ere his private opinions respecting the propriety of African slavery. in his official address to his clergy. or other- wise to preach. perceiving that for laborers in the demand West India was likely to subject the Indians to bondage. by virtue of our apostolic authority. that while she is radically the most efficient abolition society that official ever was projected. and held as slaves for life . his church has never recognized it as legal. and by we strictly prohibit and interdict any ecclesiastic or layman from presuming to uphold. have presented fresh evidence to the world in the singular fact. effected public opinion by the Catholic church. slavery should cease among Christians. as if it were lawful in its nature. in 1731. and that while in her man- . . all denounced the traffic in blacks.

that colored servants have been supplanted to an incredible extent by white Catholic servants. nor do I censure the Catholic church for the important aid she rendered in its achievement but I hope American freemen will not want the traffic in . the Pope. and espionage. it Through accident or Jesuistical craft. the homage American slave-holder for her friendly disposition towards the Southern institution and induced her members. denounce. and as he received no wages she could not assess him perfection of the pope's system of for her benefit. has happened. were both connected with the slave's disenthralment. vigilance to prevent her from improving the dition of things. who as serviceable spies far excel them. But there were other considerations which probably stimulated the humanity of the church in her labors for the abolition of slavery. I regret not the abolishment of the revolting human beings. and the augmentation the avidity with which she has improved them.MONARCHY. yet has she comof the human manded . to hate. and to anathematize the North for its abolition proclivities. These advantages could not be undesirable to the church. dates to traffic ill 211 ilie clergy she has invariably denounced the beings as infamous. has unwarily ." who claims by divine paramount of the world. The condition of the slave precludes the possibility of his serving her in the capacity of a spy on the opinions and conduct of his master. shows how clearly she foresaw them. so new con- much to her advantage as to endan- ger the liberty of the country. while using them as instruments in the accomplishment of her projects for the abolishment of slavery. The of his revenue. But the " right to be lord Lord God.

as they are of a base and contemptible origin. ready for use as occasion might require. Pe- by an attempt letters. vester. They are prejudi- cial to the ground of action of a claimant. follows It reads as attribute to the Chair of St. of the finest in the world our mitre. though gorgeous as the setting sun. and as evi- dent proof of an intent to swindle. "We We . break up and dissolve away. all our imperial vestments. our diadem." title THE PAPAL even to the " patrimony of to establish it St. and the superstructure based upon them. decretals. letters. but at the slightest breeze they are dissipated.212 invalidated his ter. have been forged. like its area! enchantment. altered and interpolated by the holy brotherhood. as well as all the To make room for him we cities of other countries. all by forged decretal Forgeries are criminal acts. When successful. will. our palace of Lateran. briefs. to furnish a These doculegal basis for the pope's temporal power. canons. ments were prepared between the third and ninth centuries. receipts. as clouds in a dead atmosphere do the earth. Peter all imperial give to Pope Syland power and glory. forged probably by Benedict of Mentz. give to the Holy Pontiff as a free gift the city of Rome. and to his successors. dicts. one we give to him our crown. bulls. in the ninth century. and all the cities of Western Italy. and carefully treasured up in the papal archives. and punished by nations as high misdemeanors. One of the boldest of these pious forgeries is the decretal letter at- tributed to Constantino the Great. We . Yet of such base and flimsy material are the pope's Innumerable claim to temporal power constructed. they may overhang still the mind for a while. dignity. inter- and other documents.

213 abdicate our authority over these provinces. But like the rapacious dog. it is denied that he ever invested him with them as lord paramount. This limited indulgence was the pope's precedent for holding real estate. it . But even had the case been otherwise.MONARCHY. sess gift. the pretensions of the pope on the ground of Constantine's Italy. are an actual nullification of all his claims to tem- poral sovereignty. It is generally conceded that Constantine allowed the pope the use of some buildings in . late hour in his it. and formed the basis of his claim to all the crowns and kingdoms of the world. transferring the seat of our empire to Byzantium. she cannot consistently claim their gifts." The reason assigned for the bestowal of this magnificent donation was gratitude on the part of Constantine. But it is historically established that Constantine did not receive the rite of baptism until a last sickness that when he did receive did not cure his malady and that the rite was administered. were unquestionably granted to a heretical sectary and if Home does not wish to confess herself an Arian. bishop. not by the Pope of Rome. when he did not posthem himself ? As the gift of a donor is worthless unless he has an actual right in what he bestows. kingdoms and were bestowed on the bishop who officiated on the occasion. for having been cured of leprosy through the administration of the rite of baptism at the hands of Pope Sylvester. how could Constantine bestow on the pope all the cities of Western and of all other countries. but by an Arian . Whatever donations of crowns. Rome but a title to . since it is not just that a temporal emperor shall retain any power where God has set the head of his church. cities .

of sunk into public contempt. in the course of which the Italian Exarcato was dismembered from the It was decided by the victors that the govempire. in sovereignty. The alleged gift of Pepin to the Roman See forms another pretext by which the popes have endeavored to lay a basis for their claim to the right of temporal Pope Gregory excited a rebellion against the authority of the Emperor Leo III. not in a secular.. that it still continues to remain a portion of the canon law of the holy Catholic church. in the fifteenth century. the pope. its validity was not called into ques- At length. The bold criticisms of Laurentius Valla. lost all he had by snapping at the shadow of more in a river. and in the succeeding age it of historians. such is the reluctance of the popes to yield a point. has lost his title to any part of it. tine Although the decretal letter attributed to Constanwas palpably spurious. and the danger of provoking the wrath of the inquisition by questioning a dogma of the church. however.214 THE PAPAL who. the ridicule of poets. the respect for the sanctity and infallibility of the pope. gave the first decisive blow to its credibility. but For a monarch claiming the in a paternal capacity. in a legal proceedings of a its monastery at Sabine. fraudulent character was at- tempted to be substantiated. . beneath the scorn and the concessions But notwithstanding its universally theologians. acknowledged spurious character. ernment should be administered by two Consuls. with his mouth full of meat. by attempting through forged documents to grasp at all the world. yet such was the general ignorance of the times. which the pope should participate. that tion.

is . civil magisof Having thus advanced the its oil. who Mayor. to retrieve his fortunes applied to Pepin. surprising. who. not only accepted it. interests the Holy See by complimenting deliverer. however. and such an ambiguous office. and the pope gave him his opinion that it was ruled france under the title of best for him to do so. accepted it with eagerness and gratitude and even intrigued to obtain it. alleged by the popes that Pepin bestowed the conquered domains. Mayor force. the pope solicited of the civil authority the privilege of appointing him Patriarch of Rome. future popes might have a pretext for usurping his prerogatives in acknowledging their right to reign. and expelled Grateful the barbarians. wished to imprison the heir to the throne and usurp the government. The pope. 215 world as a just inLeritance. Pepin.the most remarkable instance on record of a monarchial condescension. but what is still more . a title which was borne by the former Exarchs and by this innocent method initiated a precedent which soon . he next venin hopes that in thus tured to anoint his head with imitating the example of Samuel in anointing kings. to accept such a humble concession to his unlimited authority. consisting of the Exercate and the Pentopoiis (five cities) on the . and all princes and governors as his menials. responding with an for the adequate reconquered the Exercate. of France. But during the administration of Pope Stephen II. In grateful consideration of it is these extraordinary favors. He. the victorious sword of the Lombards wrung the Exercate from the Consular government of Rome. martial services of Pepin.MONARCHY. ripened into a prerogative of appointing trates.

that he should excite clare place. as supreme absolute lord. it is by the popes that the blood-stained warrior. and maintained during his whole life. . and secretly communicating their substance to Charlemagne. and next upon the conquests of Pepin. in the twelfth century. which was first of the world to temporal founded upon the usurpation of Constantine. and wishing to subjugate Charlemagne under his authority. but with malignant delight. and over all his conquests. conquered. The undeniable historical fact that Charlemagne asserted. was annihilated by the conquests of the Lombards. never- that Pepin's donations to the Holy See were on condition of its vassalage to the Frankish power. the pope's chamberlain. Desiderious. in the absolute possession of the former to purchase masses for the benefit of his soul. except the Duchy of Benevento and the lower Italian republics. the subjects of that prince to his rebellion. dehis him a usurper. were re.216 THE PAPAL It is. wrested the Exercate from Rome. and that during his life he exercised absolute sovereignty over Rome. . their king. The right of the monarch power. confirmed the Holy See The only copy ever known of these is one received by Cancio. tlieless. a jealous and inaliangrants of Pepin. the sword of the latter was immediately drawn in behalf of the church the pope revenged Desiderius imprisoned for life in a monastery and all Italy. pretended donations . See of Rome. and allowed no pope to be either elected or consecrated without his permission. and crown nephews in Adrian listened to these overtures with seeming friendship. proposed to Pope Adrian I. certain. alleged Upon this signal success of his arms.

according to Ariosto. casts a dark shade of suspicion upon the genuineness of these documents. the contest lasted three hundred years. Gregory VII. or to temporal power. had bequeathed to the church her domains. in 1075 asserted that Matilda. and to every otlier portion of his dominions.. and the Duchies of Spoleto and Verona. Fred- I. a part of Umbria. is a complete nullification of any grant that he had made to the pope. futile and ludicrous. invaded Italy on three different occa- Henry IV. and Germany depopulated. in vindication of his claims against the preten- sions of the pope. during which Italy eric was distracted. Even were they au- monarch to annul is equal to his right to grant. yet as the right of a as if they were based on a grant from the man in the whose place of abode a traveller. thrice crossed the Alps to chastise the popes for aggressions on the sions. able right to 217 Rome. and positive proof that any right or title to Kome. moon in Besides these laborious but ineffectual efTorts to fabricate historical data in support of the papal pretension to temporal sovereignty. constructed upon them by the holy fathers.MONARCHY. These possessions consisted of Tuscany. Duchess of Tuscany. thenticated. once found some of the lost documents upon which the popes base their claim to temporal dominion.emperor of Germany. . and as his practice is the evidence of what he surrenders or annuls. is as invalid. the exclusive sovereignty which Charlemagne maintained over his Italian conquests.. The validity of these bequests was disputed by the natural heirs. During the : first cam- paign pope Paschal was made a prisoner 19 but on the ap- . a part of Mark Ancona. Germanic possessions in Italy. until the day of his death.

temporal . the arms and intrigues of the pope won the concession of Europe proacli of the imperial to his claim of Matilda's estates. have never been able to convert the popes. But the arguments which have converted a world. tions of the fully title. it is evident that they are and either alarmingly conscious that office. endowed with a universal temporal sovereignty. The spurious character of the pope's title to temporal power has "been exposed by the ablest Catholic authors. in vindication of the pope's titles of the alleged grants Rome. They still maintain that the reputed donations of Constantine. and during the minority of Frederic II. they have or by that possession no of or by virtue of their whatever. Charlemagne and of Matilda. Peter is divine title is title to human of the supefluous. the pope's chamberlain. of Otho to the See of I. and of Henry II.. a If the apostolic chair of St. endeavored to of This assertion establish the genuineness of the fictitious charters of Louis-de-Debonnaire. and endeavored to fortify and maintain it by successive fabricato them. may appear incredible. is human title to their temporal pos- a concession that they have no divine title and that a human title is necessary to the But as they have based their validity of their claim. The indefatigable exertions popes to establish a sessions..218 THE PAPAL army a second time he fled from Rome. same nature. title on the authority of forged documents. to any donation authority. Yet amid the disputes of the Germanic succession.. and rejected with impatient contempt by history. of Pepin. but in 1822 Marino Malini. are real and valid.

" 219 Not only is pation. in vindicating their title to the States of the Church. won. The papal monarchy is certainly one of the most demoralizing. its adoption was first limited to the four patriarchs. it w^ill prevent repetition by deferring further allusion to them until we arrive at the subsequent chapters. finally assumed it as the exclusive title of the bishops of Rome. in which we shall consider the papal political intrigues in general. had to maintain desperate struggle. its duplicity inscrutible. The popes.. in the title. first Christianity. bore this In the ancient Greek church it was bestowed upon every clergyman. Soon as they had acquired the concession claim. At the General Council of Constantinople. and even some centuries of lay- men. but so the holy father's temporal power a usuris also his exclusive claim to the use of the title of pope.MONARCHY. in 869. Every bishop. But as these warlike enterprises of the holy fathers were intimately connected with the convulsions and revolutions of Europe. And in the course of the usur- pations of the holy fathers. Its ambition is insatiable. pope Gregory VII. they became temporal despots. friendship into inviolable rights. The popes have converted the courteous indulgence of crafty. during which lost or domains were abridged or enlarged. bloody and their of the world. according to the varying fortunes of their arms and intrigues. and its policy and measures are disgraceful and unprincipled. and from the feeblest have manufactured the most exorbitant Pretending to be spiritual advisers. . the monarchs a long. and oppressive despotisms that has ever disgraced the name of government. by authority of an Italian Council.

them the power justing disputes to judge. implication that they had a right to all power. As their mediation in church or state affairs enabled them to adjust subjects. nobles. first . they claimed the right of owning all the kingdoms of the earth. The right to arbitrate gave and tho opportunity of adto according their advantage. which their capacious founded mission-houses in maw could crave. A church. they insidiously labored to multiply the causes which favored their friendly intervention. churches. a mission-house. As ecclesiastical litigation conduced to the extension of their authority. from an obscure origin to supreme By gradual steps secular and spiritual jurisdiction. By a succession of forgeries. they asserted the right of ownand when the right was conceded of owning a single kingdom. in the progress of events. and skilful manoeuvres the papal government advanced. temporal or spiritual. for They them. they next claimed the right to arbitrate be- tween then between cities. an acre of land they construed into an . pontiffs were not always too honorable to discourage the causes which favored their mediatorial From tho right to arbitrate between interposition. different parts of the world next they claimed absolute jurisdiction over Disputes respecting property arising between the citizens of Eome and these foreign mission-houses of the church. usurpations. then between and then between monarchs. disputes according to their policy.220 riglit of THE PAPAL ing a kingdom owning a farm. the popes acquired the right to decide on ecclesiastical and matrimonial questions to dispose of church dig. . the popes claimed the exlusive right to arbitrate between them.

nlties . was the first instance of a pope's exercising temporal authority.. in the Consular government of Rome. they plotted for its accomplishment through the events and discords of succeeding ages. sions to the alleged donation of Pepin. of Matilda. riage of the clergy oprics to abridge the investiture of bish. in imitation of the example of Samuel. to command the concession of their infallibility . in an epistle to Charlemagne. The pretento enforce confessors on princes troduce the inquisition into kingdoms .. The participation of Pope Leo III. on the ground that they were granted to the Holy See as a fief. on the ground that they had been granted to it as lord paramount. of Charlemagne. The alleged grant of Constantine was first announced in 765 by Pope Adrian I.. and of the Gothic princes. was the first until art 19* . by the princes to reduce the clergy to absolute dependence on their favor by dissolving all bonds of interest which subsisted between the bishops and the princes. in a paternal capacity. and to exercise the prerogative of ratifying their decrees . The claim to the estates of Matilda was first made by Pope Paschal. Conceiving a desire in one age.MONARCHY. and statesmen to inand to regulate and superintend schools and colleges. and when machinations had matured their plan. nor and intrigue had prepared the way for it. they consummated their wishes by usurpation. The anointing of Pepin by Pope Adrian I. to convene at option synods and councils. The attainment of these objects was the work of centuries. 221 tions and benefices to protect their temporal acquisifrom alianation by the interdiction of the mar. and next by pope Innocent II. were not asserted until long after the death of the pretended donors.

.. over the Emperor Lothair. favored by the confusion which it had universally produced with regard to the rights of citizens and the titles of property. The victory of Nicholas I. dels. raised it to a high degree of power and . reduced the The success of the political measures and intrigues of the Holy See having. was the first act of the papal monarch in The conquests of Eobert Guisdisposing of crowns. card. its with the pope head. in 875. Belgaria and Aragon. it would have. at the time of Gregory VII. the ill regulated constitution of the European States. sub- the priests for officials. from the eleventh century Poland and Hungary from the thirteenth century and the kingdom of the two Sicilies. The fear of the terrible consequences of their anathemas and interdictions. he attempted to convert cratical it into a theofor for its government. had been reduced to dependency on the sacerdotal monarchy. under the pretext of a zeal to wrest the sepulchre of Christ from the possession of the Infiworld to a state of vassalage. from the period of the tary to the Holy See. by Pope John VIII. . was the first papal triumph over the secular authority. the imperfection of domestic and international law. and had the crusades been successful. the people its . introduction of the Catholic church into her realm. importance. instigated first by promises of the popes.222 semblance of tlie THE PAPAL pope's usurpation of the prerogatives of that official in acknowledging the right of kings. furnished the ground of their feudal claims. The coronation of Charles the Bold. enabled them to render kingdom after kingdom tribuEngland. and the efficient operation of the papal machinery. from 1265.

its that the Catholic church. or the papal monarchy. its But under Pope Clement XII. frustrated the design. beheld the church property in France confiscated.. the support of its arbitrary pretensions . contracts. power began to decline. oaths and con- . the quarters of the pope's embassadors in Venice to the Venitian government. it acquired almost unlimited spir- itual and temporal authority. insulting in sense of mankind. in Italy the Bologna and Ferrara dismemberment of Romagna. It is it is monarchy political for its object. its impious scoff at secular promises. Under Innocent V. He was obliged to cede Naples to Germany. it Under Sixtus contemplated the subjugation of Russia and Egypt. jects. the French troops it Rome and declaring a republic. When we consider it is the monarchial principles with which tributes blasphemous arrogation of the atand prerogatives of the deity its presumptuous claim to supreme jurisdiction over all other governments the base forgeries which it has committed in constituted .. its and religion for its garb. designates an institution which has politics for principles. but the death of Bathore. the interdiction of the nunciature entering . It is evident from the facts that have been adduced. Pope Pius VI. in III. Duke of Tuscany. and finally. 1585. tribute of a horse . . in 1652. laws. and the religious orders suppressed in Naples the abolition of the customary . its . in Germany . and the right of investiture in Savoy to the secular authority. 223 and the world for its dominion. not only political in nature and design. elected in 1195.MONARCHY. elected in 1775. pretensions to the in its prin- common ciples and dangerous independent to the rights of governments.. but its a despotism..

the approval of bigoted censors meet the government sus. except such as . in eyes to its late condition its in Italy. of but bound ! the fetters is it. and ultimately. the study al- from universities no book lowed to be published. . from the dying the inheritance of heirs that it may pile the wealth of the world in secret coffers. and litical intermeddling. ambition has triumphs over science. for the subjugation of govern- ments under port of vulsions its absolute authority. tained only by suppressing insurrection the prisons crowded with heretics to death in .224 stitutions . despotism it —good heavens what a scourge and has been to mankind. and the nineteenth century. freedom unprincipled and human right the rapine. or imported. shaken the world its . of . from the laborer the reward of his toil. on poevasion. devastated fields. political offenders cruelly put the nation struggling for freedom. . turned into barren wastes a people once the most . . by whicli it wrings from beggars their pittance. tem mental reservation its disgraceful sysits system of finance. on corruption. through the means its of their disall organizing agencies. or when we turn our see. Bigotry and superstition prosperous. the inquisition at its bloody of philosophy banished work . . it When we behold the blood-stained sword which has drawn in the sup. to be lavished on bribery. frauds and usurpations its the frequent con- with which . ins of its may chaunt its victories but a land once now choaked up and oppressed with the rufields once fertile now former greatness . under authority. of of espionage . . THE PAPAL its atrocious sanctions of prevarication. and burning cities which has marked the progress of its career . on fomenting sedition and con- spiracies.

the model of the church now stands reaffirming the is crimes and errors of centuries. commemorate the progress and achievements papal monarchy. despotic legislative enact- ments. arbitrary appointments aristocracy its popular elections. the shrine of bigotry. an inquisition murders. seditious and treasonable principles which she carries in her bosom. These. and prisons reverberate with the groans of patriots and freemen. in order that she may overthrow its structure. scatters in her pathway. —with ancestors that governed the . usurpa- equality. violence. that monarchy may supplant decrees its its its lib- eral principles. freedom. The usurper of all rights. is Such such the Catholic church divine authority to . polished 225 the most debased. by any means. the political institution which she claims the obtrude. order and science. and is laboring to implant in the its American republic. oh patriots are the eternal monuments that ! for liberty Cicero plead. valiant. and civilized. past horrible history. and bigotry. slavery tion its guarantees of natural rights. now a commonwealth of slaves where . now rude and imbecile world.MONARCHY. . now not able to govern themselves a commonwealth of kings. Brutus stabbed and Cato died. the fier of all of the sancti- despotism : wrongs. and superstition its tolerance. now a pope curses. on the world and such are the demoralizing. and thirsting for an opportunity of repeating is the papal monarchy such is its .

and of shaking the power of the strongest government. With the knowl- edge of this fact we may perceive the origin of some of and rebellions which have and which. of King John of Henry VII. FAFAL FOLITICAL INTBIOUES ENGLAND. will main substance as Regarding supremacy to the pope as the of Christianity. which was capable of intimidating the boldest antagonist. of James II. and every department of the government. skilfully adapted to secure unity and concentration of action. doctrines har- monized with his claim to supreme temporal and spiritual power and their organization. from insignificant beginnings have gained such strength and dimensions as to dismay the valor of disciplined arms.CHAPTER XII. Fapal Foliiical IJST Machinery Fapal Folitical Intrigues in England. under the Feigns of Henry II. — — — — — — — The design of ruling nations was clearly indicated by the principles upon wliich the monastic orders were founded. of Charles I of Charles II. the military knights. and obedience to his their necessary to salvation. based strictly on monarchial principles. We may also perceive those mysterious seditions arisen apparently from trifling causes. . formed. together with . a political machinery in the ad- vancement of the papal interests. and distract every section of the land. of William and Mary.

kneel in adoration at the feet of a despot. it is not conceivable. extent. mislead like the fabled sirens . is tainly strange . unawed by the magnitude of the public calamity which it threatened to entail. sonous adder . and But although the which he produced were as malignant and surprising as those which have been ascribed to the supernatural power of the arch-fiend. pervert . The and irresist- energy of his power. surrender up their personal sover- eignty. effects . That rational beings should trample upon their rights. why tlie struggle of civil and reli- gious liberty has been such a long. and ible tears of nations. and deify their enemies. . and that he has never scrupled to exercise his terrible power whenever his ambitious projects required it. have sometimes led his unsus. is a fact written with the blood secrecy. yet the only magic he ever had the necessity of using was his political machinery through which he could charm like the poiof having dealings with the devil. . cer- and without the supposition of the intervention of some secret power by which reason was unseated in such instances. capable of producing identical extraordinary effects. by means of his political machinery.IN ENGLAND. the public judgment it calm or distract a nation excite to rebel against its best governor. delib- erately rivet on their own limbs the irons of slavery. or to enthrone in its power bitterest foe. pecting subjects to regard him as a magician and sometimes they have been the cause of his arraignment before councils on the charge of practising magic. is crucify their champions. is a fact supported by the irrefragable testimony of history. and inter- minable conflict. bloody. But that the pope. 227 from tlie same fact.

by every available means. and you know the isles fact yourself.228 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES the hour wlien soil of first From the Catholic church planted until the present her foot on the England mo- ment. At the . and extirpate their vices to make . in all departments of the government. the semblance of spiritual were the instructand under guides. he received at the hands of his regal cotemporaries the distinguished honor of being chosen by them as their arbiter.. in order to subject the ." — (Labb. and all the that have received the Christian faith belong to the church of Rome. and at all periods of its history. 14. Passing by the numerous instances of papal political intrigue in the history of England. under every garb. For a long period the ors of her princes.. that Ireland. prince of his time. from the policy or generosity a gift of the kingdom of Ireland. 15). in 1154. her emissaries have labored as far as practicable. and celebrated for the acuteness of his judgment and the equitableness of his decisions. to settle their matters of dispute. Peter a penny a year for each house. the advisers of her kings. of He received also. to subject the nation to the despotism of Rome. them pay to and preserve St. things the rights of the church in all to which we grant you with pleasure for the increase of the Christian religion. people to the laws. The following extract " from Adrian's bull on that occasion will explain the nature and object of the donation : No one doubts. the spies on their priests thoughts and actions. Pope Adrian IV. And you have signified to us that you wish to enter this island. we will glance at a few of those which have taken place since the coronaThe most accomplished tion of Henry II. 13.

and but under that of King at times almost extirpated John they produced the " Magna Charta.IN ENGLAND. met at WaterHenry and his Thus by a pretended prerogative of popery. tlie Irish. the " Habeas Corpus. they were checked.. Under the stormy reign of Henry II. stitute English liberty. 1 440). to frame such a constitution as would be adequate for the protection of the prerogatives of the crown and the rights of the this constitution. were in danger of being oppressed in their by a heavy encumbrance of Catholic igand not until intelligence and public spirit had removed the obstruction did they show their native benificent vigor. the oracle of the pope. clergy 229 ford and took the oath of allegiance to successors. to Henry. But notwithstandcrime. dictation of the pope. and the chief engineer of his political ma19* . thwarted. yet was violently opposed by Thomas-a-Becket. seeds The principles of sown among thorns and brambles." ing the munificent bounty of the pope. was blotted from the map. . like subjects." and under those of succeding princes the various liberal acts which conearly growth norance and superstition . under the administration of Pope Alexander summon a council of nobles and clergy at Clarendon. yet the growing " Ireland — : weight of the ecclesiastical establishments sive to the industry — so oppres- and enterprize of the people insidious —and the the continual and encroachments of clergy on the prerogatives of the crown. determined III. and consigned to the loss of freedom. Although it this liberal and judicious constitution had received the sanction of the Council of Clarendon." under that of Charles II. without a tribunal and without a (McGeoghegan.

revenge by the confiscation of rined at the triumph. so in this case. modified more refinement. he had violated his oath of allegiance to the hing . cHnery Denouncing it as a profane inand immunities of the church. that he might exercise with impunity his sacred functions in cursing his foes. the more became exceedingly exasperated upon discovering in the conduct of their Henry by the practice of own irregularities.230 PAPEL POLITICAL INTRIGUES in England. of his loss of his Chagat the foes. he fled to France. and to invoke in cause the insidious but formidable aid of scandal. he sought to solace his wounded and vent the ebullitions of his despair and rage in excommunicating the principal officers of the crown. their sanctity nor potency could protect his insolent tongue from punishment even while uttering them. he proceeded to excommunicate all persons who had acquired. or should acquire ecclesiastical property under fraction of the privileges the authority of its provisions. and all who should presume to violate the church prerogatives. of its course. set in violent operation to destroy the king for the benefit of the church. But duly impressed with the intrinsic impotence of his own curses. and exasperated temporal possessions. In savage zeal in behis antag- half of the pope. vituperation and defamation. and Not possessing that charity which less grossness . The brilliant qualities of Henry were unfortunately overshaded with the dark vice of un- As of greater rakes are often horrified at the lesser peccadillos profligate clergy ones. and thus imprudently furnished onists with legal authority to retaliate the mischief of all his property. and that neither pride. dates of his By the mananathema the papal machinery was. chastity.

whom he had crowned as his successor. however. and Geoffry and Richaid. 231 but that religion wHcli magnifies. was induced to demand of him the surrender of the diadem. and broke in storms of pestilence. Hence Henry's son Louis. their hundred heads and thousand hands. more tremendous and pestiferious than the fabled mon- sters of antiquity. and restored order to his king- dom. distorts and publishes them. rors of a civil and a foreign war. coveietli a multitude of sins. blood and death. The peace of his kingdom was consequently again disturbed by the discovery of a conspiracy. The prudence and martial abilities of the king enabled him. soon to suppress these afflictive and unnatural seditions. they soon managed to startle the sobriety of every hamlet with whispers of the king's incredible depravity. was still in action in every part of the empire.IN ENGLAND. with their poisonous breath. But the moral effluvia which was produced by the action of the papal political machinery. continued still to generate those noxious vapors which had so frequently overclouded the atmosphere of England. In anti- demand papal intrigue had secured the support of France and Scotland in its favor and consequently England was suddenly involved in the horcipation of this . But the papal machinery. at the head of which . Henry was adequate After a desperate contest he repelled the invaders. two sons of Henry. But the coolness and extraordinary military genius of to the terrible emergency. they domestic circle by the dis- semination of treacherous and extravagant inventions. visitation of divine justice on the To secure the profaned the sanctity of his head of Henry. were incited to rebellion. until the queen was frenzied with jealousy.

