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3D Studio Max Tutorial

3D Studio Max Tutorial

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Sections

  • 1) Shapes/Splines
  • 2) Edit Poly Modifier
  • 3) Paint Deformation:
  • 4) Collapse Utility
  • 5) Editable Mesh
  • 6) Mesh Select
  • 7) Light Lister
  • 8) Global illumination – skylight & Light Tracer
  • 9) Light Tracer
  • 10. Video Post: Cut between two cameras
  • 11. Video Post: Crossfade between two cameras
  • 12. Creating Grass
  • 13. Animating Material colour change
  • 14. Animating Material – complete change from one material to another
  • 15. To match your viewport background with the rendered background:
  • 16. To remove a background image:
  • 17. Shadows on a background image
  • 18. Camera Match Utility
  • 19. To use camera matching:

3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet.

Week 1
a. Basic concepts i. Fast modelling ii. Model only what you can see iii. Modify parameters at any time in future User interface

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1. Menu bar 2. Command panels 3. Object categories 4. Rollout 5. Active viewport 6. Viewport navigation controls 7. Animation playback controls 8. Animation keying controls 9. Snaps 10. Window/Crossing selection toggle 11. Keyboard shortcut override toggle 12. Absolute/Relative coordinate toggle and coordinate display 13. Prompt line and status bar 14. MAXScript mini-listener 15. Track bar 16. Time slider 17. Main toolbar

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3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet.

Viewport navigation controls:

Zoom Zoom All Pan Arc Rotate Zoom Extents Zoom Extents All Wheel mouse shortcuts: 1: scroll wheel to zoom 2: press wheel while moving mouse to pan 3: hold ALT key, press wheel and move mouse to Arc Rotate. Customize > Preferences > General > Use Large Toolbar Buttons (turn off, then restart 3DS Max) 2. Setting up workspace: units, snaps, etc a. Customize > Units Setup > Metric > Millimeters b. Customize > Grid & Snap Settings > Snaps > Grid Point & Vertex c. Customize > Grid & Snap Settings > Home Grid > Grid Spacing: 100mm d. Customize > Grid & Snap Settings > Home Grid > Inhibit Grid Subdivision etc: OFF e. Customize > Grid & Snap Settings > Home Grid > Inhibit Perspective View etc: OFF f. Toolbar: 2D Snap ON, Angle Snap ON, Percent Snap ON To use Snap Override during a drag operation: a. Left-click, press Shift, and then right-click to display the menu. b. Release the left mouse button, and then left-click to select the snap you want. c. Release the Shift key, right-click, and continue the drag operation (the geometry remains locked to the mouse). d. Left-click to complete the operation. Modelling with primitives a. Create panel > Geometry button > Standard Primitives > Object Type rollout > various Cancelling an action a. Right-click while keeping left mouse button still depressed. Then release both buttons. AutoGrid a. Create panel > Any object category > Object Type rollout b. Extras toolbar > AutoGrid c. Object Type rollout d. AutoGrid—AutoGrid is available only after you select an object button (such as Box). When you turn AutoGrid on, the cursor includes an axis tripod to help you orient the grid. Before clicking and as you position the cursor over a visible mesh object, the cursor jumps to the nearest point on that surface. The tripod's X and Y axes form a plane tangent to the object surface (forming an implied construction grid), and the Z axis is perpendicular to the plane. e. After creating the object, 3ds max places it on the temporary construction grid. When creating an object, if the cursor isn't over another object, 3ds max places the object on the current active grid. f. Tip: If you want to make the grid permanent, hold down the ALT key before you click. The grid becomes active and 3ds max turns AutoGrid off. This method applies only to the first click when you create objects that require multiple clicks. So, for instance, if you want to

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3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet.

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create a Line shape that snaps to the faces of a sphere, turn on Face in the Grid And Snap Settings dialog. Transforms a. To transform an object using the controls on the toolbar: i. On the toolbar, click one of the three transform buttons: Select And Move, Select And Rotate, or Select And Scale. These buttons are usually referred to as Move, Rotate, and Scale. ii. Position the mouse over the object you want to transform. iii. If the object is already selected, the cursor changes to indicate the transform. iv. If the object is not selected, the cursor changes to a plus sign to show that the object can be selected. v. Drag the mouse to apply the transform. vi. If you drag the mouse over an unselected object, it becomes selected and is also transformed. vii. Tip: You can use the Transform gizmo to easily restrict transforms to one or two axes. See Using the Transform Gizmo. b. To cancel a transform: Right-click while you’re dragging the mouse. c. To transform a selected object from the quad menu: i. Right-click the selected object. ii. The quad menu appears, showing the three transforms on its Transform (lower-right) quadrant. iii. Choose one of the transforms. iv. The equivalent transform button is selected on the toolbar. v. Drag the object or its transform gizmo to apply the transform. d. Using Transform Type-In i. The Transform Type-In allows you to enter precise transform values to apply to selected objects. You can access equivalent controls as the Coordinate Display on the status bar, or you can open a small dialog that remains on your screen while you work. The contents update to match the currently active transform and object selection. e. To use transform type-in: i. Apply a transform to a selected object. ii. Either use the Coordinate Display type-in fields on the status bar, or choose Tools menu > Transform Type-In. iii. The keyboard shortcut for accessing the dialog is F12. You can also open the Transform Type-In by right-clicking a transform button on the main toolbar. f. You can do any of the following, switching from one to the other as required: i. Type a value in an axis field and press ENTER to apply the transform change to the object in the viewport. ii. Drag a spinner in an axis field to update the object in the viewport. iii. Drag the object to apply the transform and read the resulting change in the dialog. iv. For example, if Move is active, the dialog fields read out both the absolute and offset positions of the selected object in world space. If no object is selected, the fields turn gray. g. Show Transform Gizmo i. Views menu > Show Transform Gizmo ii. Keyboard > X Selection techniques a. To select an object: i. Click one of the selection buttons on the toolbar: Select Object, Select by Name, Select and Move, Select and Rotate, Select and Scale, or Select and Manipulate. ii. In any viewport, move the cursor over the object you want to select. iii. The cursor changes to a small cross when it’s positioned over an object that can be selected. iv. The valid selection zones of an object depend on the type of object and the display mode in the viewport. In shaded mode, any visible surface of an object is valid. In wireframe mode, any edge or segment of an object is valid, including hidden lines. v. While the cursor displays the selection cross, click to select the object (and to deselect any previously selected object). vi. A selected wireframe object turns white. A selected shaded object displays white brackets at the corners of its bounding box. b. To select all objects: i. Choose Edit menu > Select All. ii. This selects all objects in your scene. c. To invert the current selection: i. Choose Edit menu > Select Invert.

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3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet.

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ii. This reverses the current selection pattern. For example, assume you begin with five objects in your scene, and two of them are selected. After choosing Invert, the two are deselected, and the remaining objects are selected. To extend or reduce a selection: i. Hold down CTRL while you click to make selections. ii. This toggles the selection state of the objects you select. Use this method to select or deselect objects. For example, if you have two objects selected and CTRL+click to select a third, the third object is added to the selection. If you now CTRL+click any of the three selected objects, that object is deselected. To lock a selection: i. Select an object. ii. Click the Selection Lock Toggle on the status bar to turn on locked selection mode. iii. While your selection is locked, you can drag the mouse anywhere on the screen without losing the selection. The cursor displays the current selection icon. When you want to deselect or alter your selection, click the Lock button again to turn off locked selection mode. SPACEBAR is the keyboard toggle for locked selection mode. To deselect an object, do any of the following: i. Click an empty area anywhere outside the current selection. ii. Hold down the ALT key, and either click an object, or drag a region around the object to deselect it. iii. Hold down the CTRL key and click to deselect a selected object. This also selects non-selected objects. iv. Choose Edit menu > Select None to deselect all objects in the scene.

Groups a. General Features of Groups i. Once you group objects, you can treat them as a single object in your scene. You can click any object in the group to select the group object. ii. When you create a group, all of its member objects are rigidly linked to an invisible dummy object. The group object uses the pivot point and the local transform coordinate system of this dummy object. iii. Groups can be nested. That is, groups can contain other groups, up to any level. b. Accessing Objects in a Group i. You can open and close groups to access the individual objects contained in them without dissolving the group. These commands maintain the integrity of the group. ii. Open: Temporarily opens the group so that you can access its member objects. While a group is open, you can treat the objects (or nested groups) as individuals. You can transform them, apply modifiers, and access their modifier stacks. iii. Close: Restores the group when you’re finished working with the individual objects. c. Dissolving Groups i. You can permanently dissolve groups by either ungrouping or exploding them. Both commands dissolve groups, but to different levels. ii. Ungroup: Goes one level deep in the group hierarchy. It separates the current group into its component objects (or groups), and deletes the group dummy object. iii. Explode: Similar to Ungroup, but dissolves all nested groups as well, leaving independent objects. 10. Help menu > Hotkey Map a. move your cursor over the parts of the keyboard image to highlight different areas, showing the shortcuts assigned to the various keys

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Week 2
1) Rotating around a different point a) Move tool b) Hierarchy panel > Pivot > Affect Pivot Only c) Move pivot point d) Turn off ‘Affect Pivot Only’ e) Rotate object Calculations a) Click inside any numeric field, anywhere in Max b) Press Control-N and the Numeric Expression Evaluator window will pop up c) Type in a calculation (eg 100*2.5) and the result (250) will appear at the bottom of the window d) Press ENTER to automatically paste the result into the original numeric field Undo; Hold & Fetch a) Activating

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vi) Pick one or more objects to participate in the Boolean operation. b) ProBoolean supports Union. you would select the box.mx) under the directory specified as the AutoBackup path in the Configure Paths dialog. use Fetch. ProBoolean Compound Object a) A Boolean object combines two or more other objects by performing a Boolean operation or operations on them. Assigning wireframe colour to an object. etc. Imprint only splits faces and adds new edges to the mesh of the base object (original selected object). When you know something cannot be undone. vii) As you pick objects. Copy. Colour square. iii) Adjust the stairs with the options in the Parameters rollout. each using a different Boolean operation.) and the Apply Material choice. for each newly picked object. v) Click the Start Picking button. these dialogs list all objects in the scene. and then click ProBoolean. b) Create panel > Geometry > Doors i) Click & drag to show width ii) Release mouse button iii) Click to show depth 5 . you can add objects to a selected ProBoolean object by clicking the Start Picking button and then picking the objects to add. Use CTRL to add to the selection. This can be useful for cases in which you need to selectively remove parts of the mesh. drag to set the length. choose the type of Boolean operation you want to use: Union. Modify Panel a) Name area. ii) Move the cursor up or down to define the rise of the stairs. Also choose how the software will transfer the next operand you pick into the Boolean object: Reference. click Select By Name. while Selection Floater remains active. 4) 5) 6) 7) i) Edit menu > Undo or Redo ii) Toolbar > Undo or Redo iii) Keyboard > CTRL+Z (Undo) or CTRL+Y (Redo) b) By default. to subtract spherical shapes from a box. and click to end. Stairs. Doors. and Merge. Any selected objects are highlighted in the list. c) Also supported are two variants of the Boolean operations: Cookie Cutter and Imprint. the Boolean operation (Merge. as well as how the next operand is transferred to the Boolean (Reference. such as the ability to combine multiple objects at once. e) Select Object closes. create the box and spheres and arrange the spheres so that their volumes intersect the box where the subtractions should take place. c) Some actions cannot be undone (for example. Intersection. For example. ProBoolean adds a range of functionality to the traditional 3ds Max Boolean object. or Instance. there are 20 levels of Undo.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. etc. Copy. b) The Select Objects or Selection Floater dialog is displayed. iii) Choose Tools menu > Selection Floater. Intersection. Each of the objects you pick is added to the Boolean operation. Windows. d) The Hold buffer is a temporary file (maxhold.) and options (Cookie or Imprint). You can also choose to retain the original material. Then if you want to undo it. AEC Extended a) Create panel > Geometry > Stairs i) In any viewport. It can be used to cut a hole in a mesh or to get the portion of a mesh inside of another object. Subtraction. applying modifiers. choose Compound Objects from the drop-down list. d) To create a ProBoolean compound object: i) Set up objects for the Boolean operation. use Hold first. The Merge operation intersects and combines two meshes without removing any of the original polygons. or keep the default Apply Material choice: Apply Operand Material. You can continue picking operands as long as the Start Picking button stays pressed in. You can change the number of levels with the Customize > Preferences > General tab > Scene Undo group. Subtraction. The first three operations work similarly to their counterparts in the standard Boolean compound object. Selecting objects by name a) Do one of the following: (1) On the Main toolbar. By default. you can also change. ii) Select the base object. Move. then move the cursor and click to set the width you want. c) Choose one or more objects in the list. iii) On the Create panel > Geometry section. Release the mouse button. In the example in step 1. iv) On the Parameters rollout. etc. ii) Choose Edit menu > Select By > Name. The Imprint option inserts (imprints) the intersection edges between the operands and the original mesh without removing or adding faces. Hold and Fetch are also commands on the Edit menu. viii) When the Modify panel is active. Naming objects. d) Click Select to make the selection. and changing certain parameters in command panels). Cookie Cutter performs the specified Boolean operation but does not add the faces from the operands into the original mesh.

Create panel > Geometry > Windows i) Same creation method as doors d) Create panel > Geometry > AEC Extended i) Foliage ii) Wall e) Inserting Doors and Windows in a Wall i) For best results. or choose Tools > Normal Align. perform this procedure in a wireframe viewport. or sets of objects. ii) Create a window or door (hereafter referred to as "window" for brevity) directly on an existing wall. then release. (2) Using the dialog. Change the depth if it's different from the snap depth you set above. as it simply defines a rough height. attached to a pair of cross hairs. You can define the window's exact dimensions after insertion. vi) The blue arrow remains as reference to the source normal. iii) The window should now be cut out of the wall. x) The source object moves into alignment with the target normal. xi) Do one of the following: (1) Click OK to accept the alignment. vi) With the window or door selected. Move the cursor downward and click to define the window height. Snap to and then click the near top edge of the wall to start creation. set the correct width and height. ix) Move the cross hairs and green arrow until you locate the normal you want to use as a target. This final click doesn't require a snap. Taper modifiers c) Sub-objects i) Accessing Boolean Operands 9) Normal Align a) Activating: i) Main toolbar > Normal Align (on Align flyout) ii) Tools menu > Normal Align iii) Keyboard > ALT+N b) To align normals: i) Select a source object. Modifying one has no effect on the other. make modifications to the alignment before clicking OK. and paste modifiers between objects. Snap to the rear top edge of the wall to set the proper depth and click. use relative offset values from this new position to accurately locate the window or door. viii) A green arrow at the cursor indicates the current normal. vii) On the Coordinate Display. such as gizmo or center. Modifying an instanced object is the same as modifying the original. the viewport display. or both. iv) The Normal Align cursor appears. following the next two steps. cut. and the Normal Align dialog appears. vii) Drag across the surface of the target object. 8) The modifier stack a) Using the Modifier Stack i) The modifier stack and its editing dialog are the keys to managing all aspects of modification. iv) Use vertex snap to move the window or door from a reference point to a known point on the wall segment. (4) Deactivate the effect of a modifier in the stack. then release. (2) View and manipulate the sequence of modifiers. (5) Select a modifier’s components. This is the object that moves during alignment. set the coordinate system to Local. 10) Cloning a) Definitions of Copies. v) Move the cursor and blue arrow until you locate the normal you want to use. A blue arrow at the cursor indicates the current normal.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. As an example. You use these tools to: (1) Find a particular modifier and adjust its parameters. (6) Delete modifiers. Drag to another edge snap point on the near top edge of the wall and release to align the window with the wall segment and to set its width. Twist. iii) Drag across the surface of the source object. activate Offset mode and then enter the offset distances on the X axis for horizontal and the Y axis for vertical. c) 6 . iv) Move mouse up and click to show height. you could move a window from its top left corner to the top left corner of the wall segment so that you can then move it 3 feet to the right and 2 feet down. ii) Instance: Creates a completely interchangeable clone of the original. references & instances i) Copy: Creates a completely separate clone from the original. (3) Copy. On the Modify panel for windows or doors. Then v) Next. ii) Click Normal Align on the Main toolbar. b) Bend. Use edge snap for the first snaps to place and align the window on the wall and to establish its exact depth.

