Their Political Intrigues,


*^ Like latnbs have zue crept into pcnuer ; like wolves have lue used it ; like dogs have lue been driven otit ; like eagles shall lue rene^u our youths St. Francis Borgia.


Eternal vigilance


the price of liberty


\2r e:N^E '\^xi!L;\jj^i^,




Entered according to Act of Congress in the

j-enr 1871,


In the
office of the

Librarian of Congress, at "Washington.

object of the present






tlie political

nature of






designs with regard to the American republic.

In the course of the following pages the author has



show that the Catholic Church



sically a gigantic conspiracy against the liberties of the

world; ingenious in


construction, opulent in its re-

sources, extensive in its ramifications,

and formidable



In proof of this assertion he submits to

the consideration of the reader a mass of irrefragable

and indisputable
on which he

historical incidents.


chiefly relies are papal bulls,



the canons of Catholic


Catholic periodicals under the supervision of

such as the Civita CattoUca, Bro7iso7is Eevicw,

the Boston Fllot, the Tablet, the Bamhlcr, the Shepherd

of the

Valley, the Faris

Univcrs; also the works of

Dens, the author of the Catholic system of Divinity;
of Llorente, the secretary of the Spanish Inquisition;
of Bellarmine, the celebrated Catholic controversialist; 0^ Ferraris,

the author of the

Catholic Ecclesiastical

but the The diction logic are. and echoed the same alarm . own. affirmations of civilized nations. are distinctly presented to view. but so is profound and death-like the torpidity which holds the senses of Americans in indifference. of Streams from Faradise . of Fra Paola. called " the " Honeyed Teacher" and his works Labbeus. Liquori. The author pretends and to no originality. Colton. Hopkins have written.PKEFACE. Dictionary historian . Bernard. the its Protestant pulpit has at intervals startled from drowsy slumbers. tlie Catholic ecclesiastical of St. . the records of history. entitled hy the church " the Angelic Doctor. By means aside." of Moscovius. of other oracles of Catholicism. and the The Infidels. tured. despotic nature. Gavazzi has lec- Hogan. of course his facts and prinavowals official ciples upon which he bases his charges are the of the church. ambitious designs and treasonable principles. of these authorities the veil of piety which is conceals and decorates the papal church partly drawn and her monarchial character. and of a host of St. Thomas Aquinas. that the warnings of writers and speakers have died away with the ." *' the Fifth Doctor." of St. but nei- ther the one nor the other has been able to arouse the people from their profound slumber. have often uttered the cry of warning . political organiza- tion. as faithful sentinels on the watch tower of liberty." " the Angel of the School.

yet soon to weep ence. in despair over their present apathy and indijSfer- amid the ruins of their republic. Md. Baltimoke.PREPACE. tones in which they were uttered. But Americans must awake — thej will awake — if not soon enough to avert their alas. . 1871. JOHN ALBERGER.^ Julj^ 4th. the impending doom overhanging enough 1 country and too soon ! their posterity.


22 CHAPTER Monastic IV. . 32 CHAPTER V. Vow Vow of Poverty. . Vow Vow of Perpetual Solitude. . .85 100 CHAPTER Monastic of Celibacy. . 136 . VII. 40 46 35 CHAPTER Monastic VI. Third. . . . . 15 CHAPTER Monastic III. Part First. I. . CHAPTER Catholicism a Political Organization.CO 2^'' TEN TS. Second. Vow of Unconditional Obedience. . . . 129 CHAPTER Pagan Origin IX. . . of Perpetual Silence. Vow of Silent Contemplation. " " . Machinery of the Papal Power. . 6 CHAPTER Political II. of the Monastic Orders. • . . CHAPTER Monastic VIII.

XIII. Oaths and 181 The Papal Monarchy. of Pepin of Charlemagne. Decrees. — . IV.. Banner. . . on on the Pretended Donation of Charlemagne on the Disputed Bequest of Matilda. . Eevenues. . — . . . —Crown. of Francis II. Duchess of Tuscany the Title of Pope a Usurpation the Papal Artful . . Elections. of Charles IX. . . of Henry IV. . of Charles II. . CHAPTER XIII. his Opposition to to his Claim Marriage Temporal Power on . of Louis . 153 CHAPTER The Papal Monarchy XI. of Louis XIV. . Intrigues . . Policy. . England Papal under the Keigns of Henry II. CHAPTER X. . of Francis . . Court.. and Navy. Army . 207 CHAPTER Papal Political Intrigues in XII. — .. of Louis XII. Spies. . . Coinage. Character and Administrations. . Papal Political Intrigues in France During the Keigns of Clovis of Childeric III.. Cabinet. of William and Mary. of King John of Henry VII. . of James II. I.256 . of Charles I. Popes tlielr Pretensions. . Section Two. of Hugh Capet.226 Machinery . Jurisdiction. .. The Pope's . the State of Italy under the Papal Government. . of Philip .CONTENTS.. . the Forged Decretal Letter of Constantino the Fictitious Gift of Pepin .. Direct Authority to Slavery .

. of Henry IV. . of IV. I.. .336 CHAPTER XVI. Sigismund of Ferdinand Prussia . Catholic . .. Philip II. of Frederic of Frederic II. of Charles . John .. in Papal Intrigues and in the Nether- 289 CHAPTER XV.CONTENTS. lic in Imminent Danger Union the Only Means . CHAPTER Peigns of Otho XIV.. of II. Dionysus Sebastian cesca . Charles V... . - John III. Joseph . of Albert I. Enmity to Civil and an Alliance formed for the the Subversion of the American Republic Duke of Richmond's Letter. Maria FranPedro VL and .. in the Rebellion . . IV.. I. of of V. Papal Political Intrigues in Germany I. . —Under the Henry Conrad of . .. . . . 348 . II.. Catholics in the Revolutionary late War . . . Papal Political Intrigues in Portugal and Spain Under the Peigns of Alphonso I. Bavaria. Philip II. Isabella John VI. Charles IV. Catholic ImmiProgress of Catholicism the Repubgration Religious Liberty . of Louis of . Emanuel . Charles V. In Spain Under — . . Charles III. Conclusion. Henry VII. Papal Intrigues Respecting the United States Catholic Persecution .. . in Austria lands.. Sancho II. 323 the Peigns of Recared L. of Salvation. Charles II. . Protestant Persecution . . . nand VII.: Philip IIP. and Ferdi. . Dona Maria.


loving says: ." which. some in baptism. and endeavoring to make our 1* . thinks justice. 48. Among Christian sects some believe religion to consist in individual feeling. Lecture 11. We have Natural religion. some in observances of church ordinations. GuizoT. "is the main substance of Christianity. and not Christianity. some in rhapsodies." (Gen. according to Bellarmine's view. some in reverence for the clergy. The Boston Pilot philosophy. speaking of the Christian Church. we will discover that its definitions are as numerous as the inhabitants of the globe. w^hile *' is secretly a political organization to establish the suprem- acy of the Pope over all persons and things. says: "I say the Christian Church. Civilization. p." If w^e have recourse to the lexicon to ascertain the religion. Hindoo religion.CHAPTER Catholicison I. Christian religion. and some in a are guided in our inquiry species of sentimentalism. between which a broad distinction has little is to be made. with nobler duties consist in doing fel- "religious mercy." "There can be no religion without an Inquisition but Thomas Paine.) The Catholic Church it except the name of Christianity. a Political Organization. Hist. and as various as their features. and Mahometan religion. Pagan religion. signification of the term we may arrive at a : definite conclusion respecting its classical use but if we by the popular acceptation. Jewish religion. some in problematical creeds and dogmas.

it cannot invalidate any objection founded on it to Catholicism. human organism. affairs as made disguise unne- In courting popular favor. may exist with According to this definition. under such . but even of morality." The diversity and discordance which have arisen respecting the import of this term. But while we rarely encounter two persons exactly concurring in an opinion of what is religion. the recogniand tions which it has made in its official capacity above all. or a variety of ideas. from the avowals it has uttered. to be just. the tendency of its measures. or without ceremonial observ- All forms are merely external appendages. we find all readily admitting that it and correct conduct. or the body from the vital principle. they must be formed in accordance with truth and reason. and designs ? Not from the tenor of its professions but from the nature of its constitution. Principles are the fountains of thought and feeling. un- essential to the nature of religion. If this definition should be construed into a definition of mere morality. it as the casket is and as distinct from from the gem. the sanctions which it has given. is The signification of a corporate organization well understood. and the principles and designs essentially consists in just principles of the religion ances. an organization concocted to subvert the rights and interests of the . as every such objection will then become demonstrative proof that the Catholic Church is not only destitute of religion. originate from its compound nature adapting it to designate one idea. Conduct to be correct must be in harmony with the rights of others. but how shall we ascertain its principles . a prosperous condition of cessary.6 CATHOLICISM A low creatures happy.

people. as a summer's sun would hatch an innocently loooking cluster of eggs into a nest of poisonous asps. but when wealth and power had sufficiently fortified its security to enable it to scorn and defy public opinion. than to be a religious would the membership of the same persons to a railroad or municipal corporation prove such a corporation to be a religious and not a secular organization. its most it irreproachable and credible as a political power. motives of policy. been And in Catholic history have not similar facts. If among the members of an organization.POLITICAL OKGANIZATIOX. what would be the legitimate inference from such facts ? Would ? it not be that it it claimed to be a political in its estimation to organization question its that was high treason ? its right to this character such a question in heaviest penalty? domains all and that to utter was to provoke its facts Did not these ? occur in Ptome respecting Arnold of Brecia the Reformation. this fact would no more prove or moral institution. But if at periods in its history. members should denounce and labor to transform it into a purely religious institution. and for such a /' damnable heresy" were burnt alive. men should be found who are unquestionably religious or it moral. would. be 7 prompted to conceal its nature and design . it would then as naturally unfold its latent principles. which pro- fesses to be of an exclusively religious character. a religious organization must be an em- . ? too deeply for audacity to deny or time to obliterate ? But what is a religious organization If religion is moral goodness. from. and their ashes thrown into a river to prevent the people from worshipping them. from his time incarnadined in down to human blood.

and In in harmony with the natural j)rinciples of man. nor prostitute its principles to political objects. integrity it must be invulnerable . Its hands must be unstained with blood. professing to be of religious character. enjoining an exclusively ments upon a the on its members vow of unconditional obedience. in hostility to wrong. Such are some of the essential characteristics of a religious or moral organization. and liberality the enemy and despotism. Now w^hen we see an institution. It must be the champion of the rights of human nature the friend of freedom.CATHOLICISM A bodiment of its principles. proves its secularism. amid oppression it must always advocate the cause of justice. nor traffic for self-aggrandizement. in adherence to right inflexible. Such an organization must be consistent with itself. amid bigotry it must always be tolerant. nor descend . its measures sanctioned by reason and conscience its triumphs won by argument and persuasion. Its claims must be commended by truth. No church which they form not a distinguishing feature. organizing its departfinancial basis. It must never perpetrate a fraud. a practical exemplification of its maxims. nor accom- modate itself to the vices of any age or country. Any departure from them in in an institution. nor slan- der an ojDponent. intolerance. the vow of absolute . to intrigue. uncompromising. has any claims to be a religious or moral corporation. equality of bigotry. in order to subject them to its despotic domination. . and amid ignorance general corruption the cause of education. nor dissemble. it Amid must always be pure. and a scheme in measures and policyadapted to extend the observance of its obligations. nor cherish malice.

carrying a war.POLITICAL ORGANIZATION. circumscribing knowledge. it to concede that such rights of an acknowledged indeis more than credulity can admit. accredited ambassadors. of its is established and that it is now what in the by the unanimous testi- mony acknowledged expounders. main- taining a standing army. selling indul- gences for the commission of premeditated crime. and political institution. an organization is not a corrupt. That such is cruel. manufacturing evidence. denouncing reason. . absolving sins for money. committing forgeries. and exercising all the pendent monarchy. instituting universities to enrich itself by the sale of to divert the ecclesiastical possessions their honors. ministerial offices. in order to enable them more successfully to administer to the increase of its wealth. the vow of celibacy. inet. crushing liberty. national banner. declaring concluding national covenants. anathematizing those who those disbelieve in its arbitrary dogmas. in order to prevent them from having legiti- mate heirs. past it has been. Simplicity has been amused by modern Catholic apol- . and by the spirit and acts of its past history . » poverty. wearing a political crown. a naval force. burning those who oppose its pretensions having a national cab. the constitution of the Catholic Church is a fact. and corrupting and interpolating the text of ancient authors. from the church when we see it establishing schools to select and mould to its designs the most promising among youth. religious military orders to extend and enlarge its domains. attested by the existing Papal Government. despotic. torturing who question its supreme authority. coining money. erecting missionary stations among Pagans for the purpose of traffic and emolument.

it transcends in despotism the most ingeniously contrived monarchy that tyranny has ever elaborated. he must attend the coming it his college of Cardinals CEcumenical Council and induce of all the previous Councils. But the Papal See has never resigned preposterous The bulls and claim to universal temporal sovereignty. he must go to Pome and . or by which the faculties of man have than ever been en- thralled. wJio assert that his former pretensions to universal temporal sovereignty. He who would and the establish the contrary opinion. political Eeason and conscience lay at the foundation of all power and if Catholicism is adapted to govern them. But this subterfuge can mislead only a superficial. canons asserting this pretension have never been annulled. and that he now merley maintains his right to supreme spiritual authority. to No ofiicial declaration has announced an abrogation of them. ignorant mind. to annul the canons preceding Popes were " them accordingly excommunicated. Russia." and have These preliminary must be taken before he can avoid absurdity or its the imputation of wilful prevarication. temporal sovereignty of the most despotic and unlimited authority. must first obliterate the Papal bulls.10 CATHOLICISM A the Papal monarch has resigned ogists. They still form the canon law reiterated of the Church. steps and to declare that all the damnable heretics. sovereignty it is absolute dominion over reason and conscience. The Pope's and blasphemous claim . the decrees of the Councils. Spain. una- voidably involves temporal sovereignty nay. or any other government is is less tyrannical in its constitution the Catholic Church. . authorities of the Catholic Church. As spiritual . convert the present Pope and nay.

(Rein the future." (Re- The editors Rome. Feb. and will always continue in every part of the Again: (Review. 1865. remains always unchangeably the same. are tnarlcs Brownson says: "What the Church has done. in view. 1854). senatorial or imperial.. 11 such a sensible of Infallibility is inconsistent witli change of prin- ciple or error of conduct. Again : regard to every subject whatever. whether plebeian." the spiritual part of man . as long as it continues Catholicity. 1854). Pontiffs Bishop Kendrick says already " All doctrine of definitions made by general Councils and former which no mem can remove. say : of the Civilita Cattolica. and." " Catholicity. the Pope's organ at It will be all or nothing. over monarchs and their minis- — The Dublin Tablet.POLITICAL 0RGANIZATI0I7. 24. when in conflict with To-day. if the same circumstances occur." " The Catholic dogma. 356). expressly or tacitly approve. infallibility precludes the possibility of act. view. " From the darkness of ) the catacombs she to the subjects of ( the Catholic Church dictated laws Emperors. and when the Church Rome in- arrogates such a divine attribute. and future In this opinion : all her authorities concur. abrogating decrees. cannot be carried to excess. Jan. is exactly what she will do. over associrules. has always been the same from the beginning. commands over the ations ters. the Church Catholic ordinances. in fine. rules over riches. what she has expressly or tacitly approved in the past. Jan. over science. in ruling spirit. she rules the body. as in all time. the accredited organ . over affections. 1850). world immutable. p. she avers that her past history indicates her present character tentions.. over interests. Jan.'"' (Primacy.

2 It is un- .000 persons perished in consequence of the heresy of WicklifFe. defending one : class of citizens against the government. Christian (Mr. the troubles of Piedmont. What is it 1 It is the development of her nature. denies the right . realm.) But the testimony is voluminous. then. Nothing has appeared to us more necesunchristian opinion.. all bear witness against the The Paris Univers says "A examined and convicted by the Church. and the Pope interferes and good Christians (Catholics) ^r^o' the Topes authority to that of the State. used to be delivered over to the secular authority to be punished with death. says " The Pope is moment interfering in Piedmont. is of paramount importance to every freeman.12 of CATHOLICISM A at this Komanism in the British. and the Pope interferes. De Pratt.000. and I forbear further cj^uotations on this point. and it not yet over!' Pope." heretic : sary.000 cannot have less of the of fol- Catholicism than 500. and possible to count the bloodshed caused it would be imby Luther. To understand. It is the unfolding of her treason to the world. The godless ( non-Catholic ) colleges of Ireland. the past history of the Catholic Church. his speech. the Pope commands subjects on the territory of all sovereigns' — (Flag of the Union. More than 100. House of Representatives (of the United States). formerly an Abbe "The Pope is chief of 150. These have subjects only on their own territory. and in the Jan. ! in Governments may and do prohibit good works. and a still greater number is for that of John Huss. Chandler. ministers.000 The Pope Commands more subjects than any sovereign more than many sovereigns together. They also commit evil. a 1865). says: lowers.

When potic throne. she always secretly her adversity she has moderated her tone. to the progress of society. destroyed freedom everywhere. hurled her from her desshe coukl not command. the avenger. she had created a colossal power that overawed the united monarchies of Christendom. with or in preference to Princes. tortured and burnt all who opposed . and hypoity to the rights of critically disguised under the semblance of religion. invaded the rights and liberties of independent nations.POLITICAL ORGANIZATION. by a system of artful intrigues and bold usurpations. As she grew in . If in her infancy she did not always designs. her monarchical pretensions. because Time. as Vicar of Christ. shackled. and her Te Deurti was chaunted with the most fervor when the smoke of her stakes ascended in the thickest volumes. and the gore shed by the double sword streamed in the broadest and deepest currents. . she unsheathed the double sword. anathematized. the symbol of ecclesiastical and political to rule power. men. Her trium- phal processions have been the most magnificent when her hands were the bloodiest. skilfully constructed to be a secret for the acquisition of supreme political power. and moderated her pretensions. avow her ambitious cherished them and. 13 covering the cruelty and despotism concealed under her It is the revelation of her animosreligious profession. she grew in arrogance and despotism. she supplicated. crowned and uncrowned monarchs. if in strength. political organization. and asserted her right. because she But if she presumes not now to dare not assert them. and when. she has not her natural thirst for secular power. and It shows her to the exercise of reason and conscience.

1854. into light something view. and covered with a certain obscurity. which was hitherto in (Reconcealment.14 CATHOLICISM A POLITICAL OKGANIZATION. January. whom Pope peril to her existence.. tear the crown from the head of the mighty. Pius IX. who would if annihilate her for her audacious attempt. she does not now absolve subjects from allegiance to their gov- ernments. and who w^ould burn her for an attempt the reason of the extraordinary change in her infallible holiness is — palpable. if she does not now attempt burn at the stake those w-ho reject her absurdities. and in suitable circumstances. blessed with an apostolic benediction point. by so many bulls. in a letter dated April 29. to avenge the insult would be marshalled against her to . It is not because she has discarded the doc- trines consecrated ties. battles and trea- but because she cannot carry them out without But let Brownson. 1854). . solve this He says: " The Church. for services rendered. who all possesses an ad- mirable gift of discretion. whose artillery. but at a given time. has prudently judged that she would not declare would bring things explicitly from the begin- ning.

whatever changes the advance of civilization has effected in them. and the Councils do members. Machinery of the Papal Power. That its to subjugate all secular Holy Catholic Church is artfully constituted and ecclesiastical power under authority. And though they have been suppressed. and that its object is not to advance the the interests of moral goodness. firmed by Popes and Councils. These Orders were founded by They have been conCatholic saints and Bishops.CHAPTER The Political II. on account of their corrupt tendency and political intrigues. we are naturally led back to that period of their history which allowed them an unembarrassed development. but to acquire temporal dominion. In investigating the intrinsic nature of these orders. to be tolerated no longer than they are imperaIf in 1900 the Catholic Church gain the supremtive. yet have been defended as being the most useful and pious class of the Catholic community. must be regarded as a mere prudent accommodation to existing circumstances. They may therefore be regarded as having been authoratively acknowledged to be constituted in harmony with in pontifical bulls they the principles and designs of the Catholic Church. as the its Pope does head. fact In they form the body of its its organization. in kingdom after kingdom. As they are sanctioned by a church which claims the attribute of infallibility. . must be admitted by every one that fully comprehends the principles upon which its religious Orders are organized.

Each member was subject to the absolute authority of his superior. each superior to the ab- who resided at Kome. and superstition which charPope Gregory XYI. but that it must be preserved untouched as to words and meaning. and in assumed the vow of absolute poverty. with the in perpetual solitude. were soldiers of the cross. she will restore the despotism acterized her domination during the dark ages. of perpetual celibacy. who resided in the monastery . instituted to defend propagate the Piomish faith by the force of The knights and The arms. Agatho. The nuns lived monks. orders differed from one another chiefly in the style of their dress. who was the head and the chief engineer of the Avholo machine. the universal church suffers from every novelty. and is still. in his Encyclical Epistle of 1832. and to the commands of their superior. nuns and knights. They all of unconditional obedience to the rules of their Order." there. monks. and the assumption of additional vows. By means of this machinery the monarchical power of the Pope has been. nothing can be taken away — The religious Orders consist of anchorites. in degrees of rigidness of discipline. . and each general to the absolute authority of the Pope. as also did the exception of such as devoted themselves to the administration of the public affairs of the church. The anchorites in general lived separately. but sometimes in communities. that from Avhat has been regularly defined no innovation introduced no addition made. says " Ever bearing in mind. solute authority of his general.16 ' POLITICAL MACHINERY acy in the United States which she hopes to gain. as well as the admonition of Pope St. although the machinery in some places is somewhat damaged.

and delivered a deed conveying to it his soul and body. —not only in despotic Europe. but Catholic ingenuity has discovered means equally efficacious. By this act of piety he yielded up his personal freedom. 17 exerted in every kingdom. sealed. When and over every Catholic mind in Christendom. or if. he should escape. in every city. but the recluse could only expect disenthralment by death. How many escaped nuns have unaccountably disappeared from society? "What infamous means have Catholic priests adojDted to their nunneries ? A young girl in Baltimore. relieved of the misanthropic gloom. and if captured remanded back by the civil authorities to the cold solitude of his Not only have these cruel deeds been prison house. A culprit might hope for liberty when his time would expire. True.OF THE PAPAL POWEE. or the delusive representations which had induced him to enter the monastic walls. the civil authority Protestant countries has not interfered. was carried to a nunnery. a novice assumed the monastic vovrs. as irreversibly as if he had signed. and although her mother and relatives invoked fill the interposition of the civil authorities. who had just passed her sixteenth year. yet they were Who unable to reclaim her. If disappointed in finding the holiness which he fancied to hallow the place. he be- came the absolute property. perpetrated in the dark ages. he was pursued. and became ironed with the shackles of an eternal slavery. or chattel. but in free Amerin. of the institution which he entered. that has any conception of the numerous applications of distracted mothers at the police station-houses 2* . but in this age of civilization ica. the isolating superstition. because she had arrived at age. in every republic.

secret recesses of his not by the operations of the brain. some of these mysteries might be resolved ? After the ceremonies were concluded which sepulchred the novice forever in his monastic cloister. mechanical automaton. the only instinct he was at liberty to obey. but by the rules of his Order. feelings. as to curse. the only conscience. The most mind were For to be opened to the inspection of his confessor. he became a passionless. who have mysteriously disapj^eared recently published in or that has read the account the New York papers. for their children. of the j^riesthood and the intrigues had favored or cultivated the growth of Catholicism until it was matured into a colossal monarchy. and equally ready to do either at the mandate of his superior. as well formed to bless. conveniently and strategeti- . soulless. . the intrusion of a natural thought he was liable to the infliction of the severest penalty . forge and murder. its branches extended to every section of ChrisIts monasteries tendom. it was discovered that w^hile its centre was in Eome. (of the recovery of the body of a young female who had been drowned. pray and preach. v/hen in one day eight mothers called at the dead-bouse to see if the corpse was not that of a that daughter w^hom each had missed).18 of rOLITICAL MACHINERY some of our large cities. and desires were henceforth to be regulated. suppress conscience systematic course of rigid discipline adapted to paralyze and stifle instinct. can avoid believing if the nunneries were open to public inspection. When the superstition of the masses. and the voice of the Subjected to a superior was the only reason. the ignorance of princes. the ambition of politicians. reason. his thoughts.

generals. the Pope was seen nowhere. jurists. none could tell for what virtue. and their generals Avith the Pope. events characters of the various sections of the globe. while his power omniscient. professing all opinions. its spiritual advisers scrutinizing the opulent and distinguished personagas. the See of Rome became the recep- tacle of accurate accounts of the condition. states. its best advan- and of commanding in its support the power of its every locality.OF THE PAPAL POWER. 19 cally located in different parts of the world. kings were astounded with ap- plauding subjects. He touched the secret springs of his machinery and the world was roused to arms or — silenced to submission. so nothing v/as too minute to escape scrutiny. but spiritual machinery sought to control. schools. colall were objects which its leges. its confess- ors penetrating the secret designs and wishes of states- men and spies. its As nothing was too great to transcend aspirations. women. was felt everywhere. judges. and and was capable of improving every occurrence to tage. merchants. none could tell for terrible were the revolutions wrought in the fate of in- . none could tell for what cause. children Invisible. bankers. and its agents in constant communication with their superiors. actors. legislators. secret and blasted. So sudden. Monarchs. men's business or domestic affairs were disarranged. princes. or sat powerless on their thrones. men. states- men. men were what crime miscreants were ennobled. armies rushed to battle or grounded their arms . and entering all associations and societies. its under the license of Papal indulgences. and all acting in concert in every part of Christendom toward the accomplishment conduct of of one grand design . their superiors with their generals.

the inhumanity of Caligula. and the mystery which concealed the hidden cause led the ignorant and stupefied world to interpret them. duplicity and obduracy were incorporated in their most frightful proportion. utter a solemn admonition the freemen of . while he imagined the cold hand of his departed mother clasped his heart the jealousy of Commodus. who wished the world had but one neck. . under the instruction of a calmly consider the disposition of it crafty priesthood. commemorated by the monuments of ecclesiastical rubbish which it it has erected. the cruelty of Mithri- who fed on poison to escape the secret revenge of his injured subjects. Before this conception we might well shudder. terrible examples of despotism. but they were limited to one nation. terror. and left reason and conscience unshackled. that he might cut off its disobedient head at one blow. spared what he could suspect dates. a despotism that ironed reason and conscience. who never . it the millions Its triumphs. that they seemed like the vengeful interposition of Providence. a malignity that blasted for time and eternity policy in which all the elements of bigotry. seen in the gloom of superstition has cast upon the to world. When we the Catholic organization. it with improved which hurried him on to the destruction of the liberties of his country.20 POLITICAL MACHINERY dividuals and nations. are. as the manifestations of divine wrath. penetrated Papal organization we find a scrutiny which all secrets. written in the blood of has butchered. indeed. for its irons are secretly manacling our own limbs. seems that all the inventions of ancient tyranny were condensed in malignancy. an ambition that grasped heaven and earth. mal- But in the — ice. The ambition of Caesar.

declares that " the Cath- with its ought to be exclusively Listen to Father Hecker. Then dream n& more that your liberties are safe.OF THE PAPAL POWER. and if its member: " ship increase for the next thirty years. Asiatic. when he rights. Think of Egyptian. and it. Lis- ten to Pope Pius IX." be bound to take the country and keep statistics Read the and learn the fearful probability of the ful- fillment of Hecker's prophesy. in such sort that every other worship shall be banished and interdicted. tion. whose sap is poison and whose fruit is civilization is proof against this boundless — death. olic religion. in 1900 it has for the Eome will have a majority. Let not confidence beget an apathy that of vigilance." who says third of The Catholic Church now numbers onethe American population. . or enervate the may close the eye powers of resistance. 21 Think not that the present attainment in Upas this all-blasting tree. Grecian civilizaand tremble lest their fate become your own. as thirty years past. dominant. America.

and in solitary wildernesses. and inhospitable regions they could hunt up. These orders assumed certain tows. is The the first vow to which we will invite atten- vow of perpetual solitude of and these seclusion. and others in the deserted caverns of wild beasts. Although at the first introduction monastic orders into the church. the hermits and the Benedictine monks and nuns were the only . Until the tenth century. were the fundamental principle of the growth of the Papal monarchy. and in the year 529. yet they were invariably observed. they constructed their huts at the bottom of dismal pits. others under shelving rocks. Some lived under trees. Catholic Orders that existed the former generally. and the latter of the hermits induced entirely. cheerless. The devout misanthropy them to select for their habitations the most gloomy.CHAPTER The Monastic Vow III. of Perpetual Solitude. in barren deserts. some on the top of poles. we were not formally assumed. so prodigally furnished by nature. among the clifi"s of rugged rocks. the express assumption of them became an indispensable condition of membership. isolated from hu- . Piously^ scorning the salubrious and magnificent localities. this vow. the nature and tendency of which The religious Orders we will proceed to investigate in the spirit of candid inquiry. and those which shall hereafter examine. Benedict. Some buried themselves in the gloomy depth of trackless forests. lived in solitary seclusion. tion. under the auspices of St.

wild Another class of these eccentric devotees con- structed a number of contiguous dungeons. aliment and give pious advice. were Whatever conspired w^hatever was pleasurable they avoided as sinful and whatever was absurd. deemed the highest bation which the church so readily conferred on oddity and singularity might but at the first appear surprising. Their bodies divested of decent apparel. . to imitate the habits of wild animals. St. 23 man contiguity. to comfort they considered profane . they imagined allied them to gods and angels. these vaults they imprisoned themselves for door being locked. and disgusting. themselves into a sort of monastic community. The approacts of piety. nor wore any apparel except a shirt. through which to receive In these dungeons they manacled their limbs with ponderous chains. and sing psalms. filthy.SOLITUDE AND SECLUSION. and formed In the life. because more unnatural. a small window only was allowed. and clothed their legs with heavy greaves. when we recollect the immense pecuniary and . Anthony. severe and bloody flagellations. and assimilated in aspect and habits to the brute creation. until they became more horrible. encircled their necks with massive collars. To make themselves revolting . who was so holy that he never w^ashed himself. and sometimes walled up. In the depth of winter they would immerse themselves in icy water. was canonized by the Catholic Church for his extraordinary attainment in sanctification. the to hermits sought to acquire the reputation of saints by attaining the nearest possible approximation beasts. to subject themselves to voluntary torture. and covered with a profusion of hair. and their aspect horrid and revolting beyond description.

in The abbots of the monasteries. These which often rivalled gorgeous palaces. they were really de- signed for the infliction of punishment.24 political MONASTIC VOW OF advantage slie derived from them. were generally located in and other wastes. they sterile trackless forests. and declare that the fated brother had arrived at a degree of sanctification that better qualified him for the hermit's cell than for an abbotship of a monastery. in which the inmates endured all the privations. and to enable him to perfect his holiwas necessary to wall him up in eternal seclu- In accordance with this pious regard for their brother's sanctity. or whose circumventive genius they feared. sublimest prospects of Nature. localities adapted to excite the sensation of loneliness. order to dispose of a brother abbot. and were shackled with all the irons with which criminals are punished in ordinary penal institutions . gloom and solitude. they adapted its forcible summary measures for execution. dreariness and desolation but when secular considerations suggested they occupied picturesque and luxuriant the localities. commanding edifices. Silence. in accordance . jealousy or revenge. A singular custom suggested by this ludicrous institution may be worthy of a passing notice. would congregate together. it sion. and that to protect him from the contamination of the world. nor avaricious sagacity. or who had excited their suspicion. were nothing but religious penitentiaries. ness. according most congenidense and ally with the designs of the monastic institutions. whose celebrity surpassed their own. and though they were ostensibly constructed for religious purposes. we will no longer doubt her motive.

have described them as the most intolerable of dungeons. contributing to the advancement of political cise. which took account only of those crimes that are at the same time offensive to morals and dangerous to Society. '* : 25 tliis "With regard to code The Catholic Church did not draw up a code like ours. and conflict with opposing habits and principles. The vow of perpetual seclusion comprises a renuncia- tion of the pleasures and business all is filial. 135). (Gen.PEEPETUAL SOLITUDE. of life. parental and natural This vow in contravention of the obliga- tions imposed on man by Nature. Guizot thinks this is one of the great blessings which Catholicism has bestowed on society Civil. and the "heretics'"' who have been confined in them. p. have broken their enthralment. vi. Civil. It ignores the imperative duty of under- 3 .. It precludes the exer- of the varied powers of the human organism. social. what light these religious penitentiaries have been regarded by their inmates their eternal seclusion has prevented them from publicly divulging. to improve society by its financial. p. a moral point of view. an abnegation of the claims of consanguinity. scientific welfare. In fact the mod- ern penitentiary system has originated from them.. Hist. Hist. all of sins. but the few who punished Lee. criminal more particularly in .. and punishing them only because Guizot says they bore this two-fold character hut prepared a catalogue of all those actions. and and consequent development. x.. friendship and society and an abjuration of afi'ection. Lect. and name under the In 118).. It surrenders the personal re- finement and moral strength which may be acquired by social intercourse. — (see Gen. with the ecclesiastical code.



standing and judiciously relieving liuman want and
misery, and of aiding the execution of efficient schemes
of public utility

and philanthropy.



not only in




noblest principles of


humanity, and the enjoyment, but it debars

the recluse from correcting any error into which he


have been betrayed by false representations, or an overheated fancy or, of modifying his condition according to the change which experience and reflection may have Yet, although such effected in his opinion and feelings.

and injurious consequences of the is proposed by the church of Rome, as the surest means of obtaining the sanctification of the soul and the crown of eternal happiness. If to bury our talents, to wall ourselves up in a dungeon to sit for years upon a pole to scorn the sociare the absurd nature


of perpetual seclusion, it



ety of




to reject the comforts of civil;

to retrograde into barbarism to assume the and acquire the aspect of wild animals to imprison ourselves where we can never respond to the demands of consanguinity, society, friendship and pawhere we can never contribute to the knowltriotism




edge, wealth or prosperity of the country of our nativity





of confirming the

then Catholicism has the honor most revolting condensation of these
really consists in fair dealing,

monstrosities that has ever disgusted the spirit of civilization.


if religion

in noble deeds, in moral integrity

tude, in individual purity

amid moral turpiamid general corruption, in

unwavering virtue among the strongest incentives to guilt, then the organization that sanctions vows subversive


attainments cannot

be admitted, con-




with the most indulgent liberality, to be of a

religious character.



our judgment,

we have presumed


the novices, in assuming their vow, were actuated


the laudable desire of obtaining the highest degree of

moral purity. This worthy ambition was doubtless the governing motive of a proportion of them. Either from the instigations of moral insanity, or from the vagaries of a distempered fancy, or from the misrepresentation of artful

and designing priests, or from the despondency which misfortune is apt to engender in weak, or too sensitive minds, or from a misconception of the natural tendency of solitude, men and women have at
times been led to assume the vows, and submit to the

penancG prescribed by the religious orders.

But there

were other motives equally, and perhaps more generally, active. Ludicrous as were their holy isolation and penance, still the sanctity which the monks imitated, and
the tortures which they self-imposed, were rewarded


world with profound homage and admiration. By undergoing sufferings which appeared intolerable to human fortitude, they
a credulous and

acquired the reputation of being sustained by divine



and, as their popularity increased in propor-

tion to their wretchedness, they labored to extend their

fame by adding to their misery.

Their sufferings and

fortitude alike incomprehensible to


reason, an

awe-struck fancy betrayed the public into the delusion




was the

results of


sanctity of a sublime elevation above ordinary humanity and of the interposition of divine power. These

misconceptions, artfully cultivated by the priesthood,



extended the fame of the self-tormentors Leyond the Kings and celebrity of heroes, poets and philosophers.
queens visited them with superstitious reverence


them on abstruse questions of governmental policy peace and war were made at their mandates and pilgrims from remote regions bowed at their feet and begged their blessing. Thus favored by the profound homage of all classes of Christendom, they were enabled with more facility than any other profession to become opulent bishops, royal cardinals, or monarchical popes. Such being their eligibility to the honors and emoluments of the spiritual dignities of the church, vanity was quick to perceive that the anchorite's hut and the monk's cloister were the surest paths to
; ;


universal adulation


religion, that

they were the most

respectable methods of becoming honored in


worshipped after death


avarice, that

they were

most available means of obtaining lucrative positions and ambition, that thay were the shortest roads to dignity and power. Yv^ith these attractive facts glaring on
the eye of sacred aspirants,

requires but little knowl-

edge of


nature to conceive with what avidity

ambitious would crowd into the most repulsive


with what eagerness they would adopt the

revolting habits and ludicrous privations of the recluse

and with what ingenuity they would indurate and torture the body, in order to win the applause of the world, and the privilege of selecting its most advangeous positions.
their cells

Accordingly, monastery after monas-

tery arose with sudden and astonishing rapidity,


became supplied not with aspirants after holiness and heaven but with aspirants after secular



and ecclesiastical dignities, and the indolence, luxury, and licentiousness which, they afforded. The pious flattery that was lavished on voluntary suffering, and the distinguished rewards which recompensed it, strongly tempted the feeble conscience of

monks and

hermits, to task their ingenuity in inventfor

ing contrivances





diminishing the real sufferings of their self-imposed By the aid of an improved invention an torture.
artful hypocrite could procure a greater reputation for

sanctity than a contrite penitent,

the worldly honors


thirty years,

and become more eliand emoluments of the Simeon Stylites, who sat upon a pole for convinced Christendom, by his wonderful

was miraculously supported while living he enjoyed its profoundest respect, and when dead was canonized by the Catholic Church. But an observer by describing the numerous gesticulations of this sainted mountebank, diclosed the secret of his artiBy means of a system of gymnastics, he kept up fice. a vigorous circulation of blood through his frame, and thus acqired a health and longevity which would have been incompatible with a state of inactivity. But it appears that he was tormented with an ulcer on the thigh, inflicted by the devil, who had tempted him to
absurdity, that he
imitate Elijah in flying to heaven, but

smote him upon

his raising his foot to

who maliciously make the ascenshortened the


mystical gesticulations

not healing, but

probably inflaming the wound,

may have

natural term of his miserable existence. As he had gradually arisen from a pole of seven feet high to one and of fifty feet high, if had not been for his vanity


his evil



company he might have gained a still higher but whether by this means he would ever have reached heaven may be questioned by astronomy and heresy but there is no doubt he acquired by his folly and artifice the beatification of the Catholic


The apathy with which the self-tormenters endured and the severe rigors of the seasons, was chiefly the effect of artificial callousness, induced by an ingenious discipline, calculated to destroy
their excruciating penance

the susceptibility of the nervous system to the influence
similar course of training has of external agents. always been practiced by the religious orders of the


Hindoos and the Mohametans, who, like those of the Catholic Church, endure self-imposed torture which seems to surpass human fortitude, and acquire by this species of ambition unbounded popularity. Even the
uncleanness of the holy brotherhood was an
skin, which,


formed a protecting incrustation on the surface of the

by covering the the
destroying their


the sentient,





enable the hermits to endure without apparent emotion
the cold winters and bleak winds of inhospitable forests.




known and


by some





consequently inof supersti-

flicted as a

penalty for crimes.

To the eye

clouded v/ith ignorance, and fascinated by the ignes

fatui of sacred fiction, the calmness of the

monks and

hermits under torments and exposures which seemed


humanity, appeared a palpable demoninterposition,


of miraculous

and consecrated
however, were as


in its estimation.





mucli tricka as are the mysterious capers of a conjurer.


the more artful and callous could endure the sever-

ity of penitential acts with, greater indifference than

the candid and sensitive they acquired a higher reputation for holiness,

advanced to the enjoyment



distinguished honors, and finally became canonized as

paragons of virtue and objects of adoration.

Such are the nature and consequences of the vow of Such is a portion of the " doctrinal definition already made by the general councils and former pontiffs," which, according to Bishop Kendrick, " are landmarks which no man can remove," Such are some of the Catholic (Primacy, p. 356).
perpetual seclusion.

dogmas, which, " in regard to every subject whatever,' according to Brownson " have been always the same

from the beginning, remain always unchangeably the same, and will always continue in every part of the world immutable." (Review, January, 1850). Such is in part "what the church has done, what she has tacitly or expressly approved in the past," and according to the same authority "is exactly what she will
tacitly or expressly

approve in the future,


the same

circumstances occur."

(Review, January, 1854).


same citcumstances"

the universal church, which Je-

suit Hecker, in his recent speech in Chicago, thinks the United States needs, and which the people (Catholics) will at no distant day proclaim.

Tlie Monastic



of Perpetual Silence.



of perpetual

religious orders




of austerity.

was assumed by several was observed with different deSome monks passed their whole

lives in

profound silence

others spoke on certain days

week and others at particular hours of speciThe modern penitentiary regulations respectfied days.
of the

ing the conversation of prisoners seem to have been

derived from the singular customs of the



The members
cealing their

cf the


orders, perpetually con-




and their

thoughts by their silence, appear to have concluded
that secrecy was the substance of religion.

He who

could conceal the best, and preserve silence the


the devout the useful credit of possess-

ing the most grace.


effusion of the

Holy Ghost,

which, by a prodigal distribution of tongues, and their
clashing jargon,


the primitive

an uproar, and which, by




had turned




down, had a very

different effect

on the silent

orders of the Catholic Church.

AVhile to the former

the latter


of all languages, to

interdicted as profane the use of any.


pass an entire

ered by the
of their


without uttering a word, was considfriars, as an unquestionable evidence

having received the unutterable fulness of the

The one challenges . less the to secrecy of the orders commends them inspires. before it can be rationally admitted that profound silence and distracting discord are effects of the same cause. investigation the other denounces it . or whether the divine spirit politely accommodates the nature of his unction to the demands of particular ecclesiastical exigencies. scrutinizing gaze of the world the other conceals If such its is features from the most intimate associate. seems to require some proof. conceal their principles and projects from public view. intolerant and cowardly. shrink from the public gaze. the . and every other infraction of greatest secrecy. cate nature. Eobbery. is Secrecy able designs most generally adopted to cover objectionand. open and fearless error hidden. the profounder the former is. and such the silent cowardice of error.PERPETUAL SILENCE. the fearlessness of truth. . I speak not of the secret signs by which benevolent societies recognize their members. while they are professedly designed for religious purposes. more objectionable are the latter. but of those associations which. the confidence which candor than to the suspicion which secrecy begets. its breast to the. yet some other respects secrecy may sometimes it is often suggested by off"end All that against the natural sentiments of propriety. civil ordinations seek to shroud their intentions and machinations in the The traitor and the highwayman/ . murder. the one opens . 33 Holy Ghost. in be suggested by discretion. is But the question of truth and error is of a less intriTruth is candid. Catholic "Whether the primitive church and the orders were blest with the influence of the same Holy Ghost. Although guilt.

bosom ceive through their agency the absolution ence of and reand indulgthe Holy Roman Catholic Church. and perhaps defeat its execution. Secrecy is. who could not disclose the startling secrets of their order princes. All the devout who contemplated the commission of the crimes of murder. always some ]3lot so antagonistical to reason and the welfare society that its projectors are conscious that publicity would endanger. it generally means evil . prevarication and disguise are the inseparable concomitants of guilt. re- and dismal and plot schemes of blood and depredation. caverns. someof times robbery. preferred to untheir designs to the taciturn fraternity. sedition. secret therefore. or treason. That it was exceedingly profitable will appear evident upon a moment's reflection. So tire to solitary forests. but what unutterable deeds the taciturnity of the may mute monks sanctioned not be so clearly proved as naturally imagined. frequently murder. But the commanded only by connivance of the church at criminal deeds could be the power of gold and the amount . they acquired the confidence of the most desperate criminals. . and as they never uttered a word. to hold their conclaves is crime that its perpetration can generally only be established by circumstantial evidence. Evasion.34 MONASTIC VOW OF afar from the searching scrutiny of the inquisitive. The shocking crimes which the pious monasteries concealed have frequently been divulged by those who have escaped from their cloisters. confessed to without alarming the fears of temporal none but to the silent monks. These dumb friars were confessors. inaccessible retreats. naturally calculated to excite suspicion . The Jesuits. often treason. it seldom means good .

curse or bless. that confessors are not bound. and commit any crime of which language is capable. without incurring responsibility. imprecate. as it enabled them to aflirm. the confessional The secrets of may be communicated from one priest to when a confessor desires to make public another . as their intentions to the most silent lips.TERPETUAL SILENCE. Although grimace and gesticulation were more clumsy and less varied in their signs than is vocal articulation. as to inviolate secrecy. and. by way of explanation. supplicate. scorn. anathematize any power. violating any legal enactment. or answerable for the breach of any code of honor. It it is to see that the most flagitious criminals would prefer disclosing may here be remarked. impugn. deny. he adopts the artifice of requesting the informer to communicate the matter to him out friars. The dumb not less artful than secret. as the commission of the highest misdemeanors most imminently endangered the life and liberty of the perpetrators. of the confessional. This odd device was well force as they could adapted to the non-committal policy of the religious orders. elabor- ated a system of sacred gesticulations. slander to threaten any dignity. ual silence obtained for the monks. requisite for expiation 85 was always in proportion to tKe Now. . is generally supposed. use of any in- formation which has been confessed to him. command. rendering themselves amenable to any tribunal. to describe. as occasion suggested. yet by this means the dumb monks contrived. by which they managed to express their wants and desires with as much have done with their tongues. it is as easy to see the munificent pecuniary advantages which perpetatrociousness of the crime. .

the spontaneous the exhilarating effusions of of philosophy. and gratuitously assumed all the disadvantages that the greatest calamity could have imposed. of opinion. was nothing reprehensible in the taciturn fraternity but this curious departure from the natural use of the human faculties. all the natural overflowing of the soul. justly classed among the most afflict deplorable calamities that can a human being. it is is sometimes an un- ruly member. the burst of eloquence. The natural privations sons. the searching inquisition of truth. It is by it that error is detected. that It among the most prominent the characteristics distinguish human from the brute creation. The interchange sallies of wit. find . The tongue. and the If there aversion of the prudent. cious It is mostly by the means of the judi- employment of speech that the ignorant are in- and the cause of truth and freedom defended. it must be confessed. it alone would be sufficient to subject them to the suspicion of the candid.36 MONASTIC VOW OF The adoption of this ingenious device to avoid com- pliance with unnatural obligations. the animating power of debate. the lore art. vice intimidated. of such a person elicit in his favor the condoling sympathies of all considerate per- Yet in order to accomplish secret purposes of ambition or cupidity. science. humor. the dumb monks resigned the most important advantages with which Nature had enriched them. the afflicted consoled. but also the noblest blessing of the is human organism. and superstition and despotism are structed. affords an instance of the singular duplicity into ous craft of being may betray human is born a mute which the subtilty of piThe misfortune nature. exposed.

bestows equality on all. She is the great redeemer of the moral world. often the most valuable. . but neither can mode of tone of society. It is a means which all possess of imparting consolation w^hich en. It is action. and has been more successful than dungeons. nor purify the sources of But freedom of speech enters the soul.TERPETUAL SILENCE. spirit has reanimated its dead. 4 . convince the understanding. Her touch has healed her her voice has calmed its storms its disorders public opinion. and enthrones in power She enters a nation of slaves and makes them a nation of sovereigns. slavery. it is the most improving the moral and intellectual more powerful than legal enactments. only one that can avail. con- verses with the intellect. sifts opinions. in the varied 37 of speecli tlieir and expressive functions is it. it it blesses is him who ercised. . She enters the halls of legislation and erects right into law. . Speech exercises a reflective blessing. and him upon whom propriety ex- None can use with their vocal powers without improving them. Such being her mission. She enters the court and gives equity to judicial proceedShe enters a community and breaks the irons of ings. most available avenues for the outlet of their respective treasures. which the always the poorest may bestow on the richest cheapest. Laws may interdict and gibbets terrify. none can advocate truth without being enlightened by its beams. and all the prescriptions of tyranny combined. trammeled by the efficacious fetters which is and sometimes the speech is free and unWhen of intolerance. riches the more prodigally it is dispensed . racks. and moulds the nature of man into order and justice. none can instruct without being instructed.

and a despotism so monstrous. the purest instincts of his being. Yet. interests of society. the reason. at variance with the general most sacred rights of man. consistent with the designs of Nature. nor the progress of it is not of dictate man. notwithstanding the immense advantages the power of speech confers on its possessors. she truth promoted. an enemy to human knowledge. of religion may have mingled with the consummation of this atrocious folly. nor the luxurious If it is consistpleasure it has obliged them to forego. virtue fortified. opposed to the .38 MONASTIC VOW OF . it atones not for the good it has prohibited the monks from doing. and to human sympathy. and the noblest virtues of his nature. or the sorrows it might heal. A slavery so abject. need tremble at her approach. the silent monks have resigned all right to its use and sought Whatever motives an equality with dumb brutes. ent with the secret designs of any religious order to iron the faculties of speech in eternal silence. is ^ a curse to the world. obligations and principles are consistent with the faith and practice of the Catholic Church. to human progress. an absurdity so gross. it is not consistent with the instinctive prompting of knowledge or of natural sympathy. and the world enlightened. If it is consistent with the princijjles of any version of religion to view with dumb indifference the errors it might correct. If it is consistent with the obligations of any religious organization to prohibit the exercise of those powers by which error is checked. it is not consistent with the obligations of man. And if such designs. none but impostors need fear her scrutiny none but bigots need dread her vengeance none but tyrants .

and her holiness to the scorn and ridicule of all enlightened nations and ages. . should consign erence to contempt. as that 39 her rev- whicK she sanctions.PERPETUAL SILENCE.

and where the faculties are cawakened to their severest and most rigid scrutiny. was the vow of silent contemplation assumed by many of the religious orders. objects on It derives its it merit or demerit from the employs sion and the manner in w^hich it The mind receiving its impresfrom external objects. and depressed by what is gloomy. and animated by what is pleasing.* CHAPTER Y. fancy in which the which the mind acquires those maxims of wisdom. amid scenes of grandeur. we as naturally become enlightened by what is true. Meditation. Amid objects of reality. as we are misguided by w^hat is erroneous. its faculties. where the subjects are the most numerous and varied. and their vividness and which dwells. Similar in nature to the vow of seclusion and silence. expanded by what is liberal. ennobled and chastened in . is the great college in which the under. abstractly considered. and equally incompatible with a fulfilment of the obligations of reason and humanity. profundity being in proportion to the constancy with which they are contemplated. is neither a virtue nor a vice. and that ascend- standing is is invigorated and improved . contracted by w^hat is illiberal. The Monastic Vow 37npi of Silc7it Coiiterrvplatioji PAKT FIRST Meditation not the Source of Knowledge.

To obtain knowledge we must exercise the perceptive The senses of seeing. by the mere exercise of the contemplative To retire into solitude. tasting and touching are the only avenues by which knowledge can reach the mind. and effect. The process facts. will be the value and greatness of our elaborations. with the expectation that by possessed the penetration of a such means. arithmetic. He whose observation has been the most comprehensive. or of the laws grammar. and whose investiga4* faculties. would be as ridiculous as to attempt to make our feet perform the hands. tracing the chain of cause and Knowledge is the its material with which it works . ency over impulse and illusion in conformity Avhicli 41 enable it to act with the principles of happiness and of the human organism. or the versatility of a Voltaire. None of are so absurd as knowledge history. the intellect of a Gibbon. in proportion to accuracy and extent. and endeavor by the guess-work of meditation to acquire even a knowledge of the alj)habet. any ideas but what were unnatural. smelling. analyzing compounds. But the processes the acquisition to expect to obtain a of meditation are not adapted to of knowledge. were we mure ourselves tercourse with in the gloom and silence of perpetual confinement. to acquire anything but profound ignorance or . . powers. of meditation is the act of comparing deducing conclusions.SILENT COXTEMPLATIOX. though we Locke. astronomy. ofBce of our to im- Not less absurd would it be. and properties of matter. avoiding the objects of Nature and an insociety. and. hearing. distorted and misshapen.

greatest comprehensiveness to his intellectual view. events. inducted into the secret by which science has achieved all her victories. and by which she has erected in such solid grace ical structures and grandeur those literary and philosophwhich stand like imperishable columns amid the ruin of temples and kingdoms. before the blaze of ^vhose overpowering grandeur the throne and of Nature. is enabled to exercise the contemplative powers with the pleasure and advantage. like the corporeal powpropriate objects. and. variety to his mental operations. and which in intensity and purity so He is far transcend the fanatic's wildest excitement. and truth to his conclusions. The distinct and graphic imagery of men. will give correctness to his ideas. in her He is fancy dwindle into insignificance. elements of correctness. scenes. objects and their properties. sublimer periods than the pen He stands perpetually superstition ever recorded. . enabled to imbibe the fervor. clearhis ness to Possessing the judgment. He is pages of rocks and enabled to open the volume stars. But the acquisition of these exalted attainments embraces the exercise of all the intellectual power on apThe mental. opening on the fields of immensity. strewed with objects of reality. he will also possess the elements of happiness and success. in order to be . of in the vestibule of truth. and read. they are differently organized and ers. the inspiration. all require to be exercised judiciously.42 tiong MONASTIC VOW OF have been the most thorough and accurate. inhale and enjoy the ecstatic delights which scientific truth empire of alone can confer. are various . with which he has stored his mind. adapted to deal with objects of different natures.

and marked with deformity and all all But when the moral faculties are properly employed. if any faculty is of the mind is disused. and others impoverished or enervated. tion. it will lose its natural strength. defective. whereby the blood is increased in a member by exercise. resembling those nightmares that in monsters which are born without limbs. and decreased by inertia. One class of the mental powers thus becoming over-excited. capable of elaborating. subtracted by the other. and body only when each faculty of mind properly exercised that the health and It is vigor of the whole organism can be maintained. equality in the distribution of the blood will derange the harmonious condition of the cerebral organs will be overcharged. effects The of indo- and the invigorating consequences of exercise. or those partial. distortion. in this condition. it will be deprived of its natural energy . the ideas which is the mind. . Now. and they will absorb the aliment necessary for the subThe establishment of this insistence of the others. another and a third paralyzed. . physiological cause of the enervating lence. the faculties employed in the process of meditacomprehend but a small number of the mental powers and if they are exclusively exercised. and a proportionable degree of strength imparted by one and. . their In consequence of a harmony. class enfeebled. If any member of the body is disused. and our grotesque.SILENT COKTEMPLATIOK 4a kept in a healthy tone. disjointed flit must necessarily be sleep. some and either inflamed or constipated. are found in those laws of the human organism. a superabundant volume of blood will be distributed to them. they will receive their appropriate nourishment and maintain natural vigor.

and the reproductive system transforms it into animal fluids and solids. except those whose functions are destined to recuperate and vitalize the entire system. . order in classifyit. unity MONASTIC VOW OF and reciprocity of mental action. memory it. ing it. The man who attempts to lift a weight beyond the capacity of his - muscular vigor. and all proceeding as naturally as the vital organ elaborates and vitalizes the blood. and. emanalogy in comparing taste iu selecting braced in the act of meditation. action — all knowledge. in storing it up. to . is derived from the which all the faculties are calmed. raise may never afterward be enabled to tenth part of what was within his former and Sir Isaac Newton. conclusions from judgment in deducing what is most appropriate. fancy in adorning it. but deranges those which it labors to keep in incessant activity. To labor to keep the meditative faculties in constant action is to The invigorating efl'ect of sleep profound slumber into interrupt the process of recuperation ly. increases the flow of blood to their parts by inducing the process of recuperation. But the partial exercise of the mental faculties. Exerrepose. ability . not only re- stores their vigor but increases their healthy volume. thus powers will be preserved in healthy the perceptives in furnishing the mind with tlie induced. after he had enervated his faculties by impelling them to constant the . whose powers of contemplation seemed almost superhuman. is A period of rest after labor of the health cise indispensable to the maintenance of the cerebral and vigor organs. not only disproportionately develops the cerebral organs .44 equality. consequent- prevent them from becoming vitalized.

trains of thought. of objects. There is a secret power acting on the nervous system. appetite crave. rebels against the destruction of its facul- Habitually to exercise the contemplative faculties class of objects is a on one superhuman task. if we we triumph Neither Belief or will be in our death-struggle. ties. We may. emotion arise. or any other sentiment or feeling can no more be created by an act of volition. passion yearn.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. over which the will has no control. by his works on the prophecies. In spite of resistance the blood will pursue its natural course to the different organs of the brain. instinct will prompt. 45 with an and excessive illustration exercise. wo are men . thought intrude. by means of the theological subterfuge that the involuntary actions of the cerebral functions are the suggestion of impure and malignant fiends. the sensations of contrition. It -is impossible to think and feel by rule. emotion are at the command of the unbelief. apologize to our conscience for the intrusion of profane and worldly thoughts. in conjunction with the natural condition of the system. and by virtue of this fact. . than can storms and earthquakes. But the principle of self-preservation inherent in the human mind. over whom. distraction ensue and under the external semblance of sanctity. of hope. but this device will not exorcise them. of devotion. has furnished the -world of the imbecility it engendered. particular nor particular kinds of will. a moral volcano will burn and heave. ^Ye shall find that in the effort to become automata. and that in the attempt to exercise one class of faculties and to concentrate : have grappled with a it them perpetually on one class giant.

ates. the recollections of the past. and the prospects of the future. he may discover new secrets in the and come forth from retirement a realms more useful member and a brighter ornament of society. . the sanity of the system. PART SECOND. and continue for a secluded abode.46 MONASTIC VOW OF state of the atmosphere. all like unseen spirits stir the soul's depths with ideas and passions. The the unconscious power of imbibed principles. of silent contemplation is cal- "When liberal education has disciplined the intellectual powers. always involuntary. but Nature. the circumstances of the present. a philosopher may find in solitude an influence congenial to his high . The Natural Effects of the Monastic Vow of Silent Con- templation. is to war. pursuits and with his scientific instruments enlarging his field of vision. Let us consider the character and products of the mind which the monastic vow culated to create. he should maintain perlife in petual silence. that they may be conjured and shaped by its mandflash. But if with distinguished abilities. of Nature. and sometimes as abruptly as an electri- cal ideas so To attempt to subject the laws by which and emotions are created to the power of the will. and study has enriched the mind with the facts and principles of science and literature. not only against the constitution of the against the powers and elements of human mind. and the valuable results of an erudite industry.

or to acquire either scientific or literary information. with soldiers who had no knowledge barbarian into obscurity for safety. with mechanics whose scanty wages had precluded the possibility of a rudi- mental education. and who had fled before the victorious it could not be exdeprived of social communion. and restricted in the exercise of their intellectual powers. or to anything but mental imbecility and moral monstrosities. unnatural and pernicious. Such a plea. prisoned in solitude. but had it been in every instance the only incentive it would not have made the act less irrational.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. he would be of no benefit to mankind. could ever give birth to philosophers. fit themselves for the society of God and anThat such a motive has at times mingled with the causes which have induced individuals to assume the monastic vow. Some of their orders actually interdicted as profane any Filled attempt to cultivate the intellectual powers. . pected that the monasteries with such material. is undoubtedly true. 47 "win nor deserve the homage which they accord to scientific phers. and neither benefactors. but that of war. where. secluded from the distractions of and oc- cupied in silent contemplation on death and judgment. with slaves who knew of nothing but manual labor. But the monks were very far from being philosoThey were in general exceedingly illiterate. im- enervated in mental capacity. with abject and obscene pilgrims. would only prove that monastic they might gels. been alleged in favor of monastic institutions of affording It has that they have originated and were sustained from a pious intention the devout an life. in fact. asylum.

fiends. all another inflamed to frenzy. being a transcript of its impressions. which sought by means of the destruction of all corporeality and intellectual activity. exercising but one class of the mental organs. Iso- they could not form the numerous order of conceptions perfected only by the review of all the faculties. or superlatively gigantic. and the realization of a state of perfect happiness. . The monastic vows and regulations were ill calculated to make men either happy. be absurd and pernicious. act But an is may . Encaverned in solitude. but everything as disfigured. or incarcerated in a monastic up in a dungeon. they could not materially enlarge each others' information . Mis- inharmoniously blended. . and pernicious when they are in violation of the dictate of reason. religious orders existed in India. visions. and silent contemplation concentrated in on terrible and incomprehensible subjects. walled cell. while its and it is always absurd when its objects are imaginary. or useful. fBhadows and mind. shadowy. in- congruity would become tasteful. broken down by fatigue. motive pure . impossibilities credible. prostrated yet urged to action. lated from human contiguity. would present nothing as real or symmetrical . and angels take possession of the The productions of such a mind. partial or complete insanity would ensue realities. one class of the faculties paralyzed.48 MONASTIC VOW OF piety was identical with Pagan piety. enlightened. exaggerations natural. the mind overtasked with labor. an incorporation with the nature of God. Long before the origin of Christianity. the monks could not become extensively acquainted with the objects of Nature preserving perpetual silence. indistinct.