Had Henry had the sagacity to penetrate the secrets of the Holy See. might have blasted it in its bud. ever be grateful to the to attribute to his calamities that . his chil- dren to rebellion. transformed into efforts . to have annulled the authority of the pope in his relm. however. king. around cost at The whom his fondest hopes had clustered. while it was profaning his domestic hearth. his favorite and youngest son.232 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES. that in the garb of a holy father was commanding his homage and reverence. whom the first conception was known and if they did not origiBut Henry was nate. and the disorders of his kingdom and what a blessing he would have been to England and to mankind. how effectually might he have suppressed the rebellion of his sons. and had he been able. Henry's third son. his laborious to elevate the . and complicated witK which was John. to of their treason . exciting his subjects to sedition. Freedom will. which was more properly merited by the pope and the father confessors of the princes. was Eichard. Upon the disclosure of this mortifying fact. the king pronounced a curse upon his rebellious children. in defiance of a papal alliance with the united crowned heads of Christendom. treacherous foes. which he purchased this invaluable legacy for posterity was as tremendous as are the obligations of gratitude which it imposes. His family converted into a nest of venomous reptiles. his sons. unconsciously dealing with an invisible monster. who laid the foundation of England's liberty. and broken up the machinery of his treasonable machinations. and at the same time inducing him family and subjects the dreadful had been conjured by the machinations of the monster himself.

has.MONARCHY. three days after the disclosure of the last con. without provoking the maledictions or interference of the Holy See. made him more dependent on the favor of Rome. converted into sources of the deepest of misfortunes these were the papal demands. a ruler's chief support exhausted his coffers. II. and admirably prepared the way for the accomplishment of its ulterior designs. the sinews of war . endeavored to make the vices as well as the power of princes administer to its interests. This prince had conspired against the most indulgent of fathers. perhaps connivance may be reasonably accounted But after a war with France exhausted the resources 20* . This policy is illustrated in the schemes of papal policy intrigue concocted under the reign of and King John. w^ith equal craft and baseness. who on the decease of his 1199 ascended the English throne. had warred against his brother Richard. more entangled in the network of its policy. had repudiated his wives. and opposition.. which were imposed on him for having served the cause of justice. and for. The Papal See governed by an unscrupulous ambition to realize the success of its projects for acquiring unbounded territorial aggrandizement. ruined and broken hearted. 233 importance and improve the condition of his subjects. outweighing the wealth of worlds. and of his country and under the rigorous exactions of these demands. and had exercised regal authority with insolence and tyranny. But as these enormities deprived him of the affections of his subjects. spiracy of his sons. he sunk into an unconsecrated grave. of humanity. had youngest son of Henry father in murdered his brother Arthur. its indulgence.

Pope Innocent III. It is an invariable practice of the holy fathers. excommunicated him. rendered him less popular. and touched at the cruel misfortunes in which he had involved him. and to restore him to his for- . and absolved The papal his subjects from their allegiance to him. to provoke a collision with him favorable to the John claimed the right success of the papal designs. vacant. and more irascible and impatient. . helpless condition to Hence. now graciously proposed to mitigate the rigors of his adversities. pended the performance of religious worship in the king's dominions. the pope appointed Cardinal Langston to fill the vacancy. without alliances.234 PAPAL POLITICAL INTBIGUES of John. proceeded to prepare the way for realizing his temporal project by Accordingly he susexercising his spiritual functions. been supported by the cooperation of the papal politiThe See of Canterbury having become cal machinery. and in making this claim seems to have of investiture . and without the means of resistance. .. But the arts of the pope had involved the king in a snare and now having fairly entangled him. Innocent III. endeavor to supersede the necessity of this title by acquiring a legal one. who claim a right to all the world by virtue of their to ofiice. . the wildest disorders were excited the anarchy suspended all law among the people army refused to obey the king's orders his friends deserted him and he found himself without domestics. seeing the which he had reduced John. improved the flattering opportunity which crime and misfortune had presented. political machinery acting in harmony with the maledictions of the pope. This act John resisted as an unjustifiable encroachment on the prerogatives of the crown. .

cerdotal despot." The pope. pursued by craft citing the indignation of his subjects. ] by encroachments on their rights nor restrain him from the perpetration of such unwarrantable acts as created a popular hatred of him. and of the divinely inspired council of the holy father. and pronouncing sentence of excommunication on all who should obey. by which John was bound in future to be governed in the administration of his kingdom. The design of the papal See of reducing England to a state of vassalage. or attempt to enforce the heretical . and absolved him comply with any of the unpleasant concessions which he had made declaring the all obligations to . from Magna Charta antagonistical to the Catholic religion its forbidding the king to observe any of provisions . is nevertheless still mentioned by the Holy See as valid and indisputable. Divested of adherents. But the benefits of the statesmanship. did not prevent him from exambition. was thus consummated by the most execrable tyranny. of Borne. however. the king submitted unconditionally to the terms dictated by the sa- authority. that arose between So violent were the conflicts him and his subjects. benevolently interposed in behalf of the imbecile and overawed prince. arms or alliances.IN ENGLAND. the natural foe of all constitutional guarantees of popular right and liberty. conceived in and cruelty. 2S5 mer if he would cede his kingdom to the Pope and consent to rule it as a vassal of the pope. This empty title to England and Ireland. that in order to save his crown he had to yield to their demand the act of the " Magna Charta. which finally culminated in open resist- ance to his authority. so full of trick and fraud.

so did the barons resolve. yet in changing their policy and practice to suit the variations of time. bishops predicted. they claim to have been endowed with power to change the unchangeable. to reconcile the irreconcilable. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Again the papal macliinery was set in violent operation. abbots schemed. in order to defeat its object. In order. mysteriously. vilIn the lage and house. and as if he were a foreign enemy. until every city. Spies watched. was distracted with alarm. however. firing their dwell- — ing been excited in the minds of the military barons no preparations were made to meet the emergency. midst of the consternation which stupefied the public mind the king. and so suddenly and unexpectedly had John appeared with an army fully equipped for war that no suspicion of such a design hav- butchering his subjects. The popes claim the divine attribute of infallibility. and Philip of France became sovereign of England. place and circumstance. . they seem generally to have descended to the common level of humanity. through the instrumentality of the papal machinery. to tender the crown of the realm to France which proffer being accepted. confessors reported. monks prowled and assassins murdered. suddenly appeared at the head of a formidable army . As suddenly.23ft act. the intrigues of the pope were thwarted. So profoundly secret were the papal machinations carried on. while they profess to have had communicated to them the incommunicable. commenced ings and carrying terror and devastation through his own kingdom. Should a prince resolve to do that which the pope's infallible .and adroitly as King John's army had sprung into existence. priests thundered.

king of Arragon. holiness has declared to be criminal. deeming it prudent to ofi'end so granted his request less sions to be able to change the moral law of But vain are the pope's pretenheaven un- he can also change the natural course of events. Besides this difficulty the contemplated alliance was in violation of the laws of consanguinity. we find an illustration of this policy. On the decease of Arthur. and the thunders of the Vatican. and who was so much his senior. in prince happen to be too powerful to be intimidated. infallible In this attempt to accommodate principle to interest. and the pope. Henry applied to the pope for permission to execute his purposes. in violation of the established laws of the church . so solemnly established by the authority of the infallible church. To silence the objection of his son. desired to marry the widow of Arthur to his next son. who became king of England in 1485.IN ENGLAND. whereby the applicant is empowered to violate all the infallible laws of the church without incurring any of their penalties. with his facilities to ac- commodate all difficulties. grants a dispensation. the king. and too dangerous to be provoked into such delicate cases the pope. The young prince Henry. That sovereign had married Arthur. 237 and should that rebellion. to Catherine. not powerful a potentate. his eldest son. and the laws of the church to the changing . with the view of retaining the opulent Spanish dowery in his family. but fifteen years old. In the reign of Henry VIL. protested against marrying a lady for whom he had no affection. and so terriffically armed with all the terrors of anathemas and excommunication. daughter of Ferdinand.

him opposite courses to ofi'end either would be disastrous he therefore pretended to favor the wishes of Two . and impatient of restraint. and the more scrupulous he became about his The want of male issue. thus inflicted.. Happening to become enamored relations. he began to suspect the legality of his marriage with Catherine and though he had recognized its obligations by a union of twenty years.. his indomitable love of power and dominion often led him to violate the obligations of humanity and impetuous in passion. and interest.238 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES wliim of an avaricious monarcli. . Catherine's nephew. succeeded to the British throne. and to make the forms of justice subservient to the gratification of his ambi- tion of Anne Bolyne. finally applied to the pope for a divorce. Naturally generous. . title of After the death of Henry VII. in order to get rid of the torment chastity. ofltending Charles V. The pope promised to grant his request but the fear of . produced strange vacillation in the mind of the infallible holy powerful and crafty princes dictated to father. and made them so pungent that Henry. he was tempted to annihilate the constitutional restraints which conflicted with his designs. his son. he laid the foundation for the final separation of the kingdom of England from the See of Home. under the Henry VIII. he became at an early period of his life an object of the subtle policy of Rome. Frank and vain. yet the oftener he saw his mistress the stronger became his convictions of the heterodoxy and unlawfulness of his matrimonial . and the disparity of years between him and his wife mingled reflections with these legal and religious scruples.

Discarding the dogma of the pope's temporal power. theology in and the pope. To gratify Charles. 239 Aware of papal artifice. at This prelate who. and enraged Charles V. They these cited the queen to appear before . them . botli. howevi^. he released his subjects from legiance to the See of Rome. with a semblance of and to soothe the impatient prince compliance. efficacy to the manifestos prime enal- gineer lic and placing himself at the head of the Catho- church in England. however. conduct in a drunken who afterwards was made domestic chaplain by Dean. they declared her contumacontroversy becom- By proceedings the ing more embarrassed than before. Archbishop of Canterbury.IN ENGLAND. and who was finally created cardinal by the pope. This act astonished the pope. effected a separation from it. continued to exert considerable indirect influence on all other respects his mind. Henry became The pope appeared to yield. and nullified its temporal authority over his do- minions. Henry peremptorily decided the matter by consummating his marriage with Anne Bolyne. through the medium of Cardinal Wolsey. ob- . overawed give his subjects to The had too much allow the papal machinery to of its much . and to punish Henry. imperious in his demands. while he was a preacher for disorderly Limington was put into the stocks frolic . and less capable of a speedy solution. despotic character of Henry. but a means of procrastination. he commis- sioned Cardinals Wolsey and Campaggio to adjust the difficulty. at the same time. Henry still strictly adhered to the standard of Catholic . she appealed to the pope cious. the holy father proceeded to excommunicate the latter.

and friars When he discovered that the monks were guilty of defending the obnoxious wishing to heresy of the pope's temporal power. and satisfied him that when she had objected to his opinions it was from a desire to become enlightened by his superior knowledge and intelligence. for her committal to the Tower on the charge of heretical opinions but having become secretly apprised of the fact in time she sought the king. but on perceiv- ing these also to be secretly engaged in machinations to restore the pope's temporal authority. formity to the Catholic theology.240- PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES tained sucn unlimited power over the that the pope pensioned mind of Henry keep him in his interest. he visited equal vengeance on those who advocated the pope's temporal authority. It is not a matter of much surprise that Henry's aversion to the reformers. he applied the sequestered funds to the estab- lishment of other similar institutions . Catherine Parr. "While he employed violent means to enforce con. a school teacher. and was executed by . he suppressed their houses . condemned Lambert. for denying the real presence At intervals during his reign he rigorously persecutea the Protestants reformers. his last wife. should have brought so many of to him them to the stake . inflamed by the arts of such a vicious counsellor. barely escaped execution for A having encouraged the warrant had been wrung from the king by the Bishop of AVinchester. nor that the bigotry and intoler- ance of Catholicism should have survived the destruction of its political engine. Even Cardinal Wolsey for treason fell under his suspicion. to death Henry VIII. but not destroy the monastic orders. he abolished the religious orders altogether.

An amorous flame having been kindled in him and in Henrietta Maria. What papal rapaciousness cannot boldly grasp. and in course of time. enactments. of France. spirit. a ruler devoid of statesmen-like abilities. his severity against those who advocated the pope's temporal sovereignty. his order. dissatisfaction. it was stipulated that the union should be consummated. are powerful instruments in the accomplishment of political designs. Catherine for unchastity. discord and blood so eflfected by the cooperation of its adherents. was the pliant instrument of this subtle policy. and children who are presumptive heirs of empires. and eventually interdicted it by positive - To counteract the consequences of this a scheme was projected by papal craft to have the heirs of the throne educated by Catholic mothers. was cruel in the highest degree.IN ENGLAND. secretly plot to and especial objects of papal intrigue. 241 Howard those After he had beheaded his wife. it will Kings who control nations.. without firmness or stability. obtain.. The inveterate opposition to Catholics rendered it in England almost impos. daughter of Henry IV. through the demoralization. the suprem- acy of the pope might be reestablished in England. James I. women who may perhaps control kings. that future kings might rule as Protestants with Catholic proclivities. on condition that the heirs which should issue should be subject to the exclusive control of their mother un- . who on the death of Elizabeth succeeded to the crown of England and Scotland.sible for a Catholic to ascend the throne. and against who denied the Romish theology. and bloated up with fanciful notions of royal prerogatives.

The the old system of prerogatives sunk into contempt.. When in 1625 he ascended tho of Charles English throne. This contract secured a Catholic education to the heirs of the British throne. Hence the Puritans. the Presbyterians and the Independents. could not but enlarge its conceptions of civil and religious liberty. The abolition of papal despotism over the English mind giving freedom to thought and inquiry. yet driven from those whom they had venerated by the hate which persecution engenders.242 til PAPAL POLITICAL INTBIGUES they were thirteen years of age. or whom I. While the people were rapidly advancing in liberal views of religion and government. afflicted the nation during the reigns of Charles and James II. and laid the foundations for the dreadful calamities which II. the heir of the throne to elaborate theological those of Catholicism. who at first questioned only the temporal power of the pope. was too much absorbed in magnifying to study the character of the people over his visionary prerogatives to share in the progress of the age. began fearlessly and candidly to investigate the fundamental principles of faith and practice. and creeds totally different from and vastly superior to them. and new system of representative government became more popular as the mind became more comprehensive in its grasp. and merely advocated a simpler form of worship. and disenthralled from the shackles with which custom and superstition enslaves the mind. who originally were Catholics. under the torrent. title the new order of popular sentiment had become an impetuous Common sagacity might have perceived the ' . he was destined to reign. and more profound in its investigation.

and elated this sacerdotal miscreant that him a cardinal's hat. guise of Protestantism. He next resolved to oblige Scotland to conform by the Church of England had refused to allow him the use of the public funds for that and other purposes. or his conscience to admonish him. controlled and ill-advised by such a counsellor. and patriotic boldness. inevitable destruction that 243 would await him if he should . He maintained that the papal authority had always been visible in the realm. a Catholic under the diswho was the medium of the pope's influence.IN ENGLAND. The religious views and secret designs of this professed Protestant bishop can- not be misunderstood. He furnished the king with a significant names He was of all his Catholic and Protestant subjects. By this impolitic course he to the ritual prescribed as parliament and . and But Archbishop Laud. was led to scorn the rising spirit of its the nation. also the principal actor in the Star Chamber. and Court So well was the pope satisfied of High Co: ""mission. exercised a despotism over the king's mind too absolute to allow his reason to instruct. and to adopt measures for suppression. blinded by his own bigotry. But parliament with prudent foresight. he attempted to raise means for their accomplishment by unconstitutional methods. with self-conceit. attempt to stem the popular tide of thought and prudence would have dictated a practicable compromise of differences rather than the certain alternative of civil war. taught him that the Commons were the constitutional dispensers and guardians of the public treasury. list of the with the orthodoxy of sent he which he declined for the ambiguous reason that the " Church of Rome was no other than it was!" The king.

and the uncompromising hostility against his person and measures which his persecution of non-conking's prerogatives but disgrace .244 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES its and The Scotch formed a league of Covenanters. nor the severity of the Court of High Commission. and so flat- tering to the vanity of the Episcopal royp'dsts. and compared it with the suspicious material of his own den. composed of all classes and factions. produced anything for the and ridicule. was also called into requisition. he prudently concluded terms of pacification. army. But neither the eloquent encomiums lavished on the king's prerogative. nor the atrocities of the Star Chamber. nor to prescribe limits to them. . asserted their To aid the king it in design the royalists extolled his preroga- divine origin. he finally determined to rule without a monarchial power. and of the Court of High Commission. and finding them more disposed than to obey. The terror of the Star Chamber. declared impious and inculcated passive obedience as a Christian virtue and imperative duty. nor the arms of the royal troops. and by a liberal construction of his prerogatives to arrogate consistent with the An object so dogmas of Catholicism. parliament. his despotic tives. for the defence of their religious liberty and as the king viewed their enthusiastic and formidable array. equally betrayed them into acquiescence. with whose strength aroused a lion from fury he could not well cope. Breading the liberalism and inflexibility of the Commons. and inflexible in their refusal to furnish him with the pecuniary aid necessary to the accomplishment of his design. Having frequently called the Commons together in to dictate parliament. any a rebellion excited in Ireland against parliament.

The impetuous tornado of their zeal and wrath swept away all the king's elaborate schemes for the acquisition of monarchial power. build. in whom Catholicism and monarchy had disguised themselves under the semblance of Protestantism. They also adopted every expedient to inflame the public mind. executed Laud and Stafford. he brought his 21* . They attempted to exclude the bishops from the House of Lords. and to make it accessory to their design of reducing the king They denounced the Episand other advocates of the king's prerogatives.MONAECHY. abolished the Star Chamber. Condemned to be the helpless spectator of the destruction of his hopes of absolute power. and usurpation had enabled him to became wild with despair and rage. which art. They so intimidated the royalists of the House that many of them absented themselves from their seats. They restricted the king's prerogatives. yet he by the critical state of public affairs. formists 245 had excited in the majority of them. This parliament proved the memorable "long parliament. pected. he tyranny. in a desperate attempt to retrieve his fortune by asserting in his extremity his empty prerogatives. to unresisting helplessness. and as the king had set the dangerous precedent of liberal construction of law and prerogatives. copalians. to call them together. and the Court of High Commission. and poured upon his unprotected head a pitiless means storm of wrath. and. its embittered and exasperated members opened the session with torrents of scorn and contempt poured on the king and his prerogatives. they availed themselves of the same to justify their measures. passed acts against superstitious practices." As might have been ex- was obliged.

as interest instigated. still. but too two armies he fled from his capitol in terror late the king. The House. By the licentiousness of his court he degraded the moral standing of the British nation in the eyes of the world and of . broke up in disorder the king saw his error. Puritans. the other under parliaarose the one under rest . who. favored or perse- and Republicans. Parliament now resolved to rule without a king as the king had resolved to rule without a parliament. the king lost his crown. he tolerated vice and corruption whenever it administered to his interests. the House of Commons.. from his birth. . was this despotic spirit which desecrated the form of Freedom. in 1660 was crowned King of England. and destitute of honor and generosity. I. predominated in the national councils. intolerant in disposition. mind.246 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Entering precarious condition to an unfortunate close. and the resignation of his appointed successor. and crafty as he was am. bitious . . ment: after several bloody battles. but a secret monarchist as intolerant as he was religious. Cromwell. consequently. he personally attempted to ar- some of its members. he was base as a man. After the termination of his eventful career. and which induced him while he governed England as a protector. .. he was capable of assuming any guise Illiberal in A and supremely selfish. and a plihypocrite able instrument of the papal intrigues. dishonorable as a prince. son of James cuted Catholics. defective in sensibility. and to plot in secret to reestablish her throne. however. Charles II. The spirit of despotism under the form of freedom. Protestants. to seek to govern her as a king. a professed republican. and finally his life.

and reduced the people to slavery in contempt of their hereditary valor and independence. 247 and with a despotic and unprincipled set of measures. he was received with frantic acclamations by conflicting civil and religious sects.. his secret and ulterior designs. The pathway to his elevation to the throne having been prepared by General Monk. or dependent on their power. history.IN ENGLAND. and destroys the foundation of public respect. and without a struggle succeeded to those dangercur prerogatives which had cost the nation so much blood and treasure. and in eventually in such pecuniary embarrassments that he . arrogated power in defiance of constitutional obstructions. by which the Presbyterians were peremptorily driven from their livings. has ever been encouraged in princes or people by the artifice of those whose ambition has plotted to make them subser- vient to their interest. The admonition of past occurrences had induced him to disguise under the cloak of a pacific and accommodating policy. The disgracefulness abhorrent to the of this policy has never been too Roman See to cause it to forego the advantages of its of Charles II. But the specious mask fell from his brow when he passed the intolerent act of non-conformity. which enfeebles the intellectual powers. Profligacy. favor of him the respect and affection of making him more dependent on the His extravagance involved him the pope. troduced into his court. and the safeguards with which they had protected their liberty. ably aided the papal machin- The profligate character and the dissolute manners which he inadoption. ery in alienating from his subjects.

248 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES . which The design of this plot and assassinate the king. he became the unconscious tool of the designs of others. king of France and in consequence became doubly ironed with the papal shackles the king of France forming one set of manacles. the most intense excitement terrific in its seized the public mind. became a pensioner on Louis. as admiral of the navy. and fierce crimand recriminations to which these measures gave rise ment. inations The violent factions. That every thought and action might be discovered in its incipiency. Parliament was . received universal credence. that she induced him to make her a duchess. kept the people in a state of feverish exciteIn the midst of these wild alarms a pretended popish plot was reported to have been discovered. the object of which was to restore the authority of the pope and circumstances lending crediwas said to be to destroy parliament . Thus watched. A secret Catholic faction was supposed to exist in the nation. and was led by which alarm the public mind by forming a disgraceful cabal. bility to the supposition. to concert measures for making himself inde- pendent of parliament. To add to the public aissatisfaction the Duke of York. Strong measures were consequently adopted to remove him from his post. debased and to controlled. openly espoused the cause of Catholicism. the heir presumptive to the throne. he was furnished wdth a French lady to amuse him in his retirement This accomplished but abandoned female obtained such ascendency over his — — mind. the priests of England another and both were equally bound to the interests of the papal monarchy. and eventually to exclude him from the throne.

was muttering destruction over his head.IN ENGLAND. and the king. obtruded in the way of his it acquisition of despotic it power. some desperate spirits were secretly concocting a plot to arrest his atrocious to tyranny. and opposition . to his measures. was arrested. and the people clamorous for vengeance. unfounded Lord Shaftsbury. resolved to get rid of by making the instru- ment bled it of its it own destruction. he employed with much them ness as tyranny. the people became tranquil once more perceiving the formidable but the king which parliament . priests hung. Fortified with this new safeguard to public freeobstacle dom. acquitted. and finding to inflexibly opposed he determined substitute to dispense with it altogether. intimidations to induce to sur- render their charters. the Earl of Stafford was beheaded. prisoned in the Tower and tried for high treason against liberty but Dungeons were overcrowded with subjects no allegation laid. yielded to the popular to avert the storm that filled with consternation. the Duke of York fled from the country in terror. the author of the Habeas Corpus act. he had recourse to gross and charges of plots and conspiracies. power of In order to deplete the ranks of non- Catholics. whom except that of love of But while he was wading through the innocent blood of his subjects to a crown of unlimited monarchy. and his prerogatives in the place of its authority. Lords were arrested. After having assem- severel times for this purpose. im. 249 denunciations. demand the Habeas Corpus act. so that they might be remodelled in accordance with the claims of the absolute his prerogatives. In order base- to reduce the corporations to an absolute dependas ence on his will.

in defiance of parliament and the laws. and but one having appeared. a plausible pretence for gratifying and only gave the king his malignancy against the ablest advocates of constitutional liberty. who had with undaunted firmness maintained the fundamental principle of free government. of course. and the co-operation of the papal machinery. was unThe law requiring two witnesses to substantiate allegations of this nature. of liberty. (although he did not sv. In this manuscript the author expressed a preference for a free to an arbitrary govThe judge deciding that the document ernment. This unsuccessful conspiracy. and he as unreliable as he was promptly received. and con- demned against conclusive proof of his innocence. and that it supplied the want of the other witness required by the law of treason. which could not escape the omniscient eye of the Catholic machinery. Foredoomed. . the infamous Jeffrey summoned into court a manuscript which had been found in the closet of the defend ent. By means of similar unwarrantable proceedings. After he had. proceeded to pass sentence of death on the accused. he was tried by a packed jury.250 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES means of the assassin's dag- career by the deplorable ger. to the eagerness of the king's bloodthirsty revenge.ear it). Alerngon Sidney. was. in suppressing the bold Covenanters. and in amassing almost sufiicient power for the accomplishment of any purpose. was the first victim through this unfortunate affair. discovered before it had matured its plans. the king suc- ceeded in dragooning Scotland into conformity. William Russell. known as the Hhy- house plot. another apostle justly charged with high treason. was a competent witness in his court.

the royal party had gained the ascendency in Scotland. but afterwards openly. While Duke of York he at first in the course of intrigue secretly. As virtue scorns to be the tool of vice. brother of Charles II. and a people whom he had oppressed. and as sycophants are the most pliable instruments of . enabled James II. and the paralyzing dread which cruelty and tyranny had cast over the public mind. Had his conduct during his life Catholicism. openly pro- James to the II. Educated brother. ism. sacrament according to the fessed himself a Catholic. professed the Catholic When. faith. he retired thither and manifested his barbarous ferocity by personally assisting at the torturing of the Covenanters. he had imbibed similar religious and sentiments.. and to se- cure the restoration of Catholicism as the religion of the kingdom. 251 and by means any despot of tyrannical measures and execrable usurpations. in 1685 succeeded throne of like his political England and Scotland. he adopted every expedient that craft could devise to convert his royal prerogatives into monarchial authority. The rapid strides which his brother had made towards the acquisition of absolute power. From the hour he became invested with the royal dignity. and having no further need of deception. and removed him from a throne which he had disgraced. to succeed to the . rendered himself as absolute in power as in Europe. British throne without opposition. death interposed in the midst of his success. and conflict. the last left a doubt of his genuine and hypocritical profession of Protestantmoments of his existence were sufficient to Just before his death he received the rites of the Catholic dispel them.IN ENGLAND.. church.

insolent. this monster in succeeded in casting a deep gloom over tho human form public mind. this for man was ready any work that furnished sufficient blood and plunder. able.252 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES despotism. entered into negotiation with the pope for the reception of England into the papal church. celebrated mass invested with the royal paraphernalia. The chief engineer of the papal machinery —the con- trolling spirit of the king and his councils. governed Scotland and Ireland his creatures. calamitous design he appeared to be making rapid strides though the papal machinery was formidwas another power more formidable still as wily and as secret: which was auietly maturing its . and to bind on his subjects the shackles of papal Towards the final consummation of his despotism. yet there . organized ecclesiastical tribunals to try such clergy as were suspected of holding liberal sentiments. and in annihilating all apparent opposition to the tyrannical proceedure of the king. assumed the power of parlia- ment. Amid the death-like silence which hung on the lips of the people the king threw off his disguise. nullified all test oaths. and cringing creatures stood Judge Jeffrey. and by the arbitrary execution of innocent subjects. and adopted every possible method to subvert civil and religious liberty. By barbarous and inhuman acts. he adopted the policy of investing the most unscrupulous with his base Supreme among official authority. imperious. but. arbitrary and oppressive. committed bishops to the Tower for having remonstrated against the propriety of reading a docu- ment concerning a popish indulgence which he had commanded to be read in all the churches. filled the councils and army with by Catholics.

yet it was but calmly waiting the destined hour. tion seemed to slumber. As he had ruled as a tyrant. and proffered to his subjects all the rights which they had in vain plead for before. William of Orange suddenly appeared on the coast of England with a formidable navy and army. and the peans of his sycophants into howling and lamentations. deceived by the ties and prerogatives.IN ENGLAND. strength for the hour of retribution. and Silent but powerful. and William and Mary proclaimed sovereigns of England and Scotland. and while the pope was congratulating him on his success. Terrified at the sight. the king repealed his unpopular acts. The throne was declared abdicated. as with the stroke of an enchanter's wand. James II. and irreconcilable in the memory of their wrongs. and. changed the calm and brilliant prospects of the king into storms and sights of horror. Edward. and stretching forth his hand to receive the kingdom. of the gentry. he now absconded as a coward.. though this opposiof some lords. After some fruitless attempts to regain his kingdom. when it would arise and annihilate dynas"While the king. at compromise 253 The oppressive measures of the king and the failure of every attempt and conciliation. turned Jesuist. they rejected with scorn and indignation all his generous overtures. treacherous calm. had created a stern mind of the people. was trampling in insolent contempt opposition in the on the people's rights . while sycophantic priests were . was another instrument which the pope 22 . educated at Rome. Conscious of their strength. the Pretender. and passed the remainder of his chaunting his song of triumph life in doing penance. grandson of James I.

yet such was the efficiency of the papal machinery. the tories Under made vigorous efforts for the subjugation of England to the papal dominion. in 1680. This treasonable plot was unanimously supported by the tory party. in the abrogation of the free charters. where ceived a pension. and be ready to repeat their former atrocities in his cause. They were the most strenuous supIn every scheme of oppression porters of Charles II. however. yet the signal victory over his forces at Culloden. w^here. consistent with their historic tradition that they should welcome as allies of the pope the invasion of Edward. therefore. England's vigilance. in the efforts to abolish parliament. in the assumption of despotic prerogatives. defeated Edward's first was more made another in 1745 which Landing secretly in Scotland with but seven trusty officers. but he successful. through the intercession of the king's mistress. adopted to establish his authority over the crown of England. in the banishment of patriots. in 1742. career. in 1746. . they were the bold and unequivocal supporters. It was. the disguise of Protestantism. This faction had ever been a prominent branch of the papal machinery. some important advantages. But the Although he gained contest was short and decisive. that it soon enabled him to command an army which made England tremble. and violence-^in the persecution of dissenters. effectually checked his Despairing of success. he fled to France. he reHe finally returned to Rome.254 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES. attempt. he died of diseases engendered by habits of intem- perance. in the murder of the advocates in every project of the king to of popular freedom — grasp monarchial power.