splines are added to the current shape until you click the Start New Shape button. b) Interpolation rollout – Turn on “Adaptive” for smoother shapes. however. (2) Use Totals Move settings when you know the overall space or volume you want the array to occupy. 7 . On this rollout you choose to define splines by either their center point or their diagonal. > Edit menu > Clone ii) Make a selection. and it will affect only the object to which it is applied. Leave the other transforms at their default values. (4) Click or drag the start point. 11) Arrays a) Tools menu > Array i) Linear Arrays (1) Use Incremental Move settings where you know the spacing you want between objects. Changing parameters for modifiers that were applied to the object before the object was referenced. > Move. The check box next to the Start New Shape button determines when new shapes are created. (b) Click the first vertex and click Yes in the "Close spline?" dialog to create a closed spline. OR: (2) Rotate around Transform Coordinate Center (a) Create panel > Helpers > Point (b) Pick location in viewport (c) Choose Rotate tool (d) Set Reference Coordinate System menu to ‘Pick’ (e) Choose point object in viewport (f) Choose “Use Transform Coordinate Center” from toolbar 12) Exercise: model the room 13) FFD’s a) Modify panel > Make a selection. (3) For either of these two types of arrays. You control how many splines are in a shape using the Start New Shape button and check box on the Object Type rollout. iii) Reference: Creates a clone dependent on the original up to the point when the object is cloned. d) Line i) To create a line: (1) Go to the Create panel and choose Shapes. the second copy is offset from the first copy by the same distance that the first copy is offset from the original.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. (6) Click or drag additional points. dragging creates a Bezier vertex. (2) In the Object Type rollout. “Optimize” will reduce number of steps in straight line segments to 1. dragging creates a Bezier vertex. (7) Clicking creates a corner vertex. For Scale. ii) Circular Arrays (1) Move objects pivot point. For Rotate. > Hold down SHIFT key. c) Creation Method rollout i) Many spline tools use the Creation Methods rollout. > Modifier List > Object-Space Modifiers > FFD(box) or FFD(cyl) b) Make a selection. c) Note: i) If you SHIFT+Move an object and specify two copies. When the box is on. (5) Clicking creates a corner vertex. the program creates a new shape object for every spline you create. with the second copy rotated twice as far as the first. click the Line button. (8) Do one of the following: (a) Right-click to create an open spline. b) Cloning object/s: i) Make a selection. (3) Choose a creation method. When the box is off. rotate. two copies of the scaled object are created. iii) Center—Your first mouse press defines the center of the shape and you drag a radius or corner point. will change both objects. or scale the selection with the mouse. This will generate larger mesh sizes. two copies of the rotated object are created. with the second copy twice (or half) the size of the first copy. enter a value for one axis. > Modifiers menu > Free Form Deformers > FFD Box or FFD Cylinder Week 3 1) Shapes/Splines a) Start New Shape—A shape can contain a single spline or it can be a compound shape containing multiple splines. ii) Edge—Your first mouse press defines a point on the side or at a corner of the shape and you drag a diameter or the diagonal corner. a new modifier can be applied to one of the reference objects. However.

press and hold SHIFT to constrain new points to 90degree-angle increments from previous points. iii) To create a line from the keyboard: (1) Enter values in the X. The vertex is located at the cursor position where you first press the mouse button. (3) Repeat steps 1 and 2 for each additional vertex. (4) Drag Type group (a) Sets the type of vertex you create when you drag a vertex location. (4) The angle for each new segment relates to the previous segment. (b) Corner—Produces a sharp point. press and hold CTRL to constrain new points to angle increments determined by the current Angle Snap setting. click the Options tab in the Grid and Snap Settings dialog. so the angle snap works only after you've placed the first two spline vertices (that is. See Splines for an explanation of these parameters. (3) Close—Closes the shape. (2) End-End-Middle—Drag and release to set the two endpoints of the arc. Donut i) To create a donut: (1) Go to the Create panel and choose Shapes. (2) Click Add Point to add a vertex to the current line at the specified coordinate. Creation Method. To set this angle. Rectangle i) Note different creation methods ii) Note corner radius allows rounded rectangles Arc i) Creation Method rollout (1) These options determine the sequence of mouse clicks involved in the creation of the arc. The spline is linear to either side of the vertex. vii) Keyboard Entry rollout (1) Keyboard entry for lines is different from keyboard entry for other splines. nonadjustable curve through the vertex. drag and release to specify one endpoint of the arc. The direction and distance that you drag are used only when creating Bezier vertices. such as Interpolation.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. when you go to the Modify panel you have immediate access to the Selection and Geometry rollouts to edit the vertices or any part of the shape. (c) Smooth—Produces a smooth. Angle Snap need not be enabled for this feature to work. and Z fields to specify a vertex coordinate. Entering keyboard values continues to add vertices to the existing line until you click Close or Finish. Use the default Initial type setting of Corner and click all subsequent points to create fully rectilinear shapes. (3) Center-End-End—Press the mouse button to specify the center point of the arc. it converts to an editable spline when you move from the Create panel to the Modify panel. Rendering. (3) While creating a spline with the mouse. (4) Do one of the following: (a) Click Finish to create an open spline. (d) Bezier—Produces a smooth. the first segment). and Keyboard Entry. the Create panel displays the original controls. Y. After creating the line. While you are creating the line. ii) e) f) g) To create a line using rectilinear and angle-snap options: (1) These two options aid in creating regular shapes: (2) While creating a spline with the mouse. (4) Finish—Finishes the spline without closing it. v) Rendering and Interpolation rollouts (1) All spline-based shapes share these parameters. (b) Corner—Produces a sharp point. The spline is linear to either side of the vertex. (b) Click Close to connect the current vertex to the first vertex and create a closed spline. You choose options to control the type of vertex created when you click or drag vertices. The amount of curvature are set by the spacing of the vertices. (2) Add Point—Adds a new point to the line at the current X/Y/Z coordinates. (c) Smooth—Produces a smooth. iv) Automatic Conversion to an Editable Spline (1) Because the Line tool has no dimension parameters to be carried over to the Modify panel. and then click to specify the third point between the two endpoints. adjustable curve through the vertex. 8 . The amount of curvature is set by the spacing of the vertices. nonadjustable curve through the vertex. go to Customize menu > Grid and Snap Settings. (2) You can preset the default types of spline vertices during line creation with these settings: (3) Initial Type group (a) Sets the type of vertex you create when you click a vertex location. and click to specify the other endpoint of the arc. The amount of curvature and direction of the curve are set by dragging the mouse at each vertex. and change the value in the Angle (deg) field. vi) Creation Method rollout (1) Creation method options for lines are different from other spline tools. adding a final spline segment between the most recent vertex and the first.

9 . the default size is 100 units. The text can use any Windows font installed on your system. (2) Radius 2—Specifies the radius for the Helix end. ii) Parameters rollout (1) Radius 1—Specifies the radius for the Helix start. (2) Click Helix. (a) The initial session default is "MAX Text. (2) Note: The four text-alignment buttons require multiple lines of text for effect because they act on the text in relation to its bounding box. (7) Move the mouse and then click to define the radius of the Helix end. (c) You can cut and paste single. forming points. Range=3 to 100.and multi-line text from the Clipboard. (5) Drag and release the mouse button to define the second point of the Helix start circle. Since fonts are loaded only at first use. Press ENTER after each line of text to start the next line. (4) Turns—Specifies the number of turns the Helix makes between its start and end points. The program must be restarted before the new path is used. if the font manager has been used by the program. (5) Bias—Forces the turns to accumulate at one end of the helix. (2) Inscribed—The radius is measured from the center to the corners of the NGon (3) Circumscribed Radius—the radius is measured from the center to the sides of the NGon. The first time you enter text. and the remaining vertices lie on the other radius.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. (3) Size—Sets the text height where the height measuring method is defined by the active font. forming valleys. (5) Leading—Adjusts the leading (the distance between lines). it's the same size as its bounding box and has nowhere to go. (4) Press the mouse button to define the first point of the Helix start circle. Half the vertices lie on one radius." (b) The edit box does not support word wrap. (4) Drag and release the mouse button to define the first donut circle. Helix i) To create a helix: (1) Go to the Create panel and choose Shapes. specifies a circular NGon. This produces a sawtooth affect. (4) A star has twice as many vertices as the specified number of points.0. h) i) j) k) (2) Click Donut. Text i) Use Text to create splines in the shape of text. If there's only one line of text. (6) Fillet Radius 1—Rounds the inner vertices (the valleys) of the star. (b) Type 1 PostScript fonts located in the directory pointed to by the Fonts path in the Configure Paths dialog. This has an effect only when multiple lines of text are included in the shape. (3) Choose a creation method. (5) Move the mouse and then click to define the radius of the second concentric donut circle. A setting of 0 specifies a standard unrounded corner. (4) Sides—Specifies the number of sides and vertices used by the NGon. (5) Corner Radius—Specifies the degree of rounding to apply to the corners of the NGon. (4) Kerning—Adjusts the kerning (the distance between letters). or a Type 1 PostScript font installed in the directory pointed to by the Fonts path in the Configure Paths dialog. (3) Choose a creation method. (b) A bias of 0. ii) Parameters rollout (1) Font list—Choose from a list of all available fonts. (5) Distortion—Rotates the outer vertices (the points) about the center of the star. Ngon i) Parameters rollout (1) Radius—Specifies the NGon radius. (a) A bias of -1. (3) Height—Specifies the height of the Helix. (6) The second circle can be larger or smaller than the first. Available fonts include: (a) Fonts installed in Windows. Bias has no visible affect when the height is 0. changing the font path later in the program has no effect. Range=3 to 100. (3) Points—Specifies the number of points on the star. (6) Move the mouse and then click to define the height of the Helix. (6) Circular—When on.0 forces the turns toward the start of the helix. (6) Text edit box—Allows for multiple lines of text. (2) Radius 2—Specifies the radius of the outer vertices (the points) of the star. (7) Fillet Radius 2—Rounds the outer vertices (the points) of the star. Star i) Parameters rollout (1) Radius 1—Specifies the radius of the inner vertices (the valley) of the star.0 evenly distributes the turns between the ends.

c) Capping group i) Morph—Creates cap faces suitable for morphing. For visible curvature. smoothing groups are applied to the sides. Default=16 (1) Note: You can create up to 10. The sides appear rounded. The direction of the normal indicates the front. When turned off. (3) Keep Lines From Crossing—Prevents outlines from crossing over themselves. iii) Smooth Across Levels—Controls whether smoothing groups are applied to the sides of a beveled object. e) Smooth—Applies smoothing to the extruded shape. (3) End—Caps the end with the highest local Z value (top) of the object. d) Output group i) Patch—Produces an object that you can collapse to a patch object ii) Mesh—Produces an object that you can collapse to a mesh object iii) NURBS—Produces an object that you can collapse to a NURBS surface. (1) When turned on. b) Segments—Specifies the number of segments that will be created in the extruded object. Often you can get satisfactory results by using smoothing groups or smoothing modifiers. ii) Weld Core—Simplifies the mesh by welding together vertices that lie on the axis of revolution. This is accomplished by inserting extra vertices in the outline and replacing sharp corners with a flat line segment.0 forces the turns toward the end of the helix. the lathed object might be inside out. and the direction of rotation. a numeric field sets the number of segments to interpolate. or outer surface of the face or vertex. When turned off. default=360). (3) Curved Sides—When active. (2) Bevel works best with rounded shapes or shapes with corners greater than 90 degrees. segment interpolation between levels follows a straight line. The Lathe axis auto-sizes itself to the height of the shape being lathed.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. center. (2) Linear Sides—When active. the end is left open. (4) Segments—Sets the number of intermediate segments between each level. > Modifiers menu > Patch/Spline Editing > Lathe c) Parameters i) Degrees—Determines the number of degrees that the object is spun around the axis of revolution (0 to 360. ii) Surface group (1) The first two radio buttons set the interpolation method used between levels. iv) Segments—Determines how many interpolated segments are created in the surface between the start and endpoint. You can set keyframes for Degrees to animate the circular growth of a lathed object. c) You can manually flip or unify face normals to fix surface errors caused by modeling operations or by importing meshes from other programs. (6) CW/CCW—The direction buttons set whether the Helix turns clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW). This parameter is also animatable. v) X/Y/Z—Set the direction of the axis of revolution relative to the pivot point of the object. This cap type deforms and renders better than morph capping. Lathe nodifier a) Select a shape. use multiple segments with Curved Sides. iii) Flip Normals—Depending on the direction of the vertices on your shape.000 segments using the segments spinner. 2) 3) 4) 5) (c) A bias of 1. vi) Min/Center/Max—Align the axis of revolution to the minimum. (2) When turned off. Acute angles (less than 90 degrees) produce extreme bevels and often overlap nearby edges. Keep it turned off if you intend to create morph targets. (2) Start—Caps the end with the lowest local Z value (bottom) of the object. ii) Grid—Creates cap faces in a grid pattern. segment interpolation between levels follows a Bezier curve. The sides appear as flat bevels. Extrude modifier a) Amount—Sets the depth of the extrusion. rather than increasing segmentation. Normals a) The normal of each face can point in a different direction. b) A normal is a vector that defines which way a face or vertex is pointing. Try not to create geometry that is more complex than you need. smoothing groups are not applied. 10 . Caps always use a different smoothing group than the sides. the bottom is open. iv) Intersections group (1) Prevents sharp corners from overlapping neighboring edges. > Modify panel > Modifier List > Lathe b) Select a shape. Bevel modifier a) Parameters rollout i) Capping group (1) You can determine whether or not the beveled object is capped at either end with the check boxes in the Capping group. or maximum extents of the shape. Toggle the Flip Normals check box to fix this.

Bevel Profile is simply a modifier. a grid object replaces the home grid as the frame of reference for creating objects. Activating another grid object deactivates the current one. c) To return to the home grid. ii) Right-click the selected grid object and choose Activate Home Grid from the quad menu. This creates and selects a grid object. which incorporates the shape. b) Important: Bevel Profile fails if you delete the original beveling profile. d) Parameters rollout i) Bevel Profile group (1) Pick Profile—Selects a shape or NURBS curve to be used for the profile path. Turn on AutoGrid. (2) Right-click the selected grid object and choose Activate Grid from the quad menu. iv) While the newly created grid object is still selected. along with alignment. then press ALT during object creation. ii) Activate the grid object. v) Bevel Values rollout vi) Start Outline—Sets the distance the outline is offset from the original shape. If you have more than one grid object in your scene. whether it's the home grid or a grid object. ii) Select a grid object. Select the grid object you want to make active and follow the same procedure." It's a variation on the Bevel modifier. (2) Separation—Sets the distance that sides should be kept apart to prevent intersections. ix) Outline—Sets the distance to offset the Level 1 outline from the Start Outline. the home grid disappears in all viewports. These transforms. v) You can assign a keyboard shortcut to Activate Home Grid in the Keyboard panel of the Customize User Interface dialog. This more complex method of resizing a shape results in some levels having either more or less vertices than others. 7) Grid Helper a) To create a grid object: i) Click Create panel > Helpers > Standard > Object Type rollout > Grid.01. Activating a grid object enables options to reactivate the home grid on the Views menu > Grids submenu and the Quad menu. This is useful if you need to move back and forth between different grids. are essential in positioning a construction plane in 3D space. which appears in white wireframe. This requires more processor calculation and can be time-consuming in complex geometry.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. drag a rectangle and release the mouse button. do one of the following: i) From the Views menu. iii) Do one of the following: (1) From the Views menu. for example. its XY plane is effectively infinite. An activated grid object creates a true plane in 3D space. A non-zero setting changes the original shape's size. Except for its main axes. you can change its settings on the Parameters rollout. iv) The grid object changes to show its internal grid structure. You can also create a grid object during object creation. choose Grids > Activate Home Grid. 6) Bevel Profile modifier a) The Bevel Profile modifier extrudes a shape using another shape path as the "beveling profile. it's actually different because it uses different outline values as distances between line segments rather than as scale values. vii) Level 1—Includes two parameters that indicate the change from the Start level. Standard selection doesn't activate it unless you turn on the option to do so (see User Grids). A grid is created at the same time as the object and remains displayed and active. and generally works better with text. (2) Negative values make the outline smaller. (4) Separation—Sets the distance to be maintained between edges. the home grid also reactivates. Activating a user grid "deactivates" the home grid. b) To activate a grid object: i) A grid object requires activation before use. (1) Positive values make the outline larger. viii) Height—Sets the distance of Level 1 above the Start level. iii) Create any category of object from the Create panel. Unlike a loft object. with the object's Z axis perpendicular to the plane. The software creates the object directly on the plane of the grid object. you have to activate each one separately. iv) If you delete an activated grid object. ii) Intersections group (1) Keep Lines From Crossing—Prevents beveled surfaces from self intersecting. The minimum value is 0. divided into four quadrants with coordinate axes at the center. Like other objects in the software. ii) A Parameters rollout appears on the Create panel. Only one grid can be active for construction at a time. d) To use a grid object as construction plane: i) When activated. choose Grids > Activate Grid Object. c) Note: Although this modifier might seem similar to a loft object with varying scale settings. No matter how small an activated grid object appears on screen. iii) This deactivates the grid object and returns the home grid in all views. iii) In a viewport. 8) Measuring distances: 11 . you can move and rotate grid objects freely using standard transformation methods. just as if it were the XY plane of the home grid.