caught from the gloom of caves or where color but would be shape. and where corjDoreality and incorporeality would be compounded in every variety and degree of inconsistency. women w^ith fishes' scales. If in the intervals of the monk's gloomy ravings he should attempt a more cheerful picture. with asses reproving prophets. cloisters. claws. They might regale credulity with an account of cities fifteen hundred miles high. the scene which he would probably would there naturally wear an infernal aspect. nor fishes. nor demons. and with angels whose heads reached the stars. nor birds. all in violation of the natural order of Nature. in horrible profusion All ideas of proportion. war and wound with material swords. and natural offspring. 49. but no symmetry where immaterial beings no contrast nor harmony would be represented as tormented with the flames and where they suffocating effects of liquid brimstone would shriek and groan without vocal organs.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. beings that were neither beasts. would spring from the distorted imagination of the monks. but whose forms were so hugely disproPatmos. that while one foot rested on an insignificant portion of the isle of like portion of the Mediterranean forests. sea. the other would rest on a portioned. nor angels. animals variously compounded of the limbs. would be beasts with Men with birds' wings. adaptation and utility would be transgressed in their creations. and beaks. and incompatible with the laws of life. men. with snakes con- versing with women. . . huge giants. The scenery. with immaterial beings fluttering on ponderable pinions. . Bhapen dwarfs. . nor but its an incongruous mixture of them all. human heads.

gloomy companions. What reason would naturally deduce from the char- acter of the monastic firmed by the facts of history. Beside the music of the operatic troupe. . temples and palaces of Pagan Rome. Thus the conceptions of virtue and of vice. of phantoms. but it would naturally be monotonous. inconsistent with pure ideas of men. of metaphysical and of theological dogmas. which are constructed of the tombs. of perfect happiness and of perfect misery. ably be so incompatible with the principles of repulsive. formed by the distempered brains of hermits and monks. alters. vows and templated not the but the fictions of a first distempered fancy and while they scorned the as . is realities of truth. would be conflicting in their parts. palaces of Christian Eome. assisted by the trumpets and harps invented by mortals and had pianos. while they might be awfully effulgent or insupportably horrible.50 MONASTIC VOW OF portray miglit glitter with. gold and gems AvHere they would be of no service but it would be pervaded by an awfulness whicli vs^ould be depressing. eternally sung by beings without throats. the monks conrules. The music might be loud enough to shake Nature to its foundation. ignorant and amply conHoused with silent. would probably have chimed in the grand chorus. and by a splendor wbicli would be terrifying. the other recreations would prob. fiddles and accordians been early enough invented. or and such a strange commingling of inconof things gruities as might remind reflections of the huts and . perhaps consisting of one tone and one song. and make the monk's very heaven so awfully common sense would prudently shrink from partaking of its glory. . they too. that human enjoyment.

gave a vivid distinctness the and give so brought out the mental complexion perspective the and dis- .SILENT CONTEMPLATION. Impressed with the their fancy that demons had taken possession of their bodies. they trembled as less pit a fiery and bottom- yawned at their feet. appetites . "While they labored fit by monastic rules and exercises to society of themselves for the God and angels. as to organs. press to against these impressions. furnishing nothing but extravagant and perverted ideas. 51 profane. they were surprised at finding that they had not yet destroyed their constitutional principles and chains. they acquired . they punished themselves as criminals. the mind became perpetually filled with the most horrible images. distending the blood vessels of the visual and auditory organs. they trembled before the second as a dread reality. and causing them unnaturally to unfit for the society of human tive powers uninformed. they rendered themselves The percepbeings. After having manacled their limbs with the heaviest and lacerated their bodies in the most horrible manner. they accepted as truth whatever their ecclesiastical tyrants dictated. Conceiving the deity . they thought of him as a tyrant and believing their nature depraved. they attempted to dislodge them by making abode as uncomfortable as possible. The superabundant volume of blood consequent on overwrought excitement. and the fancy combining them only into monstrous and hideous shapes. and as they were incapable reasoning themselves. and inflamed by disease. and regarding themselves if still as objects of divine wrath. as a monarch. the temper of a slave As of they imagined freedom of thought sinful.

the sights and sounds ceived by fancy were recognized as real by the ceptive organs. The monks Too often fancied that they saw the misshapen forms of demons. not only with real disease. and heard their diabolical whispers. w^ho regarded the earth. they conceived them inhabited by malignant fiends. too unacquainted with the habits of the brute creation to understand their me- chanical capacity. the more frequently he was honored with the company of demons. In consequence of the condiconper- tion of mind thus induced.52 tinctness of MONASTIC VOW OP reality. Less refined in their mythology than the Pagans. The more jjious a monk was. realities. This fact is not surprising. yet they frequently had the uncommon fortitude of sustaining long conversations with him. Although his visitations were most formidable in the shape of a woman. such as his cloven aspect. the more susceptible his senses to false impresions. the more extravagant his conceptions. the life The senses thus recognizing visions as of the recluse was doomed to become an incessant struggle. air and water as peopled with genii. they regarded the contrivances of animals as the undoubted fruit of a nocturnal adventure of the infernal inhabitants. naiads and fairies. they supposed that they had a hand in regulating the operations of Nature . . the more discordant his imagination. but with imaginary demons. his peculiar horns. foot. the more diseased would become his brain. They often conceived that they saw His Satanic Majesty. his sooty and sulphurous odor. for it is certain that the more successfully he warred against nature and himself. and. with all his distin- guishing appendages. illiterate or obtuse to account for natural phenomena.

whose condition was replete with causes calculated to create them. romance. than those whichs pontaneously psrang from the over- wrought brain of the sincere. more frequent and terrible would apparitions apand the better he would be suited for the company of fiends and spirits. and deliberately adorn them with the terrific and interesting incidents of . and the olfactory. the 53 pear. the visual oigans may recognize images which have no real existence. odors which are the mere products of fancy. had assumed the same obligaProfessedly despising pleasure and fortune. and its degree orthodoxly estimated by the degrees of personal familiarity with the Devil. the auditory. But there were others who.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. secretly laboring to acquire their possession. Such was the melancholy condition of those monks who. the aspiring were too frail to resist the temptation of increasing their celebrity by multiplying the number of and as they could draw on an inexhaustSatanic visits ible mine of conscienceless inventions. they manufactured with more facility diabolical apparitions. how much more vividly would analogous deceptions be likely to occur in the minds of monks and anchorites. If in the vigorous and wholesome bustle of life. aspiring after superhuman sanctification. had with sincerity of purpose assumed the monastic obligation. but tions. sounds which are imaginary. they far outstripped the reputation of the sincere. The sense of touch not being equally susceptible of false impressions with the . Sanctification having become the passport to worldly honors. and with greater facility obtained the emolu- ments of ecclesiastical sinecures. more ambitious of fame than of internal purity.

and not seldom. Under such circumstances we are not astonished to find that some claimed to have obtained a perfection in holiness that enabled them to see the Devil anywhere. they could not so well recognize them by means of meled by this ive faculties But the hypocritical. As the monkish cell.54 otlier senses. limitation. bleeding and demoralized. and cutting up their impalpable substances in such a horrible manner that. the extravagance of his fables. Even at the period of the Reformation. terrific battles Although the monks sometimes pletely with the armies of the infernal regions. relate how comvanquished the they Devil by their elo- quence and the ingenuity of their arguments. the popular belief recognized the Devil and his imps as often vis- . they retreated in. untramwould create by their inventany number of personal encounters and contact. MONASTIC VOW OF while the sincere might see demons and hear their voices. and the incredibleness of his fabrications. it was as convenient a hall of audience in which to receive His Satanic Majesty. and to look upon hell at any time. a hypocrite was encouraged to labor to outrival the fame of an antagonist by the boldness of his assertions. yet they oftener tell how valorously they triumphed over him after a desperate struggle with his superhuman strength. The crown of sanctification being awarded to the most unscrupulous inventor of pious ficitons. inflicting on the spiritual bodies of the demons such deep gashes. like the human brain. as it was an area for the scientific manoeuvering of his legions. wild disorder. could accomodate any number of devils. wounded. how alone and single-handed they encountered him in command of a battalion of fiends.

he threw at His Satanic Majesty an inkstand. PART THIRD. gave such credit to their extrav- agant productions. that they were during the middle ages the protectors of learning. that. and for that Some of the inmates being unfit for few in but a limited more remu- . and the craft or credulity of the church in incorporating them in her devotional books has so deepened and perto govern in petuated reverence for them. this noble virtue can be justly claimed for only a few of them sense. ible. passing through the dusky form and striking the wall beyond. which. It has been alleged. . left a stain which is visible to this day. for the purpose of embarrassing him in the execution of his useful design. 55 Martin Luther. wuth apparent plausibility. even at the present day. fortunately. un- favor of monastic institutions. The profound homage won by the monks from igno- rance and superstition. they continue superstition. still a measure the and to contaminate the creed and ritual of reformed churches. while engaged in translating the Bible.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. The Ignorance and Corruption induced hy the Monastic Vow of Silent Contemplation. that history has sometimes been led into the error of recording them as real events . conceived that he saw the Devil enter his study. in But. Annoyed at this unceremonious and impertinent intrusion.

these monks have contributed to the preservation of learning. as the multiplication of manuscripts of preserving the most efficient mode what is written on the perishable material of paper and parchment. ordered . embellish them with fancies. to the drudgery of copying manuscript Benedictine sometimes the task w^as imposed infirm of the . were to be burnt. The aged and monks were thus employed is and. as that they w^ould mar them wdth errors. But invetr erate prejudice. all of Old pernicious tendency. on others as a penance. converted to w^orks. gross ignorance. it is not as likely that the monks would and reliable transcripts. was the literary honesty of the religious and such likely to be the character of their manuscripts. Catholic clergy during the Christianity' but dark A Jew. and abject servitude Avere versions. illustrate the incredible ignorance of the ages. at the horrible revelatation. not to produce accurate copies. having persuaded the Emperor Maximilian that the Hebrew Testament excepted. the not to truth. manu- scripts. and governed by the misleading principles of their order. the ignorance and superstition of the age favored rather than obstructed the perpetration of any A few facts will pious fraud they might contemplate. obstinate bigotry. and interpolate them with forgeries furnish authentic and wilful corruptions. them to The learned Eeuchlen earnestly remonstrated against the imperial decree. but to consume time or do penance. while they ill qualified to render correct were well adapted to the perpetraTranscribing tion of fraud and corruption. and succeeded ia the latter. "While such orders.56 nerative MONASTIC VOW OP employment were subjected .

nor the African clergy understood the Latin language. c. and whose learning was sufficiently superficial to prepare him for canonization. Pope Sylvester as a from the whose literary attainments were superior to those of the clergy of his age. Hilary asserts from his personal knowledge that but few of the prelates in the ten provinces of Asia preserved the knowledge of dorsing it. who was ignorant of the Greek tongue. p. and as for the years ensued. Hebrew acters as sorcerer. whose decision happily rescued oriental literature II. Bible. de Synodis. A controversy So grossly ignorant were the clergy that not one of them with whom Reuchlen debated had ever seen a Greek Testament. St. would comprehend among their the true It . god. nor the Vandal clergy. believe it. 1186).. who held unhallowed Augustin. having of ten its 67 execution postponed until the matter of the allegation could be critically examined. 63. priests and abbots. St.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. pronounced the doctrine of the antipodes a blasphemous heresy and Pope Zachariah degraded a friar for in. flames of the stake. they denounced its alphabetical char- of some profane So obstinate was their opposition to Hebrew the diabolical invention literature that they declared their readiness to support their cause at the point of the sword. and excommunicated all Catholics who should The patriarch Cyrille declared that neither he. {Hilar. composed of the most influential bishops. might reasonably be supposed that the ecclesiastical councils. the former was induced to appoint as umpire the archbishop of Spires. was regarded magician converse with infernal demons. Neither the Pope nor the cardinals having sufficient learning to decide on the merits of the question.

as it was and and another entitled. by Silas Andrew and Son. time were composed of men. will be attested by a few extracts from a work written by William Hogan. soldiers. as all could mode make it. yet according to II. According to the testimony of Sabinus." published at Hartford." entitled. the sign of ignorance. simple creatures that understood nothing. the sign of the cross.58 MONASTIC YOW OF scholars. lords Among the crowd of slaves." and Cassian charges the Egyptian monks of having ignorantly preached Epicurean Paganism as the gospel of Christ. " A Synopsis of Popery. and priests that thronged the convents. though few could write their names. even of theologians. Speaking of : canons the author says " These canons are inaccessible to the majority of the American people. the Nicene bishops were "a set of illiterate. members many distinguished the authority of Pope Gregory the councils at his letters. in 1850 a work that may be profitably consulted by parents who educate their daughters at nunnery schools. bishop of Heraclea. not only ignorant of but of the scriptures. was a general of executing contracts.. meaning and with the purport or who have been educated Catholic priests have much or any acquaintance. He who argues with Catholic priests must have had his education with them. comprising an essay as it is. " Auricular Confession and Popish Nunneries. That the literary progress of the church has not kept pace with the progress of the world. formerly a Catholic priest of Philadelphia. he must be of them and from of them none but those . and by gentlemen who contemplate forming matrimonial alliances with ladies who have — been accomplished at such the ecclesiastical institutions.

that it is infallible." " when these forgeries were 9. palmed on the {Synopsis. This know of . where they keep piles of decretals. priests and that and is all damnation/ religion . p. he must know that they will scruple at no forgery ivhen they desire to establish any point of doctrine. he observes: The majority of Catholics in this country know no- thing of the religion which they profess. which that is not taught by the church . ready for all such emergencies. 10). excommunications and interdicts. under pain of the great mass of Catholics ' its popes. in driven into their controversies with Protestants. I am is not even hazarding an asser- them that has read knows any more about the religion he professes than he does about the Koran of Mohammed. this is all they are required to learn and hence it is that these people are unacquainted with the pretensions of the . fundamentally or not fundamentally. receipts. He Is told by the priest that Christ estabI say there when not one of the gospel through. and that if still diffi- culty they will have recourse to the archives of the church. to admit nothing and deny everything. he must be aware all it is a standing rule with the Popish priests. he must submit implicitly to what bishops teach. canons. bulls. to some of them dated from 300 1000 years before they were written or thought of. world. Again. and for which they are willing tion to fight.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. He must know from experience that they will stop at no falsehood where the good of the church is concerned . 59 among tliem. showing more clearly than perhaps anything else the extreme ignorance of mankind between the third and ninth century. contend. or that lished a church on earth . and shed the blood of their fellow beings.

know may be I not of one in any parish of Munster. the metaphysics and mystic . vol. in works of controversy til I went to college between Catholics and Protestants. and the only correct interpreters of the Bible. 1. if now living would be deemed mad. and so grossly superstitious. The pen of transcribers. right of private judgment was entirely denied us. it was a in truth. we had no veneration for. the sophistry. could not render authentic manu- . except it a Latin one.60 MONASTIC VOW OF Pope. is It my firm conviction. that out of the large number of students there for the ministry. many p.. of whom. p. 80).- Speaking of the theological education " During the four years I spent of the priests. they (the scriptures) nopsis. I studied closely the holy as our sole guide in church so did most of the students. and the imposition practised on them by : their bishops and priests." (Si. he says in the college of Maynooth. the intrigues of the Jesuits. It was. But to return to the consideration of the monks. there was not one who read the gospels through. except such as are found in detached passages. nor even portions of them. but a dead letter in the college 'sealed book to us. in fact. UnI scarcely ever heard of a Bible. so generally ignorant. fathers of the But . 79. as he pleases. which each priest may or may not have. 29). A doctrines of those raving dreamers called holy fathers. The Bible. Confess. and represented as the source of multifarious errors. though there were not an equal number of students who were obliged to study more closely the sayings. Wc were taught to rely upon them morals." (Au7'ic. and dealt with accordingly. formed no portion of the education of the students.

unlike the canonical scriptures. The classics. concurred in establishing Catholicism. Infidels might have fewer objections and the credit of these sacred books be far better sustained than it has been by voluminous commentaries. declamatory sermons and conflicting polemical works. 6 . learned Strauss. scripts . As ignorance could and it not transcribe masterly. have been subjected to the purifying process of rigid criticism. and the monkish corruptions which once perverted the meaning. to corrupt such parts as might by perversion be made to administer to its support . Had the New Testament been sub- jected to a similar ordeal. in his Life of Christ. deliberate falsehoods and artful perversions. the impossibility of its effectual perform- ance will appear without a doubt. contrive to make it appear that all Jewish and Pagan literature events. instituted. are in a great measure eradicated from modern editions. the love of truth supplanted by a careful regard to the interests of the church. 61 when w^e even when actuated by the best intention and recollect that the task which required the exercise of an enlightened and vigorous intellect was devolved on the most diseased and infirm of the religious orders. intentionally. such for instance as the to the gospels. ibility . the copyists would esteem a Christian duty to omit such parts of a manuscript as militated against the truth of their religion . defending the grossest frauds and the boldest interpolations. so superstition would pervert Conscience paralyzed by bigotry.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. and to interpolate such parts with occurrences and apparent incidental allusions to the omission of which was fatal to its credand thus by a system of typographical frauds.

consigned to the flames the literary treasures of antiquity. declared he had been scourged by an angel for reading the productions of Virgil. gave himself up to deter his readers for lost. letters men of burned their elegant libraries. in the destruction of the Alexandrian library. With not less bias- . and vengence had not left a vestige of any of them remaining. For this purpose the secular power was invoked. and laws were framed prescribing the severest penalty for those who should read or possess a Pagan production. led also to wage an exterminating it war against those profane productions which could not satisfactorily answer. which refute. The persecution against philosophers and their libraries was carried on with such pious insanity that besides its causing piles of manuscripts to be destroyed. it to corrupt the works of ancient authors. After malice had ferreted every crevice where a proscribed volume could be secreted. They pursued the masterly productions them was of Celsus and Porphery with an unscrupulousness which seemed to indicate that the annihilation of to in- dispensable the existence of Christianity. in order from perusing any of the heathen authors. Young Chrysostom. St. lest some vol- ume contained in them should jeopardize their lives. except what was quoted or perverted in the works of Christian apologists. the Church boasted that God had not left a work of hostile literature in existence. Jerome. The Orthodox Theodosius.62 MONASTIC VOW OF which induced it Tlie bigotry or fear of the church. baffled the talent The bare thought of the existence of works and learning of the church to irritated the sensitive piety of the monks beyond endurance. happening once to find a proscribed volume.

in transmitting to Pome a report of all important events occurring within the limits of his jurisdiction . and a simultaneous earthquake a passage in Macrobius. prefect of Judsea at the time of Christ. Prominent among the numerous instances of this disregard to truth. that it has left no work in existence belonging and hence where knowledge is to the period of Christ the most needed the historian finds the least and where the facts might be expected to be the most abundant and of the clearest description. ignorant theologians of all ages. which represents the author as incidentally referring to the death of a son of his as having occurred in consequence of a jealous order issued by Herod . of the faith that destroyed Beside the destructive hostility of the monks to the formidable literary obstacles which embarrassed the vindication of their theological subtleties. which according to prefectorial custom was encumbent on him. 63 phemy and bigotry lias tlie same absurdity been echoed by dishonest. their zeal led them to perpetrate the grossest forgeries in order to manufacture historical data in their favor.11 children under two years old the Epistle of Lentulus. are the following passages conceded by in all scholars to be entire fabrications. . Phlegon. So wide and unsparing was the monkish war against classic literature.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. in which he of the sun is The passage the works of made to speak of a total eclipse . the wildest and most . ridiculous fancies are presented. and the alarm and weakness them. for the massacre of a. in a governmental despatch. The necessity for this destruction proves the power of the works destroyed. who is represented as describing the person and character of Christ.

sephus in reference to Christ. Tiberius. king of Edessa. The product by compiling a Bible with genuine of this laborious exertion was. complains own works had been altered and the practice of .ted Joshua. finding the versions of the scriptures which were received by the churches as authentic exceedingly conflicting. and thereby impressing his features on it. that but few of them adopted it. dis- putations. relating to a robber called Nun and all the passages found in Jo. son of near Tangiers. sermons presume to reject But in attempting and expositions. it caused." to execute this decrts^. cumstances of the death and resurrection of Christ the fabulous inscriptions on two fabulous columns. which is a modification of his Bible. that his who wrote in the second century. so unsatisfactory to the theological tastes of the churches. and how wiping his face with a handkerchief. the startling . politely accommodated the legation the Epistle of Pontius Pilate to the Emperor . how- ever. the Vulgate. Although Jerome's labors were but imperfectly appreciated during his life. or to the results of their critical examinations. in 1546. and no one shall it under any pretence whatever. undertook to abate the scandal text. in which he is made to relate the alleged cir. said to be situo. sent ambassadors to Christ to solicit the favor of his portrait.64 MONASTIC VOW OF it is the legend of the Veronica handkerchief in which related how Abgarus. in the fourth century. this base species of dishonesty seems to have fearfully increased with the growth of the Church. yet. The monk Jerome. Origen. to be " authentic in all lectures. as he had materially approximated toward furnish- ing a catholic desideratum. was declared by the Council of Trent.

made another Bible. in consequence of the liberty which translators had taken with the essentially differed from one another . If disbelief in the Bible is infidelity. To relieve them from this perilous predicament. inspired by the Holy Ghost. not having the fear of his infallible predecessor's anathema before his eyes. of the Vulgate. but the task exceeding his learning and Pius V. fact 65 became evident that the copies text. had forgotten to designate which copy of the Vulgate was the genuine one. that each church believed in a different Bible \vas impossible to that it determine which divine book was .SILENT CONTEMPLATION. the Pope appointed a learned committee to prepare a Bible which should have genuine text. But the Bible elaborated by this comthe least corrupted mittee. it only increased the confusion it had attempted to remedy. the greater number of the churches were actually in a situation which made them unconscious infidel conclaves. He was followed by Pope labored in vain. In 1590 Pope Sixtus V. amid a heavy storm of Vatican thunder. next tried his hand at perfecting and correcting the scriptural text . and promulgated it from his throne as genuine and authoritative. he anathematized all who should alter its text or reject his authority. who also made a Bible which his judgment or prejudice pronounced to be authentic. ingenuity. Determined that Christendom should be reduced to the alternative of accepting his version. not according with the Pope's theological fancies or secret designs. and that as the Council. Pope Pius IV. was rejected.. But Pope Clement VIII. in which he consigned to the care of the Devil and his angels all 6* . or having none. his efforts were alike unproductive of satisfac- tory results..

to prevent the devout from it robbing of its garments vend them as relics — who wished preserve — declares that the most that can be to is. and prevent the production of as many Bibles as there were translators. after three years' labor. and decided which was the correct rendering by the authority of a majority of sufBut this logic was not appreciated by Dr. The authorized English version tures. and Bishop Belson. Smith frages. tion. to correct its glaring inconsistencies incurring the vengeance of his own anathemas. the renderings consequently were so irreconcilable on conflicting and any principle of philological or exeefi'ect getical criticism. every well-informed Eomanist admits. is the product of forty- seven celebrated Biblical scholars. they put the question concerning a disagreement to vote. that to and who in life had obtained such an eminent degree when he died a guard had be placed over his corpse. scarcely elapsed when he him- was obliged self . to mend the numerous flaws in the Catholic word of God. Notwithstanding an incessant tinkering for ages by the ablest theologians. or said in favor of the received version that it is the best that has been made. to whose joint scrutiny the Bible . Cardi- nal Bellarmine. A year had. that in order to any agreement. however. The manuscripts from which they made their translations being exceedingly corrupted and discordant. the one in present use is far from being perfect.66 MONASTIC VOW OF wlio should presume to correct the work of his infallible hands. of the holy scrip- known as James' Bible. who was deeply versed in Biblical erudi- of popularity for sanctity. that while all the previously received versions of the Vulgate are too grossly corrupted to be defended.

have wrung from Catholics the reluctant concession that the Vulgate needs a revision. and they accordingly subjected tion. Peter and the First Epistle of St. Mark. John. that in comparing the documents together 130. rejects the Gospel of St. they have equally extorted from Protestants the unwilling admission that their version is corrupted with undoubted forgeries. are universally conceded by scholars to bo wilful fabrications. scripts showing that the manufrom which the Nev/ Testament is translated. The doxology at the conclusion of the Lord's prayer. Lardner Hebrews. 67 tHus manufactured was afterwards submitted. Jude. the story of the rich arus. Those discrepmere spelling of a word in some in- . the Epistle to the Romans. perversions. and the book of Revelations. afi'ecting the word out of six. The pool of Bethsaida. The Greek Testament comprehends 181. the Epistle of St. Matthew. rejects the Epistle to the Dr. most distinguished among Biblical scholars go further. the Gospel of St. it to a further process of purifica- W hile philological criticism. forgeries and interpolations in the existing manuscripts. the Epistle of St. the friend and confident of Joseph IL of Austria. yet such is the number of mistakes. the Second Epistle of Peter. James. Dr. John. the story of the man and Lazand the story of the adulteress.000 various readings are detected. the Second Epistle of St. John. are not correct in one ancies. St. Evanson rejects the Gospel of St. St. the Gospel of Luke. the Epistle to First the Colossians. Bretschneider. and investigations con- cerning the genuineness of the sacred text. the Epistle to the Ephesians. the Epistle of St.253 words.SILENT CONTEMPLATION.

the sense of a passage. 2). The authorized version. 1. they are demonstrations that he did not believe in its divine inspiration. . The conviction is equally irresistible that those .68 MONASTIC VOW OF stances. vSince the sixteenth century Greek manuscripts have been discovered. like Luther's. the following: "But Greek text of the apostolic writings. since its origin in the first century. Erasmus and Stephens and Gothic. was made from a Greek text which Erasmus in 1516. they it . had formed from manuscripts of later date . and for sale find by the New the York booksellers. . in otiiers. Coptic ars are much divided in opinion as to the readings {Intro- which most exactly convey the word of God. Syriac. In Tischendorf 's nitz. ." duction. in New we Testament. at Leipzig. into which languages the sacred text was translated. and. they invalidate its authority . is as undeniable as all that they deliberately and intentionally marred the Biblical manuscripts that passed through their hands. from the ignorance or incompetency of the copyist. That the religious orders did not believe in the divine inspiration it is of the holy scriptures. are of all degrees of importance. of far . and Eobert Stephens in 1550. than the tenth century. between the second and fourth centuries Scholgreater antiquity than those of as well as others in Latin. when they arise from his carelessness. publislied by Tauch- English. . has suffered many a mischance at the hands of those who have used and studied it. are proofs that he entertained no reverence for and when they to corrupt occur from a deliberate intention on his part and to interpolate it. "When mistakes in a mianuscript arise. p.

the of France. " The apostle assures his King. that . p. xlix. good of the Church. addressed to Pope Sylvester —the foundation . . forged a letter. There is another class of forgeries perpetrated for the briefly advert. 6§ by using in defi- who sanction the corruptions of the sacred text as authority. according to Gibbon. and all the host of heaven.. the clergy. and that eternal damnation will be the penalty if they suffer his tomb. pronounced to be the work of a drunken man. unan- adopted sons. of the Pope's claim to temporal sovereignty and also the Creed of Athanasius. stantinople.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. ) ( All the letters and desimilar frauds are numerous. attributed this its authorship to the spirit of St. v. forfeit all claim to a reputation of common honesty. The evidences of 26. the saints. But few of the nucretals of Clementine are spurious. that riches. victory and paradise will crown their pious enterprise. and will confess the obligation . chap.of Conupon first reading. his temple. to which I will Of this description is the Decretal Epistle of Constantine the Elder. All ranks of the Church seemed to have become infatuated with an ambition to be forgers. vol. In document. merous works ascribed genuine.. to Pope Gregory the Great are The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinth- . he is still active in the spirit that they now hear and must obey the voice of the founder and guardian of the Roman Church that the virgins. Pope Stephen II. fall Dec. Peter. and the nobles dead in the flesh. and after his death. imously urge the request. and his into the people to hands of the perfidious Saracens. forged two hundred years and which Gennadius. Patriarch . them and those who defend them ance of the irrefragable proof of their spurious character.

that every doctrine for which they have been fabricated to prove. the the letters of bishops.. To establish a historical basis for some pious imposition. are entire fabrications. by the seven churches to which it was addressed. Kig second Epistle to the Corinthians. they la- The unavoidable deduction from the monkish forgeries is. . and the sentence was almost universally confirmed by the churches of Christendom. distorted. .credit of their dogmas. the existence of . and bulls of Popes have been forged. or obstruct the consummation of their designs. but whatever was in its nature too inflexibly inimical to the success of them. or what might. . interpolated Volume after volume has been written or destroyed. Sirmund shows that the Kicene canons have been corrupted. aud falsely attributed to the pen of some distinguished author.70 ians is MONASTIC VOW OF egregeously corrupted and interpolated is . that but a fragment of in it so much mutilated remains his autobiography. Without moral the principle. scrupled not destroy the finest models of literary taste. 1-234). by an artful adulteration be made accessory to them. and forged to accommodate them to the {Tom. the religious orders. at the suggestion of interest. iv. decrees of councils. Peter and all his apostolic canons. and to perWhat could not petrate the most audacious forgeries. p. absurd ecclesiastical claim or arbitrary usurpation. in order to obtain respect and authority for an abridged. marred. altered. militate against the. The Apocalypse was rejected as spurious at the Council of Laodicea. which he is made to take a journey with St. and intent only on supporting to ambitious pretentions of the Pope. designs of the church. they might piously spare bored to annihilate.

The manuscripts transcribed or perverted by the monks were stowed away as useless rubbish. the attempt to manuby corrupting and interpolating them. The literary fires cast which smouldered in their in- stitutions but a sickly glare upon the darkness feeble rays could not be expected to within. 13 false . is true. sures of classic literature. At length the holy charm which. catching a spark of the fire Pope Nichowhich burned in the breast of his lay associates. his own. in general.. las v. is an acknowledgment that the successful vindication of their creed and pretensions required proof which did not exist and the cargoes of their forgeries. they left the surrounding region enveloped in midnight gloom. became ignited. and destroy their own credibility. had bound the church in stupid ignorance. which possessed the trea- works were fatal to their claims facture artificial proof . In the revival of learning. 71 for wliicli is and that every doctrine and event they have been manufactured to disprove. for ages. of these huge castles of Resembling more a taper placed under a bushel than a light set upon a hill. Unconscious or regardless of . too. inaugurated by profane genius. no active part. The mutilation and the religious orders destruction of ancient authors by a positive admission that such . and consequently an undeniable objection to the validity of the authority upon which they rest their claims. such as Cosmo Medici. each instance of which being a demonstration of these assertions. the monastic orders. was happily dissolved. and the penetrate the massive walls ignorance. show the vast amount of labor the monks have undergone to disprove their own doctrines.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. took.

at times. his The apprehensions of Kicholas. Thuycidides and other eminent authors. Diligently improving the auspicious moment. establish colleges and . Polybius. and the world was enlightened by recovered versions of Xenophon. and the systematized measures to keep the world in ignorance. respectable libraries were formed. prohibited the transla- tion of them it into the vernacular language. be alleged as an exception to the usual hatred manifested by the church to the cause of educa- But may tion. he collected the dusky and moulder- came enthusiastic in its cause. The Pagan authors of Greece and Rome. who is ranked among the most generous of the pontifical patrons of the classics. suggested probably by knowledge of the nature and past conduct of the church.72 MONASTIC YOW OF lie tte liberalizing tendency of classical literature. united labors of the Pope and his opulent laymen. which constitutes a per- manent feature of Catholic polity. The dark conspiracy to deceive and enslave mankind.. were too well founded not to be confirmed by subsequent history. could derive no aid from a liberal diffusion of Pagan erudition. Diodorus. be- and inaugurated a pursuit wbicli bas exposed tbe forgeries and legends of the Whatever Catholic Church to scorn and contempt. speaking in the clear tones of reason and philosophy. while his coadjuBy the tors sent vessels to gather them from abroad. Hence Leo X. could not subserve the purposes of ecclesiastical fraud and intolerance. that the Pope did. his public example and asserwere his private tions indicate that he had arrived at a firm conviction that the papal chair would not soon again be filled with another friend to the classics. viev/s. ing manuscripts from the monasteries.

zot says : " For the development of the clergy. Civ. and.SILENT CONTEMPLATION..000 to 20. and a host of other offices. plorable state of society would permit. also founded a university. 132). 7* . Hist. and desthe clergy. was very slow and indirect.000 ducats. for a charter. but it was in consideration of a and he even further displayed his magnanimity by nominating eighty writers of popish briefs. Guimagnificent bonus . He also very generously created twenty-six secretaryships. even for her own clergy the church never tolerated an educational institution without receiving an exorbitant pecuniary consideration. established several universities but he required tus from each. it is true. But after all what was the object of these institutions? Was it to advance the capacities of individual man? Was it to enlighten society at large ? Not at all. vi. nor appointed a professor. universities. and selling the appointments at 850 scudi each. she [the church] was to promote these she had her schools. to assist the labors of education. founded a university but it for its charter.000 scudi ." (Gen. from 10.000 ducats and for each . Pope SixIV. and colleges. Guizot might have added with truth. but he sold appointments to at them very exorbitant prices. Sect. for the instruction of the priesthood. Pope Innocent III. 73 This fact is undeniably true. 10. without receiving pay for it. that p. Pope Alexander VI. though from the intimacy civil between the and religious orders they could not it but have some influence on the rest of the world. and all other institutions which the de- actively alive . or any other officer. also was on condition that he received 50. .. collegiate title and office. tined for These schools were all theological. her colleges.

and which must be protected against the intrusion regulations. Yet when its polluting finger presumes to touch the sacred page of when it would annihilate all historical authorby base interpolations. they have been forgers of the faith and. and left to the crushing jeer of history ity its own ludicrousness. to witness. it has invaded a province sacred to the rights of the world a province in which truth. sinks its character .74 Dens. and human progress have a deep inter. reason. But this we should be sorry . The efforts of the church to manufacture evidence in dis- support of gratuitous assumptions. and load the shelves of libraries with its spurious trash. and authority into such utter insignificance and in proportion to the warmth of its zeal adds weight to the contempt it has earned. est. be more justly put to death. 89). and other disturbers of the are justly punished with death. which so clearly proves what it asserts at every step . greatly disturb the State. therefore also are heretics. sound. as by the universal testimony of history and the acknowledgment of the ablest Catholic authors. 88. and. From the monastic vows and agreeably surprised if we might be the literary productions of those . . who are forgers of the faith. it is difficult to perceive how Popes. might be considered unworthy the notice of sober reason. as they have been greater forgers than Protestants." If this logic is Dens. they may. cardinals. as experience ( shows. of malignant feet. according to their own logic. 2. monks and priests can avoid conceding justice the right of putting them to death. MONASTIC VOW OF Hs ''Systematic Theology. in State.'' reasons thus: " Because forgers of money.

in order to command the dominion and luxuries of the world. rarely possessing the merit of ingenuity. enforced upon the ac- ceptance of the obstinate by the terrors of the Inquisition. but of the much oftener curled the lip§ more enlightened Palpably into a smile of philosophical contempt. find too in those legends and theological disquisitions which have often puzzled the credulous. fictitious. It is elaborately ornamented. and in part of person- ages and details entirely spurious. yet have the monkish legends been consecrated as divine in the Catholic Mass-book.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. absolutely puerile. or degraded with circumstancial accounts . It would naturally be sus- pected that the ideas of the monks would be shaded by the gloom of their melancholy abode. bigotry and superstition could prompt. immunities and privileges. in general. 75 who were governed by them were anything but models of absurdity and puerility. contracted by the influence of their solitary confinement. This ludicrous mass consists in part of magnified and distorted events of true history. and exclusively devoted to the defense and aggrandizement of an organization which aimed at monopolizing all secular rights. and with all the craft and unscrupulousness that could serve the purties poses of unpolished and unnatural fraternities. This reasonable presumption well confirmed for the credit of we shall human nature. isolated from society. and. and sometimes mistaken by history for actual events. and rendered misshapen by the habit of conversing exclusively with their own meditations and that their literary productions would be rife with all the inventions to which . absolved from the and obligations of humanity.

and. a divine power always interposed. anddemons. though it must be conceded that they are less entertaining and invisible. she was often compelled to decide whether she valued her virtue higher than she did her religion her faith imperiled . fanciful they have grotesquely magnified. like Thomas Moore. their some amusing legends. Passing over the polemical rubbish. they could scarcely have been less imaginary. when a Pagan female embraced Christianity. when the inflexibility of her innocence. of hell . and Sir of a total depravity in principle unparalleled in the history of deception and imposition. and invented modes of torture. of a depth of hypocrisy. of discussion orders. and miraculously rescued her from a . of an audacity in fabrication.76 of miracles of debates MONASTIC VOW OF which were never performed. described a people which was which were no people. which never could have en- tered the more cultivated brain of a Roman emperor. with reports which never took place. instructive. in his description of Eutopia. the absurd topics and the ludicrous logic of the monastic which would be too tedious for a reader of the nineteenth century. The actual sufferings and deaths of the primitive Christians. transcribing their own vitiated taste and unscrupulous conscience and decorating their narratives with coarse scenes of blood and bigotry. a city and a river w^hich was waterless. they have furnished a record of absurdities. which have been consecrated wo will briefly allude to of as sacred history in the devotional books of the church. of death and horror. According to the story of these visionists. and with details of Faithful only in battles which were never fought. Had they. or no place.

after satisfactorily adjusting matters parties. the execuAccordingly she was laid upon the block . desisted from further effort convinced that the accomr plishment of the task exceeded his constitutional vigor. tioner gave her neck three scientific strokes. and the virgin for the obstinacy of her resolution. between the nuptial rewarded the groom for the relinquishment of his bride. the marriage was on the eve of being consummated. a Eoman prefect. The male converts were subA young saint. culled from heaven's Sometime after the eventful occurences wedding party. St. in the passion of his iirst love.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. of this lilies. and. by crowning them both with wreaths of spiritual roses and flower garden. . and exposed condition. was de- termined that the majesty of the law should be vindicated by having her boiled three days and three nights in a pot of water. but her father disregarding the unnatural obligation. and was once chained naked to a bed of flowers. Her it piety obliging her to disobey the royal injunction. but he saved his chastity by biting off his tongue. but perr ceiving her head still attached by its integuments. dangerous predicament jected to similar 77 modes of ingenious torture. betrothed her to a prince. wontonly assaulted by a beautiful courtezan. Cecilia made a in this hapless vow of perpetual virginity. In spite of all remonstrances to the contrary. commanded Cecilia to sacrifice to the gods. As her piety had rendered her invulner- able to the effects of boiling water. The coldness of divine grace howit ever sufficiently impregnated her body to protect from injury. the emperor ordered the executioner to try the virtue of a ponderous axe. when an angel interposed. Amachius. according to their authority.

at least. a The miraculous long time after all nations had acquired some proficiency. Hubert vrent dragon ( a lizard ). and is phobia. assuming the ently laid it at his feet. . Dennis walked tvro miles after his head had been cut off.78 MONASTIC VOW OF feat of this saint in inventing music. orators and poets. with his holy hand. at Ardennes. however. regarded as an infallible remedy for the hydro-. trived the while traversing the ocean.-ith a cross between its antlers. St.400 pertwo stags. lias often been the theme of pious historians. and as comfortably grazing in her usual St. on a hunting excursion. the rights of ^^roperty. Eespecting. This charitable saint once fed 1. and seeing a stag v. which is a bishop. John of God displayed so much whimsical zeal that he was supposed to be demented. and which which belonged to a poor widow. St. Peter. still preserved in St. a crab brought it in his claw. Hubert's monastery. whom the hogs had nearly devoured. and stood before the saint perfectly proportioned in all its parts. St. and perceiving that to be benevolent at another's expense was a suspicious species of morality. and reverThe Devil. in its principles. St. On landing. sons on one cow. Xavier. St. pastures as if nothing had happened. lost overboard a crucifix. and w^as placed in a lunatic asylum. and with- On it out a wound. he so adroitly con- management of his miracle that the cow had been eaten up by the people. was seen the next day well and hearty. became converted by the vision into He received a key from St. Patrick found a lost boy. George slew a which was about to swallow a kings daughter. touching the mutilated frame recovered the lost flesh which had been digested by the swine. and two wild boars.

Martin of Tours. that he ever afterward shunned Xavier's society. At . and with humility adore thy God. At this exploit St. being a gentleman.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. Andrew laughed. after exhausting the strength of the Catholic arguments in favor of face. Andrew being assaulted by the devil with an axe. finally converted his antagonist by an appeal to the under- Holding up the host before the an" In virtue and in the name of thy creator. Apia Tell into ten St. Anthony of Padua. St. horse to come. he addressed it thus : fore it. the angel Gabriel put him together again. at the request of the saint. pieces. imal. John. the patron saint of drunkards. called for assistance on St. once. The Emperor Maximus. having cut St. saint that he spit into consubstantiation. . who responded with a regiment of angels and capturing the devils. once made indelicate proposals to him. Ten times a day for ten consecutive days was the saint cut into ten pieces by the malice of the one. on a drunken contest of disintegration frolic. St. in a debate with a heretic. divided his garments with a poor soldier. was so disgusted at this coarse vulgarity. chained them to the ground. instantly left the corn which it was eating. This and recomposition was carried on with much spirit between Maximus and Gabriel. whose festival was formerly celebrated by the devout with banqueting. I command thee. 79 shape of a charming woman. advanced to the host and fell upon its knees bestanding of a horse. and put together again by the anatomical skill of the other. This piece of impudence so enraged the His Satanic Majesty's angelic The Devil." The horse. and by a company of imps with clubs. hilarity and carousals.

St. two it lions seeing his difficulty. miracles . probably deranged. he proposed besides. but the pious horse refused to move until the sum was doubled. voidable necessity. face of this saint His mind became so impressed. Clovis.80 MONASTIC VOW OF night. Nepomuk." close the secret confessions of a queen." replied the beast. and being too much . he beheld Christ wearing the identical garment he had given away. made him a was it rich donation and as the hero's in the saint's stable. He then. to war steed redeem with the generous sum of 100 ducats. in a dream. Palladus. St. by saying mass over the remains of the unfortunate lady. and life to reanimate her frame. caused her head and body to reunite. Holy father. The was so sanctimonious that it once paralyzed the arm of a robber. and want to confess and Beuno caused the earth to open and swallow a disappointed lover. to her husband . " the odor of thy sanctity has reached me. " 47 ). Ant. politely offered their assist- ance and after digging a grave and depositing in the hermit's corpse. St. that he turned Catholic. refusing to disget absolution. raise the He wrought many . which was raised to give him a death blow. prostrated through fasting to bury it. seeing a hyena standing near his cave. after his Gothic victory. Anthony saw a centaur in the desert. St. and for not having suffered his feet to be contaminated with ( it except in cases of unac. respectfully vanished away. addressing asked: " What's the matter ?" I killed a sheep last night. Athanasius compliments him on account of his holy abhorence of clean water. Vet. Finding the corpse of the hermit Paul in the wilderness. St. could dead to life. it. who had cut off the head of his mistress for her having refused to marry him.

to seek relief saint rejoiced . A monk astery of Tebenoe was visited banished several thousands of their priests. Augustine. p. it But has St. been indisputably proved that no such person as Nepomuk ever existed. whose ( Tom. The same saint justified the conduct of a bishop who had been convicted by the court of setting fire to a Jewish Synagogue. stripped of the them of their possessions. warmly commended the inhuman edicts of Honorius against the Donatists. carefully instilled into the youthful minds of Theodosius and Gratian the spirit and maxims of religious persecution. This saint was canonized by Pope his Innocent III. and singresiding at the monby an angel who dictated to him a liturgy. distracted the land with tumult and and drove a large number of them by invoking martyrdom. piously inhuman. Ambrose. St.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. originated in their Catholic education. . and that an emperor is guilty of the crime he neglects to punish. 81 to suffer was doomed death by drowning. wlio suspected her of infidelity. ii. Epistle xl. heard a most harmonious sound pro- ceeding from a beehive. ing psalms to approaching it he discov- ered that the bees were adoring the eucharist.. He taught them that the worship of idols was a crime against God. and tomb is shown to this day. which proscribed and its honor. most conspicuous virtue was an uncompomising hatred of heretics. unfortunately for the infallibility of His Holines. This divine work is preferred by the learned Cassion. All the intolerant laws and horrible religious butcheries which disgraced the administrations of these princes. The inhuman blood. deprived their laymen rights of citizens. A priest On once travelling along a solitary road. 946 ). and their successors. St.

as their and madness whicli shortened the lives of it would hereafter lessen torments in hell. Keadily and maliciously he coincided with the opinion of Theophilus. of profanely bestow- mother-in-law of God. and. so that he her immense possessions. But his brother monks recriminated charged him with being the lover ing on her the title of of Paula. St. in which was comprehended the city of Necropolis. Cyril. and he was incarcerated in a dungeon. as the patriotic Novitians obstructed his designs.82 at the despair MONASTIC VOW OF these unfortunate persons. of assign- ing himself the chief place in her will. of inducing her to abandon her infant son at Rome. these two lights of the church had the decency to regret that some punishment more adequate to his guilt was not inflicted. of Alexandria. who boldly de- nounced the corruption and licentiousness of the clergy and imperial court. lusted after temporal power. piously . that he was merely the steward of the poor. plunder. and vindicated the governmental edicts to obstruct this system^atic . that Chrysostom had delivered his soul to the Devil to be adulterated and when zeal in the cause of virtue had brought upon the head of Chrysostom the wrath of the emperor and the court. Jerome justly denounced the disgraceful practice of the clergy in defrauding the natural heirs out of their inheritance. he closed their churches. took forcible possession of their sacred utensils. St. He was to bitterly opposed St Chrysostom. plun- . and of inducmight encounter no obstacles in inheriting ing the mother to consecrate her to perpetual virginity. fortune of To these charges he replied With the Paula he built four monasteries. of exercising an undue influence on her beautiful daughter.

until the church became the simple dupe of its own forgeries. The profound homage paid to and the inquisitorial terrors which -were brought to bear in favor of their frauds.SILENT CONTEMPLATION. on account of her Novitian proclivities. Meldegg. 83 and then seizing on the Jewish synagogue. with passages of indecorous import. as . and extraordinary literary acquirements." says he. Catholic Professor of the Theological Faculty fictitious of Freiburg. or palpably ficttcious. the monks for supposed sanctity. requires a thorough revision Some Masses stories not sufficiently proved. drove the Jews their houses. The Missil. so blunted public perception to truth that the events and personages invented by one age were believed by the succeeding. but five celebrated for her personal charms. some of w^hich consist of fifty folio volumes. will satisfy the more curious. and punctured to death with tiles. and selfcursed by accepting. unblemished character. the Glories of Mary and other Catholic com- pendia. a lady from the city and pillaged interposed . dered tKe dwelling of Theapentus. assaulted by the St. Cyril. affords the following testimony in favorof what has been stated : " The old breviary. Catholics will be thankful that this notice is so brief. as matters of fact. Hypatia. was. "crammed full of fictitious or much-colored anecdotes are founded on of saints. dragged from her carriage. might be continued until it filled huge volumes but well-informed holy forces of . The enumeration of the fables of the monks. and of the atrocious acts of canonized saints. the fables and impositions with which it had humbugged former ages. their bishop . The governor hundred armed monks surrounded him and attempted to murder him.

luctance. . perver- distortions and interpolation w^hich . the Inventio Crusis. the Mass of the Lancea Christi.84 MONASTIC VOW OF SILENT CONTEMPLATION. its pernicious tendency. it has led them to perpetrate its bigotry. in the wide destruction . in the puerile . which it has incited them its and contemptible productions which it has induced them to elaborate and its immorality. and which sometimes makes an allusion to their works a matter of reof ancient literature to absurdness. in the frauds." The ludicrousness temjDlation is of the monastic vow of silent con- visible in the misshapen ideas of the monks sions. so offensive to a sense of propriety. . &c. in that coarseness and vulgarity in their literature.

but granted the privilege of owning property in a corporate capacity. The monachal vows which we have orders prior to the thirteenth century. w^ere assumed by all the religious orders. The vow of poverty assumed by ths monks was adopted either from the instigations of an artful policy. But the vow of poverty. The vow of poverty embraced an unqualified abjura- tion of all right to acquire or hold individual property. however. subsequent to the thirteenth century. variously by the terms of different monastic charters.CHAPTER The Monastic Vow VI. This privilege was. of Poverty. possession of personal property while the Franciscans estate or j^ersonal were not allowed to hold either real property. the Dominicans were limited to the . considered in the all foregoing chapters were assumed hj the religious that period At orders were inaugurated to assist in the administration of the public affairs of the church. The Carmelites and the Augustines were permitted to hold such an amount of real estate as would be sufficient restricted for their support . to acquire wealth with the reputation of despising it. both antecedent and and seclusion. and the vow of celibacy and obedience. the enjoined. As these orders as- sumed silence obligations incompatible with the observance of vows imposing them were not which will be the subject of the present chapter. or from a conviction that poverty was a blessing and 8 . which will hereafter be considered.

It is sometimes a source of degredation often of crime. labor.86 wealtli an evil. and despair destroying hope. permits nothing . sycophantic and obsequious habits the energies of the poor obdurates their nature and. is to weaken . MONASTIC VOW OF If the first hypothesis is correct. had tolerable means protected against the cravings of hunger. the powers of genius sunk into the torpidity and the strength of a lion slumbered in The chill w^hich poverty the inactivity of a sloth. the assumption of the vow was exceedingly reprehensible if the second. the incentive depredators to action. allowing no interval for mental culture. and always of inconvenience and embarrassment. Poverty begetting despair. it was absolutely absurd. upon society. is A condition of poverty. might have added lustre to the female character. a subsistence for themselves by honest natural dependents. inferiority to degrade his social dignity . of stupefaction. mind with notions of fictitious by inducing and to lead him to sacrifice his conscious equality to the demands of artiThe incessant toil imposed by poverty on ficial rank. breathes over the mind is as unfriendly to the unfold- . have sometimes led principles. statesmen and scholars to the scroll of fame. when their constitutional unwarped by indigence. Its general tendency . which. in man his inborn sense of personal inde- pendence to debase his . The mortifying and their them to become experienced by this class of society to obtain. to interrupt or soften its difficulties tendency. would have secured their obedience to law and their labors for the public Graces have been lost in brothels. abstractly considered. extinguished on scaffolds. and talents good. a matter of neither praise nor censure. and heroes.

vanity and vulgarity with which it may adventitiously be associated. If it cannot be adduced as a ground of esteem or of respectability. The and gem. pomposity. stupidity. scientific hoveled in penury. without books or instruments. or as an apology for the ignorance. or philosopher. the mo- and the consideration of Without its aid the world would have remained in a state of primal tives of forecast. or however importantly other sons of indigence may have contributed to the augmentation of the volume of science and literature. has dimmed the lustre of the other. the ablest means of ad- vancing individual and social progress. prudence and every domestic and social obligation. barbarism first . 87 ing of the intellectual germs. is abstract. never creates nor solves his profoundest problem. a subject is of neither praise nor blame. yet. ciples of rectitude and its pursuit is recommended by the honorable pride of personal responsibility. in the "Wealth. yet the world has never heard their sweetest song. the commercial intercourse of nations. however. as well as the sole remedy for the evils of poverty. nor read their brightest period for the groan of penury has marred the harmony of the one. so also a condition of wealth. the element of civilization and the principal source of .1»0VERTY. As a condition of poverty is. its honest acquisition is always consistent with the severest prin. as the icy atmosphere of winter poet is to the fructification of vegetable seed. as eficence. with spare meals his brightest gloomy forebodings. it amplifies the means of benand protects the weakness of human nature against temptation arising from indigence. However sweetly Burns may sing or Otway melt. and the tear of want .

tual prejudices. the exotic luxuries. would never have been known agricultural. as the first temples were market-houses built for the accommodation of the traffic of the caravans. and the lat- ter confers on incalculable advantages. by dissipating muand self-conceit.88 MONASTIC VOW OF national prosperity. would never have existed and. but. ( See Heeron's Historical Researches. and amity and and. as the first altars were erected their different climates. vanity . as the first the currency chased. tages of exchanging with one-another the products of and which. has united them in friendly and beneficial intercourse. as the inflicts on humanity it its worst evils. and to protect the goods against plunfriendship expressed . unstimulated by the lucrative traffic of supplying a foreign demand for surplus domes. who understood had it not the conventional not been for the fact that in the pursuit of wealth. tic production. the knowledge. suspicion. the ceremonies of religion would never have been invented. translated by Bancroft). power and greatness. manufacturing. and the power created by the pecuniary advan. As neither a condition of poverty nor a condition of is wealth former a subject of praise nor censure . by which goods w^ere pursalaries paid. mechanical and mining interests. rights of property. penalties satisfied. communities felt the importance of establishing convenient centres of trade and modes of exchange. would never have been extensively de- veloped. a vow of pov- . dering barbarians. for the exposure of ofi'erings w^ere merchandise for sale. and the improvments in the comforts and conveniences of civilized life derived from international trade. could never have been obtained the great bond of the amity of nations.

and commercial interests developed. the more independent and responsible are the the more energetically are the agricultural. as the vow and obligations created by the mutual dependence and reciprocal influence of the condition and circumstances of mankind on each other as it fosters all the evils that of poverty inconsistent with the virtues . No one can be indigent without decreasing the wealth of another. influences. nor industrious without adding to the sum of national wealth. the citizens. and the more equally it is distriless are the evils of buted among the inhabitants. is National wealth. we may but also a patriotic incentive in availing ourselves of any pecuniary right of our being. all. is Now. erty can have no innate sanctity to 89 commend it is it. poverty. prosperity of one advantageous to making the and the indifind not gence of one disadvantageous to only a selfish. When further considered that there a modifying reciprocity incessantly acting between the conditions of the different members of the human family. all. manufacturing. as it multiplies the number of in- discourages industry. sanctifies pernicious and burdens society with the support it is dolent and useless members. nor indolent without consuming that for which he renders no equivalent.POVERTY. nor opulent without contributing to the subsistence of others. the more generally and intimately are the interests of the people interwoven with the fabric of the 8* . demoralize the social state of paupers. but must have all constituents it is that can render objectionable. interests of at variance with the man and wealth th^j)rosperity of government. the aggregate of individual wealth in The greater is the amount of individual a nation. mineral. .

that the source whence they originated must have been utterly destitute. exemjDtions. pleasing to infinite intel- ligence to renounce the best means of self-improvement. the great element of civilization. to remove whatever vitiates his sense of independence. privileges and monopolies which degrade the masses by indigence and invidious distinctions. pendence and responsibility nopoly of wealth. of and which aims at a mo- itself the source of political inequal- despotic government and of popular servitude can advance no claim to a magnanimous mission. but of common sense. sanctions poverty. the parent of personal inde. to be efficacious. must be adapted to the nature of man and his socia must be his principles. which tious dignity. its arms. not only of moral principle. A reformatory institution. Its principles Its measures must tend to aid his fullest development. and corrupt the few by luxury and fictiBut the monachal institution. the greater will be the nation's prosperity. criminal to protect human integrity against the assaults originating in a condition of poverty. and of individual and national improvement which inculcates indolence. . to incite his industry by making labor honorable and its rewards certain. To accomplish this object it must seek to abolish all restrictions on his rights. avocations of industry. the more peaceful its inand the more durable its prosperity. which discourages the . are ideas of such an absurd nature that the inference can scarcely be avoided.90 MONASTIC VOW OF government. ity. and to annul the immunities. the parasite that feeds on the vitals of society. To e&teem it a virtue to be poor. the more formidable ternal condition. the most prolific source of crime which denounces individual wealth. condition.

has invariably been . nity of emperors and empresses. that humbled imperial . but. It was a financial manoeuvre. nullified it monk who had anathematized The Empress of Maximus. The vow of poverty was not assumed to become indigent. always fanatical. esteemed it a high honor to be permitted to wait as a servant on St. The church never being from the injustice of their designs too strongly fortified in holiness not to practise the ad- vantageous vices of the world. but to become opulent. that these singular abnegations have not sprung from a sanctity that has elevated the avowers above human nature. until a Theodosius refused sustenance him. designed to facilitate the routine of business and it proved a very efficacious means of self-emolument. in order to such an absurd and inconsistent import. betrayed into the adoption of this crafty policy but. conceal them. as could not fail to reveal the hypocrisy and craft that dictated them. but and the profundity of their dissimulation. has imposed vows of dignity at their feet. at her own table. 91 But whenever conduct becomes enigmatical. Martin of Tours. they have endeavored to accomplish objects by pretending to oppose them. and elevated them above the dig- by absolution.POVERTY. it opened to their . Conscious that candor would be defeat. she has never been discreet. While the assumption of unnatural vows invested the mendicant monks with the credit and importance of supernatural beings. and prin^ avowed contradictory to human reason. an ordinary knowledge of the craft ciples are of ambition is apt to suggest a suspicion. passion and interests. Not only has she denied her real designs. in her own palace. It won a reputation for the holy beggars.



avarice the treasures of the world, and enabled

not only to


their coflfers with the people's

them money?

but to win their blessing in the act of defrauding them. Such was the haughty indifference of the Abbot Pambo,

who seemed

to imagine, with his church, that he


the owner of the wealth of the world, that
his monastery,

when Mala-

a rich sinner, presented him a donation of plate for and intimated that its weight was about

three hundred pounds^ replied
or to

" Offer


this to




If to God,

who weighs

the mountains in a

balance, he need not be informed of the weight of your

The real design and value of the monastic vows was once forcibly expressed by a Benedictine monk,

"My vow of poverty has given me one hundred thousand crowns a year my vow of obedience has raised me to the rank of a sovereign prince."
who remarked:


incident occurred in Paris, in relation to two eccle-

siastical dignitaries


illustrates the cupidity

and and

unapostolic character of the church.

Innocent IX, and
in Paris,

Thomas Aquinas having met together
plate, piled

with gold, the proceeds of the sale of indulgences, being brought into the room in which they were seated, the enraptured Pope exclaimed

a capacious

Behold, the days are past


the church could say,
saint truthfully

gold and silver have


But the

remarked: "The days are also past when the church could say to the paralytic, arise and walk." Praetaxtatus, a Pagan philosopher, viewing the princely revenues of the church, declared that
bishop of Rome,
it if he could become might even remove his scruples

about believing in Christianity.

Assuming the strongest

possible obligations to main-

tain a perpetual






monks yet found

compatible with the principles and

teachings of the church, to convert their religious organizations into a financial corporation, and to conceal

character and design under a veil of angelic piety. The wealth which they apparently scorned, they unscrupulously amassed the power which they scoffed at

as profane, they attempted to monopolize




they seemed the most indifferent, they the most sedulously labored to acquire

and whatever they professed

with their


they violated in their practice.

consummate hypocrisy might be condemned by the pro* fane sceptic, but the means crowned the end with too high a degree of success not to be justified by the piety
of the religious orders.

The measures and designs

of this false

and crafty

policy harmonized too well with the pretensions of the

Pope, and furnished his purposes with too able and ingenious an auxiliary, not to


his fostering care

and protection. Equal in duplicity and rapaciousness, he exempted the mendicant orders from all secular and ecclesiastical jurisdiction, privileged them to demand alms without restriction, invested them with the exclusive power of selling indulgences, and conferred on them the lucrative prerogative of accepting legacies under the evasive name of offerings. By this munificent lavishment of spiritual favors, the mendicant orders soon found themselves transported from an apparent

condition of pauperism to a real condition of princely

wealth and power; enjoying at the same time all the sympathy that indigence could excite, and all the luxury that money could purchase. Exempted from secu*



were empowered to plunder, ravish and murder with impunity privileged to demand alms of all, they were the masters of the fortunes of all endowed with the exclusive power of vending indulgences, they enjoyed a monopoly of the most lucrative
lar jurisdiction, they

trade that was ever projected; and, allowed to receive

they were enabled, after having wheedled the devout out of their treasure while in health, to take

advantage of their dotage, and to stand over their dying pillow, and dictate the terms of their last testa-


to the

advantage of the church, and to the disadis

vantage of natural heirs.
Avarice, like the cormorant,
it is



the more
this rapa-

gorged, the keener

is its




demon having taken complete

possession of the

monastic body, every dollar that its craft wrung from the devout only inflamed its greediness the more.

had exhausted the gold of a penitent, its covebecame fascinated by his land and, what avarice craved, financial sagacity quickly perceived an available method of obtaining. The church possessing no inherent moral vitality, sank with the middle ages into barbarism her power was then supreme, but insecurity of life and property prevailed, and under her auspices temporal power degenerated to a system of rapine and plunder. Had she been divine, she would then have beamed as a lone star on a tempestuous ocean but being earthy, she resembled the other earthy compounds nor could she well be distinguished from the barbarians and savages with whom she mingled, except by her imperfect notions of morality and justice, and her superior financial skill


tous eye





in speculating on public calamity.


support of their

The barons, in tbe interminable wars, had taxed their
which produced general

subjects to an extent


the monasteries enjoyed inviolability and

freedom from taxation, they offered the disaffected a refuge from an oppressive taxation, if they would become lay monastic members, and convey their worldly
wish to inhale the supposed goods to the church. holy atmosphere of the monasteries, to partake of their luxuries, to enjoy the indulgence they accorded to the
sin, to evade an impoverishing taxation, same time to retain some degree of personal freedom, induced wealthy persons of both sexes to conclude contracts with the monasteries, by which they became penniless, wholly dependent for subsistence on


commission of


at the

them, and irrevocably subjected to their despotic domination.