IN ENGLAND. windto nor dwell upon the important admonitory its sons history furnishes to patriots. so grossly in violation of international law. these we must leave to the reflection of the . that can empover- and impede tioned but few of them. 255 to We have now alluded. ish a nation its progress limits The but we have menwe have prescribed to this work will not allow us to trace the wily all its secret and les- deadly serpent of papal intrigue in ings. : and mankind reader. to rulers. and of all . and which have been so prolific of treason. in this chapter some of those popish intermeddlings in the political concerns of England. of popular insurrection. of civil war.

CHAPTER XIII. of Charles IX. and the Belgia Secunda . Clovis submitted to be baptized by St. and him the religion of Catholicism were better able to aid in completing his intended conquests than were God and religious contrivances of Paganism. the Eoman governor at Soissons . who succeeded his father Childeric. neice of Clotilda. the I—of Francis II— of Louis Capet— of Philip XIII. became in their hands an instrument for the converConceiving that the God sion of her royal husband. Remigius. The crimes and devo- . and anointed with some holy oil which the bishop affirmed had been brought by a dove from heaven. in 481. AUemanni esGundebald.— The subtile poison of Catholicism was instilled into the French government under the reign of Clovis. he made war upon Syagrius. who had been educated by the Catholic priests. King of the Franks.—of Henry IV. to obtain assistance in conquering the poused Clotilda. Papal Intrigues in France during Reign of Clovis —of — of Pepin—of Charlemagne—of Sugh Childeric III. which was confined within the sea and the Scheldt. captured and put him to death cities of subjugated Paris. and .— of Louis XII—of Francis —of Louis XIV. IV. PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIGUES IN FRANCE. King of Burgundy. Aspiring to extend the territory of his kingdom. the Great.

he imbibed also their hatred to the heretics. A white hart of singular statue and brilliancy became the conductor of his army through secret passes. in the cause of the church. " to see the Arians still possess the fairest portions of Gaul. were rewarded with numberless miracles and instances of divine interposition. the masters of the With this end in view he had scattered his 22* . 257 tion of the king. a dazzling meteor forces blazed forth as his Poitiers. bowed in abject reverence before the clergy. the princes of the different Prankish tribes. and. After having removed. approached the cathedral at and the walls of Angouleme fell down at the blast of his war- like bugle. in consideration of his piety and usefulness. He summoned and ." His savage piety led him to declare that had he been at the trial of Christ he would have prevented his crucifixion. the pope of Rome. by violence or treachery. we will possess and divide their fertile provinces. become the successor of the Caesars. and committed the most fiendish and heartrending atrocities. " It grieves me. Let us march against them with the aid of God tics ." said he to a company of princes and warriors assembled at Paris.IN FRANCE. he humble successor was secretly laboring to world. stained the soil with the blood of its proprietors and defenders. dismissed a council of Gaulic and then deliberately assassinated all the princes belonging to his family. having vanquished the here-. Peter. incorporated their government into his bishops own." While the pope professed to be the of St. the fisherman. Imbibing the orthodoxy of the bishops. bestowed upon him the title of " The most Christian King and Eldest Son of the Church.

The support which these doctrines gave to despotism rendered them acceptable to kings. eagerly watched every opportunity to set them in motion in favor of their cherished design. and the spies upon the most secret The avaricious character of their religious principles enabled them by to accept with- out scruple the spoils of plundering expeditions. an heir to a throne. of reverence for the monks clergy. stores of their wealth artful tricks and The success of their missionary rapacity enabled them to build spacious convents. sufficiently sumptuous for the accommodation of pious kings who wished to abdicate their thrones. dence. with their usual skill and pru. jealousy. The arts and miracles of the holy brotherhood excited the wonder. of passive and of absolute submission to himself. the confessors of all classes. and the conveniency with which they supplied the want of morality made them popular with the multitude. or the refugee from oppression.258 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES througliout Europe to preach the doctrines of obedience. different sections of Europe. and to augment the pious frauds. The dungeons of these sanctuaries sometimes contained a monarch. ambition or tyranny had there confined and sometimes their halls afforded a hospitable asylum for the sick. recesses of their thoughts. established the various parts of their political and sanctiand people. the instructors of princes. the indigent. and commanded the reverence of the crowd and their tact and sycophancy enabled them to become the com. humility. The Saracens^ however. fied machinery in them in the eyes of princes . or some distinguished personage whom usurpation. panions of kings. The popes having.

The pope entertained a better opinion of his son Carloman. — — tions. was doomed to the flames of hell on account of his sacrilege. the King of France. life to God by shutting "himself up in a convent and to give all his private possessions and valuables to the church. and that upon opening his coffin a strong odor of fire and brimstone had been perceived. ing the regal authority of his office. The inspired synod. checked the career of their had applied the riches of the church to the necessities of the state and the relief of his soldiers. entered Europe. but the hammer tri- Mayor But of France.IN FRANCE. while exercisas the warrior umphant arms. Pepin consulted Pope Zachary about his inten- by Pepin. the Short. was induced by his . The design which prompted this intrigue seems to have been. who replied: "He only ought to be king who . in arriving at this orthodox conclusion was assisted by the reported facts. who was but a youth by fear of Carloman. and of Christianity. spiritual advisers to resign his dignity to consecrate the remainder of his . to prepar the way for the usurpation of the crown of the Franks. whose superstition strikingly resembled the malady of insanity. that a saint while dreaming had seen the soul of the savior of Europe. The pope well knew Pepin was ambitious of the diadem. and had only been deterred from supplanting Childeric III. which alone crushed 375. This Mayor of France.000 of the invaders. This obstacle being removed by the retirement of the devout warrior.. burning in hell. it to 259 the Mahomet . and threatened to subjugate authority of the religion of of Charles Martel. a synod of Catholic bishops declared that the man who had saved the Catholic church from extinction.

Charlemagne. Terms being satisfactorily arranged between the two parties. in which he was obliged to pass the remainder of his life. having succeeded to the . conquered the Exarchate. The critical state of the Holy See soon developed the sagacity and good policy of the pope. Oppressed with these misfortunes. made him apprehensive if He therefore signified to the supplicant a willingness to comply with his wishes. The Lombards entered Italy. and anoint them which the dove had brought from heaven. pope and Pepin„ by these artbecame deeply interwoven. The tricks." sanction of prospective treason and usurpation. interests of the The the holy father appeared in the in camp of Pepin. dressed mourning and covered with ashes.:260 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Encouraged by abolished. office of Ilaia du Palais himself pro- claimed King of France.. and of the Consulate government of Rome. sophistry. the pope was disposed to try the efficacy of the sword. Pepin's son. and eloquence of the monks having failed to convert the Saxons to the church. this papal lie •exercised the royal power.Frankish throne.more ready to speculate on the misfortunes of the pope . officially sanction all he would the acts of usurpation of which he had been crown his two sons.than to assist him in his distress. But Pepin was . and threatened the reduction of Rome. and Childeric imprisoned in a monastic dungeon. with the holy oil the greater part of Italy. The cruelties which stained the usurper's crown of insecurity. soliciting the assistance of his arms in the defence of the church. had the . and papal influence having gained the . Pepin drew his sword and reconquered guilty. ful machinations.

and fellow countrymen. they defended the integrity of their empire their arms. is averred. their choice. their proud spirit gave a desperate valor to maintenance of their rights of Against superior numbers. full of the love of independence and of liberty and when the alternative of extinction or Catholicism was presented to . the country confor thirty-three years . and had not their chief advised would rather have suffered extermination than to have submitted to a religion baptized in blood. . but the religion and policy of the pope triumphed not until the land was depopulated. But the Saxons were courageous warriors. and left him dead on the ground. lie was without difficulty tempted to unfurl his banner in the cause of the church. as- saulted the chosen vicar of Christ. restored his eyes and tongue. having been disappointed by theunexpected election of Leo III. 261 ascendency in his councils. his exasperated adheropulent bishopric of ents attacked the sacred procession on the occasion. to the contrary. and the cost of subjugation out- balanced the value of the victory. as it is alleged. inter- posed in his behalf. The competition between aspiring candidates for the Rome had often been productive The favorite and intended of turmoil and bloodshed.. in the existence and of religious liberty. dug out his eyes. successor of Adrian I. verted into a desert. it life. and. founded upon fraud and treachery. But a miracle. and forced upon their acceptance against their reason and conscience. cut out his tongue. and by a sword reeking with the blood of their The arms of Charlemagne. and enabled him by gaining the to escape a repetition of the outrage invisible precincts of the Vatican. .:: IN FRANCE.

oked the temporal aid of the of the friendly interposition favor. The barbarity and usurpations of which Charlemagne was guilty. naturally made him suspicious of the loyalty of his . to divert his capricious fancy with numberless mistresses. to prolong the celibacy of his daughters that might extend the period of an illicit commerce. Agreeably to this oath he entrusted the clergy with temporal and expended more on cost useful undertakings. anointed him with the holy oil which the dove had conveyed from Paraadise. of Spoleto. and pronounced him the pious Csesar crow^ned by God. The emperor who. and to become the father of numerous illegitimate children. in atonement for his indiscretions. whom. in the enlargement of his vast empire. and labor in the construction of cathedrals than indulgence of the pope enabled the emperor. he it consecrated to the priesthood. a visit of Charlemagne to Rome. professing to have been aston- On ished at the pope's singular conduct. civil jurisdiction. and as the demons of the air had admonished the payment of tithes he enforced their The favor and liberal exaction with extreme rigor. the pope abruptly crowned him with a diadem. nevertheless took an oath to preserve the faith and privileges of the church. after these events.262 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES After having received this assistance from heaven he inv. and Charlemagne in his these secular princes he Duke of By the influence of was enabled tors to ascend the sacerdotal throne. invested him with the regalia of the Caesars. consistently with his Catholicism to enjoy the possession of nine wives. and to ex- ercise his spiritual authority in banishing his competi- and their adherents. however.

and passing the remainder of his days in a political monastic dungeon. machinery. and as these dis- . But this arrange- ment excluding wife —from an in his eldest son —the issue of a divorced equal participation with his brothers in the administration of the government. but endangered with so crime. to obtain ity was. in substituting superstition in the place of justice in his efforts to conciliate popular dissatisfaction. it AVhile it lent a prop to the governmental structure. he Dividing the empire between two of had them crowned and anointed with the celestial oil. for furnished an instrument undermining its foundation.IN FRANCE. in expectation that these superstitious cere- monies would excite in the minds of his subjects such reverence for the imperial dignity as would secure in its favor their devout allegiance. 263 and the frequent outbursts wbicb disturbed stability of his throne. after Charlemagne's death. subjects . to fraternal disputes and civil conflicts . excited rebel against the authority of his father. him to His attempt by arms the justice denied by parental author- consequence of the loyalty of the papal . he imprudently scorned the much wisdom of adopting concessionary measures. unsuccessful and the injured son was obliged to expiate the guilt of his unfilial insubordination by serving the church in the capacity of a monk. and had recourse to the artifices of priestcraft. the peace of certain sections excited his most painful fears for the To prevent the disorganization of a power which he had constructed with so much labor. This conspiracy was not the only result that was produced by the policy of Charlemagne. The division of the monarchy gave occasion. his sons.

accorded by treachery.264? PAPAL POLItlGAi: INTRIGUES orders favored the pope's ambitious desire to succeed to the crown and dominion of the Caesars. "With these popular grievances the temper and disposition of Charles en- gaged his warmest sympathies. to power. Duke survivor of the Carlovingian dynasty was The subjects of the realm of Lorraine. Pope John XVI. retired to Lyons. and after spiracy Charles found himself powerless making some demonstrations against the usurper. With great skill and energy. and anointed with the holy oil. however. but without any flattering success. The bishop . they were kept active by his machinery until the empire was disinte- grated. induced the Frankish nobility to proclaim phantic papal favorite could be But before this sycocrowned king. as well as with the impoverishing exactions which they extorted from their industry. of the city having entered into secret negotiations with Capet. he was obliged to swear to preserve the clergy in all the privileges and immuniAgainst this formidable conties which they enjoyed. and . and changing dynasties to suit its purposes. at that period had become greatly dissatisfied concerning the oppressive privileges which the clergy enjoyed. perceiving that the heir presumptive to the throne would. The last Charles. the gates were thrown open at midnight. Hugh Capet King of France. The success which valor denied was. which place was capable of withstanding a vigorous siege. in making rulers its tools. his adversary assailed the strong-built fortifications. listen to elected in 986. when he acceded the complaints and lessen the burdens of his subjects and acting on the historic motive of the Holy See..

and by the exercise of his sacred authority. that in order to control the one. married Bertha. to act . papal intrigue has constantly intermeddled with the other. Pope Sylvester 11. embittered the re- mainder of their existence. independent of the consent of the governed. Robert II. thus founded in fraud. a lady of inestimable qualities. and unsupported by a shadow of legal right. surprised Charles bed and threw him into prison. from which he was The Capitian dynasty. his cousin.. and to declare his children bastards. vine right to rule by virtue of their descent. or their diin never liberated. stands forth in history as the grand champion of the legitimacy of kings. 265 the usurper entering the precincts amid the stillness of the hour captured the royal family. pronounced the conjugal union illegal. The royal pair were a model of connubial loveliness and felicity but when an heir had completed the . violence and usurpation. The dynasties of empires and the political events of nations are so intimately connected with the domestic affairs of royal families. and commanded the king to abandon his wife. w^ho became king of France in 997. But the obdurate and savage-hearted holy father. spurn his lawful wife as vows and obligations a prostitute. in order to reduce the king to obedience pro23 . whom the view of no misfortune could move. perfection of their happiness the pope interfered. To be guilty of an offence of such a henious character against the most amiable of in violation of all his matrimonial to women .IN FRANCE. was a complication of iniquity which Robert declared to the pope that he would rather die than commit. Eobert not having purchased of the church an indulgence for marrying a cousin.

This act was designed to call into requisition all the appliances of the pope's machinery in blasting the happiness of two persons. and perhaps unsurpassed in the records of history. and taking the viands from the royal table dashed them into the fire. The charters which the subjects had obtained from their princes secured them in the enjoyment of many important civil rights. had given birth to a monster. through the repeated requests of Bertha. This act. At length. shrouded in black . now fled at her approach her domestics broke the costly vases which adorned the palace. saints the bells were tolled night and day religious worship was suspended in the kingdom and no funeral ceremony allowed to be performed. . Consternation seized the populace and priests. whose worth was unequaled in the kingdom. . courtiers and people fled alike from the sight of the amiable couple.266 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES ceeded ta pronounce a sentence of excommunication against him. Kobert agreed to a separation. who became king of France in 1180. he placed his wife at the mercy of licentious conciliated the vengeance of the sacerdotal monster. by which priests. which had the head of a savage and the tail of a serpent the poor. . fortified by such jealous guards as effectually protected them against the encroachments of exe- . the province of Languedoc enjoyed an eminent degree of liberty and prosperity. Accordingly the churches were draped in mourning the picures of the images of the . destructive monsters. and allowed her to retire to a convent. . The immaculate Bertha was declared polluted .. as if they were stories w^ere circulated that she . on whom she had been accustomed to bestow charity. During the reign of Philip II.

for the purpose of exterminating the reformers and This authorized desperado. Count of Toulouse. had declared in favor of the reformer. in spite of the vigorous counteracting efl'orts of his appliances of bishops. Count of Beziers. The butchery was frightful. the Count of Toulouse refuse to oblige the pope by taking up arms against the Count of Beziers. youth and infant. excommunication In addition to this insulting manifesto.. woman. through the energetic co-operation of the pope's political machinery. which received the appellation of The pope finding this sectary increasthe Albigenses. soon collected a numerous army of crusaders and imtheir allies. and mixed with the most . At the flourishing city of Albi these progressive ideas assumed a definite shape in an organization of the people. to change their religious views. and to put to death every man. posing on them a horrible oath that they would exter- minate the Albigenses without pity for the cries or tears of their wives or children. he commissioned his legate to raise an army of the cross. ordered Raymond VI. ing in numbers and popularity. against him. . 267 This liberality in their political consti- tution encouraged liberality in religious inquiry. by force of arms. nephew of Raymond VI. As Raymond of Rogers. which consequently led to doubts of the pope's right to tem- poral power. As this army of mur- derers approached the city of Carcassonne. On account of this determination.. an order was given not to leave one stone upon another. immediately commenced the work of blood and devastation. cutive power. priests and monks.IN FRANCE. delicate sense of and the pope pronounced dictated by a high sentence of duty and honor. to compel the Albigenses.

until 1226. when a^peace was concluded with Raymond IV. Caros- sonne fell . sex or As an express creed. its and rendered it a calamity to His son succeeded him blood-stained occupant. nor did the nage cease until the inhabitants of almost every town in Languedoc. With execrable treachery the legate pretended to be willing to negotiate but no sooner had he betrayed the Count into his . who con- stantly shook the throne. where After chil- he died after experiencing years of suffering. will " Kill on. . without distinction of age. was prolific of formidable avengers. blood flowed at every at Beziers car- sixty thousand were put to death. Raymond by this base treachery.. it against the uprising of was incorporated into the French empire but still the war raged. But the soil sown with the bones of heroes." replied the holy legate. that among the crowd they could not distinguish the heretic from the Catholic. reward to Simon de Monfort for having surpassed all others in hardihood and cruelty on those days of blood. The murderous army step . the chiefs of the army of the cross declared to the legate." . PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES To arrest the horrible work Raymond of Rogers offered to resign his authority. women and its dren were butchered in one day. were weltering in their gore. " God hnow moved on those which are his. the pope bestowed upon him the devastated domains as a fief of the church. and ceding the greater portion of his domains to France. it but not being able to defend the people. or disgusted at Tired of the terrible atrociousness.268 fiendish acts. carnage. and thirty thousand men. power than he incarcerated him the removal of in a dungeon. upon condition of his purchasing absolution at an enormous price. and enriched with the blood of patriots.

in introduc- ing the "third estates. and from a faction of the priests.. in extracting the life-blood from the in- had weakened popular attachment to The liberality of the king nullified the virtue of the Vatican thunder and the generous support which he commanded from the people. of France. wishing to enjoy the advantage of dictating the terms of adjustment. The irascible pope." or deputies of the peojDle. affairs of This officious intermeddling in the a sovereign state was resisted by Philip with patriotic firmness. which had been instituted by Charlemagne. and his at the recollection of his liberal governmental all religious views and measures. and Edward L. A dispute having sprung up between Philip IV. while the papal him establishments. Among the privileges which the popes arrogated was the right to arbitrate the contro- which arose between independent sovereignties. the despotism. of and more versies to its influence. Pope Boniface VIII. transjDorted with rage at the irreverence and independence of Philip. arbitrarily attempted to interfere in the controversy. . ascended the throne of Eome had perpetually encroached on the rights of the sovereignty of the government. enabled him to resist the intermeddling of the pope with the rights of the crown nay more. but discontinued by in his Hugh of Capet. when Philip IV. of England. means But the policy of Philip. and by an insidious policy subjected it more France. .IN FRANCE. .. interdicted worship in dominions. the Holy See. as the tyranny of the holy father had ren23* dustrial classes. had fortified in the affections of his subjects. and extending the jurisdiction parliament over the crowned heals. 269 In 1285. and suspended the dispensation of the of grace.

elevated the literary standard of the nation by the introduction baric nations. with the expectation of certain degradation. and having refused all sustenance in confinement for fear of being poisoned. cy of a prince whom and who was capable of taking revenge. which would have disgraced the chiefs of barLouis. emissaries were sent to Eome who. dered him unpopular in Italy.270 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES it placed him at the merhe had insulted and exasperated. " he entered like a reigned like a tiger.. by theologians according to their different creeds but Dante. he was. pardoned the wrongs which had been done to him while he was duke. fox. shortly afterwards released hut as his character was black with crime. During the reign of Louis XII. and he died in a paroxysm of rage and fear before arrangements could be completed for his trial. chagrined and mortified at the loss of his dignity and the insults to his holiness. places him in hell between Pope Nicholas III. it was determined Depressed to summon a council for his deposition. however. dragged him from his despotic throne. relieved the industry of his subjects by reducing the burden of their taxation. his constitution broke down. From this ignominious predicament . According to Catholic authority. upon receiving the royal diadem. the duplicity and treachery which has in general characterized the history of the papal in- trigues obtained an illustration in the conduct of the popes." His condition after his death may be variously conjectured . and died like a dog. who was a Catholic. and cast him into prison. . who became King of France in 1498. and Pope Clement V. seizing the holy father while he was defiantly seated in ihe apostolic chair. Accordingly.

The form- idable valor of the Venitian republicans in the defence of their government. allies. and of inducing that republic to unite with him in a league with Spain. which he engineered of the pope.IN FRANCE. a holy league. before his election. called the " League of Cambray. too for sincere friendship. Germany and France then called a council at Pisa. against France. Louis fought with distinguished bravery in the pope's cause. his ambition led him to grasp at another object which he conceived Louis's friendship might be made That object was the obliteraaccessory in realizing. the mutual distrust excite. for the accomplishment of his object. had professed the warmest friendship for Louis. Spain and Germany. He accordingly formed tion of the Venitian republic. selfish who was too jealous not to hate superiority. of scientific disposition. among the and the conflicting interpretations" of the terms of the compact But the finesse eventually dissolved the holy league. His heroism won encomiums from all but from the holy father. Pope Julius II. and the adroitness with which they managed to his machinery. Faithful to his obligations. difficulties gave him the ability to conciliate his with the republicans." with France. England and Switzerland. and displayed a n-oMeness of and a capacity for the exercise of the gov- ernmental functions prophetic of the highest degree of national prosperity and greatness. and secured his influence in gaining the sacerdotal crown. for reforma- . Having succeeded in this strategic measure. and too sagacious not to perceive that in the further developments of his aggressive designs he was bound to encounter in the heroism and honor of Louis a powerful antagonist. 271 collections.

and the Pyrenees. which he inherited from his grandmother. and unpatriotic Catholics. . entered into a and pretended to favor all his But while he was flattering his hopes. he was preparing to ruin his cause. saulted by the English at Guingate. To weaken his resources he secretly sent Bambo. he increased his finally power by the purchase of Modena. while his kingdom was internally convulsed by treacherous priests. to Venice to detach its alliance from France and though this treacherous mission was unsuccessful. But scorning the mandate of the synod. by the Spanish at Navarre. appeared on the confines of Italy. and reduced Louis to a formal submission. and body of the church at the bar which they summoned the pope. by the Swiss at Dijon.. and interdicted the celebration of Louis was now asreligious worship in his kingdom. governed by motives of nepotism and ambition. to explain his conduct. . order to secure the confidence of Louis. in the mutual friendship of the projectors. concocted a scheme for obtaining for his family the kingdom of Naples and At the same time the duchies of Ferrara and Urbino. excommunicated him. Valentina Visconti. Pope Leo X. The success of these schemes depended on The pope. he had to surrendered all his possessions beyond the Alps tion in the head of . to contend against these formidable antagonists. he convened a council at the Lateran and causing a decree to be passed declaring Louis to have forfeited his crown.272 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES .. who succeeded Julius II. false friends. Louis entertained a design of reconquering Milan. his legate. yet when the French secret alliance with him. crafty Unable spies. plans.