vi. 2. detailing the distance along the X. As you move the section object. The curvature of the segment as it leaves the corner is set by the direction and magnitude of the tangent handles. Y. 12 . Each vertex in a shape can be one of four types: a. Update Section—Updates the intersection to match the current placement of the Section object when using When Section Selected or Manually option. it's converted to a shape based on the current cross section. Vertex i. Provides spinners that let you adjust the length and width of the displayed section rectangle. ii. iii. Section Extents group i. you can offset the generated cross section from the position of the intersected geometry. ii. The resulting shape is an editable spline consisting of curve segments and corner vertices. e. c. resulting in a cross section at any mesh geometry in its plane. The Create Shape button is disabled. Edit Spline modifier a. ii. based on all intersected meshes in the scene. Infinite—The section plane is infinite in all directions. Off—No cross section is displayed or generated. The curvature at a smooth vertex is determined by the spacing of adjacent vertices. A dialog is displayed in which you can name the new object. leaving the geometry behind. iii) Click again in the viewport where you want to measure to. Section Parameters rollout i. Choose one of these options to specify the extents of the cross-section generated by the section object. Smooth: Nonadjustable vertices that create smooth continuous curves. b. Length/Width—Adjust the length and width of the displayed section rectangle. Corner: Nonadjustable vertices that create sharp corners. ii. Note: When using When Section Selected or Manually. iii. d. and Z coordinates is displayed as well. v. iv. ii) Click in the viewport where you want to start measuring from. 2. Note: If you convert the section grid to an editable spline. Provides options for specifying when the intersection line is updated. iv. Click the Update Section button to update the intersection. Transform Gizmo a. Additional information. Manually—Updates the intersection line only when you click the Update Section button. When you click Create Shape.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. Geometry rollout 3. The curvature at the vertex is set by the direction and magnitude of the tangent handles. iii. (1) A distance is returned in the status bar. Press + or – on main keyboard to change transform gizmo size Section spline a. Bezier Corner: Adjustable vertex with discontinuous tangent handles that create a sharp corner. Section Size rollout i. Section Boundary—The cross-section is generated only in objects that are within or touched by the boundary of the section shape. Color swatch—Click this to set the display color of the intersection. Choose a type from the shortcut menu. the yellow cross-section lines move with it. the new shape is generated at the displayed cross-section lines in the offset position. Bezier: Adjustable vertex with locked continuous tangent handles that create a smooth curve. Create Shape—Creates a shape based on the currently displayed intersection lines. Week 4 1. b. When Section Selected—Updates the intersection line when you select the section shape. Update group i. a) To measure the distance between two points: i) Choose Tools menu > Measure Distance. c. When Section Moves—Updates the intersection line when you move or resize the Section shape. but not while you move it. d. Right-click any vertex in a selection. To set a vertex type: 1.

If the bordering vertices are both Smooth types. Break—Splits a spline at the selected vertex or vertices. create them in the same way as the line spline. rightclick or click to turn off Create Line. If either of the bordering vertices is a Corner or Bezier Corner. If you choose Connect Only the software will not create a vertex. click Refine again. 4. Otherwise. Bezier Corner—New vertices will have bezier corner tangency when this is turned on. Click the object you want to attach to the currently selected spline object. 4. 7. To exit line creation. Select one or more vertices and then click Break to create the split. 5. makes all segments in the new spline straight lines by using Corner vertices. connects the first and last vertices in the new spline to create a closed spline. Closed—When on. viii. Connect always creates an open spline. Connect—When on. the software simply connects to the existing vertex.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. or right-click in the viewport. 8. You can also click existing vertices during a refine operation. iii. Connect makes a separate copy of each new vertex and then connects all of the copies with a new spline. Automatic Welding—When Automatic Welding is turned on. To finish adding vertices. The Refine operation creates a different type of vertex depending on the types of vertices on the endpoints of the segment being refined. This has no effect on the tangency of vertices created using the Create Line button. the operation creates a Bezier type vertex. These lines are separate spline sub-objects. which contains a list of all other shapes in the scene. reorients attached splines so that each spline's creation local coordinate system is aligned with the creation local coordinate system of the selected spline. Smooth—New vertices will have smooth tangency when this is turned on. 4. This feature is available at the object and all sub-object levels. and then select any number of spline segments to add a vertex each time you click (the mouse cursor changes to a "connect" symbol when over an eligible segment). 5. in which case the software displays a dialog asking if you want to Refine or Connect Only to the vertex. 3. 2. When Linear is off. The Refine function includes a number of functions useful for building spline networks for use with the Surface modifier. Bezier—New vertices will have bezier tangency when this is turned on. See Bound Vertex. xi. If the bordering vertices are both Corner types. After turning on Connect and before beginning the refinement process. Create Line—Adds more splines to the selected object. iv. Attach—Attaches another spline in the scene to the selected spline. End Point Auto-Welding 1. 6. ix. When Closed is off. Bind First—Causes the first vertex created in a refinement operation to be bound to the center of the selected segment. the Refine operation creates a Bezier Corner type. creates a new spline sub-object by connecting the new vertices. 2. 6. See Bound Vertex. allowing the once-joined segment ends to be moved away from each other. an end point vertex that is placed or moved within the threshold distance of another end point of the same spline is automatically welded. Reorient—When on. vii. v. the Refine operation creates a Smooth type vertex. Refine group 1. Select the shapes you want to attach to the current editable spline. Linear—When on. turn on any combination of these options: 3. The object you're attaching must also be a spline. vi. x. then click OK. the vertices used to create the new spline are of the Smooth type. There are now two superimposed non-connected vertices for every previous one. 2. Note: You must turn on Connect before clicking Refine.—Click this button to display the Attach Multiple dialog. the Refine operation creates a Corner type vertex. New Vertex Type— Four radio buttons in this group let you determine the tangency of the new vertices created when you shift copy segments or splines with Connect Copy turned on. Attach Mult. Bind Last—Causes the last vertex created in a refinement operation to be bound to the center of the selected segment. Linear—New vertices will have linear tangency when this is turned on. 1. Click Refine. 13 . Refine—Lets you add vertices without altering the curvature values of the spline. 3. 1. When you finish adding vertices with Refine.

but simply adds vertices where they cross. New fillet segments are created with the material ID of one of the neighboring segments (picked at random). adding new control vertices. it simply moves them to the same location. xviii. Otherwise. 4. not just Corner and Bezier Corner vertices. Click anywhere in a segment to insert a vertex and attach the mouse to the spline.0. Fuse is useful for making vertices coincide when building a spline network for use with the Surface modifier. Cycle—Selects successive coincident vertices. adjoining segments need not be linear. Select one of two or more vertices that share the exact same location in 3D space. and a new rounded segment is created at the corner. and then click Weld. regardless of the tangent values of the end vertices. and the first vertices will be set. as long as each pair of vertices is within the threshold. At this point. Fuse—Moves all selected vertices to their averaged center. 5.—The threshold distance spinner is a proximity setting that controls how close vertices can be to one another before they are automatically welded. into a single vertex. xv. Note: Fuse doesn't join the vertices. You can weld a selection set of vertices. The Fillet spinner updates to indicate the fillet amount as you drag. For example. rightclick in an active viewport or click the Fillet button again. you're still in Insert mode. Weld—Converts two end vertices. all selected vertices are filleted identically. To finish. Move either two end vertices or two adjacent vertices near each other. 1. the vertices are added to both splines. Click the Fillet button. it can be any point that isn't already the first vertex. Cycle is useful for selecting a specific vertex from a group of coincident vertices at a spline intersection when building a spline network for use with the Surface modifier. Select one vertex on each spline within the currently edited shape that you want to change and click the Make First button. xix. Similarly. Note: CrossInsert doesn't join the two splines. and then drag vertices in the active object. Tip: Watch the info display at the bottom of the Selection rollout to see which vertex is selected. resulting in a linear segment. any selected vertices are first deselected. CrossInsert—Adds vertices at the intersection of two splines belonging to the same spline object. The first vertex of a spline is indicated as a vertex with a small box around it. Click CrossInsert. xiii. xiv. You can continue using Fillet by dragging on different vertices. Click the Make First button. 2. You can continue using CrossInsert by clicking different spline intersections. These new points are exactly <fillet amount> distance from the original vertex along both segments. Connect—Connects any two end vertices. while a drag creates a Bezier (smooth) vertex. On closed splines. they're converted into a single vertex. Right-click to complete the operation and release the mouse. 2. If you drag one or more selected vertices. the first vertex must be the endpoint that is not already the first vertex. the single corner vertex is replaced by two vertices moving along the two segments that lead to the corner.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. point the mouse over an end vertex until the cursor changes to a cross. xii. Note: Unlike the Fillet/Chamfer modifier. and can begin inserting vertices in a different segment. You can apply this effect interactively (by dragging vertices) or numerically (using the Fillet spinner). and then click Cycle repeatedly until the vertex you want is selected. select both vertices. right-click in the active viewport or click the CrossInsert button again. right-click again or click Insert to exit Insert mode. and then drag from one end vertex to another end vertex. xx. 1. and then click the point of intersection between the two splines. 1. Continue moving the mouse and clicking to add vertices. xvi. On open splines. Default=6. A fillet creates a new segment connecting new points on both segments leading to the original vertex. Insert—Inserts one or more vertices. A single click inserts a corner vertex. If the distance between the splines is within the unit distance set by the CrossInsert Threshold spinner (to the right of the button). 14 . if you fillet one corner of a rectangle. CrossInsert is useful for creating vertices at spline intersections when building a spline network for use with the Surface modifier. creating additional segments. If the vertices are within the unit distance set by the Weld Threshold spinner (to the right of the button). Make First—Specifies which vertex in the selected shape is the first vertex. Then optionally move the mouse and click to place the new vertex. or two adjacent vertices within the same spline. If you drag an unselected vertex. Fillet—Lets you round corners where segments meet. To finish. Threshold Dist. xvii. Click the Connect button. you can apply the Fillet function to any type of vertex. 1. 1. 3.

all selected vertices are chamfered identically. You can apply this effect interactively (by dragging vertices) or numerically (using the Chamfer spinner). 1. 5. xxi. xxvi. and can begin inserting vertices in a different segment. and then drag from any end vertex in the current selection to any segment in the current selection except the one connected to the vertex. Tools in this group let you copy and paste vertex handles from one vertex to another. You can continue using Chamfer by dragging on different vertices. 6. while a drag creates a Bezier (smooth) vertex. Display group 1. and a new segment is created at the corner. Select one or more bound vertices. Unbind—Lets you disconnect bound vertices from the segments to which they're attached. 2. This pastes the handle tangent onto the selected vertex. and then drag vertices in the active object. 3. xxvii. Copy— Turn this on. Before dragging. Show selected segs—When on.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. and when the mouse cursor is over an eligible segment. 5. xxv. xxii. it changes to a "connect" symbol. When off (the default). xxiii. Fillet Amount—Adjust this spinner (to the right of the Fillet button) to apply a fillet effect to selected vertices. Continue moving the mouse and clicking to add vertices. the handle length is also copied. The Chamfer spinner updates to indicate the chamfer amount as you drag. selected segments are highlighted only at the Segment sub-object level. any selected segments are highlighted in red at the Vertex sub-object level. Tangent group 1. Chamfer Amount—Adjust this spinner (to the right of the Chamfer button) to apply a chamfer effect to selected vertices. While dragging. Segment Spline i. b. A chamfer "chops off" the selected vertices. 2. when the cursor is over an eligible vertex. These new points are exactly <chamfer amount> distance from the original vertex along both segments. not just Corner and Bezier Corner vertices. creating additional segments. the vertex jumps to the center of the segment and is bound to it. any selected vertices are first deselected. right-click again or click Insert to exit Insert mode. 3. When you release over an eligible segment. you're still in Insert mode. Click Bind. Unhide All—Displays any hidden sub-objects. if you chamfer one corner of a rectangle. the handle length is unchanged. Bind is useful for connecting splines when building a spline network for use with the Surface modifier. New chamfer segments are created with the material ID of one of the neighboring segments (picked at random). 2. Click the Chamfer button. 6. To finish. then click a handle. For example. 4. Right-click to complete the operation and release the mouse. 6. Delete—Deletes the selected vertex or vertices. along with one attached segment per deleted vertex. Paste—Turn this on. If you drag an unselected vertex. Similarly. Hide and Bind group 1. Select one or more vertices. and then click Hide. Chamfer—Lets you bevel shape corners using a chamfer function. adjoining segments need not be linear. it changes to a + cursor. Bind—Lets you create bound vertices. Hide—Hides selected vertices and any connected segments. only the handle angle is considered. you can apply the Chamfer function to any type of vertex. creating a new segment connecting new points on both segments leading to the original vertex. At this point. the single corner vertex is replaced by two vertices moving along the two segments that lead to the corner. 15 . 4. and the click the Unbind button. Otherwise. Insert—Inserts one or more vertices. If you drag one or more selected vertices. A single click inserts a corner vertex. This action copies the selected handle tangent into a buffer. c. Then optionally move the mouse and click to place the new vertex. When this is off. right-click in an active viewport or click the Chamfer button again. then choose a handle. 1. Length—When this is on. This feature is useful for comparing complex curves against each other. Note: Unlike the Fillet/Chamfer modifier. xxiv. a dashed line connects the vertex and the current mouse position. Click anywhere in a segment to insert a vertex and attach the mouse to the spline.

x. deleting the non-overlapping portion of both. Select the first spline. If. you need an open spline. When off. xvi. Union—Combines two overlapping splines into a single spline. iii. you must first select a spline before using Outline. and deletes them from the currently selected spline if Copy is clear.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. If the spline is open. the first vertex will be switched to the opposite end of the spline. Copy—When selected. Click the direction you want to mirror first so it is active. Select one or more splines and then adjust the outline position dynamically with the spinner. or diagonally. 1. mirrors the spline about its geometric center. offset on all sides to the distance specified by the Outline Width spinner (to the right of the Outline button). Note: 2D Booleans only work on 2D splines that are in the same plane. ix. Center—When off (default). Reorient—The spline being detached is moved and rotated so that its creation local coordinate system is aligned with the creation local coordinate system of the selected spline. xii. 2. the entire section is deleted up to the two intersections. ii. nothing happens. The end of the spline nearest the picked point is extended until it reaches an intersecting spline. v. Copy—When selected. Intersection—Leaves only the overlapping portions of the two splines. 1. Boolean—Combines two closed polygons by performing a 2D Boolean operation that alters the first spline you select. Mirror—Mirrors splines along the length. viii. you need intersecting splines. This is a time-saving equivalent of using Detach on each segment in the spline in succession. Delete—Deletes the selected spline. copies rather than moves the spline as it is detached. To trim. and deleted up to the intersection. and deletes the remainder of the second spline. or click Outline and then drag a spline. Infinite Bounds—For the purposes of calculating intersections. turn this on to treat open splines as infinite in length. Click the portion of the spline you want to remove. 16 . When Center is on. the entire section is deleted up to the intersection and the open end. If the section intersects at two points. or if the spline is closed and only one intersection is found. however. nothing happens. If the end of a spline lies directly on a boundary (an intersecting spline). Explode—Breaks up any selected splines by converting each segment to a separate spline or object. c. About Pivot—When on. vii. Select one or more splines. Close—Closes the selected spline by joining its end vertices with a new segment. if using the spinner. b. 1. the original spline and the outline move away from an invisible center line to the distance specified by Outline Width. iv. it is automatically selected for the outlining process. the original spline remains stationary and the outline is offset on one side only to the distance specified by Outline Width. copies rather than moves the spline as it is mirrored. If there is no intersecting spline. and then select the second spline. 2. the spline object contains only one spline. If the section is open on one end and intersects at the other. the resulting spline and its outline will make a single closed spline. xi. Hide—Hides selected splines. Extend—Use Extend to clean up open segments in a shape so that ends meet at a single point. mirrors the spline about the spline object's pivot point (see Pivot). then click the Boolean button and the desired operation. Trim—Use Trim to clean up overlapping segments in a shape so that ends meet at a single point. xv. then it looks for an intersection further along. xiv. vi. xvii. The spline is searched in both directions along its length until it hits an intersecting spline. 1. and deletes the second one. If the spline is open. Subtraction—Subtracts the overlapping portion of the second spline from the first spline. Reverse—Reverses the direction of the selected spline. If the section is not intersected. There are three Boolean operations: a. Outline—Makes a copy of the spline. For example. Detach—Copies selected spline(s) to a new spline object. Curved splines extend in a direction tangent to the end of the spline. then click Mirror. To extend. this lets you trim one linear spline against the extended length of another line that it doesn't actually intersect. and then click Hide. in which the overlapping portion is removed. xiii. Reversing the direction of a spline is usually done in order to reverse the effect of using the Insert tool at vertex selection level. leaving non-overlapping portions of the two splines as a single spline. Unhide All—Displays any hidden sub-objects. xviii. width. Note: Normally.