Beside this shrewd speculation on public calamity,
the excitement and irruption of the crusades afforded

monks another opportunity for the exercise of their With the instinctive foresight of cupidity, they had perceived the pecuniary advantages which would accrue to their order in the course of the holy war about to be inaugurated and as they had fanned
financial skill.

its first

sparks into a general conflagration, they could

hardly have any conscientious scruples in remunerating themselves, by concluding such sharp and profitable
bargains as occasion presented and vows facilitated.

They well knew the commercial

art of bartering that

which was worthless for that which was valuable and of advancing the market price of an article by a monopoly of it, or depressing its value by increasing the


In consequence of the

supply beyond the demand.
in value,

public excitement real estate became greatly depressed

and holy war-horses, clubs, lances, battle^ and other sacred instruments of destruction, proportionally advanced in price. The sagacious providence of the monks having in advance accomulated vast military stores, very obligingly accommodated the devout crusader, by exchanging an inconsiderable portion of them for a very considerable tract of his land.

By such operations the church obtained very extensive domains in exchange for objects of trifling value, or for very inadequate sums of money. The success of the sacerdotal financiers becoming notorious, land speculation grew into a contagious mania. Even kings came into the market to buy up the domains of their deluded vassels. The competition between monks and monbut sacerdotal it was amusing The oil was the more successful negotiator. with which the priests had been anointed at their ordination was supposed to endow them with the power of bestowing blessings and curses at will, and the high reputation for sanctity which they had acquired by vows 'of absolute poverty, conferred advantages of trade on them which crowns and sceptres could not command. Kings could purchase only with money but the monasteries had an exhaustless bank of indulgences, of parting blessings, of promised prayers, and of promised masses for departed souls. This bogus currency may provoke the levity of the profane, but it was, nevertheless, prized by the saints above the value of silver or gold, and held by the monasteries at its highest market;

archs was as great as


able price.

With the command

of such unlimited re-








and purchase without impoverishment what
air of piety

monarchs could not without bankruptcy.

With an

and benevolence, but with an

unscrupulousness that regarded neither truth nor printhe

monks invented every

and adopted

every possible method of augmenting the stores of their

aware that human piety



inflamed by the prospect of gold than by the prospect
of heaven,

they manufactured extravagant reports of
of of

the wealth






a vast


gems and precious metal.


were these descriptions that the piety of the crusaders

became excited into frenzy, and their devotion into
pressible vociferousness


a delightful anticipation rapt


into heavenly ecstacies

and impatience

for the

glorious results of the coming combat appeared to be

the only unpleasant ingredient that marred their happiness.


huts and farms, on palaces and domains,

they looked

down with

scornful indifference




that wealth surpassing the treasures of the Indies,

and palaces more gorgeous than Europe could would inevitably raward their pious adventure.


cool-headed priest, too well informed to partake of the,
general delusion, deliberately viewed the enthusiasm,

and calmly calculated by what means
tained and augmented, and
ciously be


might be




could most judi-


to administer to the

pecuniary advan-

tage of the church.

While the coldness with which the

reason and conscience of priests secretly regarded the

the contrary, were all flame and fury, and wrought

was well disguised, the masses, on up



to suck a pitcB. of anxiety to wrest the lioly land from

the Infidels and appropriate


to themselves^ that they


indifferent to the treasure-

and land that they

already possessed.

In this unhealthy state of the pubfor spiritual advisers to



was an easy task

relieve their confiding pupils of their revenues,



timately to become the proprietors of


of their


The method by which

this magnificent object



complished, was not only by the treachery of exchang-

ing trumpery for valuables, but also by inducing the
soldiers of the cross to devolve, during their absence,
.the care of their

land and revenues on the monasteries,

make them their heirs-at-law in case of death abroad. As but few of the crusaders of some of the expeditions ever returned, as many of all of them perished abroad, we must accord the credit of extraordiand


shrewdness to the calculating

cupidity of the

monks, who could make the love, devotion, lunacy and enthusiasm of the devout, their life at home and death
abroad, equally advantageous to the monastic


the infatuation, so beneficial to the church, was gen;


as the convulsions of the times rendered property

of all descriptions exceedingly insecure

and, as


restrained, either

were by infirmity or other circumstances, from embarking in the holy enterprise, it was not diffiof the devout, equally frantic with the crusaders,
cult for the monks, amid the general frenzy, to induce such persons to become lay members of the monasteries,

those powerful institutions

and to place their domains under the protection of an advantageous encumbrance which they always assumed with obliging avidity.

and their domains augmented to provinces. From the fifth century. to be rapidly while abjuring the possession of property as a crime. under the pretext of civilizing them and saving their . seemed. in every section of Chris- tendom. —the modomains of of governments. monastery after monastery continued to rise.1>0VEETY. as a virtue. by the assumption of the vow of absolute poverty. and released and ecclesiastical jurisdiction. make nobles and Popes tremble at his authority. and who subsequently scorned the profi'ers of lucrative dignities. who. united in an avaricious and arrogant confederacy. and professing poverty nopolizing the wealth of the world princes. the traffic of merchants. monachal power and opulence erect ten monasteries. nevertheless. St. unprincipled zeal for the emolument of their order. 99 With such money-making tices. generally constructed with stupendous proportions. luxury. the mendi- cant orders. renounced a considerable private inheritance. The Jesuits. must have prodigiously increased. enjoying the protection of the Pope. and the political power Under such circumstances monastic opulence. they established mission-houses among savage nations. could. without the intervention of a miracle. devices and sharp prac- and many others of a similar nature. and even kings submit to his dictation. and sumptuous style furnished with every species of and polluted by every description of vice. who enjoyed all the privileges of the mendicant and secular orders. Bernard. by means of his in . confidence and from all secular and the homage of Christendom. excelled them both in Animated by a crafty and duplicity and rapaciousnes.

Pagan simplicity has never been a match for monkish craft. and more fairs. they. but contented themselves with entreating their converts simply to adore Christ and his mother ing the images of their gods. when worshipmade for- "With this ambiguous. like the former. recent churches. and no sooner had the gold and gems of the natives inflamed the zeal and sharpened the shrewdness of the monks. they were careful not to offend them by de. but to defraud them out of their land and gold. MONASTIC VOW OF But this specious pretext was but a pious mask. than they were wrung Possessfrom them by some swindling transaction. and splendid legacies. than they did at plotting schemes of plunder. . whose names they bear. nessed the their walls less frequently wit- monks at devotion. manding a renunciation of the practice of idolatry. but insinuating modification of Christianity. they were enabled to astonish the natives with miracles. mosques and as centres of trade to facilitate they were designed commercial transactions rise and. they tunes out of the devout at home and savages abroad. Like ancient temples. gave to the numerous villages.100 souls. ing the arts of civilized society. nor for converting idolaters. and wheedling the devout at home out of liberal donations. and success^ They fully to impose on their ignorance and simplicity. as they were the grand resort of the people for ex- change of commodities. towns and cities. boasted of having induced multitudes to embrace Christianity but as their object was not to convert Pagans from idolatry. Their extensive mission-houses were neither designed for temples of devotion. under which was concealed an infamous scheme of swindling the natives abroad out of property.

and as of the surrounding islands. more liberal paired to and the necessity of inaugurating a and enlightened commercial policy. tills avaricious sacerdotal order establislied a mission-house at the island Marti nic[ue and so adroitly . as a political organization projected for the acquisition of power and riches. Two valuable cargoes had been consigned to them by their French correspondents.POVERTY. did they manage their Christianizing business operations. At this stage which culminated in their disgrace. a formidable opposition was easily fomented against them. able conduct led the king to investigate the principles and finally to abrogate it in all the of their order . demanded the Jesuits to make the required restitution. the consignors demanded indemnity of The Jesuits denied the legality of the dethe Jesuits. An appeal was consequently taken to the King of France. In conformity with of their history. and they were generally regarded as destitute of commercial honor. and unprincipled in their ambition. ima considerable extent the interest and popu- larity of the sacerdotal establishments. deciding in favor of the consignors. 101 In 1743. and refused to give the satisfaction asked. This opposition. a circumstance occured maritime usage. apparently justified by self-preservation. These cargoes were captured by the English. 9* . who. that in a short time they monopolized the trade of that island. states of France. But their presumptuous piety led them to scorn his authority in the same temper in which they had rejected the prayer This insolent and treasonof his mercantile subjects. Their success naturally excited the jealousy of the secular merchants. with whom the French were at war. mand.

that they gave their chief an annual salary of one million guilders. and acquired an immense amount In 1750. forced loans. amassed such extensive domains. by the force of arms. and all powerful enough to maintain immuabsolute poverty. rapaciously acquired an incredible amount of riches w^hile under organization.102 HONASTIC YOW OF of tlieir Cliristianizing establisliinents in By means Paraguay and Uruguay. like the monks. incorporated for the defense and propagation of the true faith. each enriched with extensive territory. the monks at the head of an army of fourteen thousand men. quest in their hand. . with the vow of poverty on their lips. treaty ceded to Portugal seven districts of these domains. the solemnest obligation to maintain a perpetual conThese holy organizations dition of absolute poverty. compelled the contracting nations to annul the treaty but an attempt being afterwards made . such a prodigious amount of wealth that they erected nine thousand vast and princely palaces. Spain having by a commercial of wealth. bequests and other means. but with the sword of con. donations. while they abjured the rights of property. acquired nity from the jurisdiction of the savereign in whose The Teutonic Knights. while they by arms. vowed The Knights Templars. were exclusively military the sword Avas the only argument they used. The Knights of St. the dominion. to assassinate the King of Portugal. John. the Jesuits ruled the natives with despotic power. and swore kingdom they were never to allow its possession to tarnish their sanctity. the government declared the order of the Jesuits to be a treasonable and confiscated all their posssessions in The order of the Catholic Knights. located.

and of the priests and prophets of ancient Pagan nations have. reported by travellers that the Shaggians. The wild mockery of these uncouth savages at avowed principles has been far exceeded by the conduct and profession of the Catholic Church.of Catholicism. and claims are candidly investigated. the variety and prodigious traffic which has distinguished its career. and impious adulation they secured. and where their origin justly exposed to the scoffs . and observe the on the monastic institution. was a scene of perjury. of the Hindoo and Mohammedan monks. idolatrous reverence. and of obtaining the luxurious indolence. the immense treasure and domains calmly reflect When we financial principles it has acquired by fraud and artifice." and thrust a lance in his heart. on which it is organized. magnificent revenues.POVERTY. and enjoyed the fairest prospects of becoming either bishops. The hypocritical devices of the ancient and modern Brahmins. ceremonies and dogmas . which resemble them as nearly as a type can its prototype. the monks. would sink to the same level. will exclaim: "Peace be with you. whose and whose life monachal and military orders of the vows were meant for imposition. where no prejudice pleads in their favor. when meeting a foe. been and contempt of common sense and it is possible that under the same circumstances. priests. it seems like some . in Christian countries. a barbarous tribe of Egypt. cardinals or popes. By the aid of the various orders of the religious paupers were enabled successfully to negotiate for the most lucrative dignities of the church. 103 that extends from It is wrung from Sweden the Oder along its all tlie territory hanks to the Gulf of Finland.

it looms up before the imagination as a corporation of outlaws. becoming superior . she seems like some black and midnight monster. it appears to be a in land. dripping with human gore. And when we remember that the Koman Catholic Church has incorporated these infamous religious orders in her constitution. and has officially pro- nounced them all to be her most useful members. tion of fiends appears like a corpora- which arrogates the ^prerogatives of deity. whose object is money. thus sanctioned and made her own. a tribute of every one it chanced to meet. the duplicity it has practised. and whose profession is to plunder. to law to violate the principles of rectitude professing absolute indigence to demand.104 MONASTIC VOW OF gigantic financial corporation. sport with their hojDes and fears. the favor of God. an emtheir . immorality and blasphemy. and all their profanity. and has all their duplicity. When we consider how basely it has prostituted its corporation organized to every privileges and immunities . mind the avarice by which it has been actuated. regardless of maxim of justice. and the impositions of which it has been guilty. all highway robbery. whose right is might. and protection against the it future retribution of heaven. traffic in the hearts and souls of men. time and eternity. and every principle of honor. projected for speculating making money by the tricks of trade. all their swindling operations. like a highwayman. immunity for guilt. if not with a pistol in disposal its hand. and for When we call to make money. yet with an anathema at its more dreaded by the superstitious than thousands of pistols. their rapacity. and merchandise heaven and hell. When we reflect on its pre- tention of vending for gold the pardon of sin.

. 105 bodiment of every deformity. an incarnation of every loathsome. and a just representation of the character and principles of the archfiend. hideous and unsightly demon.POVERTY.

ncident to life. By an life. securing affectionate protectors for helpless infancy. and developing benefits. It identifies the honor and interests of parents and children. an eminent degree. it mutual affection and interests for secures their highest development. and it interested tutors for fitting the rising generation for . By the reciprocal relations. Nature has organized man for the. and of that agreeable association of strength and urbanity which is best fitted to cope with the alliance of difficulties . conjugal union. refining the grossness of the sensual propensities. and imparts energy to the other and thus contributes. with powers adapted to its with passions that aspire after plea- gratified only and with sensibilities that can be by the performance of its obligations. to the formation of that equanimity of character which is the in happy medium between extremes.CHAPTER Monastic VII. and the noblest graces of the human character. it rudeness from the one. the useful and noble stations of society and while thus provides for children. it furnishes an attractive means of mutual improvement. it rewards the solicitude . Vow of Celibacy. ing masculine boldness with feminine delicacy. and the most complete and undisturbed enjoyment of their benefits. faithful guardians for inexperienced youth. its She has endowed him requirements sures . and the amiable intercourse which it establishes between the sexes. By blendtakes .

when clining age. reverses of fortune. or under the singular delusions of which religious fanaticism is so prolific. is more honor- But to stifle the instincts that prompt to this union. When. unrestrained by any prudential consideration. or the hope of becoming insensible to the wants of humanity by acquiring supernatural perfection. perhaps. Pecuniary competency and similarity of taste and disposition are requisites indispensable to connubial felicity. has sometimes induced the weak and ness. able than matrimony. difficulty and alienation and family a painful encumbrance. 107 of parents with a shelter in adversity. it is The motive of such conduct has always emotion and though emotion is alwaya . a support in de- and a name in posterity. either a suitable companion has not been found. A cloud that obscures the sun and casts a gloom over earth. except under extreme mental depression. . vow of perpetual ori- ginated in cere. soon passes away. seldom contemplated.CELIBACY. But while such are the inducements of marriage. is to violate. superstitious to assume the monastic celibacy. without motive. yet a regard to personal interest and happiness might deter a considerate person from assuming its obligations. . Disappointed love. or pecuniary resources are insufficient to meet the domestic demands in a satisfactory manner. sin- always fluctuating. An act so unnatural is. Without them marriage w^ould be a source of privation. fortune has withheld these essentials of con- jugal happiness. and ungraciously to spurn the incalculable benefits it proffers. the laws of human happi- and neglect the fulfilment of the most important design of the organism of man. celibacy. therefore. in either sex.

It is as certain as the subsidence of a tempestuous torrent after having ex- hausted all its energy. so must be the vows and resolutions with Each day brings which abrogate or modify the emotions and resolves which the circumstances of the preceding day had suggested nay. the desolated heart struggle for subsistence tinction is may ties feel that its vain. and the lat- ter in its usual attractiveness.108 MONASTIC VOW OF its leaving the former in natural brightness. conjugal. . When the energies of acquisitiveness have been prostrated by repeated pecuof ambition . Not less ephemeral is the mental gloom which adversity or superstition may throw over the human mind. As emotions are ephemeral. yet hope will again bud and bloom. and which can be destroyed only with our being. when the warmth has been chilled by the wounds of reputation when the currents of love have been frozen by the cold breath of disappointment. ambition will again thirst for distinction. Though despair may for a time throw a wintry gloom . it new and unexpected events. which they generate. more. love will again yearn for comits panionship. and compel us to seek its appropriate gratification in the social. that its hopes of disits have perished. avarice will again sigh for wealth. into its ordinary peaceful all roll. and every passion resuming natural energy will again create the emotions for which it was organized. which This revulsion is inevitable. and that of love are broken forever. niary misfortunes . But these despondent sensations are ephemeral they are the results of a temporary repose of passions which are rooted in the constitution of our nature. or political relations subsist in society. . over the mind.

She admits no apology . can soften the Although the desire of perfection is a natural and noble one. If w^hen this condition shall supervene shall succeed to despair. and when all the passions and powers of our nature shall resume their natural operation if then. however innocently committed. in a situation where we cannot respond to the demands of our nature. Nature inex- she inflicts punishment on the violators of her laws without regard to the motives by which they have been actuated. tal excitement. we will find that we have doomed our- when hope — selves to perpetual misery. she knows no Neither tears nor penitence can mitigate . her vengeance neither pleas of conscientious motives. Hence? vows assumed by any person under extraordinary menwill be repudiated . either of these conditions of mind. These laws are intelligible. extraordinary mental depression when he is under and obligations as- sumed under life. yet she has established laws by which alone it is to be obtained. . will be found inconsistent with the ordinary obligations of when that usual current of thought and emotion shall set in. we shall have placed ourselves by any mistake. and the regular course . if and reason and reflection to impulse and fanaticism. Nor orable will any degree of purity or sanctity of motive is arrest the evils of mistaken conduct. forgiveness.CELIBACY. which always flows in harmony with human and happiness. and punishes the aggressors of them with deformity and imbecility. rigor of her justice. 109 the antithetical emotions thus created are always pro- portionably strong to those which they supplant. nor of ignorance of her ordinations. philosophy of things. Human perfection clearly 10 . reason.

and thereby saps the fundamenta' trength . mu- By the discipline of such a sys- tem of exercise knowledge will gradually become the of foundation of reason. conscience the controller of the passions. vated by incessant or overstrained exertion . the vital orgains the recuperator of the physical and mental faculties . The monastic vow of perpetual celibacy is clearly un- favorable to this general exercise of the powers of hu- man nature. but to maintain all in that natural and reasonable condition in which. It permits the exercise of only a limited number of these powers. inactivity the bulk of the lessens the human It faculties. variety of the natural sources of the pleasures of reduces activity in the vital system. a healthy reciprocity all and modifying action will be maintained between the powers. mental and moral powers of man. and thereby distorts and deforms their It fetters in organisms by an abnormal development. The system of exercise adapted to the attainment of this end must embrace a judicious employment of every acuity belonging to the human organism allowing none to depreciate by indolence none to become ener. judgment the guide fancy. and thereby obtrudes an insu- perable obstacle to the full development of the character. and thereby number and life. and that equili. . brium engendered which is peace that condensation which is energy and that perfection which is essential . while they are alternately relieved they are tually strengthened. to genius.110 MONASTIC VOW OF all compreliends the perfect development of the physical. Exercise is the only means by which these faculties can be developed. It human stimulates those which it cultivates to incessant activity.

Brahminical absurdity. and permits but a few of them to be exercised in order to attain the highest degree of perfection. But whether these ecclesiastical absurdities are more insane than idiotical. they are unmeasurable benefits. it they is lated their gratification. we respectfully submit to the acumen of the OEcumenical Council. that the sensual passions and that human perfection and happiness consist in the attainment of a passive state of mind. is as weak in its funda. whenever it shall resume its session at Eome. it is If they are ever sources of dis- laws of when they are exercised in violation of the human nature. mental principles. organism. Ill of the whole organization. or when prudence has not reguwhen abuse has made their cravings unnatural. It would dry up the springs of a it river. in order to increase the volume of its current would weaken the foundation of an edifice. It is it is absurd in its discipline. It prohibits the exercise of those faculties by which alone the design of the human organism can be accomplished. in order to protect it against the shocks of earthquakes. which render life joyless. engendering those physical and moral diseases. thought or action. un- troubled by desire.CELIBACY. founded on the ascetic delusion. and death often the only remedy. But they are not the contrary. rusted to Fven if wisdom w^ould teach us that sion of ages. the pleasures of existence. they should be regulated judicious regulation. as are evils. The monastic vow of celibacy. If they ever become impotent . ease. But this is a by tha abrathe propensities were evils. yet its core as they are a result of our . are ever tormentors. they can be especially if by a on made to administer to evils If .

ors when their possess-* have become gluttons. or But some similar compound of human depravity. . resolutions and solitude tion we may assume. still Amid the deepest silence and solitude they will yearn for expression. sots. under such circum. and nothing to appease their appetites and consequently. constantly offered to But in solitude there is every thing to concentrate. ment is and eminently contribute towards the advanceand happiness of our being. sities. Amid the bustle and tumult of the world they are excited objects . their powers must be felt under whatever obligaVows. by innumerable different their attention . incentives to industry and enterprise. Another fundamental error of the vow of celibacy. as they are of stopping the pulsations of the heart. the delusion that man may by means of solitude and of the perfection resolution arrest the natural promptings of the propen- by nature and accordingly we must cati-y them with us into whatever solitude we may aud as their emotions are naturally irrepresretire sible. debauchees. and yearn the more the deeper is the stillness. The propensities are constituted essential portions of our being. are refined by knowledge. . when the animal passions chastened by virtue.112 MONASTIC VOW OF it is in the production of pleasure. misers. are as incapable of arresting the progress of the passions. they become sources of pleasure and vigor. . governed by conscience. and nothing to divide their power every thing to inflame. is divided among a variety of attractions and each finds its appropriate gratification its taste. stances. their powers must be the most ungovernable. directed by reason. and exercised with a considerate regard to the integrity of the other powers.

woman. able formed. The natural and efficient regulator of the animal The conjugal union. obliges her to shrink from the rude battle of public life her weakness instructs her in the importance of placing herself under . Whatever the mental and personal charms of a female may be. mingled. which is noblest employed when it best protects the weak . in adin the . . but this w^as not always "Whatever sincerity or sanctity may have priests. but almost indispensrelations. the guardianship of the more muscular power of man. with the motives that prompted its assumption. in some cases. requirements . nor popes. the the altars on idols which excite her purest devotion which she lavishes her choicest gifts and where. where she which she alone is priestess.CELIBACY. judiciously passions is marriage. able to ifies is invaluable to man. have in general furnished a reason- amount of evidence in favor of their chastity. of their craving the most unsupport- sumption. nor nor bishops. ' 113 and the torments able. in dispensing instruc- and consoand dying. and her characteristic instincts and capacities lead her to seek her chief employment and happiness finds the temple of modest retirement of domestic life. ministering her sacred profession. lation to the sick 10* . her true dignity and beauty acquires the deepest enchantment. care to her household. neither monks nor nuns. tion to her children. that the The foregoing observations were made on the prevovv' of perpetual chastity was asCatholic orders with sincere intentions of its sumed by the conforming to the case. its Her organization preeminently qual- her for conditions and The sen- sitiveness peculiar to her nervous system.

" stitute "Whosoever shall say. the Cath- Church has the unpardonable presumption to pronounce a curse on her." Hear it from the lips of the holy mother herself: " Whosoever shall say. to be joined in Every time her nature prompts her to say. This. or celibacy. this she feels. this religious preferable to virginof the monster. notwithstanding these plain facts. that the church could not inimpediments annulling marriage.114 MONASTIC VOW OF - the true excellence of her character can never be seen or appreciated. responds. it expresses not the full . if she should prefer a union so olic essential to her happiness perpetual virginity. the rights of her nature. let him be accursed. Atrocious as is this decree. or that in instituting them she has erred. and to obtain this end interests of society. " Let her be accursed. except in the practice of the amiable virtues which constitute the wife woman knows. let him be accursed. in the name Holy Trin- ity and all the saints and angels. and the mother. let him be acursed. answers " Let her be accursed. that matrimonial causes do not belong to the ecclesiastical judges. and the concur in authorizing her to adopt every available means." " Whosoever shall affirm. and usefulness to a state of Every time her common sense is teaches her to say that marriage ity." that. or that it is not more blessed to remain in a state of virginity or celibacy. Yet. than to be joined in matrimony. this monster in horror at the profane and unorthodox expressions. marriage is more blessed than to remain in a state of virginity." ( Canon of the Council of Trent ). that the marriage state is preferable to a state of virginity.

their wives prostitutes. every person."" It would seem that by consummating the union which she holds men and women accursed for desiring. of civilization with regard to Catholics but non-Cathit who do not conciliate her holy aversion to by such presents. she declares that all those whose marriage ceremonies have not been celebrated according to her fantastic requirements. is an illegitimate offspring legal right to inherit property of his If the church shall ever gain in America the . thus officially enunciated. made in virtue of what civil law soever. one and at the same time a sacrement. the marriage rites of whose parents have not been perolics in the formed by a Catholic divested of parents. "Marriage cannot be given. She requires no fee for her mat- rimonial services. consequently that any other union between man and woman among Christians. so often condemned by the church. but accepts marriage presents^ which may perhaps have softened her olics malignity to this product ." ( Allocution on the State of Affairs in New Grenada ). this Hear from the lips of Pope Pius IX. the non-Cathbastards. she pronounces them profligates. United States consist of strumpets and According to the principles of the Catholic Church. are living in a state of " shameful concubinage. So in the j udgment of the present Pope.CELIBACY. and their children bastards. is nothing else than a shameful and miserable concubinage. she incurs on her own soul the curse she pronounces on others. 115 measure of Catholic arrogance. olics the rites For while with pal- pable inconsistency. all priest. the church solemnizes among Cath- which she anathematizes them for prefering. unless there be.

Who body of are they that prate about chastity? the most corrupt. unprincipled. yet church. not models of chastity. veil. and spoken often. although appeal- ing to the noblest sympathies of mankind. is A not only undeni- but it is even frightful. Like bursts .116 MONASTIC VOW OF numerical strengtB. Had history been silent. nun escaped from her prison-house. for wliicli she is striving. and the real conduct of Catholic priests. an ordinary knowledge of human nature would have warranted the suspicion that the priests were innocence. and murder which pollutes the interior of the institutions which they rev- But these fitful revelations. that Infidels and Protestants have no right where Catholicism is triumphant. which has been dripping with is thirsting for more. lust. has furnished history with startling records. that and raised the sacred secretly the superstitious might behold the horrible of duplicity. compound erence. or a priest not yet steeled by hypocrisy to^ all the pleadings of virtue. or respect their property titles ? Have not her priests made this land ring with the assertion. or who was disgusted beyond endurance at the corruption that fesspoken distinctly. and the interior of Catholic nunneries remained a profound secret. have seldom produced an effect equal to the exigency. yet. A ters in the heart of the Catholic Church. what will be the consequence to non-Catholics ? Will she declare them legitimate. nor the nunneries asylums of But history has not been silent she has . and licentious priests The cold that ever disgraced the name of religion. is But who principles? she that has the audacity to proclaim such A the blood of innocence for ages. dissoluteness of the Catholic orders able.

that divided." says he. and are detected by them that one of those friars shall immedi- . they are substantiated beyond the possibility of doubt or denial. Such is the general infatuation. while they sought an abode of unsullied chastity. The orders of regulars are comwho are subdivided into several minor duties to dis- and who have no particular charge. avarice. females may there be pining in anguish and despair. " are composed chiefly of parish priests and their curates. unless especially deputed to do so or the deputy of the diocese into by the bishop. It is so managed by the whenever they fail in seducing their penitents. by the records of Catholic authority of the highest order. and when they do the doubt is soon obliterated. friars. to be profaned by holy confessors But reluctantly as char! ity would believe these statements. who. lust They will and murder may reign heedlessly pass a nunnery without how many broken hearts may there be hopeimprisoned how many gifted and accomplished ." An insight into the mysteries of Catholicism. may be learned from the following extract from Hogan's "Auricular Confession. priests conceal mode by which " The secular orders. that people seldom question that around which the sanctions of religion are thrown. which they may be secular priests. They it is will reverently bow to a priest without thinking possible that under the guise of his chaste and holy supreme. but soon rumbled into silence and forgetfulness. and the from publicity their acts of seduction and adultery. whose duty it is to hear their parishioners. found themselves entrapped in a den of infamy. 117 of unexpected thunder.CELIBACY. thinking lessly profession. posed of orders. they have startled for a moment.

it accords them the privwith impunity. libidinous questions which the most immoral and profligate mind can conceive. immodest. and that by way and answers. p. mothers. written olic. ii." asks he. vol. — fancy those ideas put into plain lanof questions guage. " " Do any ? of these families. 170. himself.. still continue vir- tuous. know the questions which a priest puts to their famthe confessional ilies at Do husbands know the ques- tions which priests put to their wives at the confession ? . In the life by an eminent Cath- ilege of acting licentiously of Bishop Scipio de Eicci.. 168 ). p. in that sacred tribunal. which takes place between a priest and your If after two or three examinathey ( tions. and you tion will then have a faint conception of the conversa- hitheito pure daughter." ( Auric. monks the vow While the Catholic Church imposes on the priests and of celibacy. shall MONASTIC VOW OF hand to hear the confessions of all such and forgive their sins. The adaptation of the confessional to prepare the way for seduction and adultery may be comprehended by Synopsis of Popery" by the following extract from the ' the same author. on condition that they never reveal to moral being the thoughtless pecca- dillos of their parish priest. Confess. guardians and husbands fancy to yourself the most indelicate. who for the moment forgot and whose tears of penitence now moisten the ground on which he walks. Fathers.." Synopsis. is asserted and .118 ately be at females. the practice of the church in allowing bishops and priests to keep concubines. while it forbids them to marry under pain of excommunication. they are rare examples. 171).



The Council

of Toledo passed a

bidding priests to keep more

than one concubine in

William Hogan

asserts that every priest keeps

a concubine, and every teacher in a school attached to
a Catholic nunnery, has been seduced by her teacher.

The adultery, obscenity and impiety beyond description. St. Chrysostom thinks the number of them that will be saved, bears a very small proportion to those who will be damned. Cardinal Oonpaggio asserts that " the priest who marries commits a more grievous sin than if he kept many concubines." Pope Paul protected houses of ill-fame, and acquired great riches by selling them licenses. The Council of Augsburg ordered that all suspected females should be driven by whips from the dwellings of the clergy, and have their hair cut off. A monk relates
Chamancis says


of the priests are

that he once


a contract with the Devil that



w^ould cease to


mind with

lascivious ideas, he

would omit some prayers
decorated the walls of his

to the saints

whose pictures

but upon communi-

cating the substance of the agreement to the bishop, he

was informed by him, that " rather than abstain from adoring Christ and mother in their holy images it would be better to enter every brothel and visit every prostitute in the city." Richard of England replied to Fulk Nuelly, the legate of Pope Innocent III., commissioned to blow the trumpet of another crusade advise




to dismiss


three daughters, Pride,

and Incontinence.



bequeath them to the most pride to the Knights Templars my av;

arice to the


of Ciste




incontinence to

the prelates."

Pope John XXIII. was deposed by the



Council of Constance for having committed seventy
different sorts of crimes,


among the number of which commerce with three hundred nuns. The Trappists, a menkish order of highway robbers, were constantly employed in abducting females, confining them in their monastery, and perpetrating the most

atrocious rapes.


the Council of Canterbury
of the


Edgar declared that the houses
nothing but brothels.

clergy were

Petrarch laments over the fact

that the clergy at the papal court were shamefully

Cardinals lived openly with their concuit




became a question

of etiquette

whether a

bishop's concubine should not, at the court of His Holiness,

precede other ladies.

Llorente, chief secretary

of the Spanish Inquisition in 1789, relates that the inquisitors having granted permission to the females of a

certain locality to denounce their guilty confessors, the



denounced was so great that thirty were employed for sixty days in taking down depositions, and that the profligacy of the clergy so far
of priests


all calculation



was concluded

to sus-




to destroy the records of the


The extent and depth of clerical depravity can never be divulged by those who know it, for St. Bernard asserts that " Bishops and priests commit acts in private which it would be scandalous to ex-



such a character, what

nunneries governed and visited by priests of Chais the logical inference ?

mancis, an unimpeachable Catholic authority, answers " To veil a woman in these this question when he says




to prostituting her."





General Coraicil of Nice prohibited the erection of

double convents for the accommodation of both sexes

but the prohibition was not regarde^i.
every nunnery has attached to

In Europe

a foundling asylum
Llorente relates a

in the United States, a grave-yard.

curious account of Aquida, an abbess of a Carmelite

nunnery at Liemo,


appears that this female had, on

several occasions, professed to have become pregnant

with stones, and to have retired for the purpose of giving


birth. She had often exhibited her miracuprogeny to the credulous, and pretended to be



by their divine nature, Her success in working

to cure diseases


miracles by

them pro-

cured for her the reputation of a

ate for her eventual canonization, a

But unfortunrumor became cur-

rent that instead of having given birth to stones, she

had given birth to children, and strangled them and that she had obliged the holy nuns under her supervision to practise the same iniquity. The informant,

an inmate of the nunnery, pointed out the place where
the murdered babes were buried

and subsequent excathat half the tale of

vation revealed the horrible


blood had not been told.

The following additional



by William

Hogan, as having transpired under

his personal cogniz-

ance, afford further confirmative proof of the general

character of priests and nuns, and that


remains as


has always been, in

all countries,


at all periods of

" The Eoman Catholics of Albany," says he, *' had, about three years previous to my coming among them, three Irish priests among them^ occasionally preaching,




but always hearing confessions

As soon as I got settled in Albany I bad, of course, to- attend to the duty of auricular confession, and in less than two months found that the priests, during the time they were there, were the fathers of between sixty and one hundred children, besides having debauched many who had left the place previous to their confinement." (Auricular Confession, p. 46).

my coming to this counbeing installed as confessor in the Pvomish Church, I became intimately acquainted with a family of great respectability. This family consisted of a widowed father and two daughters, and never in my life have I met with more interesting young ladies than the daughters were In less than


short time previous to

and soon


two months after my first visit to this family, at their peaceful and respectable breakfast table, I observed the chair which had been usually occupied by the elder of the two ladies occupied by the younger, and that of the latter to be vacant. I inquired the cause, and was informed by the father that lie had just accompanied her to the coach, which had left that morning for Dublin, and that she went on a visit to the Kev. B. K. It seems that both of the daughters of whom I have spoken went to the school attached to the nunnery of the city of The confessor whose duty it was to hear the duty of the pupils of the institute, was one RbTs.,B. K., a friar of the Franciscan order, who, as soon a?*"i^is plans were properly laid, and circumstances rendered them ripe for execution, seduced the elder lady and finding the fact could no longer be concealed, arranged matters with a Dublin friend She was eonfined at the house of his friend, and her illicit offspring given to the managers of the foundling hospital in Dublin No sooner was this elder lady provided for, than this incarnate demon, B. K., commenced the seduction of the younger lady. He succeeded, and ruined her too. But there was no difficulty in provid-





ing for them. They both became nuns. .... I saw them in the convent at Mount Benedict. They were They were spoken great favorites of Bishop Fenton. of by some of the females of Boston as models of (Auricular Confession, p. 100-106). piety." ** Soon after my arrival in Philadelphia, ... a Roman Catholic priest by the name of 0. S. called on me,

and showed me letters had from Bishop T., of


recommendation which he

Ireland, and countersigned by the Roman Catholic bishop of New York, to Bishop England, of South Carolina. .... He arrived at Charleston, and was well received by Bishop England. There lived in the parish to which this reverend confessor


was appointed, a gentleman of respectability and Bishop England supplied this new missionary with letters of strong recommendation to this gentleman, advising him to place his children under his charge, assuring him they would be brought up in the The Rev. fear of God and love of religion

Popish wretch seduced the eldest daughter of his beneand the father becoming aware of the fact, armed himself with a case of pistols, and determined to shoot the seducer. But there was in the house a good Catholic sevant [ a spy ] who advised the seducer to He soon arrived in Charleston the right reverend fly. bishop understood his case, advised him to go to confessent him sion, and absolved him from his sins His victim after a on his way to New York little time, having given birth to a fine boy, goes to






ters of Charity residing in

of sin to the Sisto be taken care of As soon as the child was able to as a nullius filius. walk a Roman Catholic lady adopted it as her own. The real mother of the child soon removed to the city

confession herself,

and sends the child

told the whole transaction to the Roman of who knowing that she had Catholic bishop of a handsome property, introduced her to a highly respectable Protestant gentleman,' who soon married her. He ( the bishop ) soon after introduced the gentleman



to the Sisters of Charity who had provided for the illicit ojSFspring of the priest, concealing its parentage, and The gentlerepresenting it as having no father living.

man was

pleased with the boy, and the holy bishop on him. and his wife to adopt it as his own." (Auric. Confess, p. 111-115). "When quite young and just emerging from childhood, I became acquainted with a Protestant family, reIt considing in the neighborhood of my birthplace. sisted of a mother (a widow), and three interesting In the children, two sons and one daughter
finally prevailed

course of time the sons grew up, and their guardian in compliance with their wishes, and to gratify their ambition, procured them commissions in the army As soon as the sons left to join their respective regiments, which were then on the Continent, the mother There was then and daughter were much alone in the neighborhood only twenty miles from this family,

To this nunnery was a nunnery of the order of Jesuits. attached a school superintended by the nuns of that order The mother yielded, in this case, to the sent her beautiful malign influence of fashion daughter, her earthly treasure, to the school of these Soon after the daughter was sent to school, nuns. I entered the college of Manooth as a theological student, and in due time was ordained a Catholic priest. There was a An interval of some years passed large party given, at which among others I happened to be present; and there meeting with my friends and interchanging the usual courtesies on such occasions, she sportingly, as I then imagined, asked me whether I would preach her reception sermon, as she intended I heard no becoming a nun and taking the veil more of the aifair until about two months, when I received a note from her designating the chapel in which On the reception of she expected my services my friend's note a cold chill crept over me, I anticipated and trembled, and felt there must be foul play. Having no connection with the convent in which . .













she was immured, I did not see her for three m^onths At the expiration of that time one of the following. I found my lay sisters delivered me a note young friend wished to see me on something important, I of course lost no time in calling on her, and being a
priest, I

was immediately admitted


but never have


forgotten, never can I forget, the melancholy picture of lost beauty and fallen humanity which met my astonished gaze in the person of my once beautiful and vir'I sent for you, my friend, to tuous friend death, .... I am in the see you once before "


family-way and must



then proceeds to relate, that in the course of a

conversation which ensued he learned from the nun
that she had* been seduced by her confessor, (which fact precluded any appeal or redress), and that the lady ab-

had proposed to procure an abortion, but that an inmate had informed her that the medicine which the lady abbess would give would contain poison. He promised to renew his visit within a few days he did


but the foul deed was done.

Boes not the blood curdle in ? Does not man and woman blush at their dishonored nature ? Is there a God that

every vein at such recitak

can allow the use of his name to sanction such execrable
depravity; that can look with indifference on


avowing chastity




in order to allure the

purest of their sex to destruction

or that can be in-

sensible to the imprecations of injured innocence, pro-

faned in holy houses?


God a




dream ? No a monastery or a nunnery While avenging power
retribution a

While a thunderbolt leaves in existence, lightning has nq





l^ut much good. and irregular interments. But does society exercise its authority in the matter any more visibly than deity ? Society enacts laws and prescribes penalties respecting murder. abortions procured. rape. brothels. except when they involve the honor of monastic insti- But why are these dens exempted from the common law of the land ? Why are they allowed to bar their doors against the authority which all others must respect? Why are they allowed to organize within a government an independent government. pious to violate the law of the land it ? If this were so. that God has delegated to society its the power to punish offences committed against moral and therefore does not himself interfere in the matter. . She also investigates all alleged infractions of these laws. said.126 MONASTIC VOW OF the existence of retributive justice in may well douLt human affairs. would do them no harm. But it may be interests. to have the fact week after week attested by an investigating committee composed of their opponents. nullifying its jurisdiction over them? Why are not the interior of monastic institutions constantly and thoroughly inspected. But is not the contrary the fact of personal liberty dungeons inflict ? Do they not deprive their inmates Do they not imprison them in Do they not punish them ? Do they not ? ? on them barbarous chastisements ? its sacerdotal brothels? Are they not Has not every age and country given testimony to show that kidnapped men and women have been imprisoned for life in their cells that there nuns have been poisoned. false imprisonment. and the authority of the common law maintained over them? Is it because they are too tutions.

and the future. human or divine violated with impunity ? Are these sensational declamations Would for the credit of human nature they were. extinguishes filial. inspect also the more secret and suspicious nunneries ? We man have now described the nature and consequences of the monastic vow It of celibacy. It converts the ardor of chastity into snares for tion. It wars against marriage. and with impunity ? Why do not grand juries. by arresting It degrades the dignity of the the tide of population. It erects in the most magni- . community. the impulse and gratifi. and man's holiest ties. "babes 127 priests. who visit other jails. priests. No ! They are the true records of monastic history. is opposed to the nature. pishops. and desire to live in posterity. It severs the ties that bind the inIt injures both the present terests of society together. its seducIt vio- It sanctifies prostitution and adultery. proved before councils. and asylums. why does it allow institutions among it where every crime tnay be committed secretly. It strikes at by abrogating their mutual connection. murdered. nuns. and popes. alleged by kings and statesmen. women outraged by and every ? law. and acknowledged by monks. and defeats the object of the huorganism. the noblest incentive to social refinement and civilization the basis of woman's hope and happiness. cation of her pride of family. and parental affection. lates the law of the land. It anathematizes woman's purest aspirations. by increasing the number of illegitimate children. love of parental control. With such an array of evidence before society. This obligation conjugal.CELIBACY. penitentiaries. the root of national greatness.

cloisters. virtue. where no groan can meet the public ear. with. betrays priests. nor to a law for redress. massive ficent parts of a city its spacious brothels. grated priests. secret doors. but acces- sible at all hours of night or day by it these wails allures beauty. false floors. nor appeal to a heart for sympathy. them for the society of infinite power of unprincipled and imprisons them in eternal seclusion.128 MONASTIC VOW OF CELIBACY. Within and while pretending to purity. . the inspection of law. inaccessible to guarded windows. walls. fit and talent. where they can never into the tell them the story of their wrong.

to perform any work. .CHAPTER Monastic VIII." Accordingly. replied " I inquired possible to build the bridge over the river. and fully to hesitate. I-commanded thee if to build it. or not. for any purpose. By the obligation of this vow the members absolute of the convents were subjected to the absolute authority of the superiors . and to expel any member of the order without It mattered not whether the form of charge or trial. and from it there was no appeal. or to occupy any station that he The superior's decision was final. Another vow which religious orders. mandate of a superior a subordinate was obliged to go on any errand. it who. and by the penal code of some of the . criminal or not. to depart on any mission. at the - the task assigned the recluse exceeded. on being informed by his general that ordered. w^as universally assumed by the was the vow of unconditional obe- dience. he was bound to obey the order immediately. the au- thority of the generals the generals to the absolute authority of the pope. required of him. or seem to hesitate was a crime. to undertake any enterprise. the superiors to . Vow of Unconditional Obedience. officials The authority of these holy strongly resembled that of the oriental despot. as he : was imhad it not of thee whether was impossible or not. his mental or physical capacity. The Jesuit's general was empowered to inflict and remit punishment at option. thou failest thou shalt be strangled.

. and absurd offices were consequently asssigned to the probationists. disgusting. and remorseless in piety . w^ater to plant stafi^s in the them until they should grow. or reof the independence of his nahis circumspection. to cast their infants into ponds of water. two were always the one a constant and conscious spy on the emotions The faithful son who could harden himstatue. and degrade conscious dignity in the dust. a sensitive being into a brute. cruel. such an absolute serviactive being tude was no easy task. self into a cold. machine a rational being into an irrational was not the work of a moment. The most menial services. infliction of one hundred But into to reduce a human being to . to remove enormous rocks. to all that could stifle doubt and inquiry. to walk unflinchingly into fiery furnaces. but of years and discipline. and sealed up the lips of wisdom.130 MONASTIC VOW OF tlie monasteries punished by lashes. They were required to suck the putrid sores of invalids. mended ful son for his attainments was combut the unfaith- who could not but betray some emotion. of solitude the had stifled the social instincts had paralyzed the powers of speech. ground and to They were never to be together allowed to be alone of the other. the most loathsome. to trials. debilitate the power of resistance. In order to subdue and habituate the will to implicit and mechanical obedience. . knowledge and eloquence the vow of contemjilation had subjugated the The vow vow of silence . maining consciousness ture. in defiance of suff'er was doomed to the torments of an excruciating penance. senseless To transform an a spiritless automaton . recourse had to be had to penance.

After its assumption his reason was not to guide him his knowledge was not to direct him his conscience was not to admonish him but in defiance of them all. basely surrendered to an absolute lord. is antagonistical to the Jewish religion. It was the grave of his manhood the tomb in which he buried himself alive. It consummated the destruction of his nature. and to Natural religion. — despotic will. by subjugating reason. and . the bewilderments of ignorance the vow of poverty had shackled the . and the executive powers to the absolute control of a superior. . and forever. and obey a spiritual despot. his sense of obligation and accountability. nor any power . the last exceeded the combined atrocity of them all. . were by this vow. his conscious independence. he was to tremble. a thority of the deity . all the mental. books. Atrocious as were the other vows. nullification of all religion . had completed the monk's slavery in the ruin of every noble and valuable attribute of his nature. . and even at the risk of his life.UNCONDITIONAL OBEDIENCE. The blind obedience which the pope demands to his faculties of . His perceptive faculties. improvement and enterprise the vow of celibacy had extinguished connubial and parental affection and now the vow of unconditional obedience. to whom he became a slave in mind and body. intellectual faculties to the 131 domination of fancy. to It is the Christian religion. conscience. his love of liberty and justice. and physical powers which constitute his being. moral. an abrogation of the aua usurpation of the throne of religion require Heaven. the pope In their sacred is nowhere mentioned. The Jewish and the Christian is unconditional obedience to God alone.

The unconditional obedience demanded by the pope It is an inconsistent with human accountability. than a locomotive for obedience to the will of an engineer. bids him to obey the laws of his country. but nowhere else. In the Hierophant of the Elysian mysteries. and forbids him to listen to its voice. in the Egyptian and Persian High Priest we may find something analagous to the claims of the Pope of Rome. It assumes is that the pope is above all authority ." . It leaves no sense of duty or obligation existing in the constitution of man. The pope is therefore " more than God. but to the pope alone. he is no more deserving of is commendation its for uesful acts. nor God. abrogation of all obligation. between mankind and their creator. and all law. but from the secret orders of another. If is in human man acts not from the independ- ent suggestion of his reason and conscience. in the Apostolic Successor of Buddha. claims. It obtrudes between man and his conscience. inconsistent with The unconditional obedience required by the pope all ideas of merit and demerit conduct. accountable to and that he is capable of nullifying all obligations between man and man.132 MONASTIC VOW OF lie referred to analagous to what ligion prescribes reason . It obtrudes between man and his civil obligations. nor conscience. between government and subjects. and forbids him to obey its dictates. nor society. According to it. and fornone . It obtrudes between man and his reason. man is not accountable to reason. Natural re- and conscience as tiie sujDreme guide of man and reason and conscience reject the papal authority as absurd and unjust. in the Grand Lama.

to require the united intelli- human to family to submit to his arbitrary deny their right to an independent or reason. it is to crush all liberty and the of its owner. surpasses and popes all absurdity recorded in Even were suand virtuous as humanity permitted. It is to declare that all It is to deny that any has a right above a brute that is bridled. however good or gence of the dictation. rights of human nature. generals. as wise countability for the proper exercise of his functions. 133 and God is no God or an the pope is For one man. as one of his titles asserts . whose nature has been religiously pruned of human sensibilities. for such an inhuman monster to be entrusted with exclusive 12 . to be driven by the spurs and whips In short. but con- the papal claim of absolute dominion over science human and reason. The unconditional obedience enforced by subversive of the rights of the world. periors.UNCONDITIONAL OBEDIENCE. principle of action. is great. or yoked. whose interest is antagonistical to those of his subjects. inferior one to him. For a sj^iritual despot. Parents whose welfare and honor are so intimately interwoven with the welfare and honor of their children. often regret over the mistakes which they have committed in giving counsel. is A claim of absolute authority always absurd . conscience. or the privilege of exercising the powers which they have inherited with their being. men are abject slaves to the pope. harnessed. and who owns no acthe annals of tyranny and arrogance. whose mind has been contracted within the bigoted circle of spiritual ideas. yet such a degree of power entrusted to them would be detrimental to the interests of society. will.

sumption that he it is conscious that he can make no successful appeal to either reason or conscience. It suggests a strong jDre. learning was governed by ignorance. and interests of another. conscience. or monks. investigation able ally ? most formid- And had these noble principles been avail- able in supporting the pretension of the pope. virtue by vice. . Had been otherwise would he have denied their authority ? "Were he confident that his pretensions are founded in truth.134 control MONASTIC VOW OF over tlie reason. would not only extinguish all virtue in the breast of the governed. would he have had the stupidity to denounce them? . can we wonder that monks. such power. conscience most powerful advocate. as it would the misery and slavery Less than such a result could not be ex- pected from the best of superiors. generals and popes were the basest and most licentious of men that the convents were rife with prostitution and murder that the papal court was the most profligate in the world and that the most prosperous period of Catholicism was the darkest age of mankind. would he have prohibited investigation its ? Is its not reason the clearest guide to truth. in the hands of such men. and that as a class. immoral. they have been ignorant. When by means of an ecclesiastical despotism. would as inevitably complete his arrogance of his and tyranny subordinate. But when the past history of these holy men has shown that they have invariably labored for their selfaggrandizement. But the papal claim of absolute control over reason and conscience refutes itself. superiors. generals. wisdom by folly. but render them instruments of the most flagitious purposes. cruel and intriguing.

and dangerous to the liberty and interests of the world. and reason . a machine of the world to harness mankind in the gears of an ecclesiastical despot. If it is 135 consistent with religion beings. and unhesitating obedience enjoined on the religious orders by the Catholic Church is in accordance with its spirit and design. and blaspheme Omnipotence by the ridicule of assuming his prerogatives then the absolute. slaves of to make automata of human men. in its freest exercise. But if religion is morality in its highest development. . implicit. that they may be driven under his lash whither- soever his pleasure or interest ate the faculties that distinguish may require men from . then is the papal despotism not only subversive of religion.UNCONDITIONAL OBEDIENCE. of the obligations of virtue. but destructive of the rights of man. to obliter- brutes . humanity in its purest character. to deny the existence of a God by abrogating his attributes.

the Gallic Druids. From these considerations. as their founder.CHAPTER Pagan Origin of the IX. well known that the Carmelite monks claim the an- Elijah. the prophets and holy men mentioned in the Old and New Testament. that they were assumed not for the humble purpose of acquiring spiritual perfection. "We have shown. not only with the require- ments of moral goodness. but for the ambitious purpose of obtaining riches. they constitute the Catholic Church. Orders. and dominand from the fact that the monachal orders form an elementary part of the constitution of the Catholic Church. the principles of personal improvement. also. Ilonastic — Concluding mo- Fiemarhs. religion is assumed as an ornament and disguise. she is a heathen. and the . and not a Christian It is institution. the Essen es. powder. the prophet. that she is rather a political than a religious institution and that while politics form her nature and principles. ion. We will now adduce a few facts tending to show that monkish orders originated. We have nastic shown vows are in the previous chapters that the in conflict. Among cient personages whom they assert belonged to their order. not from Christianity that they existed in pre-historic ages and that so far as . they enumerate all Pythagoras. we have inferred . and the interests and progress of society. the Apostles. . but with the dictates of reason.

professed to aspire after absolute puritv. their eagerness to and who. ancient liermlts. assumed the vows of unconditional obedience and absolute poverty. and a beatific state attained whose tranquility nothing could disturb. the author of the Braminical religion. 1027. . were an order of monks. but in their conduct and principles they 12* . yet Pope Benedict III. so far as the concession of the infallible fixther is authority.CONCLUDING REMARKS. 137 Althougli amid the wrangling of the monastic orders for preeminence. become The God Fo. ing penance . The Gymnosophists. places the antiquity of the monachal order remotely beyond that of Christianity acknowledges its institution to have originated from Judaism and grants that its rules and principles were adopted by ancient Pagan . and the hermits in deserts. this claim has rigorously been contested. admits not of a question. strenuously advocated monachal institutions. The monks resided in monasThey both practised teries. born in Cashmere B. This permission. C. the soul purified and assimilated to God. who practised the most excruciatin pure. That identical institutions have flourished in Asia from the remotest historical periods. The different orders of the monks and hermits which originated from his allegorical and mystical teaching. fraternities. the naked philosophers of India. The present Sufism of Arabia is but a modified form of an ancient system of pantheistical mysticism. sometimes burnt themselves alive. allowed the Carmelites to erect in the Vatican the statue of Elijah as the founder of their order. which taught that through the observance of ascetic practices the animal passions could be destroyed. the most rigorous penance.

observing the similarity which subsisted between the Chinese and . as he was officially styled. foundHis coned the monastic order of the Buddhists. or. pass their time in silent contemplation. intriguing. From the above enumerated facts the conclusion is irresistable.500.") alludes in his discourses to monks and her- mits as being at his time ancient. the Apostolic Successor. A Eomish missionary who visited China. were an organization of monks fore who derived their theological principles from the God Theuth. Jeseus Christna. The func- tions similar to those of the Catholic orders were and the pretensions and dignity of the patriarch were one and the same with those of the Pope of Kome. the incarredeemer of the Hindoos. vents were governed by superiors who were subject to the absolute authority of the patriarch. the founder of the Egyptian religious ceremonies. 0. and admitted virgins to social in- and authority of the Buddhistic superiors . tercourse. flourishing and venThe Hindoo and Mohammedan Fakirs erated orders. that the Catholic monastic orders are neither of Christian origin. The Essenes. 1029. (see "Bible in India. aud nate miracles resemble those of Jesus Christ. The monks lived in monasteries. 3. profligate and ambitious. Buddha. born B. nor inconsistent with the doctrines and worship of Paganism. poverty and from the world. C. poverty and celibacy. and acquire the veneration of the populace by the practice of absurd and cruel penance. who flourished in Egypt and Palestine bethe Christian era. born B. retire monks who vow obedience. whose birth. are classes of celibacy. assumed the vows of obedience. two years after Fo. life.138 PAGAN ORIGIN OF THE were grovelling.

in order to cheat the church out of the credit of the enterprise. and converted the nation to Christianity. But becoming enchanted with the magnificence of the papal crown. convents. and secretly to acquire power and influence. that Catholicism did not convert Paganism. they abroriches. and ambition. modified. The mendicant orders. upon a vow of perpetual ignorance. and consecrating themselves strictly to the preaching of the gospel. abjuring the acquisition of any intellectual accomplishment. who solemnly obligated themvice to delude the credulous. incessantly grasped after When they had built nunneries. but that Paganism converted Catholicism. yet they were evaded. gated their vow of perpetual poverty. lest it should in- validate their title to vast possessions which they held. selves to remain forever poor. With equal their first organization. The Franciscans. The monastic vows are not only a bold abnegation of the authority of reason and conscience.MONASTIC ORDERS. and wishing to duplicity wield its immense power and lucrative patronage in be- . artfully labored to amass fortunes. but a crafty de- riches. and became the proprietors of extensive domains. 139 the Catholic religion. they assumed. Although they were assumed by the monks as perpetual obligations. declared that the devil must have preceded him. A We olic will now conclude our examination of the Cath- monastic orders. which assumed the vow of perpetual and absolute poverty. with a few general remarks. more learned but less pious authority concluded from the same analogy. and soon betrayed a secret design of acquiring hierachal importance and supremacy. or abrogated as interest and policy suggested.

Sixtus IV. who were established to preach against infidels and heretics. Having acquired immense wealth and popularity. and perceiving that literary ac- quirements would facilitate the accomplishment of this object.140 PAGAN ORIGIN OF THE half of their order. vast tracts of land. from their own order. and Clement XIV. they prudently annulled the ciousness of princes should cause their sequestration. they placed on the apostolic throne. all the ad- vantages of the secular clergy. While this pious fraternity resolved not to accept any ecclesiastical dignity. opulent legacies. and began to devote themselves to the acquisition of some degree of profane erudition. The riches. and general next in power and importance to the pope. they annulled their vow of perpetual ignorance. adopted at the commencement of their career the money-making devices of the mendicant orders . and the pecuniary means of erecting numerous stately structures. all civil obtained exemption from and episcopal taxes. lest the profane avarisive that they secular power. and cringing sycophancy. By hypocrisy. . but when their reven- ues had become so great. and their domains so exten- had attracted a covetous glance from the vows by which they had been acquired. and to bers of its make the memits order superior to those of any other. and removed by art or bribery every obstacle to the success of their ambition. it secretly all and artfully labored to acquire the privileges of the mendicant orders... intrigue. these un- scrupulous by no other monks obtained rights and privileges enjoyed They not only ecclesiastical corporation. The Dominicans. Alexander V.. Jesuits professed to have a holy abhorrence of but thankfully accepted costly presents. Nicholas V.

that they might select the brightest minds of the rising generation. privileges. They were privileged also to suit their dress to circumstances. and unrestricted in actors. in They became the governors power order to grasp secular revenues. their profession to the views of others. to be accommodating and complaisant while pursuing a political enterprise. and under the mask of any external appearance to prosecute in secret what might excite opposition if openly avowed. of changing the pope and of the object vows of the laity. their conduct to peculiarities. and enslave and govern their minds. of colonies. showmen. and from of the all sins all . 141 amenability to any other power than that but also the authority of absolving from ecclesiastical penalties. that they might penetrate their intentions. and to throw Organoff the mask whenever they thought expedient. They were allowed to become actual merchants. the confessors of princes. facilitate the and to adopt any profession calculated to accomplishment of a design. they secretly labored for their own aggrandizement. while they publicly professed to be their sacrificing their interests to the salvation of mankind. mechanics. and to exercise the political in behalf of their interests. and of acquiring churches and domains without restriction. They established for seminaries and boarding schools both sexes. watch over They became professors of universities their conduct. and tutors of schools. in . that they might avail themselves of They became their influence and control their wealth. and mould them to their purposes. ferret out their secrets.MONASTIC ORDERS. They became the spiritual guides of females of rank and opulence. ized on the principles of deception.

chaining themselves to focks. the ignorance nation it or learning of the its sought to proselyte and govern. divisions into which the religious its or- ders were divided. The numerous terity. By cunning and . and influence the general tone of society in their favor. and their different degrees of aus- enabled the church to suit policy to the cor- ruption or purity. and the dignity they abjured. to credulity sacrificing the virtues of life. acquiring the respect of the world they despised. it was by of natural sentiment. ironing their limbs. they sion sacrificed freedom. yet an object of uni- veneration. ordered to subvert. in order to manufacture public opinion.142 order to I^AGAN OBIGIN OF acquire THE . without sleep. passing their lives in caves. obsequiousness by duplicity and fraud they amassed fortunes. by luxury and tyranny they sought and obtained power . it was by violating the to atone for offences They sought by scourging their backs. the source and blind submisThe most absurd and criminal injunctions of a superior or general were obeyed without compunction or remorse. the riches they contemned. sought to cover all they dominion over the young occupy the confessional. If they strove to obtain law^s of their personal purity. domestic and governmental secrets and they labored to monopolize the pulpit. in order to dis. and blushed at no sycophancy that facilitated the accomplishment of an Governed by unnatural vows. . propagating without women. If they aspired after perfection. in in nights days without food. in years without speaking sub- sisting without money. being. Under direction the monks flattered every power they were object. They were a palpable versal deception.