But the Holy See.IN FRANCE. dence Francis concluded a concordat with him. which league was afterwards joined by Henry VIIL. an alliance with Milan. the emperor cap- — — tured Francis. After this signal and generous triumph the belligerant powers became reconciled... and the surprise of the or superstition of world. that it might improve the consequent confusion and disorder in aggrandizing its power. and to ransom himself by the payment of 2. Florence. ascended the throne.000 . Asti. the pope yet the pruwas reduced to the last extremity . Artois. France recovered Milan. which had cost France so much to win. Flanders and Artois. Germany and In 1515 Francis bloody battle ensued in which tigers and giants seemed to struggle with each other. upon such liberal terms as excited the dissatisfaction of France. Milan. This event was hailed by the friends of humanity with united acclamations. Emperor This prince having of Germany and King of Spain. obliged him to relinquish his claims to Naples. But Milan. and which was protracted without intermission for two Switzerland. formed a league with Pope Leo X. was soon lost by the conquest of Charles V. and immedicommenced preparations for the re-conquest of Pope Leo X. to dismember his kingdom by surrendering Burgundy. of England After a war of four disastrous years.. whose policy has ever been to foster wars and controversies between governments. against Francis I. A days and nights. to defeat this enterprise formed Milan.000. 273 ately I. active hostilities were soon commenced. Genoa. received the news of pacification with chagrin and disappointment.

to arrest the dangerous of his umphs new rival.. led This circumstance led to the of Francis. allies succeeded in humbling the pride of Charles but in the midst of more fearful than their foes. able conflicts. united in an alliance with.. who. Holy See. with fearful mortality. the . and the most deplorThe French nation was divided into . But the ambition and his indomitable thirst for the reconquest of Milan. the rapid progress of Protestantism and the fearless boldness of its advocates. two great factions the one in favor of Catholicism. the jealous fears of the holy father. Confed- erating with pire. Amid the flattering successes of the papal intrigues. Pope Clement VII. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES The popularity and victorious marcli of the German emperor now alarmed them with his I. broke out in the French army. succeeded to the crown of France. apprehending in own subjugation. massacres. and thinned its ranks their victories a plague.. it counselled the most sanguinary measures. Solyman Sultan of the Ottoman em- The interest forces. son of Francis I. The . and tri- the Italian powers. interposed his friendly mediation. soon him to violate the terms of this covenant. peace of Cambray. and perhaps in the event of the trihe drove Charles before his umph of Charles not perfectly secure. assassinations. In 1559 Francis II. II. Scorning the mild but able services of reason and conciliation.. Pope Paul III. The records occasioned great uneasiness to the of the times are consequently filled with accounts of disorders. in Europe.274 crowns. Holy See being threatened by the successes of of the the allied army. Francis all the former antagonist of the Roman See. and induced the belligerents to conclude a truce of ten years..

was perilous to the soul that rendered a person a proper object of aversion and denunciation and. monks and the Catholics were made to believe that the relig- ious disorders which had convulsed the empire were but a prelude to an intended extermination of all Bomanists. subversive of Christianity. and destructive of the rights of conscience. educated in the principles of bigotry and intolerance. enabled to inflict and. Duke of Guise. believed that Catholicism was of escaping the pangs of purgatory. to the credit of the Protestants on the Protestants the deeper injuries it will ever be re. embittered against each other by mutual provocations and injury. were concession. spies. on the other hand. The Cardinal of Lorraine. 275 By means priests. membered. demoralizing in its tendency. To narrow-minded bigots. nursed amid convulsions and barbarity. factions had been eduit cated in intolerent principles in the belief that error . became equally heated in the defence of their faith. were incapable of pacification by just and reasonable The Catholics. having the power. that a difference of opinion was a sufEcient justifiBoth factions being cation of hatred and persecution. all the zeal and of obwhich their hopes and fears of eternity could inspire was awakened in the defence of their religion. of the papal machinery of bishops. of opinion Both . to exterminate their but to obtain equal rights with them. abbots.IN FRANCE. the uncle of the . who absurdly believed that their church afforded the only possible method taining eternal happiness. reason and religious liberty. who had supervision of the clergy. and Henry. While the Protestants who. idolatry. other in favor of Protestantism. that they sought not foes.

. or removed an obstacle to her ambition. With this . united with the Calvinists for the overthrow of the regime. In the midst of the distraction of conflicting parties Francis I. were both uncompromising in their hostility to the Protestants. of Guise. and to divert their attention affairs. she was incapable of either originating a great national object. she was ready to support any faction or creed that ad- ministered to her power.. Without profound views of policy. it disqualified her for She even studied to incapacitate from the state of national end in view she involved them in her sons for the exercise of the governmental functions. King of Navarre. Louis was captured and condemned to death. Although a bigoted Catholic. yet having no principle but the love of sway. in 1560. Catherine de Medici. Catherine de Medici. mother of the hing. succeeded to the throne at the age of ten years. Prince of Conde. his mother. w^hich led to a murderous onslaught. and Charles IX. Antony of Bourbon. and employed her art in stimulating the opposiniece of tion of the reformers to the administration of the Duke Under these circumstances a conspiracy against the duke was formed at Amboise. was her passion for dominion. jealous of a power in which she could not participate. or of supporting it by adequate measures.276 king. and inaugurated civil war. died. favored the designs of Louis. with the acquiesence of parliament. being excluded from the gov- ernmental administration. admin- istered the affairs of government. and his brother Louis. and Pope Clement VII. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES who directed tlie military affairs. that it So indomitas able much ob- durated her maternal feelings as a judicious regent. under pretext of religious zeal.

pursued the Protestants with his cru- pitiless revenge. The Protestant faction. At a season of intense public excitement the Duke of Guise. redeem her pledges and in spite of the opposition of the court. and the land was drenched with with fearful retribution. the flames of civil nited. elties and the Protestants retaliated Desperate conflicts perpetually took place. Duke of Guise. headed by the Prince of Conde. in which sixty Calvinists were killed. the art of Perfect in dissimulation. confusion but to conciliate the Protestants she had to . The lines of party became now distinctly drawn. the grossest dissipation. she cajoled Catholics and Protestants. was assisted by the English and the Catholic faction. to issue an act of toleration in their favor. admiral of France. was assisted by Spain. hostile conflicts of the two religious parties. its centre. at the head of his forces. and Coligny. war igand the empire divided and distracted by the The duke. Calvinists were singing psalms. Anxious to obtain the support of all par- To she alternately favored the one and the other. This exasperating conduct brought on a collision. ties. The bigotry of both factions stained their cause with deplorable excesses. Dreux the The The Duke of Guise designing to crush Protestantism by Btriking a blow at Orleans. and Conde captured. with a band of adherents. headed by Francis. and strove to keep 277 them in a perpetual whirl of voluptuous intoxication. Protestants were defeated. commenced ac24 At the battle of . Irritating taunts were mutually exchanged between the two parties. was passing a barn in which some .nr pitANCE. belligerents came to a decisive engagement. blood. embarrass the Duke of Guise she threw everything into .

the stipulations of the treaty of ists still Dennis. her control. and the suspicion and fervor of Protestantism. . Aspiring to rule with more absolute power than she had hitherto been able. Civil war consequently broke out. Protestants . a prominent Catholic artifice leader being killed. made a tour through the empire in company with him. The losses were heavy on both sides cluded. the Calvin- continued to hold places which they had concorrespondence tracted to surrender. which they had agreed to . whom she heM helplessly under This accomplished. wife of Philip II. soon convulsed the nation again with the disorders of civil war. Dennis. Contrary to St. A severe and bloody engage- ment took place at St. tranquillity was restored to the empire. tive preparations for tlie enterprise but while lie was engaged in them he was shot by Poltrot de Mercy. The arts of Catherine. the intolerance of Catholicism. The susshe picions of the Calvinists were immediately excited they precipitately armed themselves for defence. and formed a conspiracy to assassinate the king. another treaty of peace was con- But the and dissimulation of Catherine only made treaties w^hich contained the elements of fu- ture wars. terms of conciliation were accordingly offered the Protestants. but Montmorency. They satisfied neither the Catholics nor the and were evaded by both. Catherine conceived the idea of having the king.278 PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIGUES . and to continue with England and Holland. a Huguenot nobleman. which being accepted.. At Bayonne the young king had an interview with his sister. declared to be of competent age for the exercise of the royal functions. Advising peace in his last moments. King of Spain.

after the death of her husband. that they were unconditionally accepted. in conjunction with Philip King of Spain. Amid these discomfitures of the Protestants a peace was offered them on terms of such extraordinary generosity by the Catholics. and of placing him in the Elizabeth. however. at the head of a Protestant army. provoked of Anjou. Beam. Conde's son. when he was but sixteen years old. Guises. conspiracy in time to frustrate this base In consequence of machination. At the battle of Jarnac. kingdom and religion. and Admiral Coligny headed the Protestant faction. together with these circumstances. The inflammable material religious bigotry.. afterwards another intestine war. detected this it. retired from the In French court nots.IN FRANCE. murder. on hearing of his father's death swore to revenge cluded rendered him destitute of means and arms. in order to avoid the intrigues to of Catherine. The sagacity of Queen of England.. and at the battle of Montcontour and Coligny was defeated. III. Henry his of Navarre.. but the peace which had just been conHis mother. her hereditary possessions. subsequently Henry IV. and caused him to take an oath to shed the of his last drop of his blood in the defence . had. this retreat she declared herself in favor of the Hugue- When her son was but eleven years old the II. Conde. 279 of break off. Queen Jeanne d'Albert placed her son Henry. Queen Jeanne d'Albret. hands of the latter tyrant. commanded Catholic faction . Conde was captured and shot. devised a plot for depriving the young prince of his hereditary possessions in lower Navarre. The Buke the Henry Conde. King of Navarre. .

"280 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Guise. for commencing the horrible butch- Wild shrieks and murderous clamor immediately . that the it with suspicion. at midnight of the day fixed. daughter of Maximilian II. in collusion with this ambitious and bigoted duke. The peace which had been concluded with the Protestants at Jarnac and Montcontour was but the preliminary measure in the accomplishment of this horrible project. more cautious Protestants reThe next device in this insid- was a specious pretence of uniting all parties and harmony by the bonds of two marriages. and Elizabeth. in interest guished Protestant leaders were earnestly invited to be present at the celebration of the royal nuptials. His mother assured him Coligny had the same designs on his life. declined the the Amid the magnificence and festivity of Queen Jeanne d' Albert was poisoned.. Bursting into rage he exclaimed : " Kill every Protestant — kill Coligny. the queen's sister. The king swore to punish the villain w^ho had attempted the assassination." Catherine then held her council of blood. All having been concerted for a general massacre. son of Francis Guise. the church bells an- nounced the signal ery. The terms it accorded were so surprisingly advantageous to the con- quered garded forces. the one between the king. however. Henry Duke of Lorraine. The bloody all Catherine. Prince of Navarre. occasion many of them. and Henry. and the other between Margaret. concocted a plot for the total extermination of the Protestants in the French empire. Shortly after Coligny was wounded by a shot from a window. All the distinious plot. Charles IX. Emperor of Germany. became the commander of the royal army. Fearing treachery honor. on Bartholomew's eve..

Meeting even babes. it is shook the rine's it air. terrific yells and screams that filled the air. Doors were burst open . and seeing the assassins overcome by humanity denounced them as traitors to Catherine. were seen daggers dripping with the blood of men.IN FRANCE. you. ciation one of them averting it his head. it is Cathe- is the king's order. women. who had waited in the court for Coligny's head. arose from his bed and opened the door of his mansion. At this denun. women assassinated night . 281 God's. and the courage of all dissolved into tears. yet take My life is of little conseit quence. the commander of the gang. . majestic countenance. Besme. flight he courteously invited them into his "Companions. knees one of them threw away his dagger another embraced the knees of his intended victim. In the red glare of terrifying flambeaux." shouted the Catholic leaders as they led on their gangs of remorseless bigots. becoming impatient entered the chamber. Take the blood sixty years of war have respected the assassins. the ruffians and his upon their . drew his sword For thirty days every part of the kingdom the most atrocious acts men and and day babes torn from their mother's arms were murdered before their parents' eyes. Over this dreadful calamity the friends and foes of France might have together wept. but Rome was 24* were perpetrated. Coligny will forgive you. chamber. and though I would rather lose it. fell calm. and The people without means of defence or saw they were doomed to perish without mercy Coligny awakened from his sleep by the or revenge. '* Spare none . " finish your work." in defending Touched at these words. and plunged in into Coligny's breast." said he.

and placed himself at the head of the Protestant League as King of Navarre a title which he had rightfully assumed since his mother's The revenge which was now rife on the lips of death. she spread around him all the voluptuous allurements his spirit broke the thralls of her But the native magnanimity of enchantment and secretly escaping from a corrupt and besotted court. we which most to pity. had just been consummated. To hold Henry spell-bound in the power of her fascinations. and the pope. he recanted his Catholicism. she then erine of ignominy of her character sought to poison the happiness of the royal pair. . had medals prepared to immortalize his right to the honor of having originated the most horrible massacre on record. she next added to the by attempting to dissolve the marriage which. cannons were fired in honor. churches were shaken with the -peals of thanksgiving. calamities of the nation to her ambition. are at a loss and the exultations of the holy father. . Foiled in this scheme. jubilees were proclaimed. tracing the of sensual pleasure. for slaughtered relatives and citizens. or the fiend that rejoiced over After the in- cidents of that of day Henry of Navarre and the Prince Conde had on the to profess Catholicism in order to save their lives. thousands. the victims of the catasit. convinced Catherine of her error and Charles. resolved to . . through her influence. This device defeating the designs of Cathlife Henry. and the portentous disasters which overhung the empire. When we consider the atrociousness of the massacre. jealous of the authorship of atrocities that shook the world with horror. priests formed themselves into holy processions to testify their joy. trophe.282 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES its illuminated.

his profligate disposition.IN FRANCE. added suspicion to the popular discontent. Besides the unpopularity which his neglect of national affairs engendered in the minds of his subjects. which was to usurp the throne. On the death of Charles IX. and afforded dinal Lorraine. and extirpate religious liberty . Poland. and treason plotting his downfall. the support of obliged the papal machinery. but it had also a secret object. Catherine. giving the Guises increased influence in the government.. his in his But being then King of mother. occupied with frivolous intrigues and stupefied with debauch. succeeded to the throne. and his want of decision and firmness made him the dupe of his mother's intrigues. and carried his insolence so far that It the king forbid him approach the capitol. Henry III. Henry Guise a by CarThe professed object of this league was to defend Catholicism. had returned to his domains. even while dissension was shaking his government.. a peace with the Huguenots. After Henry III. was permitted to govern Catherine immediately concluded name until he should be able to assume the ad- ministration himself. By king. which granted them religious liberty But this liberal concession exasperated pretext for the Catholics. atone for his past neglect by governing himself : 283 tlie empire but death too soon deprived him of an oppor- tunity to make this atonement. By her machinations he was kept imprisoned in the royal palace. his perfecting a league which had been projected marriage with the Countess of Lorraine. was . his brother. Henry Guise became sufficiently powerful to dictate laws to the He him to to annul all provisions in favor of the reformers.

the highest Catholic university the subjects from their alle- in the empire. . In a few days after this event the duke was stabbed as he entered the royal palace. Paris and the principal cities of France were incited to declare against Duke the king.284 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES discoTered that the duke intended to kidnap the now ting. events occasioned to the hopes of the Papal See. . they decided that the duke was too powerful to be enemy. gave headed by the of Mayenne. that the people attacked the royal troops. and thirty thousand papists sprung to arms in the defence of the duke. defiance the king called on his troops for assistance hut so eifectively had the pope's machinery operated. brought to trial. Conscious of his power. Every department of the papal machinery was now set in the most vigorous action. drove them away. the duke boldly violated the king's command.. The severe disappointments which these melancholy rise to a holy league against Henr}'' III.^ and Cardinal Lorraine met the same fate in a dungeon. which league was supported by all the resources of Pome. that he should At this . and usurp the imperial authority. and to conclude a treaty with his Upon the assembling of the Estates of Blois. absolved him the pope threatened him with excommunication and his assassination was publicly preached giance to . orders for his assassination. gave secret . Appearing to be him he then partook of the eucharist in company with him but while he did so. the king in having reconciled to but that his open treason would justify him assassinated. imprison him in a monastic dungeon. Such was the helplessness of the king that he had to fly for safety to Chartres. The Serbonne. not enter Paris. brother of the Duke of Guise.

The papal machinery which in vain had been called into requisition to destroy him. which of all others he must have able . was . gave birth to much violence and disorder. and established again his authority in the empire. ciple to expediency he did not conciliate papal malice.. still formidties. defeated his enemies. which never forgives an offence.. him from The Duke Mayenne. 285. But by a fortunate coalition with Navarre the king defeated the pope and his league. in the churclies. and scruples at no means to remove an obstacle. But in sacrificing prinhe acquired for his subjects political security religious liberty.IN FRANCE. declared him Philip II. claimed the crown and several unsuccessful attempts were made to But the valor and sagacity of Henry assassinate him. found a Dominican monk who executed her vengeance by the assassination of Henry of the king. king of Spain. bigotry and intolerance finally. By this politic act of humiliation and entire and obtained from the pope a concession to his right to the crown. decided to profess the Catholic faith. subjects sincerely detested. however. . convinced that the blood of his must continue to flow as long as they were governed by a Protestant sovereign. nor secure tranquillity to his reign. and . Henry of now of set in vigorous operation to prevent establishing a legal right to his heritage. at the head of the Catholics. Conspiracies were female intrigue abounded. left no male heirs consequently Henry Navarre became the legitimate inheritor of the throne of France. and triumphed over all difficulThe papal machinery was. Yet the Catholic church. III. re-captured Paris. and Henry IV. against . rife.

Richelieu gave boldness craft to the national policy. and Catholic into the subjects Henry IV. who governed the king his confessor. who became King of France in 1610. his prostitute. women and burnt. as well as and encourage the second. was accomplished by Ravaillac. The national policy was characterized by a system of falsehood. had secured . But w^hat is unfriendly to republicanism . spiritual who stabbed him to the heart with a double-edged sword. is destructive to national prosperity and consequently the papal intrigues and appliances in favor of absoluteness in France destroyed the greatness of the nation. The political security and religious liberty which were annulled by the repeal of the Edict of Nantes. children were imprisoned. corruption and intrigue. . the papal symbol of and temporal power. murdered and Female intrigue. The papal machinery during the past reigns had demoralized the nation. Innocent men. Princes of the blood were excluded from the throne. the papal machinery was directed by Cardinal by M. labored to defeat the first machinery has always vigorously. Under Louis XIII. and consummated the governmental absoluteness which had been initiated by Louis XL Division of power being more friendly to justice and republicanism than consolidation. ..286 1>APAL POLITICAL INTBIOrES the long-premeditated assassination of Henry IV. who governed and the cabinet. on account of their liberal proclivities. the papal political universally. Tellier. the bane of national peace and virtue predominated in political circles and public robbery and extravagance laid the foundation of a debt which ultimately broke down the government. and Madame Maitenon. Richelieu.

But while such were the calamities which Catholicism was maturing. and accu- mulating on the heads of the people an insupportable load of taxation cind misery. of Rosof the seau. a national assembly con- vened consisting of three hundred and seventeen clergymen. tyrannical. rendered the conflict between monarchy and republicanism inevitable. for political regeneration." and that " to become a great man it was necessary to become a great villain. acted differently from what they thought. and kings. prodigality. were the deplorable results operation of the pope and his political engine. the majesty of the people was vindicated and. intriguing Despotic ministers. foolish enter- prises absurd laws. the eloquent writings of Voltaire. professed rakes in the garb of and cardinals. It finally took . cious favorites. and criminal rulers had oppressed the industry of the country. given France a free constitution. corruption priests and tyranny withering the vitality of the nation. place. intentions. and drove thousands of subjects to seek a livelihood under less oppressive government. bigoted. From the ruins of the ." The consequence was national Mock treaties were weakness and demoralization.IN FRANCE. and other liberal authors were awakening a spirit of inquiry in the public mind. and preparing the way The smouldering fires of freedom which burned in the breast of the nation. and six hundred and seventeen deputies of the people all of whom took an oath never to separate until they had . three hundred and seventeen nobles. 287 tolerance again domineered over the lives and fortunes Kings had been taught by their teachof Protestants. A succession of weak. to disguise their made to conceal real ones. ers and spiritual guides that " to dissemble was to reign. rapaprostitutes.

it was by the genius of Napoleon Bonaparte. leaving flickered. The monarcliy a republic arose in majesty and power. While he stood at the height of his fortune. might have outrivalled the splendor of the greatest. estates were abolished without indemnifica- The invidious game laws.288 PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIGUES. acquiring or bequeathing propnities erty. To obtain this 'the freedom the nation had poured out its blood. But nation had been educated in Catholic bigotry and . the laws excluding Protestants from offices of trust or profit. were swept away by the spirit of liberal government. the church tithes. then. and all that the toil of the papal machinery had accumulated on the heads of the people. the confidence of mask fell from his brow. . surprising. the exemption of church dig- from military taxation. while they its elements to be reconstructed in another form. It is not. feudal tion. and denying them the right of inheriting. but made remaining in the national councils a wreck of oppression. the feudal tribunals. with the conquest of Europe else in his grasp. The freemen forsook him and his glory. grew dim. and who loved were in conflict with his designs nothing but himself and supreme dominion. which . advocate. But the boon he sought his ambition defeated. that so easily betrayed once its hard as their freedom was won. but always its foe who hated repub. the ecclesiastical revenues. . the hereditary descent of officers. for they both . licanism as much as he hated papacy. they preserved . and soon vanished away the world as much astonished at the obscurity it left as it had been at the efi'ulgence it had emitted. intolerance tutors the lessons and now it visited on the heads of its which they had taught. The people left it swept away the despotism of the throne. and.

of Albert I of Henry VII. But in the events of one the conquered became the emperors. of Frederic I of Frederic II of Conrad IV. resistance for King of Saxony. hundred years. Papal Germany under the reigns of Otho IV. Papal Inirigues in Austria in Prussia and in the Nether- I —of Henry Intrigues in — — — — — — — — — — — — — — lands. ofSigisTnund of Charles V. ' PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIOUES IN GERMANY. the confederate of the pope. of Henry V. WiTTiKiisrD the Great. after a vigorous thirty-three years against the arms of Charlemagne. The pope's claim of being the disposer of crowns. of Louis of Bavaria of Charles IV. submitted to be baptized to spare the further effusion of the blood of his subjects. but prudently nullified them by placing him 25 . Prom motives of policy the emperor conceded the spiritual claims of the pope.CHAPTEE XIV. acheived something of a triumph in 962. and the Franks were supplanted on the throne by the Saxons. and the source of secular power. the secular power had to continually struggle against the intrigues and usurpations of the Papal See. Prom the time that the Carlovingian dynasty was established until the dissolution of the empire in 1806. of Ferdinand 11. when through a crafty policy the pontiff bestowed the diadem on Otho.

and to fill the papal chair during his life with men of his own choice. was led to violate his oath of allegiance. For this act of perwhich jury. he required the latter.290 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES under his authority. and the Koman See to enter into a solemn agreement wdth him that henceforth no pope should be chosen except in the presence of a Germanic imperial commission. it was less the offspring of CatholThe emperors icism than of the Germanic authority. so mutually antagonistical. — — did little else than corrupt it. and violation of a solemn treaty in a layman would have been a capital offence. While the first labored to reform the church. who was John XII. He also held the papal . but be cultivated by a crafty and ambitious priest. and generally when either appeared in its administration. Virtue. who became Emperor of Germany in 1046. In the progress of the conduct of the papal and the imperial policy. Pre- Pope John XII. could not but be encour- aged in the subjects by a sagacious monarch and vice. treason. of Germany were far better men than the popes of Eome. Henry III. the foundation of public order and concord. to swear allegiance to him.. but in a priest was aggravated by the additional crime of hypocthe emperor could not do less than depose him. While Otho acknowledged that he was emperor by the grace of God and the pope. risy In the papal monarchy virtue and ability were seldom conspicuous. the indulgent mother of fraud and imposition. and to take up arms to acquire inependence of secular authority. had to depose three popes. the latter sumptuous as false. was too unpleasant it to be toler- ated longer than weakness made unavoidable.. This judicious check on the intriguing policy of the Papal See. could not .

perhaps in its eye. and artfully intrigued for an opportunity to remove them. eagerly watched. The whole- some effects of his severity won commendations even from those upon whom they were most rigorously enin proof of which it may be stated that the forced clergy spontaneously bestowed on him the title of " The . to rule his people through the terror of his Neglecting to guard popular interests." which he condescended to accept. as a providential circumstance designed to aid its the success of long cherished design. his efforts to over- awe his subjects surrection. The emperor. The impolitic and tyrannical conduct of Henry JV. monarcTiy under strict surveilance. attempted. governed by the advice of Archbishop Adelbert. In 1056 Henry IV. or the appropriation of any church property without his sanction. iDitterly groaning under the jealous restraint which had been imposed on it by the secular authority. had the pope projected and engineered them they could not . alone can secure popular attachment. Pious. ascended the throne of Germany. and committing brutal and violent acts. appeared. considerable damage was done to some churches in Saxony and Thuringia. and of entering their territory and perpetrating the most barbarous cruelty. that. produced only dissatisfaction and inIn an outburst of popular violence pro- voked by his imprudence. The Papal See. 291 and forbade the be- stowal of any spiritual dignity. by building castles. These disorders gave Henry the opportunity of gratifying his revengeful feelings in accusing the inhabitants before the pope of sacrilege. The conseablest quences of this proceeding eventuated in such a favorable crisis to the papal designs.IN GERMANY. which authority.

having ascended the papal throne with- German court. who could impose such conditions in on could also have been guilty. of inflicting injuries on his subjects which would . that seems to do credit to papal ingenuity. forsolicit for three days an interview with the to sacerdotal despot. act so irritated the pope that he began to lavish. the the mercy of a revenge- emperor mally to w^as required to dress in penitential robes. But the promise unconditional acts of tyranny carry with them the seeds of retribution. Henry at first treated this display of arrogated divinity with scornful indifference. The injured and exasperated inhabitants appealed to tho pope. under pain of excommunication. eagerly embraced a cause which enabled him to assert his claim claim to inout the consent of the dependent sovereignty. much His subjects disowned their allegiance deserted to him . his soldiers disobeyed his orders and he found himself helplessly at With a refinement of malice ful and irritated priest. anathemas on the head of the monarch. In punishment for this ferocious w^arrant the emperor sumsubjects. and obliged them This daring to renounce their allegiance to Gregory.. him . and supremacy over all secular Fully aware that the tyranny of Henry authority. with unsparing liberality. the exercise of his power. but his vices had too disembarrassed the action of the papal machinery not to allow it to disable his power and revenge. at least. Pope Gregory VII. his friends . moned a council of bishops at Worms. The tyrant a fallen foe.292 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES have culminated more propitiously. and then obedience to him in all things. had deprived him of the affections and support of his he commanded the unpopular monarch to appear before him.