Select a path or shape. Default=off. 1. It can be moved. in which case no copy is left behind. Shape Steps—Sets the number of steps between each vertex of the cross-section shapes.) ix. the path steps and shapes would change positions along the path. viii. The Path value depends on the selected measuring method. Get Shape places a selected shape on the specified step or a vertex of the path. rather than as a percentage or a distance along the path. where a yellow X appears. only straight segments that have a match on all shapes are optimized. or other 3D objects can result in rendering errors. Next Shape—Jumps the path level from its current location to the next shape along the path. lofted. each successive new spline object uses that name appended with an incremented two-digit number. the Shape Steps setting is ignored for straight segments of cross-section shapes. Utilities panel > Utilities rollout > More button Utilities dialog > Shape Check b. Tip: Use the Instance option if you expect to edit or modify the path after the loft is created. How to create i. ii. Previous Shape—Jumps the path level from its current location to the previous shape along the path. You can choose to explode to splines or objects. vii. Optimize Shapes—When on. x. The Shape Check utility tests spline and NURBS-based shapes and curves for self-intersection and graphically displays any instances of intersecting segments. Tip: Hold down CTRL while getting the shape will flip the direction of the shape's Z axis. v. The utility is "sticky" in that once you've picked a shape object for it to check. iv. vi. depending on the result of the adaptive algorithm. If you choose Object. the value will jump to the previous snap increment. This value affects the number of sides around the perimeter of the loft. 4. is the first vertex. extruded. Get Shape—Assigns a shape to the selected path or changes the current assigned shape. including vertices. and by a small boxed X when it's a vertex. Changing the measuring method also changes the Snap value to keep snap spacing constant. Snap is active. Skin Parameters rollout i. > Create menu > Compounds > Loft > Creation Method rollout b. 5. at 0. Changing the measuring method causes the Path value to change. Snap is turned off and Path is set to the level of the picked shape. c. d. Percentage—Expresses the path level as a percentage of the total path length. c. Snap—Lets you set a consistent distance between shapes along the path. A yellow X appears at the current level. xi. 3. This value affects the number of segments along the length of the loft. iv. When Path Steps is on. (If it were available. The Snap value depends on the selected measuring method. Inserting different shapes at different positions on the path iii. A yellow X appears at the current level. The total number of steps. you can pan/zoom viewports and it will continually display the locations of intersecting curves in the shape you pick. 17 . > Create panel > Geometry > Compound Objects > Object Type rollout > Loft > Creation Method rollout ii.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. Clicking this button turns Snap off. The current path level is indicated by the standard yellow X when it's a step. If multiple shapes are on the path. ii. 4. If Snap is on. ii. Path Steps—Sets the number of steps between each main division of the path. 5. Select a path or shape. Pick Shape—Sets the current level at any shape on the path. you're prompted for a name. Path Parameters rollout i. iii. Creation Method rollout i. Default=off. On—When On is turned on. Adaptive Path Steps on the Skin Parameters rollout is unavailable. Self-intersecting shapes used to produce lathed. Clicking this button turns Snap off. 2. v. Shape Check Utility a. Distance—Expresses the path level as an absolute distance from the first vertex of the path. or transferred as a copy or an instance. Tip: Move/Copy/Instance—Lets you specify how the path or shape is transferred to the loft object. 2. Path Steps—Places shapes on path steps and vertices. Lofting a. Path—Lets you set a path level by entering a value or dragging the spinner. When you pick a shape on the path. the following take place: 1. appears in parentheses beside the Path spinner. Options group 1. The first step. The Path spinner specifies the step along the path. Pick Shape is available only from the Modify panel. Get Path—Assigns a path to the selected shape or changes the current assigned path.

click Off to turn Freeze on for the highlighted layer(s). e. you can assign the color red to a layer named HVAC to help you identify the mechanical equipment in your scene. When off. Tip: If an existing layer is highlighted when you create a new layer. however. main divisions along the path occur only at path vertices. Default=off. 6. Freezing layers is useful when you want to edit objects associated with particular layers but also want to view. click Create New Layer. The hide icon displays. Adaptive Path Steps—When on. reverses the normals 180 degrees. Tip: You can hide all layers by clicking Hide/Unhide All Layers on the Layer Manager toolbar. causing pinching at path angles. and deformation curve vertices. the cross sections are scaled at angles in the path to maintain uniform path width. the Path Steps setting is ignored for straight segments of the path. For example. Layer02. Banking—When on. click Layer Manager. click Layer Manager. Default=off. Procedures To create a new layer: i.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. In the Hide column. In the Layer Manager. After creating a layer. click Layer Manager. You can assign a color to a layer using the Layer Properties dialog. select the layers you want to freeze. 18 . and you can add new objects to the frozen layer. click New again and enter the new layer name. Default=off. select the layers you want to hide. On the Layers toolbar > Layer List. v. When off. In the Freeze column. x. When off. and so on. moving a vertex on the path causes the loft to disappear. and are still connected with triangles. if necessary. Note: The current layer is also displayed in the title bar of the Layer Manager. analyzes the loft and adapts the number of path divisions to generate the best skin. You can make a frozen layer current. Transform Degrade—Causes the loft skin to disappear during sub-object shape/path transformations. Default=on. as illustrated in the following procedures. In the Layer Properties dialog. In the Layer c. iv. Linear Interpolation—When on. Optimize Path—When on. Main divisions along the path occur at path vertices. When you create new layers. vi. The highlighted layer becomes the current layer. Default=on. 3ds max assigns a random color to all new layers. The positive Z axis of each shape is aligned with the tangent to the path at the shape's level. Tip: You can freeze all layers by clicking Freeze/Unfreeze All Layers on the Layer Manager toolbar. To hide a layer: i. Default=on. iii. the cross sections maintain their original local dimensions. shapes rotate about the path whenever the path bends and changes height in the path's local Z axis. click Layer Manager. A check box appears indicating that the layer is current. To assign a color to a layer: i. The Freeze icon displays. When off. For example. On the Layers toolbar. b. each shape follows the curvature of the path. To create more than one layer. Default=off. click the second column next to the layer name. Default=on. the new layer inherits the properties of the highlighted layer. On the main toolbar. In the Layer Manager. On the main toolbar. shape locations. You can't edit or select objects on a frozen layer. Curved sections respect the Path steps setting. When off. To make a layer current (alternate method): i. On the main toolbar. When off. d. Quad sides—When on. The bank amount is controlled by the software. select a layer. 3ds max names them sequentially by default: Layer01. Click the Layer to enter a new name. 3ds max displays a new layer in the list with the temporary name Layer01. the faces that stitch the sections together are displayed as quads. the objects are still visible if the layer is on. without editing. You can accept the default settings or specify other colors. and when two sections of a loft object have the same number of sides. objects on other layers. xi. You can modify the properties of the new layer. shapes do not rotate about their Z axis as they traverse a 3D path. you can see the skin during these Sub-Object transformations. g. To freeze a layer: i. vii. Banking is ignored if the path is 2D. viii. shapes remain parallel and have the same orientation as a shape placed at level 0. you can rename it. Constant Cross Section—When on. click Off to turn Hide on for the highlighted layer(s). Flip Normals—When on. Use this option to correct objects that are inside-out. In the Layer Manager. click Layer Manager. Layers a. Contour—When on. generates a loft skin with straight edges between each shape. f. Available only with Path Steps mode. On the main toolbar. To make a layer current: i. ix. generates a loft skin with smooth curves between each shape. Sides between sections with different numbers of sides are not affected.

Select top row of vertices only. Right click the word “Perspective” in the perspective viewport. select a layer and click the Color icon. On the main toolbar. f. k. Select the large wireframe box. On the main toolbar. p. Modify Panel > Modifier list > Smooth modifier x. Adjust one Bezier arm. m. Drawing a roof: a. Adjust Bezier arm to suit. To rename a layer: i. Use the Select Objects tool from the main toolbar. Creating a chimney a. b. Change the box Length Segs and Width Segs to 2. Right click on it and choose “Hide Selection” from the quad menu that appears. h. You might want to rename a layer to better define how it's used in your scene. click Layer Manager. select a color. Draw zigzag line with Grid Points snap turned on. Select the box. around one single plane of the roof. Select one or more objects in the Layer Manager. Go to the Modify panel. Draw pyramid (representing a roof). Choose “Wireframe. c. n. k. k. 7. c. On the main toolbar. Select top row of vertices using window selection. You can delete an empty layer at any time during a 3ds max session. j. Go to Vertex sub-object level of line. In the Layer Color dialog. Modify Panel > Geometry rollout > Attach Mult. Tools1 menu > Bezier. i. d. q. l. click Layer Manager. Select end an end vertex. Draw a line with either three or four segments. Open Axis Constraints toolbar. You can rename a layer at any time during a 3ds max session. 9. button s. On the main toolbar. In the Layer Manager. or a layer that contains objects. Select one of the line objects that you drew in step “j” or “k” r. Selection rollout > Lock Handles > ON. Layer 0. In the Layer Manager. Choose “Smooth + Highlights” from the popup menu. Tools1 menu > Smooth. 8. Turn on 3D Snap. Modify Panel > Modifier list > Surface modifier v. Create panel > Shapes > Line button j. Click the layer’s name again and enter a new name. Repeat for bottom row of vertices if necessary. o. i. Click the Layer Properties icon to open the Layer Properties dialog for the highlighted layers. Manager. and then click OK. Right click any vertex. Attach Multiple dialog > All button t. l. q. However. Attach Multiple dialog > Attach button u. p. click Layer Manager. Create a box in the perspective window. d. 19 . h. Repeat the process for the remaining roof planes. DO NOT turn Auto Smooth on! Creating corrugated iron sheeting: a. Right click on the word “Perspective” in the perspective viewport. h.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. select one or more layers. g. However. and then click Delete Empty Layer. r. Make sure that the line is closed. Set Snap to Vertex only. f. To open the layer properties dialog for an layer selection: i. Right click any vertex again. e. e. Modify Panel > Parameters rollout > Flip Normals [only if necessary] w. o. you can't rename Layer 0. select a layer to rename. m. Repeat for other end. Other Bezier arms follow automatically.” i. Select all vertices. Select one or more layers in the Layer Manager. Click the Object Properties icon to open the Object Properties dialog for the highlighted objects. To delete a layer: i. g. j. click Layer Manager. b. Turn on X-constraint. To open the object properties dialog for an object selection: i. n. you can't delete the current layer.

h. c. Turn on Point Snap. Create a box. Depending on the spacing option you choose. Height 66. Spacing Tool a. Generate the section shape with “Create Shape” button. d. Width Segs 3. adjust the spacing and offsets. e. If you click Pick Path. xii.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. 20 . x. Width 111. e. Attach Multiple dialogue > Attach button s. snapping to the appropriate vertices of the box. Length 88. Choose “Hide Selection” from the popup quad menu. vi. Use Edit Spline modifier to attach second spline to first. j. Apply the “Smooth” modifier. click Pick Path or Pick Points to specify a path. snapping to the appropriate vertices of the box. or choose Tools menu > Spacing Tool. to represent the shape of the side of the roof. t. ii. iv. Select rectangle tool on Create panel > Shapes i. choose Edge to specify that spacing be determined from the facing edges of each object's bounding box. etc). iii. g. On the Spacing Tool dialog. Apply Cross Section modifier m. Modify Panel > Parameters rollout > Flip Normals u. v. Select the box. button q. Click Apply. instance. or reference). f. Apply Smooth modifier (to unsmooth automatically!) 10. You can also specify how the spacing between objects is determined and whether the pivot points of the objects align to the tangent of the spline. select the type of object to output (copy. m. Height Segs 1. or choose Centers to specify that spacing be determined from the center of each object's bounding box. Go to spline sub object level of shape generated in previous step. Select only one of the line objects. g. f. Draw box penetrating roof (representing the chimney) c. Apply Surface modifier n. Choose “Wireframe” from the popup menu. Note: The Spacing tool is also available on rollouts for various components of the Railing object. Click Spacing Tool. Make sure the spline is closed. vii. Repeat this process for the other end of the roof. l. and End Offset are dependent on the spacing option you choose. Under Type of Object. Modify the box: Length Segs 2. Roof is complete. Turn on Follow if you want to align the pivot points of the distributed objects to the tangent of the spline. l. instances. c. k. You define a path by picking a spline or two points and by setting a number of parameters. i. To distribute objects along a path: i. Apply the “Surface” modifier. Under Context. Choose a spacing option from the Parameters list. Draw rectangle on chimney top. Turn on 2D point snap. Right click the box (be careful not to right click the lines by mistake). Modify Panel > Geometry rollout > Attach Mult. k. Line tool: Draw a triangle in 3D space. xi. Start Offset. Vertex only (not Grid Points. b. Draw a Section spline with AutoGrid turned on. When you're finished with the Spacing tool. Make sure the spline is closed. the software deletes this spline. h. Attach Multiple dialogue > All button r. The parameters available for Count. The Spacing tool lets you distribute objects based on the current selection along a path defined by a spline or a pair of points. Specify the number of objects to distribute by setting the value of Count. 11. Creating a roof a. viii. xiii. Spacing. b. ix. Repeat this process for the other side of the roof. Draw a four sided shape in 3D space. If you click Pick Points. pick a start and an end to define a spline as the path. b. The distributed objects can be copies. p. Perspective viewport: right click “Perspective” d. xiv. Delete pyramid triangle. select a spline from your scene to use as the path. Move chimney top rectangle to appropriate height. 3D mode. on roof plane. or references of the current selected object. If the roof appears black. Select the objects to distribute. to represent the shape of the end of the roof. Perspective viewport: right click “Perspective” n. j. Choose “Smooth + Highlights” o. keep only chimney rectangle.