As the accommodating morality of their religion allowed them to adopt any profession. hypocrisy.MONASTIC ORDERS. The perversions. the startling fact became public that the holy fathers had been in the habit of availing themselves of It then pious subterfuges. under the guise of sanctity was embodied in their organiza- and illustrated in their conduct. or any mode of life that would favor the success of a design. or of any treaty. They taught that offences were justified. The doctrines which they taught were often as pernicious as their professions were false. of any contract. they oppressed the world. art. . they had at the same time nullified. such of them as were obnoxious. so the license of their sop]?iistry enabled them to construe the maxims of virtue according to any standard that would justify the conduct dictated by their interest tion. the criminal thought differently from what he said or done . they applied to their own conduct in the broadest sense. 143 Every species of absurdity.of the maxims by which they sought to justify the crimes In 1809. or sycophancy. when committed. the By subterfuge of perplexing interpretations. and issued bulls in conformity with the demands of temporal princes. if. when the papal archives were brought to France. and that a mental reservation nullified the obligation of any promise. by virtue of mental reservations. By the pliancy of their moral code they consecrated the basest means to pious ends. and their conduct crafty. appeared that while they had made contracts. and an artful ambiguity of language. they excused and sanctioned perjury and every other crime. of virtue of others. avarice. ambition and despotism. mental reservations.

fessor pretended to be guided self-torture. and very frequently committed by those who believed in the ability of the church to absolve them from their guilt. . it is for the performance of the easy to see that an ordinary Cath- olic sinner was in eminent danger of incurring a debt which would require several centuries of penance to liquidate. prayers. To regulate the priest in prescribing this mode him with an body of laws. and of every degree and species of crime. These offences being veryhenious in their nature. in the matter.144 IMMORALITY OF THE absurdities The and perniciousness of their moral code were not exceeded by those of their penal code. According to the doctrines of Catholicity the guilt of every crime may be expiated by the performance of penance. Fasts. Long fasting would starve him long abstinence from business would empoverish him and either expedient would prevent him from being a source of revenue to the church and. which harmonized with the divine inspiration by which the con. expiating the by the authority be the of the ecclesiastical code. for the commission of any offence of word. . of robbery. by the use of this code. and time being required atoning penance. Here was a dilemma. . were. to underof punishment. which he as carefully as prudently concealed from the eyes of the intelligent. of murder. of adultery. All priests were enabled. of fornication. thought or deed and a uniformity in the administration of penal prescriptions was maintained. the church furnished ecclesiastical stand the true orthodox degree of punishment which had been authoratively decided should be inflicted on penitents. in . abstinence from business. declared to divinely appointed methods of guilt of rape.

graduated according to their pecuniary circumstances. or of penance. By this happy expedient provision was made for the relief of all criminals at stipulated prices. the ecclesiastical code prescribed degrees of severity in punishing it. few sinners than a debt of three hundred sterling. of the church. allowed to be cancelled by the payment of twenty shillings to the priest and if the sinner was poor. two hundred pounds The liqui- dation of such an obligation during the dark ages would consume a small fortune but the expansive benevolence . and five centuries at fifteen hundred thousand lashes. penance imposed on a rich sinner A for one year's indulgence in the commission of a par- by this crafty device. touched at the sorrows of her contrite members.MONASTIC ORDERS. Three thousand lashes.. Whoever could not pay with their purse had to pay with their body. A year's penance was taxed at three thousand lashes. fact. was. As crime had its degrees of turpitude. and the repetition of a portion of the Psalter. for any crime whose penance required five years to discharge. itable discrimination. as every separate offence required the atonement of a less separate escaped incurring years. 13 . were prescribed as an indispensable satisfaction for any crime whose penance required a year to discharge. 145 ance. defeat the object of the holy sacrament of penTo obviate this difficulty the ingenious method of indulgences was adopted.a century's at three hundred thousand lashes. . and fifteen thousand lashes and the repetition of the whole Psalter. by the payment of nine shillings Yet even by this indulgence and charticular offence. graciously accepted their land after she had exhausted their purse.

If they have ever been places of refuge for the proscribed. yet the absurdities If they and immoralities taught within their the sanctuaries. pair the revenues of the church. by vigorit demanded on the back of an The skill and hardihood of St. Dominic was able to discharge the penitential lashes of a century in six days and his pious example was attempted to be imitated even by ladies of fashion and . they have always been the means of oppressing industry. Their virtues were accidents their vices natural offsprings. was not objected to. and a sinner would often expiate his guilt ously laying the stripes accommodating friend. and on the can be atoned for by interest of public morals. and restricting If they have been schools for the correction freedom. than any usefulness or virtue which they could possess. The monasteries were ambiguous. or can pretend to claim. of error. They were financial inThe labor performed by their inmates as a stitutions. it quality. penance. oppressive corpora- have at times preserved the literary treasures of the ancients. have flicted deeper injury on the cause of truth. and in- crimes notoriously practised therein. tions. they have generally usurped the fortunes of their patrons.146 IMMORALITY OF THE These scourgings were always sanctified by tKe repetiAs vicarious flagellation did not imtion of psalms. was articles made a lucrative source of revenue. they have impaired their authority by numerous corruptions and interpolations. and improvement in virtue. The which they manufactured were represented as capable of imparting a peculiar blessing to the pur- . If they have sometimes established institutions for the education of youth.

all all had to pay and as all were totally depraved. it was a more adorable object than the deity. had to be liberal. the professors which they gave to colleges. were ascribed divine virtue. it became the governing principle of the church. As it sinned. empowered a priest to demand of a penitent the surrender of the whole of his fortune. were benevolently granted upon sums of money. Gold sup- plied the place of contrition. a more precious savior than Christ. The sin of total depravity. he was likely to be exorbitant in the demand. . to which. released sinners from purgatory. 147 A simple making them cheap at any price. and an unlimited amount of indulgences. badge of a religious order. chaser. which all had inherited from the forbidden fruit which Adam had eaten. the confessors with and the the spiritual guides which they supplied princes. and all the privileges of earth. all the prerogatives of heaven. with which they provided the affluent of both sexes. was sold fortune. the church converted not only the crimes of her members.MONASTIC ORDERS. a more sancAs all had tifying possession than the Holy Ghost. to lay members at the price of a respectable The tutors with which the monasteries fur- nished schools. but the . For it she granted indulgences to violate the laws of heaven and earth threatened and repealed excommunications and mer- payment of exorbitant . and opened more ably than any thing else increased the power and dominion of the church. Gold being the source of power and luxury. The confessor was judge and as he was interested in the amount. . to guilt the gates of Paradise. "With extraordinary financial ingenuity. atoned for the offences of criminals. chandised every spiritual blessing.

the locality was immediately examined priests in company with the dreamer. into a lucrative source of revenue. Stephen had been deposited coffin. and a careful excavation of them. the judge of Isreal. but some honest doubts arose in as to it being the identical . She was not long in discovering that the bones of the saints were likely to be deemed as valuable as their virtues had been. and see if they had not other disposable material for the exercise of her commercial ingenuity.148 IMMORALITY OF THE virtues of her departed saints. made the enterprise a very profitable speculation. and might prove as marketable.to the existence of a grave. she inferred that the supera- bundant quantity of their goodness might be dealt out to the destitute without detriment to the owners. to traffic her inveterate disposition led her to examine the saints more carefully. some been executed as malefactors. and it finding exceedingly remunerative. This discovery induced an industrious search for their graves. and began to vend them at exorbitant prices. and informed him where his corpse reposed. St. by bishops and Unmistakable one proofs appeared as. yet they all vanished upon opening the for such celestial . and the scarcity of the article among her members. which had slept for five hundred years in Palestine. were exhumed and transported to Rome. The bones of Samuel. had per- formed more good works than was necessary for the salvation of their souls. the church laid claim to these works of supererogation. After disposing of a great portion of heaven. The exhaustlessness of the store. Stephen having appeared in a dream to a pious man. With more cupidity than reason. which St. of whom had Happily conceiving that the saints.

that the most sceptical was satisfied of the genuineness of the relics. the former were frequently gathered up in mistake for the latter. it was natural for the church to seek for it with great eagerness. and interred together in the same field.MONASTIC ORDERS. devout reverence was manifested by the trees and rocks in the vicinity. were as eagerly sought after and what is very remarkable. of jackals. and of malefactors. But however mortifying were such errors. brought as good prices as the veritable bones of saints. But the deep earnestness of her enthusiasm blunted the acuteness of her judgment. even the most objectionable of them. though generally assumed. and as both classes have often been regarded by law as synonymous. But the corrupt and pernicious principles which entered into their constitution. and . and such. A saint's tomb being equal in value to a gold mine. were sometimes real. 13* . 149 odors arose from the corpse. It sometimes led her to mistake the bones of difference cats. and as there is no between the bones of thieves and murderers and those of saints. Some of the clergy. and of jackals for those of saints. they did not prove as unfortunate as might have been expected for until anatomy and history had rectified them. as great miracles. of dogs. were too self-evident to be concealed from the eyes of mankind and too revolting to escape the animadversion of some of the more noble and courageous members of their fraternitv. performed as many and . did not in some instances render valuable aid to the cause of education and humanity The sanctity and disinterestedness with which their profession was invested. We do not pretend to assert that the religious orders. the bones of pigs.

the deep-rooted reverence which mind for the spiritual guides. but peremptorily enforced. and the powerful confederacy of their orders. broke forth in bold and explicit demands for reformation. by which they labored to advance the pope's pretension to supreme dominion. The temporal re- and spiritual powers of the monastic orders were . some powerful monarch had surpassed the limits of his It was then that the discontent and inforbearance. and the worldly policy which characterized their religious profession. made them obThe nujects of suspicion to jurists and statesmen. the force of habit and of education. rendered their existence in a government a political solecism. merous exemptions which they enjoyed under the protection of the of laws. their busy and intriguing spirit. sunk them in the estimation of the enlightened and philanthropic. Eeforms. overgrown power. consequently. until their arrogant conduct towards superstitious dread of their anathemas.150 ABEOGATION OF THE of the learned many men of the age boldly complained of their base immorality. the and the servile temper which monarchical government engenders in the minds of subjects. their privileges nullifying the their jurisdiction the civil authority over them. and the base accommodation of principle to circumstances. all conspired to conciliate Christendom to the deep degradation inflicted on society by the monastic orders. but which superstition had held in check. their cunning and obsequiousness. Their aversion to reform. But notwithstanding existed in the public these palpable facts. dignation which their outrageous conduct had created in the public mind. Their pernicious intermeddling in political affairs. w^ere not only projected.

for conspiring against the government in Italy for licentiousness and in France. and sometimes to own Even Catholic princes obliged the monks submit to unpleasant restrictions. Their dogmas break all bounds of civil society. as the decree expresses. subverting the authority of government. perjury. extirpating every sentiment and mental reservaof humanity in . The Jesuists were abolished in England on account of the political plotting of its members in Holland for having caused the assassination of Maufice de Nassau in Portugal for an attempt to murder Joseph I. in overthrowing tho practice and foundation of religion. her. authorizing theft. blasphemy. and generally all passions and wickedness tion . . and. teaching the nefarious principle of secret compensation. reigns appropriated tion many of their rich estates to educa. falsehood. principles are of the most execrable description. The different orders. that rule of morals which God has inscribed on the heart of tion at after the other. . one were abrogated on account of some intolerable conduct. the nations to affords They attempted dethrone Queen Elizabeth.. and its colonies. and adultery. sought to murder assassination of the Prince of Orange. in Spain. and substitut- ing in their stead all sorts of superstition. man. with magic. or to purchase exemp- an enormous rate. .MONASTIC ORDERS. equivocation . but de- feated in that. because " Their doctrine destroys the law of nature. and charitable purposes use." history of all That their conduct and melancholy evidence. the most inordi- nate and criminal impiety. stricted 151 Sovtheir to by the abolisliment of their exemptions. their sanction of homicide and parracide fine. They caused the They endea- .

which may gather into a storm. atoms. for having attempted to abolish them. I. until despotism dares insult the ears of its with the boldness of prophecies . and Louis XV. so dangerous to public peace so justly reprobated and morals. and plotting treason and rebellion in the advancement of the pope's claims to supreme temporal and spiritual dominion. was restored by Pope Pius VII. they were abolished with different limitations in every part of .. . the Jesuistical order. They attempted to murder Henry IV. and the were curses of nations. Again these monks are travprogress of science. with mental of ages.. and Pope Clement XIX. the others rapidly incurred the sentence of the same degradation. vored to poison Maximillion King of Austria.' who intimated that it would reappear in the same authority in which ersing it fell. so principles. They poisoned Pope Clement XIII. and by all enlightened men and governments. and whose thunder will shake governments to ter .152 ABROGATION OF MONASTIC ORDERS. Loaded with the crimes Europe for it having ab- rogated their order. until the foundation of independent government begins to quake . although he did reservations. the world.. whose rain will be the blood of nations. and as they the most powerful of the monastic orders.. arresting the demoralizing society. But notwithstanding execrable in its all this.. until the pillars of constitutional liberty begin to tot- freemen and until statesmen and patriots turn pale as they view the portentous vapors darkling the political horizon.

scatCano7i of the Council of ter." "Our Most Holy Lord God." "Priest of the World. and from the assertions of her acknowledged authorities." Later an Canon." " More than God." &c." " The Mo§t High and Mighty God credited titles are the following " on Earth." "The Most Holy Father. and A That we may tiie dministrations. &c." "Our Lord God the Pope. and the pope by nobody. 13* . is prince over all nations and kingdoms." " The Victorious God and Man in the See of Rome. cal the canons of her councils." "The Divine Majesty." "The Regent of the House of the Lord . Some : of the pope's ac- The Father of all Fathers. Character." " The Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world.. X.CHAPTEK JPopes. from her reason or justice in making them. from the bulls of her popes." Trent." "The Oracle of Religion.. our reigning pope." "The Chief High Priest and Prince of God . Elections." "The Bearer of Eternal Life. " All mortals are judged by the pope. " Pius v. we will inquire v/hat are her pretensions before arraigning An unequivoanswer to this inquiry may ba obtained from the import of her titles. ruin and build. plant." "God's Vicar General on Earth . and ho has power to pluck up. not commifc the error of attributing to holy mother absurdities which she repudiates. their Pretensions.

" He ** The pope is supreme over all the world. It is the only name in the world. may impose taxes." " The pope is crowned with a triple crown. The supremacy of the pope over all persons and Bellaris the main substance of Christianity. No chapter. " Ireland. Peter and the holy Catholic Church" Bull of Pope Adrian. and will never fall into error. No council can call itself general without the consent of the pope. " The pope all over his power is is* the only Vicar of God the world. He has the right to depose emperors. All persons others. no book can be reputed canonical without his authority. the only . Pagan as well as Christian. Si Papa. and orders the clerical orders. wrong. and destroy crowns and castles for the preSt. Thomas Aquinas. who has supreme power and empire over . Every Eoman Bull of Grepontiff when ordained becomes holy." Antonius of Florence. whatsoever are forbidden to condemn him who is called The Church of Home is never to the apostolic chair. ." gory VII pire.154 POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS. His name is the only one to be uttered in the churches. Diet. 40. do belong to the patrimony of St. " It is necessary to salvation that all Christians be subject to the pope. (the pope) alone has the right to assume emAll nations must kiss his feet. the holysun of righteousness hath shone. . and all the isles on which Christ. confirms emperors. Vicar of God. and is constituted over his (God's) hand to regulate concerning all inferiors he opens heaven. No one can invalidate his sentence he can abrogate those of all He cannot be judged by any. servation of Christianity." " things mine." Po-pe Boniface VIII. sends the guilty to hell.

'—Blareus. '* The pope has supreme power over kings and Chrishe may remove them from office.. Pontiff. All other powers depend on the pope. all princes 155 and kings 5." Feraris in Papa. " The pope is the Lord of the whole world.ELECIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. p. and duty into sin. 2. 4. is empowered by God to do all things that he him- self can. Be Rom. they could be judged and excommunicated by the pope. their place put others. his temporal power is most 3fareminent. character and conduct. The vicar of God in the place of God. of the esiith. Eccl. If they possess the moral attributes of the deity." — Tiba. and in tian princes Brovius. "The pope is divine monarch. " The bishop ' of Eome cannot even sin without being praised. Art. 19. Art. same. Be Rom." cinus. Jure Princep. sec. we are involuntarily impelled to look to the holy fathers for corresponding principles. 11. Rom. He is also as king of heaven. . 46. supreme emperor "and Hence the pope is crowned with a triple crown. " The pope can transubstantiate sin into duty. they must . of earth." " " man and The pope can do all things that he wishes to do. 134. cap. above angels so that if it were possible that angels could err from the faith. 10. Bib. remits to Bens. king. 2. . and of hell. M. 62. ' Iloscovius. the debt of a plighted promise. The pope has temporal power." Cap. " God's tribunal and the pope's tribunal are the 3foscovius." Bur and." — From the loftiness of these pretensions. 1.

then he must be the associate judge . he can annihilate all distinction between and wrong. . if But irif these extraordinary pretensions. indeed. . physical attributes and if they pos- sess his physical attributes. of God Almighty. If. and territory of the earth. then are their pretensions not only presumptous but ridiculous. order. and convert the worship of God into sin. by presuming to exercise a superior degree of executive and judicial authority. riches. refragable proofs of unsupported by . the crowns. they can much easier create some world out of nothing over which than they can create a claim to all to domineer. denying the existence God by claiming equality with him. equal to him in dignity. who was never worth a cent. and supereminent to him in authorIf the pope can transubstantiate sin into duty and ity. the Peter. and concord superior to that which . superior to him in jurisdiction. divine power and virtue the administrative abilitiesof thejDopes have not transcended and if their those of infinite wisdom and goodness monarchy is not such a just embodiment of unquestionable and universally accepted principles as has produced and maintained among their subjects on earth a degree of peace. not only arrogant but blasphemous of . subsists among the angels in heaven. should any of them fall if he can annul the obligation of any oath which man is under to his maker. contemning his authority by usurping his prerogatives. . a and the adoration of himself into a duty.156 possess also POPES liis —THEIR PRETENSIONS. if he pope's tribunal and God's tribunal are the same above all in heaven would be the proper judge. out of the patrimony of St. and anathematizer of angels. and trampling under foot his name and character. right duty into sin.

although it cannot be denied that the persons whom they have se- lected were in general the weakest and most corrupt men of their ase. and to convene synods for the purpose of trying any of the holy fathers who should be charged with criminal conduct. and approved by themselves. This papal triumph removing the wholesome check which had hitherto restrained and softened the 14 . however to have succeeded hy the aid of divine inspiration. As the populace claimed and enjoyed the prerogative of confirming or rejecting the choice of the bishops. 157 In selecting a person among mortals capable of filling a throne so exalted above the thrones of earth and heaven. But the despotism of the church. They claim. on the demise of a pope. naturally increasing with her power. The jealousy commend to the suffrages of the college of cardinals of emperors interfered in the matter. and to punishing such of them a^ should be found guilty. claiming the right to arbitrate between rival candidates. to assert independence of his election should be inspected the secular powers. and to maintain it by force of arms. also. enabled her eventually to relievo herself of these unpleasant restrictions. to interdict the consecration of any pope elect until the forms of by their deputies. from suitable selfish and ambitious motives. and sometimes of disorder. o In the course of time and experience it became the custom of the bishops. and as nobles.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. the papal elections were always scenes of excitement. we perceive the great embarrassment under which those must have labored on whom the difficult task was devolved. often interfered in the proceedings. to re- a person for his successor.

and placed him by military Pope John XIII. through the wealth and power of those prostitutes. Emperors would interpose not only in the election. left claims of rival candidates for the vicarship of Christ to the anathemas of the clergy be disputed by mob. but in the administration of a pope. at the command of Henry III. eighteen years old. who caused the inspired college to elect Leo VII.. Clement III. ecclesiastical Eival aspirants appeared in the acrimonious contests ensued .. Clement II. was elected to displace Benedict IX. when he was twelve years. tlie violence of episcopal ambition. ad- herents were bought. Pope Clement II. Theodora and Marozia.158 POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS. were... . They often obliged the inspired college to select such a . and Pope Clement III. Pope John XII was deposed for ingratitude and treachery by the Emperor Otho I. Boniface I. competitors insulted. nobles and princes would appeal to the passions of the mob. and the election of his successor a bloody struggle for political interest. peace of Christendom endangered. and the frenzy of the The knell of a pope's death became the tocsin of war.. votes exRome polluted with blood and the torted by threats . to dis- .. candidate as suited their interest sometimes they prevented. arena . was force on the apostolic throne. elevated to the papal dignity. and at other times anticipated its action. the inspired college at the command of Otho elected by II. Peter was Pope John XII. and excite them to ungovernable fury. To defeat a hostile or elect a friendly candidate. the chair of St. to displace Gregory VII. Through the influence and intrigues of two royal harlots.. at the Command of Henry IV. and Pope Benedict IX. when he was filled with their lovers..

without the aid of another inspired college. supported different At one period two popes divided the patrimony it. three cotemporaneous holy fathers. Gregory XII. disposed of his rival by violence carcerated his in a dungeon. John XIV. popes asserted jurisdiction over These rival holy would incessantly encounter one another with . it became difficult. to displace Jolin XXII. sanction or imperial preference resolved the difficulty and at other times different sections of Christendom arriving at opposite conclusions. by divine Two antagonistical popes thus being elected in accordance with papal usages. that the col- became divided into two parties. The antagonistic al popes would mutually denounce ingenuity to effect each other's destruction. and Martin V. and the other over another fathers and at another time three it.. XII. popes. presented him to the people as having been chosen inspiration. and tax their Benedict . factions. of St. divine inspiration. in- in ^yhich he starved to Besides the rivalship which infuriated opposing candidates. Peter. to determine which father. each of its which favor- proceeded to separate churches. 159 place Dioscorus. death. each other as anti-popes. and Benedict XII. the inspired college itself was often So rent into revengeful and irreconcilable violent sometimes were these lege conflicts. the one reigning over one portion of .ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. the two popes was the genuine holy Sometimes this question was decided by priorsometimes popular ity in the moment of an election of . and the intermeddling of princes in their elec- tions in order to secure a pliant instrument for their political designs. and canonical law. and electing ite.

160 bulls. but all Europe.. excommunicated the obstinate cardinals who had refused to vote for him. anathemas. This expedient prevented the frequency of double elections. abolished the pope in which the clergy and people participated. POPES —THEIE PRETENSIONS. But still the disorderly elements which shook the church could not be entirely eradicated without the abolishment of the papal throne. Pope Alexander chosen in 1179. and swords arms in their support would distract. promised the crown of both of the Sicilies to Charles of Anjou.. would ensue between the death of a pope and of . throne . the election of his successor. . sometimes of years.. and after . and their tumultuous and bloody schisms. of the benefits of a holy father. An interregnum of months. The ambition and corruption of the cardinals having kept the papal throne vacant for three years previous to the election of Gregory X. requiring the members of the college to assemble in Rome nine days after the demise of a pope. while disgraceful negotiations were always visible. In order to abate the calamity of the papal elections. under the new electoral method. with their irreconcilable controversies. . on condition that he would use his influence with the inspired college in favor of his election to the papal and Pope Boniface VIII. III. and invoking foreign not only Kome. and invested the sole right in mode of electing a the college of cardinals. after expending large sums of money on an election. an independent reign their insidious machinations to become popes themselves often deprived the church. Pope Clement IV. he issued a bull in 1265. The passions and private interests of the members of the sacred college their wish to secure the honors and emoluments .

ineed. The inspired college having assembled in accordance with the requirements of the canon. condemned to subsist on a small allowance of bread. which occurred on the death of Pope Benedict XI. of the to If within three days the influence Holy Ghost should not be sufficiently powerful enable them to arrive at a canonical agreement. The fact that an attendant on a cardinal during the session of an worth an independent fortune. prevented the former frequency of schisms. and still if luxury of their repast was to be. ages. is by which the holy fathers continue still to be elected. sworn to abjure all precollege is significant of the corrupt machinations vious understanding. making them the electoral occasion of less scandal. nevertheless. The bull of Pope Gregory X. The stimulus of this regimen has seldom failed to produce a speedy and harmonious agreement. divided on the question whether a Frenchman or an Italian should 14* . but it was insufficient to prevent one of seventy years' duration. has. taking an oath to abjure retire all 161 previous understanding. But the corruption of the Holy See was the growth of and had carefully been systematized by the hand of experienced craft. in 1348.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. although improvements might be introduced. the and supper. abridged to a single dish at dinner within eight days these privations should be insufficient to quicken the divine influence on the grossness of tne cardinals were then human nature. and to remain there until they should be able to agree on a choice. to with a single attendant into a common apartment. It could not therefore be entirely eradicated by any modification in the papal electoral forms. became. water and wine.

162 POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS. an to the and presenting him populace declared. Two-thirds of the be elected as the vicar of Christ. assume any semblance. as it gathered around the Vatican. the other dignity of at Avignon m of The aspirants to the the vicarship its Christ endeavored. pealed for a . agree . but a mob of " Death thirty thousand Romans preferred an Italian. wishes of the mob and electing Urban VI.. according to usage. cardinals were in favor of a Frenchman. stipulating with hinr to King accommodate of France. in general. that they had been inspired to choose him through the influence of the Holy Ghost. and professions and. They were ready to flatter any power. The disappointed cardinals disguised their mortification under the warmest congratulations to the newly elected pope. in harmony with the discordant clamor of the mob. Under the college terror of these the inspired . and made preparations for burning anv of the inspired college M'ho should vote French candidate. The papal monarchy hence became divided into two antagonistical bodies. of friendship and allegiance. while the cathedral bells. submitted to the Italian. to obtain holy honors by the employment of artifice and intrigue. to Fundi. its capitol at Rome. elected Pope Clement in his place." shouted an infuriated crowd. forth an ominous warning. intimidations. the one having France.. his interest in the place of Urban. and by electing a pope flattery. who should After having by conform to his washes in all things. excommunicating him. they retired sufficiently deceived the vicar of Christ. but gratified their secret malice by entering into clandestine negotiation with Philip IV. or an Italian Pope.

while a cardinal. bounding and vigorous step displayed consternation of the sacred college that for and to it with a the horror had chosen a holy father. con- temptuously threw away liis crutch. advocated the most cal reforms. blind. was and Kearis. Having transformed himself into the semblance of such a convenient tool as the members of it of the college desired to place on the apostolic throne. elected by bribing Cardinals Cibo. informed himself of the wishes of princes and the secret Under a mask of profound disdesigns of cardinals. and evaded the scrutiny of cardinals.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. and scarcely able to hobble on a crutch and who desired nothing but obscurity. Pope Alexander VIL. simulation he gained the confidence of kings and nobles. dinals he assumed the appearance of an infirm old deaf. in the presence of the cardinals. assumed the semblance of great humility and sanctity. Peter. liberal ecclesiasti- Pope Martin V. and profess any sentiment that promised their to favor design. At the council of Constance. than he threw ojQf the cumbrous mask by which he gained the honor. No sooner had the electoral formalities been conconcluded than. Spozza Pope Alexander VI. but recanted his heresy as soon as he ob- tained the triple crown. devotion and By the agency of the confessional he correctly repose. to 165 any terms. Sixtus VL played a deep and crafty game to win the papal crown. but a man of . and openly began a course of dissipation and luxurious indulcrence. but no sooner had he become a successor of St. they chose him unanimously but repented unanimously immediately afterwards. not a pliant simpleton. he raised himself from his former stooping position. In order to deceive the carman.

after digging out their eyes. standing in mortal dread of unaspiring predecessor. have been saluted with showers of stones. The vicegerents of God. tine and For Pope Celes- was elected disputes of on account of his ignorance and mental the imbecility. who was intellectual deficiency When this and profound ignorance of the world. It succeeded in electing Boniface VIII. but less and who. have frequently been met with contempt and insurrecThe cardinals have at times tion by the populace. and fearing the his simple and instability of the apostolic throne while he was at moral integrity large. The priests have been caught by mobs. been stripped. and crowning their heads with ludicrous mitres. more business capacity. twenty-seven months their the cardinals had kept the papal conciliate elect throne without differences an incumbent. sagacity.. the subjects of Rome scoffed with impunity at its insolent pretenThe tyranny and corruption of the holy fathers sions. while on the apostolic throne. It is a singular fact that while distant potentates trembled at the thunders of the Vatican. have sent them as admonitions to the pope. But his incapability of transacting the ordinary business the Holy See. authority. holy father entered Apulea after his consecration. processions. he symbolically rode upon an ass. agreed his for To to they finally celebrated Celestine. obliged the sacred college to reassemble.164 POPES —THEIR solely PRETENSIONS. determination. and trodden under foot. have The sacred . pusillanimously imprisoned him for life. who possessed . which. headed by the holy fathers. and endeavor by the aid of the Holy Ghost to select a more suitable vicar of Christ. beaten.

violated the virgins. and levied armies to chastise them . sulted. Peter. and worshipped at the shrine of St. Peter to find refuge in France. When the Avignon. one occasion they had. in a friendly conference. whom the pope had eral of the Church. profaned the churches. the characteristic Holy See was transplanted from Pome to vices. assailed by subjects at home and princes abroad. Sometimes they retaliated the insults of their Catholic and. Anangni. thrice afterwards entered Rome as a master. rudely buffeted.'' in consideration of serviceb rendered. or some other locality. often been . themselves by the payment of an enormous sum of gold. Notwithstanding the ostentatious sanctity and gor- geous show with which the church invests her external form. once entered Avignon. The holy fathers. plundered the people and churches. Perugia. on subjects.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. and from all their crime. and their bodies cast into the streets. and tumults which were The were transplanted along with it. corruption. torn from Laudislaus. Yiterbo. their chair and incarcerated in dungeons. were constantly fleeing from the insecure patrimony of St. eleven deputies of the people murdered in cold blood. same popular insubordination and papal insecurity prethe people were seditious and the popes invailed A Catholic freebooter at the head of his band. her throne has never been occupied by a distinguised paragon of virtue nor has it. and to absolve him and his fellow robbers from the guilt of the transaction. notwithstanding . her liberal indulgence to moral turpiturd. 165 been seized by the throat. entitled " GenKing of Naples. plundered the citizens. compelled the pope and cardinals to ransom .

duplicity and tyranny. destroying their sense of moral accountability. King of . pride all restraints and superciliousness. and.166 POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS. Look at Pope Gregory. overacted his part by secreting himself in a wilderness. would be absurdity to expect to find in their character any Look at those exalted degree of moral excellence. While pretending to wish to be unknown. To pave way to the pontifical throne. By seeming to resist. Cimons. he secured his election his . piring and unscrupulous despot ? we always see despotism. to convey him secretly from Rome . licentiousness. the inspired college has chosen vicegerent of to Where we might expect see the Solons. he removed every obstacle To disguise more the way of his consecration. and often profligacy and cruelty. whom he knew could not accommodate him. He induced Eecared. and generally duplicity. cupidity. he solicited a merchant. whom God. High principled and lofty minded men have scorned to aspire to her dignities and had they not. graced by those whom she dared to canonize for the purity of their conduct. finally. they still could not have stooped to the dishonorable means by which they are to be obWith pretensions demoralizing her officials by tained. and dissolving it on the instigations of malice. the Great. and building a fire that his retreat might be discovered. fostering their vanity. revenge. and immured himself in them. did he not employ every device to become the most notorious man of his age. deeply his ambition. ho devoted his patrimony to the use of convents. and by addressing an in artful remonstrance against its confirmation to the emperor. Was he not an asCatos of the age. skill His financial was unquestioned.

complimented Phocus on his good fortune. After this barbarous act had been perpetrated. perhaps. Never having heard of the Phocus before. before the eyes of their father coldly butchered his five sons. in cruelty inexorable. the Emperor Maurice attempted to reduce them to order by the enforcement of This effort produced a rigorous military discipline. Elevated to the papal throne through . which culminated in the election of Phocus. He also sanctified the most atrocious assassination that The Roman legions was. In ambition unprincipled. and I fear will be a murderer. " Alas. Spain. to exchange a great 167 amount of gold able collection of jewels for a few hairs of St. Peter had been shackled while in a dungeon. fulfilled. From this model pope elected in 956. ever perpetrated. and then consummated the horrible tragedy with the murder of the emperor himself.ELECIONS AND ADMINISTBATIONS. and rejoiced that his piety and benignity had raised him to the imperial throne. who. the Baptist. having become demoralized." replied he. general dissatisfaction among the troops. contained some grains of a chain with which St. although he owed his elevation to the indulgence of Maurice." This prophecy was soon Phocus sent to the private dwelling of Maurice assassins. let us turn to Pope John XII. in dissoluteness cold and calculating . ing tranquility to the nation. the annals of history scarcely furnish an equal compound of moral deformity. and a valuJohn a key which. "a great coward. a piece of the true cross. he inquired of his general name of who he was.. in The emperor. Pope Gregory. an obscure soldier. magnanimously abdicated the purple. desirous of restorthe place of Maurice. it was alleged.

Penetrating the emperor's design. He was a drunkard. For this insolent proceed- ure the emperor determined to depose him. because that prince had exercised the right of investiture contrary to the interdiction of the papal bulls. and baseness. . for fear of being violated by the holy father while kneeling at his shrine.. Protected from reproach by his claim to infal- he presumed to outrage the sense of common decency by living with the Countess Matilda under suspicious circumstances dowed with supreme power over ments. libility. trickery. and virgins were so frequent. a blasphemer. that female pilgrims were deterred from visiting the tomb of St. it by buying the adherence of the but this movement was effectually counterpoised by the emperor's purchasing the support He also convened acouncil at of the Italian nobility. and that if and conceiting that he was enall kings and governthey resist his authority he must . wives. what and insolence have been consecrated as holy in the character of a vicar of Christ.. a profligate. and a murderer. the influence of a prostitute. His rapes of widows. punish them. and drive him from Rome. peror of Em- Germany and Italy. the papal palace into a brothel. Roman matrons. Now see advert to Gregory VII. to invoke his aid in the practice of chastity and piety. Peter. he his patroness the made the principles of of his conduct. he attempted to defeat Italian populace. and He lived in He converted it made a school for education in the arts of prostitution. He passed his time in hunting and gambling. he undertook to dethrone Henry IV. He public adultery with swore by the Pagan Gods and Goddesses. elected in 1075. avarice.168 POPES —THEIR maxims PRETENSIONS.

. its Finding himself universally detested as author. The formidable allies of the holy father. but reduced the greater portion of to ashes.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. tocsin of a The elevation of this Pope was the war which. But victory sometimes is as disastrous as defeat. not only de- city. A furious sedition happen- Duke ing to arise in the city among the inhabitants. upon the apostolic throne. was elected. which success had introduced into the city of Rome. . his design of placing Clement III. kept Rome and Italy in a state of violent convulsion. The sacred college not being able canonically to concur in 15 . 169 by whicli Gregory was deposed and another at Brisen at which Clement III. during his administration. was their revenge satiated populated the it until they had. To place Clement in possession of the papal dignity. Henry formed a coalition with the Emj^eror Alexius: to defeat this project Gregory formed an alliance with Robert Guiscard. he to had to flee for safety to Salerno. This catastrophe completed the disgrace of Gregory. although they had for money and the license of war been induced to take up arms in defence of the sacerdotal monarch. plundering dwel- profaning churches. and Gregory was delivered from his perilous situation. The arms of Robert were victorious. Henry From the conduct of this crafty and talented sacerdo- tal despot. leaving consummate. elected in 1130. citizens. They nor commenced murdering the lings. comprehended a nu^aerous band of Saracens who hated the Christian name and capital. let us turn a glance at pope Innocent II. and firing buildings. of Apulia. the Sara- cens eagerly availed themselves of gratify their hatred of the occasion to Rome and of Christianity. without opposition.

. The two holy fathers continued to persecute and anathematize each other. obliged to limit his papal jurisdiction to one portion of the city. nevertheless. On account of this papal insolence.. his antagonist being too strongly entrenched in the other to be dislodged. elected in 1198. adversary. . and the other Pope Anaclitns. who. obliged him to abhim from the sentence of the excommunication. enabled him to secure a sufficient army to effect his return. and Calibria. convoked the Lateran Council. until death settled the sanguinary controversy by the removal Relieved of the terrors of a powerful of Anaclitus. a furious holy war was inevitable.— a mitre for on me a mitre m . Anaclitus having the heavier artillery drove Innocent from Rome. cent Let us now direct a moment's attention to Pope InnoIII. solve and to invest him with the papal provinces of Apulia. when receiving the " The church has given me a triple crown exclaimed : crown as a symbol of temporalities she has conferred token of spiritual power . became divided into two obstinate factions. Capua. and again reinstated by the forces of the temporal power. lie was. Two implacable despots being thus authorized to claim the papal throne. each of whicb elected a vicegerent of God the one being Pope Innocent II.170 His election. in which one thousand bishops condemned the soul of Anaclitus. Innocent II. and excommunicated Rogers of Sicily for having supported the schismatic. But even from this limited domain he was again driven by the arms of his formidable rival. but France and Germany espousing the cause of the fugitive. POPES —THEIR PRETENSIONS. Robert declared war against Pope Innocent and taking him prisoner. hate.

He excommunicated Philip of France for having repudiated his wife. plant and build whenever a notion happened to inHe arbitrarily obliged spire his presumptuous brain. the priesthood the vicar ' . of de- manded royal homage Marguard upon the refusal of that prince to reignty by submitting to such unwarrantable dictations. face VIII. Eomagna.'" of Inflated with this popular conceit he imagined that he was supreme prince over all nations and kingdoms. a crown for the kingdom making me him who bears on his garments and The King of Kings." ornament of the papal throne. elected in 1295. Turn from this presumptuous and ambitious. " Sword. of England. for refusing instigated France . ruin. to pay large sums of money for absolution. He exercised an oppressive despotism over the temporal provinces of Christendom. and compromise his sovof He to confirm the election of a bishop deposed King John. destroy. " 171 thighs. he sought to make tools of . obliged him to resign his kingdom to the See of Rome. whet said to have exclaimed : thyself for vengeance. the prefect of Eome to swear allegiance to him. and Lord of Lords. sword. deprived him of the duchy of Mark Ancona. established inqisisitorial tribunals. and to hold his throne as a papal to declare fief.ELECIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. scatter. and consider the character and administration of Pope BoniPliable and revengeful. With a despotic hand he wrung Spoleto from Duke Conrad. and obliged him to sue for mercy at his feet. dicts.. ses. and that he had a divine light to pluck up. . he is suspended religious worship by interand urged the cruel persecution of the AlbigenWhen his military forces were ready for combat. war against him.

held the bridle of his horse and with crowns on their . heads waited on him at table as menials. But fortune eventually favoring him. a coun- Lyons purpose of deposing him but the chastisement of incarceration which he had undergone so mortified his pride. the King of Hungary and the King of Sicily. and slaves of subjects. He boldly excommunicated Philip IV. While luxuriating in this sumpu- ous retreat..172 princes. . cil at mob. and to hold the stirrup of his horse. and a scuffle ensued in which the vicegerent of God was rudely seized by the throat. the anti-popes Victor III. A King Philip had resolved for the to summon . Under the protection liberation he died in a Look at the character of of Frederic I.. III. He obliged Frederic to kiss his feet. profligacy. in token of their inferior rank. him . He laid Scotland under an interdict. but cowardly sought to escape the penalty by taking refuge in the Anangni. usurpation and cast into prison. simony. Pope Alexander III. elected in 1159. severely kicked and cuffed. after his election.. re. fortress of of France. and kept the Holy See in a state of perpetual insurrection. in fancied security. William of Nosgeret sur- rounded the palace with three hundred horse. and Calaxtus successively arose against . distracted all Europe. he wreaked the heaviest vengeance on the heads of his antagonists. Pascal III.. peatedly driving him from Ptome sometimes to France and sometimes to Venice. however. soon released In view of his flagitious and undeniable acts of duplicity. sometimes to Anangni . demoralized and misled by papal pretensions. On his way to the Lateran palace. POPES —THEIR PEETENSIONS.. and him from confinement. who. that within three days after his paroxysm of rage and fury.

was base. children. and mark the and arrogance which disgraced Hear him excommunicating Henry his administration. He undertoolj to seize on the methods. 15* . Pope Julius II. both domestic and foreign. He seduced his own daughter and gave notorious evidence of the profligacy of his life by five illegitimate Italian provinces He attempted . He conspired with his son. Ambi- tious of military renown. Regard for an instant the character of Pope Alex- ander VI. Cardinal Ccesar Borgia. he commanded his army in person. he excommunicated the Duke of Ferrara. by the most cruel and dishonorable to extort money from the different sections of Christendom by fraud and force.. gave Navara to Spain. who perfected in his papal character the dissipation w^hich had disgraced his youth.ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. colleagued against the republic of Venice. elected in 1523. but the conspirators drinking the poison themselves. nepotism. to poison four cardinals... Look at his savage. elected in 1305. and made war upon Louis XII. and without regard to the rights of nations or individuals gratified his lust of power and dominion.. gross simony. 173 He restored the thrones of England and Germany on in the ex- conditions that augmented his power. and mark and warlike character. treach- erous and execrable. ercise of his apostolic authority And tous proof that ecclesiastical gave the world calamisupremacy is incompatible with the peace of the world. besieged Muandolo. became the victims of their own treachery. elected in 1505. In the prosecution of the interests of the Holy See. Behold Clement V. King of France. His policy. ferocious.

Look sought nals. of thirty-seven on the testimony good Catholic witnesses. Turn to John XXII. dred nuns..174 POPES —THEIR PEETEXSIOKS. found seventy indictments against him. and absolving' the subjects from obedience to the laws. sodomy. precocious In his youth a pirate. for Lis refusing to . in the college of cardinals. and illicit intercourse with his brother's wife. confiscating their gold and war vessels.... : " I have this day set thee over the nations. rape. This holy father died in transcending jail. murder. and see if any debarred a candidate from the papal throne. VII. in 1410. of Germany. him and Robert . public or private. and degraded him from the Among the crimes for which he was deposed were simony. men. all licentiousness its gratification whose unnatural bounds of decency. at Julius III. abolishing their governmental offices. yet the Council of Constance." Hear Pius v. the sanctity of his pontifical character neither restrained nor concealed the viciousness w^hich he had manifested. King of France. with boys. and his diate between allies. and with three hunpapal dignity. as he placed his foot on " Thus shalt King of Denmark. exclaim Eleazer. elected in 1550. Although he may have amused himself with the popish conceit that a holy father cannot sin without being praised. and even cardi- Hear Sixtus V. exclaim thou tread upon the lion and the adder. as he excommunicated Queen Elizabeth. Frederic. elected vice. and comparing them with Judith and Hear Alexander I. over the . meand hear him pro- nouncing a curse on the Venitians for their refusing to submit to his dictation declaring them infamous. pro- nouncing a eulogy on the assassinators of Henry III.

abCharlemagne. to root out. to pull down. were anti-popes were compelled twenty-six were deposed to . . selves at all worthy. then uttering to Louis I. . . Look at the that have filled the papal chair two hundred and ninety-seven popes Twenty-four of them : . fomenting discord between Charlemagne and his sons. nineteen abandon Rome twenty-eight were kept on their throne only by foreign intervention fiftyfour were obliged to rule over foreign parts sixty-four died by violence one was eighteen were poisoned shut up in a cage one was strangled one smothered one died by having nails driven in his temples one by a noose around his neck and only one hundred and fifty-three out of the whole number have proved them." AVitness Pope Leo III. the claim of the subsequent popes to the dominion of the Csesars.. 175 kingdoms. so so black with crime. that arrogant assertion : " Know my chair see is above the design of emperor's throne these atrocious . to build up and ruptly to crowning throw down. hear the . frequent and atrocious anathemas of the popes mark the vices that have continued century after century to disgrace the administrations of the holy fathers. then between the sons themselves. . honWitness and regal ornaments of the Caesars.ELECTIONS AXD AD^-IINISTRATIOXS. . then tampering with the officers of the imperial army. to destroy. and say if prrofane history affords a catalogue of monarchs so unprincipled in ambition. . then absolving them from their oath of allegiance. son and successor of Charlemagne. . . . by virtue of the donation of Charlemagne. Gregory IV. Read the papal annals . . of the worl investing him with all the titles." and ultimately in the acts. and to the astonish- ment ors.

and whose patrimony. domains. who had not where to lay his head. case that the dullest of fool as to believe in it is not a supposable them was such a stupendous the validity of his own pretensions. they affirm that they have been chosen by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. they seriously pretend that they are the successors of St. revenues. Their pretensions were made but to justify intended usurnot from conscious right. in order to forge a They claimed the prerogative of absolving subjects from their oaths of allegiance. some old And while they have been elected by fishing nets. and. means to obtain an end. that they might rule kings with abso- They claimed that they could not sin without being praised. with an assertion on their lips that th«y are the king of kings. and the pro- prietors of all the thrones. a staff. gold and. gems of the earth. perhaps. audacity to prefer these claims. They claimed all the authority and holiness of heaven. remorseless in revenge. an like his master. With a triple crown on their heads. do whatever God himself could do. humble fisherman. which they claim to inherit. emperors. by mobs. and by every species of corruption. with the keys of heaven and hell in their hands.176 POPES — THEIR PRETENSIONS. and duty into sin. a suit of unfashionable garments. Peter. must have consisted at most of but an empty purse. by bribery. that they might commit any crime without being censured. by arms and clubs. plea for governing the world as despots. that they might be worBut while they had the shijDped and feared as Gods. that they might justify themselves in adopting any lute authority. They claimed the ability of transubstantiating sin into duty. They claimed to be endowed with power to pations. .

ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTKATIONS. to be When compelled more definite in their conduct and language. Accordingly we see that while temporal princes. they have endeavored. fix they have rendered them nugatory by neglecting to the time and place to their meeting. In fact they must have been conscious that a rigid system of reform would have swept them from their thrones. the popes strenuously opposed the project as a dangerous innovation. and protected every vice that appeared to favor their success. by changing the time and place for holding a proposed council. but to make it ad- minister to the importance of of its coffers. and numerous laymen loudly demanded reform in the head and body of the church. When their cautious . to defeat the object which they were obliged to sanction. reason or virtue. When summons had been issued by temporal princes for the assembling of councils for purposes of reformation. Such being the principles of the papal government. it has destroyed every virtue that obtruded an obstacle to the accomplishment of its purposes. some clergymen. and doomed many of them to confinement in the dungeons of a penitentiary. 177 The papal monarchy was neither designed nor calculated to foster the growth of either truth. Its design its power. The policy and measures w^hich it adopted were never intended to correct vice. the pontiffs frequently forbid obedience to them. When circumstances have obliged popes to issue orders for the convocation of such assemblages. and in conformity with a policy dictated by this design. and the wealth has always been to reign su- preme . it could not be hoped that the holy fathers would be the friends of truth and reform.

to call a council. but finding his intrigues inade- quate to his ambition. and a council for reform had been assembled. peal to a council. and intrigues. he nullified his own summons by neglecting to fit the time for its meeting. he induced his legates to exhaust its time in frivolous ceremonies and useless excursions. the popes have-. forbid an apJulius II. and defeat its useobstacles they fulness. reformatory decrees have been passed by councils. he convoked the Council of Trent . and . was soon apparent that his zeal for reform was his ambition to be elevated to the papal throne. of the artifice When Pope Eugenius rendered them of no the Council of Constance.178 vacillations POPES — THEIR PRETENSIONS. to When pledge his word to prosecute certain specified reforms. When in defiance of papal remonstrances. interdicted the assembling had been summoned. attempted to nullify them by evasion. after deposing three rival popes. of one after it Pope Gregory declared that a council could be useful Pius II. the Council of Basle enacted decrees of reform. have been summarily arrested. When avail. trickery or nethreats glect. When to a crit- ical state of public affairs had led Pope Paul imagine that he could shape the proceedings of an inspired council according to his private interest. nevertheless. When the united voice of princes and subjects compelled Pius VII. elected Martin V. in consideration of the zeal with which he it had advocated church reform. and all the had obtruded removed. they edeavored by base and corrupt means to control its action. only under a Catholic prince. the Council of Pisa obliged Alexander VII. he adopted no measure in compliance "with his word.

ELECTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. a schismatic. treachery. They usually wear the lineament. they were like . a heretic. proposed to introduce into his kingdom. ancl from the other parts of Europe for execrable conduct. vicious- and immorality are deeply featured in their countenances. the pope. duplicity. and adopted When the vicar of Christ. The holy mother. that cure. and in violation of the obligations of honor and gratitude. there were some honorable exceptions. if not the cloven foot of the arch-fiend. anathemas and intrigues. and some of them seem to be an incarnation of every crime that could entitle a human being to be considered as the off'spring and heir of hell. When the papal throne was restored by England. defended them with ferocious zeal. and Russia. II. by means of bulls. from Italy for profligacy. in conjunction with the Catholic had been abolished by France. it 179 all had expired as soon as his election was sePope Pius denounced the reforms which Joseph of Austria. indeed. sides monstosities. the tyranny and profligacy of the monastic orders had awakened the indignation of all Christendom. If ness. the it powers. and the superstitious practices of the dark ages. but recommended them as the most pious and useful members of the church. When the Jesuists were banished from England for treasonable machinations. the popes not only defended. after obnoxious order of the Jesuists. from Portugal for attempts at assassination. restored the barbarous inquisition. Ambition. in defiance of the wishes and resolutions of his liberators. every expedient to counteract them.. has given birth to little beThe features and principles of her offspring cast a dark suspicion on her chastity.

on a stormy night. it is true. you will not always have a Nicholas to bestow a gift on the ground of merit. and their great talents have The less exceptionable of them have acknowledged and deplored the corruption of the Holy See but they seem to think ambition and avarice . PRETENSIONS. . been wasted on duplicity and intrigue. Some popes. it is incurable." : .. prepared measures that have successfully met future exegencies but their sagacity has been quickened by . have . for their hopes of the future are always darkened by the recollection of the past. obscured by the heavy mist through which they shone. say " Take this.180 stars POPES —THEIR . Hence we hear Nicholas V. as he bestowed an office on the worthy. have been great governors men of great foresight and enterprise men who. looking beyond their age.

Whatever plausibility the creed and ritual Catholic church may throw around of the her religious preten- sions. but which altars in the course of time became applied. SECTION ONE. PAPAL MONARCHY. to deck the animals which they . is is The pope. under her absolute authority. the fact is undeniable that she is a temporal power.e- a7id Spies. ical a polit- prince . by fair or foul means. by the "[Iranian . the According to a practice observed at the coronation of pope is invested with national authority by dress ascending the Chair of State. princes. and receiving a head- emblematical of temporal sovereignty. claiming to be the only legitimate sovereignty on earth. to adorn the doors of their misby the devout. were the States of the Church. the head of this unlimited monarchv. These in- symbolical headdresses were originally garlands. his capital the city of Rome. The Papa I Crown —Banner— Cah — Court— Decrees —Jwrisprudence— Coinage—Army and Navy— venues — Oaths — inet P.16 . vented by Prometheus in imitation of the chains which he had worn for the redemption of mankind. and the right to reduce all governments. and his do- mains. priestesses to decorate themselves aud their tressees : by lovers.CHAPTER TSJB XI. until recently.

aspiring to be considered rather as the successor of kings than fisherman. they were exclusively appropriated by kings to symbolize the regal authority.. by slave owners. nor prescribed to them facts the adoption authority over of it. however. Asia and Africa. elected in 1295. to have been moved by the Holy Ghost in adopting their head decorations but if this pretension absolves them from the vice of their ambition. to symbolize the pope's universal temporal power and to this crown added a third. and had become associated with ideas of greatness. added a second. VIII. In the ninth century. to THE PAPAL sacrifice . when they were transformed into a variety of fantastical shapes. this practice having become fashionable among the royal classes. to attract atten. Asia and Africa. to dePope Urban note the pope's supreme spiritual and temporal power over Europe. that the popes . gems and pearls. elected in 1363. same time their authority to The Holy Ghost not having intimated the existence of America in his social interit limits at the course with the 23apal monarchs. eyes of the profane to represent not their rights. Europe. power and authority. but They claim. who was elected in 1159.. ventured to encircle his sacerdotal mitre with a regal diadem. tion to the slaves whom the exposed for sale by . The adoption of these regal emblems by the holy fathers may seem in the .182 devoted to tives. a fourth it is crown to symbolize their rational to infer from these that he intended to infer by his silence. emblematical of universal To this crown Pope Boniface spiritual sovereignty. ambition. profusely decorated with gold.. rela- embellish the corpse of a deceased friend and finally. in the dark ages. V. Pope Alexander of a III.

to denote their office of opening conquered city to present to the victor the keys of gates. it is with this ancient custom. on the American continent. 183 have no right whatever of exercising any jurisdiction over its territory. that Pepin. and Pluto. Apollo. but a political banner. Peter. triple crown. are represented with keys in and shutIt is thought by some that the ting the gates of day. these emis blems poral may intimate that there to be no peace until the claims of the pope to universal spiritual and tem- sovereignty is acknowledged by all nations. that . . wearing a simple mitre. Peter. society or institution. the statue of St. and that he has no right to exercise either temporal or spiritual authority over any it is that his church. the symbol of the closing day. stands scoffing at them in eternal derision. Asia and Africa. the he had wrested the Lombards. the cross-keys the pos- session of earth and heaven and. and regal ornaments. The pope as an independent sovereign has not only This ensign . idea of the papal keys was borrowed from these emblems of the Pagan Gods. a temporal crown. But it was the custom of a their hands. in token of the submission of the inhabitants to his authority. precities to sented the keys of the subjugated the Holy They assert also. conjointly. affirmed In conformity by the popes King of France. after Exarcate from the possession of See on the tomb of St. the symbol of the rising sun. erected in the seventh century. its through its officials.MONARCHY. If the pope's regalia have any significance. But in sight of the pope's monarchical palace. consists of a white flag with a device of cross-keys its white color may signify peace . government is restricted to Europe.

preceded princes of blood. of the and if Charlemagne's donation corpse of the apostle of cities. The generals of the Catholic orders. the abbots. has also a His privy council is the college of national cabinet. is as empty as the tomb and always has been. is . The cardinals they wear a purple mantle. his viceroys are the legates . can have any claim to either keys or banners. and in some respects above him. . most of which he never pessessed. As an independent sovereign the pope has an impe- In the grades of this court he himself enrial court. joys the first rank. by virtue of these gifts. ops. being placed on an equality with stand next to princes God. at Rome. is the cardinal secretary . cardinals his minister of internal and foreign affairs But if the story of Pepin's gift of St. The civil offices of the papal monarchy have always been filled by members of the sacerdotal orders. Peter. or near the throne. emblem of royalty tendom equal with and sat formerly they ranked in Chriskings. The pope. which are located in different parts of the world. the . and disposed of by the holy father for money. consider their titles as royal. as an independent sovereign. and the remainder of which he governed as his own with the most jealous scrupulosity until the day of his death. and authorized him to unfurl it in the cause of the church. . bishops archbish- and priests.184 THE PAPAL Charlemagne presented the pope with a banner. and his ministers of finance and police are the priests of different grades and orders. . it is difficult to perceive how the popes. on the right of kings. and nuncios which he accredits to foreign powers his governors and lieutenant-governors are the Catholic bishops and archbishops.

As an independent of j urisprudence ical sovereign the pope has a system and administrative j ustice. and an apostolical court. and the Clementinus which are known under the general name of Corpus Juris Canonica. an army and a navy. The papal bulls. regulates the pope's domains The members of The apostolical court and collects the taxes. maintained. and the generally a cardinal. and maintain that in consideration of 185 them they should be exempted from the jurisdiction of civil magistrates. presiding officer is sovereign the pope has exercised the governmental prerogative of coining money. apostolic and encyclical letters. sometimes moderated by fear. The canonlaw by which he governs his monarchy consists of Decratales Gregorii . . As an independent briefs. The papal system of the Extravagantes administrative justice consists of a chief court. sovereign the pope has the power to issue absolute decrees. the Concordantia Discordantiwni or Decretiutn Graiiani the Noni . They all have the most of them the trijDle crown and some of them are inscribed with the word Dominus. but also in the political affairs of all nations. The As an independent papal coins have various devices. From the despotic tone of these docu- ments. cross-keys .MONARCHY. by Boniface VIII all of the Extravagantes Johannis XXII CoraTnunes. the pope evidently claims the right of inter- fering not only in the ecclesiastical. As an independent sovereign the pope has always when possible. and all except the Extravagantes have the full authority of law. but never from inclination. the court are always bishops. the Liber Sextus. a civil court. Pope 16* . are the exercise of sov- ereign power.

by the terms of their charter. raised an army of reguand volunteers of thirty thousand foot and three thousand cavalry. poverty and unconditional obedience. Ancona. for war. a army was formed consisting of cavalry and The papal military organizations have been of the most formidable description. the ity. Pope Alexander lars VI. army of three hundred thousand men. were skiland rigorously disciplined. and the Knight Templars. pope absolved them from all human obligations. fully equipped interest. in 1853. commanded an army consisting of Italian volunteers. the Knights of St. and seven hundred Suabians. amounted his foreign revenue is . After the rein turn of the pope to standing infantry. instituted for the defence and propagation of Catholicism by the force of arms. John. As an independent sovereign the pope has a national revenue. The Dominican Knights.186 THE PAPAL Clement VIII. They enjoyed all the immunities and privileges of the religious orders and in conjunction with them formed a standing . the Teutonic Knights. Pope Leo IX. to 13. official This revenue is domestic and foreign.000. elected in 1523. and were made independent of any other authorfully organized Upon becoming initiated into their orders. 1577.000 florins . from acknowledging any protector but the pope. and they were required to sunder all human ties. exclusively devoted to the pope's and ready at his call to serve him by land or sea. From reports the pope's domestic revenue. Eome from Avignon. They assumed the vows of celibacy. Ravenna and Ferrara. at the head of a powerful army conquered Bologna. They were interdicted. several bands of robbers.

purchase a scapula in a year. He says: " They (the pope and the propagandi) resolved that indulgences should. be called scapulu. while others might purchase a hundred but . the sale of indul- Rome. to be disbursed according to regulations pre- by the holy father. Some of the papal subjects would not. by Catholic authority. at the church accommodates the wishes of the members in the commission of sin. 176. but at present the various streams of wealth destined for the church. 177. every scapula sold in the United States costs at least five dollars. on an average. not publicly known. it is necessary that he should cause some masses to be said I may safely say that. As the subject is somewhat we are tempted to inquire into some of the is sources of the papal revenue. singular facts respecting this ingenious device. at 150.000. are diverted to convenient scribed curious. The number of Catholics in the world is computed. to her pecuniary advantage. perhaps. which cost 45. ecclesiastical 187 In the dark ages half of the revenues of Europe flowed into the church treasury at Home ." Synopds^ pp. in the future. was chiefly built from the proceeds of William Hogan furnishes some this species of traffic.000.000.000 crowns. at the moderate estimate of one scapula annually tp . by which Peters Church. The priest who sells it tells him that in order to make it thoroughly efficacious.% and thus piously enable all Catholic priests and bishops to swear on the Holy Evangelists that no indulgences were sold in the United States The scapula costs the purchaser one dollar. situated in different parts of the world. source of the pope's revenue St. One gences. localities.MONARCHY.

" If the church will not release the soul of a priest from purgatory for less than one hundred dollars. What number . Another source of the pope's revenue are the masses which the church requires to be said for the deliverance of the souls of deceased Catholics out of purgatory. and release would seem that the sanctity him out of the purhim from the clutches of the of for a much less sum m6ney than would be .000. the more virtuous they were the less would they be necessitated to con- and as merchants and traders always scheme to create a demand for their goods. which bequeaths to a brother priest the sum of one hundred dollars to pay for two hundred masses. Md.. " to be said for the benefit of his poor soul. how much does she demand of a layman priest recorded in for a similar purpose? It of a priest ought enable her to get gatorial <l€vil fire. of masses are requisite for conjuring a Cotholic layman's soul up from purgatory. . luxuries are so much augmented. the pope would derive from this source an annual revenue of 750. be in proportion to the wickedness of the church members. I have not the means of ascertaining. I am not informed but there is a will of a Towsontown.000 dollars. These masses were sold before the rebellion at a piece . of course.1^6 THE PAPAL each Catholic. fifty cents value in proportion to other whether they have since risen in articles. by which their treasure and tribute to the coffers of the church . The sale of the scapula would. it is not reasonable that either the pope or his priests would encourage their Catholic subjects in conduct that would render them of no value to them and that would injure the sale and lessen the demand of their articles of trade.

but the secrecy with which veiled renders a reliable computation exceedingly If difficult. which are calamities to families and nations. number of Catholics that and the probable annual number of deaths that occur among them. has been prosecuted in such an oppressive manner that her members have sometimes been provoked to remonstrate. lence. "Wars. I once knew of a young Catholic who charged his priest with having forged a will in order to swindle him out of a great portion of his maternal inheritance. rejoice over the improvement Another source pictures. These articles of pious merchandise are blest by the . in payment of a sufficient number of masses for the release of her soul from purThe annual revenue derived by the pope for gatory.MONARCHY. pesti- bereavements of friends. we may form some conception of the vast- we consider the ness of this resource of papal revenue. are pecuniary advantages to the church and in proportion to the mortality of her . which The pretext on was attempted to be based was a plea that the mother of the youth had bequeathed to the priest a house of hers. amulets. members. this pious fraud his service in opening the gates of purgatory to the devout must be prodigious it is . and calculate the sum of money which would be necessary to deliver the average number that die yearly out of the flames of purgatory. in the souls of men by the church. and articles made by monks and nuns. are in the world. beads. she has cause to of her finances. ceeds derived from the sale of crosses. requisite for the 189 in the case of same purpose This traffic an undead anointed layman. of the pope's revenue are the prorelics.

female servants. trinsic value. On the regular monthly pay-day of contract- ors for public works. (and I am But credibly informed he does). THE PAPAL and sold sometimes privately. insure him good luck.000. .000 dollars. it has proved . manufacturing and mechanical companies. and of mining. Another source of the papal revenue are the contri- butions extorted from laborers. I do not What little fuel costs the know .000.0000 and if each one contributes one dollar annually for the . the pope receives from this source an annual income of 10. no data enabling calculate the "We have amount of in- revenue derived by the pope from this source of come but we may be allowed to conclude from fact that. however. perhaps or nothing. . the adex- ceedingly remunerative. and exacts a dollar a month from each of the faithful. blessing. benefit he derives from the church furnaces. and I know of a servant others of the industrial classes. the priest makes his appearance. girl who paid one dollar every autumn towards furnish- ing the church with winter fuel. which. church. rather depreciates their inthey are prized by the cajoled Catholics us to as exceeding in value either gold or gems. as the church has availed herself of its vantages in all countries and ages. this is not the only method by which the laboring classes are filched out of their honest gains by the holy mother. and sometimes at They are supposed by the purchaser to fairs.190 bistop. and to keep evil from his dweland although they are often an unsightly set of ling trumpery yet as they are consecrated by the bishop s Catholic . The number of Catholics in the United States are computed by Catholic authority to amount to 10.

his charity list and influence. Catholic periodicals. Promptly heading a subscription two dollars and fellow fifty with the generous sum of cents. intimidated. interest. employed on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. of the industrial classes of the Catholic must furnish his coffers with an . in accordance with usage. it seems evident that this machinery. and that the money he solicited was not intended for the . monthly donation. in his avidity to accommodate the priesthood narrowly escaped being victimized by a secular sharper. or seek employment among the workmen by some of extortion is engineered elsewhere.MONARCHY. by which he wins a dolfinancial the pope's tar a month from each church. they are threatened to such it and their a degree that they consider prudent to yield to the This system demand. professing to be a Catholic priest. An engineer of this description. handed to the cashier of the establishment but before any money was paid on its account it was discovered that the priest was a spurious one. are non-Catliolics among life who hesitate to contribute the insulted. If there Wl the employes. but for the pocket of an unconsecrated impostor. he was soon enabled to exult in the subscription of a very respectable amount by his workmen. favorite of the Catholic priest. The list was. solicited in behalf of his necessities. A stranger. treasury of the pope. who makes it his busi- ness to see that he is not disappointed in getting his dollar a month. When we consider the vast proportion of poor to rich Cathobranch of lics in the world. with com- mendable regard to their patrons' have fre- quently published instances in which pretended priests and monks have successfully gulled the faithful.