By the operation of his skilful machinery he was enabled suddenly to create a conspiracy in the heart of Germany. was a heretic. set about to counteract it. tion of his defeat he now sought to beguile the mortificaby hurling anathemas at his obsti- But the temper of Henry not disposing him to indulge the chagrined pope in insolent sports. incapable of being restrained by any sense of gratitude. is and fearfully illustrated in its history. This was precisely the case with Pope Gregory YIL He had oppressed the Italian provinces to such a degree that the inhabitants longed for an opportunity to depose him.IN GERMANY. summoned a council of German and Italian bishops at Brixen. This tendency. they proposed a with Mm. a sorcerer. and had dealings with the devil. The ical to spirit and pretensions of Catholicism are so inim- secular authority that. for the deposition of the emperor but the . and threaten so its subversion. to whatever extent they obtain a controlling influence in a government they tend to abridge its sovereignty. in the papal chair. Clement HI. The pope becoming acquainted with this secret machination. or by any obligation of oaths. and by proving to their satisfaction that Pope Gregory VII. vigilance and valor of the latter defeated the revoluHaving in vain exhausted all retionary movement. A knowl-^ 35* . and now the misfortunes of Henry appearing coalition to render him an available agent in the accomplishment of their designs. so clearly indicated by the principles of the papal monarphy. and placed nate head. sources to subject the incorrigable monarch to his absolute authority. effected his degradation. ' 293 he calculated to excite a disposition to revolt and retaliation.

nor arrested the papal machinery in its insidious and treacherous operations. reduced to scorn and in neglect. his second son. a concession to the Holy See of all the rights and 2:)rivileges which had been claimed for it by Pope Gregory VII. in elevating him to the papal dignity. By the implacable revenge of the Papal See. had wrung from his father's hand the imperial crowned cord at sceptre. obliged him to surrender into hands the imperial authority. in fostering the elements of discord which existed in the empire. he sought to have this atro- cious act sanctified in the eyes of his subjects by being This Pome by it the pope — Paschal II. Nothing but the surrender of the principles of sovereignty will ever conciliate a pope to the authority of a secular government. prohibited the interment of his anathematized corpse consecrated ground. his whom he had crowned as his successor. as the only condition on which the favor could be granted. in 1106. eldest son was instigated to rebel against him. and after it had murdered him by degrees. . he exacted. sanction of unfilial conduct the pope was willing to ac.. but as seemed to present an opportunity for making a good speculation. After Henry V. he was deprived of power. courage. The prudence. operating through its varied machinery. should not have caused the repeal of the anathemas ond excommunications which had been pronounced against him.294 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES edge of this unliappy truth will prevent surprise that the munificQiit favors which Henry bestowed on Pope Clement IIL. and talents of the king were hence constantly called into requisition to His defeat the secret machinations of his enemies. After he had subdued him.

Soon as Henry had quelled the insubordination in Germany. he therefore returned ence. To be restored to liberty and luxury Paschal. he marched his the pope acceded to all the terms dictated to him by the emperor. determined that he should there remain until he consented to crown him without any condition. dragged the pope from the altar while he was celebrating mass. the pope was agreeably relieved of the embarrassing restraints of the emperor's pres- To suppress the Germanic revolution the skill and valor of Henry was occupied for two years. and rejecting with indignant contempt the proposition of army on Rome. This proposition startled ing them. and casting him into prison. having the control of the papal machinery. But Pope Paschal evaded the designed chastisement by absconding to Apulea. and he felt the importance of check- Boldly denying the papal pretensions. to Italy to punish the author of the calamities of his reign. the policy of Henry in every part of his dominion. in order to nullify the concessions which he had made. 295 he saw the ambitious Henry . and caused Bourden. Pope Galatius the tained papal dignity. In the meantime the pope. Disturbances occurring in Germany. The deposed pope and his cardinals. designs of the pope. where he shortly afan enemy of Henry. VIIL. were enabled to oppose. having obthe latter deposed him. terwards died.IN GERMANY. Galatius assembled a council of bishops at Vienna and . but with a secret disposition to render them nugatory at the first opportunity. organized an Italian conspiracy against the emperor. under the name of Gregory II. with great success. to be substituted in his place..

in which he reinvestiture.. which obliged the emperor to Pope visit and chastise the insurrectionary districts. succeeded to the imperial throne in 1152. that in order to restore tranquillity subscribe to a concordat at nounced the right of Frederic I. and to any interfer- ence in the consecration of bishops. the ambitious aspirations of the Papal See for illimitable dominion. convened one at Kheims. Calaxtus II. the chief source of the public discord. of on the approach Frederic to France. . and excommunicated him. A league was then formed between the pope. bursts so frequently disturbed the public peace. The the spiritual and temporal crown world which Koman See attempted to manufacture out of the . and repeated the sentence the nobles broke out in frequent rebellion and finally such insubordination prevailed in the empire. by which their freedom was finally of the achieved in the treaty of Venice in 1177. had. at the beginning of the reign of Frederic I. The increasing opulence and power of the Italian and Lombardine cities owing allegience to Germanic authority. and such violent out. Alexander fled III. and exercised an important influence in stimulating the valor and energy of the people. and the Greek empire against Frederic and for twenty years the calamities of war were protracted. Venice.296 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES excommunicated him. Henry was compelled to Worms. its and the insidious operations of machinery in producing public taste and opinion in harmony with its desires.. produced revolts and usurpations in Lombardy and Italy. exercised towards the rebellious cities created a des- perate opposition to his authority. The cruelty which the emperor had .

and fortify itself by every means of defence. sowith its cial. and deluded devotees with its inquisition extorting sion of every false charge of . It is the fate of des- potism of every form. But now. to awaken another in the dust. the appearance of a stubborn. When . . and literary institutions of Christendom it elaborated. the period of Pope Innocent III. strength of when it it has developed the full its all-blasting power. and at all places. the antagonism of the people began . confessors transmitting to Rome every important fact from victims an admiswhich ecclesiastical interests required the establishment with its preachers and spiritual guides manufacturing. power destined is to trample That power the strength which slumbers in the popular arm. formidable and frightful reality. private and public opinion suitable to its demands by perverted facts and false statements and with its army of monks. sycophant it had at princes. With the profound policy which and the systematic course of measures which it adopted. Peter. fishhooks of St. with its machinery ramifying the political. to be energetically manifested. after supineness had allowed it to amass supreme and despotic power. knights. assumed in the progress of the papal political intrigues. 297 it however visionary might orig- inally have appeared. subjugated Christen- dom under its despotic authority.~ IN GERMANY. servile kings. of its aggressive course the voice of reason During the progress and patri- otism had often lifted up remonstrances against its advancement but the eloquent tones died away unheeded amid the clamorous chaunts of superstitious rites. accommodated to all exigencies and pursued through all periods. . . the papal despotism was no more a pretension.

substituted Berthold. and began to perfect their internal organizations by the establishment of corporations then appeared the first universities. but the pope. was history. Finding this scheme impracticable he recommended Otho. ing began to scoff at its Then learn- claims. then the abrogation of the system of . was nominated regent during more pliant instrument. But the pope soon found that his intrigue had vested with power a mortal foe to the Papal See. violence began to restore public security separate and then the members of the empire began to be assembled originating the principle and deliberate on public of the provincial diets. Then arose the free cities from their long degradation.298 but a fact. and then religious through the Albigenses and Waldenses uttered is that memorable peal. this illustrious period of Henry German VI. research to expose its . affairs. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES when it stood distinctly before the world generations. which the latter inherited from his mother. a murmur of horror broke from the lips of the world. the papal policy succeeded. frauds. heaven and hell. but of establishing the authority of Ger- .. son of the emperor born at Philip. Duke Frederic's minority. wit to ridicule its pretensions liberty. with its feet on the neck of kings and people. wishing a of Constance. princess of Suabia. surrounded by broken sceptres and crushed thrones.. arousing the dormant spirit of free inquiry and . investigation . For Otho clearly manifested a design of not only wresting Sicily from Frederic. Frederic II. and its usurping hand grasping clotted with the blood of at the crowns of earth. and Philip being murdered. which as an destined to reverberate undying tone through all future ages.

This act alarmed the jealousy of Pope Honorious motive of III. and became sole sovereign of the empire. Frederic II. elaborated projects which. However ungratifying reasoning was to the pope. As a preliminary measute he caused his son to be crowned King of Rome. who desired to be acquainted with the The emperor replied that his coronation oath required him to undertake a crusade. and reduce the pope to the digImpressed with the importance of difficulty of its accomplishment. and as the emperor promised to deal severely with the her- . soon defeated Otho. enjoytake a crusade in behalf of the church.IN GERMANY 299 many as an inheritance. and versatility of talent that rarely have sprung from a royal cradle. and the fulfilment of it rendered it necessary to invest his this son with regal authority. and the slowly and cautiously removed obstacle after obstacle. and called At the into requisition all the power of his machinery. it. age of twenty-one years he crowned his protege ror of ests Empe- Germany . and the advantageous co-operation of his machinery. a grasp of intellect. he could not refute it. ing the favor and influence of the pope.. although they transcended With the liberality and enlightenment of his age. he nity of a bishop. The him possession of the to hope that he ful hierarchy of German and Sicilian crowns led would be able to repress the powerRome. over certain possessions of Italy wliicli it claimed To counteract the mistake of his policy the pope took Frederic under his protectson. and selected the elements for his great enterprise. yet laid the foundation for their development in a future period. but in order to bind him to his inter- he exacted a coronation oath that he would under- Frederic. this object.

he — undertake the promised crusade. yet in those of the people. however. Adopting the customary policy of the popes in their emergency. and thinned the ranks of the pilgrims. now excommunicated . he endeavored to embarrass the designs of Frederic by pronouncing sentence of excommunication on him. At length he set of his sail with his fleet. and fire. In maturing his measures emperor for the restoration of the Italian empire. and though the pope frequently reminded him justify the eric's of the solemnity of his obligation.300 etics. But the infallible by undertaking a vigorous crupope who had excommunicated him for not becoming a crusader. lie PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES and to exclude them from offices of trust or profit. Frederic endea- vored to nullify sade. yet his apologies were so plausible that they seemed fully to delay. became greatly pacified. The justice of this sentence being attempted to be supported by the failure of the the fears of the pope. so interruptedly and slowly that it damped the consumed the provisions. excited the apprehensions of in Pope Gregory IX. if not in the eyes of the pope. With a show of obecommenced prepar- ing for the enterprise. and suspending all religious services in his dominions. but becoming indisposed home. who appears emperor to fulfil his it. but upon such an extensive scale. The return after three days' voyage returned formidable to army alarmed have equally dreaded the success of his arms abroad and of his presence at home. the procrastinated for twelve years the fulfilment of his un- dertaking. and to get rid of his presence Europe he j)eremptorily demanded that he should dience to the pope's injunction. a crusade . The inexplicable mystery of Fred- conduct. coronation oath.

by assassination. The success of Frederic filled Christendom with joy. of weaken the power and popuh\rity That he might the emperor abroad. he interposed in his behalf and restored tranquillity. But the magnanimity of the Sultan rejected the proposition with contempt. 301- him for becoming one. dicted the celebration of divine w^orship in Jerusalem and such was hood. not finding a bishop who would incur the papal ana- themas by crowning him. undaunted of the pope. Frederic. made him victorious. but the pope with indignation. and devas- own troops.IN GEBMANY. organized a conspiracy against him. as well over the arms of the Turks as over the intrigues oppose his designs. and unimpressible by discouragement and reverses. he was so far from being disposed to treat him with unnecessary rigor that. when his vices and tyranny had excited his subjects into a rebellion. and. that his influence with the chivalrous knightits members were found persons base how he might dispose of his victor. While Frederic exacted from the pope what justice and self respect demanded. An act so generous in the emperor should have 26 . and communicated the matter to the emperor to place him enough to secretly inform the Sultan among on his guard. He declared every church into which he entered profaned inter. During the emperor's absence the pope preached a crusade against tated his empire with his him in his own do- minions. he performed the ceremony himself. He entered Jerusalem in triumph . in his customary visits to the river Jordan. he ordered the bishops and knights of the of the cross in Palestine to dispute his army command and But the remarkable genius of by difficulties.

the emperor regarding his son and defeated more as of grati- the victim of sacerdotal craft than as a real foe to his authority.302 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES awakened in the pope an equal degree of magnanimity. as amid head another thunder was music the emperor marched on from victory to victory. in its This conspiracy was detected. added been to the weight of sufficient affection. that he instigated the emperor's son to conspire against him. unhappily interfered with the natural instincts of the son's mind. and of the Italian cities in alliance with the pope. the revenge of the But the Vatican its allowed to roll on. and led him to add to the guilt of his treason. Preparatory to in the execution of this policy he made some conquests his Lombardy These successes excited pope. and. should have would have subjected the son to the most affectionate subordination to the father. the subjugation of the Germanic aristocracy. but so far was he incapable of any sense of gratitude. would have . the ignominy of attempt- ing to assassinate his father. At length. This atrocious act can- celling every obligation of nature. But the dispensations and to form a disposition which absolutions with which the church pretends to nullify social and civil obligations. bud . and he sentenced petual banishment. who accordingly visited on excommunication. and assured him of the assistance of the Lombards. in the . pardoned his disloyalty. The success of the policy of Frederic comprehended a union of the hostile elements of his southern territory. The sense act of tude naturally arising from filial this clemency. justified the emperor in proceeding to extremes but his native his son to per- magnanimity prevailed.

but the dignity making him regard the emj)eror as hostile to pope mon- . the time arrived blow at the heart of the public disorder. friend of the emperor. and perhaps broke the pope's heart. a warm . and brought them captive This manoeuvre broke up the council. 303 for striking a decisive development of the policy of Frederic. The preliminaries chiefly holding the proposed council it established the fact. beof his came Pope Innocent IV. As his prohibition was disregarded. Frederic felt justified. The emperor soon perceived. there- forbidding the convention to assemble. whose subjects he had corrupted. and conscious of the powerful dominions. The consummation of the policy of Frederic was in his grasp but the magnificent prospect which skill and valor had obtained. that this specious proposition was but a popish device. and whose downfall he had labored to effect. as he shortly afterwards died. but too for late. that the pope intended to have composed of the most inveterate enemies of the emperor in fact none but such were invited to partici. He saw monarchy at the mercy of an emperor. influence it wielded over the superstitious. whom he had anathematized. in its proceedings. who professed a willing- ness to concede all his demands. By a sudden movement he entered the papal The pope trembled on his throne. Cardinal Fiesco.IN GERMANY. he intercepted a Genoese fleet of to Naples. pate in fore. his . whose son he had taught to rebel. Having some reverence for the office. though none for the character of the pope. superstition blasted. he ventured to listen to the papal monarch. but proposed that they should first be sanctioned by a council of the bishops of the church. one hundred bishops.

and summoned him to to appear at the bar of a grand council be convened at that place. An anathema was pronounced on the body and soal of the emperor. peopled agents. were not emperor's without some genius. It seems to have concentrated its ingenuity in devising new and unheardof methods to give terrific importance guilty. seemed in the daikness of the cathedral to have converted the holy place into the lower regions. Innocent IV. the yet the vigor of the his vast popularity. the priests. and the triumph of his arms which continued to his death —deinonstrated II.304 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES archial pretensions. like fiends administer- ing at some infernal ceremonies. and though completely refuted by his deputies. whose policy became emperor of it was . and on all his interests. lie confirmed against the aathemas that had been pronounced Frederic. with the arch-fiend and his artistical elaborations Though these effect. magnanimity which he constantly displayed. yet as the proceedure was merely the semblance of a judicial trial. and upon its conclusion suddenly extinguished them . — to the intelligent that there was no real curse in the papal anathemas. to the ventilation of its hate. council proceedings of this the In the most ridiculous and groundless charges were preferred against Frederic... and by the theatrical trick of uttering discordant shrieks and howls. son of Frederic Germany in 1250. While pronouncing these religious curses. held in their hands lighted torches. friends and allies. all Returning to Lyons. the council did not hesitate to declare him any proof of innocence to the contrary.. to sanction preconcerted malice and revenge by forms of lagality. converted His former friendsiiip into bitter annimosity. Conrad IV.

and was about pects of success to enter Lombardy with the fairest pros- when his illegitimate brother. to profess 305 any friendship. to acknowledge his right to succes- because his father had been excommunicated. he . But notwithstanding a revengeful pope. the last of the noble house of Hohenstaufen. kept the pope's allies in check. he had more than his equal The courage and heroism of Conrad to contend with. defeated the papal army. and unit on Charles of Anjou. The pope refused sion. Conradin. The world but the in- expected that his youth and valor could not but win compassion even from the iron-hearted tense hatred of the papal of which this monarch to the noble house intrepid lad was the last scion. j^ope. his son could not inherit the throne. He declared also that Conradin had forfeited his right of inheritance to the crown of Naples and Sicily.IN GERMANY. son of Conrad IV. but while he was pursuing the flying enemy with too much reckless- dertook to bestow ness. relieved the by adminpope of a formidable adversary. But Conradin entered Italy and defeated the usurper. pronounced him laid on him an in- and persecuted him by all the means which his power and influence afforded. and violate any obligation that contributed to his interests.. whose malice through his machinery operated everywhere. On the ground of terdict this ridiculous pretext. istering poison to him. determined to complete on the son the vengeance he had commenced on Presumptuous as vindictive he declared the father. dispossessed of all his inheritance . that inasmuch as Frederic II. would not 26* . had been excommunicated. yet. was the heir to the throne. he was captured by the vanquished.

of territory. and interference in which are policy. of France. was summoned by pope to appear before him and apologize for having accepted the crown without consulting his pleasure. Making a sudden diversion into the electorate of Mentz. Conradin was therefore. agreed between the two conpope should give to Albert the possessions of his ally. a powerful military bishop. parties that the . To re- the belligerent pope Albert effected an alliance with Philip la Belle. derived their rights. though executed as a criminal honor. of an allegiance with the archbishop sist Mentz. but sixteen years old. and that Albert should acknowledge that the western empire was a grant as a fief from was finally tracting. Albert obliged the bishop to form a league with him It for five years.306 PAPAL POLITICAL INTHIGUES permit him to allow an opportunity to escape of extinguishing it forever. so strongly characteristic of the papal originate from See. crowned his it memory with immortal while cast a deeper tinge of ignominy on the already blackened character of the pope. publicly but his heroism. and a former friend of Albert. The pope then suggested peaceful negotiation rather than disastrous war. the consti- tutional principles of the Roman In conformity with self them Pope Boniface VIII. Albert I. proclaimed himKing of Rome and declared that the Roman See was the source whence the Germanic electors . and to expiate the guilt of his offence of such penance as should force compliance with this by the performance To eninjunction the pope formed be prescribed. and the circumstances under which he met death. being chosen emthe peror by the electors in 1298. The political usurpation affairs.

until the obnoxious constitution should this calamity be aanulled. The emperor. to invalidate the title of Louis to transfer to Albert During the reign of Henry YII. by virFrance. by Moltipulcian. that the electors derived their right from the Roman ests See. and the Papal See was unusually quiet and respectable. now burst forth with the most impetuous and indecent violence in anathemas on the soul. but whom he dared not anathematize. the diet of Reuse framed a constitution. became emperor of Germany To arrest the encroachments of the Papal See on the rights of the sovereignty of the empire. the corpse. tue of an excommunication. and independent of the Pope of These patriotic proceedings seemed to the pope . whom the pope hated. v/as finally removed by poison administered in the sacramental wine. and officially I. . Rome. Soon as this event occurred the pope's vengeance. in 1338. 307 the pope. with his arms. who became emperor of Germany in 1308. But Louis soon repaired by . which provided that the choice of the electors of the union should be in 1330. of it and that he would defend the papal interThe pope then proceeded. a Dominican monk.. bat which was too much overawed to utter a murmur. ac- cordingly prohibited the performance of divine worship in the empire. final in its decision.. la Belle. to his kingdom. and the tomb of the dead emperor but it is not supposed that they done any damage. the coffin.IN GERMANY. of Bavaria. the tyranny and ambition of the pope were held in decent check. to be interfering with his rights and John XXI. which had been accumulating in fury for years. Louis IV. except to the character and good sense of the Roman See.

* This violation of the celebrated constituof 1338 induced ihree electors to assemble at Lahstein. But Gunter being removed by poison. wishing to be crowned by the pope at Eome. having equal authority with Pope John XXL. who succeeded to the papal throne in 1342. but he declining. they elected Edward of England. to Naples. but on such disgraceful conditions that. Charles IV. . Sardinia. This self-degradation was much aggravated by the fact that many distinguished Komans. visited Italy to negotiate for that favor. who. the papal policy triumphed in the coronation of Charles of Luxemburg. nullified all his acts. by accepting them he subjected himself to the scorn and derision of the world. in requesting Charles to claim the city of tion of his empire. united tion . the ecclesiastical revenues and further added . and by his intrigues caused five electors to declare in favor of Charles of Luxemburg. he renounced all rights.. they elected Frederic the Severe he also declining. equal to one-tenth of . signified a disposition to accommodate the emperor. not only to the city of Eome. in 1346. excommunicated Louis. always inclined to make the vanity and ambition of his subjects administer to his aggrandizement. oppressed by the papal administration. of the Church. the crown was finally settled on Gunter of Schwarzburg. sica. Pope Clement VII. Pope Innocent VL.30S the creation PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES of Pope Nicholas V.. but to the States Sicily. and declare the choice of Charles null and void and as Louis had died.. Pome as a por- Instead of improving this opportunity to extend the limits of his government. He also consented to impose a tax and Coron the empire to his for the benefit of the Papal See.

dangers thickening around him from quarters. create its option excite or quell a popular out- or destroy a dynasty. aided by a political machinery whose various parts ramified every portion of the empire. at the time of Charles. he yielded to the dictation of the pope. and in proportion as mind was always power became op- . To allay the fury of this tempest he announced an intention of convening a council for the reformation of the clergy. But this attempt to calm the people aroused the indignation of the Papal See. and for making liberal concessions to the popular demands.IN GERMANY. in all their privileges. The pope exhorted the electors to depose him instantly. that could at burst. it had regained its supremacy in the empire and dictated treaties to the emperors. Assailed all on all sides. and a system of crafty intrigues. For this base sycophancy he was assailed by princes and people with a storm of indignation. and acted in concert through all ages and dynasties. and laws to the people. A power . The dread it unpleasant. might be an object of terror to people and princes. seemed to . but never an object of cast on the its reverence. until. sanctioned all their abuses. and confirmed the clergy and made them enFrederic inevitable II. period of of tremble on the verge de- struction but by a profound and unscrupulous policy. but dreading less the indignation of the em- pire than the anathema of the Roman See. it had steadily carried its advancements through the blood of millions and the ruins of thrones. at the The papal power.. pro- tected tirely them in all their possessions. disgrace 309 by taking an oatli never to enter Italy without the pope's sanction. measures to the diets. independent of the secular power.

quiet his apprehensions of To danger. the emperor fur- nished him with a safe conduct. and the pope pledged his honor to protect him from harm. John Huss. but it still grew in vigor. Thus guarded by . which rose into consequence at that time. when Sigismund became Emperor of Germany. became more conscious of its numerispirit. but conscious that his divine attributes and prerogatives were not adequate to the existing emergency. pretensions of the pope to denounce the profligacy of and to demand in the body and head of the church a thorough reformation. With the secret design of betry- ing the amiable reformer. and his disciples. on condition that should adopt the most energetic means for the extirpation of the heretics. ing of a deliberative council. the . The success of these reformers excited and alarmed the Hating any semblance of a right to participate pope. the native individualism of the Germanic character. he was strongly averse to the assembl- the clergy . This men of the nation to deny. The love of independence. displayed an energy prophetic of stirring events and important consequences. he was invited to respond in jjerson to a summons of the council. was John Huss. It might be cowered into silence. was ahvays a mortal foe to papal despotism.310 pressive I'APAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES and disadvantageous. Prominent among the apostles of religious freedom. in his authority. opposition and resistance were inevitably excited. with emphatic boldness. became more impatient as the pope became more despotic. The spirit of Germanic individualism led distinguished and bolder as it cal strength. or to assume any approach to an equality with him. cil he consented that the Counit of Constance should be called. in 1411.

. alive. Seeing it impossible to restrain their rage. John Huss was terribly revenged. years they devastated the Papal dominions. Sigis- mund attended the horrid ceremonies . by peaceful concessions.IN GEBMANY. or oath. defeated For fifteen the cross withered before their ferocity. 311 the honor of the state and the church. and being re- minded by a by-stander that the course of the wind might bear an offensive effluvia to the position he occu" The odor of a burning heretic can pied. whose uncompro- The death of . continued their useful session. answered : never be offensive to Sigismund. and in defiance of his maledictions and intrigues. assurance. and shook the government with the violence of their retribution. can standing. perfidionsly betrayed. that he ordered his legates to dissolve the obnoxious assembly. he was. But the laity had and knowledge far beyond the possible attainment of a papal despot. rightfully protect a heretic from punishment. sure so incensed Pope Eugenius IV. The strongest armies of the imperial forces. Churches and convents were burnt monks and priests The insurgents met and slaughtered without mercy. the advanced in liberality war with the Hussites. The The hitherto mild and submissive reformers became desperate revengers. on the ground that no pledge. Sigismund obliged the Council of Basle to negotiate with them for This politic meathe adjustment of their difficulties.." stake became the watchword of union. notwith- burnt and condemned to be The perfidy of the infallible pope is justified by the saints and authorities of the Catholic church. and terminated. mising vengeance longed for the extermination of every opponent to papal despotism.

he convened a under a plausible show of toleration he allowed Luther. in his presence. The papal monarch. and the co-operation of his extensive and eifective machinery. seeing that his confederacy with Charles had vastly augmented the latter's preponderating power. To conciliate the Protestants diet at "Worms. the pope imprisoned. in Germany. King of Spain. retrieve This effort to the errors of his jDolicy only aggravated his misfortune. Rome taken by storm. at which. A Catholic from he was more disposed to make the pope auxiliary to the success of his designs than to be gov- erned by him. When Charles heard of the success of his arms. But his ambiguSee.312 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES religious freedom The grand struggle between les and Catholic despotism was visibly approaching v. interest. preferred claims Germanic empire. when Francis I. ous policy becoming offensive to issued the Roman he an edict against the Protestants. and his policy was to unite all parties in augmenting the national strength. . To secure the favor of the pope.. the city plundered. always apprehensive of the political power of friend or foe. when Char1519 became Emperor of he declared himself the defender of the Catholic faith. and placed the papal interests at his disposal. to defend the principles of the reformation. counter league with the Italian States. His design was to conquer the world. and four hundred thousand crowns of gold demanded for his ransom. feated The forces of the Holy League were deby the arms of Charles. Hence. he leagued -with the pope and accomplished the defeat of the king but he was equally disposed to defend his interests against the pope. formed against him a to certain portions of the .

By the terms . affection ifested The cause against this and harmony was an intolerant significant shortly afterwards man- in edict the Protest- ants. in evident 313 moctery lie dressed himself in mourning for the pope. crowned Charles Lombardy and Eome. Henry II. Maurice suddenly appeared at the head of an army. at negotiation. The emperor by strategetic movements. Two years afterwards a holy league was formed by the Catholic princes for the proAfter some abortive attempts tection of Catholicism. mas the as after the peace of King of Pope Clement VIL. The power it of Charles overavving the papal prudently refrained from venting in insulting anatheebullitions of its wrath. throne. King of While Charles was at Innspruck. the Pro- and by testant creating jealousy and divisions confederates. But Maurice of Saxony had secretly formed another league. 000 crowns. among obtained important advantages over their arms. which was joined by France. Cambray in 1592. occasion On this the emperor dutifully kissed of the feet of the papal monarch. the Protestants dictated the terms of peace at Passau which the emperor 27 ratified at Augsburg.IN GERMANY. attending the Council of Trent.. This princes to menace led the Protestant form the Smalkalden League for the pro- tection of Protestantism. the Protestant league raised the stand- ard of war. and finally succeeded in dissolving the league. and in alleviation of his misfortune reduced the ransom to 100. ordered masses to be said in all the churches for his deliverance from prison. and the emperor barely escaped amid the darkness of a stormy night from being capThe council was consequently dissolved. and tured.