When Edge sub-object level is on. In addition. but you can opt to use the altered normal direction for a more dynamic modeling process. Week 5 1) Edit Mesh a) Vertex editing b) Polygon editing c) Scale vertices on cylinder d) Soft selection e) Attach (for multiple booleans) f) Smoothing groups (faces) i) Smoothing groups define whether a surface is rendered with sharp edges or smooth surfaces. Paint Deformation uses existing geometry. the greater the effect. viii) Press the mouse button and drag to deform the surface. border. At the object level. deformation occurs in the normal direction of each vertex. so the object should have enough mesh resolution for the desired deformation. remain at the object level. and recognizes soft selection. which lets you select a vertex beneath the cursor. or convert the object to Editable Poly format. If they don't share the same smoothing group. You can use the normal direction of deformed surfaces as the push/pull direction by choosing Deformed Normals. 4) Collapse Utility a) Utilities panel > Utilities rollout > Collapse button b) Menu bar > Modify > Collapse c) First object selected is object to subtract from d) Other objects are objects to subtract 5) Editable Mesh a) Create or select an object. allowing for more precise selection. region selection selects multiple edges within the region. 2) Edit Poly Modifier a) The Edit Poly modifier provides explicit editing tools for different sub-object levels of the selected object: vertex. and element. or work at a sub-object level with no sub-objects selected. 3) Paint Deformation: a) Paint Deformation lets you push. > Quad menu > Transform quadrant > Convert To: submenu > Editable Mesh b) Create or select an object. If you paint in the same spot repeatedly without lifting the mouse button. > Modify panel > Right-click the base object in the stack.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. ii) Smoothing groups are numbers assigned to the faces or patches of an object. which lets you select a face or polygon edge beneath the cursor. Weight and Crease settings. At subobject levels. iii) On the Paint Deformation rollout. iv) Set Push/Pull value to a negative value to push into the object surface. the edge between them will render as a corner. pull. Edit Poly lets you animate sub-object transforms and parameter changes. or otherwise affect vertices by dragging the mouse cursor over the object surface. and Subdivision Displacement rollout. it affects only selected vertices (or vertices that belong to selected sub-objects). they will render as a smooth surface. the “brush” reorients dynamically to show the normal direction of the portion of the mesh currently under the cursor. > Convert to: Editable Mesh c) Create or select an object. vi) Position the mouse cursor over the surface to be deformed. ii) Do either of the following: (1) To deform anywhere on the object. (2) To deform only specific areas of an object. The Edit Poly modifier includes most capabilities of the base Editable Poly object. the effect is cumulative up to the maximum Push/Pull Value setting. Subdivision Surface rollout. polygon. go to a sub-object level and then select the subobjects in the area to deform. vii) As you move the mouse. hidden edges are displayed as dashed lines. you can retain the object creation parameters and change them later. Each face or patch can carry any number of smoothing groups up to the maximum of 32. because it's a modifier. c) To paint deformation onto a mesh object: i) Apply an Edit Poly modifier to an object. or even deform along a specific axis. 3ds Max continues to use a vertex's original normal for the direction of deformation. region selection selects vertices within the region. v) Set Brush Size and Brush Strength. The higher the absolute value. Paint Deformation affects all vertices in the selected object. 21 . edge. or to a positive value to pull the surface outward. If two faces or patches share an edge and share the same smoothing group. e) Edge—Turns on Edge sub-object level. > Utilities panel > Collapse button > Collapse Selected button d) Vertex—Turns on Vertex sub-object level. click Push/Pull. b) By default. except for Vertex Color information.

h) Element—Turns on Element sub-object level. optionally change the TV Offset setting. iii) Set MeshSmooth parameters. click the Bevel Spline button. turn off Apply To Whole Mesh. which lets you select all contiguous faces in an object. a polygon is the area you see within the visible wire edges. vi) This lets MeshSmooth work only on the sub-object selection. 11) Path deform modifier a) To use the PathDeform modifier: f) 22 . which lets you select a triangular face beneath the cursor. 9) Tesselate modifier a) The Tessellate modifier subdivides faces in the current selection. iii) Apply the Shell modifier to the object from step 1. and with the Strip and Interpolate choices. and then select the spline from step 2. convert it to Editable Poly. Shell keeps the material IDs of the new surfaces consistent with those of the original object. 6) Mesh Select a) Less memory than Edit Mesh b) Cannot transform c) Requires Xform modifier for move/rotate/scale operations 7) Xform modifier a) Use the XForm (short for Transform) modifier to apply transformations (Move.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. and apply a Multi/Sub-Object material. ii) Optionally create an open spline to serve as the profile for the edges connecting the inner and outer surfaces. ii) To transform an object at any point in the stack. Where the spline protrudes to the right. All transform buttons are available on the toolbar. ii) Apply the MeshSmooth modifier. ii) The Gizmo sub-object level is automatically activated. the edge surface will be convex. the selected geometry is transformed with it. Rotate. then the entire object is tessellated. iii) Move to a nonzero frame and turn on Auto Key to animate the next step. iv) Transform the gizmo. v) In the Subdivision Method rollout. Shell keeps the texture coordinates of the new surfaces consistent with those of the original object. Usually. The object should have some holes in its surface. the surface will be concave. which lets you select all coplanar faces (defined by the value in the Planar Threshold spinner) beneath the cursor. For example. Then. iv) Apply MeshSmooth. iii) The rescaled geometry becomes "part of the stack" because the scale transform is carried with XForm. If no sub-object selection has been passed up the stack. vii) Set MeshSmooth parameters. g) Polygon—Turns on Polygon sub-object level. and where it protrudes to the left. iv) To use custom edges. turn on the different Override options. To change these on the new edges. vi) Likewise. ii) Apply a Mesh Select modifier. You can also animate the position of the modifier's center. Face—Turns on Face sub-object level. turn on Bevel Edges. and creating additional mesh resolution for other modifiers to act on. 8) Meshsmooth a) To apply MeshSmooth to an object: i) Select an angular object. region selection selects multiple triangular faces within the region. Region selection selects multiple polygons within the region. b) To apply MeshSmooth to sub-objects: i) Select an object. change the Edge Mapping choice. ii) Scale the gizmo. start with a primitive sphere. v) By default. Region selection lets you select multiple elements. This modifier lets you tessellate polygonal faces. 10) Shell modifier a) To solidify an object: i) Create an object to solidify. the tessellation available in an editable mesh does not (it works on faces. Scale) to objects. It's particularly useful for smoothing curved surfaces for rendering. and delete some vertices or polygons. in the Top viewport. iii) Select a group of vertices or faces. even at the Polygon selection level). To change these. draw the spline in the Top viewport from top to bottom. The XForm modifier has two main functions: i) To animate transformations of a sub-object selection. instead of being applied after the modifiers. b) To use the XForm modifier: i) Choose a location in an object's stack and apply the XForm modifier. For example. specify appropriate material IDs. go to Create panel > Shapes and click Line. v) As you transform the gizmo. c) To use XForm as a scaling modifier: i) Apply XForm to an object or a sub-object selection.

iv) Click Pick Shape. which is a separate object.0. This effect becomes especially clear when animated. c) To add a decay effect: i) Set a decay value to increase or decrease the amplitude. Default=50. iii) Set one or both values for amplitude. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Week 6 1) Shapemerge compound object a) To start command: i) Select an object. ii) A decay value decreases the amplitude as the distance from the center increases. 23 . (2) Choose Create menu > Cameras > Target Camera. ii) Tip: To see the effect clearly. v) The geometry of the surface of the mesh object is altered to embed a pattern matching that of the selected shape. the smoother and more shallow the ripple for a given amplitude. rotated 90 degrees about the vertical axis). The initial point of the drag is the location of the camera. and the point where you release the mouse is the location of the target.0 means that the wave will generate infinitely from its center. the wave is concentrated at the center and flattens until it disappears (completely decays). iii) The camera is now part of the scene. iii) Select the mesh object. Deform the object by adjusting the various controls in the Path Deform panel and by editing the path object. iv) Amplitude 1 produces a sine wave from one edge to the other. On the Parameters rollout. The Viewport Properties menu is displayed. 2) Cameras a) To create a target camera: i) Do one of the following: (1) Click Cameras on the Create panel. the smoother and more shallow the wave for a given amplitude. ii) Wave Length—Specifies the distance between the peaks of the wave. then click Target in the Object Type rollout. or the vertical height of the wave in current units. click Pick Path. while negative numbers move it outward. Increasing the Decay value causes the wave amplitudes to decrease with distance from the center. Positive numbers move the pattern in one direction. iv) Decay—Limits the effect of the wave generated from its center. As the Decay value increases. while Amplitude 2 creates a wave between the opposite edges. The greater the length. apply Wave to a broad. ii) Drag in a Top or Perspective viewport. v) The default value of 0. b) To add a phase effect: i) Set a phase value to shift the wave pattern over the object. while negative numbers move them in the other. flat object that has many segments. and then select the shape. thus limiting the distance over which the waves are generated. > Create panel > Geometry > Compound Objects > Object Type rollout > ShapeMerge ii) Select an object. > Create menu > Compound > ShapeMerge b) To create a ShapeMerge object: i) Create a mesh object and one or more shapes ii) Align the shapes in the viewport so they can be projected toward the surface of the mesh object. while Amplitude 2 creates a similar ripple at right angles to the first (that is. 13) Ripple modifier a) Parameters i) Amplitude 1/ Amplitude 2—Amplitude 1 produces a ripple across the object in one direction. This effect is especially clear when animated. v) Set the length of the wave and the distance in current units between crests of both waves. Select an object. 12) Wave modifier a) To wave an object: i) Select an object and apply the Wave modifier. vi) The greater the length. and click the ShapeMerge button. b) To change a viewport to a Camera view: i) Right-click the viewport label. Apply PathDeform. It is aimed at the target. Select a spline or NURBS curve. iii) Phase—Shifts the ripple pattern over the object. Positive numbers move the pattern inward. Switching a value from positive to negative reverses the position of peaks and troughs. iv) Set the creation parameters.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet.

The default keyboard shortcut for camera viewports is C. Area Shadows Recommended for complex scenes with many lights or faces.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. the Zoom Extents commands include them in views. The change in perspective appears both in the viewport and when you render this view. d) To see the safe frame: i) Right-click the viewport label and choose Show Safe Frame. A target spotlight uses a target object to aim the camera. c) To control the display of camera objects." 4) Shadow Types a) Shadow Type Advantages Disadvantages Supports transparency and opacity Slower than shadow maps. > Tools 1 (upper-left) quadrant of the quad menu > Apply Camera Correction Modifier On the 2-Point Perspective Correction rollout. The outermost safe frame matches the render output resolution. shadows. Choose Views > Hide > Hide By Category. iii) Select a camera. You can adjust the color of the light and position and rotate the light in 3D space. > Right-click. To adjust a camera by using its viewport and the Modify panel at the same time. do one of the following: i) Go to the Display panel and in the Hide By Category rollout. Supports transparency and opacity Slower than shadow maps. select the camera and then make the Camera viewport active. mapping. iv) Making a camera viewport active does not automatically select the camera. and on the Object Level tab turn Cameras on or off. maps. Cameras appear in viewports if Cameras is off. turn Cameras on or off. When camera icons are displayed. vii) Render the view. 3) Lights a) Target Spotlight i) A spotlight casts a focused beam of light like a flashlight. iv) The Camera Correction modifier creates a first-guess Amount value for the two-point perspective. mapping. they don't appear. Directional lights are primarily used to simulate sunlight. click Guess. ii) Choose Tools menu > Display Floater. Can be quicker than ray-traced Not as accurate as ray-traced mental ray Shadow Maps shadows with the mental ray renderer. When camera icons are not displayed. vi) In the viewports. 24 . ii) Tip: For best results. The safe frame matches the render output resolution. iii) Choose the name of the camera you want. The safe frames are displayed in three concentric boxes. ii) Choose Views. as the sun does (for all practical purposes) at the surface of the earth. ii) Create menu > Standard Lights > Target Spotlight iii) Create menu > Lights > Target Spotlight iv) Turn on shadows v) Set colour of light vi) Set multiplier if necessary to determine overall brightness vii) Adjust hotspot/falloff cones b) Target Direct Light i) Directional lights cast parallel light rays in a single direction. and toggle the menu item Hide Cameras. v) Adjust the Amount and Direction to get the effect you want. Processes at every frame. a follow spot in a theater. Supports transparency and opacity Can be slower than shadow Raytrace Shadows mapping. The name of each camera is displayed at the top of the Views submenu. Recommended for complex scenes with many lights or faces. set a viewport to this camera’s view. if Cameras is on. the camera’s field-of-view “cone” distorts or moves to show the perspective adjustments. Processes only once if there are no Does not support soft shadows. Uses less RAM than standard rayAdvanced Ray-Traced traced shadows. directional lights have a beam in the shape of a circular or rectangular prism instead of a "cone. Supports different formats for area shadows. the Zoom Extents commands ignore them. Uses very little RAM. Because directional rays are parallel. Does not support soft shadows. Processes at every frame. or a headlight. ii) Orange rectangle: action safe area iii) Light blue rectangle: title safe area e) To apply two-point perspective to a camera: i) Select a camera. The viewport now shows the camera's point of view.

. you can select the lights to adjust. > Advanced Lighting panel > Select Advanced Lighting rollout > Choose Light Tracer from the drop-down list. below. Shadow Maps animated objects. iii) Make changes to the settings. Unlike radiosity.0. See Interface. iv) Some changes show up immediately in the viewport. If you use the physically based IES Sun or IES Sky lights. iv) Click a viewport.01 to 50. 6) Place Highlight a) Create a sphere or a geosphere. iii) On the Lights rollout. choose All Lights. including the Skylight. c) To set individual lights: i) On the Configuration rollout. iii) In the Object Type rollout. Produces soft shadows. ii) Add a Skylight to illuminate it. and then on the Configuration rollout choose Selected Lights. c) Rendering menu > Render > Render Scene dialog > Choose Default Scanline Renderer as the active production renderer. The position of the light will change accordingly. Uses a lot of RAM. Range=0. add 25 . 9) Light Tracer a) The Light Tracer provides soft-edged shadows and color bleeding for brightly-lit scenes such as outdoor scenes. The greater the value. click Skylight. b) Create a light – e. The shadow map size specifies the amount of subdivisions for the map. (2) Note: The Cast Shadows toggle has no effect when using radiosity or light tracer. You can set the color of the sky or assign it a map. > Advanced Lighting panel > Select Advanced Lighting rollout > Choose Light Tracer from the drop-down list. Does not support objects with transparency or opacity maps. b) To use global settings: i) On the Light Lister dialog. and its distance from objects. Alternatively. choose General Settings. the more detailed the map will be. Processes only once if there are no animated objects. b) To create a Skylight: i) On the Create panel. in real time. 8) Global illumination – skylight & Light Tracer a) The Skylight light models daylight. The Lights rollout displays settings for all the scene lights (subject to a limit of 150 lights). It is meant for use with the Light Tracer. A good rule of thumb is to make sure the multipliers of all the lights. c) Sample Range—The sample range determines how much area within the shadow is averaged. the Light Tracer does not attempt to create a physically accurate model. ii) Standard is the default choice of light type. ii) The General Settings rollout appears. iii) One or more spotlights can also work well. b) 5) Shadow Map parameters a) Size—Sets the size (in pixels squared) of the shadow map that's computed for the light. d) Tools menu > Place Highlight e) Drag your cursor over the surface of the sphere. v) The light is now part of the scene. b) Main toolbar > Render Scene > Render Scene dialog > Choose Default Scanline Renderer as the active production renderer. This affects how soft the edge of the shadow is. Fastest shadow type. Click Refresh to update the list. the Light Lister does not update interactively. vi) Note: The position of the Skylight. change the settings for any light on the list. on the Configuration rollout.. Skylight always comes from “overhead.” vii) Set the creation parameters. using an exposure control is essential. The sky is modeled as a dome above the scene. (1) Note: Cast Shadows is off by default. viii) Cast Shadows—Causes the skylight to cast shadows. 7) Light Lister a) Tools menu > Light Lister. b) Bias—Map Bias moves the shadow toward or away from the shadow-casting object (or objects). (1) Important: Reduce the intensity of the spotlights so that they do not overpower the Skylight. c) Select the light. and can be easier to set up.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. click Lights. d) To set up a scene for the Light Tracer: i) Create the geometry for an outdoor scene. has no effect. The Skylight object is simply a helper. an omni light. ii) Tip: If you change the light selection.g.

Teetering is what the software does automatically when you select Contour on the Skin Parameters rollout. (3) Positive values produce counterclockwise rotation. Choose Rendering > Advanced Lighting. Decreasing the subdivision contrast threshold can reduce noise in soft shadows and bounced lighting. Use Teeter deformation when you want to manually control contour effects. (2) The default curve value is 0 degrees of rotation. (5) Both twist deformation and banking produce rotation about the path. but renders more quickly. Increasing this value causes less subdividing to occur. ii) Tip: These are the properties of Scale deformation curves: (1) The two curves are red for X-axis scaling and green for Y-axis scaling. a loft object can appear to travel along a path.0. You can use Twist deformation to exaggerate or reduce the amount of banking. Active should turn on. moving it away from the path. choose Light Tracer from the drop-down list. of the filter used to reduce noise in the effect. when viewed from the start of the path.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. at a cost of render time. and the Parameters rollout for the Light Tracer should appear. and Rays/Sample has a low value. g) Fit Deformation i) Draw end view rectangle or shape ii) Draw line for length of car iii) Draw top view of car iv) Draw side view of car v) Loft shape (i) along path (ii) vi) Modify > Deformations > Fit vii) Turn off Make Symmetrical button on window toolbar 26 . e) Teeter Deformation i) Teeter deformation rotates shapes about their local X axis and Y axis. Tip: By animating scale. (4) Values between 100% and 0% make the shape smaller. Important Parameters (1) Rays/Sample—The number of rays cast per sample (or pixel). Tip: To get a “first draft” preview of the effect of light tracing. (3) Subdivision Contrast—The contrast threshold that determines when a region should be further subdivided. (4) Negative values produce clockwise rotation. Default=5. you can create animations in which letters or lines write themselves onto the screen. Twist rotation is added to a shape after the banking angle is applied. (2) Filter Size—The size. and then click Render Scene. Using this technique. reduce the value of Rays/Sample and the Filter Size. the Skylight is likely to be blasted out with excessive light from the spot or direct lights.5. Too small a value can cause unnecessary subdividing. (5) Negative values scale and mirror the shape. Use Scale deformation when you want to make these types of objects. and then click Render. d) Twist Deformation i) Twist deformation lets you create objects that spiral or twist along their length. The scene renders with soft-edged shadows and color bleeding. Week 7 1) Advanced Lofting a) Inserting shapes along the path (revision) b) Output as Patch rather than as Mesh c) Scale deformation i) You can loft objects such as columns and bugles from a single shape that changes only its scale as it travels along a path. (3) Values greater than 100% make the shape larger. in pixels. f) Bevel Deformation i) Positive values reduce the shape. right-click the viewport you want to render to make it active. ii) These are the properties of Twist deformation curves: (1) A single red curve determines shape rotation about the path. ii) Negative values add to the shape. Adjust your rendering settings. bringing it closer to the path. If the multipliers add up to two or three. Increasing this value increases the smoothness of the effect. On the Select Advanced Lighting rollout. (2) Default curve values are at 100%.0. Twist specifies the amount of rotation about the path. Default=250. Decreasing this value results in a grainier effect. Adjust the Light Tracer parameters. Default=0. Tip: Filter Size is especially useful when Adaptive Undersampling is turned off. iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) up to approximately 1.