The church. These possessions consist of churches. has been enabled to perfect a system of extraordinary comprehensiveness. and every other is species of property. are made his to plead with touching pathos in behalf of the The revenue which he derives from numerous crowd of professional beggars. the cripple. monasteries. real or . The eloquence mutilated limbs. is one of the secrets of the Holy See. and sometimes in that of a corporation. nunneries. from a sense of religious duty. of broken distorted forms. Organ grinders. inby the practice of mendication among all naand classes. hospitals. This description of medicants sometimes openly solicit alms for the holy father. sharpness ciency. tracts of land. are employed as beggars for the pope of Eome.' Another source structed tions all of the pope's revenue are alms col- lected by an order of lay mendicants. children. private dwellings. mission houses. sometimes in that of a priest. it may. edifices for schools. bead counters. mask of profound dissimnoses. and Protestants from prudential motives. asylums. the' any object that can touch the tender or religious sympathies of the community. mo-- thers with babes in their arms. The papal foreign property sometimes held in the name of the pope.' Another source of the pope's revenue is derived from. colleges. reasonably be presumed that it is not inconsiderable. blind. and under and eiE-. but from the liberality with which Catholics respond. men without legs. at all periods of history. but at other times endeavor to conceal their mission under a ulation. the deaf. and tattered garments. circumstances.192 THE PAPAL - ^ annual revenue exceeding that of any other government. his foreign possessions. papal monarch.

. a suit of ejectment was brought against them in the Supreme Court trial. Augustine's Church at Philadelphia. 36). 193 to the Every priest coming United States. The trustees. Mary's Church at Philadelphia. ers of the order of In a suit brought by the brothSt. pastor of St. leased it and sent him over to tahe charge of and ^Yilliam Hogan.MONARCHY pretended.. refusing to obey the order of the pope's agents. foundly secret was the existence of this company kept. Pa. Mary's to a foreign priest. against the county of Philadelphia. and as it the public documents contained no enrolment of in accordance with the requirement of law. was proThe value of it . sis. Augustine's Church by a mob of the American party. Prince Gallager. 113. and J. pastor of St. of Pensylvania. 114). Pa. that no laymen or priest outside of the pretended cor- porators had ever heard of it before the trial. Hermits of Augustine. Lewis de Earth. whether he considers or not with his ordination oath. Holland. pastor at Bedford. pastor at Coffee Run. pp. in order that he may legally be qualified to hold propis erty for the benefit of the church. required to take it the oath of allegiance. Chester County. (See Hogan's Synopsis. and sus-- the action of the defendants. The pretended corporators consisted of Mi- cheal Hurly. for the destruction of St. So pro- Patrick Henry. In 1822 the pope claiming to be the pro- prietor of St. it. nounced entirely spurious and 17 invalid. B. it was discovered that the alleged corporation was entirely spurious. pastor at Lancaster. Judge Tilghman presided at the tained He decided that the pope could legally hold no property in the United States. the recognized encumbent. ( consistent See Hogan's Synop- p. Church at Philadelphia. Pa.

Whenever the church has obtained sufficient power she has made a bequest to the coffers of the church a conand where she has dition to the validity of a w^ill . was computed at 5. millions worth of property of which the inhabitants have not the slightest conception. that can of lands or stocks . Even in cities where the Catholic population is deemed numerically insignificant. (See Hogan's Auric.. she must have lands and every species of Wherever her priests have effected a pious wealth.194 THE PAPAI* the property held in the name of this pretended corporation. she has it alone are not adequate to satisfy the cravings of her avarice. thousand dollars by a single land speculation. under cover of fictitious names or otherwise. by means of a church or an asylum. is owned by the pope. with this advantage. failed to acquire this pliance with penalties. &c). vol. in evasion of the laws of the United States. 2. all become accurately acquainted w4th secrets. or deeper craft. fices still exacted a comfrom her members. Their covetous eye is always fixed on some magnificent farm. p.000 dollars. not invariably be successful. with every contemplative movement in the general or State government. they must scheme to work out the other proprietors. under pain of her Splendid palaces and gorgeous church edi- power. or in efi'ect the market value would be exceedingly aston- financial corporations. and their active speculation. has enabled them to become in possession of very desirable I know of a priest who netted ten tracts of land.000. Confess. priests. their speculations should In possession of such . and it ishing if. The by means of the confessional. and monopolize the whole themselves. entering wedge in a block of buildings. 204.

In California and Mexico. sometimes directly. despotic dominion. the church has in every age accumulated prodigious wealth.MONARCHY. Before the secularization of the monastic property in Europe. each succeeding generation destined to see them augmented until every bishopric. her mission-houses owned nearly all the territory of the State. bishoprics endowed by the which hold seven provinces and . "With a fiscal for purposes of ecclesiastical revsystem principally based on them. The and possessions of the Catholic priests render them the wealthiest citizens of the country in which they reside as no heir can inherit their is estates. however poor now. rigorous in exactions . even at this day. the ecclesiastical domains and revenues were so great that the benefices were bestowed by kings on royal heirs. In fact the rites of the Catholic church partake so 23lainly of a financial character. We have now enumerated some of the sources of the pope's revenue but we have mentioned but a few of them. and sometimes indirectly. being vested whatever ostensible title policy or necessity Over these the church to adopt. by a priest. have been instituted enue. with a princely revenue. title. crown of Portugal. there are three In China. that they seem to in him. and every debelongs to the Bcription of property held . has become a princely domain. governed by a titled priest. possessions he exercises supreme. 195* means. as lord paramount. Every Catholic pope the real edifice in the world. the bishops of the Apostolic Vicars hold several others. may have induced . its extending over Christendom. previous to the revolution that caused the sequestration of the church domains.

the demon of avarice. and his holiness's rights and ** customs against all usurpers. prise and the world may yet be startled from its slumber by the martial assertion of the church to her pretensions of supreme dominion over the world and . must contemplate the undertaking of some gigantic enterher officials. corruption. by the fact that she is better organized for war. been visible out- had no let except what has been expended in the support of and on bribery. deeds so horrible and arrogations so presumptuous. the soul in the eternal world. sovereign the pope has oaths of allegiance which he prescribes to such of his subjects According to the authority of "William Hogan. the cliurcli unites a rapacity so unprin- all Classes. As an independent as he judges proper. While rolling in opulence and luxury. has system. and heretical and Pro" testant authority whatsoever C3pecially against the " new pretended authority of the Church of England. to the utmost of power I shall and will defend this doctrine. the consecration oath of the Jesuistical bishops is as follows : *' " Therefore. . and political The policy that dictates the accumulation and reservation of this vast amount of treasure. The immense sum fiscal of gold which she has. to disinherit taking advantage of ignorance and superstition.196 on ' THE PAPAL. measures so oppressive and unjustifiable. by means of her piling up in her coffers for ages. my . she stoops to the basest trickery to filch from laborers and servant girls their wages. and better furnished with its sinews than any other power. intrigue. . that were it not for her religious aspect she might be mistaken for cipled. and pretending to regulate the condition of lawful heirs .

or in any other kingdom I shall come to. and with all . directly or indirectly. regal or otherwise. and of the other named Potestants to be damnable. do swear by the blessed Trinity. augment " and extend the rights. honors. B. and blessed Sacraments which I am now to receive. to perform. and not to divulge. or State named Protestant. or discovered unto me. " before Almighty God. to assume any other religion heretical for the propagation of the mother church's interest. " Peter against every aggressor to preserve. given in charge. ^ Huguenots. and destroy all their pretending powers. to observe. that will not forsake them. or of obedience to any of their inferior magistrates or officers. aiid they themselves are damned. Scotland. or by any of his sacred convents. and to be " damned. advise all wherever I shall be. ' 197 all adherents. in England. by you my ghostly father. to defend the domains of St. but to execute all that shall be proposed. A." of a Catholic bishop is The consecration oath lows " I as fol- do solemnly swear on the Ploly Evangelists. and do my best to extirpate the heretical Protestant doctrines. by word. to keep secret and private all her agent's councils from time to time. and . and on my part to keep inviolably. I do further promise and declare. in regard that they and she be usurpal and heretical. writing. that notwithstanding I am dispensed with. prince. I do further de*clare that I will help. and privileges of the " Lord Pope and his successors . and of Calvinists. All which I. I do further declare the doctrine of the Church of England. or circumstance whatever. Ireland. assist. I do renounce and disown my allegiance as due to any heretical king.MONAECHY. as they entrust me. opposing the true mother church of Rome. and do call all the heavenly and glorious hosts to witness these my real intentions to keep this and ' ' * * ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' * ' ' * ' ' * * ' ' * ' my : oath.

or ought to have. against any man whatever. N. and all dispositions whatsoever. and to his succes" sors canonically chosen. lished omitted by the bishops subject to the British It is also omitted in the following oath. B. tenets. elect of the church N. I shall assist them to retain " and defend. pubU7iion.198 THE PAPAL " miglit to enforce his decrees.. doctrines. is crown. the su" premacy over all kings. or commands.. 1856 "I. of this oath is similar to the foregoing Maynooth. or powders "whatsoever.. and " to the most blessed father Pope N. : " •' •' I. then to act." It is said that by rescript of Pope Pius VII. or its authority under her appoint" ment being so permitted. to the last extremity "heretics and schismatics. . shall be from this "hour henceforward obedient to Blessed Peter the " Apostle. either to deprive them of their crowns. more than my own earthly good and " earthly pleasures as she and her head. in her sacred orders. do declare not to act or conduct any mat- ter or thing prejudicial to her. in 1818. princes. the clause relating to " heretics" in the bishop's oath. reserva"tions. A. ordinances. " they dissenting from the mother chuich and her com" mands. by the Nashville American April 6. and to the holy Roman Catholic Church. His Holiness .. or to set up others in lieu thereof. " or governments. have.. " to persecute and combat. provisions. estates. and all who will not pay " the sovereign Pope all the obedience which he shall my "require. without leave of its " supreme power. who form the vast majority assume the following obligation to the church The priests of of Catholic priests in this country." The remainder Jesuistical oath. and further " her interests. the Roman . " and his successors.

or the tears of "their old men. but be cautious as to the manner of doing it. and to exterminate them without " pity for the cries of their children. the rules of the Holy Fathers. give an account to the pope of every thing appertaining to the church and his flock." " man Pontiff. I am willing to contract." The next clause declares the willingness of the bishop to attend synods. and authority of the holy Roman *' Church. defend and promote the rights. privileges. describes it as follows " Let it be your first duty to extirpate heretics. and cause to " be observed by others. .MONARCHY." Williain Hogan. " With my whole strength I shall observe. exacted by Pope Gregory of : his military forces. " honors. without the leave of the Ro- my And should I proceed to any alienation " of them. and if there be no bishop there. without prejudice to my rank and shall " take care to preserve. " the decrees. " enfeoff anew. " I shall not sell. was as follows " I swear to elevate the altar and the throne upon the " infamous Liberals. " the penalties specified in the constitutions published " on this subject. Do nothing without consulting the bishop of the diocese in which you may be located. and his successors aforesaid. 199 " Popedom. nor in any way alienate the possessions " belonging to table. ordinances. nor give away. . by the very fact. nor mortgage. of the Pope. The Sanfideste's oath. and obey such apostolic mandate The oath concludes thus : as he shall receive. by his bishop. speaking of the instructions given him previous to his embarkation for America. or dispositions and mandates •' of the Apostolic See.

110. 47). to dissimulate." — (Less. It is the source of all heresy. we may expect at no distant day.'ill enable you to know the people by degrees with the aid of that holy tribunal. " The Vicar the debt of of God. pp. tions from the people. are declared by the universal authority of the . or the interests of the pope. he says: {2b. and a common opinion among it is divines. for a just cause. The confessional v. " Notwithstanding is boldly defended by the highest authorities of the Catholic church. 41. Again.200 THE PAPAL advise with the metropolitan bishop. St. remits to man a plighted promise. that for a just cause cation. 1. : it is not lawful to lie. it is lawful to dissemble what or to cover the truth with words. to bring over North America to our holy church." 4 : 134. Kever yield or give up the divine right which the head of the church has.. and when there is not a necessity of confessing. to the command of North America. 111. Dens says or to feign is. or other ambiguous or doubtful signs. 2. vol.. and he understands the character of Be sure not to permit the members of the holy church who may be under your charge to read the Bible. in the place of God. 116)." (Theol. Let the land be purchased for the Pope. 135). and the bishops. and his successors in office. what not. make it known to your bishop. p. as well as every other country. ch. He has instruc- Rome. v/ho are guided by the spirit of God. Liqnori all says: " It is certain." Synopsis. by virtue of the keys. lawful to use equivo- and to confirm it with an oath. The obligation of all oaths of allegiance in conflict with the papal clerical oaths. Wherever you see an opportunity of building a church. it is The is atrocious doctrine that proper to equivocate. however. and to deceive by mental reservations. 2. n.

" (Rev.. 2. 241J). 439). church to be null and void. and obe- and also the subjects dience. says " Subare not bound to observe the fealty which they : swear to a Christian prince. Bron" As the guardian and son. Pope Pius v. p." — (Pithon. p. said : — — " We do declare her to be deprived of her pretended right to the kingdom." electedin 1198. " The fealty which Pope Gregory IX says subjects have sworn to a Christian king. 260).. they are not bound by any author- ity to perform." — Decret. who opposes God and his saints.MONARCHY.. "Freed all that were bound to those who had fallen into heresy. No. and even in legislatively defending your own peculiar privileges. and to pronounce sentence accordingly. 648). but coactive power over the faithful. 360). — 94. p. The pope hath also not only directive.. and condemns the precepts. and of all dominion whatsoever sworn to her to be forever disPope Innocent III. 17 p.) And again asserts You are not bound by an oath of this kind. jects Pope Urban. and to judge whether or not it does conform to the condition and requirement of its trust. Jan. solved from any such oath." (Do Eccles. who : withstands God and p." Vol. but on the contrary you are freely bid Good-speed in standing against kings for the rights and honors of that very church. ful. 1854). 2." — (Pithon. elected in 1087. Again he he says is : " An " oath contrary to the utility of the church not to be observed. Bronson says: "Rome .. the saints. in relation to Queen Elizabeth. speaking of the church says judge of law she must have power to take cognizance of the State. 358. vol. from all fealty. are bound to obey the Roman pontiff. p." : —Vol. homage. also 201 : Dens says " All the faith- bishops and patriarchs. 1.

Louis. 1855. the bishop proceeded In consequence of this con- excommunicate them. civil rights and we still. and base incivility of this department of the papal government. shall find intricate web of its prohibitions for doing." says he.202 THE PAPAL divided her British territory into dioceses. and published in the Free- man s this it Journal. As an illustration of the disrespectful inquisitiveness. respecting this law. as well as our . " I became acqainted with a Protestant family. notwithstanding the laws that not thus be divided. shall London. Buifalo. and direct the conduct of his Catholic subjects. duct. we submit the following facts furnished by William Hogan : Soon after my arrival in Philadelphia. and sends cardinals to England 1854).. 1855 passed an act defining ecclesiastical In a letter of Bishop Hughes. objectionable feature of the papal monarchy a system of searching espionage which it attempts to establish over society. I had the " . the legislature of tenure. April. versation. " dated March 28th." Bev. at N. mark their con- and communicate all important facts through their superior. in the capacity of servants scrutinize the domestic affairs of non-Catholics. he employs a set of men and women who.. Y. — The trustees of the church of to St. to him at Rome. In addi- tion to the confessors and spiritual guides by which the pope seeks to discover the thoughts. having refused comply with the canons of the Council of Trent in violating the trust laws of the State of to New York." the very thing wishes us not to A curious and very is. he says : Now in seems to meddle with our religion. twenty ways outside the and doing it more largely do.

I sent for you because I want to get a character. she en- course this lay for her zeal . There was no longer any mystery in the matter. who was chosen from among many and craft. and of all . 203 pleasure of dining occasionally with them. and and very respectfully handed me a chair.' You must explain yourI answered. I moved my self more fully before you can do either. who Not long after this a meswaited at the table senger called at my room to say that Theodore was taken a? a I was then officiating see me.' taking from under her jacket an eleto sit ' . with ' due recommendation to the priests and nuns of that city They received her with all due caution as far as could be seen by the public but privately in the warmest manner. and tightened my grasp on Feel no a sword-cane which I carried in my hand. but you are mistaken I am a girl. and wished to Romish priest. The Sisters of Charity took immediate charge of her. ter belonging to the order of Jesuists in Stonyhurst. and the character of the being that stood before me. locked the door. Jesuists are active and diligent in the discharge of duties to their superiors. lost no time in entering on her mission. sister. you have taken me for a young man. and confess to you before I leave the city. after a loud rap. ill. and asked me down as he had something very important to tell me Sir. I will not hurt you.. alarm. England. I was admitted He deliberately turned out of his bed. I discovered from her that she had arrived in New Orleans some time previous. into which. recommended her as a chambermaid to one of the most respectable Protestant families in that city. calling to see him was shown up stairs to a garret room.' chair farther from the bed. but not so young as I appeared in my boy's dress. and announcement of my name. 'I am armed as well as you are. and could not help noticing a seemingly delicate young man. ' ' I am a lay sisgant poignard. and wear this dagger to protect myself. I knew now where I was. and having clothed her in an appropriate dress.' said the now young woman.MONARCHY.

she arrived in Baltimore. . this excellent chambermaid. This friend went around to the American families where this chambermaid had lived from time to time. Having and spent several months in that city.204 THE PAPAL So great a tered on lier employment favorite did she become in the family. a cabin passage was engaged. . or lay Jesuist sister. now become acquainted with the secret circumstances of acquainted with the ligious opinions. never carrying them about her. She was the depository of all their love and she knew the names of their lovers. . from family to family. wished to come North to a better climate Americans can be gulled. having made herself acquainted with the secrets of New Orleans. than even the This very individuls with whom she associated lay sistr. that in a short time she became acquainted with all the circumstances and secrets. and whether favorable or not . politics. . . . " According to the custom universally ija vogue. . but depositing them with the mother abbess especially deputed to take charge of them Thus did this lay sister continue to go from place to place. that it was a pity to have her travel as a steerage passenger a person of her virtue and correct deportment should not be placed in a situation where she might be liable to insult handsome purse was and rude treatment soon made up. and the young ladies on whom she waited made her presents of every article of dress necessary for her comfort and convenience. reto the propagation of popery in this country. . she kept notes of every circumstance which Mfay tend to elucidate the character of the family. until she became better the pecuniary means. told them she wanted to come as far as Baltimore. stories if there were secrets among them they were known to her and. . . A . from those of the father to those of the smallest child. She took possession of a place as soon as convenient. The /Sisters of Charity have always in readiness some friend to supply them with the means of performing corporeal acts of mercy. .

looked as an example of piety and chastity. but a waiter in Gadsby's Hotel. Now it was known v/hether Henry Clay was a gambler whether Daniel Webster was a libertine whether John C.. she cut her hair. applied for a situation as Waiter in Gadsby's Hotel. that I confessed to you. were entirely thrown off their guard. she determined to change her apparent charal|ter and apparel. and in their conversations with one another seemed to forget their usual caution. she returned to the District of Columbia. and even grave senators.. in Washington city. and after advising with the mother abbess of the convent. and with the best recommendations for intelligence and capacity. and as it is necessary that I should w^ear a cap for a while. not suspecting that he had the ordinary curiosity of servants in general. and made her report to the mother abbess of the nunnery of her order in that city.MONARCHY. take care of my room and papers.- 205^ almost every Protestant family of note in Baltimore.' . as they' went out Theodore. and had just recovered from a violent fever. you must say that you visited me in my sick room. dressed her in a smart looking waiter's jacket and trowsers. Calhoun was an honest but credulous man In fact this lay sister in male uniform.. My business is not done yet. I must go to New York. through the general of the Jesuist order in Rome. . " By advice of this venerable lady and holy prioress. received the viaticum. Such. that their most important papers and letters were left loose upon the table. than the whole corpse of diplomats from foreign countries then residing at our seat of government I want a written character from you. You must state in it that I have complied with my duty. satisfied by saying. was their confidence in him. was enabled to give more correct information of the actual state of things in this country. * . on whom many of the wives of our national representatives.. where the Sisters of Charity will find a 17* ' : . This smart and tidy looking young Those senators man got instant employment on whom he waited. in' short.

99-108. ject of every secret society. intentions. by the accuracy and compre. council. Through the instrumentality of this execrable sys- volume 2 tem of espionage. any part of the advancement by the most prudent and enlightened . with the private inten- government with the incipiency and progress of every seditious and treasonable project and is prepared at all times. to instruct his generals in the actual state of affairs existing in w^orld. THE PAPAL me as a waiting maid. hensiveness of his information. and acts of every important private and public personage with the nature and ob. and to direct their conduct in the of his interest.206 place for sion." : Auricular Confes- pp. the pope becomes acquainted with the character. tions of every .

of Halle. was. We have now sketched its the pope's temporal its mon- archy. and has been punished as blasphemous by his authority. imprisoned for blasphemy for having expressed a doubt of the pope's infallibility. who had expressed in a private letter that so far from coveting the dignities of Rome he held them in abomination. was summoned to Rome to answer for his criminal assertions and con- . hea- ven and hell. and who had advocated liberty in a dispute which had occurred between the pope and the Venitian government. Joseph Wolf. a Jew who had been converted to the Catholic faith. To question the legitimacy of this claim is condemned. 207 THE PAPAL MONARCHY. SECTION TWO. He claims to be invested by divine right with supreme sovereignty over earth. while studying divinity at the Seminarium Romanum. which has seat in Rome. Fra Paola. The Popes Direct Authority His Opposition to Mar^ riage To Slavery His Claim to Temporal Power on the forged Decretal Letter of Constantine titious tion — On Fie— On Pretended Donation of Gift of Pepin Charlemagne— on Disputed Bequest of Matilda^ Duchess of Tuscany — The of Pope a Usurpa— The Papal Artful Policy— The State of Ltaly the the — — — the Title under the Papal Government. and subjects in every part of the world.MONARCHY.

he has a clerical machinery skilfully adapted to moder- ate their influences and reciprocities. he pronounces a curse on all who say that marriage is preferable to celibacy. through the priest. But the " More than God. other half to the Virgin Mary. and should they create the bonds. and friends on friends. the philosophical historian and celebrated controversialin a work entitled " Priests. filial and social relations." has explained the ingenious method by which this obist. narrowly escaped the assassin's dagger. he would nullify the conjugal. parents on children. Michelet. is a very jealous "more than God.208 duct . provoked the censure of the holy father by asserting in a publication that the pope's influence in temporal matters was not direct but indirect. His authority over mind and body must be direct. . Hence Cardinal Ballarmine. the distinguished papal controvesial- who was so devout a Catholic that w^hen he died he bequeathed one half of his soul to Jesus Christ and the ist." the Pope. the direct wife. ject is efl'ected." He allows no master to stand between him and his subjects. By separating as much as possible the husband from the rents. As husbands obstruct the direct influence of popes on wives. Women and Children. and all influences or institutions that obstruct it must be annihilated. parental. and the children from their pais papal influence. and to maintain the predominence of his direct authority. Hence in a canon of the Council of Trent. in natural indiff'erence to them still connections. and institutions of friendship and families. THE PAPAL and though acquitted of the allegations preferred against him. Should the prompt- ing of the social instincts be too strong to be repressed by the terrors of canonical anathemas.

" The logical consequence of the of the pope's direct authority has. annihilates all other influences.MONARCHY. that the church has used its influence to restrain it the clergy in general. in his Wandering Jew. in fact. 1537. No influence is equal to that of a master. the but because he wishes to exercise a direct authority The master nullifies the pope's influence on the slave. in his apostolic letter to the cardinal bishops of Toledo . Pope Urban VII. and especially . respecting feudal slavery "It cannot : be denied. she as practically ignores as tity dogma and marriage she . '209 exerted on the isolated husband abroad. on the lonely wife at home. has unavoidably made the church an inveterate enemy of human slavery. in 1462. and loudly enveighed against keeping Christians in bondage. otherwise she consistently hates them.. VI. Examples of a similar Eugene Sue. Lect. not because he wishes men free. made the Catholic church a " free love" institution. and the power he has over his life. however. The jealous claim of the pope to a direct influence on mind of his subjects.. Hence the Catholic church has always been opposed to slavery. Pope Pius II.. Hist. 132). a Catholic. 18* in 1590." (Gen. in a letter addressed to the bishops of Kubi Pope Paul HI. Chastolerates because she cannot do but in the lives of her monks.. her priests.. over their minds. p. and the defenceless children in nunnery schools policy are portrayed by " and Catholic asylums. in an apostolic letter . and her saints. several popes. The pope hates slavery. her popes. The whip he holds over the back of his slave. Guizot remarks. enforced the manumission of slaves as a duty incumbent on laymen. in — . and therefore he wishes him removed.

and by we strictly prohibit and interdict any ecclesiastic or layman from presuming to uphold. .. that while she is radically the most efficient abolition society that official ever was projected. in 1731. and demanded that every species of Pope Gregory. his church has never recognized it as legal. and that while in her man- . or other- wise to preach. censure all the afore- unworthy the Christian name. perceiving that for laborers in the demand West India was likely to subject the Indians to bondage. suggested as a less wrong that negroes should be purchased of the Portuguese settlements in Africa. that same traffic said practices as that same authority in blacks. by virtue of our apostolic authority. or in any w^ay whatever publicly or privately to teach in opposition to these things which we have made owes the its the subject of our admonition in this our apostolic letter. have presented fresh evidence to the world in the singular fact. all denounced the traffic in blacks. in his apostolic letter to the clergy of Brazil and Pope Pius VII.210 to the Collector THE PAPAL Jurium of the apostolic churches of PorPope Benedict XIV. who. effected public opinion by the Catholic church. tugal . in his apostolic letter of 1839 says: "We. of The perversion friends." "We are aw^are that African slavery origin to a Catholic priest. and the practical beguilement of her warmest by the consummate craft with which she plots to achieve her objects. then. slavery should cease among Christians. under any pretext or color whatever. in his official address to his clergy. but whatever w^ere his private opinions respecting the propriety of African slavery. and held as slaves for life . as if it were lawful in its nature..

yet has she comof the human manded . and to anathematize the North for its abolition proclivities. who as serviceable spies far excel them. the Pope. the homage American slave-holder for her friendly disposition towards the Southern institution and induced her members.MONARCHY. But there were other considerations which probably stimulated the humanity of the church in her labors for the abolition of slavery. But the " right to be lord Lord God. vigilance to prevent her from improving the dition of things. and espionage. shows how clearly she foresaw them. has unwarily . nor do I censure the Catholic church for the important aid she rendered in its achievement but I hope American freemen will not want the traffic in ." who claims by divine paramount of the world. dates to traffic ill 211 ilie clergy she has invariably denounced the beings as infamous. and the augmentation the avidity with which she has improved them. while using them as instruments in the accomplishment of her projects for the abolishment of slavery. The of his revenue. I regret not the abolishment of the revolting human beings. to hate. it Through accident or Jesuistical craft. and as he received no wages she could not assess him perfection of the pope's system of for her benefit. so new con- much to her advantage as to endan- ger the liberty of the country. were both connected with the slave's disenthralment. has happened. denounce. These advantages could not be undesirable to the church. that colored servants have been supplanted to an incredible extent by white Catholic servants. The condition of the slave precludes the possibility of his serving her in the capacity of a spy on the opinions and conduct of his master.

and as evi- dent proof of an intent to swindle. and carefully treasured up in the papal archives. have been forged. give to the Holy Pontiff as a free gift the city of Rome. inter- and other documents. and all the cities of Western Italy. as well as all the To make room for him we cities of other countries. vester. dignity. and to his successors. Pe- by an attempt letters. Yet of such base and flimsy material are the pope's Innumerable claim to temporal power constructed. briefs. but at the slightest breeze they are dissipated. all our imperial vestments. canons. and the superstructure based upon them. as they are of a base and contemptible origin. ready for use as occasion might require. receipts. as clouds in a dead atmosphere do the earth. to furnish a These doculegal basis for the pope's temporal power. forged probably by Benedict of Mentz. like its area! enchantment. our palace of Lateran. letters. altered and interpolated by the holy brotherhood." title THE PAPAL even to the " patrimony of to establish it St. our diadem. will. and punished by nations as high misdemeanors. When successful. in the ninth century. Peter all imperial give to Pope Syland power and glory. "We We . follows It reads as attribute to the Chair of St. We . one we give to him our crown. ments were prepared between the third and ninth centuries. dicts. break up and dissolve away. bulls. decretals.212 invalidated his ter. all by forged decretal Forgeries are criminal acts. One of the boldest of these pious forgeries is the decretal letter at- tributed to Constantino the Great. they may overhang still the mind for a while. of the finest in the world our mitre. though gorgeous as the setting sun. They are prejudi- cial to the ground of action of a claimant.

213 abdicate our authority over these provinces. kingdoms and were bestowed on the bishop who officiated on the occasion. when he did not posthem himself ? As the gift of a donor is worthless unless he has an actual right in what he bestows. This limited indulgence was the pope's precedent for holding real estate. Rome but a title to . cities . not by the Pope of Rome. since it is not just that a temporal emperor shall retain any power where God has set the head of his church. bishop. But it is historically established that Constantine did not receive the rite of baptism until a last sickness that when he did receive did not cure his malady and that the rite was administered. It is generally conceded that Constantine allowed the pope the use of some buildings in . were unquestionably granted to a heretical sectary and if Home does not wish to confess herself an Arian. she cannot consistently claim their gifts. but by an Arian ." The reason assigned for the bestowal of this magnificent donation was gratitude on the part of Constantine. Whatever donations of crowns. and formed the basis of his claim to all the crowns and kingdoms of the world. it . sess gift. late hour in his it. transferring the seat of our empire to Byzantium. But even had the case been otherwise. But like the rapacious dog. are an actual nullification of all his claims to tem- poral sovereignty.MONARCHY. the pretensions of the pope on the ground of Constantine's Italy. for having been cured of leprosy through the administration of the rite of baptism at the hands of Pope Sylvester. how could Constantine bestow on the pope all the cities of Western and of all other countries. it is denied that he ever invested him with them as lord paramount.

beneath the scorn and the concessions But notwithstanding its universally theologians. in a legal proceedings of a its monastery at Sabine. and in the succeeding age it of historians. gave the first decisive blow to its credibility. in the fifteenth century. of sunk into public contempt. that it still continues to remain a portion of the canon law of the holy Catholic church. fraudulent character was at- tempted to be substantiated. such is the reluctance of the popes to yield a point. acknowledged spurious character. which the pope should participate. ernment should be administered by two Consuls. The bold criticisms of Laurentius Valla. lost all he had by snapping at the shadow of more in a river. with his mouth full of meat. yet such was the general ignorance of the times. . and the danger of provoking the wrath of the inquisition by questioning a dogma of the church. has lost his title to any part of it. in the course of which the Italian Exarcato was dismembered from the It was decided by the victors that the govempire. in sovereignty. the respect for the sanctity and infallibility of the pope.214 THE PAPAL who. not in a secular. the pope. its validity was not called into ques- At length.. tine Although the decretal letter attributed to Constanwas palpably spurious. by attempting through forged documents to grasp at all the world. however. The alleged gift of Pepin to the Roman See forms another pretext by which the popes have endeavored to lay a basis for their claim to the right of temporal Pope Gregory excited a rebellion against the authority of the Emperor Leo III. but For a monarch claiming the in a paternal capacity. that tion. the ridicule of poets.

responding with an for the adequate reconquered the Exercate. civil magisof Having thus advanced the its oil. alleged by the popes that Pepin bestowed the conquered domains. however. ripened into a prerogative of appointing trates. not only accepted it. the pope solicited of the civil authority the privilege of appointing him Patriarch of Rome. to accept such a humble concession to his unlimited authority. wished to imprison the heir to the throne and usurp the government. In grateful consideration of it is these extraordinary favors. but what is still more . consisting of the Exercate and the Pentopoiis (five cities) on the . and such an ambiguous office. and all princes and governors as his menials. Pepin. Mayor force. accepted it with eagerness and gratitude and even intrigued to obtain it. he next venin hopes that in thus tured to anoint his head with imitating the example of Samuel in anointing kings. 215 world as a just inLeritance. the victorious sword of the Lombards wrung the Exercate from the Consular government of Rome. But during the administration of Pope Stephen II. is . He. of France. who. a title which was borne by the former Exarchs and by this innocent method initiated a precedent which soon . interests the Holy See by complimenting deliverer. to retrieve his fortunes applied to Pepin. who Mayor.the most remarkable instance on record of a monarchial condescension. surprising. and expelled Grateful the barbarians. and the pope gave him his opinion that it was ruled france under the title of best for him to do so. martial services of Pepin.MONARCHY. future popes might have a pretext for usurping his prerogatives in acknowledging their right to reign. The pope.

and maintained during his whole life. confirmed the Holy See The only copy ever known of these is one received by Cancio. except the Duchy of Benevento and the lower Italian republics. were re. Desiderious. and secretly communicating their substance to Charlemagne. the subjects of that prince to his rebellion. that he should excite clare place. as supreme absolute lord. and next upon the conquests of Pepin. tlieless. and crown nephews in Adrian listened to these overtures with seeming friendship. conquered. certain. dehis him a usurper. and wishing to subjugate Charlemagne under his authority. wrested the Exercate from Rome. the sword of the latter was immediately drawn in behalf of the church the pope revenged Desiderius imprisoned for life in a monastery and all Italy. . in the twelfth century. alleged Upon this signal success of his arms. a jealous and inaliangrants of Pepin. The undeniable historical fact that Charlemagne asserted. it is by the popes that the blood-stained warrior. which was first of the world to temporal founded upon the usurpation of Constantine. See of Rome. . never- that Pepin's donations to the Holy See were on condition of its vassalage to the Frankish power. proposed to Pope Adrian I. The right of the monarch power. the pope's chamberlain. and allowed no pope to be either elected or consecrated without his permission. their king. pretended donations . and over all his conquests.216 THE PAPAL It is. and that during his life he exercised absolute sovereignty over Rome. was annihilated by the conquests of the Lombards. in the absolute possession of the former to purchase masses for the benefit of his soul. but with malignant delight.

Duchess of Tuscany. moon in Besides these laborious but ineffectual efTorts to fabricate historical data in support of the papal pretension to temporal sovereignty. during which Italy eric was distracted. is a complete nullification of any grant that he had made to the pope.emperor of Germany.. a part of Umbria. the exclusive sovereignty which Charlemagne maintained over his Italian conquests. yet as the right of a as if they were based on a grant from the man in the whose place of abode a traveller. thrice crossed the Alps to chastise the popes for aggressions on the sions. Gregory VII. according to Ariosto. thenticated. and the Duchies of Spoleto and Verona. able right to 217 Rome. and Germany depopulated. futile and ludicrous. and to every otlier portion of his dominions. constructed upon them by the holy fathers. in vindication of his claims against the preten- sions of the pope.MONARCHY. until the day of his death. Even were they au- monarch to annul is equal to his right to grant. casts a dark shade of suspicion upon the genuineness of these documents. the contest lasted three hundred years. These possessions consisted of Tuscany. a part of Mark Ancona. and as his practice is the evidence of what he surrenders or annuls. and positive proof that any right or title to Kome. is as invalid.. Fred- I. During the : first cam- paign pope Paschal was made a prisoner 19 but on the ap- . Germanic possessions in Italy. in 1075 asserted that Matilda. The validity of these bequests was disputed by the natural heirs. invaded Italy on three different occa- Henry IV. had bequeathed to the church her domains. or to temporal power. once found some of the lost documents upon which the popes base their claim to temporal dominion. .

.218 THE PAPAL army a second time he fled from Rome. but in 1822 Marino Malini. it is evident that they are and either alarmingly conscious that office. is human title to their temporal pos- a concession that they have no divine title and that a human title is necessary to the But as they have based their validity of their claim. Yet amid the disputes of the Germanic succession. and rejected with impatient contempt by history. The indefatigable exertions popes to establish a sessions.. endowed with a universal temporal sovereignty. tions of the fully title. Peter is divine title is title to human of the supefluous. Charlemagne and of Matilda. in vindication of the pope's titles of the alleged grants Rome. the arms and intrigues of the pope won the concession of Europe proacli of the imperial to his claim of Matilda's estates. and of Henry II. the pope's chamberlain. But the arguments which have converted a world. endeavored to of This assertion establish the genuineness of the fictitious charters of Louis-de-Debonnaire. title on the authority of forged documents. they have or by that possession no of or by virtue of their whatever.. have never been able to convert the popes. of Pepin. The spurious character of the pope's title to temporal power has "been exposed by the ablest Catholic authors. are real and valid. temporal . and during the minority of Frederic II. to any donation authority. a If the apostolic chair of St. of Otho to the See of I. and endeavored to fortify and maintain it by successive fabricato them. They still maintain that the reputed donations of Constantine. may appear incredible. same nature.

and from the feeblest have manufactured the most exorbitant Pretending to be spiritual advisers. in which we shall consider the papal political intrigues in general. Soon as they had acquired the concession claim. won. friendship into inviolable rights." 219 Not only is pation. its adoption was first limited to the four patriarchs. and even some centuries of lay- men. pope Gregory VII. bore this In the ancient Greek church it was bestowed upon every clergyman.MONARCHY. first Christianity. But as these warlike enterprises of the holy fathers were intimately connected with the convulsions and revolutions of Europe. in vindicating their title to the States of the Church. bloody and their of the world. the monarchs a long. Its ambition is insatiable. in the title. The popes have converted the courteous indulgence of crafty. its duplicity inscrutible. and its policy and measures are disgraceful and unprincipled. but so the holy father's temporal power a usuris also his exclusive claim to the use of the title of pope. At the General Council of Constantinople.. according to the varying fortunes of their arms and intrigues. finally assumed it as the exclusive title of the bishops of Rome. had to maintain desperate struggle. . Every bishop. they became temporal despots. during which lost or domains were abridged or enlarged. by authority of an Italian Council. The popes. and oppressive despotisms that has ever disgraced the name of government. The papal monarchy is certainly one of the most demoralizing. in 869. And in the course of the usur- pations of the holy fathers. it w^ill prevent repetition by deferring further allusion to them until we arrive at the subsequent chapters.

different parts of the world next they claimed absolute jurisdiction over Disputes respecting property arising between the citizens of Eome and these foreign mission-houses of the church.220 riglit of THE PAPAL ing a kingdom owning a farm. nobles. The right to arbitrate gave and tho opportunity of adto according their advantage. implication that they had a right to all power. they next claimed the right to arbitrate be- tween then between cities. then between and then between monarchs. they claimed the right of owning all the kingdoms of the earth. By a succession of forgeries. A church. pontiffs were not always too honorable to discourage the causes which favored their mediatorial From tho right to arbitrate between interposition. from an obscure origin to supreme By gradual steps secular and spiritual jurisdiction. and skilful manoeuvres the papal government advanced. churches. an acre of land they construed into an . which their capacious founded mission-houses in maw could crave. temporal or spiritual. they insidiously labored to multiply the causes which favored their friendly intervention. them the power justing disputes to judge. a mission-house. the popes claimed the exlusive right to arbitrate between them. first . . As their mediation in church or state affairs enabled them to adjust subjects. the popes acquired the right to decide on ecclesiastical and matrimonial questions to dispose of church dig. As ecclesiastical litigation conduced to the extension of their authority. in the progress of events. disputes according to their policy. usurpations. for They them. they asserted the right of ownand when the right was conceded of owning a single kingdom.

was the first instance of a pope's exercising temporal authority. and statesmen to inand to regulate and superintend schools and colleges. nor and intrigue had prepared the way for it. The claim to the estates of Matilda was first made by Pope Paschal.MONARCHY. The participation of Pope Leo III. of Charlemagne. on the ground that they had been granted to it as lord paramount... The attainment of these objects was the work of centuries.. The pretento enforce confessors on princes troduce the inquisition into kingdoms . and to exercise the prerogative of ratifying their decrees . The alleged grant of Constantine was first announced in 765 by Pope Adrian I. 221 tions and benefices to protect their temporal acquisifrom alianation by the interdiction of the mar. sions to the alleged donation of Pepin. in an epistle to Charlemagne. was the first until art 19* . to convene at option synods and councils. The anointing of Pepin by Pope Adrian I. and when machinations had matured their plan. on the ground that they were granted to the Holy See as a fief. of Matilda. and next by pope Innocent II. Conceiving a desire in one age. by the princes to reduce the clergy to absolute dependence on their favor by dissolving all bonds of interest which subsisted between the bishops and the princes. in a paternal capacity. in imitation of the example of Samuel. they consummated their wishes by usurpation. and of the Gothic princes. to command the concession of their infallibility . in the Consular government of Rome. were not asserted until long after the death of the pretended donors. riage of the clergy oprics to abridge the investiture of bish. nlties . they plotted for its accomplishment through the events and discords of succeeding ages.

at the time of Gregory VII. introduction of the Catholic church into her realm. from 1265. raised it to a high degree of power and . The victory of Nicholas I. its with the pope head. Belgaria and Aragon. The fear of the terrible consequences of their anathemas and interdictions. from the period of the tary to the Holy See. he attempted to convert cratical it into a theofor for its government. by Pope John VIII. dels. over the Emperor Lothair. in 875. sub- the priests for officials. and the efficient operation of the papal machinery. was the first papal triumph over the secular authority. importance. reduced the The success of the political measures and intrigues of the Holy See having. The coronation of Charles the Bold. the ill regulated constitution of the European States... enabled them to render kingdom after kingdom tribuEngland. from the eleventh century Poland and Hungary from the thirteenth century and the kingdom of the two Sicilies. favored by the confusion which it had universally produced with regard to the rights of citizens and the titles of property. had been reduced to dependency on the sacerdotal monarchy. and had the crusades been successful.222 semblance of tlie THE PAPAL pope's usurpation of the prerogatives of that official in acknowledging the right of kings. under the pretext of a zeal to wrest the sepulchre of Christ from the possession of the Infiworld to a state of vassalage. was the first act of the papal monarch in The conquests of Eobert Guisdisposing of crowns. it would have. . instigated first by promises of the popes. the people its . furnished the ground of their feudal claims. the imperfection of domestic and international law. card.

and the right of investiture in Savoy to the secular authority.. . the support of its arbitrary pretensions . the interdiction of the nunciature entering . He was obliged to cede Naples to Germany. frustrated the design. in 1652. its that the Catholic church. its and religion for its garb.. When we consider it is the monarchial principles with which tributes blasphemous arrogation of the atand prerogatives of the deity its presumptuous claim to supreme jurisdiction over all other governments the base forgeries which it has committed in constituted . It is it is monarchy political for its object. designates an institution which has politics for principles.MONARCHY. the French troops it Rome and declaring a republic. Pope Pius VI. its impious scoff at secular promises. in III. its . Duke of Tuscany. in Germany . elected in 1195.. contracts.. insulting in sense of mankind. in Italy the Bologna and Ferrara dismemberment of Romagna. tribute of a horse . or the papal monarchy. beheld the church property in France confiscated. but its a despotism. 223 and the world for its dominion. pretensions to the in its prin- common ciples and dangerous independent to the rights of governments. jects. power began to decline. and the religious orders suppressed in Naples the abolition of the customary . and finally. its But under Pope Clement XII. oaths and con- . but the death of Bathore. not only political in nature and design. It is evident from the facts that have been adduced. Under Innocent V. 1585. elected in 1775. laws. the quarters of the pope's embassadors in Venice to the Venitian government. it Under Sixtus contemplated the subjugation of Russia and Egypt. it acquired almost unlimited spir- itual and temporal authority.

Bigotry and superstition prosperous. by whicli it wrings from beggars their pittance. on fomenting sedition and con- spiracies. . ambition has triumphs over science. and ultimately. of but bound ! the fetters is it. turned into barren wastes a people once the most . except such as . under authority. of of espionage . on corruption. freedom unprincipled and human right the rapine. or imported. . the inquisition at its bloody of philosophy banished work . despotism it —good heavens what a scourge and has been to mankind. in eyes to its late condition its in Italy. ins of its may chaunt its victories but a land once now choaked up and oppressed with the rufields once fertile now former greatness . and the nineteenth century. shaken the world its . to be lavished on bribery. tained only by suppressing insurrection the prisons crowded with heretics to death in . . . of . the study al- from universities no book lowed to be published. from the laborer the reward of his toil. the approval of bigoted censors meet the government sus. devastated fields. frauds and usurpations its the frequent con- with which . and burning cities which has marked the progress of its career . . tem mental reservation its disgraceful sysits system of finance. and litical intermeddling. political offenders cruelly put the nation struggling for freedom. on poevasion. THE PAPAL its atrocious sanctions of prevarication. from the dying the inheritance of heirs that it may pile the wealth of the world in secret coffers. it When we behold the blood-stained sword which has drawn in the sup. or when we turn our see. through the means its of their disall organizing agencies.224 stitutions . for the subjugation of govern- ments under port of vulsions its absolute authority.

oh patriots are the eternal monuments that ! for liberty Cicero plead. the shrine of bigotry. These. and thirsting for an opportunity of repeating is the papal monarchy such is its . . The usurper of all rights. now not able to govern themselves a commonwealth of kings. the model of the church now stands reaffirming the is crimes and errors of centuries. by any means. is Such such the Catholic church divine authority to . order and science. valiant. slavery tion its guarantees of natural rights. and bigotry. freedom. on the world and such are the demoralizing. past horrible history. seditious and treasonable principles which she carries in her bosom. and prisons reverberate with the groans of patriots and freemen. now rude and imbecile world. usurpa- equality. and is laboring to implant in the its American republic. violence. now a pope curses. polished 225 the most debased. commemorate the progress and achievements papal monarchy.MONARCHY. in order that she may overthrow its structure. Brutus stabbed and Cato died. that monarchy may supplant decrees its its its lib- eral principles. the political institution which she claims the obtrude. —with ancestors that governed the . an inquisition murders. and superstition its tolerance. arbitrary appointments aristocracy its popular elections. despotic legislative enact- ments. now a commonwealth of slaves where . and civilized. the fier of all of the sancti- despotism : wrongs. scatters in her pathway.

formed. the military knights. which was capable of intimidating the boldest antagonist. Fapal Foliiical IJST Machinery Fapal Folitical Intrigues in England. . and every department of the government. — — — — — — — The design of ruling nations was clearly indicated by the principles upon wliich the monastic orders were founded. a political machinery in the ad- vancement of the papal interests. will main substance as Regarding supremacy to the pope as the of Christianity. together with . With the knowl- edge of this fact we may perceive the origin of some of and rebellions which have and which. of King John of Henry VII. and of shaking the power of the strongest government. and distract every section of the land. of Charles I of Charles II. under the Feigns of Henry II. of William and Mary. FAFAL FOLITICAL INTBIOUES ENGLAND.CHAPTER XII. doctrines har- monized with his claim to supreme temporal and spiritual power and their organization. skilfully adapted to secure unity and concentration of action. and obedience to his their necessary to salvation. of James II. We may also perceive those mysterious seditions arisen apparently from trifling causes. from insignificant beginnings have gained such strength and dimensions as to dismay the valor of disciplined arms. based strictly on monarchial principles.

mislead like the fabled sirens . . it is not conceivable. cer- and without the supposition of the intervention of some secret power by which reason was unseated in such instances. why tlie struggle of civil and reli- gious liberty has been such a long. the public judgment it calm or distract a nation excite to rebel against its best governor. and But although the which he produced were as malignant and surprising as those which have been ascribed to the supernatural power of the arch-fiend. That rational beings should trample upon their rights. bloody. by means of his political machinery. 227 from tlie same fact. have sometimes led his unsus. is crucify their champions. yet the only magic he ever had the necessity of using was his political machinery through which he could charm like the poiof having dealings with the devil. and ible tears of nations. extent. capable of producing identical extraordinary effects. pecting subjects to regard him as a magician and sometimes they have been the cause of his arraignment before councils on the charge of practising magic. surrender up their personal sover- eignty. and deify their enemies. is tainly strange . is a fact supported by the irrefragable testimony of history. . The and irresist- energy of his power. and inter- minable conflict. and that he has never scrupled to exercise his terrible power whenever his ambitious projects required it. pervert . is a fact written with the blood secrecy. kneel in adoration at the feet of a despot.IN ENGLAND. unawed by the magnitude of the public calamity which it threatened to entail. delib- erately rivet on their own limbs the irons of slavery. effects . or to enthrone in its power bitterest foe. But that the pope. sonous adder .

Pope Adrian IV. that Ireland. of He received also. The following extract " from Adrian's bull on that occasion will explain the nature and object of the donation : No one doubts.. the spies on their priests thoughts and actions. And you have signified to us that you wish to enter this island. Passing by the numerous instances of papal political intrigue in the history of England. by every available means. 15). things the rights of the church in all to which we grant you with pleasure for the increase of the Christian religion. we will glance at a few of those which have taken place since the coronaThe most accomplished tion of Henry II. in order to subject the ." — (Labb. and celebrated for the acuteness of his judgment and the equitableness of his decisions. and at all periods of its history. to subject the nation to the despotism of Rome. to settle their matters of dispute. and you know the isles fact yourself. under every garb. At the . 13. For a long period the ors of her princes. 14. in all departments of the government. and extirpate their vices to make . the advisers of her kings. in 1154. he received at the hands of his regal cotemporaries the distinguished honor of being chosen by them as their arbiter.228 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES the hour wlien soil of first From the Catholic church planted until the present her foot on the England mo- ment.. her emissaries have labored as far as practicable. prince of his time. Peter a penny a year for each house. people to the laws. from the policy or generosity a gift of the kingdom of Ireland. the semblance of spiritual were the instructand under guides. them pay to and preserve St. and all the that have received the Christian faith belong to the church of Rome.

. yet the growing " Ireland — : weight of the ecclesiastical establishments sive to the industry — so oppres- and enterprize of the people insidious —and the the continual and encroachments of clergy on the prerogatives of the crown. without a tribunal and without a (McGeoghegan. they were checked. was blotted from the map. to Henry. Although it this liberal and judicious constitution had received the sanction of the Council of Clarendon.IN ENGLAND. seeds The principles of sown among thorns and brambles. But notwithstandcrime. to frame such a constitution as would be adequate for the protection of the prerogatives of the crown and the rights of the this constitution. 1 440). and but under that of King at times almost extirpated John they produced the " Magna Charta. . thwarted. like subjects. yet was violently opposed by Thomas-a-Becket. Under the stormy reign of Henry II." and under those of succeding princes the various liberal acts which conearly growth norance and superstition . tlie Irish. the oracle of the pope." under that of Charles II. were in danger of being oppressed in their by a heavy encumbrance of Catholic igand not until intelligence and public spirit had removed the obstruction did they show their native benificent vigor. met at WaterHenry and his Thus by a pretended prerogative of popery. determined III. and consigned to the loss of freedom. dictation of the pope. the " Habeas Corpus." ing the munificent bounty of the pope. and the chief engineer of his political ma19* . stitute English liberty. clergy 229 ford and took the oath of allegiance to successors. under the administration of Pope Alexander summon a council of nobles and clergy at Clarendon.

and that neither pride. he sought to solace his wounded and vent the ebullitions of his despair and rage in excommunicating the principal officers of the crown. of his loss of his Chagat the foes. cHnery Denouncing it as a profane inand immunities of the church.230 PAPEL POLITICAL INTRIGUES in England. and all who should presume to violate the church prerogatives. and thus imprudently furnished onists with legal authority to retaliate the mischief of all his property. of its course. modified more refinement. The brilliant qualities of Henry were unfortunately overshaded with the dark vice of un- As of greater rakes are often horrified at the lesser peccadillos profligate clergy ones. But duly impressed with the intrinsic impotence of his own curses. the more became exceedingly exasperated upon discovering in the conduct of their Henry by the practice of own irregularities. set in violent operation to destroy the king for the benefit of the church. so in this case. vituperation and defamation. and to invoke in cause the insidious but formidable aid of scandal. he had violated his oath of allegiance to the hing . revenge by the confiscation of rined at the triumph. or should acquire ecclesiastical property under fraction of the privileges the authority of its provisions. In savage zeal in behis antag- half of the pope. and exasperated temporal possessions. and Not possessing that charity which less grossness . chastity. he fled to France. he proceeded to excommunicate all persons who had acquired. dates of his By the mananathema the papal machinery was. that he might exercise with impunity his sacred functions in cursing his foes. their sanctity nor potency could protect his insolent tongue from punishment even while uttering them.

continued still to generate those noxious vapors which had so frequently overclouded the atmosphere of England. The peace of his kingdom was consequently again disturbed by the discovery of a conspiracy. But the moral effluvia which was produced by the action of the papal political machinery. Hence Henry's son Louis. until the queen was frenzied with jealousy. they domestic circle by the dis- semination of treacherous and extravagant inventions. 231 but that religion wHcli magnifies. two sons of Henry. was still in action in every part of the empire. with their poisonous breath. their hundred heads and thousand hands. The prudence and martial abilities of the king enabled him. they soon managed to startle the sobriety of every hamlet with whispers of the king's incredible depravity. coveietli a multitude of sins. But the coolness and extraordinary military genius of to the terrible emergency. rors of a civil and a foreign war. and Geoffry and Richaid. In anti- demand papal intrigue had secured the support of France and Scotland in its favor and consequently England was suddenly involved in the horcipation of this . more tremendous and pestiferious than the fabled mon- sters of antiquity. and restored order to his king- dom. soon to suppress these afflictive and unnatural seditions. whom he had crowned as his successor. Henry was adequate After a desperate contest he repelled the invaders. distorts and publishes them. blood and death. visitation of divine justice on the To secure the profaned the sanctity of his head of Henry. was induced to demand of him the surrender of the diadem. at the head of which . however.IN ENGLAND. and broke in storms of pestilence. But the papal machinery. were incited to rebellion.

his laborious to elevate the . however. and broken up the machinery of his treasonable machinations. around cost at The whom his fondest hopes had clustered. which he purchased this invaluable legacy for posterity was as tremendous as are the obligations of gratitude which it imposes. king. and the disorders of his kingdom and what a blessing he would have been to England and to mankind. his chil- dren to rebellion. and had he been able. was Eichard. his favorite and youngest son. unconsciously dealing with an invisible monster. exciting his subjects to sedition. how effectually might he have suppressed the rebellion of his sons. the king pronounced a curse upon his rebellious children. transformed into efforts . Upon the disclosure of this mortifying fact. while it was profaning his domestic hearth. in defiance of a papal alliance with the united crowned heads of Christendom. ever be grateful to the to attribute to his calamities that . treacherous foes. that in the garb of a holy father was commanding his homage and reverence.232 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES. his sons. to have annulled the authority of the pope in his relm. Henry's third son. which was more properly merited by the pope and the father confessors of the princes. and complicated witK which was John. whom the first conception was known and if they did not origiBut Henry was nate. who laid the foundation of England's liberty. and at the same time inducing him family and subjects the dreadful had been conjured by the machinations of the monster himself. Freedom will. Had Henry had the sagacity to penetrate the secrets of the Holy See. might have blasted it in its bud. His family converted into a nest of venomous reptiles. to of their treason .

and opposition. a ruler's chief support exhausted his coffers. and admirably prepared the way for the accomplishment of its ulterior designs. converted into sources of the deepest of misfortunes these were the papal demands. had repudiated his wives. had youngest son of Henry father in murdered his brother Arthur. which were imposed on him for having served the cause of justice. and for. spiracy of his sons. II. has. This policy is illustrated in the schemes of papal policy intrigue concocted under the reign of and King John. of humanity. The Papal See governed by an unscrupulous ambition to realize the success of its projects for acquiring unbounded territorial aggrandizement. w^ith equal craft and baseness.MONARCHY. 233 importance and improve the condition of his subjects. This prince had conspired against the most indulgent of fathers. ruined and broken hearted. But as these enormities deprived him of the affections of his subjects. and had exercised regal authority with insolence and tyranny. endeavored to make the vices as well as the power of princes administer to its interests. had warred against his brother Richard. the sinews of war . who on the decease of his 1199 ascended the English throne. he sunk into an unconsecrated grave. more entangled in the network of its policy. perhaps connivance may be reasonably accounted But after a war with France exhausted the resources 20* . without provoking the maledictions or interference of the Holy See. outweighing the wealth of worlds. three days after the disclosure of the last con. its indulgence. and of his country and under the rigorous exactions of these demands.. made him more dependent on the favor of Rome.

It is an invariable practice of the holy fathers. . endeavor to supersede the necessity of this title by acquiring a legal one. . proceeded to prepare the way for realizing his temporal project by Accordingly he susexercising his spiritual functions. and without the means of resistance. without alliances. to provoke a collision with him favorable to the John claimed the right success of the papal designs. helpless condition to Hence. pended the performance of religious worship in the king's dominions. seeing the which he had reduced John. and in making this claim seems to have of investiture . But the arts of the pope had involved the king in a snare and now having fairly entangled him. excommunicated him. This act John resisted as an unjustifiable encroachment on the prerogatives of the crown. the pope appointed Cardinal Langston to fill the vacancy.. now graciously proposed to mitigate the rigors of his adversities. the wildest disorders were excited the anarchy suspended all law among the people army refused to obey the king's orders his friends deserted him and he found himself without domestics. and absolved The papal his subjects from their allegiance to him. political machinery acting in harmony with the maledictions of the pope. . been supported by the cooperation of the papal politiThe See of Canterbury having become cal machinery. Pope Innocent III.234 PAPAL POLITICAL INTBIGUES of John. rendered him less popular. and touched at the cruel misfortunes in which he had involved him. and more irascible and impatient. who claim a right to all the world by virtue of their to ofiice. vacant. improved the flattering opportunity which crime and misfortune had presented. and to restore him to his for- . . Innocent III.

however. by which John was bound in future to be governed in the administration of his kingdom.IN ENGLAND. and pronouncing sentence of excommunication on all who should obey. conceived in and cruelty. was thus consummated by the most execrable tyranny. is nevertheless still mentioned by the Holy See as valid and indisputable. cerdotal despot. did not prevent him from exambition. Divested of adherents. the king submitted unconditionally to the terms dictated by the sa- authority. which finally culminated in open resist- ance to his authority. and of the divinely inspired council of the holy father. But the benefits of the statesmanship. and absolved him comply with any of the unpleasant concessions which he had made declaring the all obligations to . This empty title to England and Ireland. the natural foe of all constitutional guarantees of popular right and liberty. benevolently interposed in behalf of the imbecile and overawed prince. ] by encroachments on their rights nor restrain him from the perpetration of such unwarrantable acts as created a popular hatred of him. arms or alliances. so full of trick and fraud. from Magna Charta antagonistical to the Catholic religion its forbidding the king to observe any of provisions . that in order to save his crown he had to yield to their demand the act of the " Magna Charta. pursued by craft citing the indignation of his subjects. that arose between So violent were the conflicts him and his subjects. of Borne. 2S5 mer if he would cede his kingdom to the Pope and consent to rule it as a vassal of the pope." The pope. The design of the papal See of reducing England to a state of vassalage. or attempt to enforce the heretical .

place and circumstance. through the instrumentality of the papal machinery. however. they claim to have been endowed with power to change the unchangeable. in order to defeat its object. Spies watched. mysteriously. to tender the crown of the realm to France which proffer being accepted. they seem generally to have descended to the common level of humanity. confessors reported.and adroitly as King John's army had sprung into existence. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Again the papal macliinery was set in violent operation. so did the barons resolve. In order. to reconcile the irreconcilable. until every city. midst of the consternation which stupefied the public mind the king. and Philip of France became sovereign of England. . The popes claim the divine attribute of infallibility. suddenly appeared at the head of a formidable army . As suddenly. while they profess to have had communicated to them the incommunicable. firing their dwell- — ing been excited in the minds of the military barons no preparations were made to meet the emergency. vilIn the lage and house. yet in changing their policy and practice to suit the variations of time. and as if he were a foreign enemy. commenced ings and carrying terror and devastation through his own kingdom. Should a prince resolve to do that which the pope's infallible . the intrigues of the pope were thwarted. was distracted with alarm.23ft act. and so suddenly and unexpectedly had John appeared with an army fully equipped for war that no suspicion of such a design hav- butchering his subjects. So profoundly secret were the papal machinations carried on. priests thundered. abbots schemed. monks prowled and assassins murdered. bishops predicted.

his eldest son. Henry applied to the pope for permission to execute his purposes. In the reign of Henry VIL. On the decease of Arthur. in prince happen to be too powerful to be intimidated. The young prince Henry. who became king of England in 1485. and the pope. To silence the objection of his son. infallible In this attempt to accommodate principle to interest. protested against marrying a lady for whom he had no affection. with the view of retaining the opulent Spanish dowery in his family. we find an illustration of this policy. to Catherine. deeming it prudent to ofi'end so granted his request less sions to be able to change the moral law of But vain are the pope's pretenheaven un- he can also change the natural course of events. but fifteen years old. and who was so much his senior. daughter of Ferdinand. and too dangerous to be provoked into such delicate cases the pope. not powerful a potentate. in violation of the established laws of the church . so solemnly established by the authority of the infallible church. whereby the applicant is empowered to violate all the infallible laws of the church without incurring any of their penalties. holiness has declared to be criminal. grants a dispensation. the king. and the laws of the church to the changing . desired to marry the widow of Arthur to his next son. king of Arragon.IN ENGLAND. That sovereign had married Arthur. and so terriffically armed with all the terrors of anathemas and excommunication. Besides this difficulty the contemplated alliance was in violation of the laws of consanguinity. and the thunders of the Vatican. with his facilities to ac- commodate all difficulties. 237 and should that rebellion.