King of Spain. and that every Protestant should en- joy his faith until a religious compromise should be established. Ferdinand II. elector of Bavaria. He was by nature of a morose and revengeful disposition. The one was known as the " Catholic League. that no one should be molested in the enjoyment of his property or mode ." The Catholic League was headed by Maximilian. that persons for religious rea.814 of PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES was agreed that no one should be his. where an oath was administered to him by the pope. Charles." and the other as the " Evangelical Union.. When he ascended the throne Germany was divided two factions. and comprised the into bishops and princes attached to the house of Austria. in executing exterminating vengeance on the heretics. and conceiving that he was haunted by some invisible power which blasted all his prospects. tutelage he made a pilgrimage to During the course of his Home. enfeebled in mind. justed by pacific means . succeeded to the crown of Germany in 1619.of worship that religious disputes should be ad. abdicated the throne and retired to a monastery. broken down in health and constitution. sons should be allowed to change their residences that bishops on becoming Protestants should forfeit their office and salary . and the bigotry and prejudice which had been instilled into his mind by Catholic preceptors made him an accomplished instrument its in the hands of the church. and in performing his funeral ceremonies. this treaty it attacked on account of religious belief . where he passed the remainder of his life in making wooden clocks. . that if he should ever become emperor he would exterminate heresy in his dominions.

giving the Catholics the ascendency in the electoral college. the conof Frederic. and dissolved the Evangelical Union. to exclude Calvinists from the benefits of the religious peace of Augsburg. Union. the emperor's favorite. Ferdinand succeeded in having himself elected king. 315 TKe Evangelical Union was headed by the Duke of Wittenberg. had granted the Bohemians. banishing their preachers. the quest of the Palatinate bestowal of on Maximilian. and declaring that they would not sub- mit to Maximilian. elector of the their king Frederic. a member of the Evangelical This revolt benefited the Evangelical Union A desperate and bloody by a powerful accession. struggle was imminent between these two parties. ish oath ^ He then showed his remembrance of his pop- by persecuting the Protestants. he proceeded to restore the ecclesiastical institutions which had been abolished by the Protestants. and composed knights. Besides these decrees. enabling him to dictate a treaty which crushed the Protestant cause. and to require Protestants living under in Catholic princes to believe Catholicism. enforced by the military power. the army of Tilly in Lower Saxony. Palatina. the elector of Saxony and Brandenburg. of A number Lutheran and Calvinistic princes and of the princes of Bavaria assemchose for bled at Prague. Notwithstanding the Protestant influence in Bavaria. After this event he tore up in a violent rage the charter which Rudolph II.IN GERMAirr. where no that dignity . and depopulating the kingdom by an intolerance which caused emigrations of whole sections from The victory of his troops near Prague his dominions. because it allowed them to build churches and schoolhouses.

policy the Swedes still continued a triumphant career. the two powretire from Bavaria. Tilly having died. strategetic allies to thousand veterans. and the Protestants lost all that they had acquired At this dark hour in the since the peace of Augsburg. fortunes of the league.316 existing PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES enemy made it excusable. espoused its cause. property and country. depriving the Pro- testants of their churches. resource in the defence of religious After some successes the confederated forces were defeated. Gustavus Adolphus. at Lutzen. victoriously marching through the empire with incredible rapidity. resistance. that the Protestant princes unite in and such strong incentives to were impelled to a league with the King of Denmark and of Holstein.' and delivered the Protestants from their perilous situation. after the dictating the peace of Westphalia. battle of Prague. the new general was enabled to attack Adolphus with such overwhelming force that he compelled him to In 1642. were such gross violations of treaties. acquired the same rights with Lutherans princes were . skill. soon annihilated Tilly's army. reduced the imperial extreme conquered Lower Saxony and Bavaria. erful armies came to a general and decisive engagement the genius of Adolphus crowned his arms with victory. and indomitable valor distress. and finally. but his intrepidity cost him his life. with an army of thirty His heroism. By the terms of the peace of Westphalia Calvinists . committing wanton violence on the Lutherans. and compelling thousands to abandon their homes. Wallenstein assumed Having raised an immense and formidable army. determining to the Duke exhaust every liberty. Through a wise command.

and appointed over it a governor. persuaded Margaret. still the Papal See has. But in making her an ob- . Though the consequences of the treaty have been of the most benignant nature to Europe. to claim the duchy as their inheritance. After a war of thirty-six years the dis- pute was settled by the interference of the emperor Eodolph. was enabled to command a strong party in support of Frederic of the project. and Gertrude. a circumstance which enabled the sacerdotal fraternity to gain and betray her 27* confidence. so prolific of disastrous wars. to persecute subjects on account of religious all acquisitions of Protestants . and the exercise of all modes and the independence of this Switzerland and of the Netherlands acknowledged. with unabated animosity. through all periods its maintained. Pope Innocent X. succeeded to the throne of Austria. complaining in bitter terms of the deep injury on the church. intrigues. original oppo- The papal were no its ruler. The Margrave Hermann. his neice. Pope Innocent V. her son.IN GERMANY. On the death of Maria Theresa. declared the duchy a vacant iief of his empire. 317 bound not differences . Maria Theresa was a very devout and superstitious princess. strenuously protested against it inflicted peace. Albert and Rodolph. Germany. since the peace of Augsburg were confirmed sect. Upon 11. . liberty of conscience. less pernicious to Austria than they had been to other powers. the sister of the deceased duke. Joseph. entire equality of of religion were guaranteed. sition to the invaluable treaty. who gave it to his two sons. the death of Duke Frederic. by the aid of the pope and his machinery.

monstrances of the vicar of Christ. This wise and sagacious policy. annulling ecclesiastical sinecures. and renewed the vigor of national energy. yet not daring to ing. seditions and rebellions. The world with pleasure. and in the various departments of the government. he no sooner ascended the throne than he manifested a disposition to adopt a policy more in accordance with the enlightenment of the age than was agreeable to the pope and the clergy. tolerating the Protestants. and to effect reforms in the churches. was not appreciated by the masses through the ignorance and superstition of the age. to dissuade him from the further prosecution of his beneBut notwithstanding the earnest reficent intentions. amid wars. and abolishing such monasteries and nunneries as were not useful as schools or hospitals. mutand finding his machinery unable to atop their progress. but also with the disguised hostility of the pope. the emperor still continued to reduce the number of the monasteries. Pope Pius IV. beheld him enlarging the liberty of the press. he pursued his magnanimous policy and if he did not effect . which relieved the people of the oppression of spiritual despotism.S18 PAPAL POLITICAL INTPvIGUES JGct of their craft they duplicity having excited in the made her son their enemy. and the subtle operation of his treacherous machinery. treating the Jews with moderation. But still. sought a personal interview with the liberal minded emperor. Their mind of Joseph a strong aversion to the intermeddling and intriguing profession. . but the church with consternation. The emperor not only had to contend with opposition from those for whose moral advancement he was laborat these useful reforms. Uneasy ter his Vatican thunder.

and wrung from her her maritime commerce. from the Oder to the Gulf of Finland. won from Conrad of Masovia a small strip of land on the Vistula. the Teutonic Knights. and her northern line of Poland and Prussia having both been plundefence. was an important part of the papal machinery. under the male line of Prince Albert. or in fact had the abilThey subjugated the Baltic seaboard. this All who yielded not to . The various orders of knights. Under pretext of protecting Poland from the ravages of Prussian heathen. suggested by papal craft. grossest This war. skill and energy on his part. continued by incredible barbarity. and in it government. they inflicted deeper injuries on her than the savages of the Prussia had ever contemplated. on a war against the Persian to and finally obliged them embrace Catholicism. was more through the intrigues of the pope than through any want of disposition. and a ferocious war was inaugurated.IN GERMANY. For fifty-three years they carried tribes. ceeding Prussia. became the slaves of spiritual despotism. . dered and oppressed by the knights. whose avocation it was to enforce conformity to the demands of Catholicism by the vengeance of the sword. fifty In the various vicissitudes of the sucyears the knights became abolished in and their possessions converted into a heredi- tary duchy. argument were threatened with extermination all who did. and finally their power was broken. culminated in In their protection of Poland perfidy. that he had contemplated. united in a bond of union against their common enemy. in 1226. ity to inflict. during which the knights lost a great portion of their territory. all 319 liis the reforms in the cliurch.

in a despotic tone. a bold spirit of resistance was excited in the provinces. and expect his subjects to tremble and obey. became the kingdom of The papal were quences. This remonstrance was regarded by the government as an act of treason. Granvella having introduced into the Netherlands the inquisition. and the severe measures he introduced to intimidate the people.320 which. Sixty years of warfare always suc- had familiarized him to deeds of blood. fierce and imperious. intrigues with regard to the Netherlands. produced great disorder and alarm. for the extirpation of religious freedom. this man knew of nothing but to command cessful. his son and narrow in his views. The nobles conspired to defend their rights the Protestants boldly celebrated their religious ceremonies. gave his mandate a terrific importance. without humbling him by the salutary lessons of misfortune. Philip. called Cardinal Granvella. Philip reAlva. but appointed in his place Proud. of fruitful Under the reign fell sanguinary and deplorable conseof Charles V. thousand Protestants erance. transcended even Charles in the and implacable in his inhumanity of Cardinal his measures towards his Protestant subjects. in conjunction with other distin- guished personages. a more cruel and implacable tyrant. and the people fled in crowds to England and Saxony. In spite of in- tolerant edicts and excruciating torture. . Prussia. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES under Francis III. hate. remonstrated against the measure. irritable in his temper. the Prince of Orange. one hundred a sacrifice to the papal intolsuccessor. As . the usual penalty of disobedience to his com- mands. The haughtiness of the cardinal. Death.

sent him to Spain as a hostage. he now illustrated the obduracy but of with which it is capable of debasing humanity. by reconstructing them in a judicious confederacy.IN GERMANY. a sagacity which no subterfuge could deceive. now declared himself a Protestant. a heroism which no danger could appall. By a perseverance which no difficulties could prostrate. Having tofore a liberal-minded Catholic. he struggled through discouragement. and seizing on his son. Orange to appear before his and that prince having refused on the ground of his exemption by privilege. under the name of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. not only of the present the absent. trait of his character. The prince. The noblest of the nation fell under the axe of his executioner and as avarice had always been a prominent . and a magnanimity which commanded the admiration of the world. and offered a reward of two hundred and fifty assassination. or whose fortunes excited a prospect of increasing his own. vexation and defeat until he had laid a solid foundation for the freedom of the provinces. not only of the living but of the dead. and drew his sword in favor of religious freedom. law and usage. thousand dollars for either his apprehension or his In 1584 the noble prince was shot dead by Balthazar Gerard. established a council of blood by means of which he condemned all whom he suspected of heresy. he declared him dispossessed of all property. by con- fiscating the property. who confessed that he had been instigated to the deed by a Franciscan monk and a . herecited the Prince of council. and inducing them to renounce allegiance to Spain. Philip hence declared the prince an outlaw. soon as lie 321 of tlie Kad assumed the direction lie Netherland provinces.

the cemetery of the military strength of Spain.322 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES. Army after army sent against the republic was annihilated by the indomitable bravery of its troops. its maritime contes. population . its freedom. in the Westphalia treaty.ts. After a and magnanwrung from Spain. a independence. full recognition of . commerce trade and prosperity. But though the founder of the republic its defence was continued with insuperable still and valor. replete with heroism it imity. a knowledge of navigation and its enterprise. fell a victim to Romish treachery. war of thirty years. tolerance gave it Its . energy . until its soil became Jesuist priest.

under IJSf POP- reign of Alphonso I — Sancho — John II — Emanuel — John III.CHAPTER XV. and the laws and constitution which were prescribed. — a7id Ferdinand VII. . in order to secure the papal support. subjugated the Moors of Por- was saluted on the field by his army dominion the Cortes Lamego invested him with regel authority and Pope Alexander III. In Portugal. By a provision of the constitution. which probably sprung from the religious tolerance of the Moorish regime. under Philip Charles the reign of Peccarred I — Charles V — III II— Philip III— Charles II— Charles IV. church and of Alphonso. made his kingdom. In Spain. in violation of victor as king of the conquered . . from becoming tributary to any foreign power. tugal. the independence of the nation. But notwithstanding this proud interdiction. Alphonso in the course of severe conflicts which afterwards took place between him and the kings of Castile and Loon. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES TUOAL AND SPAIN. the king was prohibited under forfeiture of the crown. The his own constitution. —Sebastian— Philip II — Joseph I — Maria FranIsabella— John VI — Pedro VI — and Dona II — Dionysus cesca the Maria. in 1139. in the cause of the national independence. a fief of Pv-ome. acknowledged his legitimacy.

succeeded his crown. who succeeded Alphonso III. and to subject the temporal to the spiritual authority by an insidious and gradual encroachment on the rights of the crown.. This liberal and enlightened him the friendship of the papal court.324 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES In consequence of tliis concession to papal supremacy. composed of the clergy and nobility. of equal legislative authority. John II. of the kingdom from its foun- In order to moderate the selfishness and tyranfirst ny of the and second estates. in 1245. and determined to transmit them unimpaired clergy. but he disarmed its malice by an admirable course of prudence and courtesy.. artful attempts to extend their landed estates . which had disturbed the peace dation. of Spain. he erected the cities into a third estate. Dionysus. in con- sequence. a perpetual contest with the intrigues of the Inflexibly firm and resolute. to his successor. to obtain exemption from taxation to acquire for their persons and possessions an independence of secular jurisdiction . . became involved in a dispute with the clergy and upon appealing to Pope Innocent IV. to the regal dignity. During his administration Ferdinand and Isabella. By elevating the dignity of the commonality. and taking advantage of the commercial resources which the geography of the country afi'orded. he awakened in the nation a spirit of its indomitable enterprise which laid the foundation of subsequent policy cost greatness. Sancho II. had the misfortune to lose Alphonso III. his reign was. opposed with prudence and firmness the papal intrigues. . became King of Portugal in 1450. Jealous of the rights of sovereignty. he defeated their ..

improved the injudicious measures of Spain. they had become farm- revenue . added largely to the wealth. and least liable to be suspected. as they are the most insidious. with more liberal views of government. Jews to his doand by affording them a peaceful asylum. by which thousands of them were deprived of their fortunes. Devoid of the finer sentiments of honor. its hatred against the Hebrew by a persecution as unjust as it was impolitic.IN PORTUGAL AND SPAIN.. and their characteristic avarice had rendered them obnoxious to the people. He had spirit of Catholicism. the priests. succeeded to the throne of Charimbibed the beneficent toleration of his sire. to command its support. 325 governed by the spirit of Catholic intolerance. son les v. and driven into exile. but which was too antagonistical to the sister of Portugal in 1495. of He married Elenora. Discarding the intolerance of his religion. were made instru- mental in gratifying race. Germany. of John II. he invited the persecuted minion . the crown and people. John II. but machinations for subversion would be no less incessantly at work. The Jews had arisen in Spain into considerable political influence ers of the . Emanuel.. to the advantage of his own kingdom. influenced by the church. scruple not to abuse 28 . insti- tuted a rigorous prosecution against the Jews. prosperity and im- portance of the nation. its The craft of priestly policy might conceal hostility to its tolerance from public perception. in their capacity of spiritual advisers. rectifying the evil Instead of by adequate measures. population. In the pious system of sacerdotal intrigue the amiable qualities of human nature are the most available.. which had been so advantageous to the nation.

exhibited its fiend- ish barbarism in deeds of exterminating cruelty. and with the tokrant for he had manifested.326' PAPAL POLITICAL INTPvIGL'ES privileges accorded tKem. Emanuel. was crowned King of pliant tool in the hand of papal intrigue.. she was induced by her spiritual advisers to extort from him a promise that he would require the Jews to embrace Christianity under pain of being reduced to slavery for considerations. By whatever so inconsistent Emanuel was spirit led to promulgate a decree so injurious to the national welfare. the inquisition was introduced. penetrating all secrets. in making the influence which a female may exercise over a husband. like a monster with a thousand eyes. the Jews practised the externals of Catholijcism. life. and a crusade and . hoarded for so many John III. administration. now relieved of all restraint. son of Portugal in 1521. This species illustrated m the conduct of Queen Elenora. he gave a fatal blow to the tolerance and The implacable hatred of prosperity of his kingdom. soon detected this evasion. The vigilance of the papal machinery. lover or tlie parent. To escape the persecution to which they were exposed. A years. In order to discover the persons self-preservation who thus consulted of blood and the dictates of consciences. Having acquired a controlling ascendancy over the king's mind. subservient to their of ecclesiastical intrigue is own purposes. the church towards the Jews. while they secretly observed their ancient rites. and thus to ameliorate the horrors with which it was fraught and to place the development of the catastrophe beyond the period of his . yet he had its the humanity or sagacity to procrastinate execution twenty years.

unoffending infidels of Tangiers and suddenly falling on the astonished inhabitants. who in 1557. Muley Mohammed having conspired against his uncle Muley Moloch. 327 devastation preaciied against the whole Hebrew race. in order to express his devotion to the pope. The dictates of prudence . was educated. his grandson. .. by the Jesuists." cism led At the age of twenty years his restless fanatihim to undertake an expedition against the . gained an easy victory over them. "While John III. was the wretched Sebastian. and educated by bigotry and craft. the governor of Moroco. or subjected to . during his reign. Their property was confiscated torn were from them and placed under Catholic control aad they themselve reduced to slavery. arrived at majority. instrument of Catholicism for the accomplishment of its atrocious designs. he might acquire some distinction for his name. and consequently was moulded to the same purposes. When he . he assumed the title of " Most Obedient King.IN PURTUGAL AND SPAIN. his ambition the pope absolute his devotion to became singularly whimsical and his thirst indomitable and unquenckable to engage in some enterprise in which he might shed the blood of infidels and heretics. and reduced to the same flexible Inclined to extravagance by temper and subserviency. and some advantages for the church. by the express injunction of his father's will. their children the tortures of the inquisition. The success of his forces against these defenceless mountaineers led him to imagine that his arms were invincible. disposition. at the age of three years succeeded to the throne. Sebastian conceived that by aiding the conspirators with his personal valor and military forces.

Spaniards. the protestations of his ablest counand the munificent offer of Muley Moloch to purchase his neutrality by the cession of five fortified places on the coast of Africa. in order that he might have the darkness of the night to cover a retreat. desperate fanaticism was equalled. To popularize the hazardous undertaking. if not by the heroic courage of those who had been tortured. Although the number and skilful sellors. nearly exhausted although Muley Moloch. and their disciplined valor . disposition of the Moorish troops left little doubt of their triumph. the papal machinery began to work industriously in its favor. providence in aiding him to butcher the that he even refused to defer the engagement until the afternoon. Germans. and landed with safety at the port of Alzira. Collecting an army of twenty-one thousand three hundred men. yet his Sebastian fought with distinguished brav- surpassed. the Portuguese commanders advised a retreat. and a fleet of one hundred vessels. yet so confident was Sebastian of the interposition of divine infidels. and despotism humanity. The martial semicircle of the Moors enclosed his forces in a volume of destructive flame. again attempted to negotiate a peace although some of . more con- cerned for the safety of the misguided fanatic than from any apprehension of the success of his arms. outraged. ery. Frenchmen and Italians. comprised of Portuguese.328 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES and sound policy. should such a measure become inevitable. and exiled by his intolerance. although Sebastian's provisions were . and all of those of the conspirators a retreat to the coast. were feeble remonstrances to a mind like that of Sebastian's. in which fanaticism had supplanted principle. he sailed for Africa.



and skilful manceuvres completely annihilated them. The bodies of the vanquished that strewed the battlefield










of their persons being identified


Sebastian's corpse being among the number, his actual death became doubtful. This circumstance, twenty years afterwards furnished the papal machinery with a

convenient opportunity for manufacturing a bogus SeBut although Joseph Taxera, a Dominican bastian.

monk, traversed Europe to enlist the imperial courts in its favor, yet the numerous spurious Sebastians that had sprung up, and the eagerness of several crowned heads to seize the kingdom, defeated the object of his mission. The controversy was finally settled by the battle of Alancatura, which, crowning with victory the arms of

of Spain, one of the claimants,


Portugal to the dominion of Spain. The religious frenzy and whimsical ambition of Sebastian, the result of his Catholic education, cost Portu-

gal the flower of her nobility, the strength of her army,

and her national independence overloaded her with debt, and degraded her under the dominion of a government distracted by unsuccessful wars, and governed by a rapacious and unprincipled administration. When

John III,



introduced the


into his

kingdom, the


Portugal was


under the intolerant measures of his administration, its power began rapidly to decline, until its disastrous connection with Spain secured Guinea, Brazil, the Molluccas, and all its downfall. the fairest dominions of Portugal were wrung from
her grasp. Spain oppressed her with rapacious tyranny 28*



England and

Jesuists monopolized her trade,


the calamities which had visited her in such frightful
succession exhausted her resources.

The capacity of the nation

for greatness,


standing the degradation into which she had sunk,

animated the patriotic Portuguese with the hopes of a national redemption. In 1640 a powerful conspiracy was formed against the Spanish regime, and in 1750 the



independence of Portugal was achieved, and Duke Pombal, an elevated to the throne.

statesman, and the prime minister of the gov-

ernment, regarding the Jesuists as the origin of the

weakness and disgraces of the government, and believing that their secrecy, dissimulation and treachery, absolved him from any obligation he might assume with
regard to them, inconsistent with the public good, became
a member of their order that he might acquire a correct knowledge of their principles and mode of operation, and be qualified to counteract their pernicious machinations.

pletely deceived

With profound dissimulation, he them that they admitted him
all their secrets,




timate knowledge of

plans and de-

After having fully obtained his object he
exposition of
their secrets.


a public



the dangerous principles of their constitution, their political


the oaths by Avhich they were bound,

the baseness of their intrigues, their false professions,
their horrible deeds,


their disgraceful rapacity



the exposure which he was enabled to

make he succeeded
structors of

having them removed from the

important position of confessors to the king, and in-


in colleges.


also induced Joseph





from the missions
" auto-da-fe" of



abridge the power of the bishops ~ and to prohibit the




Jesuists not being able successfully to

arrest the

progress of reform determined to assassinate the king;

but failing in this attempt, the whole order
political organization



the ban of the kingdom, and were officially declared a

under the mask of religion, and members expelled from the kingdom as enemies of the public peace, and traitors to the government. Pope Clement XIII., enraged at this summary destruction of

the most efficient department of his machinery, endeavored to intimidate the reformers by threats of excommunication, and commissioned a legate to adopt any


But kingdom; and as the conduct of the holy father in protecting and defending an organization of traitors and assassins, implicated him in the guilt of an accessory, all connection
to arrest proceedings against the

his legate

was promptly escorted

out* of the

with the See of Rome was declared dissolved until the imputation should be removed by the abolishment of
the Jesuistical
order. The vanity of Pope Clement could not permit him to suffer such a mortification, and

the decree of dissolution was rigorously enforced



his successor, at the hazard of disproving the papal in-

complying with the demands of Portugal, amicable relations were re-established.


the death of Joseph
his eldest


in 1777,

Maria Francesca


daughter, succeeded to the royal

dignity. The superstitious temperament of this queen, and her natural infirmity, which terminated in confirmed mental alienation, disqualified her for the admin-


governmental powers on sound prinpolicy, and surrendered her to the

istration of the
ciples of public

control of a corrupt priesthood

and ambitious



the intrigues of these two classes, which
sacrifice the

seldom scruple to

popular interest to their

personal advantage, Pombal was deprived of his useful
political influence,


most of his regulations w^ere aboland Portugal, from the dawn of a magnificent future, sunk into the obscurity and lethargy of her
former condition.
In 1817 John VI.,
the throne.

who had been

regent during the

imbecility of the queen, from 1795 to her death, ascended


spirit of

French republicanism

erted a liberalizing influence over Europe generally,

and had apparently a similar
sacerdotal craft

on the pope and his

Those who did not understand the profoundity of might have been stupefied with astonishment to see a pope, while professing to be infallible,

discarding principles and policies which had

been approved by the practice, and defended by the

anathemas of his predecessors.


not only sanctioned

the prohibition of Portugal forbidding Jesuists from the kingdom,

and consented




of the inquisition,

but even requested that

persecution against the Jews should cease, and that they

should be admitted to greater rights and privileges.

The popular current had

set in too strongly in favor of

change in the constitution and administration of the government for papal sagacity to oppose, and unob-

by the sacerdotal machinery, it became daily augmented in volume and impetuosity. The liberal



feeling of the nation, allowed spontaneously to flow,

culminated in 1820 in establishing, without violence or
bloodshed, a provisional government and a



Tolerance on the lips of a Catholic priest


treason to



and, though this circumstance might have cau-

tioned prudence against investing any of

them with

power, yet as they had warmly espoused the liberal
cause, they

were elected by the people




the cortes, with the exception of a few lawyers and



the assemblage of the cortes,

under the presidency of the archbishop of Braga, the revolutionary measures were sanctioned, the inquisition forever interdicted, and a constitution framed which secured freedom of person and property, the liberty of The king approved the the press, and legal equality. provisions of this constitution, and swore to support

But under


prosperous appearance of repubof religious intolerance
itself of

lican progress, the






every means to

arrest the popular current.

The portentous mutterings

and an approaching storm were frequently heard it was not, therefore, a matter of surprise to the friends of freedom, that in 1832, a regency was established at

avowed and inviting the people to rally under the standard of monarchy nor that this regency was supported by the queen, Don Miguel, the clergy and the nobility. The machinations of the papal machinery had so successfully extinguished the popular enthusiasm which had won such important concessions to natural right, that no sooner was the standard of royalty raised, than an enormous reduction
Valladolid, under the bishop of Lisbon, with the
object of subverting the constitution,



took place in the ranks of the liberal party. So manypriests, noblemen, soldiers and people espoused the
royal cause, that John VI. found no difficulty in declar-

ing the constitution of 1822, which he had sworn to
support, null




to protect his perjury


his treason to the

freedom of the people, by disarming

the military and the national guards.



then proceeded to annul


the concessions that had

been made, in accommodation to the popular feeling
they restored the church confiscated property, established a censorship over the press, imprisoned or banished the liberal


of the cortes,

and organized


junta for the

purpose of framing a monarchial conto


But Don Migual, aspiring

become absolute

king, could not submit to the restriction of a constitution;

and, being commander-in-chief,

and exercising

the governmental powers, excited an insurrection against

the Lisbon cortes, and arbitrarily proceeded to banish
all liberals, constitutionalists,

of other secret societies.

freemasons, and members That he might successfully
his ultimate de-

remove every obstacle that imperiled

he forbade


appeals to the king.

But the


w^hich his ambition dictated were too reprehensible not
to acqure for his administration a dangerous
dicial notoriety.

and prejuand Don

In spite of


precaution the rumor

of his tyranny penetrated the royal palace,

Miguel was summoned into the presence of the king to Candidly explain the reasons for his arbitrary conduct. acknowledging or artfully assuming that he had been
the innocent victim of craft and misrepresentation, he

succeeded in obtaining the king's pardon.

In 1826 John VI. died, and Isabella becoming regent,



administered the government until Pedro IV. of Brazil, the brother of the deceased king, could make it convenient to visit Portugal, and assume the reigns of gov-


After having done so he established a conproviding two legislative chambers, and then

abdicated in favor of his eldest daughter,

Dona Maria

da Gloria.