NURBS have become an industry standard for designing and modeling surfaces. The faces become larger to fill the area as you increase the size of the grid.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. Points and CVs behave somewhat like the vertices of spline objects. viii) Turn on Display X-axis button on window toolbar ix) Turn on Get Shape button on window toolbar x) Select shape (iii) – top view of car xi) Turn on Display Y-axis button on window toolbar xii) Select shape (iv) – side view of car xiii) If necessary. press Rotate 90 CCW button on window toolbar xv) Adjust control points in Fit Deformation window 2) Patches a) Patch objects offer a flexible alternative to mesh and NURBS modeling and animation. The parent object in a NURBS model is either a NURBS surface or a NURBS curve. d) Edit Patch Modifier i) Create or select an object > Modify panel > Modifier List > Object–Space Modifiers > Edit Patch ii) Create or select an object > Modifiers menu > Patch/Spline Editing > Edit Patch iii) The Edit Patch modifier provides editing tools for different sub-object levels of the selected object: vertex. edge. regardless of its size. You can also create separate point sub-objects that are not part of a surface or a curve. NURBS curves and NURBS surfaces are controlled by either point or control vertex (CV) sub-objects. For example. including other NURBS objects. (This is similar to the lattice used by the FFD [free-form deformation] modifiers. which always lie on the curve. A hidden line divides each facet into two triangular faces for a total of 72 faces. and element. The Edit Patch modifier matches all the capabilities of the base Editable Patch object. and element. Sub-objects can be any of the objects listed here. which don't necessarily lie on the curve. which always lie on the surface. Within the NURBS model. except that you cannot animate sub-objects in Edit Patch. c) Creating NURBS Models i) You can create a NURBS curve on the Shape panel of the Create panel. v) CVs—CV surfaces and CV curves have CV sub-objects. A NURBS curve remains a Shape object unless you add a surface sub-object to it when you convert it to a NURBS surface (without changing its name). Unlike points. but they retain their original parameters and modifiers. CVs form a control lattice that surrounds the surface. patch. handle. A CV surface is controlled by control vertices (CVs). a NURBS model can be an assemblage of multiple NURBS sub-objects. but there are differences. b) NURBS Models: Objects and Sub-Objects i) Like Shape objects. Instead of lying on the surface. These correspond exactly to the two kinds of surfaces. b) Quad Patch i) Create panel > Geometry > Patch Grids > Quad Patch ii) Create menu > Patch Grids > Quad Patch iii) Quad Patch creates a flat grid with a default of 36 visible rectangular facets. Because working with them requires less processing and memory. c) Tri Patch i) Create panel > Geometry > Patch Grids > Tri Patch ii) Create menu > Patch Grids > Tri Patch iii) Tri Patch creates a flat grid with 72 triangular faces. A point surface is controlled by points. iv) Editable Patch objects provide the same basic functionality as the Edit Patch modifier. we recommend you use Editable Patch objects rather than the Edit Patch modifier whenever possible. 3) NURBS a) NURBS stands for Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines. ii) Surfaces—There are two kinds of NURBS surfaces. The face count remains at 72. vii) Sub-objects can be dependent sub-objects whose geometry is related to the geometry of other subobjects. CVs are always part of a surface or a curve. patch. Mainly used for creating organic forms in 3d. edge. press Swap Deform Curves button xiv) If necessary. A CV curve is controlled by CVs. a NURBS object might contain two surfaces that are separate in space. e) Editable Patch Surface i) Create or select an object > Modify panel > Right-click object's entry in the stack display > Convert To: Editable Patch ii) Create or select an object > Right-click the object > Transform (lower-right) quadrant of the quad menu > Convert To: > Convert to Editable Patch iii) Editable Patch provides controls for manipulating an object as a patch object and at five sub-object levels: vertex. they render as NURBS. 27 . iv) Points—Point surfaces and point curves have point sub-objects.) iii) Curves—There are also two kinds of NURBS curves. A point curve is controlled by points. vi) Imports—Imports are 3ds max objects. They are especially suited for modeling surfaces with complicated curves.

the modifiers Extrude and Lathe let you choose NURBS output. and drag to set the initial distance of the mirror surface. Drag on the other surface to choose the edge to connect. and then release the mouse button to create the blend surface. When you use this technique. to help you distinguish which edge you are choosing when two surfaces have coincident edges. viii) Use the Flip Trim toggle to invert the trim. iii) Adjust the Offset parameter.) iv) Adjust the Offset parameter. vii) A hole appears in the surface. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) d) e) You can create a NURBS surface on the Geometry panel of the Create panel. the quad menu also lets you convert objects to NURBS. In addition. The offset surface is created. turn on Mirror. (After creation. or a surface and a curve. A gizmo (yellow by default) indicates the direction of mirroring. You can turn a loft object into a NURBS object. and can trim it. ii) On the Mirror Surface rollout. two curves. ii) Click the surface you want to offset. In viewports. You can turn a spline object (Bezier spline) into a NURBS object. When the edge you want is highlighted. use the Modify panel. The Flip Normals control lets you flip the surface normals at creation time. You can turn a standard geometry primitive into a NURBS object. and drag to set the initial distance of the offset surface. the NURBS surface is initially a flat rectangle. To create an offset surface: i) In a NURBS object that contains at least one surface. Create panel > Geometry > NURBS Surfaces > Point Surf ii) Modify shape of point surface using move and point sub-object level iii) Create a closed CV curve sub-object that lies on top of (or above) the surface. 28 . You can turn a patch grid object (Bezier patch) into a NURBS object. then in the Top viewport select first the CV curve. You can turn a prism extended primitive into a NURBS object. To create a mirror surface: i) In a NURBS object that contains at least one surface. you can flip normals using controls on the Surface Common rollout. f) g) h) NURBS Toolbox button To cut a hole in a CV surface: i) Create a CV surface in the Top viewport. vi) In the normal projected curve's parameters. iii) Adjust the blend parameters. The edge of the other surface is also highlighted in blue. iv) In the toolbox. ii) Click one surface near the edge that you want to connect. letting you mirror along an axis that isn't aligned with a local coordinate axis. click and then drag to the other surface. The edge that will be connected is highlighted in blue. you might see everything but the hole. choose the axis or plane you want to use. Right-click the object's name in the stack display (see Modifier Stack) and choose Convert To: NURBS. To create a blend between two NURBS surfaces (in same object) i) In a NURBS object that contains two surfaces. Right-click the object. You can turn a torus knot into a NURBS object. v) This creates a projection of the CV curve that lies on the surface. Drag to choose the other edge you want to connect.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. To turn objects other than NURBS curves and surfaces into NURBS objects. choose Convert To: > Convert to NURBS. The surface that owns the highlighted edge is highlighted in yellow. The mirror surface is created. Changing the position or the curvature of either parent surface will change the blend surface as well. Depending on the orientation of the Normal Projected curve. turn on Normal Projected Curve. You can alter it using the Modify panel. turn on Blend. which creates a NURBS object. The blend surface is created. iii) Click the surface you want to mirror. Transforming the mirror surface's gizmo changes the orientation of the mirror. and in the Transform (lower-right) quadrant. turn on Offset. then the surface. ix) Note: Trims aren't displayed in viewports if the NURBS surface's Surface Trims toggle is turned off on the General rollout's Display group box. click to turn on Trim.

3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. A file dialog is displayed. If you change the selection. the list of materials shows the contents of the library. iv) A Select Objects dialog is displayed. e) f) g) 29 . iii) Drag the entry NONE from the top of the list in the Browser to the object. v) Click Select to select objects with the active material applied. click the “Put Material To Scene” button . After you open the library. make sure that either Selected or Scene is chosen. You can use the “Select by Name” button toolbar to make it even easier. The names of objects with the active material applied are highlighted. iii) Click Select By Material in the Material Editor. ii) If the material is already in the active sample slot. Week 8 1) Materials a) To get a material from a library: i) On the Material Editor toolbar. Click the eyedropper button. Pick Material from Object (Eyedropper) : i) Pick Material From Object lets you select a material from an object in the scene.max file). (1) White corner brackets indicate materials that are in the scene. Click the object. To get a material from a scene: i) Click a sample slot to make it active. double-click the name of the material you want to get. To apply a material to single or multiple objects (safe way): i) Select object or objects in the viewport. v) Note: Open also lets you get materials from a 3ds Max scene (a . vii) You can also drag the name of the material to the sample slot. Choose a library. If no objects are selected. double-click the name of the material you want to get. ii) Click a sample slot that contains a material in the scene. iii) If you have opened a library. To remove a material from an object: i) On the Material Editor toolbar. iv) In the list of materials. You can also drag the material name to the sample slot. Be careful not to click the sample slot of a material you want to use later. (1) This button is unavailable unless the active sample slot contains a material in the scene. A modeless Material/Map Browser is displayed. make sure that Material Library is chosen. the list of materials is blank. iv) If you haven't opened a library. vi) In the list of materials. the eyedropper has no effect. This button is unavailable unless the active sample slot contains a material used in the scene. Select By Material i) Select By Material allows you to select objects in the scene. ii) In the Browse From group box at the upper left. v) Warning: When you get a material from a scene. based on the active material in the Material Editor. click Open in the file area of the Browser. iii) In the Browse From group box at the upper left. The Scene option lists all the materials currently in the scene. When the eyedropper cursor is over an object containing a material. The material you chose replaces the previous material in the active sample slot. The Selected option lists only materials in the current selection. or press “H” on the keyboard instead. The material is placed in the active sample slot. the list of materials updates to show the library contents. (1) You can also change the selection by choosing other objects. iv) The object now has no material applied to it. on the b) c) d) ii) On the Material Editor toolbar. ii) On the Material Editor toolbar. it fills with "ink" and a tooltip with the name of the object pops up. and then move the eyedropper cursor over the objects in the scene. To apply a material to a single object (fast way): i) Drag and drop the sample slot from the Material Editor onto the object in a viewport. click Get Material. initially it is a hot material. viii) The material you chose replaces the previous material in the active sample slot. A modeless Material/Map Browser is displayed. click Get Material . you must then click Assign Material To Selection to apply the active material to newly selected objects. click Get Material . ii) The Material/Map Browser appears.

Seeing more slots at once can be helpful if you are working with a complex scene.ifl. A frame window appears. The effect is similar to using a matte in filmmaking. or you can change the number of sample slots visible at once to 15 or 24 slots. or an animation file such as . or . and have applied it to objects in the scene. has a simple set of controls. six sample slots are visible at once. The diffuse color is visible around the image.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. v) Oren-Nayar-Blinn: Creates good matte surfaces such as fabric or terra-cotta. ix) Multi/Sub-Object: Lets you apply multiple sub-materials to a single object's sub-objects. iii) To use a different library from the one that is active. click the Bitmap button and assign a bitmap. vii) Strauss: Creates both nonmetallic and metallic surfaces. and then click OK. such as . v) Ink 'n Paint: Creates cartoon effects with flat shading and “inked” borders. ii) Blend: Mixes two other materials together.bmp. including light tracing and radiosity solutions. vii) Matte/Shadow: Displays the environment but receives shadows. iv) Double-Sided: Contains two materials. choose Mtl Library. You can use translucency to simulate frosted and etched glass.avi. A Put to Library dialog is displayed. similar to Blinn. Either change the material name or leave it as is. x) Raytrace: Supports the same kind of diffuse mapping as Standard material. displaying the image surrounded by a region outline (a dashed line at the outer edges of the image.Creates surfaces with noncircular. Not available for Raytrace material. good for modeling hair. but it also lets you specify translucency. glass. xiii) Top/Bottom: Contains two materials. j) Sample slots: i) By default. Radiosity Override is not required for calculating advanced lighting.) Any of the bitmap (or animation) file types that 3ds max supports can be used as a bitmap in a material. vi) Phong: Creates smooth surfaces with some shininess. Not available for Raytrace material. ii) In the Browse From group. and so on. (Animations are essentially sequences of still images. v) Move the image by adjusting the spinners at the top of the window. one for faces that point upward. similar to Blinn. The Material/Map Browser is displayed. ii) Blinn: Creates smooth surfaces with some shininess. To save a material in a library: i) On the Material Editor toolbar. This makes the File group available. vi) The reduced image "decals" on the sample sphere. Can use a mask or a simple amount control. along with other effects such as fluorescence. viii) Morpher: Lets you morph between materials using the Morpher modifier. turn on Apply to see the results of cropping in the sample slot (and in shaded viewports if Show Map In Viewport is active). xii) Shellac: Mixes two materials by applying a "shellac" material to another. with handles on the sides and corners). ii) Important: While the Material Editor can edit no more than 24 materials at a time. but doesn't handle highlights (especially glancing highlights) as well. iii) Turn on Place. click Put to Library. as well as the original material upon which the texture is based. iv) On the Material Editor toolbar. you can use that sample slot to get a different material from the scene (or create a new one) and then edit it. viii) Translucent: Translucent shading is similar to Blinn shading. k) Shading types: i) Anisotropic . but also provides fully raytraced reflections and refractions. where light is scattered as it passes through the material. iv) Multi-Layer: Creates more complex highlights than Anisotropic by layering two anisotropic highlights. but it can enhance the result.flc. iv) Click View Image. ii) In the Cropping/Placement group.tga. "anisotropic" highlights. . . vi) Lightscape: Supports import and export of data from the Lightscape product. iii) Metal: Creates a lustrous metallic effect. h) 30 . iii) Composite: Mixes up to 10 materials. a general-purpose shader. one for the front and one for the back faces of an object. You can use the scroll bars to move among the sample slots. a scene can contain an unlimited number of materials. click Get Material. Not available for Raytrace material. or by dragging the region outline. i) Positioning a bitmap map i) On the Bitmap Parameters rollout. l) Material types: i) Advanced Lighting Override: Used to fine-tune the effects of a material on Advanced Lighting. the other for faces that point downward. xi) Shell: Contains a material that has been rendered to a texture. The Material Editor actually holds 24 materials at one time. When you are through editing one material. or metal. m) Map types: i) 2D maps (1) Bitmap: An image saved as an array of pixels in one of a number of still-image file formats. click Open. This is a special-purpose material.

including mosaic tiling. (2) RGB Tint: Tints the color of a map based on red. Unlike Mix. and blends as you choose. (6) Gradient Ramp: Creates a great variety of ramps. (11) Speckle: Generates a speckled surface for creating patterned surfaces that can simulate granite and similar materials. (4) Marble: Simulates the grain of marble with two explicit colors and a third intermediate color. or other cloudy. These functions adjust the colors of the map. (3) Checker: Combines two colors in a checker pattern. You can replace either color with a map. procedural marble map with a turbulence pattern. (9) Planet: Simulates the contours of a planet as seen from space.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. Composite doesn't have explicit controls for the amount of mixing. 31 . using as many colors. (2) Mask: A mask is a map itself. and blue values. and ocean surfaces. (3) Falloff: Generates a value from white to black based on the angular falloff of the face normals on the surface of the geometry. (5) Noise: Noise is a turbulence pattern in three dimensions. (4) Combustion: Works in conjunction with the Discreet combustion product. simulating objects and the environment seen through a refractive material such as glass or water. Distance Blend. (14) Water: Creates watery or wavy effects by generating a number of spherical wave centers and randomly distributing them. (15) Wood: Creates a 3D wood grain pattern. ii) 3D maps: (1) Cellular: Generates a cellular pattern that's useful for a variety of visual effects. (7) Swirl: Creates swirled (spiraling) patterns of two colors or maps. (3) Mix: Mix mixes two colors or two maps. iii) Compositor maps: (1) Composite: Composites multiple maps. Includes commonly defined architectural brick patterns. (12) Splat: Generates a fractal pattern similar to splattered paint. You can paint directly on a bitmap or object and have the result update in the Material Editor and viewports.) Alters the opacity of the leading and trailing ends of particles based on their rate of movement. (4) RGB Multiply: Combines two maps by multiplying their RGB and alpha values. iv) Colour modifier maps: (1) Output: Applies bitmap output functions to parametric maps. but you can also customize patterns. either of which can be mapped. (2) Dent: Generates three-dimensional bumps over a surface. it is based on two colors. that don't have these settings. The Falloff map provides greater flexibility when creating opacity falloff effects. (4) Thin Wall Refraction: Generates refractions automatically. (5) Gradient: Creates a linear or radial ramp of three colors. v) Reflection & Refraction maps: (1) Flat Mirror: Generates reflections for flat surfaces. (2) Bricks: Creates bricks or other tiled materials with colors or material mappings. (3) Vertex Color: Displays the effects of assigned vertex colors in the rendered scene. (7) Particle MBlur: (MBlur is short for Motion Blur. (13) Stucco: Generates a fractal pattern similar to stucco. You assign it to faces rather than to the object as a whole. Painting and other effects can be animated. (6) Particle Age: Alters the color (or map) of a particle based on the particle's life. (3) Reflect/Refract: Generates reflections or refractions automatically. green. (2) Raytrace: Creates accurate. such as Checker. (10) Smoke: Generates fractal-based turbulence patterns to simulate the effects of smoke in a beam of light. Instead. flowing mapping effects. The map can include other combustion effects. and Fresnel. used in this case to control where a second map is applied to the surface. Like Checker in 2D. The blend level can be mapped. based on surrounding objects and the environment. pebbled surfaces. (8) Perlin Marble: An alternative. fully raytraced reflections and refractions. You can adjust the amount of mixing using a blend level you specify. maps. 2) Mapping a) UVW Mapping modifier b) UVW Xform modifier 3) Bitmap diffuse map a) Create box b) Maps rollout i) Diffuse color map ii) Bitmap iii) Choose any bitmap 4) Create second bitmap diffuse map a) Click little square button next to diffuse color rectangle. Other effects include Shadow/Light. it bases the mix amount on the maps' alpha channel.