Naturally generous. . he laid the foundation for the final separation of the kingdom of England from the See of Home. produced strange vacillation in the mind of the infallible holy powerful and crafty princes dictated to father. finally applied to the pope for a divorce. title of After the death of Henry VII. he became at an early period of his life an object of the subtle policy of Rome. thus inflicted.238 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES wliim of an avaricious monarcli. his indomitable love of power and dominion often led him to violate the obligations of humanity and impetuous in passion. in order to get rid of the torment chastity. he began to suspect the legality of his marriage with Catherine and though he had recognized its obligations by a union of twenty years. and the more scrupulous he became about his The want of male issue. under the Henry VIII. succeeded to the British throne. Catherine's nephew. ofltending Charles V... . he was tempted to annihilate the constitutional restraints which conflicted with his designs. and impatient of restraint. yet the oftener he saw his mistress the stronger became his convictions of the heterodoxy and unlawfulness of his matrimonial . his son. him opposite courses to ofi'end either would be disastrous he therefore pretended to favor the wishes of Two . The pope promised to grant his request but the fear of . and interest. and the disparity of years between him and his wife mingled reflections with these legal and religious scruples. and made them so pungent that Henry. and to make the forms of justice subservient to the gratification of his ambi- tion of Anne Bolyne. Frank and vain. Happening to become enamored relations.

IN ENGLAND. and who was finally created cardinal by the pope. through the medium of Cardinal Wolsey. and nullified its temporal authority over his do- minions. conduct in a drunken who afterwards was made domestic chaplain by Dean. This act astonished the pope. however. and to punish Henry. but a means of procrastination. at This prelate who. overawed give his subjects to The had too much allow the papal machinery to of its much . imperious in his demands. despotic character of Henry. 239 Aware of papal artifice. at the same time. Henry became The pope appeared to yield. efficacy to the manifestos prime enal- gineer lic and placing himself at the head of the Catho- church in England. while he was a preacher for disorderly Limington was put into the stocks frolic . the holy father proceeded to excommunicate the latter. effected a separation from it. They these cited the queen to appear before . To gratify Charles. and less capable of a speedy solution. ob- . them . Henry peremptorily decided the matter by consummating his marriage with Anne Bolyne. Archbishop of Canterbury. she appealed to the pope cious. Discarding the dogma of the pope's temporal power. he commis- sioned Cardinals Wolsey and Campaggio to adjust the difficulty. he released his subjects from legiance to the See of Rome. theology in and the pope. howevi^. botli. and enraged Charles V. Henry still strictly adhered to the standard of Catholic . continued to exert considerable indirect influence on all other respects his mind. they declared her contumacontroversy becom- By proceedings the ing more embarrassed than before. with a semblance of and to soothe the impatient prince compliance.

and satisfied him that when she had objected to his opinions it was from a desire to become enlightened by his superior knowledge and intelligence.240- PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES tained sucn unlimited power over the that the pope pensioned mind of Henry keep him in his interest. but on perceiv- ing these also to be secretly engaged in machinations to restore the pope's temporal authority. barely escaped execution for A having encouraged the warrant had been wrung from the king by the Bishop of AVinchester. but not destroy the monastic orders. he visited equal vengeance on those who advocated the pope's temporal authority. he abolished the religious orders altogether. and friars When he discovered that the monks were guilty of defending the obnoxious wishing to heresy of the pope's temporal power. Even Cardinal Wolsey for treason fell under his suspicion. Catherine Parr. nor that the bigotry and intoler- ance of Catholicism should have survived the destruction of its political engine. a school teacher. he applied the sequestered funds to the estab- lishment of other similar institutions . for denying the real presence At intervals during his reign he rigorously persecutea the Protestants reformers. inflamed by the arts of such a vicious counsellor. "While he employed violent means to enforce con. his last wife. formity to the Catholic theology. to death Henry VIII. condemned Lambert. should have brought so many of to him them to the stake . and was executed by . for her committal to the Tower on the charge of heretical opinions but having become secretly apprised of the fact in time she sought the king. he suppressed their houses . It is not a matter of much surprise that Henry's aversion to the reformers.

on condition that the heirs which should issue should be subject to the exclusive control of their mother un- . daughter of Henry IV. What papal rapaciousness cannot boldly grasp. and bloated up with fanciful notions of royal prerogatives. dissatisfaction. and against who denied the Romish theology. his order. and eventually interdicted it by positive - To counteract the consequences of this a scheme was projected by papal craft to have the heirs of the throne educated by Catholic mothers. a ruler devoid of statesmen-like abilities. his severity against those who advocated the pope's temporal sovereignty. was cruel in the highest degree. that future kings might rule as Protestants with Catholic proclivities. spirit. enactments. and in course of time. secretly plot to and especial objects of papal intrigue. women who may perhaps control kings. through the demoralization.. the suprem- acy of the pope might be reestablished in England. The inveterate opposition to Catholics rendered it in England almost impos. and children who are presumptive heirs of empires. it was stipulated that the union should be consummated. without firmness or stability. 241 Howard those After he had beheaded his wife. obtain.sible for a Catholic to ascend the throne.. Catherine for unchastity. was the pliant instrument of this subtle policy. are powerful instruments in the accomplishment of political designs. discord and blood so eflfected by the cooperation of its adherents. James I.IN ENGLAND. who on the death of Elizabeth succeeded to the crown of England and Scotland. An amorous flame having been kindled in him and in Henrietta Maria. it will Kings who control nations. of France.

was too much absorbed in magnifying to study the character of the people over his visionary prerogatives to share in the progress of the age. and more profound in its investigation. Hence the Puritans.. began fearlessly and candidly to investigate the fundamental principles of faith and practice. and creeds totally different from and vastly superior to them. under the torrent. the heir of the throne to elaborate theological those of Catholicism. and laid the foundations for the dreadful calamities which II.242 til PAPAL POLITICAL INTBIGUES they were thirteen years of age. and merely advocated a simpler form of worship. or whom I. yet driven from those whom they had venerated by the hate which persecution engenders. The abolition of papal despotism over the English mind giving freedom to thought and inquiry. title the new order of popular sentiment had become an impetuous Common sagacity might have perceived the ' . who at first questioned only the temporal power of the pope. This contract secured a Catholic education to the heirs of the British throne. could not but enlarge its conceptions of civil and religious liberty. the Presbyterians and the Independents. The the old system of prerogatives sunk into contempt. who originally were Catholics. and disenthralled from the shackles with which custom and superstition enslaves the mind. afflicted the nation during the reigns of Charles and James II. he was destined to reign. and new system of representative government became more popular as the mind became more comprehensive in its grasp. When in 1625 he ascended tho of Charles English throne. While the people were rapidly advancing in liberal views of religion and government.

exercised a despotism over the king's mind too absolute to allow his reason to instruct.IN ENGLAND. list of the with the orthodoxy of sent he which he declined for the ambiguous reason that the " Church of Rome was no other than it was!" The king. taught him that the Commons were the constitutional dispensers and guardians of the public treasury. attempt to stem the popular tide of thought and prudence would have dictated a practicable compromise of differences rather than the certain alternative of civil war. inevitable destruction that 243 would await him if he should . or his conscience to admonish him. He maintained that the papal authority had always been visible in the realm. By this impolitic course he to the ritual prescribed as parliament and . also the principal actor in the Star Chamber. he attempted to raise means for their accomplishment by unconstitutional methods. The religious views and secret designs of this professed Protestant bishop can- not be misunderstood. He next resolved to oblige Scotland to conform by the Church of England had refused to allow him the use of the public funds for that and other purposes. and to adopt measures for suppression. and But Archbishop Laud. controlled and ill-advised by such a counsellor. guise of Protestantism. But parliament with prudent foresight. and elated this sacerdotal miscreant that him a cardinal's hat. blinded by his own bigotry. He furnished the king with a significant names He was of all his Catholic and Protestant subjects. a Catholic under the diswho was the medium of the pope's influence. with self-conceit. and Court So well was the pope satisfied of High Co: ""mission. was led to scorn the rising spirit of its the nation. and patriotic boldness.

and by a liberal construction of his prerogatives to arrogate consistent with the An object so dogmas of Catholicism. But neither the eloquent encomiums lavished on the king's prerogative. and the uncompromising hostility against his person and measures which his persecution of non-conking's prerogatives but disgrace . he finally determined to rule without a monarchial power. Having frequently called the Commons together in to dictate parliament. nor the arms of the royal troops. equally betrayed them into acquiescence. . was also called into requisition. Breading the liberalism and inflexibility of the Commons.244 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES its and The Scotch formed a league of Covenanters. and finding them more disposed than to obey. The terror of the Star Chamber. and so flat- tering to the vanity of the Episcopal royp'dsts. and of the Court of High Commission. for the defence of their religious liberty and as the king viewed their enthusiastic and formidable array. nor to prescribe limits to them. declared impious and inculcated passive obedience as a Christian virtue and imperative duty. army. parliament. nor the severity of the Court of High Commission. produced anything for the and ridicule. composed of all classes and factions. his despotic tives. nor the atrocities of the Star Chamber. any a rebellion excited in Ireland against parliament. and inflexible in their refusal to furnish him with the pecuniary aid necessary to the accomplishment of his design. he prudently concluded terms of pacification. asserted their To aid the king it in design the royalists extolled his preroga- divine origin. and compared it with the suspicious material of his own den. with whose strength aroused a lion from fury he could not well cope.

This parliament proved the memorable "long parliament. and to make it accessory to their design of reducing the king They denounced the Episand other advocates of the king's prerogatives. and poured upon his unprotected head a pitiless means storm of wrath. passed acts against superstitious practices. The impetuous tornado of their zeal and wrath swept away all the king's elaborate schemes for the acquisition of monarchial power. and as the king had set the dangerous precedent of liberal construction of law and prerogatives. to unresisting helplessness. and usurpation had enabled him to became wild with despair and rage. build. they availed themselves of the same to justify their measures. and. he tyranny. which art. They also adopted every expedient to inflame the public mind.MONAECHY. he brought his 21* . They restricted the king's prerogatives. yet he by the critical state of public affairs. formists 245 had excited in the majority of them. Condemned to be the helpless spectator of the destruction of his hopes of absolute power." As might have been ex- was obliged. They so intimidated the royalists of the House that many of them absented themselves from their seats. to call them together. copalians. in whom Catholicism and monarchy had disguised themselves under the semblance of Protestantism. its embittered and exasperated members opened the session with torrents of scorn and contempt poured on the king and his prerogatives. and the Court of High Commission. in a desperate attempt to retrieve his fortune by asserting in his extremity his empty prerogatives. They attempted to exclude the bishops from the House of Lords. abolished the Star Chamber. pected. executed Laud and Stafford.

and a plihypocrite able instrument of the papal intrigues. I. consequently. The House. mind. and destitute of honor and generosity. defective in sensibility. he personally attempted to ar- some of its members. and crafty as he was am. and to plot in secret to reestablish her throne. and which induced him while he governed England as a protector. favored or perse- and Republicans. ment: after several bloody battles.246 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Entering precarious condition to an unfortunate close. intolerant in disposition. son of James cuted Catholics. to seek to govern her as a king. in 1660 was crowned King of England. dishonorable as a prince. he was capable of assuming any guise Illiberal in A and supremely selfish. but a secret monarchist as intolerant as he was religious. Cromwell. the House of Commons. . however. The spirit of despotism under the form of freedom. bitious . predominated in the national councils. as interest instigated. the king lost his crown. Parliament now resolved to rule without a king as the king had resolved to rule without a parliament. . broke up in disorder the king saw his error. still. and the resignation of his appointed successor. he tolerated vice and corruption whenever it administered to his interests. the other under parliaarose the one under rest .. Protestants. who. Puritans. Charles II. but too two armies he fled from his capitol in terror late the king. a professed republican. he was base as a man. and finally his life. By the licentiousness of his court he degraded the moral standing of the British nation in the eyes of the world and of . After the termination of his eventful career. . from his birth.. was this despotic spirit which desecrated the form of Freedom.

and the safeguards with which they had protected their liberty. But the specious mask fell from his brow when he passed the intolerent act of non-conformity. or dependent on their power. and in eventually in such pecuniary embarrassments that he . which enfeebles the intellectual powers. his secret and ulterior designs. and without a struggle succeeded to those dangercur prerogatives which had cost the nation so much blood and treasure.IN ENGLAND. troduced into his court.. The disgracefulness abhorrent to the of this policy has never been too Roman See to cause it to forego the advantages of its of Charles II. arrogated power in defiance of constitutional obstructions. has ever been encouraged in princes or people by the artifice of those whose ambition has plotted to make them subser- vient to their interest. The admonition of past occurrences had induced him to disguise under the cloak of a pacific and accommodating policy. 247 and with a despotic and unprincipled set of measures. The pathway to his elevation to the throne having been prepared by General Monk. ery in alienating from his subjects. favor of him the respect and affection of making him more dependent on the His extravagance involved him the pope. and destroys the foundation of public respect. ably aided the papal machin- The profligate character and the dissolute manners which he inadoption. Profligacy. and reduced the people to slavery in contempt of their hereditary valor and independence. by which the Presbyterians were peremptorily driven from their livings. history. he was received with frantic acclamations by conflicting civil and religious sects.

Parliament was . the object of which was to restore the authority of the pope and circumstances lending crediwas said to be to destroy parliament . to concert measures for making himself inde- pendent of parliament. To add to the public aissatisfaction the Duke of York. bility to the supposition. he was furnished wdth a French lady to amuse him in his retirement This accomplished but abandoned female obtained such ascendency over his — — mind. Thus watched. and eventually to exclude him from the throne. openly espoused the cause of Catholicism. and was led by which alarm the public mind by forming a disgraceful cabal. That every thought and action might be discovered in its incipiency. became a pensioner on Louis. debased and to controlled. A secret Catholic faction was supposed to exist in the nation. which The design of this plot and assassinate the king. the heir presumptive to the throne. and fierce crimand recriminations to which these measures gave rise ment. as admiral of the navy. inations The violent factions. the most intense excitement terrific in its seized the public mind. the priests of England another and both were equally bound to the interests of the papal monarchy. king of France and in consequence became doubly ironed with the papal shackles the king of France forming one set of manacles.248 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES . that she induced him to make her a duchess. received universal credence. he became the unconscious tool of the designs of others. Strong measures were consequently adopted to remove him from his post. kept the people in a state of feverish exciteIn the midst of these wild alarms a pretended popish plot was reported to have been discovered.

whom except that of love of But while he was wading through the innocent blood of his subjects to a crown of unlimited monarchy. yielded to the popular to avert the storm that filled with consternation.IN ENGLAND. and finding to inflexibly opposed he determined substitute to dispense with it altogether. was arrested. so that they might be remodelled in accordance with the claims of the absolute his prerogatives. to his measures. the Earl of Stafford was beheaded. Lords were arrested. was muttering destruction over his head. demand the Habeas Corpus act. 249 denunciations. the Duke of York fled from the country in terror. he employed with much them ness as tyranny. resolved to get rid of by making the instru- ment bled it of its it own destruction. he had recourse to gross and charges of plots and conspiracies. priests hung. acquitted. intimidations to induce to sur- render their charters. obtruded in the way of his it acquisition of despotic it power. im. power of In order to deplete the ranks of non- Catholics. and the king. the author of the Habeas Corpus act. Fortified with this new safeguard to public freeobstacle dom. In order base- to reduce the corporations to an absolute dependas ence on his will. After having assem- severel times for this purpose. prisoned in the Tower and tried for high treason against liberty but Dungeons were overcrowded with subjects no allegation laid. some desperate spirits were secretly concocting a plot to arrest his atrocious to tyranny. unfounded Lord Shaftsbury. and opposition . the people became tranquil once more perceiving the formidable but the king which parliament . and his prerogatives in the place of its authority. and the people clamorous for vengeance.

in defiance of parliament and the laws.250 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES means of the assassin's dag- career by the deplorable ger. and that it supplied the want of the other witness required by the law of treason. was the first victim through this unfortunate affair. and but one having appeared. another apostle justly charged with high treason. discovered before it had matured its plans.ear it). and the co-operation of the papal machinery. the king suc- ceeded in dragooning Scotland into conformity. After he had. he was tried by a packed jury. a plausible pretence for gratifying and only gave the king his malignancy against the ablest advocates of constitutional liberty. In this manuscript the author expressed a preference for a free to an arbitrary govThe judge deciding that the document ernment. known as the Hhy- house plot. who had with undaunted firmness maintained the fundamental principle of free government. Alerngon Sidney. (although he did not sv. proceeded to pass sentence of death on the accused. was unThe law requiring two witnesses to substantiate allegations of this nature. and in amassing almost sufiicient power for the accomplishment of any purpose. the infamous Jeffrey summoned into court a manuscript which had been found in the closet of the defend ent. was a competent witness in his court. Foredoomed. of course. and he as unreliable as he was promptly received. in suppressing the bold Covenanters. to the eagerness of the king's bloodthirsty revenge. . of liberty. and con- demned against conclusive proof of his innocence. By means of similar unwarrantable proceedings. William Russell. which could not escape the omniscient eye of the Catholic machinery. This unsuccessful conspiracy. was.

and having no further need of deception. British throne without opposition. and the paralyzing dread which cruelty and tyranny had cast over the public mind. to succeed to the . the last left a doubt of his genuine and hypocritical profession of Protestantmoments of his existence were sufficient to Just before his death he received the rites of the Catholic dispel them. brother of Charles II. and removed him from a throne which he had disgraced. ism. The rapid strides which his brother had made towards the acquisition of absolute power. openly pro- James to the II. he had imbibed similar religious and sentiments. sacrament according to the fessed himself a Catholic.. and conflict. rendered himself as absolute in power as in Europe. Educated brother. faith. he adopted every expedient that craft could devise to convert his royal prerogatives into monarchial authority. but afterwards openly. church. he retired thither and manifested his barbarous ferocity by personally assisting at the torturing of the Covenanters. While Duke of York he at first in the course of intrigue secretly.IN ENGLAND. professed the Catholic When. death interposed in the midst of his success. Had his conduct during his life Catholicism.. the royal party had gained the ascendency in Scotland. and to se- cure the restoration of Catholicism as the religion of the kingdom. and a people whom he had oppressed. in 1685 succeeded throne of like his political England and Scotland. enabled James II. As virtue scorns to be the tool of vice. 251 and by means any despot of tyrannical measures and execrable usurpations. and as sycophants are the most pliable instruments of . From the hour he became invested with the royal dignity.

The chief engineer of the papal machinery —the con- trolling spirit of the king and his councils. nullified all test oaths. he adopted the policy of investing the most unscrupulous with his base Supreme among official authority. assumed the power of parlia- ment. and by the arbitrary execution of innocent subjects.252 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES despotism. Amid the death-like silence which hung on the lips of the people the king threw off his disguise. and cringing creatures stood Judge Jeffrey. yet there . calamitous design he appeared to be making rapid strides though the papal machinery was formidwas another power more formidable still as wily and as secret: which was auietly maturing its . arbitrary and oppressive. insolent. and adopted every possible method to subvert civil and religious liberty. entered into negotiation with the pope for the reception of England into the papal church. this monster in succeeded in casting a deep gloom over tho human form public mind. able. this for man was ready any work that furnished sufficient blood and plunder. and in annihilating all apparent opposition to the tyrannical proceedure of the king. and to bind on his subjects the shackles of papal Towards the final consummation of his despotism. imperious. celebrated mass invested with the royal paraphernalia. governed Scotland and Ireland his creatures. organized ecclesiastical tribunals to try such clergy as were suspected of holding liberal sentiments. By barbarous and inhuman acts. committed bishops to the Tower for having remonstrated against the propriety of reading a docu- ment concerning a popish indulgence which he had commanded to be read in all the churches. filled the councils and army with by Catholics. but.

strength for the hour of retribution. and. they rejected with scorn and indignation all his generous overtures. and Silent but powerful. the Pretender. though this opposiof some lords. tion seemed to slumber. James II. and William and Mary proclaimed sovereigns of England and Scotland. when it would arise and annihilate dynas"While the king. After some fruitless attempts to regain his kingdom. Terrified at the sight. and stretching forth his hand to receive the kingdom. was trampling in insolent contempt opposition in the on the people's rights . changed the calm and brilliant prospects of the king into storms and sights of horror. The throne was declared abdicated. was another instrument which the pope 22 .. treacherous calm. and irreconcilable in the memory of their wrongs. grandson of James I. as with the stroke of an enchanter's wand. of the gentry. and proffered to his subjects all the rights which they had in vain plead for before. had created a stern mind of the people. yet it was but calmly waiting the destined hour. the king repealed his unpopular acts. while sycophantic priests were . and the peans of his sycophants into howling and lamentations. at compromise 253 The oppressive measures of the king and the failure of every attempt and conciliation.IN ENGLAND. deceived by the ties and prerogatives. Edward. he now absconded as a coward. Conscious of their strength. turned Jesuist. As he had ruled as a tyrant. and while the pope was congratulating him on his success. educated at Rome. and passed the remainder of his chaunting his song of triumph life in doing penance. William of Orange suddenly appeared on the coast of England with a formidable navy and army.

England's vigilance. they were the bold and unequivocal supporters. he fled to France. in the abrogation of the free charters. but he successful. career. But the Although he gained contest was short and decisive. therefore. the disguise of Protestantism. They were the most strenuous supIn every scheme of oppression porters of Charles II. w^here. This faction had ever been a prominent branch of the papal machinery. It was. consistent with their historic tradition that they should welcome as allies of the pope the invasion of Edward. yet the signal victory over his forces at Culloden. and be ready to repeat their former atrocities in his cause. and violence-^in the persecution of dissenters. some important advantages. he reHe finally returned to Rome. that it soon enabled him to command an army which made England tremble. . in the murder of the advocates in every project of the king to of popular freedom — grasp monarchial power. in the efforts to abolish parliament. attempt. This treasonable plot was unanimously supported by the tory party. in 1746. defeated Edward's first was more made another in 1745 which Landing secretly in Scotland with but seven trusty officers.254 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES. he died of diseases engendered by habits of intem- perance. in 1742. effectually checked his Despairing of success. the tories Under made vigorous efforts for the subjugation of England to the papal dominion. in the banishment of patriots. in the assumption of despotic prerogatives. yet such was the efficiency of the papal machinery. through the intercession of the king's mistress. where ceived a pension. in 1680. however. adopted to establish his authority over the crown of England.

and which have been so prolific of treason. 255 to We have now alluded. these we must leave to the reflection of the . that can empover- and impede tioned but few of them. to rulers. : and mankind reader. ish a nation its progress limits The but we have menwe have prescribed to this work will not allow us to trace the wily all its secret and les- deadly serpent of papal intrigue in ings. in this chapter some of those popish intermeddlings in the political concerns of England. so grossly in violation of international law.IN ENGLAND. windto nor dwell upon the important admonitory its sons history furnishes to patriots. and of all . of civil war. of popular insurrection.

who had been educated by the Catholic priests. King of Burgundy. the I—of Francis II— of Louis Capet— of Philip XIII.— of Louis XII—of Francis —of Louis XIV. The crimes and devo- . he made war upon Syagrius. Remigius. PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIGUES IN FRANCE. Clovis submitted to be baptized by St.—of Henry IV. to obtain assistance in conquering the poused Clotilda. King of the Franks. and anointed with some holy oil which the bishop affirmed had been brought by a dove from heaven. who succeeded his father Childeric. the Eoman governor at Soissons . became in their hands an instrument for the converConceiving that the God sion of her royal husband.CHAPTER XIII. and him the religion of Catholicism were better able to aid in completing his intended conquests than were God and religious contrivances of Paganism. in 481. Papal Intrigues in France during Reign of Clovis —of — of Pepin—of Charlemagne—of Sugh Childeric III. captured and put him to death cities of subjugated Paris. and the Belgia Secunda . which was confined within the sea and the Scheldt. IV. neice of Clotilda. of Charles IX.— The subtile poison of Catholicism was instilled into the French government under the reign of Clovis. and . AUemanni esGundebald. the Great. Aspiring to extend the territory of his kingdom.

dismissed a council of Gaulic and then deliberately assassinated all the princes belonging to his family. stained the soil with the blood of its proprietors and defenders.IN FRANCE. " to see the Arians still possess the fairest portions of Gaul. were rewarded with numberless miracles and instances of divine interposition. Peter. we will possess and divide their fertile provinces. a dazzling meteor forces blazed forth as his Poitiers. he humble successor was secretly laboring to world. bestowed upon him the title of " The most Christian King and Eldest Son of the Church. A white hart of singular statue and brilliancy became the conductor of his army through secret passes. he imbibed also their hatred to the heretics. 257 tion of the king. approached the cathedral at and the walls of Angouleme fell down at the blast of his war- like bugle. having vanquished the here-. the princes of the different Prankish tribes. bowed in abject reverence before the clergy. and committed the most fiendish and heartrending atrocities. in the cause of the church. He summoned and . by violence or treachery." His savage piety led him to declare that had he been at the trial of Christ he would have prevented his crucifixion. the fisherman. Imbibing the orthodoxy of the bishops. in consideration of his piety and usefulness." While the pope professed to be the of St. incorporated their government into his bishops own. the pope of Rome. become the successor of the Caesars. the masters of the With this end in view he had scattered his 22* . Let us march against them with the aid of God tics . and. " It grieves me. After having removed." said he to a company of princes and warriors assembled at Paris.

The dungeons of these sanctuaries sometimes contained a monarch. and commanded the reverence of the crowd and their tact and sycophancy enabled them to become the com. The Saracens^ however. sufficiently sumptuous for the accommodation of pious kings who wished to abdicate their thrones. jealousy. and the spies upon the most secret The avaricious character of their religious principles enabled them by to accept with- out scruple the spoils of plundering expeditions. or some distinguished personage whom usurpation. panions of kings. the instructors of princes. fied machinery in them in the eyes of princes . different sections of Europe. an heir to a throne. of reverence for the monks clergy. and to augment the pious frauds. ambition or tyranny had there confined and sometimes their halls afforded a hospitable asylum for the sick. The popes having. established the various parts of their political and sanctiand people. recesses of their thoughts. with their usual skill and pru. humility. stores of their wealth artful tricks and The success of their missionary rapacity enabled them to build spacious convents. The arts and miracles of the holy brotherhood excited the wonder. and the conveniency with which they supplied the want of morality made them popular with the multitude. dence. the indigent. the confessors of all classes. eagerly watched every opportunity to set them in motion in favor of their cherished design. of passive and of absolute submission to himself.258 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES througliout Europe to preach the doctrines of obedience. or the refugee from oppression. The support which these doctrines gave to despotism rendered them acceptable to kings.

the King of France. to prepar the way for the usurpation of the crown of the Franks. but the hammer tri- Mayor But of France. This Mayor of France. The inspired synod. whose superstition strikingly resembled the malady of insanity. in arriving at this orthodox conclusion was assisted by the reported facts. This obstacle being removed by the retirement of the devout warrior. spiritual advisers to resign his dignity to consecrate the remainder of his . and threatened to subjugate authority of the religion of of Charles Martel. burning in hell. Pepin consulted Pope Zachary about his inten- by Pepin. ing the regal authority of his office. The pope well knew Pepin was ambitious of the diadem. and of Christianity. the Short. life to God by shutting "himself up in a convent and to give all his private possessions and valuables to the church.. checked the career of their had applied the riches of the church to the necessities of the state and the relief of his soldiers. and that upon opening his coffin a strong odor of fire and brimstone had been perceived. that a saint while dreaming had seen the soul of the savior of Europe. — — tions. while exercisas the warrior umphant arms. who was but a youth by fear of Carloman.IN FRANCE. The pope entertained a better opinion of his son Carloman. entered Europe. a synod of Catholic bishops declared that the man who had saved the Catholic church from extinction. who replied: "He only ought to be king who . was induced by his . and had only been deterred from supplanting Childeric III. which alone crushed 375. was doomed to the flames of hell on account of his sacrilege. it to 259 the Mahomet . The design which prompted this intrigue seems to have been.000 of the invaders.

Frankish throne.:260 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Encouraged by abolished. and threatened the reduction of Rome. Oppressed with these misfortunes.more ready to speculate on the misfortunes of the pope ." sanction of prospective treason and usurpation. interests of the The the holy father appeared in the in camp of Pepin. The critical state of the Holy See soon developed the sagacity and good policy of the pope. dressed mourning and covered with ashes. pope and Pepin„ by these artbecame deeply interwoven. ful machinations. soliciting the assistance of his arms in the defence of the church. this papal lie •exercised the royal power. Terms being satisfactorily arranged between the two parties. Pepin's son. had the . and anoint them which the dove had brought from heaven. officially sanction all he would the acts of usurpation of which he had been crown his two sons. office of Ilaia du Palais himself pro- claimed King of France. The Lombards entered Italy.than to assist him in his distress. But Pepin was . and Childeric imprisoned in a monastic dungeon. in which he was obliged to pass the remainder of his life. with the holy oil the greater part of Italy. Pepin drew his sword and reconquered guilty. The cruelties which stained the usurper's crown of insecurity. sophistry. having succeeded to the . and papal influence having gained the . The tricks. conquered the Exarchate. and of the Consulate government of Rome. the pope was disposed to try the efficacy of the sword.. made him apprehensive if He therefore signified to the supplicant a willingness to comply with his wishes. and eloquence of the monks having failed to convert the Saxons to the church. Charlemagne.

and forced upon their acceptance against their reason and conscience. is averred. 261 ascendency in his councils. . but the religion and policy of the pope triumphed not until the land was depopulated. and. cut out his tongue. verted into a desert. and left him dead on the ground. dug out his eyes. successor of Adrian I. and fellow countrymen. the country confor thirty-three years . But the Saxons were courageous warriors. their choice. But a miracle. as- saulted the chosen vicar of Christ. and enabled him by gaining the to escape a repetition of the outrage invisible precincts of the Vatican.:: IN FRANCE. full of the love of independence and of liberty and when the alternative of extinction or Catholicism was presented to . and the cost of subjugation out- balanced the value of the victory. and had not their chief advised would rather have suffered extermination than to have submitted to a religion baptized in blood. and by a sword reeking with the blood of their The arms of Charlemagne. having been disappointed by theunexpected election of Leo III. they defended the integrity of their empire their arms. The competition between aspiring candidates for the Rome had often been productive The favorite and intended of turmoil and bloodshed. it life. to the contrary. their proud spirit gave a desperate valor to maintenance of their rights of Against superior numbers. lie was without difficulty tempted to unfurl his banner in the cause of the church. . founded upon fraud and treachery. as it is alleged. inter- posed in his behalf. his exasperated adheropulent bishopric of ents attacked the sacred procession on the occasion. in the existence and of religious liberty.. restored his eyes and tongue.

invested him with the regalia of the Caesars. and to ex- ercise his spiritual authority in banishing his competi- and their adherents. professing to have been aston- On ished at the pope's singular conduct. to prolong the celibacy of his daughters that might extend the period of an illicit commerce. and Charlemagne in his these secular princes he Duke of By the influence of was enabled tors to ascend the sacerdotal throne. to divert his capricious fancy with numberless mistresses. anointed him with the holy oil which the dove had conveyed from Paraadise. of Spoleto. civil jurisdiction. and as the demons of the air had admonished the payment of tithes he enforced their The favor and liberal exaction with extreme rigor.262 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES After having received this assistance from heaven he inv. he it consecrated to the priesthood. after these events. however.oked the temporal aid of the of the friendly interposition favor. and to become the father of numerous illegitimate children. a visit of Charlemagne to Rome. whom. consistently with his Catholicism to enjoy the possession of nine wives. Agreeably to this oath he entrusted the clergy with temporal and expended more on cost useful undertakings. and labor in the construction of cathedrals than indulgence of the pope enabled the emperor. The emperor who. in atonement for his indiscretions. The barbarity and usurpations of which Charlemagne was guilty. in the enlargement of his vast empire. and pronounced him the pious Csesar crow^ned by God. nevertheless took an oath to preserve the faith and privileges of the church. the pope abruptly crowned him with a diadem. naturally made him suspicious of the loyalty of his .

and passing the remainder of his days in a political monastic dungeon. but endangered with so crime. and had recourse to the artifices of priestcraft. him to His attempt by arms the justice denied by parental author- consequence of the loyalty of the papal . after Charlemagne's death. he imprudently scorned the much wisdom of adopting concessionary measures. subjects . the peace of certain sections excited his most painful fears for the To prevent the disorganization of a power which he had constructed with so much labor. for furnished an instrument undermining its foundation. he Dividing the empire between two of had them crowned and anointed with the celestial oil. it AVhile it lent a prop to the governmental structure. excited rebel against the authority of his father. to fraternal disputes and civil conflicts . to obtain ity was. The division of the monarchy gave occasion.IN FRANCE. But this arrange- ment excluding wife —from an in his eldest son —the issue of a divorced equal participation with his brothers in the administration of the government. unsuccessful and the injured son was obliged to expiate the guilt of his unfilial insubordination by serving the church in the capacity of a monk. in expectation that these superstitious cere- monies would excite in the minds of his subjects such reverence for the imperial dignity as would secure in its favor their devout allegiance. and as these dis- . machinery. This conspiracy was not the only result that was produced by the policy of Charlemagne. 263 and the frequent outbursts wbicb disturbed stability of his throne. in substituting superstition in the place of justice in his efforts to conciliate popular dissatisfaction. his sons.

the gates were thrown open at midnight. Duke survivor of the Carlovingian dynasty was The subjects of the realm of Lorraine. listen to elected in 986. but without any flattering success. as well as with the impoverishing exactions which they extorted from their industry. he was obliged to swear to preserve the clergy in all the privileges and immuniAgainst this formidable conties which they enjoyed. With great skill and energy.264? PAPAL POLItlGAi: INTRIGUES orders favored the pope's ambitious desire to succeed to the crown and dominion of the Caesars. The last Charles.. induced the Frankish nobility to proclaim phantic papal favorite could be But before this sycocrowned king. Pope John XVI. and changing dynasties to suit its purposes. "With these popular grievances the temper and disposition of Charles en- gaged his warmest sympathies. and . The success which valor denied was. The bishop . perceiving that the heir presumptive to the throne would. which place was capable of withstanding a vigorous siege. in making rulers its tools. of the city having entered into secret negotiations with Capet. when he acceded the complaints and lessen the burdens of his subjects and acting on the historic motive of the Holy See. accorded by treachery. however. his adversary assailed the strong-built fortifications. at that period had become greatly dissatisfied concerning the oppressive privileges which the clergy enjoyed. and anointed with the holy oil. to power. retired to Lyons. they were kept active by his machinery until the empire was disinte- grated. and after spiracy Charles found himself powerless making some demonstrations against the usurper. Hugh Capet King of France.

married Bertha. in order to reduce the king to obedience pro23 . that in order to control the one. a lady of inestimable qualities. embittered the re- mainder of their existence. and commanded the king to abandon his wife. To be guilty of an offence of such a henious character against the most amiable of in violation of all his matrimonial to women . 265 the usurper entering the precincts amid the stillness of the hour captured the royal family. stands forth in history as the grand champion of the legitimacy of kings. his cousin. spurn his lawful wife as vows and obligations a prostitute. The royal pair were a model of connubial loveliness and felicity but when an heir had completed the . violence and usurpation. independent of the consent of the governed. surprised Charles bed and threw him into prison. pronounced the conjugal union illegal.IN FRANCE.. thus founded in fraud. perfection of their happiness the pope interfered. Pope Sylvester 11. to act . and by the exercise of his sacred authority. w^ho became king of France in 997. whom the view of no misfortune could move. or their diin never liberated. was a complication of iniquity which Robert declared to the pope that he would rather die than commit. Robert II. papal intrigue has constantly intermeddled with the other. from which he was The Capitian dynasty. But the obdurate and savage-hearted holy father. The dynasties of empires and the political events of nations are so intimately connected with the domestic affairs of royal families. and unsupported by a shadow of legal right. and to declare his children bastards. Eobert not having purchased of the church an indulgence for marrying a cousin. vine right to rule by virtue of their descent.

fortified by such jealous guards as effectually protected them against the encroachments of exe- . by which priests. Kobert agreed to a separation. . as if they were stories w^ere circulated that she . destructive monsters. which had the head of a savage and the tail of a serpent the poor. . Consternation seized the populace and priests. courtiers and people fled alike from the sight of the amiable couple. through the repeated requests of Bertha. who became king of France in 1180. and perhaps unsurpassed in the records of history. . This act.266 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES ceeded ta pronounce a sentence of excommunication against him. and taking the viands from the royal table dashed them into the fire. had given birth to a monster. he placed his wife at the mercy of licentious conciliated the vengeance of the sacerdotal monster. saints the bells were tolled night and day religious worship was suspended in the kingdom and no funeral ceremony allowed to be performed. The immaculate Bertha was declared polluted . and allowed her to retire to a convent.. now fled at her approach her domestics broke the costly vases which adorned the palace. on whom she had been accustomed to bestow charity. Accordingly the churches were draped in mourning the picures of the images of the . During the reign of Philip II. The charters which the subjects had obtained from their princes secured them in the enjoyment of many important civil rights. . the province of Languedoc enjoyed an eminent degree of liberty and prosperity. This act was designed to call into requisition all the appliances of the pope's machinery in blasting the happiness of two persons. shrouded in black . At length. whose worth was unequaled in the kingdom.

and to put to death every man.. excommunication In addition to this insulting manifesto. to change their religious views. On account of this determination. nephew of Raymond VI. and mixed with the most . ing in numbers and popularity. woman. for the purpose of exterminating the reformers and This authorized desperado. 267 This liberality in their political consti- tution encouraged liberality in religious inquiry. the Count of Toulouse refuse to oblige the pope by taking up arms against the Count of Beziers. in spite of the vigorous counteracting efl'orts of his appliances of bishops. which received the appellation of The pope finding this sectary increasthe Albigenses. . to compel the Albigenses. cutive power. At the flourishing city of Albi these progressive ideas assumed a definite shape in an organization of the people. As Raymond of Rogers. delicate sense of and the pope pronounced dictated by a high sentence of duty and honor. youth and infant. The butchery was frightful. priests and monks.. ordered Raymond VI. As this army of mur- derers approached the city of Carcassonne. immediately commenced the work of blood and devastation. Count of Toulouse. which consequently led to doubts of the pope's right to tem- poral power. posing on them a horrible oath that they would exter- minate the Albigenses without pity for the cries or tears of their wives or children. through the energetic co-operation of the pope's political machinery. soon collected a numerous army of crusaders and imtheir allies. by force of arms. an order was given not to leave one stone upon another. against him. had declared in favor of the reformer.IN FRANCE. Count of Beziers. he commissioned his legate to raise an army of the cross.

PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES To arrest the horrible work Raymond of Rogers offered to resign his authority. was prolific of formidable avengers. " God hnow moved on those which are his. when a^peace was concluded with Raymond IV. it against the uprising of was incorporated into the French empire but still the war raged. With execrable treachery the legate pretended to be willing to negotiate but no sooner had he betrayed the Count into his . But the soil sown with the bones of heroes. the chiefs of the army of the cross declared to the legate. Caros- sonne fell . were weltering in their gore. nor did the nage cease until the inhabitants of almost every town in Languedoc. and thirty thousand men. The murderous army step .268 fiendish acts. it but not being able to defend the people. without distinction of age. sex or As an express creed. who con- stantly shook the throne. Raymond by this base treachery. that among the crowd they could not distinguish the heretic from the Catholic. carnage. its and rendered it a calamity to His son succeeded him blood-stained occupant. the pope bestowed upon him the devastated domains as a fief of the church." . or disgusted at Tired of the terrible atrociousness. upon condition of his purchasing absolution at an enormous price. . women and its dren were butchered in one day. and enriched with the blood of patriots. reward to Simon de Monfort for having surpassed all others in hardihood and cruelty on those days of blood. until 1226." replied the holy legate. and ceding the greater portion of his domains to France. blood flowed at every at Beziers car- sixty thousand were put to death. will " Kill on. power than he incarcerated him the removal of in a dungeon.. where After chil- he died after experiencing years of suffering.

. means But the policy of Philip. the despotism. transjDorted with rage at the irreverence and independence of Philip. and Edward L. interdicted worship in dominions. and by an insidious policy subjected it more France. of France. Among the privileges which the popes arrogated was the right to arbitrate the contro- which arose between independent sovereignties. the Holy See. enabled him to resist the intermeddling of the pope with the rights of the crown nay more. ascended the throne of Eome had perpetually encroached on the rights of the sovereignty of the government. Pope Boniface VIII. The irascible pope. affairs of This officious intermeddling in the a sovereign state was resisted by Philip with patriotic firmness. and extending the jurisdiction parliament over the crowned heals. wishing to enjoy the advantage of dictating the terms of adjustment. and suspended the dispensation of the of grace. of and more versies to its influence. as the tyranny of the holy father had ren23* dustrial classes." or deputies of the peojDle. A dispute having sprung up between Philip IV. had fortified in the affections of his subjects. but discontinued by in his Hugh of Capet. arbitrarily attempted to interfere in the controversy. in extracting the life-blood from the in- had weakened popular attachment to The liberality of the king nullified the virtue of the Vatican thunder and the generous support which he commanded from the people. in introduc- ing the "third estates. when Philip IV. while the papal him establishments. which had been instituted by Charlemagne. and his at the recollection of his liberal governmental all religious views and measures. 269 In 1285. . and from a faction of the priests. of England..IN FRANCE. . .

places him in hell between Pope Nicholas III. Accordingly.. he was. dered him unpopular in Italy. emissaries were sent to Eome who. and having refused all sustenance in confinement for fear of being poisoned. shortly afterwards released hut as his character was black with crime. . which would have disgraced the chiefs of barLouis. elevated the literary standard of the nation by the introduction baric nations. fox. the duplicity and treachery which has in general characterized the history of the papal in- trigues obtained an illustration in the conduct of the popes. who became King of France in 1498. " he entered like a reigned like a tiger. and Pope Clement V. and he died in a paroxysm of rage and fear before arrangements could be completed for his trial. dragged him from his despotic throne. with the expectation of certain degradation. relieved the industry of his subjects by reducing the burden of their taxation. From this ignominious predicament . upon receiving the royal diadem. and died like a dog. During the reign of Louis XII. cy of a prince whom and who was capable of taking revenge. and cast him into prison. seizing the holy father while he was defiantly seated in ihe apostolic chair." His condition after his death may be variously conjectured . chagrined and mortified at the loss of his dignity and the insults to his holiness. his constitution broke down. however. pardoned the wrongs which had been done to him while he was duke. by theologians according to their different creeds but Dante. who was a Catholic.270 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES it placed him at the merhe had insulted and exasperated. it was determined Depressed to summon a council for his deposition. According to Catholic authority.

a holy league. the mutual distrust excite. Faithful to his obligations. and of inducing that republic to unite with him in a league with Spain. before his election. and secured his influence in gaining the sacerdotal crown. Having succeeded in this strategic measure. of scientific disposition.IN FRANCE. and the adroitness with which they managed to his machinery. Spain and Germany. He accordingly formed tion of the Venitian republic. Louis fought with distinguished bravery in the pope's cause. and displayed a n-oMeness of and a capacity for the exercise of the gov- ernmental functions prophetic of the highest degree of national prosperity and greatness. England and Switzerland. against France. difficulties gave him the ability to conciliate his with the republicans. Pope Julius II. among the and the conflicting interpretations" of the terms of the compact But the finesse eventually dissolved the holy league. 271 collections. called the " League of Cambray. Germany and France then called a council at Pisa. selfish who was too jealous not to hate superiority. His heroism won encomiums from all but from the holy father." with France. for reforma- . and too sagacious not to perceive that in the further developments of his aggressive designs he was bound to encounter in the heroism and honor of Louis a powerful antagonist. allies. his ambition led him to grasp at another object which he conceived Louis's friendship might be made That object was the obliteraaccessory in realizing. which he engineered of the pope. had professed the warmest friendship for Louis. The form- idable valor of the Venitian republicans in the defence of their government. too for sincere friendship. for the accomplishment of his object.

and unpatriotic Catholics.. false friends. Valentina Visconti. which he inherited from his grandmother. he was preparing to ruin his cause. in the mutual friendship of the projectors. excommunicated him. appeared on the confines of Italy. entered into a and pretended to favor all his But while he was flattering his hopes. and interdicted the celebration of Louis was now asreligious worship in his kingdom. .272 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES .. To weaken his resources he secretly sent Bambo. to Venice to detach its alliance from France and though this treacherous mission was unsuccessful. and the Pyrenees. and body of the church at the bar which they summoned the pope. to explain his conduct. order to secure the confidence of Louis. while his kingdom was internally convulsed by treacherous priests. he had to surrendered all his possessions beyond the Alps tion in the head of . Pope Leo X. he convened a council at the Lateran and causing a decree to be passed declaring Louis to have forfeited his crown. saulted by the English at Guingate. to contend against these formidable antagonists. plans. . The success of these schemes depended on The pope. by the Swiss at Dijon. concocted a scheme for obtaining for his family the kingdom of Naples and At the same time the duchies of Ferrara and Urbino. and reduced Louis to a formal submission. Louis entertained a design of reconquering Milan. governed by motives of nepotism and ambition. yet when the French secret alliance with him. by the Spanish at Navarre. who succeeded Julius II. crafty Unable spies. his legate. he increased his finally power by the purchase of Modena. But scorning the mandate of the synod.

273 ately I. was soon lost by the conquest of Charles V. dence Francis concluded a concordat with him. Genoa. of England After a war of four disastrous years. After this signal and generous triumph the belligerant powers became reconciled.IN FRANCE. the emperor cap- — — tured Francis.. whose policy has ever been to foster wars and controversies between governments. which league was afterwards joined by Henry VIIL. to defeat this enterprise formed Milan.. and to ransom himself by the payment of 2. and immedicommenced preparations for the re-conquest of Pope Leo X.000. But Milan.000 . Milan. France recovered Milan. A days and nights. an alliance with Milan.. Florence. and the surprise of the or superstition of world. Asti. which had cost France so much to win. active hostilities were soon commenced. and which was protracted without intermission for two Switzerland. Flanders and Artois. Germany and In 1515 Francis bloody battle ensued in which tigers and giants seemed to struggle with each other. the pope yet the pruwas reduced to the last extremity . against Francis I. Emperor This prince having of Germany and King of Spain. received the news of pacification with chagrin and disappointment. that it might improve the consequent confusion and disorder in aggrandizing its power. Artois. But the Holy See. This event was hailed by the friends of humanity with united acclamations. upon such liberal terms as excited the dissatisfaction of France. formed a league with Pope Leo X. obliged him to relinquish his claims to Naples. ascended the throne. to dismember his kingdom by surrendering Burgundy.

apprehending in own subjugation. Scorning the mild but able services of reason and conciliation. united in an alliance with. Holy See. and thinned its ranks their victories a plague. it counselled the most sanguinary measures.. to arrest the dangerous of his umphs new rival. with fearful mortality. Holy See being threatened by the successes of of the the allied army. massacres. Francis all the former antagonist of the Roman See. two great factions the one in favor of Catholicism. the rapid progress of Protestantism and the fearless boldness of its advocates.. Confed- erating with pire. II. But the ambition and his indomitable thirst for the reconquest of Milan. Amid the flattering successes of the papal intrigues. and the most deplorThe French nation was divided into . succeeded to the crown of France. Pope Clement VII. and perhaps in the event of the trihe drove Charles before his umph of Charles not perfectly secure. able conflicts.274 crowns.. Solyman Sultan of the Ottoman em- The interest forces. Pope Paul III. The . and induced the belligerents to conclude a truce of ten years. who.. peace of Cambray. and tri- the Italian powers. broke out in the French army.. assassinations. In 1559 Francis II. The records occasioned great uneasiness to the of the times are consequently filled with accounts of disorders. in Europe. interposed his friendly mediation. led This circumstance led to the of Francis. son of Francis I. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES The popularity and victorious marcli of the German emperor now alarmed them with his I. soon him to violate the terms of this covenant. the . allies succeeded in humbling the pride of Charles but in the midst of more fearful than their foes. the jealous fears of the holy father.

IN FRANCE. became equally heated in the defence of their faith. all the zeal and of obwhich their hopes and fears of eternity could inspire was awakened in the defence of their religion. factions had been eduit cated in intolerent principles in the belief that error . and destructive of the rights of conscience. While the Protestants who. who had supervision of the clergy. monks and the Catholics were made to believe that the relig- ious disorders which had convulsed the empire were but a prelude to an intended extermination of all Bomanists. having the power. of the papal machinery of bishops. membered. reason and religious liberty. who absurdly believed that their church afforded the only possible method taining eternal happiness. idolatry. embittered against each other by mutual provocations and injury. other in favor of Protestantism. were incapable of pacification by just and reasonable The Catholics. and Henry. on the other hand. demoralizing in its tendency. the uncle of the . spies. were concession. of opinion Both . believed that Catholicism was of escaping the pangs of purgatory. Duke of Guise. that a difference of opinion was a sufEcient justifiBoth factions being cation of hatred and persecution. To narrow-minded bigots. nursed amid convulsions and barbarity. to the credit of the Protestants on the Protestants the deeper injuries it will ever be re. was perilous to the soul that rendered a person a proper object of aversion and denunciation and. that they sought not foes. enabled to inflict and. educated in the principles of bigotry and intolerance. to exterminate their but to obtain equal rights with them. The Cardinal of Lorraine. subversive of Christianity. abbots. 275 By means priests.

died. and Pope Clement VII. she was ready to support any faction or creed that ad- ministered to her power. Although a bigoted Catholic. united with the Calvinists for the overthrow of the regime. and employed her art in stimulating the opposiniece of tion of the reformers to the administration of the Duke Under these circumstances a conspiracy against the duke was formed at Amboise. Prince of Conde. In the midst of the distraction of conflicting parties Francis I. under pretext of religious zeal. it disqualified her for She even studied to incapacitate from the state of national end in view she involved them in her sons for the exercise of the governmental functions. she was incapable of either originating a great national object. and inaugurated civil war. were both uncompromising in their hostility to the Protestants. w^hich led to a murderous onslaught. his mother. and his brother Louis. jealous of a power in which she could not participate. with the acquiesence of parliament. and to divert their attention affairs. yet having no principle but the love of sway. in 1560. admin- istered the affairs of government.. King of Navarre. or of supporting it by adequate measures. or removed an obstacle to her ambition. of Guise. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES who directed tlie military affairs. Without profound views of policy. favored the designs of Louis. Catherine de Medici.. that it So indomitas able much ob- durated her maternal feelings as a judicious regent. being excluded from the gov- ernmental administration. With this . and Charles IX. Louis was captured and condemned to death. Antony of Bourbon.276 king. succeeded to the throne at the age of ten years. Catherine de Medici. mother of the hing. was her passion for dominion.

and Coligny. This exasperating conduct brought on a collision. belligerents came to a decisive engagement. redeem her pledges and in spite of the opposition of the court. blood. Dreux the The The Duke of Guise designing to crush Protestantism by Btriking a blow at Orleans. Duke of Guise. the art of Perfect in dissimulation. confusion but to conciliate the Protestants she had to . Irritating taunts were mutually exchanged between the two parties. pursued the Protestants with his cru- pitiless revenge. war igand the empire divided and distracted by the The duke. headed by Francis. admiral of France.nr pitANCE. its centre. and Conde captured. The bigotry of both factions stained their cause with deplorable excesses. ties. was passing a barn in which some . elties and the Protestants retaliated Desperate conflicts perpetually took place. The lines of party became now distinctly drawn. Anxious to obtain the support of all par- To she alternately favored the one and the other. in which sixty Calvinists were killed. to issue an act of toleration in their favor. she cajoled Catholics and Protestants. Protestants were defeated. was assisted by the English and the Catholic faction. the grossest dissipation. and the land was drenched with with fearful retribution. headed by the Prince of Conde. The Protestant faction. hostile conflicts of the two religious parties. the flames of civil nited. was assisted by Spain. Calvinists were singing psalms. at the head of his forces. embarrass the Duke of Guise she threw everything into . At a season of intense public excitement the Duke of Guise. commenced ac24 At the battle of . and strove to keep 277 them in a perpetual whirl of voluptuous intoxication. with a band of adherents.

The losses were heavy on both sides cluded. The arts of Catherine. Civil war consequently broke out. and formed a conspiracy to assassinate the king. A severe and bloody engage- ment took place at St. the stipulations of the treaty of ists still Dennis. Protestants . wife of Philip II. made a tour through the empire in company with him. which they had agreed to . The susshe picions of the Calvinists were immediately excited they precipitately armed themselves for defence. another treaty of peace was con- But the and dissimulation of Catherine only made treaties w^hich contained the elements of fu- ture wars. declared to be of competent age for the exercise of the royal functions. King of Spain. her control.278 PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIGUES . tive preparations for tlie enterprise but while lie was engaged in them he was shot by Poltrot de Mercy. Advising peace in his last moments. Contrary to St. and the suspicion and fervor of Protestantism. tranquillity was restored to the empire. . the Calvin- continued to hold places which they had concorrespondence tracted to surrender. a prominent Catholic artifice leader being killed. Aspiring to rule with more absolute power than she had hitherto been able. whom she heM helplessly under This accomplished. terms of conciliation were accordingly offered the Protestants. and to continue with England and Holland. Dennis. They satisfied neither the Catholics nor the and were evaded by both. which being accepted.. a Huguenot nobleman. soon convulsed the nation again with the disorders of civil war. At Bayonne the young king had an interview with his sister. Catherine conceived the idea of having the king. the intolerance of Catholicism. but Montmorency.

The inflammable material religious bigotry. hands of the latter tyrant. commanded Catholic faction .. that they were unconditionally accepted. The Buke the Henry Conde. at the head of a Protestant army. had. afterwards another intestine war. Amid these discomfitures of the Protestants a peace was offered them on terms of such extraordinary generosity by the Catholics. III. and at the battle of Montcontour and Coligny was defeated. Guises. and caused him to take an oath to shed the of his last drop of his blood in the defence . retired from the In French court nots. Conde was captured and shot. on hearing of his father's death swore to revenge cluded rendered him destitute of means and arms.IN FRANCE.. Queen Jeanne d'Albert placed her son Henry. this retreat she declared herself in favor of the Hugue- When her son was but eleven years old the II. Beam. after the death of her husband. Queen Jeanne d'Albret. when he was but sixteen years old. Conde's son. King of Navarre. Henry his of Navarre. detected this it. . provoked of Anjou. At the battle of Jarnac. together with these circumstances. in order to avoid the intrigues to of Catherine. and of placing him in the Elizabeth. kingdom and religion. Conde. however.. devised a plot for depriving the young prince of his hereditary possessions in lower Navarre. but the peace which had just been conHis mother. 279 of break off. in conjunction with Philip King of Spain. The sagacity of Queen of England. and Admiral Coligny headed the Protestant faction. her hereditary possessions. subsequently Henry IV. conspiracy in time to frustrate this base In consequence of machination. murder.

daughter of Maximilian II. that the it with suspicion. at midnight of the day fixed. and Henry. son of Francis Guise. in interest guished Protestant leaders were earnestly invited to be present at the celebration of the royal nuptials. and the other between Margaret. All the distinious plot. Fearing treachery honor. on Bartholomew's eve. Emperor of Germany. The bloody all Catherine. The king swore to punish the villain w^ho had attempted the assassination. Charles IX. Prince of Navarre.. His mother assured him Coligny had the same designs on his life. in collusion with this ambitious and bigoted duke. the church bells an- nounced the signal ery. more cautious Protestants reThe next device in this insid- was a specious pretence of uniting all parties and harmony by the bonds of two marriages. the queen's sister.. All having been concerted for a general massacre. occasion many of them. Henry Duke of Lorraine. declined the the Amid the magnificence and festivity of Queen Jeanne d' Albert was poisoned. The terms it accorded were so surprisingly advantageous to the con- quered garded forces. Bursting into rage he exclaimed : " Kill every Protestant — kill Coligny." Catherine then held her council of blood. the one between the king. and Elizabeth."280 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Guise. Shortly after Coligny was wounded by a shot from a window. concocted a plot for the total extermination of the Protestants in the French empire. became the commander of the royal army. for commencing the horrible butch- Wild shrieks and murderous clamor immediately . however. The peace which had been concluded with the Protestants at Jarnac and Montcontour was but the preliminary measure in the accomplishment of this horrible project.

Meeting even babes. and though I would rather lose it. " finish your work. Besme. becoming impatient entered the chamber. Take the blood sixty years of war have respected the assassins. and plunged in into Coligny's breast. '* Spare none . it is shook the rine's it air. but Rome was 24* were perpetrated. women assassinated night . At this denun." said he. were seen daggers dripping with the blood of men. terrific yells and screams that filled the air. arose from his bed and opened the door of his mansion. drew his sword For thirty days every part of the kingdom the most atrocious acts men and and day babes torn from their mother's arms were murdered before their parents' eyes. Doors were burst open . Over this dreadful calamity the friends and foes of France might have together wept. the commander of the gang. 281 God's. knees one of them threw away his dagger another embraced the knees of his intended victim. who had waited in the court for Coligny's head. it is Cathe- is the king's order. women. flight he courteously invited them into his "Companions. the ruffians and his upon their ." shouted the Catholic leaders as they led on their gangs of remorseless bigots. chamber. yet take My life is of little conseit quence. ciation one of them averting it his head. fell calm. In the red glare of terrifying flambeaux. and the courage of all dissolved into tears.IN FRANCE. and seeing the assassins overcome by humanity denounced them as traitors to Catherine. and The people without means of defence or saw they were doomed to perish without mercy Coligny awakened from his sleep by the or revenge. majestic countenance. Coligny will forgive you. ." in defending Touched at these words. you.

Foiled in this scheme. resolved to . . and the portentous disasters which overhung the empire. This device defeating the designs of Cathlife Henry. priests formed themselves into holy processions to testify their joy. To hold Henry spell-bound in the power of her fascinations. or the fiend that rejoiced over After the in- cidents of that of day Henry of Navarre and the Prince Conde had on the to profess Catholicism in order to save their lives. trophe. calamities of the nation to her ambition. the victims of the catasit. we which most to pity. cannons were fired in honor. When we consider the atrociousness of the massacre. thousands. tracing the of sensual pleasure. she next added to the by attempting to dissolve the marriage which. jubilees were proclaimed. . and the pope. he recanted his Catholicism. had just been consummated. jealous of the authorship of atrocities that shook the world with horror. convinced Catherine of her error and Charles. are at a loss and the exultations of the holy father. churches were shaken with the -peals of thanksgiving.282 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES its illuminated. through her influence. she spread around him all the voluptuous allurements his spirit broke the thralls of her But the native magnanimity of enchantment and secretly escaping from a corrupt and besotted court. she then erine of ignominy of her character sought to poison the happiness of the royal pair. for slaughtered relatives and citizens. and placed himself at the head of the Protestant League as King of Navarre a title which he had rightfully assumed since his mother's The revenge which was now rife on the lips of death. had medals prepared to immortalize his right to the honor of having originated the most horrible massacre on record. .

added suspicion to the popular discontent. Catherine. Henry Guise became sufficiently powerful to dictate laws to the He him to to annul all provisions in favor of the reformers. After Henry III. his profligate disposition. and carried his insolence so far that It the king forbid him approach the capitol.. his in his But being then King of mother. but it had also a secret object. a peace with the Huguenots. Henry III. atone for his past neglect by governing himself : 283 tlie empire but death too soon deprived him of an oppor- tunity to make this atonement. By her machinations he was kept imprisoned in the royal palace. even while dissension was shaking his government. occupied with frivolous intrigues and stupefied with debauch. and afforded dinal Lorraine. Henry Guise a by CarThe professed object of this league was to defend Catholicism. had returned to his domains. giving the Guises increased influence in the government. succeeded to the throne. On the death of Charles IX. and treason plotting his downfall. Besides the unpopularity which his neglect of national affairs engendered in the minds of his subjects.IN FRANCE. Poland. the support of obliged the papal machinery. was .. was permitted to govern Catherine immediately concluded name until he should be able to assume the ad- ministration himself. By king. and extirpate religious liberty . his brother. his perfecting a league which had been projected marriage with the Countess of Lorraine. and his want of decision and firmness made him the dupe of his mother's intrigues. which granted them religious liberty But this liberal concession exasperated pretext for the Catholics. which was to usurp the throne.

defiance the king called on his troops for assistance hut so eifectively had the pope's machinery operated. the king in having reconciled to but that his open treason would justify him assassinated. events occasioned to the hopes of the Papal See. Such was the helplessness of the king that he had to fly for safety to Chartres. they decided that the duke was too powerful to be enemy. drove them away. brother of the Duke of Guise. Every department of the papal machinery was now set in the most vigorous action. and to conclude a treaty with his Upon the assembling of the Estates of Blois. brought to trial. orders for his assassination. and thirty thousand papists sprung to arms in the defence of the duke. not enter Paris. gave secret . The Serbonne. absolved him the pope threatened him with excommunication and his assassination was publicly preached giance to . gave headed by the of Mayenne. which league was supported by all the resources of Pome.^ and Cardinal Lorraine met the same fate in a dungeon. .284 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES discoTered that the duke intended to kidnap the now ting. Paris and the principal cities of France were incited to declare against Duke the king. In a few days after this event the duke was stabbed as he entered the royal palace. the duke boldly violated the king's command. The severe disappointments which these melancholy rise to a holy league against Henr}'' III. that the people attacked the royal troops.. and usurp the imperial authority. imprison him in a monastic dungeon. that he should At this . . Appearing to be him he then partook of the eucharist in company with him but while he did so. Conscious of his power. the highest Catholic university the subjects from their alle- in the empire.