Don Miguel,

his brother, the chamberlains,

and the magistrates swore to support the constitution. But the first, in violation of his oath of allegiance, and of his fraternal obligations, entered into a conspiracy for its overthrow. ^Yith this object in view he organized an apostolic party, and abusing the power and confidence with which he was honored, offices secretly filled the army, navy, and civil with his adherents. Having matured his plans he
caused an insurrection to break out against the queen,

order to enable




the royal authority

under pretense

of restoring public tranquillity.

land, however, interfering, the revolution

and the project

of usurpation frustrated.

Engwas checked, But the trea-

sonable plot was skilfully and comprehensively laid,

and the zealous support which it derived from the papal machinery soon rendered it popular with the masses. As if enamored of slavery and despotism, the people began to crowd into the ranks of the apostolic party, to second its declaration in favor of Don Miguel as kiug, to unite in its shouts of " Long live the absolute king," " Down with the constitutions," and to denounce, abuse and assault those who refused to echo its suicidal acclamations. A few military garrisons which still withstood the popular frenzy, and adhered to the cause of
constitutional government, raised the standard of revolt;

FAFAL FOLITICAL INTRI0UF8 IN 8FAIN. "We will conclude our history of Papal Political In- by a cursory glance at a few of its instances with regard to the government of Spain. which greatly outnumbered it and being defeated. The Moorish government adopted a more 1-beral policy than was consistent wdth the spirit of Catholicism. It was met by the apostolic army. It established libraries and universities from the hand of its civilization Europe has received the knowledge of arithmetical characters. . the liberal junta was dissolved and Don Miguel proclaimed absolute king. In 1834 Don Miguel was defeated by Don Pedro IV. until 711. an army was organized which marched against Lisbon.. It per- mitted the subjugated to retain their laws and magistrates. and of Ihe art of manufacand. arts and science flour- ished under . when the kingdom became a province of the Caliph of Bagdcd.336 PAPAL POLITICAL i:ntriques and being joined by other troops. turing rags into paper. Agriculture. It tolerated the free exercise of all religions. Catholicism was introduced into Spain in 586. of gunpowder. and from that period the political governmental affairs were controlled by the intrigues of the clergy. commerce. the reign of Reccared I. and the constitution of 1826 was re-established by the cortes. its auspices. . But the Infidels who conferred these advantages could not conciliate the proud spirit . under trigues.

and political despotism. After suppressing an insurrection of his Spanish subjects. and primogenitureship in succession was conse- quently inaugurated . an opulent kingdom. and his religious intolerance perpetually convulsed it with sedition and war. religious. rigorous persecution was inaugurated against the Moors and Jews. and Chili poured a continual stream of wealth into the public treasury. he established over the kingdom a military. compelling such as refused to be baptized to leave the kingdom. Besides But her decline was tional unity. also Emperor of Germany. of nationality. of the rapacious monarch. and enormous loans negotiated to satisfy the demands II. Peru. In 1555 Philip ascended the throne of Spain. nor the pope to the loss of revenues derivable from. ultimated in the reduction of the Moors under Castellian supremacy. and so reckless were his expenditures. and annihilating the last vestige of civil liberty by separating the deliberative estates. of this prince fitted The Catholic education ter for a cloister him bet- than a throne. yet excessive taxes had to be imposed. the conflicting laws and customs which prevented na- and the a political tyranny which oppressed the masses. "With the achieve- ment ica. and a succession of conquests.IN SPAIN. A national struggle for indevisibility of empire. and subse- quently. who demanded a liberal constitution. that although Mexico. So oppressive was his admin- istration. 337 of tKe Spaniard to subjugation under foreign rule. Spain began to rank with the and the discovery of South Amerfirst powers of Europe. His rapacity empov- erished the nation. as rapid as her elevation. from 1220 to 1491. His devout- 29 . In 1520 Charles V. became king of Spain.

thought better to consult prudence than office. perhaps it surprised at the belligerent attitude of a king once so remarkably obedient. became invested with the royal dignity.8 est wish. His inhuman and impolitic course having led his frequent massacres. heretics. and commissioned the bloody Alva to proceed with an army to Eome and chastise the holy father for his insulting political intrigues. when his army was engaged in battle . In 11G9 Philip III. The pope alarmed.. without when his truce with France was broken by the interference of Pope Paul IV. with- out any administrative capacity. smell of burning heretics was never offensive to his nostrils. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES was to extirpate was an auto-da-fe.33. yet right to the kingdom of Naples was declared forfeited. By nature a tyrant. he awoke from his lethargic slumbers. and educated in superstition and intolerance. Although his Catholicism had transformed him into merely mechanical part of the papal machinery. he seems to have been born .. and. as if the triumph was the result of his valor and military skill. and his feeling or reason. sight in and his most pleasing which he could behold his Like Sigismnnd. the subjects expiring in the flames." As cowardly as he was blood-thirsty. it w^as his custom ^ to retire to a safe retreat and pray for its success and whenever a victory was achieved to assume the head of the command.. his minister to intimate that he kingdom by was depopulating his he replied " Bet: ter be without subjects than to reign over heretics. by temper a bigot. and to avert the impending chastisement by subscribing to articles of the divine prerogatives of his peace.

succeeded to the tnrone of the The decaying embers of liberalism amid the gloom of desGepotism. now tottered on the verge of Favorites were allowed to waste the national revenues. acy of England. grandson of his sister.. In 1759 Charles III. was prophetic of her preinherited. were fortunately exhibited in the favorite publicists and states- men of the monarch. he made Philip of Anjou. Profound and elevated views of to characterize the administra- political economy began . of the Spanish succession.. decay. which alone are capable of grappling with the astute principles of government. England and Holland destroyed the Spanish peace commerce. in order to prevent the division of the empire. and two million . which had began to scintillate developing the latent greatness of a people. which had been resolved upon by This will led to the war France. nius and intelligence. frequent insurrections destroyed the public eight hundred thousand Jews. consort of Louis XIV. and she each succeeding reign verifying prophecy. the sole heir of his dominion. Moors were. now shone forth with renewed brilliancy. maintained himself on the Spanish throne.IN SPAIN. At his death. In 1665 Charles II. during this and the preceding administration driven from the country and to complete the national degradation Spain had to submit to the suprem. succeeded to the regal authority. notwithstanding which the Bourbon. which occurred in 1700. Philip V. and of Spanish monarchy. mature the ruin. England and Holland. for the the disgrace 839 of the throne and destruction he In the most brilliant period of Spanish history her religious despotism.

a pragmatic sanction their property. the nation splendor and pros- perity. imprisoned. and confiscated bigotry. and monarch. wealth to the treasury. banished the Jesuists from the Spanish dominions. the national importance of agriculture. and a million men to the population. who so greatly contributed to .340 . although their liberal policy had improved every department of government. a man of penetrating genius. amid the disasters of war. a ability man of extraordinary ambassador at Rome. "With Count Florida Blanca. as . arts and manufacture. Aranda. and had added. and the best means for their development. . against the attacks of bishops and reducing the number could not but increase in it of mendicants. But Rome and her priests could not forgive these benefactors of the nation. By the co-operation of these patriotic statesmen. holding the pope in check with Aranda. profound erudition. a scholar of varied and . occupying the most influential position of the state with Olavides enjoying the confidence of the activity. and disgraced. became more generally understood by the government and the people. as Castile. fiscal gaent of the royal council of equalizing taxa- defending the enlightened policy of the govern. and finally banished to his estates. Campomanes was removed from ofiice. PAPAL POLITICAL INTPvIGUES tion and the true principles of commerce. notwithstanding had became involved in a formidable war which raged between France and England. Florida Blanca w^as disgraced. ment tion . whose lofty spirit scowled on despotism and religious was obtained from the government which restricted the inquisition. and elaborating laws for public improvement and with Campomanes.

his beneficent esy. and the Virgin Mary duly invested wdth his authority and jurisdiction. in the midst of was arrested for herand imprisoned in a monastic dungeon. And Olavides. at the request of Charles III. acknowledged without hesitation 20- . who placed Joseph Bonaparte on the throne. the pope. of the monarchy from aggressions from without. and shortly aftewards resigned the crown in favor of his son. through several trying vicissitudes. public security. so now invocations to the Virgin Mary became the principal act of tion of all degree. The truth of the Immaculate Conception was demonstrated beyond prudent dispute by the oaths of the emperor and the estates and similar oaths were made the indispensable condiand patriotic labors who should henceforth receive a university member of any corporation or association. the former protecting genius of Spain.. A month had not elapsed before ho secretly revoked his resignation. James. For the better protection. In 1788 Charles IV. perhaps. Ferdinand VII. good order. declared the Spanish monarchy to be under the supervision of the Immaculate Conception. was banished to Arragon. was invested with the imperial In 1808 the troops of Bonaparte having en- tered his dominions.IN SPAIN. was formally deposed from office. he welcomed them as allies. dignity.. and after passing tlie 341 abolition of abuses. and from insubordination from within. or become a devotion. St. and the greater part of the educated classes of Spaniards. and finally ceded his right to the crown to Napoleon. As reverence for the clergy had become the substance of the Catholic religion. Although the ministers of Ferdinand VII.

The papal machinery held the people in such absolute control that. abolishing ay they triumphed the feudal privileges. through bloody campaigns. Armies after armies. in interests are identified with des- conjunction with the absolutists. the inquisition. Insurgent bands everywhere carried on the bloodiest struggles. yet the monks and priests. and announced an alliance between England and Spain. and in favor of Ferdinand VIL as king.-d A . A now junta was established at Seville which proclaimed war against France. in the arrogance of the French. their communications cut off by guerillas. inaugurated.d assassinat- ing the captives of war. Their ranks were constantly thinned by the secret dagger. to excite a general insurrection against the French regime.342 PAPAL POLITICAL INTPcIGUES the authority of Joseph. and in the national hostility to foreign domination. from 1808 to 1814 during which every important city was successively taken and lost. by the victory of the English at Peace being restored to the nation the cortes assemb- . were created and destroyed with melancholy rapidity. found sufficient available material in the change of dynasty. closed. yet thev retained no place which they did not garrison. and their wounded murdered in cold blood. ra-. whose principles and potism. though the French gained victory after victory. the monkish order. and supported by England. and wo- men took a fiendish delight in torturing ar. and endeavored by the most liberal concessions to conciliate the popular prejudices. A length the dreadful trag- edy was Toulouse. desperate struggle was six which. on both sides. and every province was desolated and drenched in blood.

allies When interrogated as to his the : disposition of complying with the demands of he replied in a tone of insolent indifference " I have not thought about it. 343 led. produced disloyalty. . intended to intimidate insurgents. by the cortes. put liberals to the rack executed all who opposed . confusion and anarchy. the domineering pretensions of the priests imprisoned those who ventured to remonstrate against his measures incarcerated in monastic dungeons the members of the cortes and . . But the motives which induced him to make these promises did not urge him to fulfil them. The army became . dissatisfied . domineered with absolute despotism over the lives and fortunes of his subjects. re-established the inquisition . founded on liberal principles.IN- spai:n'. and to the freedom of the press. "While he nullified the old constitution." To fortify the absolute power he intended to usurp he professed to abhor despotism. and which had been acknowledged of Spain. and solemnly pledged his honor to grant the people a new constitution. encouraged . and banished them with their wives and children abolished freemasonry restored the Je. declar- ing that before Ferdinand should be acknowledged as king. he did not restrict his authority by a new one but in the exercise of absolute power arrested the officers who served under Joseph Bonaparte. and sliortly afterwards passed a resolution. and which would afford ample protection to the rights of person and property. . These severe proceedings. . the people insubordinate the country infested with . he of should be required to swear to support the constitution cortes which had been drawn up by the 1812. suists . plundering and murdering guerillas and.

and to restore harmony and vigor to the nation. The cortes assembled. the priests. The clergy and absolutists. declared for tbe constitution of 1812. A provisional junta was established to conduct -the public affairs. The progress of this revolution was strenuously opposed by the allied forces of the monks. endeavored by the means of moderate measures to conciliate the prejudices and interests of contending factions. The bishop of Cienfuegos defeated it at Cadiz. non-juring they appealed to the religious frenzy of the people. for the avowed design of destroy- ing the privileges of the crown and the clergy. four battalions. merous bands in the different of Nuarmed monks and iDcasants appeared provinces and their bold assassinations . ized a conspiracy for the overthrow of the constitution and as the cortes had in their reformatory measures all abolished some convents. ter revolution an apostolic junta was established on the frontiers of Portugal. organ. and in a session of four months. in 1819. and succeeded in creating considerable opposiIn the interest of this coun- tion to the constitutions. and barbarous tion. But the people inhaling the patriotic enthusiasm. and banished priests. found himself obliged to submit to the demands of the people. The inquisition was abolished.344 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES this turbulent state by of affairs. Ferdinand deprived of troops. under Riago. and the absolutists. and even the apostolics deserted their commanders. before which Ferdinand appeared and swore to support the constitution of 1812. except that of unrestricted monarchy. and almost of adherents. whom no concession could satisfy. that acts produced such universal consterna- the cortes declared the whole country in a . arose in masses in its favor.

who were received by the Spanish clergy with acclamations of joy. succeeded finally in effecting the disbandment of their forces. Christians." they sovereign powers. cy. that Madrid. and declared the acts of the cortes null and void. the absolutists established a regency under the Marquis Mataflounda. and termed by them "Good The peasantry. the absolutists. In 1822 another attempt was made to subvert the At Soi d'Urgel. but within all Europe. But this evidence and determination of Spain to maina constitutional government. established a junta which formed a provisional government on absolute principles. The army of composed of apostolic soldiers. on the confines of France. But the cortes met the conspirators with skilful and vigorous measures. France. awakened into oppoevery element of despotism. of the capability tain The regency fled to France. the cortes full The pope refused to The nuncio left Austria. receive Spanish ambassadors. and supported France was the instigator of this regenit with her influence and money. not only within her the sition borders. were met by the united strength of the nation. . and soldiers of the faith. and Prussia demanded of should restore to Ferdinand and England advised acomThe Duke Angouleme. France raised an army of the soldiers of the faith. constitution. every engagement. the commander of the French forces. pliance with the demand. state 345 It was now evident that tlie priests had stimulated the peasants to insurand monks who rection had been instigated by the French government. and overwhelmed with defeat.IN SPAIN. and having vanquished them in of siege. controlled by the priests.

the and the people residing in cities gen- educated classes. powers in the and their attempts to defeat a governmental reform which they had sanctioned. they appropriated its surplus plate to the necessity of the public treasury. and without pecuniary resources. yet they were full of energy and he- The cortes repelled with patriotic indignation the insolent interposition of foreign powers. and the unequalled . and which. But the undaunted fence.346 espoused tlie PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES cause of the absolutists. Though few in number. The dictatorial interference of foreign united the different factions of the constitutionalists in a solid body in favor of their country and its liberty. prepared for the doubtful contest with consummate skill. and internal affairs of a sovereign nation. and others a stubborn and desperate resistance. to achieve had cost the nation so much treasure. The gloom which now overshadowed the prospects of the constitutionalists. fired the native pride and heroism of the Spanish character. The soldiers of the faith. erally adhered to the party of the constitutionalists. and their guerilla bands. army to oppose the march of the French and the apostolic forces. tut the army. exclusively requiring the attention of the national guards and of the soldiers of the line. the cortes found themselves with- out an efficient troops. firmness of the remaining leaders. without allies. As the church had been the chief cause of the national calamity. and roic courage. was ominously deepened by the defection of some of their generals. and so many valuable lives. yet others submitted with scarceiy a struggle. This serious disadvan- tage enabled the absolutists to march on from victory to victory and though some places made a good de.

" "Death to the Ferdinand then declared null and void all the acts of the constitutional government. and now dungeons. The apostolics. exile. hailed acclamations of " live religion. . by an 1812. his daughter. and even approved by the pope. the sale of the sequestered church property suspended. the soldiers of the faith." the liberals. Isabella having attained her majority. and the secret dagger nearly comso disgraceful to Europe. revised and democratic provisions. An attempt was made to introduce the inquisition. Under these depressing cir- cumstances. was substituted for that of 1837. supported by France. fall desperately disputed inch by inch the progress of the monarchists. and extraordinary provisions devised for the support of the clergy. to In 1837 the regent was obliged. the clergy and the uneducated classes." " Long Death live the absolute king. he created Christina. the infirmities of Ferdinand having rendered him the dupe of designing favorites. In 1832. insurrection. The bloody contests in pleted their annihilation. was declared deprived of its The constitution. admonition to which the liberals had been engaged greatly depleted their ranks. the queen. regent for the infanta Isabella. the cortes invested Ferdinand with absolute power. so honorable to the constitutionalists. "boldness 347 and skill which characterized their niancKuvres. queen.IN SPAIIT. successfully resisted the obnoxious measure. and all the public approvals by which he had sanctioned them." " to him with Long the nation. until the of Valencia terminated the so full of eventful struggle. and freemen. After the adoption of this constitu- tion the municipal privileges were abridged. but negroes. proclaim the constitution of In 1843.

Papal Intrigues secution — Catholic Persecution— Protestant PerRevolutionary War— In Pehellion — Catholic Enmity and ReLiberty — An Alliance formed for Subversion of American Republic — The Duke of Richmond's Letter— Catholic Immigration — Progress of Catholicism — Consequences — The Republic in Imminent Danger — Union Only Means Salvation — — Catholics in the the late ligious to Civil the the Its 'of Conclusion. that whenever the causes of civil or foreign war became active. yet since that unfortunate period it cannot be denied. PAPAL INTRIG UPS' RPSPPOTING THE UNITED STATES. like successive tor- nadoes. Peter was established . compelled the Danes to . That the papal pretensions have been a fruitful source of the seditions and wars which. Treason and popular disaffection have revolutionized and annihilated government after government long before the throne of St. yet still no one will venture the assertion that popish machinations have been the sole cause of jDolitical discords.CHAPTER XVI. have swept in fearful rapidity over Christendom. and that Otho I. Through of their intrigues the extermin- ating sword of Charlemagne compelled the Saxons to be baptized . the records of history furnish the most unquestionable evidence . the sacerdotal monarchs have inflamed or soothed them according to the dictates of their interests.

was persuaded to agree to matrimonial stipulations allowing her. to confine princess Elizabeth in the tower. French to support Scotland in a rebellion against her 30 . who wished to fount. to Protestant bishops for high treason. marry Bertha. was induced. to promulgate a law com. to consent to be baptized and his troops who had followed him to the field of slaughter. to expel from his kingdom . to bring her bishop with her. and Mary a person of good imprison natural qualities and administrative abilities.. upon becoming his wife. and to consent to abstain from nuptial congress with his queen Edward IV. cated her .IN THE UNITED STATES. . 349 Through their intrigues Clovis accept ilie same rite. the same artful means Ethelwolf was led to confer on the clergy the tithes of all the produce of the land Alfred the Great. King of Paris. endeavored to supinduced the plant her with Mary Queen of Scots. to execute to her husband Guilford Dudley. By the same disgraceful and impertinent intrigues the reign of Queen Elizabeth was perpetually disturbed with efl'orts The popes excommunito overthrow her government. mitting to the flames esy of the Lollards . by his Catholic wife. daughter of Carobert. all persons convicted of the herI. were led to follow him also to the baptismal By the same means Ethelbert. tions of Lady Jane Gray and provoke the insurrec- Cave and Wyat. and permitting him to establish a CathBy olic church in the kingdom for her convenience. and to render herself a terror to her nation. to commit to the flames two hundred and twenty-seven of her innocent subjects. denied her legitimacy . all the Danes that refused to be baptized Edward to accept the title of saint and confessor in lien of an heir to his throne.

Abyssinia. war and revolutions. racks. of all contracts. openly when she dares. assisted by m^erchants. the Duke of Marieborough was led to prockiim the Pretender in Scotland Cardinal Alberoni. Sweden. . of every obligation of humanity. Besides these intermeddlings with the national affairs of all governments. to engage land. banishment. all of which were fearfully pro- church assails all non- Catholics with the most execrable persecution. by means of corporeal punishment. Similar papal machinations have interfered with the peace of France. Japan. Poland. under that of George I. and of ductive of sedition. to form an alliance in his favor with Russia. stakes and scaffolds. of all oaths. Spain. fire. Sweden. Belgium.350 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES in the north. created a sedition Florentine incited Spain to promote a conspiracy against her. By the same disastrous intermeddling the reign of Queen Ann was disturbed with efforts to restore the succession to James the Pretender. anarchy. and the and when all these Scotchmen residing in Enghind efforts proved abortive. secretly when she must. Russia. France and Spain and Atterbury. in a conspiracy for the same object. Egypt. China. the Catholic many other governments. murder. as a by imprisonment. the pope's tool for the recovery of Eng. minister of Spain. of all urges of all pecuniary engagements. the Bishop of Ross. Germany. Hear the truth of these assertions from the sanctified lips of the holy mother herself: . swords. Bishop of Rochester. Portugal. and duty the persecution and extermination unbelievers. to organize a conspiracy to have her assassinated by Anthony Babington. In her fiend- ish malice she counsels the violation of every principle of justice. government.

3. . 1854. Bymerl: 352. but she exercises the temporal sword by the hand of the prince. 260. or before the beginning of their heresy).. may be dissolved by Pope Innocent X. or oaths of Catholics with they are heretics. so that he has the right to direct and compel. tacit condition that the The debtor's oath implied the creditor. The temj^oral magistrate holds it subject to her order. because "Civil contracts. the other for the church the one by the hands of the priest. Oppos. namely. Corp. illegal." " Though sworn to a debtor who falls into error or pay he may refuse the claims of under excommunication. state in which communication would be lawful. c." this kind. pledged. But. should remain in a St. both swords. Con. the priest. Jur. Consed. to be exercised in her service. Mayrwoth Report. but the one is to the spiritual and the temporal sword be exercised by the church. death. but as the sword of Pope Boniface. per chance. 2Iag. and under her direction. ." tome 11: p. by divine right." Bronsons Bcv." " Bernard de given to Peter. 14. : She (the church) bears. after Engagements made with heretics and schismatics of such have been consummated. Jacob. 138. or one's honor being Pope Urban VI. even if confirmed by an oath." " Two swords were the other spiritual. the one temporal. and in law itself is of no importance. (although made. promises. cd.. 4 c. with the power of life and Ecc.. . Reg. " Both swords are in the power of the Pope. heretics. Caron. 1139. Jan. Lib. 351 " The Catholics believe that the Pope's authority is not only ministerial but supreme. the other by the hands of the king and the soldiers..'' Bernard.IN" THE UNITED STATES. to be entitled to payment.. Bochcr. the Pontiff. by the lapse of 'those persons into schism. or the magistrate. are inconsiderate.

however. heretics ought to be punished. power nor to be the crowns and kingdoms nor has she elaborated a policy. 123. deprived of all things." says The last punishment of the body for heretics. She.. reluct- antly. cap. But unlike Catholicism. which they previously had over all persons of all conditions for he who is a heretic is. : " But it will be said that Protestants have been guilty This assertion is of persecution as well as Catholics. like Catholicism. . with spies penetrat- ing all domestic and national secrets. "is the deprival of every sort of preeminence. claims not. cap. . Guizot conher practice has necessarily been inconsist- ent with* her profession of toleration. " is death. 1055. jurisdiction and government. one which very much annoys heretics is the proscription and confiscation of their astical sanctions . ipso jure." Alphonso de Castro. he. cap. and effect the body. : "Another punishment.. and effect the soul alone others are corporeal. 12 p. although she admits the right of private judgment. sition of dominion. 5 : p. 98. 7 p. supreme and universal temporal and spiritual She has no central head." Ih. that Protestantism." he informs us. with regret. Among the corporeal punishments. has proved a foe to civil and religious liberty. to be the source and sucontroller of all political . We confess. adopted a systematic course of measures. Some are spiritual. but still she has fesses that made them. and communicat- . by God's assistance.352 " PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES There are various punishments with which ecclesi- and imperial laws order heretics to be punished." lb. and organized a clerical force for the acquisole preme disposer of . unquestionably true. with which we will prove. property. indeed. she has made concessions.

. her interests. . no interdicts to . 353 She has the information they have acquired. has never organized armies for the extension of her dominion. heretics to death. alarm superstitious minds by the suspension of religious worship in disaffected kingdoms. The Puritan Cromwell persecuted both Catholics and Episcopalians. nor monastic vows no father confessors no religious . and no spiritual guides. concocting treaShe son. and producing anarchy.. no religious orders. and those who disbelieved the other of England. Would they were. She has never butchered whole cities for one day put one hundred thousand She has done none of these things. nor in cuted with equal severity those who believed in the pope's right to temporal power.IN ing to it THE UNITED STATES. inflicted the most atrounder James cious punishment on the Irish Catholics and under Elizabeth. She has never interfered between rulers and their subjects. yet her hands are not unstained with innocent blood. and illiberal disabilities. no rack and torture for her opponents no pretensions to absolve subjects from their oaths of allegiance. of England. The Church under Charles I. dogmas of Catholicism. requiring them to adopt every available method of* subjugating all government under confessional. . nor nunneries. . In Ireland he 31* . it oppressed I. She imposes no oaths of allegiance on her priests. Henry YIII. on tho Puritans both Catholics and dissenters with tyrannical measures. perseunbelief.. her authority. and for the subjugation of kingdoms to her authority. no political machinery ramifying every part of Christendom. and acting in concert for the promotion of She has no convents. She has no inquisition. no military knights. fomenting sedition.

2000 dissenting clergymen of their livings and by his them from approaching within miles of their former parishes. and legal disabilities. imprisonment and death. All who disbelieved in the holy trinity were also subject to similar persecutions. additional toleration was accorded. Even in republic America. Republicans. In Virginia all Quakers that disbe- . creeds. III. persecuted Covenanters. holy trinity. and Quakers were once fined. John Calvin. Yet the Quakers. its But the rigor of severity. of the Consistory of Geneva. confiscation. was elevated to five-mile act prohibited five the throne he deprived .354 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES . wasted the Catholics with fire and sword in Scotland he put whole garrisons of dissenters to death and as his schemes for obtaining the royal dignity suggested. When Charles 11. cease to punish a belief in Unitarianism with imprison- ment. at the head had John Guet beheaded on a charge of attempting to overthrow the doctrines of and Micheal Servetus arrested and burnt alive for having attacked the doctrine of the the Calvinistic church . Still it must be admitted that the ablest agents in extorting these concessions to religious liberty were the Free Thinkers of that age. and Puritans. the intolerant spirit of religious bigotry predominates more or less over the mind of the Christian republic. some of the disabilities which oppressed the dissenters were removed and under that of George . under the ele- vating influence of liberal institutions. imprisoned. Protestantism eventually relaxed Un- der William III. Kot until 1813 did Protestant England harmless of all able body of citizens. always the most respect- and the professors of the most were still punished with fines. setts Baptists In Massachu- and burnt alive. .