32 . 5) Tinting a bitmap: a) “Maps” rollout i) Reduce diffuse color map percentage to a smaller number e.” (3) “Rendering Method” tab (4) “Rendering Options” group (5) Turn on “Default Lighting” checkbox (6) Select “2 lights” radio button b) Reflect/Refract reflections i) New sample slot ii) Maps rollout iii) Reflection map (1) Reflect/Refract map iv) Save as “reflect refract reflections” v) Put same material onto box vi) Put brick material onto ball vii) See failed result. v) Material Editor: (1) Create Flat Mirror reflection map material (2) Select flat mirror material. 50 b) “Blinn Basic Parameters” rollout i) Change diffuse color. c) Render to see results (not visible in viewport) 6) Reflective and Refractive materials a) Setup i) Activate Perspective viewport. e) Reflect/Refract refractions i) Put yellow brick material onto box. (3) Press “Assign to selection” button in Material editor vi) Render to see results. iii) Render to see results. ii) Put Reflect/Refract map into REFRACTION map of new material. ii) Create a box (1) Length: 50 (2) Width: 200 (3) Height: 200 iii) Create a geosphere centred in front of the box: (1) Radius 50 iv) Put yellow brick material on box v) Turn on 2 lights: (1) Right click “Perspective” (2) Click “Configure. f) Thin Wall Refraction i) Create lots of teapots ii) Create thin walled box in front of them.5” iv) Adjust U and V spinners to move bitmap on box. i) Choose any bitmap b) Coordinates rollout i) Turn off “Tiling” checkboxes. d) Raytrace reflections i) Easy but SLOW! ii) Works on both curved and flat objects.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet.g. c) Bitmap Parameters rollout i) Cropping/Placement group ii) Turn on “Apply” checkbox iii) Change “W” and “H” to “0... c) Flat Mirror reflections: i) Put default material onto box ii) Apply “Edit Mesh” iii) Go to Polygon subobject mode iv) Select one face of the box.

iii) Click Render Scene again. f) Example: i) Create a box 4000 (L) x 5000 (W) x 3000 (H) ii) Apply the “Normal” modifier to the box. you must recalculate the Radiosity processing parameters. Utilities > More… > Rescale World Units iii) Accurate & realistic dimensions b) Photometric Lights i) Create Panel > Lights > Photometric (click on Standard to change) ii) Help > 3ds max 6 Reference > Lights and Cameras > Lights > Photometric Lights > Common Lamp Values for Photometric Lights iii) IES Sun and IES Sky for natural light c) Material reflectance i) white painted wall = 80% reflectance ii) Customize > Preferences > Radiosity > Material Editor > Display Reflectance & Transmittance Information d) Exposure control i) Rendering > Environment > Exposure Control > Logarithmic Exposure Control ii) Click Render Scene to preview the lighting. the radiosity will not be processed but you can quickly confirm that the direct lighting is correct. ix) Modify panel > General Parameters > Shadows checkbox > ON x) Add materials as described above in (c) xi) Turn on Exposure Control as described above in (d) xii) Turn on Radiosity as described above. xiii) Render 2) Lighting Analysis: a) Select an object that has radiosity solution information. ii) On the Radiosity Parameters rollout. iv) Notes: (1) If objects vary strangely in brightness. The light levels are stored with the geometry and you can interactively navigate around the model without reprocessing the scene. v) Create panel > Lights button > Standard drop down list > change to Photometric vi) Create panel > Lights button > Free Point button vii) Activate the Front viewport. (3) For ultimate quality. b) Change Diffuse colour to bright neon colour. At this stage. (2) Every time an object/material/light is added/deleted/modified. Turn on “Adaptive Sampling” to speed up rendering time. click Start to process radiosity. iii) Create thin wall refraction material in refraction map. Rendering > Advanced Lighting > Radiosity > Rendering Parameters > Regather Indirect Illumination (very time and RAM consuming). 7) Rendering a) Dialogue Box i) Output Size ii) Save File (Files…) b) Show Safe Frame Week 9 1) Radiosity a) Units i) Customize > Units Setup… > System Unit Setup > Metric > Millimeters ii) Alternatively. viii) Click once in the top right hand corner of the box (room). increase “Refine Iterations” to 5 or 6 or 10 in Radiosity Processing Parameters. 33 . Make sure that Active is turned on. Adjust the position of the lights if desired. > Rendering menu > Advanced Lighting > Lighting Analysis 3) Glowing neon: a) Create Architectural material in the Material Editor.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. iv) Render to see results. e) Turn on Radiosity i) Choose Rendering > Advanced Lighting > Radiosity. iii) Display panel > Display Properties rollout > Backface cull checkbox > ON iv) Create a small box in the corner of the main box (something to look at). The renderer will calculate the direct lighting and shadows. and the radiosity solution (indirect lighting) will be integrated as a modulated ambient light. you should see your results in the viewports. Once the Radiosity calculation has been completed.

4) Volume lights a) To use volume light: i) Create a scene with lights. c) Change Luminance cd/m2 to at least 500. viii) Click Pick Light. e) Reset radiosity solution and start radiosity processing. ii) Choose the light you want to remove the volume light effect from. v) Under Atmosphere on the Environment panel. ii) Open the Atmospheres & Effects rollout. f) Render. iii) Click Add. iii) Avoid making the view axis parallel to the cone of a spotlight. possibly with rendering artifacts. click Add. viii) Atmospheres & Effects rollout (1) Add button > Volume Light > OK (2) Render to see basic Volume Lighting ix) Volume Light > Setup > Volume Light Parameters (1) Turn “Exponential” on (2) “Filter Shadows”: High (or turn “Auto” off & use higher setting) 34 . vii) Choose Volume Light. (2) Apply Edit Mesh modifier (a) Polygon sub-object mode (b) Delete several rectangles from one side of box (3) Apply Shell modifier (a) Outer Amount: 200mm (b) Parameters: Turn “Straighten Corners” on (last one). x) Set the parameters for volume light. ix) You can also use a Select By Name dialog to select multiple lights. Click Pick Light. vi) Note: Volume Lights don’t support negative multiplier values. d) To assign volume light to a light through the Modify panel: i) Open the Modify panel of a light. and then press H to display the dialog. c) To remove a light from the list: i) Open the list of volume lights. v) Highlight Volume Light from the Atmospheres & Effects list and click setup to adjust the Volume Light parameters. d) Advanced Lighting Override rollout: Emit Energy (based on luminance): ON. height & depth. iv) Select Volume Light from the Add Atmosphere or Effect dialog and click OK. v) Create light (1) Standard Lights (2) Target Spot vi) Select light & light target (1) Lock selection (2) Move aim centre of light to middle of wall. This tends to create only a washedout scene. (3) Shadows: On (4) Spotlight Parameters: Rectangle (5) Spotlight Parameters: Adjust aspect to suit wall height & width vii) Render to see scene without volume lighting effect yet. e) Volume Lighting tutorial i) Create rectangle in Front viewport ii) iii) Create room: (1) Box 4000x5000x3000 (a) 9 segments width. ii) Create a Camera or Perspective view of your scene. iii) Click Remove Light. iv) Create camera (1) Target camera (2) Camera location: upper left corner (3) Target: lower right corner (4) Lens length: 24mm (5) Lift up camera to normal height using Hand tool. b) To add a light to the list: i) Click Pick Light. and then click OK. and then click a light in a viewport to add the light to the list of volume lights. vi) The Add Atmospheric Effect dialog is displayed. up to 1000 or more.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. iv) Choose Rendering > Environment. ii) Click the light in a viewport.

c) This turns on Safe Frames in the viewport. then click OK. c) In the Select Image Input Device dialog. e) On the main menu. turn on either Match Viewport or Match Rendering Output. Tip: This technique will only work on systems that don't have any other Image Input Devices installed. To eliminate aliasing problems. Delete Mesh. f) Modify panel > Daylight Parameters rollout > Setup button g) Control Parameters rollout > Get Location button > Map: Australia > Melbourne h) Set time and date. Week 10 1) Miscellaneous modifiers a) Volume Select. activate the Near and Far Attenuation settings in the light object that the Volume Light applied to. d) In the Bitmap Manager Error dialog.5 (8) Size: play 5) Sun & Shadows a) Create menu > Lights > Daylight System b) Click “Yes” button on the dialogue that appears. the bitmap reverts to its original aspect ratio and does not match the rendered scene.5 (not 5. d) Drag to show size of compass rose. click Files to assign the same bitmap. h) The background displayed in the rendered scene should exactly match the background displayed in the Live area of the safe frames. Click OK on the Instance (Copy) Map dialog. Note: You can also use View menu > Configure > Safe Frame tab. Slice. Mirror. create a material that contains the bitmap for your rendered background.0 default – too bright) (4) Rendering Volume Light at some angles can introduce aliasing problems. turn on Show Safe Frames In Active View. or mixed using an Amount value.3 or 0. i) Use the standard radiosity techniques as described earlier. i) In the Aspect Ratio group. 6) To match your viewport background with the rendered background: a) Activate the viewport you plan to render. Materials are combined using additive opacity. i) Drag the map from the Material Editor > Maps rollout to the Environment Map button in the Environment dialog. Screen is automatically selected. (3) “Density” = 0. ii) Create sony logotype in Photoshop: blue text with alpha channel (1) Create text (2) Right-click layer thumbnail in Layers window 35 . e) The current field no longer displays the background file name. click OK. click Devices. i) In the Material Editor > Coordinates rollout. f) In the Viewport Background dialog > Background Source group. i) Notice the name and path of the background file is displayed in the Current field in the Background Source group ii) In the Background Source group. b) On the Views menu choose Viewport Background. unless you're rendering to the same aspect ratio.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. subtractive opacity. ii) In the Mapping field. choose Rendering > Environment. as listed in the rollout. c) Click location for North point in Top viewport. e) Move mouse to show distance of sun icon from compass rose. Noise modifier 2) Advanced materials a) Composite material example: i) materials are superimposed from top to bottom. b) Right-click the viewport label and choose Show Safe Frame. g) Next time you open up the Viewport Background dialog. choose No I/O Handlers from the drop-down list. f) Click OK to close the Viewport Background dialog. Cap Holes. Note: When you use the Match Bitmap option. turn on Environ. g) Render the viewport. In the Application group. no filename will be displayed in the Current field. (5) Noise (6) Turn ON (7) Amount 0. Click OK. d) In the Material Editor. Instead No I/O Handler is listed in the Current field. 7) To remove a background image: a) Activate the viewport with the background image visible. This is the only mapping type you can use for this purpose.

zerointensity areas are transparent. Use with “Grid Point” 2d snap to move an object easily. The software creates an alpha channel. with respect to the size of the object. Full-intensity areas of the image are opaque. iii) MapScaler Modifier (World Space): maintains the scale of the map. If you scale an object with the MapScaler (WSM) modifier applied. (5) The bitmapped material will now have the transparency specified by the alpha channel. iv) v) To create an alpha channel based on intensity: (1) In Bitmap Parameters rollout > Alpha Source group. Selection Lock Toggle a. Transparency does not appear in viewports or ActiveShade renderings. and does not create a new one. b) UVW Xform modifier Week 11 1. Apply Bend modifier d. uncompressed. choose Alpha. maintaining the scale of the map with respect to the object size. Applying a modifier to multiple objects at the same time a. independent of the object size. Create three cylinders. Turn on “Use Pivot Points” in Modifier List c. If you have an object with complex UVW coordinates already applied (such as a Loft object. you can apply this modifier to adjust those coordinates further. (3) In the Bitmap Parameters rollout > Alpha Source group. choose Image Alpha. (4) In the Bitmap Parameters rollout > Mono Channel Output group. This will appear in renderings. 2. The software ignores the bitmap's alpha channel. and intermediate colors become partially transparent. b. the scale of the map itself is maintained as you scale the object. 4. turn on RGB Intensity. (3) Choose “Layer transparency” (4) Select > Save Selection. assign the map to the Opacity component.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. Repeat b and c if necessary e. 3) Advanced mapping a) Mapping Modifiers i) UVW Xform Modifier: Use it to adjust tiling and offset in existing UVW coordinates. select them. (2) Click the map button for the Opacity component. ii) MapScaler Modifier (Object Space): maintains the scale of a map applied to an object. Move to another frame c. turn on None (opaque). if present. Turn on AutoKey b. This lets you resize the object. turn off “Use Pivot Points” and reapply modifier AutoKey a. vi) To use a completely opaque bitmap: (1) In Bitmap Parameters rollout > Alpha Source group. Play animation To animate using Set Key mode: 3. the map will scale along with the object. or a parametric object with generated coordinates). Make changes to object/s d. 36 . with Alpha channels iii) To use the alpha channel that is part of the bitmap: (1) On the Maps rollout. As you scale an object with a map applied. accept defaults (5) Save as TIFF file. Remove Bend modifier.