IN FRANCE. and established again his authority in the empire. gave birth to much violence and disorder. defeated his enemies.. found a Dominican monk who executed her vengeance by the assassination of Henry of the king. Henry of now of set in vigorous operation to prevent establishing a legal right to his heritage. The papal machinery which in vain had been called into requisition to destroy him. By this politic act of humiliation and entire and obtained from the pope a concession to his right to the crown. however. which of all others he must have able . decided to profess the Catholic faith. . Conspiracies were female intrigue abounded. still formidties. rife. III. was . king of Spain. But in sacrificing prinhe acquired for his subjects political security religious liberty. claimed the crown and several unsuccessful attempts were made to But the valor and sagacity of Henry assassinate him. But by a fortunate coalition with Navarre the king defeated the pope and his league. ciple to expediency he did not conciliate papal malice.. at the head of the Catholics. and . him from The Duke Mayenne. subjects sincerely detested. 285. which never forgives an offence. against . and triumphed over all difficulThe papal machinery was. convinced that the blood of his must continue to flow as long as they were governed by a Protestant sovereign. declared him Philip II. and scruples at no means to remove an obstacle. nor secure tranquillity to his reign. re-captured Paris. in the churclies. bigotry and intolerance finally. left no male heirs consequently Henry Navarre became the legitimate inheritor of the throne of France. and Henry IV. Yet the Catholic church.

as well as and encourage the second. . who became King of France in 1610. and Madame Maitenon. children were imprisoned. Innocent men. on account of their liberal proclivities. But w^hat is unfriendly to republicanism . The papal machinery during the past reigns had demoralized the nation. The national policy was characterized by a system of falsehood. labored to defeat the first machinery has always vigorously. the papal political universally.. the papal symbol of and temporal power. corruption and intrigue. the bane of national peace and virtue predominated in political circles and public robbery and extravagance laid the foundation of a debt which ultimately broke down the government. the papal machinery was directed by Cardinal by M. who governed and the cabinet. Tellier. .286 1>APAL POLITICAL INTBIOrES the long-premeditated assassination of Henry IV. was accomplished by Ravaillac. and consummated the governmental absoluteness which had been initiated by Louis XL Division of power being more friendly to justice and republicanism than consolidation. his prostitute. murdered and Female intrigue. had secured . The political security and religious liberty which were annulled by the repeal of the Edict of Nantes. women and burnt. who governed the king his confessor. and Catholic into the subjects Henry IV. Under Louis XIII. Princes of the blood were excluded from the throne. Richelieu gave boldness craft to the national policy. spiritual who stabbed him to the heart with a double-edged sword. is destructive to national prosperity and consequently the papal intrigues and appliances in favor of absoluteness in France destroyed the greatness of the nation. Richelieu.

foolish enter- prises absurd laws. intriguing Despotic ministers. ers and spiritual guides that " to dissemble was to reign. to disguise their made to conceal real ones." and that " to become a great man it was necessary to become a great villain. given France a free constitution." The consequence was national Mock treaties were weakness and demoralization. professed rakes in the garb of and cardinals. and accu- mulating on the heads of the people an insupportable load of taxation cind misery. for political regeneration. were the deplorable results operation of the pope and his political engine. tyrannical. cious favorites.IN FRANCE. From the ruins of the . prodigality. intentions. place. three hundred and seventeen nobles. and other liberal authors were awakening a spirit of inquiry in the public mind. corruption priests and tyranny withering the vitality of the nation. It finally took . and drove thousands of subjects to seek a livelihood under less oppressive government. bigoted. and criminal rulers had oppressed the industry of the country. rendered the conflict between monarchy and republicanism inevitable. But while such were the calamities which Catholicism was maturing. a national assembly con- vened consisting of three hundred and seventeen clergymen. the eloquent writings of Voltaire. and six hundred and seventeen deputies of the people all of whom took an oath never to separate until they had . of Rosof the seau. and kings. acted differently from what they thought. rapaprostitutes. and preparing the way The smouldering fires of freedom which burned in the breast of the nation. 287 tolerance again domineered over the lives and fortunes Kings had been taught by their teachof Protestants. the majesty of the people was vindicated and. A succession of weak.

feudal tion. The monarcliy a republic arose in majesty and power. for they both . the laws excluding Protestants from offices of trust or profit. and denying them the right of inheriting. While he stood at the height of his fortune. It is not.288 PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIGUES. it was by the genius of Napoleon Bonaparte. The people left it swept away the despotism of the throne. surprising. leaving flickered. estates were abolished without indemnifica- The invidious game laws. but made remaining in the national councils a wreck of oppression. To obtain this 'the freedom the nation had poured out its blood. grew dim. and who loved were in conflict with his designs nothing but himself and supreme dominion. and. acquiring or bequeathing propnities erty. . were swept away by the spirit of liberal government. they preserved . the confidence of mask fell from his brow. But nation had been educated in Catholic bigotry and . which . while they its elements to be reconstructed in another form. But the boon he sought his ambition defeated. with the conquest of Europe else in his grasp. the hereditary descent of officers. and all that the toil of the papal machinery had accumulated on the heads of the people. might have outrivalled the splendor of the greatest. and soon vanished away the world as much astonished at the obscurity it left as it had been at the efi'ulgence it had emitted. . the church tithes. The freemen forsook him and his glory. licanism as much as he hated papacy. intolerance tutors the lessons and now it visited on the heads of its which they had taught. then. advocate. the feudal tribunals. the ecclesiastical revenues. but always its foe who hated repub. the exemption of church dig- from military taxation. that so easily betrayed once its hard as their freedom was won.

WiTTiKiisrD the Great. Papal Inirigues in Austria in Prussia and in the Nether- I —of Henry Intrigues in — — — — — — — — — — — — — — lands.CHAPTEE XIV. after a vigorous thirty-three years against the arms of Charlemagne. and the Franks were supplanted on the throne by the Saxons. hundred years. of Louis of Bavaria of Charles IV. the secular power had to continually struggle against the intrigues and usurpations of the Papal See. ' PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIOUES IN GERMANY. Prom the time that the Carlovingian dynasty was established until the dissolution of the empire in 1806. the confederate of the pope. but prudently nullified them by placing him 25 . Prom motives of policy the emperor conceded the spiritual claims of the pope. The pope's claim of being the disposer of crowns. of Albert I of Henry VII. of Ferdinand 11. Papal Germany under the reigns of Otho IV. acheived something of a triumph in 962. of Frederic I of Frederic II of Conrad IV. and the source of secular power. But in the events of one the conquered became the emperors. submitted to be baptized to spare the further effusion of the blood of his subjects. resistance for King of Saxony. when through a crafty policy the pontiff bestowed the diadem on Otho. of Henry V. ofSigisTnund of Charles V.

was led to violate his oath of allegiance. to swear allegiance to him. he required the latter.290 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES under his authority. but in a priest was aggravated by the additional crime of hypocthe emperor could not do less than depose him. so mutually antagonistical. Henry III. He also held the papal . who became Emperor of Germany in 1046. and violation of a solemn treaty in a layman would have been a capital offence. who was John XII.. Virtue. was too unpleasant it to be toler- ated longer than weakness made unavoidable. This judicious check on the intriguing policy of the Papal See. risy In the papal monarchy virtue and ability were seldom conspicuous. the latter sumptuous as false. could not .. could not but be encour- aged in the subjects by a sagacious monarch and vice. — — did little else than corrupt it. and to fill the papal chair during his life with men of his own choice. the indulgent mother of fraud and imposition. and the Koman See to enter into a solemn agreement wdth him that henceforth no pope should be chosen except in the presence of a Germanic imperial commission. In the progress of the conduct of the papal and the imperial policy. of Germany were far better men than the popes of Eome. Pre- Pope John XII. and generally when either appeared in its administration. had to depose three popes. and to take up arms to acquire inependence of secular authority. but be cultivated by a crafty and ambitious priest. the foundation of public order and concord. While Otho acknowledged that he was emperor by the grace of God and the pope. it was less the offspring of CatholThe emperors icism than of the Germanic authority. treason. For this act of perwhich jury. While the first labored to reform the church.

" which he condescended to accept. or the appropriation of any church property without his sanction. Pious. governed by the advice of Archbishop Adelbert. The impolitic and tyrannical conduct of Henry JV. and committing brutal and violent acts. The conseablest quences of this proceeding eventuated in such a favorable crisis to the papal designs. considerable damage was done to some churches in Saxony and Thuringia. his efforts to over- awe his subjects surrection. The whole- some effects of his severity won commendations even from those upon whom they were most rigorously enin proof of which it may be stated that the forced clergy spontaneously bestowed on him the title of " The . and artfully intrigued for an opportunity to remove them. that. The emperor. eagerly watched. iDitterly groaning under the jealous restraint which had been imposed on it by the secular authority. as a providential circumstance designed to aid its the success of long cherished design. by building castles. perhaps in its eye. In 1056 Henry IV. 291 and forbade the be- stowal of any spiritual dignity. had the pope projected and engineered them they could not .IN GERMANY. to rule his people through the terror of his Neglecting to guard popular interests. appeared. These disorders gave Henry the opportunity of gratifying his revengeful feelings in accusing the inhabitants before the pope of sacrilege. alone can secure popular attachment. and of entering their territory and perpetrating the most barbarous cruelty. attempted. The Papal See. monarcTiy under strict surveilance. ascended the throne of Germany. which authority. produced only dissatisfaction and inIn an outburst of popular violence pro- voked by his imprudence.

much His subjects disowned their allegiance deserted to him . The tyrant a fallen foe. his friends . anathemas on the head of the monarch. under pain of excommunication. Pope Gregory VII. him . who could impose such conditions in on could also have been guilty. act so irritated the pope that he began to lavish.. the exercise of his power. his soldiers disobeyed his orders and he found himself helplessly at With a refinement of malice ful and irritated priest. had deprived him of the affections and support of his he commanded the unpopular monarch to appear before him. The injured and exasperated inhabitants appealed to tho pope. but his vices had too disembarrassed the action of the papal machinery not to allow it to disable his power and revenge. and obliged them This daring to renounce their allegiance to Gregory. forsolicit for three days an interview with the to sacerdotal despot. and then obedience to him in all things. having ascended the papal throne with- German court. Henry at first treated this display of arrogated divinity with scornful indifference. that seems to do credit to papal ingenuity. the the mercy of a revenge- emperor mally to w^as required to dress in penitential robes. eagerly embraced a cause which enabled him to assert his claim claim to inout the consent of the dependent sovereignty. with unsparing liberality. But the promise unconditional acts of tyranny carry with them the seeds of retribution.292 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES have culminated more propitiously. of inflicting injuries on his subjects which would . and supremacy over all secular Fully aware that the tyranny of Henry authority. moned a council of bishops at Worms. at least. In punishment for this ferocious w^arrant the emperor sumsubjects.

IN GERMANY. sources to subject the incorrigable monarch to his absolute authority. and threaten so its subversion. By the operation of his skilful machinery he was enabled suddenly to create a conspiracy in the heart of Germany. effected his degradation. set about to counteract it. and now the misfortunes of Henry appearing coalition to render him an available agent in the accomplishment of their designs. so clearly indicated by the principles of the papal monarphy. Clement HI. a sorcerer. This was precisely the case with Pope Gregory YIL He had oppressed the Italian provinces to such a degree that the inhabitants longed for an opportunity to depose him. is and fearfully illustrated in its history. A knowl-^ 35* . and had dealings with the devil. in the papal chair. they proposed a with Mm. for the deposition of the emperor but the . summoned a council of German and Italian bishops at Brixen. to whatever extent they obtain a controlling influence in a government they tend to abridge its sovereignty. The pope becoming acquainted with this secret machination. and by proving to their satisfaction that Pope Gregory VII. ' 293 he calculated to excite a disposition to revolt and retaliation. or by any obligation of oaths. incapable of being restrained by any sense of gratitude. tion of his defeat he now sought to beguile the mortificaby hurling anathemas at his obsti- But the temper of Henry not disposing him to indulge the chagrined pope in insolent sports. was a heretic. This tendency. The ical to spirit and pretensions of Catholicism are so inim- secular authority that. and placed nate head. vigilance and valor of the latter defeated the revoluHaving in vain exhausted all retionary movement.

his second son. he sought to have this atro- cious act sanctified in the eyes of his subjects by being This Pome by it the pope — Paschal II. his whom he had crowned as his successor. operating through its varied machinery. The prudence. had wrung from his father's hand the imperial crowned cord at sceptre. in elevating him to the papal dignity. and after it had murdered him by degrees. nor arrested the papal machinery in its insidious and treacherous operations. After Henry V. he exacted. a concession to the Holy See of all the rights and 2:)rivileges which had been claimed for it by Pope Gregory VII. By the implacable revenge of the Papal See. in 1106. he was deprived of power. courage. prohibited the interment of his anathematized corpse consecrated ground. sanction of unfilial conduct the pope was willing to ac. as the only condition on which the favor could be granted.294 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES edge of this unliappy truth will prevent surprise that the munificQiit favors which Henry bestowed on Pope Clement IIL. . After he had subdued him. in fostering the elements of discord which existed in the empire. eldest son was instigated to rebel against him. obliged him to surrender into hands the imperial authority. Nothing but the surrender of the principles of sovereignty will ever conciliate a pope to the authority of a secular government. should not have caused the repeal of the anathemas ond excommunications which had been pronounced against him. but as seemed to present an opportunity for making a good speculation. reduced to scorn and in neglect.. and talents of the king were hence constantly called into requisition to His defeat the secret machinations of his enemies.

Soon as Henry had quelled the insubordination in Germany. dragged the pope from the altar while he was celebrating mass.IN GERMANY. and caused Bourden. having obthe latter deposed him. and he felt the importance of check- Boldly denying the papal pretensions. Disturbances occurring in Germany. In the meantime the pope. but with a secret disposition to render them nugatory at the first opportunity. to Italy to punish the author of the calamities of his reign. the pope was agreeably relieved of the embarrassing restraints of the emperor's pres- To suppress the Germanic revolution the skill and valor of Henry was occupied for two years. Galatius assembled a council of bishops at Vienna and . having the control of the papal machinery. were enabled to oppose. in order to nullify the concessions which he had made. organized an Italian conspiracy against the emperor. VIIL. and rejecting with indignant contempt the proposition of army on Rome. designs of the pope. To be restored to liberty and luxury Paschal. the policy of Henry in every part of his dominion. where he shortly afan enemy of Henry. under the name of Gregory II. to be substituted in his place. with great success.. determined that he should there remain until he consented to crown him without any condition. he therefore returned ence. But Pope Paschal evaded the designed chastisement by absconding to Apulea. and casting him into prison. he marched his the pope acceded to all the terms dictated to him by the emperor. 295 he saw the ambitious Henry . Pope Galatius the tained papal dignity. terwards died. The deposed pope and his cardinals. This proposition startled ing them.

exercised towards the rebellious cities created a des- perate opposition to his authority. convened one at Kheims. the chief source of the public discord. had. Henry was compelled to Worms. that in order to restore tranquillity subscribe to a concordat at nounced the right of Frederic I. and exercised an important influence in stimulating the valor and energy of the people.296 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES excommunicated him. Alexander fled III. of on the approach Frederic to France. The increasing opulence and power of the Italian and Lombardine cities owing allegience to Germanic authority. succeeded to the imperial throne in 1152. which obliged the emperor to Pope visit and chastise the insurrectionary districts. The the spiritual and temporal crown world which Koman See attempted to manufacture out of the . and to any interfer- ence in the consecration of bishops. by which their freedom was finally of the achieved in the treaty of Venice in 1177. The cruelty which the emperor had . produced revolts and usurpations in Lombardy and Italy. A league was then formed between the pope.. bursts so frequently disturbed the public peace. . the ambitious aspirations of the Papal See for illimitable dominion. and the Greek empire against Frederic and for twenty years the calamities of war were protracted. at the beginning of the reign of Frederic I. and repeated the sentence the nobles broke out in frequent rebellion and finally such insubordination prevailed in the empire.. in which he reinvestiture. and excommunicated him. its and the insidious operations of machinery in producing public taste and opinion in harmony with its desires. and such violent out. Venice. Calaxtus II.

knights. and literary institutions of Christendom it elaborated.~ IN GERMANY. after supineness had allowed it to amass supreme and despotic power. confessors transmitting to Rome every important fact from victims an admiswhich ecclesiastical interests required the establishment with its preachers and spiritual guides manufacturing. of its aggressive course the voice of reason During the progress and patri- otism had often lifted up remonstrances against its advancement but the eloquent tones died away unheeded amid the clamorous chaunts of superstitious rites. formidable and frightful reality. with its machinery ramifying the political. the appearance of a stubborn. to awaken another in the dust. . . . the period of Pope Innocent III. the antagonism of the people began . fishhooks of St. Peter. to be energetically manifested. It is the fate of des- potism of every form. sowith its cial. and deluded devotees with its inquisition extorting sion of every false charge of . With the profound policy which and the systematic course of measures which it adopted. assumed in the progress of the papal political intrigues. and at all places. the papal despotism was no more a pretension. private and public opinion suitable to its demands by perverted facts and false statements and with its army of monks. power destined is to trample That power the strength which slumbers in the popular arm. strength of when it it has developed the full its all-blasting power. accommodated to all exigencies and pursued through all periods. When . But now. and fortify itself by every means of defence. sycophant it had at princes. servile kings. 297 it however visionary might orig- inally have appeared. subjugated Christen- dom under its despotic authority.

the papal policy succeeded. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES when it stood distinctly before the world generations. and then religious through the Albigenses and Waldenses uttered is that memorable peal. wit to ridicule its pretensions liberty. and its usurping hand grasping clotted with the blood of at the crowns of earth.. heaven and hell. princess of Suabia. but of establishing the authority of Ger- . which the latter inherited from his mother. affairs. But the pope soon found that his intrigue had vested with power a mortal foe to the Papal See. ing began to scoff at its Then learn- claims. investigation . wishing a of Constance. research to expose its .298 but a fact. Frederic II. was nominated regent during more pliant instrument. then the abrogation of the system of . which as an destined to reverberate undying tone through all future ages. was history. and began to perfect their internal organizations by the establishment of corporations then appeared the first universities. son of the emperor born at Philip. violence began to restore public security separate and then the members of the empire began to be assembled originating the principle and deliberate on public of the provincial diets. Then arose the free cities from their long degradation. Duke Frederic's minority. a murmur of horror broke from the lips of the world. and Philip being murdered. but the pope. surrounded by broken sceptres and crushed thrones. arousing the dormant spirit of free inquiry and . For Otho clearly manifested a design of not only wresting Sicily from Frederic. substituted Berthold.. with its feet on the neck of kings and people. Finding this scheme impracticable he recommended Otho. this illustrious period of Henry German VI. frauds.

but in order to bind him to his inter- he exacted a coronation oath that he would under- Frederic. and became sole sovereign of the empire.IN GERMANY 299 many as an inheritance. over certain possessions of Italy wliicli it claimed To counteract the mistake of his policy the pope took Frederic under his protectson. and selected the elements for his great enterprise. who desired to be acquainted with the The emperor replied that his coronation oath required him to undertake a crusade. and as the emperor promised to deal severely with the her- . he nity of a bishop. and versatility of talent that rarely have sprung from a royal cradle. However ungratifying reasoning was to the pope. although they transcended With the liberality and enlightenment of his age. and called At the into requisition all the power of his machinery. age of twenty-one years he crowned his protege ror of ests Empe- Germany . it. enjoytake a crusade in behalf of the church. and the fulfilment of it rendered it necessary to invest his this son with regal authority. and the advantageous co-operation of his machinery. this object. Frederic II. elaborated projects which. he could not refute it. The him possession of the to hope that he ful hierarchy of German and Sicilian crowns led would be able to repress the powerRome. soon defeated Otho. a grasp of intellect. and reduce the pope to the digImpressed with the importance of difficulty of its accomplishment. yet laid the foundation for their development in a future period. This act alarmed the jealousy of Pope Honorious motive of III. and the slowly and cautiously removed obstacle after obstacle. As a preliminary measute he caused his son to be crowned King of Rome.. ing the favor and influence of the pope.

however. and fire. yet in those of the people. In maturing his measures emperor for the restoration of the Italian empire.300 etics. he — undertake the promised crusade. The inexplicable mystery of Fred- conduct. Adopting the customary policy of the popes in their emergency. At length he set of his sail with his fleet. With a show of obecommenced prepar- ing for the enterprise. coronation oath. and though the pope frequently reminded him justify the eric's of the solemnity of his obligation. yet his apologies were so plausible that they seemed fully to delay. But the infallible by undertaking a vigorous crupope who had excommunicated him for not becoming a crusader. so interruptedly and slowly that it damped the consumed the provisions. he endeavored to embarrass the designs of Frederic by pronouncing sentence of excommunication on him. became greatly pacified. a crusade . the procrastinated for twelve years the fulfilment of his un- dertaking. who appears emperor to fulfil his it. The justice of this sentence being attempted to be supported by the failure of the the fears of the pope. and thinned the ranks of the pilgrims. but becoming indisposed home. but upon such an extensive scale. The return after three days' voyage returned formidable to army alarmed have equally dreaded the success of his arms abroad and of his presence at home. if not in the eyes of the pope. and suspending all religious services in his dominions. lie PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES and to exclude them from offices of trust or profit. excited the apprehensions of in Pope Gregory IX. Frederic endea- vored to nullify sade. and to get rid of his presence Europe he j)eremptorily demanded that he should dience to the pope's injunction. now excommunicated .

as well over the arms of the Turks as over the intrigues oppose his designs. not finding a bishop who would incur the papal ana- themas by crowning him. An act so generous in the emperor should have 26 . of weaken the power and popuh\rity That he might the emperor abroad. he ordered the bishops and knights of the of the cross in Palestine to dispute his army command and But the remarkable genius of by difficulties. undaunted of the pope. he performed the ceremony himself. He entered Jerusalem in triumph . He declared every church into which he entered profaned inter. While Frederic exacted from the pope what justice and self respect demanded. The success of Frederic filled Christendom with joy. when his vices and tyranny had excited his subjects into a rebellion. Frederic. dicted the celebration of divine w^orship in Jerusalem and such was hood.IN GEBMANY. in his customary visits to the river Jordan. that his influence with the chivalrous knightits members were found persons base how he might dispose of his victor. he interposed in his behalf and restored tranquillity. and. but the pope with indignation. During the emperor's absence the pope preached a crusade against tated his empire with his him in his own do- minions. and communicated the matter to the emperor to place him enough to secretly inform the Sultan among on his guard. by assassination. But the magnanimity of the Sultan rejected the proposition with contempt. made him victorious. 301- him for becoming one. and devas- own troops. he was so far from being disposed to treat him with unnecessary rigor that. and unimpressible by discouragement and reverses. organized a conspiracy against him.

pardoned his disloyalty. but so far was he incapable of any sense of gratitude. added been to the weight of sufficient affection. unhappily interfered with the natural instincts of the son's mind. At length. The success of the policy of Frederic comprehended a union of the hostile elements of his southern territory. and. the ignominy of attempt- ing to assassinate his father. who accordingly visited on excommunication. the subjugation of the Germanic aristocracy. that he instigated the emperor's son to conspire against him. Preparatory to in the execution of this policy he made some conquests his Lombardy These successes excited pope. in the . as amid head another thunder was music the emperor marched on from victory to victory. would have . and of the Italian cities in alliance with the pope. and led him to add to the guilt of his treason. the revenge of the But the Vatican its allowed to roll on. justified the emperor in proceeding to extremes but his native his son to per- magnanimity prevailed.302 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES awakened in the pope an equal degree of magnanimity. and he sentenced petual banishment. bud . The sense act of tude naturally arising from filial this clemency. should have would have subjected the son to the most affectionate subordination to the father. the emperor regarding his son and defeated more as of grati- the victim of sacerdotal craft than as a real foe to his authority. This atrocious act can- celling every obligation of nature. in its This conspiracy was detected. and assured him of the assistance of the Lombards. But the dispensations and to form a disposition which absolutions with which the church pretends to nullify social and civil obligations.

and brought them captive This manoeuvre broke up the council. though none for the character of the pope. his . 303 for striking a decisive development of the policy of Frederic. beof his came Pope Innocent IV. who professed a willing- ness to concede all his demands. Frederic felt justified.IN GERMANY. By a sudden movement he entered the papal The pope trembled on his throne. The preliminaries chiefly holding the proposed council it established the fact. in its proceedings. and perhaps broke the pope's heart. but the dignity making him regard the emj)eror as hostile to pope mon- . Cardinal Fiesco. whose son he had taught to rebel. whom he had anathematized. The emperor soon perceived. the time arrived blow at the heart of the public disorder. superstition blasted. whose subjects he had corrupted. The consummation of the policy of Frederic was in his grasp but the magnificent prospect which skill and valor had obtained. and whose downfall he had labored to effect. he intercepted a Genoese fleet of to Naples. as he shortly afterwards died. and conscious of the powerful dominions. pate in fore. but proposed that they should first be sanctioned by a council of the bishops of the church. that this specious proposition was but a popish device. there- forbidding the convention to assemble. he ventured to listen to the papal monarch. friend of the emperor. He saw monarchy at the mercy of an emperor. that the pope intended to have composed of the most inveterate enemies of the emperor in fact none but such were invited to partici. As his prohibition was disregarded. a warm . Having some reverence for the office. influence it wielded over the superstitious. but too for late. one hundred bishops.

Innocent IV. — to the intelligent that there was no real curse in the papal anathemas. with the arch-fiend and his artistical elaborations Though these effect. yet as the proceedure was merely the semblance of a judicial trial. to the ventilation of its hate. son of Frederic Germany in 1250. and the triumph of his arms which continued to his death —deinonstrated II. the priests. It seems to have concentrated its ingenuity in devising new and unheardof methods to give terrific importance guilty. converted His former friendsiiip into bitter annimosity. like fiends administer- ing at some infernal ceremonies. all Returning to Lyons. to sanction preconcerted malice and revenge by forms of lagality. and upon its conclusion suddenly extinguished them . While pronouncing these religious curses. An anathema was pronounced on the body and soal of the emperor. were not emperor's without some genius. peopled agents. whose policy became emperor of it was . the yet the vigor of the his vast popularity. and by the theatrical trick of uttering discordant shrieks and howls. seemed in the daikness of the cathedral to have converted the holy place into the lower regions. and on all his interests. council proceedings of this the In the most ridiculous and groundless charges were preferred against Frederic... magnanimity which he constantly displayed. lie confirmed against the aathemas that had been pronounced Frederic. Conrad IV. friends and allies. and though completely refuted by his deputies. and summoned him to to appear at the bar of a grand council be convened at that place. held in their hands lighted torches.304 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES archial pretensions.. the council did not hesitate to declare him any proof of innocence to the contrary.

istering poison to him. kept the pope's allies in check. Conradin. to profess 305 any friendship. relieved the by adminpope of a formidable adversary. and violate any obligation that contributed to his interests.. But Conradin entered Italy and defeated the usurper. he had more than his equal The courage and heroism of Conrad to contend with. had been excommunicated. to acknowledge his right to succes- because his father had been excommunicated. son of Conrad IV. his son could not inherit the throne. determined to complete on the son the vengeance he had commenced on Presumptuous as vindictive he declared the father. but while he was pursuing the flying enemy with too much reckless- dertook to bestow ness. and unit on Charles of Anjou. j^ope. that inasmuch as Frederic II. But notwithstanding a revengeful pope. he . was the heir to the throne. The world but the in- expected that his youth and valor could not but win compassion even from the iron-hearted tense hatred of the papal of which this monarch to the noble house intrepid lad was the last scion. pronounced him laid on him an in- and persecuted him by all the means which his power and influence afforded. defeated the papal army. he was captured by the vanquished. the last of the noble house of Hohenstaufen. and was about pects of success to enter Lombardy with the fairest pros- when his illegitimate brother.IN GERMANY. yet. On the ground of terdict this ridiculous pretext. whose malice through his machinery operated everywhere. would not 26* . He declared also that Conradin had forfeited his right of inheritance to the crown of Naples and Sicily. dispossessed of all his inheritance . The pope refused sion.

parties that the . and to expiate the guilt of his offence of such penance as should force compliance with this by the performance To eninjunction the pope formed be prescribed. being chosen emthe peror by the electors in 1298. Conradin was therefore. and the circumstances under which he met death. Making a sudden diversion into the electorate of Mentz. and interference in which are policy. though executed as a criminal honor. To re- the belligerent pope Albert effected an alliance with Philip la Belle. but sixteen years old. so strongly characteristic of the papal originate from See. of France. Albert I. derived their rights. of territory. agreed between the two conpope should give to Albert the possessions of his ally. was summoned by pope to appear before him and apologize for having accepted the crown without consulting his pleasure. Albert obliged the bishop to form a league with him It for five years. proclaimed himKing of Rome and declared that the Roman See was the source whence the Germanic electors . The pope then suggested peaceful negotiation rather than disastrous war. of an allegiance with the archbishop sist Mentz. a powerful military bishop. crowned his it memory with immortal while cast a deeper tinge of ignominy on the already blackened character of the pope. publicly but his heroism. and that Albert should acknowledge that the western empire was a grant as a fief from was finally tracting. and a former friend of Albert. The political usurpation affairs.306 PAPAL POLITICAL INTHIGUES permit him to allow an opportunity to escape of extinguishing it forever. the consti- tutional principles of the Roman In conformity with self them Pope Boniface VIII.

Louis IV. except to the character and good sense of the Roman See. Rome. the tyranny and ambition of the pope were held in decent check. and the tomb of the dead emperor but it is not supposed that they done any damage. which had been accumulating in fury for years. the coffin. la Belle. to invalidate the title of Louis to transfer to Albert During the reign of Henry YII. became emperor of Germany To arrest the encroachments of the Papal See on the rights of the sovereignty of the empire. bat which was too much overawed to utter a murmur. but whom he dared not anathematize. until the obnoxious constitution should this calamity be aanulled. and independent of the Pope of These patriotic proceedings seemed to the pope . of it and that he would defend the papal interThe pope then proceeded. final in its decision.. that the electors derived their right from the Roman ests See. who became emperor of Germany in 1308. the diet of Reuse framed a constitution. But Louis soon repaired by . by virFrance.IN GERMANY. with his arms. by Moltipulcian. and the Papal See was unusually quiet and respectable. tue of an excommunication. a Dominican monk. now burst forth with the most impetuous and indecent violence in anathemas on the soul. and officially I. v/as finally removed by poison administered in the sacramental wine. to his kingdom. whom the pope hated. ac- cordingly prohibited the performance of divine worship in the empire. which provided that the choice of the electors of the union should be in 1330. Soon as this event occurred the pope's vengeance. 307 the pope. the corpse. to be interfering with his rights and John XXI. of Bavaria.. . The emperor. in 1338.

but he declining. always inclined to make the vanity and ambition of his subjects administer to his aggrandizement. the crown was finally settled on Gunter of Schwarzburg. But Gunter being removed by poison. Pome as a por- Instead of improving this opportunity to extend the limits of his government. the ecclesiastical revenues and further added . visited Italy to negotiate for that favor. having equal authority with Pope John XXL. the papal policy triumphed in the coronation of Charles of Luxemburg. Charles IV. He also consented to impose a tax and Coron the empire to his for the benefit of the Papal See. not only to the city of Eome. Sardinia.. Pope Clement VII. and by his intrigues caused five electors to declare in favor of Charles of Luxemburg. he renounced all rights. wishing to be crowned by the pope at Eome. who. excommunicated Louis.. signified a disposition to accommodate the emperor.* This violation of the celebrated constituof 1338 induced ihree electors to assemble at Lahstein. oppressed by the papal administration. who succeeded to the papal throne in 1342. . they elected Frederic the Severe he also declining. in 1346. by accepting them he subjected himself to the scorn and derision of the world. nullified all his acts. in requesting Charles to claim the city of tion of his empire. but to the States Sicily. united tion .. equal to one-tenth of . Pope Innocent VL. but on such disgraceful conditions that. of the Church. they elected Edward of England. and declare the choice of Charles null and void and as Louis had died. sica. This self-degradation was much aggravated by the fact that many distinguished Komans.30S the creation PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES of Pope Nicholas V. to Naples.

period of of tremble on the verge de- struction but by a profound and unscrupulous policy. that could at burst. dangers thickening around him from quarters. Assailed all on all sides. at the time of Charles. until. The pope exhorted the electors to depose him instantly. and in proportion as mind was always power became op- . To allay the fury of this tempest he announced an intention of convening a council for the reformation of the clergy. in all their privileges. For this base sycophancy he was assailed by princes and people with a storm of indignation. pro- tected tirely them in all their possessions. he yielded to the dictation of the pope. aided by a political machinery whose various parts ramified every portion of the empire. but never an object of cast on the its reverence. and laws to the people. it had regained its supremacy in the empire and dictated treaties to the emperors. The dread it unpleasant. and for making liberal concessions to the popular demands. and confirmed the clergy and made them enFrederic inevitable II. and a system of crafty intrigues. might be an object of terror to people and princes. sanctioned all their abuses. A power . independent of the secular power.IN GERMANY. measures to the diets. but dreading less the indignation of the em- pire than the anathema of the Roman See. create its option excite or quell a popular out- or destroy a dynasty. But this attempt to calm the people aroused the indignation of the Papal See. at the The papal power. seemed to . and acted in concert through all ages and dynasties.. disgrace 309 by taking an oatli never to enter Italy without the pope's sanction. it had steadily carried its advancements through the blood of millions and the ruins of thrones.

the . The spirit of Germanic individualism led distinguished and bolder as it cal strength. in his authority. and his disciples. and the pope pledged his honor to protect him from harm. opposition and resistance were inevitably excited. The love of independence. on condition that should adopt the most energetic means for the extirpation of the heretics.310 pressive I'APAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES and disadvantageous. he was invited to respond in jjerson to a summons of the council. pretensions of the pope to denounce the profligacy of and to demand in the body and head of the church a thorough reformation. but conscious that his divine attributes and prerogatives were not adequate to the existing emergency. when Sigismund became Emperor of Germany. With the secret design of betry- ing the amiable reformer. displayed an energy prophetic of stirring events and important consequences. ing of a deliberative council. was John Huss. he was strongly averse to the assembl- the clergy . but it still grew in vigor. with emphatic boldness. became more conscious of its numerispirit. Prominent among the apostles of religious freedom. quiet his apprehensions of To danger. or to assume any approach to an equality with him. It might be cowered into silence. was ahvays a mortal foe to papal despotism. This men of the nation to deny. John Huss. Thus guarded by . the native individualism of the Germanic character. which rose into consequence at that time. in 1411. the emperor fur- nished him with a safe conduct. became more impatient as the pope became more despotic. The success of these reformers excited and alarmed the Hating any semblance of a right to participate pope. cil he consented that the Counit of Constance should be called.

he was. Sigismund obliged the Council of Basle to negotiate with them for This politic meathe adjustment of their difficulties. perfidionsly betrayed. that he ordered his legates to dissolve the obnoxious assembly. sure so incensed Pope Eugenius IV. defeated For fifteen the cross withered before their ferocity. and terminated. Seeing it impossible to restrain their rage. continued their useful session.IN GEBMANY. John Huss was terribly revenged. mising vengeance longed for the extermination of every opponent to papal despotism.. years they devastated the Papal dominions. The strongest armies of the imperial forces. and in defiance of his maledictions and intrigues. the advanced in liberality war with the Hussites. assurance. Churches and convents were burnt monks and priests The insurgents met and slaughtered without mercy. But the laity had and knowledge far beyond the possible attainment of a papal despot. . and being re- minded by a by-stander that the course of the wind might bear an offensive effluvia to the position he occu" The odor of a burning heretic can pied. Sigis- mund attended the horrid ceremonies . can standing. or oath. on the ground that no pledge. The The hitherto mild and submissive reformers became desperate revengers. answered : never be offensive to Sigismund. rightfully protect a heretic from punishment. 311 the honor of the state and the church. notwith- burnt and condemned to be The perfidy of the infallible pope is justified by the saints and authorities of the Catholic church. by peaceful concessions." stake became the watchword of union. alive. whose uncompro- The death of . and shook the government with the violence of their retribution.

When Charles heard of the success of his arms. To conciliate the Protestants diet at "Worms. when Francis I. and the co-operation of his extensive and eifective machinery. retrieve This effort to the errors of his jDolicy only aggravated his misfortune. feated The forces of the Holy League were deby the arms of Charles. His design was to conquer the world. interest. A Catholic from he was more disposed to make the pope auxiliary to the success of his designs than to be gov- erned by him. he leagued -with the pope and accomplished the defeat of the king but he was equally disposed to defend his interests against the pope. the city plundered. formed against him a to certain portions of the . . counter league with the Italian States. and his policy was to unite all parties in augmenting the national strength. at which. the pope imprisoned. in his presence. in Germany. Rome taken by storm. always apprehensive of the political power of friend or foe. and placed the papal interests at his disposal. when Char1519 became Emperor of he declared himself the defender of the Catholic faith. King of Spain. ous policy becoming offensive to issued the Roman he an edict against the Protestants.312 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES religious freedom The grand struggle between les and Catholic despotism was visibly approaching v. The papal monarch. to defend the principles of the reformation. Hence. To secure the favor of the pope. preferred claims Germanic empire.. But his ambiguSee. and four hundred thousand crowns of gold demanded for his ransom. he convened a under a plausible show of toleration he allowed Luther. seeing that his confederacy with Charles had vastly augmented the latter's preponderating power.

and tured. at negotiation. throne. The emperor by strategetic movements. occasion On this the emperor dutifully kissed of the feet of the papal monarch. and finally succeeded in dissolving the league. crowned Charles Lombardy and Eome. 000 crowns. which was joined by France. This princes to menace led the Protestant form the Smalkalden League for the pro- tection of Protestantism. and the emperor barely escaped amid the darkness of a stormy night from being capThe council was consequently dissolved. Two years afterwards a holy league was formed by the Catholic princes for the proAfter some abortive attempts tection of Catholicism. mas the as after the peace of King of Pope Clement VIL. ordered masses to be said in all the churches for his deliverance from prison. the Protestant league raised the stand- ard of war.IN GERMANY. attending the Council of Trent. By the terms .. and in alleviation of his misfortune reduced the ransom to 100. Maurice suddenly appeared at the head of an army. the Protestants dictated the terms of peace at Passau which the emperor 27 ratified at Augsburg. The power it of Charles overavving the papal prudently refrained from venting in insulting anatheebullitions of its wrath. the Pro- and by testant creating jealousy and divisions confederates. But Maurice of Saxony had secretly formed another league. King of While Charles was at Innspruck. affection ifested The cause against this and harmony was an intolerant significant shortly afterwards man- in edict the Protest- ants. in evident 313 moctery lie dressed himself in mourning for the pope. among obtained important advantages over their arms. Cambray in 1592. Henry II.

broken down in health and constitution. sons should be allowed to change their residences that bishops on becoming Protestants should forfeit their office and salary .814 of PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES was agreed that no one should be his. in executing exterminating vengeance on the heretics. The one was known as the " Catholic League. where he passed the remainder of his life in making wooden clocks. and conceiving that he was haunted by some invisible power which blasted all his prospects. . where an oath was administered to him by the pope. When he ascended the throne Germany was divided two factions. tutelage he made a pilgrimage to During the course of his Home. King of Spain. and comprised the into bishops and princes attached to the house of Austria. and the bigotry and prejudice which had been instilled into his mind by Catholic preceptors made him an accomplished instrument its in the hands of the church.. and that every Protestant should en- joy his faith until a religious compromise should be established." The Catholic League was headed by Maximilian. Ferdinand II. that no one should be molested in the enjoyment of his property or mode . He was by nature of a morose and revengeful disposition. justed by pacific means . succeeded to the crown of Germany in 1619. that if he should ever become emperor he would exterminate heresy in his dominions. this treaty it attacked on account of religious belief . enfeebled in mind. that persons for religious rea. elector of Bavaria. abdicated the throne and retired to a monastery.of worship that religious disputes should be ad." and the other as the " Evangelical Union. and in performing his funeral ceremonies. Charles.

IN GERMAirr. the army of Tilly in Lower Saxony. the emperor's favorite. Ferdinand succeeded in having himself elected king. the quest of the Palatinate bestowal of on Maximilian. because it allowed them to build churches and schoolhouses. to exclude Calvinists from the benefits of the religious peace of Augsburg. Union. 315 TKe Evangelical Union was headed by the Duke of Wittenberg. Notwithstanding the Protestant influence in Bavaria. ish oath ^ He then showed his remembrance of his pop- by persecuting the Protestants. a member of the Evangelical This revolt benefited the Evangelical Union A desperate and bloody by a powerful accession. and composed knights. enabling him to dictate a treaty which crushed the Protestant cause. he proceeded to restore the ecclesiastical institutions which had been abolished by the Protestants. Besides these decrees. the elector of Saxony and Brandenburg. and depopulating the kingdom by an intolerance which caused emigrations of whole sections from The victory of his troops near Prague his dominions. After this event he tore up in a violent rage the charter which Rudolph II. banishing their preachers. enforced by the military power. Palatina. struggle was imminent between these two parties. had granted the Bohemians. and dissolved the Evangelical Union. the conof Frederic. giving the Catholics the ascendency in the electoral college. where no that dignity . of A number Lutheran and Calvinistic princes and of the princes of Bavaria assemchose for bled at Prague. elector of the their king Frederic. and to require Protestants living under in Catholic princes to believe Catholicism. and declaring that they would not sub- mit to Maximilian.

and finally. but his intrepidity cost him his life.' and delivered the Protestants from their perilous situation. the two powretire from Bavaria. policy the Swedes still continued a triumphant career. espoused its cause. were such gross violations of treaties. strategetic allies to thousand veterans. depriving the Pro- testants of their churches. resistance. fortunes of the league. committing wanton violence on the Lutherans. resource in the defence of religious After some successes the confederated forces were defeated.316 existing PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES enemy made it excusable. and the Protestants lost all that they had acquired At this dark hour in the since the peace of Augsburg. soon annihilated Tilly's army. that the Protestant princes unite in and such strong incentives to were impelled to a league with the King of Denmark and of Holstein. By the terms of the peace of Westphalia Calvinists . reduced the imperial extreme conquered Lower Saxony and Bavaria. and compelling thousands to abandon their homes. Wallenstein assumed Having raised an immense and formidable army. Tilly having died. victoriously marching through the empire with incredible rapidity. Through a wise command. battle of Prague. Gustavus Adolphus. erful armies came to a general and decisive engagement the genius of Adolphus crowned his arms with victory. property and country. determining to the Duke exhaust every liberty. with an army of thirty His heroism. after the dictating the peace of Westphalia. acquired the same rights with Lutherans princes were . and indomitable valor distress. skill. at Lutzen. the new general was enabled to attack Adolphus with such overwhelming force that he compelled him to In 1642.

to persecute subjects on account of religious all acquisitions of Protestants . less pernicious to Austria than they had been to other powers. her son. Though the consequences of the treaty have been of the most benignant nature to Europe. and Gertrude. was enabled to command a strong party in support of Frederic of the project. the sister of the deceased duke. Albert and Rodolph. still the Papal See has. to claim the duchy as their inheritance. declared the duchy a vacant iief of his empire. Pope Innocent V. so prolific of disastrous wars. since the peace of Augsburg were confirmed sect. Germany. the death of Duke Frederic. Upon 11. liberty of conscience. On the death of Maria Theresa. 317 bound not differences . original oppo- The papal were no its ruler. through all periods its maintained. The Margrave Hermann. After a war of thirty-six years the dis- pute was settled by the interference of the emperor Eodolph. Maria Theresa was a very devout and superstitious princess. and the exercise of all modes and the independence of this Switzerland and of the Netherlands acknowledged. a circumstance which enabled the sacerdotal fraternity to gain and betray her 27* confidence. with unabated animosity. sition to the invaluable treaty. persuaded Margaret. who gave it to his two sons.IN GERMANY. succeeded to the throne of Austria. entire equality of of religion were guaranteed. . by the aid of the pope and his machinery. Joseph. But in making her an ob- . his neice. Pope Innocent X. strenuously protested against it inflicted peace. and appointed over it a governor. intrigues. complaining in bitter terms of the deep injury on the church.

but also with the disguised hostility of the pope. seditions and rebellions. yet not daring to ing. Uneasy ter his Vatican thunder. to dissuade him from the further prosecution of his beneBut notwithstanding the earnest reficent intentions. he pursued his magnanimous policy and if he did not effect . was not appreciated by the masses through the ignorance and superstition of the age. This wise and sagacious policy. annulling ecclesiastical sinecures. the emperor still continued to reduce the number of the monasteries. which relieved the people of the oppression of spiritual despotism. But still. sought a personal interview with the liberal minded emperor. and in the various departments of the government. tolerating the Protestants. beheld him enlarging the liberty of the press. but the church with consternation. and the subtle operation of his treacherous machinery. and renewed the vigor of national energy. The emperor not only had to contend with opposition from those for whose moral advancement he was laborat these useful reforms.S18 PAPAL POLITICAL INTPvIGUES JGct of their craft they duplicity having excited in the made her son their enemy. treating the Jews with moderation. Pope Pius IV. . amid wars. and to effect reforms in the churches. he no sooner ascended the throne than he manifested a disposition to adopt a policy more in accordance with the enlightenment of the age than was agreeable to the pope and the clergy. mutand finding his machinery unable to atop their progress. monstrances of the vicar of Christ. and abolishing such monasteries and nunneries as were not useful as schools or hospitals. Their mind of Joseph a strong aversion to the intermeddling and intriguing profession. The world with pleasure.

or in fact had the abilThey subjugated the Baltic seaboard. and finally their power was broken. became the slaves of spiritual despotism. continued by incredible barbarity. and a ferocious war was inaugurated. dered and oppressed by the knights. For fifty-three years they carried tribes. during which the knights lost a great portion of their territory. won from Conrad of Masovia a small strip of land on the Vistula. was more through the intrigues of the pope than through any want of disposition. and in it government. this All who yielded not to . whose avocation it was to enforce conformity to the demands of Catholicism by the vengeance of the sword. in 1226. The various orders of knights. under the male line of Prince Albert. that he had contemplated.IN GERMANY. from the Oder to the Gulf of Finland. grossest This war. . the Teutonic Knights. skill and energy on his part. and wrung from her her maritime commerce. ity to inflict. ceeding Prussia. they inflicted deeper injuries on her than the savages of the Prussia had ever contemplated. Under pretext of protecting Poland from the ravages of Prussian heathen. argument were threatened with extermination all who did. on a war against the Persian to and finally obliged them embrace Catholicism. and her northern line of Poland and Prussia having both been plundefence. culminated in In their protection of Poland perfidy. united in a bond of union against their common enemy. fifty In the various vicissitudes of the sucyears the knights became abolished in and their possessions converted into a heredi- tary duchy. all 319 liis the reforms in the cliurch. suggested by papal craft. was an important part of the papal machinery.

remonstrated against the measure. . The haughtiness of the cardinal. and the severe measures he introduced to intimidate the people. In spite of in- tolerant edicts and excruciating torture. irritable in his temper. As . and the people fled in crowds to England and Saxony. intrigues with regard to the Netherlands. his son and narrow in his views. transcended even Charles in the and implacable in his inhumanity of Cardinal his measures towards his Protestant subjects. fierce and imperious. Granvella having introduced into the Netherlands the inquisition. Philip reAlva. thousand Protestants erance. a more cruel and implacable tyrant. called Cardinal Granvella. Prussia. gave his mandate a terrific importance. without humbling him by the salutary lessons of misfortune. Death. a bold spirit of resistance was excited in the provinces. the Prince of Orange. of fruitful Under the reign fell sanguinary and deplorable conseof Charles V. Philip. produced great disorder and alarm. became the kingdom of The papal were quences. this man knew of nothing but to command cessful. for the extirpation of religious freedom. in conjunction with other distin- guished personages. one hundred a sacrifice to the papal intolsuccessor.320 which. the usual penalty of disobedience to his com- mands. The nobles conspired to defend their rights the Protestants boldly celebrated their religious ceremonies. hate. This remonstrance was regarded by the government as an act of treason. Sixty years of warfare always suc- had familiarized him to deeds of blood. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES under Francis III. and expect his subjects to tremble and obey. but appointed in his place Proud. in a despotic tone.

law and usage. sent him to Spain as a hostage. and seizing on his son. by reconstructing them in a judicious confederacy. a sagacity which no subterfuge could deceive.IN GERMANY. Orange to appear before his and that prince having refused on the ground of his exemption by privilege. now declared himself a Protestant. or whose fortunes excited a prospect of increasing his own. vexation and defeat until he had laid a solid foundation for the freedom of the provinces. and a magnanimity which commanded the admiration of the world. he struggled through discouragement. he now illustrated the obduracy but of with which it is capable of debasing humanity. not only of the present the absent. a heroism which no danger could appall. soon as lie 321 of tlie Kad assumed the direction lie Netherland provinces. The noblest of the nation fell under the axe of his executioner and as avarice had always been a prominent . established a council of blood by means of which he condemned all whom he suspected of heresy. trait of his character. thousand dollars for either his apprehension or his In 1584 the noble prince was shot dead by Balthazar Gerard. under the name of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. he declared him dispossessed of all property. Philip hence declared the prince an outlaw. and drew his sword in favor of religious freedom. who confessed that he had been instigated to the deed by a Franciscan monk and a . and offered a reward of two hundred and fifty assassination. and inducing them to renounce allegiance to Spain. by con- fiscating the property. not only of the living but of the dead. The prince. Having tofore a liberal-minded Catholic. By a perseverance which no difficulties could prostrate. herecited the Prince of council.

tolerance gave it Its . until its soil became Jesuist priest. But though the founder of the republic its defence was continued with insuperable still and valor. in the Westphalia treaty. replete with heroism it imity. the cemetery of the military strength of Spain. full recognition of . fell a victim to Romish treachery. a knowledge of navigation and its enterprise. its maritime contes. population . After a and magnanwrung from Spain.ts. war of thirty years. energy .322 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES. its freedom. commerce trade and prosperity. Army after army sent against the republic was annihilated by the indomitable bravery of its troops. a independence.

PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES TUOAL AND SPAIN. church and of Alphonso. The his own constitution. —Sebastian— Philip II — Joseph I — Maria FranIsabella— John VI — Pedro VI — and Dona II — Dionysus cesca the Maria. . In Spain. the king was prohibited under forfeiture of the crown. tugal. under Philip Charles the reign of Peccarred I — Charles V — III II— Philip III— Charles II— Charles IV. in the cause of the national independence.CHAPTER XV. the independence of the nation. and the laws and constitution which were prescribed. By a provision of the constitution. under IJSf POP- reign of Alphonso I — Sancho — John II — Emanuel — John III. in 1139. in order to secure the papal support. In Portugal. But notwithstanding this proud interdiction. from becoming tributary to any foreign power. which probably sprung from the religious tolerance of the Moorish regime. subjugated the Moors of Por- was saluted on the field by his army dominion the Cortes Lamego invested him with regel authority and Pope Alexander III. in violation of victor as king of the conquered . — a7id Ferdinand VII. acknowledged his legitimacy. a fief of Pv-ome. Alphonso in the course of severe conflicts which afterwards took place between him and the kings of Castile and Loon. made his kingdom. .

which had disturbed the peace dation. of the kingdom from its foun- In order to moderate the selfishness and tyranfirst ny of the and second estates. . a perpetual contest with the intrigues of the Inflexibly firm and resolute. artful attempts to extend their landed estates . and to subject the temporal to the spiritual authority by an insidious and gradual encroachment on the rights of the crown.324 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES In consequence of tliis concession to papal supremacy. became involved in a dispute with the clergy and upon appealing to Pope Innocent IV. .. opposed with prudence and firmness the papal intrigues. By elevating the dignity of the commonality.. succeeded his crown. in con- sequence. Sancho II. he erected the cities into a third estate. composed of the clergy and nobility. he awakened in the nation a spirit of its indomitable enterprise which laid the foundation of subsequent policy cost greatness. to the regal dignity. his reign was. John II. Dionysus. had the misfortune to lose Alphonso III. of Spain. who succeeded Alphonso III. became King of Portugal in 1450. to his successor. he defeated their . During his administration Ferdinand and Isabella. This liberal and enlightened him the friendship of the papal court. and taking advantage of the commercial resources which the geography of the country afi'orded.. and determined to transmit them unimpaired clergy. Jealous of the rights of sovereignty. of equal legislative authority. but he disarmed its malice by an admirable course of prudence and courtesy. in 1245. to obtain exemption from taxation to acquire for their persons and possessions an independence of secular jurisdiction .

in their capacity of spiritual advisers. succeeded to the throne of Charimbibed the beneficent toleration of his sire. as they are the most insidious. and least liable to be suspected. the crown and people. the priests. with more liberal views of government. improved the injudicious measures of Spain. population.. The Jews had arisen in Spain into considerable political influence ers of the . he invited the persecuted minion . to the advantage of his own kingdom. Germany. its The craft of priestly policy might conceal hostility to its tolerance from public perception. its hatred against the Hebrew by a persecution as unjust as it was impolitic..IN PORTUGAL AND SPAIN.. and driven into exile. and their characteristic avarice had rendered them obnoxious to the people. Devoid of the finer sentiments of honor. but machinations for subversion would be no less incessantly at work. Emanuel. added largely to the wealth. son les v. scruple not to abuse 28 . they had become farm- revenue . to command its support. prosperity and im- portance of the nation. but which was too antagonistical to the sister of Portugal in 1495. insti- tuted a rigorous prosecution against the Jews. of He married Elenora. by which thousands of them were deprived of their fortunes. Discarding the intolerance of his religion. John II. rectifying the evil Instead of by adequate measures. Jews to his doand by affording them a peaceful asylum. 325 governed by the spirit of Catholic intolerance. In the pious system of sacerdotal intrigue the amiable qualities of human nature are the most available. were made instru- mental in gratifying race. He had spirit of Catholicism. which had been so advantageous to the nation. influenced by the church. of John II.

now relieved of all restraint. the inquisition was introduced. subservient to their of ecclesiastical intrigue is own purposes. Having acquired a controlling ascendancy over the king's mind. he gave a fatal blow to the tolerance and The implacable hatred of prosperity of his kingdom. To escape the persecution to which they were exposed. hoarded for so many John III. penetrating all secrets. By whatever so inconsistent Emanuel was spirit led to promulgate a decree so injurious to the national welfare. The vigilance of the papal machinery. and with the tokrant for he had manifested. A years. yet he had its the humanity or sagacity to procrastinate execution twenty years. life. was crowned King of pliant tool in the hand of papal intrigue. Emanuel.. exhibited its fiend- ish barbarism in deeds of exterminating cruelty. lover or tlie parent.326' PAPAL POLITICAL INTPvIGL'ES privileges accorded tKem. administration. and a crusade and . while they secretly observed their ancient rites. and thus to ameliorate the horrors with which it was fraught and to place the development of the catastrophe beyond the period of his . in making the influence which a female may exercise over a husband. the church towards the Jews. In order to discover the persons self-preservation who thus consulted of blood and the dictates of consciences. she was induced by her spiritual advisers to extort from him a promise that he would require the Jews to embrace Christianity under pain of being reduced to slavery for considerations. son of Portugal in 1521. This species illustrated m the conduct of Queen Elenora. soon detected this evasion. like a monster with a thousand eyes. the Jews practised the externals of Catholijcism.

by the express injunction of his father's will. during his reign. 327 devastation preaciied against the whole Hebrew race. he might acquire some distinction for his name. the governor of Moroco. instrument of Catholicism for the accomplishment of its atrocious designs. disposition. Sebastian conceived that by aiding the conspirators with his personal valor and military forces. or subjected to . and reduced to the same flexible Inclined to extravagance by temper and subserviency. When he . Muley Mohammed having conspired against his uncle Muley Moloch.IN PURTUGAL AND SPAIN. his grandson. by the Jesuists. in order to express his devotion to the pope. his ambition the pope absolute his devotion to became singularly whimsical and his thirst indomitable and unquenckable to engage in some enterprise in which he might shed the blood of infidels and heretics. arrived at majority.. and some advantages for the church. at the age of three years succeeded to the throne. The dictates of prudence . and consequently was moulded to the same purposes. "While John III. was the wretched Sebastian. who in 1557." cism led At the age of twenty years his restless fanatihim to undertake an expedition against the . Their property was confiscated torn were from them and placed under Catholic control aad they themselve reduced to slavery. The success of his forces against these defenceless mountaineers led him to imagine that his arms were invincible. was educated. unoffending infidels of Tangiers and suddenly falling on the astonished inhabitants. their children the tortures of the inquisition. and educated by bigotry and craft. gained an easy victory over them. he assumed the title of " Most Obedient King. .

in order that he might have the darkness of the night to cover a retreat. he sailed for Africa. Spaniards. comprised of Portuguese. should such a measure become inevitable. Although the number and skilful sellors. in which fanaticism had supplanted principle. ery. the papal machinery began to work industriously in its favor. the protestations of his ablest counand the munificent offer of Muley Moloch to purchase his neutrality by the cession of five fortified places on the coast of Africa. yet his Sebastian fought with distinguished brav- surpassed. and despotism humanity. outraged. providence in aiding him to butcher the that he even refused to defer the engagement until the afternoon. were feeble remonstrances to a mind like that of Sebastian's. again attempted to negotiate a peace although some of . nearly exhausted although Muley Moloch. and all of those of the conspirators a retreat to the coast. The martial semicircle of the Moors enclosed his forces in a volume of destructive flame. although Sebastian's provisions were . the Portuguese commanders advised a retreat. Collecting an army of twenty-one thousand three hundred men. and landed with safety at the port of Alzira. yet so confident was Sebastian of the interposition of divine infidels. and their disciplined valor . more con- cerned for the safety of the misguided fanatic than from any apprehension of the success of his arms. disposition of the Moorish troops left little doubt of their triumph. To popularize the hazardous undertaking. and a fleet of one hundred vessels. desperate fanaticism was equalled. Frenchmen and Italians.328 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES and sound policy. Germans. and exiled by his intolerance. if not by the heroic courage of those who had been tortured.



and skilful manceuvres completely annihilated them. The bodies of the vanquished that strewed the battlefield










of their persons being identified


Sebastian's corpse being among the number, his actual death became doubtful. This circumstance, twenty years afterwards furnished the papal machinery with a

convenient opportunity for manufacturing a bogus SeBut although Joseph Taxera, a Dominican bastian.

monk, traversed Europe to enlist the imperial courts in its favor, yet the numerous spurious Sebastians that had sprung up, and the eagerness of several crowned heads to seize the kingdom, defeated the object of his mission. The controversy was finally settled by the battle of Alancatura, which, crowning with victory the arms of

of Spain, one of the claimants,


Portugal to the dominion of Spain. The religious frenzy and whimsical ambition of Sebastian, the result of his Catholic education, cost Portu-

gal the flower of her nobility, the strength of her army,

and her national independence overloaded her with debt, and degraded her under the dominion of a government distracted by unsuccessful wars, and governed by a rapacious and unprincipled administration. When

John III,



introduced the


into his

kingdom, the


Portugal was


under the intolerant measures of his administration, its power began rapidly to decline, until its disastrous connection with Spain secured Guinea, Brazil, the Molluccas, and all its downfall. the fairest dominions of Portugal were wrung from
her grasp. Spain oppressed her with rapacious tyranny 28*



England and

Jesuists monopolized her trade,


the calamities which had visited her in such frightful
succession exhausted her resources.