If we are. of trust or profit in the State nor even to this day is any person eligible who disbelieves in a God. under the all banished or put to death. eligible to any -^-as .IN THE UNITED and STATES. Hume. who professed not to Christianity. charter of "William Pena. Cuvier. by the prorisions of almost every State constitution in filling the that Union. is Every Protestant cution. illiberality. Jefferson. a perperse- petual source of mutual jealousy. If nancy over the pages are not Christians. animosity and "" The same intolerant spirit breathes its maligof the religious press. be debarred from the lowest office they create. In Maryland disbelief in the . holy trinity -was declared to be a capital offence -until recently believe in office and any person. indicates it In fact the history of no religious sectary to be a bond of love. to persons ttat refused have their children baptized ^ve^e scourged. all 355 liered in the holy trinity. Gibbon. Atheists Avere excluded from not official position. I believe that they should predominate over our whole life. La Place." we says the Church Uyiion. creed. and the national policy shaped by them. Humboldt. or concord. The statute books of every Protestant country bear testimony to the same Buffon. let us have them incorporated in the basis of our government." of an attempt once These holy ravings remind us to incorporate made by the Puritans " the Bible into the British constitution. sectary or conclave. The wrestlers . " let us make no hvpoeritical pretensions of founding governments on Christian principles. union. Let no one hold an office of trust or profit whose life is not conformably thereto. confined. unless a Jew. In Pennsylvania. and other eminent scholars and patriots would. Voltaire.

? Did he not write against it. deliberating upon a motion to repeal the laws of England. preach and labor publicly and" privately to arrest its . would a Did not republic have been thought of? Kever •John Wesley. its founder and sj^irit. and. much teach less its encouraged by those who openly doctrines. oppose. The religious politics of the Methodist Home : of the ChurcJi Union.356 PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIGUES with God. But the knife with which this mad'man wo-uld cut his own throat 'Infidelity would wrest -from him. But Cromwell averted the calamity "by a peremptory dissolution of parliament.the Amerif can revolution 'against it. Journal are similar in tone with that This infuriated orthodox theodoctrines of Chrisbasis on logian says " They that deny the tianity. nor permitted to hold Christian citizenship under this government. which our government is Can they be regarded as citizens? Ought to this position any man who holds be admitted to —or permitted to hold Christian citizenship under this government? We hold that to be consistent with ourselves Infidelity should not be tolerated in our country. according to the logic of this fanatic the sect that holds them ought not regarded as citi- zens. and a command it to " the wrestlers" to go home. They ingore the basis on which our government to be is founded. and substitute in their place the laws of Moses and the prophets. The sacred basis of our government is 'equal political and religious rights." profess- and These assertions are the evident irrepressible ebullitions of innate treason to the republic." as they called themselves were.' nor did he think call prudent to them together again. ignore the founded. Had Methodism 'been chosen as the basis of our government.

loaded with the curves . in conjunction with unand political aspiring judges. are to-day laboring to incorporate in the national constitution the fanaticism of the Church Union and of the Methodist Some Journal. Had Constantino the Great. despotism that. and dropped in mercy the pen already inked to inaugurate the tremendous of Christianity with •catastrophe. defended it without shame or com- Even at this day Potestant priests have punction. When their holy trea- son shall have become a abode . though frenzied with ambition and crimsoned with guilt. we fondly hope in the course of coming events the fanatics will not discover that they have legalized their own extermination. a fugitive of justice from the State pens. Tights. and to roll its heavy surge over all future time. liberty will forsake her desecrated . (for they surrender which any person is them by their assertions.) bound to respect. will occupy her temple and. Yet how sickening is the thought that the -example of ihis ambitious tyrant. he would have been more obdurate than a fiend had he not cowled his head in horror at the frightful vision.. beheld the boundless ocean of gore which was destined to flow from an incorporation the civil power.IN progress THE UNITED STATES. this bigoted priest. Such self- principled demagogues accursed. of — North Carolina. success. ' 357 Was there a man in England that inflicted ? deeper injury on the American cause ? While English Infidels aided the struggle for independence with their money and valor. while English statesmen blushed at the barbarous conduct of their government. dared to assert that Infidels have no rights which they but such miscreants have no are bound to respect . self-outlawed bigots.

Did not Catholics fight for the establishment of a free government in the revolutionary war ? Did they not fight to defend it in the war of 1812 ? Did they not fight to preserve its unity in the late rebellion ? No well informed person will answer these questions in the negative . names in imperishable for honor on the scroll of lib- Thankful the few names blazoned there. love of liberty stitution. is PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES now attempted political judges. The frequent opposition of Catholic princes to the policy and measures of the popes. have been too strong to be repressed by dogmatic creeds. but the education of Catholics. freedom must drop a tear over the smallness of the number. It will be asked. shackles and stakes. perhaps. and the religious despotism with which they are enthralled. to be imitated by Protestant and United States officials. it . Catholics are is a natural principle of the men and the human con. and no candid person will fail to acknowledge the distinguished valor and liberality which they dis- played on these occasions. prejudice mislead and superstition overawe its but when the natural it vigor of disposition aroused will assert its rights It is not in defiance of creeds. Ignorance may is blind it . the play of the natural principles of liberty in the minds of some priests. they have inscribed their erty. what has the American republic to apprehend from it? It will be asked.358 of ages. that has so homage and allegiance. notwithstanding the facts which have been adduced showing the political nature and designs of the Catholic church. the numerous leagues often deprived freedom of their . But thanks to nature. the nature. Gloriously inconsistent with their principles. it . priests.

ot The popes. it is not surprising that they fought in the defence of the independence and freedom of America. another happy instance of the predominance which paertheless they triotism may gain. but nevform the distinctive principles of the Gallican Church. Louis IX. and also of other Catholic churches in Th^ Fenian order is different kingdoms of Europe. in the temporal concerns of princes and sovereigns inviolable is . deprived him of temporal authority.. from an early date. of France. and that the pope is n. directly temporal matters. independence of Rome in all 1682 convened a national council of the clergy at Paris. in a pragmatic sanction 1433. asserted for France. Charles issued in VIII. that the visages of the French church are that the authority of the general councils . boldly opposed the pope's claim to St. 359 which they have formed. Louis XIV.IN THE UNITED STATES. by the means of bulls. have at various times chastised the pope. . in the minds its of Catholics. which decided that the Pope of Rome had no power to interfere. and contempt for his pretensions.. that the temporal power of France temporal power. The liberal minded people of France have. and the vast armies which they have raised in their support. abundantly show how often their reverence for the pope has been displaced by defiance to his authority.over their reverence for the church and If Catholics despotism. was independent of the jurisdiction of Rome. No one that has an .. in or indirectly. imprisoned and deposed him. have attempted to nullify these acts. in conformity with the canons of the Council of Basle. in 1269. superior to that of the pope infallible in matters of faith. . assaulted his person. declared in a pragmatic sanction.

Bishop Hughes asserted that Catholicism was friendly to republics. might have 25ersonally engaged. and at the mystery of which leading secessionists it were so much puzzled a general that they declared to be the effects of . in perfect consistency with his pretensions. England of it was designs on the colonies them- In a republic he could plant his machinery. it Had the pope and priests been opposed to . leisurely and occupy eligible and strategic points for citadels. and religious The insincerity of any proposed attachment to the American republic by popes or priests.360 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES adequate conception of the papal policy. it could not have taken place. a Catholic rebel would scarcely have been known and had not the Catholics North and South been in favor of the rebelThat singular and lion. for they allowed But the development of Catholits free development. unnecessary intestine collision. The pope claims England as his fief. in which the South gained nothing but disgrace. The success of a revolt intended to deprive her colonies was as gratifying to his revenge as flattering to his ulterior selves. and denounces her kings as usurpers. and collect from every kingdom his most faithful and reliable subjects. It was a cause in which the pope himself. build up at will his monastic penitentiaries. icism involves the subversion of republics. and the select establishment in their place of political despotism. will be mucli astonished that the Catholics were prominent leaders in the revolutionary war. the North nothing but depopulation and empoverishment. is attested by the very occurrence of the Southern rebellion. erect his strong castle-like and secret-celled churches.

were sults of the rebellion . But dismemberment could not possibly have been intended by the secret projectors of the rebellion. and the Catholics of by their priests to meet each in deadly conflict. were all known prospective rein harmony with the papal designs and to realize North. which the Catholics of the the South were stimulated Shortly after the close of the rebellion this soil. The geography of the country interposed to its success an insurmountable obstacle. the cause of the Union. 361 lunacy. was nevertheless in perfect harmony with the profound and masterly policy of the Ptoman See. rebellion. and the Catholics South the cause of the rebellion with votes. and the supplanting all of colored servants by white Catholic servants. It was an impracticable idea.- IN THE UNITED STATES. of the church. which comprehends in its toils the events of ages. . money and men the was not contrary to the teachings . ]jlot to its final consummation. and from the first projection of a. the crea- tion of an oppressive national debt. monarchy was not an impracticable idea. Catholic blood which was poured out in such torrents in the civil conflicts was not intended to eff'ect dismemberment. The Catholics North supported. The in harmony with the policy of the Roman See. the demoralization consequent on civil war. the influx of foreign Catholics. therefore. The depopulation of the native element of the North. the engenderment of civil antipathies. but to create the elements conducive to the establishment of a monarchial government. It encounIt was tered no difficulty in the country's geography. hallowed bvthe 31 . But It was also inconsistent with the papal designs. shapes every intervening circumstance to the fulfilment of its grand design.

362 blood. To those who fondly dream that the republic of America has nothing to fear from the pretensions of the Pope of Rome. where Catholicism is triumphant . being. where the Catholic religion is the essential law Bishop of the land. and it has been asserted by the leaders of the late rebellion. Catholic as well as non-Catholic^ was attempted to be desecrated by tho establishment of presses for openly advocating that execrable treason . *' have any site " Eeligious liberty is merely endured until the oppocan be carried into effect without peril to the Bishop O'Connor^ of Pittsburg." . as best pleases him.. 1852. and therefore we lose all the breath we expend in declaiming against bigotry and intolerance. 1>APAL rOLlTlCAL 1NTEIGUE3 and consecrated by tbe sepulture of million!? of freemen. or the right of any one to bo of any religion. Catholic world. and never can have any right. as they undoubtedly are. they are punished as other crimes. Bartholomew's eve. and his loyal subjects. that the civil war is not at an end . or of no religion. as in Italy and Spain for instance. and in favor of religious liberty. Jan. Perhaps they mean to intimate that it will be a repeti- tion of the massacre on St. but every State. contrary to the law of God. Jan.. city and village in the Union. in Christian countries." Bronson's Mev. and Heresy (Protestantism) and unbelief are crimes. and never had.^ 1852." Catholic liev. but that it will again break out. Protestantism of every form has notj and never can right." *' Kendrick. and then the battle field will not be the South.. we submit the following extracts " Heresy (Protestantism) and Infidelity have not.

I am not a politician. Thomas Aquinas.IN THE UNITED STATES. crease for the next thirty years as it has for the thirty years past. . Louis.. and religious freedom will be at an end. To obtain the ascendency they have no need of Swiss guards. Now they fawn." Hecker. '* Should the said church go on increasing for the next twenty years. but a majority of votes. in 1900 Rome will have a majority. How sadly mistaken try to sanction that doctrine. *' . the papists will be in a majority of Williayn Hogan. which can easily be obtained by the importation of Catholic voters from Ireland. which they surely will. or the assistance of the holy alliance. in twenty command. 363 *' If the Catholics ever gain. an immense numerical majority. the people of the IJnited States. and in twenty will direct it according to pleasure." _ *' St. and be bound to take the country and keep it. page 58. p." Synopsis. How lamentably unacquainted with the seare you William Hogan. in ten years they will menace. religious freedom in Archbishop of 8L this country will be at an end. there is no danger of killed.. 106.' They can never acquire the povver in this counthis. says: 'Heretics (non-Catholics) may justly be But you will answer. but knowing the active spirit of Jesuitism. in his second book." Buhop of /St. *' The Catholic church numbers one-third of the American population and if its membership shall in. I have no doubt that in ten ) ears the Jesuists will have a mighty influence over the ballot." ! Quoting from an author Hogan writes America is the promised land of the Jesuists. " Catholicity will one day rule America." Louis. and the indifference of the generality of Protestants. chapter 3. and Bavaria. box. cret springs or machinery of popery. Austria.

" that the Catholic church is radically opposed to reli- gious liberty . possesses a right w^hich is not possessed by another nor has he any authority for claiming for himself that which he does not concede the Catholic priests to others. sonable designs. concessions of her opponents. their obligations are reis ciprocal and whenever the silent compact by one party. that in 1900 she will be enabled to accomplish all her bloody and trea. proclaim that Protestantism in any form has no right where Cathol- triumphant. esy and unbelief are the essential and where herlaw of the land. they surrender their rights where is Protestantism in any form assert heresy triumphant. we have That these hopes are not altogether also the reluctant and alarming Those who abuse liberty . icism is therefore. priests and ^periodicals. When they and unbelief are and where the Catholic religion is the essential law of the land. and then religious . only by mutual consent . to they say that punish Catholics as criminals. the other is exonerated from tions. are punished as crimes. The . that she regards Protestants and Infidels as criminals that whenever she obtains the political power she punishes them as such and that the success of her policy and measures in this country has been sufficient to justify her expectation.364 PAPAL POLITICAL NTEIGUES In the above quoted authorities we have a unanimous declaration of Catholic bishops. crimes. . they authorize heretics and unbelievers to consider Catholicism a crime. chimerical. When Catholicity will one day rule America. violated obliga- its No man . When. should be deprived of plot for sist its benefits its and those abuse it most who take advantage of its generous indulgence to rights of toleration sub- destruction.

will explain their policy. and they will eventually succeed. undeniable. and forfeit fidels may Neither Protestants nor Inbo disposed to avail themselves of the priviis leges of these concessions. It is. and they have come to an understanding on the S2ihject. fundamental principles of all right to its protection. and they arc determined on its destruction. and the co-opera- tion Europe. the receptacle of the bad and disaffected population of Europe. and so long as it exists no prince will be safe on his throne.- -IN THE UNITED STATES. As the treasonable designs of the Catholic priests are it is important to understand by what means they expect to accomplish their infamous purposes. All the low and surplus population of the different nations of Europe will be carried into that country. and subsequent wars and commotions of Europe. by subversion rather than by conquest. and the sovereigns of Europe are aware of it. The curse of the French revolution. " ought not. an end. avowed treaThey assail the the Constitution. they appeal to the instincts of and justify freemen in adopting any necessary to render their measure that is son and destructive designs abortive. when they are 31* . and will not he permitted to exist. are to be attributed to its example. The subjoined letter of the Duke of Richmond. and will be. their system of measures. which they are to receive from the sovereigns of " It (the American republic) uill he destroyed^'' it says he. formerly Governor-General of Canada. and have decided on the means to accomplish it. while forbearance a virtue but they may be provoked to consider the further tol- erance of the Jesuists in this country as inconsistent with the peace and stability of the republic. 365 liberty will be at self-preservation.

manners. it and will aid in the destruction of the republic. These many cases propagate them among men will become citizens. and in nine cases out of ten adhere to their ancient and former governments. and they have unanimously expressed their opinion relative to the government of the United States. restore order. would Holy Alliance avowed prinit conduct with regard consent. Had the Duke mond been doubt that ciple of the to silent. and the establishment of Catholof Rich- icism as the national religion. many of the natives will The church of Rome has a design on this country. I have conversed with many sovereigns and princes of Europe. the substitution of a manarchy in its place. who are so very easily excited. customs and religion. Would England may be asked. and their determination to subvert it. and the sovereigns of Hence will ensue. and they will bring with them their principles. still all no well informed person could the European sovereigns. whether Proact uj^on the in their testant or Catholic." admonitory According to this an alliance has been formed by the European powers and the Pope of Eome. audit will in time he the established religion. laws. and will transmit them to their posterity. and the governments of Europe will favor such a cause.366 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES . dissension. North America. and sustain him. This will create a surplus majority of low population. and kws be invested with the right of war discord. Europe. not wanted for soldiers or to supply navies and in natives. for the subletter version of the American republic. to ally herself with the papal despot? Why . the immigrants. anarchy and civil and some popular individual will assume the government. and by the the constitution suffrage.

no doubt. and their larder abundantly replenished to keep a constant supply of young ecclesi- . The pope has not a more efficient free-handed institution at his hach than the imperial parliament of the united Icingdom. fact. which spares no expense to furnish his holiness with zealous and well informed agents for the spreading of Does he rehis dominion over the face of the globe. 367 Slie has done so before in the recent troubles of Roman . : Catholic proclivities of the teachers thus dismissed. " are sufficient evidence that they have been imported into the United States by the Church of Rome. to carry out abroad the principles it has been so successful in disseminating here in Dublin. which was for the extinguishment of all free- dom in Europe. with a view to pervert the secular education of the country to the purposes of proselytism." says he. The good sense of the English people would never have recognized a policy which inevitably involved their own destruction . pope See she sent her war vessels to protect the and she assented to the principles of the Holy Alliance.IN not the ? THE UNITED STATES. by its education. the halls and dormitories of Maynooth are enlarged. &c. but they are a cypher in the great account of the short-sighted government. elicited by the news from America that certain teachers had been dismissed from a school of the West on account of " The foreign birth and Roman their foreign birth. in the College de Propaganda Fide. and have been trained and qualified. . may be learned from the subjoined extract of the Dublin Evenincf Mail. quire priests to publish and extend it wherever the English language is spoken. emissaries of They are. That England heartily co-operates with the papal priests in their infamous work.

300. in dis- makes the following statement: " In 1850 our native white popuwas about 17. thus showing that in one year. foreign population take only about six years to double the foreign population here in 1850.170. whenever Rome mav need their service. and 240. the cation Do these in turn send home a more teachers to assist them in their Chancellor of the Exchequer adds some ten service. tion's This is about five times our popula- which is in a ratio of three or four per cent. was about 2.000. on the census of 1830. In 1852 the immigration was about 398. as shown. In the same year our was about 2. and 1850. 1840.300.880. Let us examine the operation of this device.368 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES astics for his requisition for work.000." . in readiness to move in obedience to the call. was about 3. while the increase of foreigners is from fourteen to sixteen per cent. and continued re-enforcements of propagandists are thus maintained.000. increase. At that rate it would lation cussing the question of foreign immigration." According the to the Duke of Pdchmond's of letter. one of means by which the tyrant Rome and his col- leagues have adopted for accomplishing the downfall of the government of the United States.000.000 of these were males. The editor of the Louisville Journal. In 1852 our foreign arrivals. per annum.300.000. is that of foreign immigration. the In 1848 it " In 1852 our presidential vote arrivals of foreign males into this country. was nearly as great as the increase of our whole voting population during four years. thousand 'pounds for his yearlg estimate for national eduin Ireland. were about 400.

by sea 369 were The foreign arrivals alone — In 1850 .IN THE UNITED STATES.

those are entirely mistaken John Wesley and that . my recollection." often conversed. terprises are While the pulpits. and of whole bodies of theological students becoming Catholics. or at a . Chapman. revivals. or strongly biassed in favor of that church. Koman It is an undeniable fact that the annual increase of . and sometimes of Protestant bishops. "I Lave "with American Protestants and regret finding many of them espe- families in the diocese. that a Methodist j^reacher cannot now address his congregasays in substance. and evangelical enmaking no converts of any account among confirmation services Catholics. The number of children kidnapped." man. the of the Catholic bishops show the great number of adult non-Catholics which they are adding to their church.370 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Synopsis. tract or bible meeting. are laboring under a great deluions. on this subject. cially those of the Unitarian creed — are — strong advo- cates of popery. in and in favor of its introduction among John L. who suppose that an editor of a Methodist peri- odical can now assail the errors of Catholicism without the loss of subscribers. We hear of Protestant priests." says he. might suggest a suspicion that the church has not abandoned its historic mode of adding to its members. and the extraordinary number confirmed by Catholic bishops. p. the people. according to tion upon the subject of Catholicism with the same freedom he could formerly that those who imagine a Methodist preacher can now utter in the pulpit. Every non-Catholic child educated in a Catholic school becomes a Catholic. a Methodist clergya work written before the Southern outbreak. 169. the sentiments of respecting popery.

the Catholic church will be Then. according to Archbishop Kendrick. 371 the Catholic population far outstrips that of the nonand that at some future period its Catholic population numerical strength will he capable of deciding in favor . Supported by the Catholic and Protestant kings of Europe. governor. and one section of the land against another. Then. and punished as such. he will abolish the republic. heresy and Then. and the civil disorders — subsiding at the bidding of the pope will be proclaimed dictator. civil will be a Catholic. Protestantism will be declared to be a crime. judge. delegate. amid the anarchy and confusion thus produced. massacre everything that can render life will distract every state. Then. Ilecker. according to Bronson. councilman. official. and at the mercy of those who believe they have no rights. army or naval officer Then the non-Catholics wiiV be powerless. one faction will be inflamed against another. according to the archbishop of St. papal machinery. city and property insecure and village in the Union. sedition. Louis. — and establish in its place a Catholic monarchial gov- ernment. congressman. Then inquisitions will bo intro- Then the darkness of the Then the schoolthe land. president.IN THE UNITED STATES. . Then. Then rapine. and the churches built houses. of the church every election that takes place. and keep it. duced. and stakes erected. assassination. Then. some Catholic tyrant will arise. by the secret operation of the senator. When that unfortunate hour arrives every policeman. religious lib- erty will no longer be endured. the asylums. according to bound to take the country. Infidelity will be declared to have no rights. middle ages will settle over the colleges. mayor. violence.

. not to share in the toil in sovereignty of the government. to huddle in hovels. or fire scarcely enough to keep them from freezing. all its sitions of the resources. feet on the he has people's neck. will be the homes and graves of freemen. magistrates. with cloathing scarcely enough to hide their nakedness. not for rulers and where the people are inherited by royal heirs. When the pope shall have succeeded in his attempts to establish such a monarchy over the American people. but to obey despots . . Then the territorial acquiGovernment. will become the property of the papal monarchy. . the God of slaves and aristocrats. which the supineness of Americans have allowed Catholicism to erect among them. Le applied to Catholic pur- Then the fortunes which non-Catholics have amassed will be confiscated. with his . with food scarcely enough to suslife. Then will the monarchial demon. Then liberty of speech and freedom of the press will be no more. and applied to its defence and extension. seated on the people's throne. quaff blood like water and eye with scornful indifference the squalid millions whom doomed by an enormous taxation without light or tain air.oT2 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES vrill with Protectant funds poses. Then it will be the business of Americans. but to slavery to support an execrable despotism. Then the ecclesiastical dungeons. . all the ad- its navy and its army. where laws are made for subjects. like so much land and cattle. not to create it vantages has acquired by arms and treaties. Then will arise a government constructed of schemes for public plunder where an aristocracy are privileged robbers v/here moral worth and dignity are the helpless victims of power and injustice.

he will be master of the land and the ocean. Though the blood of freedom's sons have streamed in torrents. . 373 will next proceed to enlarge its dominions by the annexation of Canada. ling of their thrones. Bolts. the combined power of church and state. the most ingenious arts of statesmen. Mexico. by the thunders of American monitors and war steamers. his claim to be the disposer of all crowns his claim to be the only monarch that ought in fine. Then the w'orld will awake. and gibbets cannot extinguish able it. and the foot of the sacerdotal monarch placed in malignant triumph upon their necks. but it will be to find that last star of liberty. it will be amid the crumbpean despots will awake. yet their 32 . and AVith such a doall the Pacific and Atlantic islands. its conflict despotism will eternal. have been applied in vain. He will then proceed to plunder and discrown the very kings that had assisted him in erecting his colossal power. such an army and navy. is a night of despotism without the hope of a morn. but it will be in the vengeful Then the Eurofolds of a serpent crushing out her life. supreme temporal and spiritual monarchy of the world. and the smoke of their stakes have darkened the face of heaven. But the with spirit of immortal . but Then the papal allies will awake.IN lie THE UNITED STATES. flames it. To annihilate the most formid- efl"orts of bigotry. minion. but it will be to find their limbs fettered. such resources. it has sufi'ered the extinction of itself in the and involved freedom be it. shackles cannot confine racks. Then England will awake. his claim to the crowns of Eng- land and Russia. dungeons. He will then enforce. his claim to the to wear the token of royalty . all^ South America.

race or color. with a. and of all non-Catho- without regard to creed. sacrifice a prejudice that it would. Can the storm be union of the ProtestEeligionists. Hence civil war and convents will illuminate the night. and the pillars which support their govern- . The life.374 spirit PAPAL POLITICAL INTPIGUES has still walked abroad over the world. are in equal danger. Free Germans. on a basis of universal civil and religious liberty. Turners. Infidels. might command the support of Gallic and Fenian Catholics. while the clang of the hammers that are forging their chains are sounding in their ears. and a corresponding system of measures. indeed. and why should they not organize for mutual safety? must be sacrificed Does prejudice forbid it? Millions of lives "Who if a union be not efi'ected. they will rise up more powerful and successively as time rolls on. will Such an organization. Free Atheists. So it has been in the past Catholic so Jt will be in the future. lics. Can Americans sleep in peace. Spiritualists. but freemen can not. if sufiiciently liberally constituted. fields will never cease. A Jews. till the v/orld. then. burning cathedrals will eternally reek with gore. all If the demon should massacre the freemen in one in the next. "We believe it can. liberty and welfare of all non-Catholics. instructed by its past errors. averted? ants. judicious policy. prove adequate to the emergency. shake with their energy the accursed throne. We have now alluded to the dangers which begin to blacken our political firmament. of the Fenians and Galileans themselves. . hesitate io tyrant be effected ? may A may demand concessions with- out rendering an equivalent. age. will unite in a natural union for the extinguishment of Catholicism. if not.

It seems imposare tottering over their heads ? Their obligations to their country.IN THE UNITED STATES. chances. and shares its greatness and It is can. the stake. until the clank of slavery. or under any other form of government. its management. pates in glory. the gibbet. Judging of the government. highest trammelled by legal impediments in seeking the government. it is his privilege to believe that the greatness republic will continue to grow in power and glory each succeeding age. equal rights equal laws. to posterity. and an equal voice unjudges and rulers. the majesty of the people . Union or slavery . They are equally legislators. union. . and his industry any has encouragements enjoyed by no people m The country. and the groan of the oppressed shall no more be heard. A few more years hence you will have no Every citizen knows that under the present form of government his merits have rewards. union or confiscation union or the rack. Which do you now chose? choice. inheritance of a free future by the past. if Ameria consolation enjoyed only by an his ambifame nor fortune should gratify still he can bequeath to his children a richer the inheritance than that of either fame or fortune. to the world. that tion. demand . until the light of her with until despots shall tremble before shall fill the earth . Each citizen is an intepositions in the he particigral part of the sovereignty of the nation . and until the united world shall rise to the majesty and and greatness of equal privileges. is One or the other inevitable. poorest and the richest are here accorded equal in selecting equal privileges. S75 ment sible.

will then reverberate with the clanking irons of servitude. which is is now the wonder and life glory of the earth . she will have these she had but one Like muttered into eternal silence.376 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES blessings guaranteed. Such are the tions warranted and the expecta. which so powerful be no more. . History curse may record her eventful her sons future may freemen may clank in chains around her tomb the degenerate sons who wanted the valor or unanimity to transmit to their posterity the government which they inherited from their ancestors but these will not call her to life and glory again. which has so This . Like a wave she will have rolled away like a dream. . Intolerance will then re-establish Industry will then be oppressed. she will have departed like a thunder peal. nation. . and enterprise annihilated. story Her and prosperous this nation will and splendor will have departed with her freedom. like a deadly annihilates them With its the liberty. and that will then have ended. This land. . . lays the greatness and glory of the nation in the grave. long resounded with the song of liberty. by the continuance blast. it of the republic but all. monarchy. existence. racks and torture.




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