The capacity of the nation

for greatness,


standing the degradation into which she had sunk,

animated the patriotic Portuguese with the hopes of a national redemption. In 1640 a powerful conspiracy was formed against the Spanish regime, and in 1750 the



independence of Portugal was achieved, and Duke Pombal, an elevated to the throne.

statesman, and the prime minister of the gov-

ernment, regarding the Jesuists as the origin of the

weakness and disgraces of the government, and believing that their secrecy, dissimulation and treachery, absolved him from any obligation he might assume with
regard to them, inconsistent with the public good, became
a member of their order that he might acquire a correct knowledge of their principles and mode of operation, and be qualified to counteract their pernicious machinations.

pletely deceived

With profound dissimulation, he them that they admitted him
all their secrets,




timate knowledge of

plans and de-

After having fully obtained his object he
exposition of
their secrets.


a public



the dangerous principles of their constitution, their political


the oaths by Avhich they were bound,

the baseness of their intrigues, their false professions,
their horrible deeds,


their disgraceful rapacity



the exposure which he was enabled to

make he succeeded
structors of

having them removed from the

important position of confessors to the king, and in-


in colleges.


also induced Joseph





from the missions
" auto-da-fe" of



abridge the power of the bishops ~ and to prohibit the




Jesuists not being able successfully to

arrest the

progress of reform determined to assassinate the king;

but failing in this attempt, the whole order
political organization



the ban of the kingdom, and were officially declared a

under the mask of religion, and members expelled from the kingdom as enemies of the public peace, and traitors to the government. Pope Clement XIII., enraged at this summary destruction of

the most efficient department of his machinery, endeavored to intimidate the reformers by threats of excommunication, and commissioned a legate to adopt any


But kingdom; and as the conduct of the holy father in protecting and defending an organization of traitors and assassins, implicated him in the guilt of an accessory, all connection
to arrest proceedings against the

his legate

was promptly escorted

out* of the

with the See of Rome was declared dissolved until the imputation should be removed by the abolishment of
the Jesuistical
order. The vanity of Pope Clement could not permit him to suffer such a mortification, and

the decree of dissolution was rigorously enforced



his successor, at the hazard of disproving the papal in-

complying with the demands of Portugal, amicable relations were re-established.


the death of Joseph
his eldest


in 1777,

Maria Francesca


daughter, succeeded to the royal

dignity. The superstitious temperament of this queen, and her natural infirmity, which terminated in confirmed mental alienation, disqualified her for the admin-


governmental powers on sound prinpolicy, and surrendered her to the

istration of the
ciples of public

control of a corrupt priesthood

and ambitious



the intrigues of these two classes, which
sacrifice the

seldom scruple to

popular interest to their

personal advantage, Pombal was deprived of his useful
political influence,


most of his regulations w^ere aboland Portugal, from the dawn of a magnificent future, sunk into the obscurity and lethargy of her
former condition.
In 1817 John VI.,
the throne.

who had been

regent during the

imbecility of the queen, from 1795 to her death, ascended


spirit of

French republicanism

erted a liberalizing influence over Europe generally,

and had apparently a similar
sacerdotal craft

on the pope and his

Those who did not understand the profoundity of might have been stupefied with astonishment to see a pope, while professing to be infallible,

discarding principles and policies which had

been approved by the practice, and defended by the

anathemas of his predecessors.


not only sanctioned

the prohibition of Portugal forbidding Jesuists from the kingdom,

and consented




of the inquisition,

but even requested that

persecution against the Jews should cease, and that they

should be admitted to greater rights and privileges.

The popular current had

set in too strongly in favor of

change in the constitution and administration of the government for papal sagacity to oppose, and unob-

by the sacerdotal machinery, it became daily augmented in volume and impetuosity. The liberal



feeling of the nation, allowed spontaneously to flow,

culminated in 1820 in establishing, without violence or
bloodshed, a provisional government and a



Tolerance on the lips of a Catholic priest


treason to



and, though this circumstance might have cau-

tioned prudence against investing any of

them with

power, yet as they had warmly espoused the liberal
cause, they

were elected by the people




the cortes, with the exception of a few lawyers and



the assemblage of the cortes,

under the presidency of the archbishop of Braga, the revolutionary measures were sanctioned, the inquisition forever interdicted, and a constitution framed which secured freedom of person and property, the liberty of The king approved the the press, and legal equality. provisions of this constitution, and swore to support

But under


prosperous appearance of repubof religious intolerance
itself of

lican progress, the






every means to

arrest the popular current.

The portentous mutterings

and an approaching storm were frequently heard it was not, therefore, a matter of surprise to the friends of freedom, that in 1832, a regency was established at

avowed and inviting the people to rally under the standard of monarchy nor that this regency was supported by the queen, Don Miguel, the clergy and the nobility. The machinations of the papal machinery had so successfully extinguished the popular enthusiasm which had won such important concessions to natural right, that no sooner was the standard of royalty raised, than an enormous reduction
Valladolid, under the bishop of Lisbon, with the
object of subverting the constitution,



took place in the ranks of the liberal party. So manypriests, noblemen, soldiers and people espoused the
royal cause, that John VI. found no difficulty in declar-

ing the constitution of 1822, which he had sworn to
support, null




to protect his perjury


his treason to the

freedom of the people, by disarming

the military and the national guards.



then proceeded to annul


the concessions that had

been made, in accommodation to the popular feeling
they restored the church confiscated property, established a censorship over the press, imprisoned or banished the liberal


of the cortes,

and organized


junta for the

purpose of framing a monarchial conto


But Don Migual, aspiring

become absolute

king, could not submit to the restriction of a constitution;

and, being commander-in-chief,

and exercising

the governmental powers, excited an insurrection against

the Lisbon cortes, and arbitrarily proceeded to banish
all liberals, constitutionalists,

of other secret societies.

freemasons, and members That he might successfully
his ultimate de-

remove every obstacle that imperiled

he forbade


appeals to the king.

But the


w^hich his ambition dictated were too reprehensible not
to acqure for his administration a dangerous
dicial notoriety.

and prejuand Don

In spite of


precaution the rumor

of his tyranny penetrated the royal palace,

Miguel was summoned into the presence of the king to Candidly explain the reasons for his arbitrary conduct. acknowledging or artfully assuming that he had been
the innocent victim of craft and misrepresentation, he

succeeded in obtaining the king's pardon.

In 1826 John VI. died, and Isabella becoming regent,



administered the government until Pedro IV. of Brazil, the brother of the deceased king, could make it convenient to visit Portugal, and assume the reigns of gov-


After having done so he established a conproviding two legislative chambers, and then

abdicated in favor of his eldest daughter,

Dona Maria

da Gloria.

Don Miguel,

his brother, the chamberlains,

and the magistrates swore to support the constitution. But the first, in violation of his oath of allegiance, and of his fraternal obligations, entered into a conspiracy for its overthrow. ^Yith this object in view he organized an apostolic party, and abusing the power and confidence with which he was honored, offices secretly filled the army, navy, and civil with his adherents. Having matured his plans he
caused an insurrection to break out against the queen,

order to enable




the royal authority

under pretense

of restoring public tranquillity.

land, however, interfering, the revolution

and the project

of usurpation frustrated.

Engwas checked, But the trea-

sonable plot was skilfully and comprehensively laid,

and the zealous support which it derived from the papal machinery soon rendered it popular with the masses. As if enamored of slavery and despotism, the people began to crowd into the ranks of the apostolic party, to second its declaration in favor of Don Miguel as kiug, to unite in its shouts of " Long live the absolute king," " Down with the constitutions," and to denounce, abuse and assault those who refused to echo its suicidal acclamations. A few military garrisons which still withstood the popular frenzy, and adhered to the cause of
constitutional government, raised the standard of revolt;

under trigues. Catholicism was introduced into Spain in 586. until 711. of gunpowder. The Moorish government adopted a more 1-beral policy than was consistent wdth the spirit of Catholicism. the liberal junta was dissolved and Don Miguel proclaimed absolute king. . the reign of Reccared I. It per- mitted the subjugated to retain their laws and magistrates. "We will conclude our history of Papal Political In- by a cursory glance at a few of its instances with regard to the government of Spain. arts and science flour- ished under . and of Ihe art of manufacand. when the kingdom became a province of the Caliph of Bagdcd. Agriculture. and from that period the political governmental affairs were controlled by the intrigues of the clergy. But the Infidels who conferred these advantages could not conciliate the proud spirit . an army was organized which marched against Lisbon. It was met by the apostolic army.336 PAPAL POLITICAL i:ntriques and being joined by other troops. It established libraries and universities from the hand of its civilization Europe has received the knowledge of arithmetical characters. . and the constitution of 1826 was re-established by the cortes. turing rags into paper. It tolerated the free exercise of all religions.. which greatly outnumbered it and being defeated. In 1834 Don Miguel was defeated by Don Pedro IV. its auspices. FAFAL FOLITICAL INTRI0UF8 IN 8FAIN. commerce.

Spain began to rank with the and the discovery of South Amerfirst powers of Europe. and his religious intolerance perpetually convulsed it with sedition and war. His rapacity empov- erished the nation. who demanded a liberal constitution. of nationality. and a succession of conquests. he established over the kingdom a military. also Emperor of Germany. 337 of tKe Spaniard to subjugation under foreign rule. and political despotism. Peru. compelling such as refused to be baptized to leave the kingdom. Besides But her decline was tional unity. A national struggle for indevisibility of empire. an opulent kingdom. and enormous loans negotiated to satisfy the demands II. became king of Spain. and subse- quently. that although Mexico. the conflicting laws and customs which prevented na- and the a political tyranny which oppressed the masses.IN SPAIN. of the rapacious monarch. and annihilating the last vestige of civil liberty by separating the deliberative estates. from 1220 to 1491. of this prince fitted The Catholic education ter for a cloister him bet- than a throne. and Chili poured a continual stream of wealth into the public treasury. and primogenitureship in succession was conse- quently inaugurated . ultimated in the reduction of the Moors under Castellian supremacy. rigorous persecution was inaugurated against the Moors and Jews. as rapid as her elevation. yet excessive taxes had to be imposed. and so reckless were his expenditures. religious. So oppressive was his admin- istration. "With the achieve- ment ica. nor the pope to the loss of revenues derivable from. After suppressing an insurrection of his Spanish subjects. His devout- 29 . In 1520 Charles V. In 1555 Philip ascended the throne of Spain.

. PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES was to extirpate was an auto-da-fe. and his feeling or reason. By nature a tyrant. and to avert the impending chastisement by subscribing to articles of the divine prerogatives of his peace. sight in and his most pleasing which he could behold his Like Sigismnnd. yet right to the kingdom of Naples was declared forfeited. it w^as his custom ^ to retire to a safe retreat and pray for its success and whenever a victory was achieved to assume the head of the command. became invested with the royal dignity. The pope alarmed. his minister to intimate that he kingdom by was depopulating his he replied " Bet: ter be without subjects than to reign over heretics. and commissioned the bloody Alva to proceed with an army to Eome and chastise the holy father for his insulting political intrigues. His inhuman and impolitic course having led his frequent massacres. by temper a bigot.. heretics.33..8 est wish. with- out any administrative capacity. and educated in superstition and intolerance. smell of burning heretics was never offensive to his nostrils. the subjects expiring in the flames. In 11G9 Philip III. thought better to consult prudence than office. Although his Catholicism had transformed him into merely mechanical part of the papal machinery. as if the triumph was the result of his valor and military skill. he seems to have been born . without when his truce with France was broken by the interference of Pope Paul IV. he awoke from his lethargic slumbers. perhaps it surprised at the belligerent attitude of a king once so remarkably obedient. and. when his army was engaged in battle ." As cowardly as he was blood-thirsty.

and she each succeeding reign verifying prophecy. notwithstanding which the Bourbon. was prophetic of her preinherited. At his death. for the the disgrace 839 of the throne and destruction he In the most brilliant period of Spanish history her religious despotism. which alone are capable of grappling with the astute principles of government. consort of Louis XIV. frequent insurrections destroyed the public eight hundred thousand Jews. Philip V.. England and Holland destroyed the Spanish peace commerce. In 1665 Charles II. nius and intelligence. the sole heir of his dominion.IN SPAIN. in order to prevent the division of the empire. which had been resolved upon by This will led to the war France. decay. and of Spanish monarchy. he made Philip of Anjou. during this and the preceding administration driven from the country and to complete the national degradation Spain had to submit to the suprem.. were fortunately exhibited in the favorite publicists and states- men of the monarch. succeeded to the regal authority. mature the ruin. maintained himself on the Spanish throne. which had began to scintillate developing the latent greatness of a people. and two million . In 1759 Charles III. which occurred in 1700. now shone forth with renewed brilliancy. succeeded to the tnrone of the The decaying embers of liberalism amid the gloom of desGepotism. of the Spanish succession. England and Holland. grandson of his sister. Profound and elevated views of to characterize the administra- political economy began . now tottered on the verge of Favorites were allowed to waste the national revenues. acy of England. Moors were.

PAPAL POLITICAL INTPvIGUES tion and the true principles of commerce. ment tion . and a million men to the population. imprisoned. "With Count Florida Blanca. and confiscated bigotry. became more generally understood by the government and the people. occupying the most influential position of the state with Olavides enjoying the confidence of the activity. By the co-operation of these patriotic statesmen. whose lofty spirit scowled on despotism and religious was obtained from the government which restricted the inquisition. the national importance of agriculture. fiscal gaent of the royal council of equalizing taxa- defending the enlightened policy of the govern. and had added. who so greatly contributed to . against the attacks of bishops and reducing the number could not but increase in it of mendicants. and monarch. wealth to the treasury. a man of penetrating genius. banished the Jesuists from the Spanish dominions. Campomanes was removed from ofiice. arts and manufacture. a pragmatic sanction their property.340 . a scholar of varied and . and disgraced. a ability man of extraordinary ambassador at Rome. holding the pope in check with Aranda. Florida Blanca w^as disgraced. as . although their liberal policy had improved every department of government. the nation splendor and pros- perity. . as Castile. and finally banished to his estates. and elaborating laws for public improvement and with Campomanes. Aranda. and the best means for their development. profound erudition. But Rome and her priests could not forgive these benefactors of the nation. amid the disasters of war. notwithstanding had became involved in a formidable war which raged between France and England.

and finally ceded his right to the crown to Napoleon. of the monarchy from aggressions from without. St.IN SPAIN. In 1788 Charles IV. through several trying vicissitudes. The truth of the Immaculate Conception was demonstrated beyond prudent dispute by the oaths of the emperor and the estates and similar oaths were made the indispensable condiand patriotic labors who should henceforth receive a university member of any corporation or association. perhaps. dignity. his beneficent esy. and shortly aftewards resigned the crown in favor of his son. was banished to Arragon. and the Virgin Mary duly invested wdth his authority and jurisdiction. Ferdinand VII. was invested with the imperial In 1808 the troops of Bonaparte having en- tered his dominions. and the greater part of the educated classes of Spaniards. who placed Joseph Bonaparte on the throne. so now invocations to the Virgin Mary became the principal act of tion of all degree. he welcomed them as allies. A month had not elapsed before ho secretly revoked his resignation.. declared the Spanish monarchy to be under the supervision of the Immaculate Conception. or become a devotion. was formally deposed from office. and after passing tlie 341 abolition of abuses.. in the midst of was arrested for herand imprisoned in a monastic dungeon. and from insubordination from within. James. And Olavides. As reverence for the clergy had become the substance of the Catholic religion. at the request of Charles III. good order. Although the ministers of Ferdinand VII. the pope. For the better protection. public security. acknowledged without hesitation 20- . the former protecting genius of Spain.

the monkish order. and in the national hostility to foreign domination. through bloody campaigns. and announced an alliance between England and Spain.342 PAPAL POLITICAL INTPcIGUES the authority of Joseph. yet thev retained no place which they did not garrison. in interests are identified with des- conjunction with the absolutists. whose principles and potism. desperate struggle was six which. though the French gained victory after victory. yet the monks and priests. and in favor of Ferdinand VIL as king. The papal machinery held the people in such absolute control that.-d A . inaugurated. abolishing ay they triumphed the feudal privileges. Their ranks were constantly thinned by the secret dagger. the inquisition. and every province was desolated and drenched in blood. closed. ra-. from 1808 to 1814 during which every important city was successively taken and lost. A now junta was established at Seville which proclaimed war against France.d assassinat- ing the captives of war. by the victory of the English at Peace being restored to the nation the cortes assemb- . were created and destroyed with melancholy rapidity. and endeavored by the most liberal concessions to conciliate the popular prejudices. in the arrogance of the French. on both sides. and wo- men took a fiendish delight in torturing ar. A length the dreadful trag- edy was Toulouse. and supported by England. found sufficient available material in the change of dynasty. and their wounded murdered in cold blood. their communications cut off by guerillas. Insurgent bands everywhere carried on the bloodiest struggles. to excite a general insurrection against the French regime. Armies after armies.

allies When interrogated as to his the : disposition of complying with the demands of he replied in a tone of insolent indifference " I have not thought about it. . put liberals to the rack executed all who opposed . and solemnly pledged his honor to grant the people a new constitution. encouraged . But the motives which induced him to make these promises did not urge him to fulfil them. he did not restrict his authority by a new one but in the exercise of absolute power arrested the officers who served under Joseph Bonaparte. 343 led. and which would afford ample protection to the rights of person and property.IN- spai:n'. dissatisfied . the domineering pretensions of the priests imprisoned those who ventured to remonstrate against his measures incarcerated in monastic dungeons the members of the cortes and . founded on liberal principles. and sliortly afterwards passed a resolution." To fortify the absolute power he intended to usurp he professed to abhor despotism. and banished them with their wives and children abolished freemasonry restored the Je. he of should be required to swear to support the constitution cortes which had been drawn up by the 1812. by the cortes. These severe proceedings. produced disloyalty. domineered with absolute despotism over the lives and fortunes of his subjects. . The army became . the people insubordinate the country infested with . and which had been acknowledged of Spain. confusion and anarchy. "While he nullified the old constitution. intended to intimidate insurgents. re-established the inquisition . suists . declar- ing that before Ferdinand should be acknowledged as king. . . plundering and murdering guerillas and. and to the freedom of the press.

The progress of this revolution was strenuously opposed by the allied forces of the monks. under Riago. and almost of adherents. and in a session of four months. the priests. for the avowed design of destroy- ing the privileges of the crown and the clergy. and succeeded in creating considerable opposiIn the interest of this coun- tion to the constitutions. organ. in 1819. and the absolutists. and banished priests. endeavored by the means of moderate measures to conciliate the prejudices and interests of contending factions. A provisional junta was established to conduct -the public affairs. and to restore harmony and vigor to the nation. arose in masses in its favor. ter revolution an apostolic junta was established on the frontiers of Portugal. whom no concession could satisfy. The cortes assembled. Ferdinand deprived of troops. found himself obliged to submit to the demands of the people. and even the apostolics deserted their commanders. The bishop of Cienfuegos defeated it at Cadiz. except that of unrestricted monarchy. merous bands in the different of Nuarmed monks and iDcasants appeared provinces and their bold assassinations . ized a conspiracy for the overthrow of the constitution and as the cortes had in their reformatory measures all abolished some convents. The inquisition was abolished. that acts produced such universal consterna- the cortes declared the whole country in a .344 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES this turbulent state by of affairs. declared for tbe constitution of 1812. The clergy and absolutists. and barbarous tion. non-juring they appealed to the religious frenzy of the people. four battalions. before which Ferdinand appeared and swore to support the constitution of 1812. But the people inhaling the patriotic enthusiasm.

and termed by them "Good The peasantry. controlled by the priests. the absolutists." they sovereign powers. receive Spanish ambassadors. state 345 It was now evident that tlie priests had stimulated the peasants to insurand monks who rection had been instigated by the French government. on the confines of France. and overwhelmed with defeat. of the capability tain The regency fled to France. In 1822 another attempt was made to subvert the At Soi d'Urgel. But this evidence and determination of Spain to maina constitutional government. cy. and soldiers of the faith. who were received by the Spanish clergy with acclamations of joy. The army of composed of apostolic soldiers. established a junta which formed a provisional government on absolute principles. and supported France was the instigator of this regenit with her influence and money. and having vanquished them in of siege. . and Prussia demanded of should restore to Ferdinand and England advised acomThe Duke Angouleme. not only within her the sition borders. awakened into oppoevery element of despotism. succeeded finally in effecting the disbandment of their forces.IN SPAIN. were met by the united strength of the nation. constitution. every engagement. France raised an army of the soldiers of the faith. But the cortes met the conspirators with skilful and vigorous measures. the commander of the French forces. Christians. that Madrid. and declared the acts of the cortes null and void. pliance with the demand. the absolutists established a regency under the Marquis Mataflounda. France. but within all Europe. the cortes full The pope refused to The nuncio left Austria.

and roic courage. But the undaunted fence. fired the native pride and heroism of the Spanish character. and which. firmness of the remaining leaders. erally adhered to the party of the constitutionalists. yet others submitted with scarceiy a struggle. exclusively requiring the attention of the national guards and of the soldiers of the line. tut the army. The gloom which now overshadowed the prospects of the constitutionalists. the cortes found themselves with- out an efficient troops. was ominously deepened by the defection of some of their generals. and others a stubborn and desperate resistance. yet they were full of energy and he- The cortes repelled with patriotic indignation the insolent interposition of foreign powers. and so many valuable lives. The dictatorial interference of foreign united the different factions of the constitutionalists in a solid body in favor of their country and its liberty. Though few in number. and without pecuniary resources. army to oppose the march of the French and the apostolic forces. This serious disadvan- tage enabled the absolutists to march on from victory to victory and though some places made a good de. to achieve had cost the nation so much treasure. powers in the and their attempts to defeat a governmental reform which they had sanctioned. the and the people residing in cities gen- educated classes. The soldiers of the faith. without allies. they appropriated its surplus plate to the necessity of the public treasury. prepared for the doubtful contest with consummate skill. As the church had been the chief cause of the national calamity. and internal affairs of a sovereign nation. and the unequalled .346 espoused tlie PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES cause of the absolutists. and their guerilla bands.

so honorable to the constitutionalists. and the secret dagger nearly comso disgraceful to Europe. and freemen. revised and democratic provisions. Under these depressing cir- cumstances. by an 1812. but negroes. the cortes invested Ferdinand with absolute power. hailed acclamations of " live religion. the sale of the sequestered church property suspended. ." " to him with Long the nation. to In 1837 the regent was obliged. proclaim the constitution of In 1843. insurrection. The bloody contests in pleted their annihilation. admonition to which the liberals had been engaged greatly depleted their ranks. supported by France. An attempt was made to introduce the inquisition. and all the public approvals by which he had sanctioned them. and extraordinary provisions devised for the support of the clergy. his daughter. "boldness 347 and skill which characterized their niancKuvres. the infirmities of Ferdinand having rendered him the dupe of designing favorites. the queen. fall desperately disputed inch by inch the progress of the monarchists." "Death to the Ferdinand then declared null and void all the acts of the constitutional government. queen. Isabella having attained her majority. the soldiers of the faith. and now dungeons. In 1832. was substituted for that of 1837. the clergy and the uneducated classes. until the of Valencia terminated the so full of eventful struggle. successfully resisted the obnoxious measure. and even approved by the pope. The apostolics. he created Christina. After the adoption of this constitu- tion the municipal privileges were abridged." the liberals. exile." " Long Death live the absolute king. regent for the infanta Isabella. was declared deprived of its The constitution.IN SPAIIT.

Papal Intrigues secution — Catholic Persecution— Protestant PerRevolutionary War— In Pehellion — Catholic Enmity and ReLiberty — An Alliance formed for Subversion of American Republic — The Duke of Richmond's Letter— Catholic Immigration — Progress of Catholicism — Consequences — The Republic in Imminent Danger — Union Only Means Salvation — — Catholics in the the late ligious to Civil the the Its 'of Conclusion. the sacerdotal monarchs have inflamed or soothed them according to the dictates of their interests. and that Otho I. yet still no one will venture the assertion that popish machinations have been the sole cause of jDolitical discords. PAPAL INTRIG UPS' RPSPPOTING THE UNITED STATES. have swept in fearful rapidity over Christendom. Through of their intrigues the extermin- ating sword of Charlemagne compelled the Saxons to be baptized . Peter was established .CHAPTER XVI. like successive tor- nadoes. That the papal pretensions have been a fruitful source of the seditions and wars which. that whenever the causes of civil or foreign war became active. Treason and popular disaffection have revolutionized and annihilated government after government long before the throne of St. compelled the Danes to . the records of history furnish the most unquestionable evidence . yet since that unfortunate period it cannot be denied.

to expel from his kingdom . to consent to be baptized and his troops who had followed him to the field of slaughter. . French to support Scotland in a rebellion against her 30 . and to render herself a terror to her nation.. all the Danes that refused to be baptized Edward to accept the title of saint and confessor in lien of an heir to his throne. endeavored to supinduced the plant her with Mary Queen of Scots. upon becoming his wife.IN THE UNITED STATES. was persuaded to agree to matrimonial stipulations allowing her. to execute to her husband Guilford Dudley. denied her legitimacy . to commit to the flames two hundred and twenty-seven of her innocent subjects. to promulgate a law com. By the same disgraceful and impertinent intrigues the reign of Queen Elizabeth was perpetually disturbed with efl'orts The popes excommunito overthrow her government. and to consent to abstain from nuptial congress with his queen Edward IV. all persons convicted of the herI. were led to follow him also to the baptismal By the same means Ethelbert. who wished to fount. King of Paris. mitting to the flames esy of the Lollards . by his Catholic wife. and permitting him to establish a CathBy olic church in the kingdom for her convenience. cated her . was induced. 349 Through their intrigues Clovis accept ilie same rite. to bring her bishop with her. tions of Lady Jane Gray and provoke the insurrec- Cave and Wyat. to confine princess Elizabeth in the tower. the same artful means Ethelwolf was led to confer on the clergy the tithes of all the produce of the land Alfred the Great. marry Bertha. to Protestant bishops for high treason. and Mary a person of good imprison natural qualities and administrative abilities. daughter of Carobert.

Abyssinia. In her fiend- ish malice she counsels the violation of every principle of justice. France and Spain and Atterbury. assisted by m^erchants. Egypt. all of which were fearfully pro- church assails all non- Catholics with the most execrable persecution. openly when she dares. Sweden. under that of George I. of all urges of all pecuniary engagements. China. Bishop of Rochester. and of ductive of sedition. as a by imprisonment. and duty the persecution and extermination unbelievers. Similar papal machinations have interfered with the peace of France. the Bishop of Ross. racks. and the and when all these Scotchmen residing in Enghind efforts proved abortive. murder. of all contracts. to engage land. created a sedition Florentine incited Spain to promote a conspiracy against her. the Catholic many other governments. stakes and scaffolds. minister of Spain. . to organize a conspiracy to have her assassinated by Anthony Babington. Spain. Hear the truth of these assertions from the sanctified lips of the holy mother herself: . fire. government.350 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES in the north. Japan. the pope's tool for the recovery of Eng. Germany. of all oaths. By the same disastrous intermeddling the reign of Queen Ann was disturbed with efforts to restore the succession to James the Pretender. to form an alliance in his favor with Russia. secretly when she must. banishment. swords. Sweden. war and revolutions. in a conspiracy for the same object. Portugal. of every obligation of humanity. anarchy. by means of corporeal punishment. Besides these intermeddlings with the national affairs of all governments. Poland. Russia. Belgium. the Duke of Marieborough was led to prockiim the Pretender in Scotland Cardinal Alberoni.

.'' Bernard. " Both swords are in the power of the Pope." this kind." " Bernard de given to Peter. Jan. cd. .. c. Oppos.. by divine right. the other by the hands of the king and the soldiers. Consed. tacit condition that the The debtor's oath implied the creditor. Jacob. Jur." " Though sworn to a debtor who falls into error or pay he may refuse the claims of under excommunication. and in law itself is of no importance. illegal. pledged. and under her direction. Reg. the one temporal. to be exercised in her service. Caron. The temj^oral magistrate holds it subject to her order. but as the sword of Pope Boniface. Bochcr. are inconsiderate. the priest.. 2Iag. Con.IN" THE UNITED STATES. 260. promises. but she exercises the temporal sword by the hand of the prince. namely. heretics. even if confirmed by an oath. But. both swords. with the power of life and Ecc. 351 " The Catholics believe that the Pope's authority is not only ministerial but supreme. 4 c." Bronsons Bcv. by the lapse of 'those persons into schism. Bymerl: 352. or oaths of Catholics with they are heretics. after Engagements made with heretics and schismatics of such have been consummated." tome 11: p. should remain in a St. because "Civil contracts. 14. or one's honor being Pope Urban VI. the other for the church the one by the hands of the priest. death. or before the beginning of their heresy). may be dissolved by Pope Innocent X.. 1854. Mayrwoth Report. : She (the church) bears. the Pontiff. or the magistrate. Lib. so that he has the right to direct and compel. per chance. but the one is to the spiritual and the temporal sword be exercised by the church. to be entitled to payment. . 1139. 138. (although made." " Two swords were the other spiritual.. Corp. 3. state in which communication would be lawful.

jurisdiction and government. deprived of all things. She. with spies penetrat- ing all domestic and national secrets. 7 p. But unlike Catholicism. and effect the soul alone others are corporeal. but still she has fesses that made them. claims not. sition of dominion. like Catholicism. power nor to be the crowns and kingdoms nor has she elaborated a policy. property. supreme and universal temporal and spiritual She has no central head. however. 5 : p. adopted a systematic course of measures.. by God's assistance. and organized a clerical force for the acquisole preme disposer of . indeed. and effect the body. unquestionably true.. he. cap. Guizot conher practice has necessarily been inconsist- ent with* her profession of toleration. 98.352 " PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES There are various punishments with which ecclesi- and imperial laws order heretics to be punished. which they previously had over all persons of all conditions for he who is a heretic is. cap. ." says The last punishment of the body for heretics." he informs us. ipso jure. . although she admits the right of private judgment. 12 p. to be the source and sucontroller of all political ." Ih. We confess. 123. : "Another punishment. Among the corporeal punishments. has proved a foe to civil and religious liberty. heretics ought to be punished. that Protestantism. cap. with regret. Some are spiritual." lb. 1055. she has made concessions. with which we will prove. one which very much annoys heretics is the proscription and confiscation of their astical sanctions . : " But it will be said that Protestants have been guilty This assertion is of persecution as well as Catholics. reluct- antly. and communicat- . "is the deprival of every sort of preeminence." Alphonso de Castro. " is death.

no interdicts to . . nor monastic vows no father confessors no religious . 353 She has the information they have acquired. no political machinery ramifying every part of Christendom. She has never interfered between rulers and their subjects. In Ireland he 31* . no military knights. She has never butchered whole cities for one day put one hundred thousand She has done none of these things. and acting in concert for the promotion of She has no convents. .. her authority. The Church under Charles I. fomenting sedition. it oppressed I. no rack and torture for her opponents no pretensions to absolve subjects from their oaths of allegiance. has never organized armies for the extension of her dominion. of England. concocting treaShe son. dogmas of Catholicism. . perseunbelief. heretics to death. her interests. nor in cuted with equal severity those who believed in the pope's right to temporal power. Henry YIII. and producing anarchy. and no spiritual guides.. Would they were. and for the subjugation of kingdoms to her authority. on tho Puritans both Catholics and dissenters with tyrannical measures. and illiberal disabilities. inflicted the most atrounder James cious punishment on the Irish Catholics and under Elizabeth. alarm superstitious minds by the suspension of religious worship in disaffected kingdoms.IN ing to it THE UNITED STATES. requiring them to adopt every available method of* subjugating all government under confessional. no religious orders.. She imposes no oaths of allegiance on her priests. nor nunneries. and those who disbelieved the other of England. yet her hands are not unstained with innocent blood. The Puritan Cromwell persecuted both Catholics and Episcopalians. She has no inquisition.

additional toleration was accorded. under the ele- vating influence of liberal institutions. some of the disabilities which oppressed the dissenters were removed and under that of George . When Charles 11. John Calvin. 2000 dissenting clergymen of their livings and by his them from approaching within miles of their former parishes. persecuted Covenanters. and Puritans. its But the rigor of severity. wasted the Catholics with fire and sword in Scotland he put whole garrisons of dissenters to death and as his schemes for obtaining the royal dignity suggested. and Quakers were once fined. creeds. setts Baptists In Massachu- and burnt alive. In Virginia all Quakers that disbe- . at the head had John Guet beheaded on a charge of attempting to overthrow the doctrines of and Micheal Servetus arrested and burnt alive for having attacked the doctrine of the the Calvinistic church . Even in republic America. . holy trinity. the intolerant spirit of religious bigotry predominates more or less over the mind of the Christian republic. and legal disabilities. III. of the Consistory of Geneva. always the most respect- and the professors of the most were still punished with fines. cease to punish a belief in Unitarianism with imprison- ment. Republicans. Protestantism eventually relaxed Un- der William III. was elevated to five-mile act prohibited five the throne he deprived . imprisonment and death. All who disbelieved in the holy trinity were also subject to similar persecutions. Kot until 1813 did Protestant England harmless of all able body of citizens. Yet the Quakers. Still it must be admitted that the ablest agents in extorting these concessions to religious liberty were the Free Thinkers of that age. imprisoned.354 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES . confiscation.

to persons ttat refused have their children baptized ^ve^e scourged. who professed not to Christianity. In Pennsylvania. Cuvier. be debarred from the lowest office they create. Voltaire. and the national policy shaped by them. Jefferson. eligible to any -^-as . and other eminent scholars and patriots would." we says the Church Uyiion." of an attempt once These holy ravings remind us to incorporate made by the Puritans " the Bible into the British constitution. sectary or conclave. a perperse- petual source of mutual jealousy. all 355 liered in the holy trinity. Humboldt. by the prorisions of almost every State constitution in filling the that Union. holy trinity -was declared to be a capital offence -until recently believe in office and any person. The wrestlers . union. In Maryland disbelief in the . " let us make no hvpoeritical pretensions of founding governments on Christian principles. creed. If we are. La Place. Hume. illiberality. is Every Protestant cution. of trust or profit in the State nor even to this day is any person eligible who disbelieves in a God. confined. under the all banished or put to death. animosity and "" The same intolerant spirit breathes its maligof the religious press. Atheists Avere excluded from not official position. The statute books of every Protestant country bear testimony to the same Buffon. Gibbon. charter of "William Pena. let us have them incorporated in the basis of our government. I believe that they should predominate over our whole life. If nancy over the pages are not Christians. unless a Jew. Let no one hold an office of trust or profit whose life is not conformably thereto.IN THE UNITED and STATES. indicates it In fact the history of no religious sectary to be a bond of love. or concord.

and. deliberating upon a motion to repeal the laws of England. They ingore the basis on which our government to be is founded.356 PAPAL POLITICAL INTEIGUES with God. But Cromwell averted the calamity "by a peremptory dissolution of parliament." as they called themselves were. ? Did he not write against it. Had Methodism 'been chosen as the basis of our government. The religious politics of the Methodist Home : of the ChurcJi Union. preach and labor publicly and" privately to arrest its ." profess- and These assertions are the evident irrepressible ebullitions of innate treason to the republic. oppose. nor permitted to hold Christian citizenship under this government. its founder and sj^irit. would a Did not republic have been thought of? Kever •John Wesley. and a command it to " the wrestlers" to go home. and substitute in their place the laws of Moses and the prophets. which our government is Can they be regarded as citizens? Ought to this position any man who holds be admitted to —or permitted to hold Christian citizenship under this government? We hold that to be consistent with ourselves Infidelity should not be tolerated in our country. much teach less its encouraged by those who openly doctrines. But the knife with which this mad'man wo-uld cut his own throat 'Infidelity would wrest -from him. Journal are similar in tone with that This infuriated orthodox theodoctrines of Chrisbasis on logian says " They that deny the tianity.the Amerif can revolution 'against it.' nor did he think call prudent to them together again. according to the logic of this fanatic the sect that holds them ought not regarded as citi- zens. The sacred basis of our government is 'equal political and religious rights. ignore the founded.

while English statesmen blushed at the barbarous conduct of their government.) bound to respect. Such self- principled demagogues accursed. will occupy her temple and. though frenzied with ambition and crimsoned with guilt. liberty will forsake her desecrated . he would have been more obdurate than a fiend had he not cowled his head in horror at the frightful vision. defended it without shame or com- Even at this day Potestant priests have punction. in conjunction with unand political aspiring judges. despotism that. and dropped in mercy the pen already inked to inaugurate the tremendous of Christianity with •catastrophe. dared to assert that Infidels have no rights which they but such miscreants have no are bound to respect . and to roll its heavy surge over all future time.IN progress THE UNITED STATES. this bigoted priest.. When their holy trea- son shall have become a abode . ' 357 Was there a man in England that inflicted ? deeper injury on the American cause ? While English Infidels aided the struggle for independence with their money and valor. success.loaded with the curves . self-outlawed bigots. a fugitive of justice from the State pens. Yet how sickening is the thought that the -example of ihis ambitious tyrant. Tights. we fondly hope in the course of coming events the fanatics will not discover that they have legalized their own extermination. are to-day laboring to incorporate in the national constitution the fanaticism of the Church Union and of the Methodist Some Journal. Had Constantino the Great. beheld the boundless ocean of gore which was destined to flow from an incorporation the civil power. of — North Carolina. (for they surrender which any person is them by their assertions.

it . what has the American republic to apprehend from it? It will be asked. but the education of Catholics. freedom must drop a tear over the smallness of the number. prejudice mislead and superstition overawe its but when the natural it vigor of disposition aroused will assert its rights It is not in defiance of creeds. have been too strong to be repressed by dogmatic creeds. it . perhaps.358 of ages. the play of the natural principles of liberty in the minds of some priests. priests. love of liberty stitution. It will be asked. But thanks to nature. and the religious despotism with which they are enthralled. shackles and stakes. notwithstanding the facts which have been adduced showing the political nature and designs of the Catholic church. is PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES now attempted political judges. Ignorance may is blind it . Did not Catholics fight for the establishment of a free government in the revolutionary war ? Did they not fight to defend it in the war of 1812 ? Did they not fight to preserve its unity in the late rebellion ? No well informed person will answer these questions in the negative . names in imperishable for honor on the scroll of lib- Thankful the few names blazoned there. the numerous leagues often deprived freedom of their . the nature. The frequent opposition of Catholic princes to the policy and measures of the popes. Catholics are is a natural principle of the men and the human con. they have inscribed their erty. to be imitated by Protestant and United States officials. Gloriously inconsistent with their principles. that has so homage and allegiance. and no candid person will fail to acknowledge the distinguished valor and liberality which they dis- played on these occasions.

No one that has an . Louis IX.. but nevform the distinctive principles of the Gallican Church..IN THE UNITED STATES. in or indirectly. by the means of bulls.ot The popes. independence of Rome in all 1682 convened a national council of the clergy at Paris. 359 which they have formed. of France. have attempted to nullify these acts. it is not surprising that they fought in the defence of the independence and freedom of America. and contempt for his pretensions. The liberal minded people of France have. in 1269. another happy instance of the predominance which paertheless they triotism may gain. asserted for France. in the temporal concerns of princes and sovereigns inviolable is . . have at various times chastised the pope. Louis XIV. in a pragmatic sanction 1433. assaulted his person. in conformity with the canons of the Council of Basle. declared in a pragmatic sanction. Charles issued in VIII. and that the pope is n. in the minds its of Catholics. which decided that the Pope of Rome had no power to interfere. superior to that of the pope infallible in matters of faith. from an early date. .. imprisoned and deposed him. that the temporal power of France temporal power. was independent of the jurisdiction of Rome. directly temporal matters. deprived him of temporal authority. abundantly show how often their reverence for the pope has been displaced by defiance to his authority. and the vast armies which they have raised in their support. that the visages of the French church are that the authority of the general councils . and also of other Catholic churches in Th^ Fenian order is different kingdoms of Europe.over their reverence for the church and If Catholics despotism. boldly opposed the pope's claim to St.

and denounces her kings as usurpers. for they allowed But the development of Catholits free development. build up at will his monastic penitentiaries. and at the mystery of which leading secessionists it were so much puzzled a general that they declared to be the effects of . it could not have taken place.360 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES adequate conception of the papal policy. the North nothing but depopulation and empoverishment. a Catholic rebel would scarcely have been known and had not the Catholics North and South been in favor of the rebelThat singular and lion. It was a cause in which the pope himself. and religious The insincerity of any proposed attachment to the American republic by popes or priests. erect his strong castle-like and secret-celled churches. might have 25ersonally engaged. in perfect consistency with his pretensions. is attested by the very occurrence of the Southern rebellion. The success of a revolt intended to deprive her colonies was as gratifying to his revenge as flattering to his ulterior selves. England of it was designs on the colonies them- In a republic he could plant his machinery. The pope claims England as his fief. unnecessary intestine collision. leisurely and occupy eligible and strategic points for citadels. in which the South gained nothing but disgrace. will be mucli astonished that the Catholics were prominent leaders in the revolutionary war. and the select establishment in their place of political despotism. Bishop Hughes asserted that Catholicism was friendly to republics. icism involves the subversion of republics. it Had the pope and priests been opposed to . and collect from every kingdom his most faithful and reliable subjects.

The Catholics North supported. the influx of foreign Catholics. but to create the elements conducive to the establishment of a monarchial government. the crea- tion of an oppressive national debt. therefore. and the Catholics South the cause of the rebellion with votes.- IN THE UNITED STATES. were sults of the rebellion . hallowed bvthe 31 . which the Catholics of the the South were stimulated Shortly after the close of the rebellion this soil. money and men the was not contrary to the teachings . The geography of the country interposed to its success an insurmountable obstacle. and the supplanting all of colored servants by white Catholic servants. But dismemberment could not possibly have been intended by the secret projectors of the rebellion. The depopulation of the native element of the North. the demoralization consequent on civil war. . was nevertheless in perfect harmony with the profound and masterly policy of the Ptoman See. It encounIt was tered no difficulty in the country's geography. shapes every intervening circumstance to the fulfilment of its grand design. ]jlot to its final consummation. and the Catholics of by their priests to meet each in deadly conflict. which comprehends in its toils the events of ages. monarchy was not an impracticable idea. 361 lunacy. Catholic blood which was poured out in such torrents in the civil conflicts was not intended to eff'ect dismemberment. But It was also inconsistent with the papal designs. It was an impracticable idea. and from the first projection of a. rebellion. of the church. were all known prospective rein harmony with the papal designs and to realize North. the engenderment of civil antipathies. The in harmony with the policy of the Roman See. the cause of the Union.

. that the civil war is not at an end . Jan. Jan. and in favor of religious liberty. we submit the following extracts " Heresy (Protestantism) and Infidelity have not. where the Catholic religion is the essential law Bishop of the land. and never had. or the right of any one to bo of any religion..^ 1852. city and village in the Union. as best pleases him. being. Protestantism of every form has notj and never can right. Bartholomew's eve." *' Kendrick. and his loyal subjects." Catholic liev. but that it will again break out. and never can have any right. 1>APAL rOLlTlCAL 1NTEIGUE3 and consecrated by tbe sepulture of million!? of freemen. and then the battle field will not be the South. in Christian countries." Bronson's Mev.362 blood. *' have any site " Eeligious liberty is merely endured until the oppocan be carried into effect without peril to the Bishop O'Connor^ of Pittsburg. Catholic world. Catholic as well as non-Catholic^ was attempted to be desecrated by tho establishment of presses for openly advocating that execrable treason . or of no religion. they are punished as other crimes. as they undoubtedly are. and Heresy (Protestantism) and unbelief are crimes. Perhaps they mean to intimate that it will be a repeti- tion of the massacre on St. and therefore we lose all the breath we expend in declaiming against bigotry and intolerance. 1852." . and it has been asserted by the leaders of the late rebellion.. where Catholicism is triumphant . but every State. contrary to the law of God. To those who fondly dream that the republic of America has nothing to fear from the pretensions of the Pope of Rome. as in Italy and Spain for instance.

or the assistance of the holy alliance. *' .' They can never acquire the povver in this counthis. *' The Catholic church numbers one-third of the American population and if its membership shall in. which they surely will. How sadly mistaken try to sanction that doctrine." ! Quoting from an author Hogan writes America is the promised land of the Jesuists.IN THE UNITED STATES. Austria. box. the people of the IJnited States. p. and in twenty will direct it according to pleasure. in 1900 Rome will have a majority. chapter 3. crease for the next thirty years as it has for the thirty years past. says: 'Heretics (non-Catholics) may justly be But you will answer." Buhop of /St. but knowing the active spirit of Jesuitism.. I have no doubt that in ten ) ears the Jesuists will have a mighty influence over the ballot." Synopsis. " Catholicity will one day rule America. and religious freedom will be at an end. and the indifference of the generality of Protestants." Louis. the papists will be in a majority of Williayn Hogan. religious freedom in Archbishop of 8L this country will be at an end. I am not a politician." Hecker. in twenty command. To obtain the ascendency they have no need of Swiss guards. but a majority of votes. Louis. in ten years they will menace. and be bound to take the country and keep it. 106. there is no danger of killed. Thomas Aquinas. . 363 *' If the Catholics ever gain. Now they fawn. '* Should the said church go on increasing for the next twenty years. and Bavaria. which can easily be obtained by the importation of Catholic voters from Ireland. How lamentably unacquainted with the seare you William Hogan." _ *' St. an immense numerical majority.. page 58. cret springs or machinery of popery. in his second book.

we have That these hopes are not altogether also the reluctant and alarming Those who abuse liberty . crimes. only by mutual consent . proclaim that Protestantism in any form has no right where Cathol- triumphant. priests and ^periodicals. that in 1900 she will be enabled to accomplish all her bloody and trea. to they say that punish Catholics as criminals. When they and unbelief are and where the Catholic religion is the essential law of the land. they surrender their rights where is Protestantism in any form assert heresy triumphant. violated obliga- its No man . . and then religious . their obligations are reis ciprocal and whenever the silent compact by one party. they authorize heretics and unbelievers to consider Catholicism a crime.364 PAPAL POLITICAL NTEIGUES In the above quoted authorities we have a unanimous declaration of Catholic bishops. concessions of her opponents." that the Catholic church is radically opposed to reli- gious liberty . should be deprived of plot for sist its benefits its and those abuse it most who take advantage of its generous indulgence to rights of toleration sub- destruction. the other is exonerated from tions. The . are punished as crimes. When. icism is therefore. chimerical. sonable designs. When Catholicity will one day rule America. possesses a right w^hich is not possessed by another nor has he any authority for claiming for himself that which he does not concede the Catholic priests to others. that she regards Protestants and Infidels as criminals that whenever she obtains the political power she punishes them as such and that the success of her policy and measures in this country has been sufficient to justify her expectation. esy and unbelief are the essential and where herlaw of the land.

and the co-opera- tion Europe. their system of measures. The subjoined letter of the Duke of Richmond. will explain their policy. All the low and surplus population of the different nations of Europe will be carried into that country.- -IN THE UNITED STATES. and will be. The curse of the French revolution. It is. which they are to receive from the sovereigns of " It (the American republic) uill he destroyed^'' it says he. the receptacle of the bad and disaffected population of Europe. are to be attributed to its example. formerly Governor-General of Canada. avowed treaThey assail the the Constitution. while forbearance a virtue but they may be provoked to consider the further tol- erance of the Jesuists in this country as inconsistent with the peace and stability of the republic. and subsequent wars and commotions of Europe. an end. when they are 31* . As the treasonable designs of the Catholic priests are it is important to understand by what means they expect to accomplish their infamous purposes. and they will eventually succeed. by subversion rather than by conquest. they appeal to the instincts of and justify freemen in adopting any necessary to render their measure that is son and destructive designs abortive. " ought not. 365 liberty will be at self-preservation. and so long as it exists no prince will be safe on his throne. and they have come to an understanding on the S2ihject. and will not he permitted to exist. undeniable. and the sovereigns of Europe are aware of it. and they arc determined on its destruction. fundamental principles of all right to its protection. and have decided on the means to accomplish it. and forfeit fidels may Neither Protestants nor Inbo disposed to avail themselves of the priviis leges of these concessions.

North America. and kws be invested with the right of war discord. anarchy and civil and some popular individual will assume the government. I have conversed with many sovereigns and princes of Europe. and they will bring with them their principles. and sustain him. the substitution of a manarchy in its place. and they have unanimously expressed their opinion relative to the government of the United States. and the sovereigns of Hence will ensue. would Holy Alliance avowed prinit conduct with regard consent. and will transmit them to their posterity. for the subletter version of the American republic. manners. Europe. still all no well informed person could the European sovereigns. and by the the constitution suffrage. Would England may be asked.366 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES . many of the natives will The church of Rome has a design on this country. and the establishment of Catholof Rich- icism as the national religion. whether Proact uj^on the in their testant or Catholic. customs and religion. dissension. and in nine cases out of ten adhere to their ancient and former governments. and the governments of Europe will favor such a cause. the immigrants. who are so very easily excited. These many cases propagate them among men will become citizens. Had the Duke mond been doubt that ciple of the to silent. restore order. and their determination to subvert it." admonitory According to this an alliance has been formed by the European powers and the Pope of Eome. laws. not wanted for soldiers or to supply navies and in natives. to ally herself with the papal despot? Why . it and will aid in the destruction of the republic. This will create a surplus majority of low population. audit will in time he the established religion.

with a view to pervert the secular education of the country to the purposes of proselytism.IN not the ? THE UNITED STATES. the halls and dormitories of Maynooth are enlarged. and have been trained and qualified. no doubt." says he. 367 Slie has done so before in the recent troubles of Roman . and their larder abundantly replenished to keep a constant supply of young ecclesi- . : Catholic proclivities of the teachers thus dismissed. fact. . to carry out abroad the principles it has been so successful in disseminating here in Dublin. may be learned from the subjoined extract of the Dublin Evenincf Mail. &c. That England heartily co-operates with the papal priests in their infamous work. " are sufficient evidence that they have been imported into the United States by the Church of Rome. pope See she sent her war vessels to protect the and she assented to the principles of the Holy Alliance. elicited by the news from America that certain teachers had been dismissed from a school of the West on account of " The foreign birth and Roman their foreign birth. but they are a cypher in the great account of the short-sighted government. quire priests to publish and extend it wherever the English language is spoken. The pope has not a more efficient free-handed institution at his hach than the imperial parliament of the united Icingdom. by its education. which spares no expense to furnish his holiness with zealous and well informed agents for the spreading of Does he rehis dominion over the face of the globe. in the College de Propaganda Fide. which was for the extinguishment of all free- dom in Europe. The good sense of the English people would never have recognized a policy which inevitably involved their own destruction . emissaries of They are.

in readiness to move in obedience to the call. In 1852 the immigration was about 398. and continued re-enforcements of propagandists are thus maintained. and 240. In 1852 our foreign arrivals.000. the In 1848 it " In 1852 our presidential vote arrivals of foreign males into this country.300. as shown. were about 400. Let us examine the operation of this device. the cation Do these in turn send home a more teachers to assist them in their Chancellor of the Exchequer adds some ten service. per annum." . in dis- makes the following statement: " In 1850 our native white popuwas about 17. was about 2. and 1850. was about 3.000. whenever Rome mav need their service. In the same year our was about 2. is that of foreign immigration. thousand 'pounds for his yearlg estimate for national eduin Ireland. on the census of 1830. was nearly as great as the increase of our whole voting population during four years. At that rate it would lation cussing the question of foreign immigration.000. one of means by which the tyrant Rome and his col- leagues have adopted for accomplishing the downfall of the government of the United States. tion's This is about five times our popula- which is in a ratio of three or four per cent. while the increase of foreigners is from fourteen to sixteen per cent.170.000 of these were males. foreign population take only about six years to double the foreign population here in 1850. The editor of the Louisville Journal.000. 1840. increase.300.000. thus showing that in one year.300." According the to the Duke of Pdchmond's of letter.368 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES astics for his requisition for work.880.

by sea 369 were The foreign arrivals alone — In 1850 .IN THE UNITED STATES.

or at a . those are entirely mistaken John Wesley and that . and the extraordinary number confirmed by Catholic bishops. might suggest a suspicion that the church has not abandoned its historic mode of adding to its members. terprises are While the pulpits. according to tion upon the subject of Catholicism with the same freedom he could formerly that those who imagine a Methodist preacher can now utter in the pulpit. in and in favor of its introduction among John L. revivals." often conversed." man. The number of children kidnapped. tract or bible meeting. and sometimes of Protestant bishops. and evangelical enmaking no converts of any account among confirmation services Catholics. who suppose that an editor of a Methodist peri- odical can now assail the errors of Catholicism without the loss of subscribers. and of whole bodies of theological students becoming Catholics. Koman It is an undeniable fact that the annual increase of . We hear of Protestant priests. the people. or strongly biassed in favor of that church. 169. my recollection. on this subject. are laboring under a great deluions. the of the Catholic bishops show the great number of adult non-Catholics which they are adding to their church. Chapman. the sentiments of respecting popery. p. a Methodist clergya work written before the Southern outbreak. cially those of the Unitarian creed — are — strong advo- cates of popery. "I Lave "with American Protestants and regret finding many of them espe- families in the diocese.370 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES Synopsis. that a Methodist j^reacher cannot now address his congregasays in substance. Every non-Catholic child educated in a Catholic school becomes a Catholic." says he.

of the church every election that takes place. sedition. Then rapine. violence. according to the archbishop of St. official. one faction will be inflamed against another. according to Archbishop Kendrick. amid the anarchy and confusion thus produced. some Catholic tyrant will arise. congressman. judge. governor. duced. assassination. . Then. middle ages will settle over the colleges. Louis. Then. Then. Ilecker. Supported by the Catholic and Protestant kings of Europe. president. army or naval officer Then the non-Catholics wiiV be powerless. mayor. according to bound to take the country. and the civil disorders — subsiding at the bidding of the pope will be proclaimed dictator. the asylums.IN THE UNITED STATES. and the churches built houses. papal machinery. When that unfortunate hour arrives every policeman. civil will be a Catholic. and at the mercy of those who believe they have no rights. Infidelity will be declared to have no rights. and stakes erected. massacre everything that can render life will distract every state. heresy and Then. city and property insecure and village in the Union. he will abolish the republic. by the secret operation of the senator. Then inquisitions will bo intro- Then the darkness of the Then the schoolthe land. according to Bronson. councilman. the Catholic church will be Then. religious lib- erty will no longer be endured. 371 the Catholic population far outstrips that of the nonand that at some future period its Catholic population numerical strength will he capable of deciding in favor . delegate. Then. and one section of the land against another. — and establish in its place a Catholic monarchial gov- ernment. and keep it. and punished as such. Protestantism will be declared to be a crime.

with cloathing scarcely enough to hide their nakedness. Then will the monarchial demon. and applied to its defence and extension. will become the property of the papal monarchy. Then will arise a government constructed of schemes for public plunder where an aristocracy are privileged robbers v/here moral worth and dignity are the helpless victims of power and injustice. or fire scarcely enough to keep them from freezing. seated on the people's throne. the God of slaves and aristocrats. magistrates. not for rulers and where the people are inherited by royal heirs. all its sitions of the resources. all the ad- its navy and its army. but to slavery to support an execrable despotism. not to share in the toil in sovereignty of the government. which the supineness of Americans have allowed Catholicism to erect among them. Then the territorial acquiGovernment.oT2 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES vrill with Protectant funds poses. Then liberty of speech and freedom of the press will be no more. . When the pope shall have succeeded in his attempts to establish such a monarchy over the American people. but to obey despots . Then it will be the business of Americans. . to huddle in hovels. feet on the he has people's neck. . like so much land and cattle. Then the ecclesiastical dungeons. quaff blood like water and eye with scornful indifference the squalid millions whom doomed by an enormous taxation without light or tain air. with his . Le applied to Catholic pur- Then the fortunes which non-Catholics have amassed will be confiscated. with food scarcely enough to suslife. will be the homes and graves of freemen. where laws are made for subjects. not to create it vantages has acquired by arms and treaties. .

and the smoke of their stakes have darkened the face of heaven. all^ South America. he will be master of the land and the ocean. by the thunders of American monitors and war steamers. and gibbets cannot extinguish able it. yet their 32 . but Then the papal allies will awake. . Bolts. is a night of despotism without the hope of a morn. dungeons. his claim to the crowns of Eng- land and Russia. and the foot of the sacerdotal monarch placed in malignant triumph upon their necks. but it will be to find that last star of liberty. Mexico. the combined power of church and state. but it will be to find their limbs fettered. such resources. ling of their thrones.IN lie THE UNITED STATES. and AVith such a doall the Pacific and Atlantic islands. minion. Though the blood of freedom's sons have streamed in torrents. Then England will awake. such an army and navy. To annihilate the most formid- efl"orts of bigotry. supreme temporal and spiritual monarchy of the world. his claim to be the disposer of all crowns his claim to be the only monarch that ought in fine. He will then proceed to plunder and discrown the very kings that had assisted him in erecting his colossal power. have been applied in vain. shackles cannot confine racks. He will then enforce. But the with spirit of immortal . the most ingenious arts of statesmen. flames it. it has sufi'ered the extinction of itself in the and involved freedom be it. 373 will next proceed to enlarge its dominions by the annexation of Canada. Then the w'orld will awake. but it will be in the vengeful Then the Eurofolds of a serpent crushing out her life. it will be amid the crumbpean despots will awake. his claim to the to wear the token of royalty . its conflict despotism will eternal.

Hence civil war and convents will illuminate the night. fields will never cease. they will rise up more powerful and successively as time rolls on. . "We believe it can. will Such an organization. and the pillars which support their govern- . The life. Infidels. all If the demon should massacre the freemen in one in the next. averted? ants. on a basis of universal civil and religious liberty. shake with their energy the accursed throne. Free Atheists. sacrifice a prejudice that it would. prove adequate to the emergency.374 spirit PAPAL POLITICAL INTPIGUES has still walked abroad over the world. A Jews. and of all non-Catho- without regard to creed. are in equal danger. if sufiiciently liberally constituted. Free Germans. Can Americans sleep in peace. race or color. but freemen can not. Spiritualists. hesitate io tyrant be effected ? may A may demand concessions with- out rendering an equivalent. We have now alluded to the dangers which begin to blacken our political firmament. lics. will unite in a natural union for the extinguishment of Catholicism. might command the support of Gallic and Fenian Catholics. indeed. if not. Can the storm be union of the ProtestEeligionists. instructed by its past errors. and why should they not organize for mutual safety? must be sacrificed Does prejudice forbid it? Millions of lives "Who if a union be not efi'ected. liberty and welfare of all non-Catholics. judicious policy. of the Fenians and Galileans themselves. burning cathedrals will eternally reek with gore. age. with a. So it has been in the past Catholic so Jt will be in the future. while the clang of the hammers that are forging their chains are sounding in their ears. Turners. and a corresponding system of measures. till the v/orld. then.

or under any other form of government. and an equal voice unjudges and rulers. chances. and until the united world shall rise to the majesty and and greatness of equal privileges. is One or the other inevitable. Each citizen is an intepositions in the he particigral part of the sovereignty of the nation . it is his privilege to believe that the greatness republic will continue to grow in power and glory each succeeding age. to posterity. the stake. pates in glory. Which do you now chose? choice. and the groan of the oppressed shall no more be heard. It seems imposare tottering over their heads ? Their obligations to their country. until the clank of slavery. to the world. the gibbet. poorest and the richest are here accorded equal in selecting equal privileges. its management. S75 ment sible. and his industry any has encouragements enjoyed by no people m The country. highest trammelled by legal impediments in seeking the government. until the light of her with until despots shall tremble before shall fill the earth . equal rights equal laws. and shares its greatness and It is can. Judging of the government. that tion. if Ameria consolation enjoyed only by an his ambifame nor fortune should gratify still he can bequeath to his children a richer the inheritance than that of either fame or fortune. Union or slavery . inheritance of a free future by the past. union or confiscation union or the rack. .IN THE UNITED STATES. A few more years hence you will have no Every citizen knows that under the present form of government his merits have rewards. the majesty of the people . union. They are equally legislators. demand .

and enterprise annihilated. lays the greatness and glory of the nation in the grave. which has so This . This land. Intolerance will then re-establish Industry will then be oppressed. . by the continuance blast. monarchy.376 PAPAL POLITICAL INTRIGUES blessings guaranteed. will then reverberate with the clanking irons of servitude. which is is now the wonder and life glory of the earth . she will have departed like a thunder peal. nation. . Like a wave she will have rolled away like a dream. racks and torture. it of the republic but all. . she will have these she had but one Like muttered into eternal silence. like a deadly annihilates them With its the liberty. story Her and prosperous this nation will and splendor will have departed with her freedom. long resounded with the song of liberty. . History curse may record her eventful her sons future may freemen may clank in chains around her tomb the degenerate sons who wanted the valor or unanimity to transmit to their posterity the government which they inherited from their ancestors but these will not call her to life and glory again. Such are the tions warranted and the expecta. which so powerful be no more. and that will then have ended. . existence.




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