2. Time configuration a. A key will appear in the track bar. e. a. Position Rotation. v. but you can set it to any range. v. This also works to compress animations into a shorter space of time. if you have keys scattered over a range of 1000 frames. The 5. Change the value in Length to be the number of frames you want the action to fill. Click the Set Keys button. Set Length to specify the amount of time in the active time segment and automatically set the correct End Time. Click Time Configuration. vii. In this example. By default. Click Key Filters and then turn on the tracks you want to keyframe. but you must use the same format used by the time display. Select the objects you want to keyframe. vi.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. Click OK. right-click and choose Curve Editor. c. Select the objects in the viewport you want to animate. set Start Time to specify the beginning of your active time segment. iii. Move the time slider to set keyframes in between keys. To define the active time segment: i. b. The animation is rescaled to the new number of frames. Repeat this process. use sub-frame animation.” ii. Scale and IK Parameters are turned on. iv. you can narrow your active time segment to work on only frames 150 to 300. h. Changing the active time segment has the following effects: 1. g. d. . In the Time Configuration dialog > Animation group. moving the time slider and setting keys. In the Time Configuration dialog > Animation group. In the Time Configuration > Time Display group. then use the keyable icons in the controller window to define which tracks will be keyed. Click Show Keyable icons. For example. c. ii. You can enter positive or negative values in any spinner.Restricts the range of time you can use with the time slider. Move to the frame you want to set a key on. A red key means the track will be keyed. Set Key button will flash red to show that it has set a key. You can change the active time segment without affecting the keys you've created. turn on FRAME:TICKS or MM:SS:TICKS. but the remainder of the animation stays intact.Restricts the range of time displayed when using the animation playback buttons. Turn on Set Key mode. You can only work on the 150 frames in the active segment. Move the objects as desired. 2. iii. The default setting for the active time segment runs from frames 0 to 100. . turn off Rotation and Scale. To stretch out your existing animation over a longer time: i. 37 . b. Click OK. iv. Set End Time to specify the end of your active time segment. DO NOT CHANGE ANY VALUES BEFORE PRESSING “RE-SCALE TIME. To avoid losing frames during the rescaling. f. click Re-scale Time FIRST. i. ii. Do one of the following: 1. To use sub-frame animation: i. Returning the active segment from 0 to 1000 restores access and playback of all the keys.

g. click Geometry. when the constrained object reaches the end of a path it can no longer move past the end point. Motion Panel > Path Parameters rollout > Path Options group > Follow (turn on). h. 6. The object will follow the path with an offset distance based on its original world space position. The box moves back and forth repeatedly. the ghosting feature can be very helpful. Linking and Unlinking Objects i. and then select Animated Tracks Only. Parameter Out-of-Range Types to create a loop: a. Animating a camera along a path with Path Constraint a. i. iii. Loop—By default. On the Create panel. You can then move the keys to frames and revert to frames without ticks. You click Select And Link on the toolbar. Linking Objects i. e. select Ping Pong and click OK. The general process of creating links is to build the hierarchy from child to parent. d. ii. k. c. Select camera f. then click Box. Use Select and Link and Unlink Selection on the toolbar to make and remove links between objects. To enable ghosting. i. and then click Parameter Curve Out-of-Range types. When off. Constant Velocity—Provides a constant velocity along the path. Before: 0 After: 90 Samples: 9 Linking a. the velocity of the object along the path varies depending on the distance between the vertices on the path. Rotate the camera’s pivot point (Hierarchy Panel > Pivot > Affect Pivot Only) so that the X direction is aligned with camera lens direction. 8. rotate camera to align with path h. On the left side of the Front viewport create a small box. The loop option changes this behavior so that when the constrained object reaches the end of the path it loops back to the starting point. This feature displays a copy of the object being animated before and after its current position. select one or more 38 7. In the Parameter Curve Out-of-Range Types dialog. 9.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. As you’re trying to animate objects. b. Relative—Turn on to maintain the original position of the constrained object. Motion Panel > Path Parameters rollout > Path Options group > Constant Velocity (turn on): j. d. Tip: Use this when you scale an animation down from a longer length to insure that you won’t lose any keys. choose Views Show Ghosting. right-click Filters. Open Track View. b. . While the animation is playing. Unless you want the camera to roll along the floor. Turn on Toolbar/Select and move the box to the right side of the Front viewport. Click Play in the Viewport Controls. move the spline up above the floor surface to eg 1500mm. b. l. Curve Editor > Utilities menu > Track View Utilities > Create Out of Range Keys j. Ghosting a. f. Animation menu > Constraints > Path Constraint g. You can adjust the range bar independent of its keys and change the nature of the loop. experiment by turning on Position Ranges on the Track View toolbar and moving the ends and middle of the Position track bar back and forth in the Track View Key window. Choose the Position track for the box in the Track View Hierarchy. Create FREE camera (not Target Camera) by single clicking in Front or Left viewports b. Draw path as a single spline. If necessary. Rotate and/or move the camera close to starting position of spline e. c. Turn on Auto Key and move the time slider to frame 10.

You can also turn on Link Replaces Object to see only the links and not the objects. the size of its children and the distance between the children and the parent are also scaled by 150%. Y. For example. transform information passes from the parent to the child for that axis. Final Gather: Better quality but much longer render times. Max Num Photons per Sample : 250. When you turn off an axis. transform information on that axis is ignored by the child. or even with the links replacing the mesh objects. and then drag the link cursor from the selection to a single parent object. f. Geometry Properties > All Objs Generate and Receive GI & Caustics > ON g. You can quickly unlink an entire hierarchy by double-clicking the root object to select the object and all of its children. d.000 e. g. . Z—Turn on any axis in the Move. The Inherit rollout has controls to limit the transforms that a child inherits from its parent object. Any children of the selected object are unaffected. e. if Rotate > X and Y are turned on. iii. 39 2. The selected objects become children of the parent object. The Locks rollout has controls to restrict the movement of objects in a particular axis. Link info i. For example. ii. You use the Pivot tab to adjust the pivot points of objects in the hierarchy. c. On the Display panel > Link Display rollout. Indirect Illumination Tab > Global Illumination > Enable > d. To display links.. rotation. i. When you turn on an axis. Rendering Menu > Render. Max Sampling Radius > ON > 25. first select the linked objects. Inherit rollout i. any transformations applied to the parent are also applied to its children. Hierarchy Panel Commands i. if you scale the parent to 150%. ii. objects as children. iii. Rotate. Depth of Field effect a. Then click Unlink Selection.000 (one tenth of Max Num Photons per Sample) f. Week 12 1. You use the Link Info tab to apply locks or inheritance to movement within the hierarchy. This part of the Hierarchy panel contains two rollouts. b. Create a camera. turn on Display Links to see the links. Once you have set up a hierarchy using the Select and Link command. you can manage it using the Hierarchy panel. or Scale group box to lock the axis.. you'll be able to rotate the object only around the Z axis. All locks are relative to an object's local coordinate system. or scale. Displaying Links i. Mental Ray a. X. The Inherit rollout constrains the links between a selected object and its parent for any axis of position. Unlinking Objects Click Unlink Selection to remove the link from selected objects to their parents. A complex mesh hierarchy can be displayed with the links visible. Common Tab > Assign Renderer Rollout > Production [ ] . X... Locks rollout i. ii. Z—Turn off any axis in the Move. h. Y. Once objects are linked. > Mental Ray c. Rotate. or Scale group boxes to prevent inheritance.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet.

The emitter's direction vector points in the negative Z direction of the active construction plane. Enter values as HALF of existing image height/width c. Play and enjoy Visibility Track a. turn on Show in the Environment Ranges group. It can also be useful in combination with an opacity map. e. c. Turn off AutoKey h. To use standard fog: a. e. Set Adjust Near Range and Far Range to include the objects you want to fog in your rendering. Make sure you choose Standard as the type of fog. Choose Fog. Create/open image in Photoshop b. This map works effectively as both a diffuse and bump map at the same time. Modify panel > Parameters rollout > Multi-Pass Effect > Depth of Field d. Waves is a 3D map that creates watery or wavy effects.Spray a. click Add. Modify panel > Depth of Field Parameters rollout > Sampling > Total passes f. For example. Turn on “Autokey” d. b. Blinking Indicator a. Repeat previous two steps several times g. set Far Range just beyond the objects. and then click OK. 6. Open the Modify panel of a light. Change “Self-illumination” to 100 e. You can control the number of wave sets. Filter > Other > Offset. Create box b. 3. Adjust Target Distance spinner to determine in-focus area of scene. Select Volume Light from the Add Atmosphere or Effect dialog and click OK. Rendering will take 12 times longer!!! Beware!!! Volume lights a. d. Save as an uncompressed TIFF file in IBM byte order. 9. Waves map a. Apply a light coloured/transparent material if you want more visible drops. d. choose Particles > Spray. Increase the Speed to a large number like 2000 for scenes drawn in millimetres. From the Create menu. 7. then click Spray. g. 5. In the camera's creation parameters. It generates a number of spherical wave centers and randomly distributes them over a sphere. Under Atmosphere on the Environment panel. The Add Atmospheric Effect dialog is displayed. c. Go to frame 20 i. e. c. Go to frame 10 i.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. Choose Rendering > Environment. d. Change “Self-illumination” to 0 f. Create a Camera view of your scene. Drag in a viewport to create the Spray emitter. Tileable textures in Photoshop a. Open the Atmospheres & Effects rollout. if you create the emitter in the Top viewport. c. 4. Use Clone/Stamp Tool (S) to smooth over horizontal & vertical lines d. f. Standard fog is based on the camera's environment range values. 8. Create material c. and the speed of the waves. Select object in Track View 40 . and Near Range to intersect the object geometry closest to the camera. b. b. Click Add. the particles will move downward in the Front and Left viewports. Color #1 and #2—Click the color swatches to change the colors used in the pattern. b. Use one color for the wave troughs and the other for the wave peaks. the amplitude. As a general guideline. Select camera. e. On the Create panel. Particle systems . b. make sure the Geometry button is active and Particle Systems is chosen in the object category list. Highlight Volume Light from the Atmospheres & Effects list and click setup to adjust the Volume Light parameters.

Files button xiv. Video Post: Crossfade between two cameras a. Move box. Save previous scene. OK k. Go to frame 100. not frame 0.max” c.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. > “two cameras crossfade. VP Start Time: 51 2. Choose “Camera02” x. Open the Curve Editor. arrow leaving) xiii. Adjust movement (position change) to begin at frame 50. VP End Time: 60. xv. Activate the Perspective view. Go to frame 50 iv. Control-click or Shift-click Camera02 in queue.. Add Scene Event button (blue teapot with bent arrow) iii. Click “Adobe Premier Transition Filter” h. c. Adjust camera view to include second 50 frames of animation. Track menu > Add Visibility Track Add Keys tool i. OK xii. j. vi. . Create two cameras i. Change Camera02 start time to frame 40 (cameras should overlap by 20 frames) 41 b. You can also right click any object in a viewport: i. Create menu > Cameras > Create Camera From View (CTRL-C) iii. vii. AVI file. Video Post Parameters group: 1. Change Camera01 end time to frame 60.0 or more) e.0 to 1. v. vi. Video Post: Cut between two cameras a. Video Post Parameters group: 1. named. Choose “Cross Fade Transition” i. Add Image Output Event button (yellow rect. VP End Time: 100 xvi. Video Post toolbar > Add Image Layer Event button (blue and yellow squares) g.0 (0. Rendering menu > Video Post d. Video Post i. Choose “Camera01” v.0 10.. c. Choose Tranform > Properties. Create animation i. Execute Sequence button (running man) 11. ii. v. Change Camera01 view to Camera02. OK vii. Create second camera manually in Top viewport. e.. ii. Add Scene Event button (blue teapot with bent arrow) viii. VP Start Time: 0 2. Video Post Parameters group: 1. l.. VP Start Time: 0 2. Label: “Move box” ix. Rendering menu > Video Post ii. Label: “height change” iv. Change key values from 1. VP Start Time: 40. iii. Add keys along dashed line d. b. VP End Time: 50 vi. viii. iv. Cinepak compression.0 to less than 1. Click Camera01 in queue. Reduce height of box. f. General tab > Rendering Control > Visibility > 0. File menu > Save As. Adjust camera view to include first 50 frames of the animation. VP End Time: 100 xi. Create box (cube) ii. b. Turn on Autokey.

Scatter Objects rollout > Source Object Parameters group > Duplicates: 1500+ m. Turn on Auto Key button near timeline. Choose a different colour. q. Create panel > Geometry > Compound Objects > Scatter button k. Creating Grass a. Transforms rollout > Rotation group > Z: 45 (degrees) random rotation 13.max” 14. m. m. Go to frame 80 h. Turn off Auto Key l. p. Pick Distribution Object button: pick plane l. Choose any colour. g. Press Render button 15.. b.. l. Apply Taper modifier d. button Change file name of AVI file OK Execute Sequence button (running man) 12. Click “Standard” button to change material to a “Blend” material. Go to frame 80 i. Create two completely different materials: i. Create a geosphere in a new scene.avi) Click Files. Double click Image Output Event in queue (something. Select original Line object (blade of grass) j. Apply Material to geosphere f. d. Scatter Objects rollout > Distribution Object Parameters group > Random Faces n. r. f. E. Draw V-shaped line in Top viewport b. c. Adjust Scale and Z-strength for gentle undulations. Open Material Editor c. Click “Render Scene Dialogue” button in toolbar o. h. m. Right click original object’s modifier stack and Collapse All. e. Right-click the viewport label and choose Show Safe Frame. Apply Extrude modifier with 4 segments c. You must render entire file (320x240 pixels recommended) to see material change. i. Drag and drop first two materials onto Material 1 & 2 buttons respectively. Go to empty sample slot. or ii. Change Mix amount from 0. Apply material to geosphere. b. Common Parameters rollout > Render Output > Files button q. Specify filename and choose AVI file format with Cinepak compression. Draw a Plane object with 44 segments in each direction. adjust Direction parameter to suit e. n. Scrub playback head to preview animation of material colour. Activate the viewport you plan to render. Marble diffuse map and Swirl diffuse map. a. f. Click Diffuse colour rectangle j. Click Diffuse colour rectangle d. Apply Bend modifier.0 to 100 k. Turn off Auto Key button. Create a Copy of blade of grass for backup purposes. Open Material Editor i. e.g. Animation will NOT preview in viewport.g. Create geosphere b. Open Material Editor j. E. n. yellow bricks and foliage. h. Check that viewport to render is Perspective or Camera! s. Hold/Yes g. To match your viewport background with the rendered background: a. o. Animating Material colour change a. Animating Material – complete change from one material to another. Turn on Auto Key button g. Common Parameters rollout > Time Output > Render Active Time Segment p. Apply Noise modifier to plane.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. 42 . Save file as “Simple Material Animation. k.

Note: When you use the Match Bitmap option. Load a bitmap as a background for the renderer. The current field no longer displays the background file name. To remove a background image: a. (Diffuse Map) (LAKEDUSK. Render the viewport. 17. Identify on the bitmap at least five features that will be used for the match. click OK. Click OK to close the Viewport Background dialog. Instead No I/O Handler is listed in the Current field. i.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. In the Bitmap Manager Error dialog. In the Background Source group. create a material that contains the bitmap for your rendered background. and field-of-view matches that of the camera that originally created the photo. then click OK. 18. Screen is automatically selected. On the main menu. and Create menu > Helpers > Camera Point. The plane will disappear and only shadows on it will be visible. which are helper objects found in these locations: Create panel > Helpers > Camera Match > Object Type rollout > CamPoint. Load a bitmap as a background for the viewport. c. In the Material Editor. Camera Match Utility a.. Utilities panel > Utilities rollout > Camera Match button c. orientation. In the Mapping field. Create a ground or floor plane that matches the background image ground plane. b. e. The background displayed in the rendered scene should exactly match the background displayed in the Live area of the safe frames. Tools menu > Camera Match b. h. 43 . The Camera Matching tutorial takes you through steps to match a camera to a bitmap background photo.JPG in 3dsMax\Maps\Backgrounds) d. Render the scene. g. d. choose Rendering > Environment. Next time you open up the Viewport Background dialog. and should not change their shape too much or they won’t work. click Devices. b. Make sure you have lights that cast shadows d. Drag the map from the Material Editor > Maps rollout to the Environment Map button in the Environment dialog. e. You must have accurate measurements of distances between at least five features in your scene. Background Source group > Files button: assign the same bitmap. This is the only mapping type you can use for this purpose. unless you're rendering to the same aspect ratio. k. the bitmap reverts to its original aspect ratio and does not match the rendered scene. c. b. l. turn on Environ.. Tip: This technique will only work on systems that don't have any other Image Input Devices installed. The Camera Match utility uses a bitmap background photo and five or more special "CamPoint" objects to create or modify a camera so that its position. no filename will be displayed in the Current field. Activate the viewport with the background image visible. j. Try to use points that are distributed c. In the Select Image Input Device dialog. 19. It’s an involved process. g. These should be objects or corners of objects in the scene that can be identified and tracked. f. h. On the Views menu choose Viewport Background. choose No I/O Handlers from the dropdown list. but the results are worth the work. To use camera matching: a. which can’t be all on a single plane. In the Material Editor > Coordinates rollout. Click OK on the Instance (Copy) Map dialog. d. They should remain visually throughout the scene. The general process that you follow in that tutorial is described in the following procedures. turn on either Match Viewport or Match Rendering Output. Views Menu > Viewport Background. Click OK. i. Apply a Matte/Shadow material (not map) to the ground plane. 16. In the Aspect Ratio group. f. Create CameraPoints. Notice the name and path of the background file is displayed in the Current field in the Background Source group d. Shadows on a background image a. c.

This will give the most accurate results. e. and reassign them to the bitmap. readjust the point positions in 3D space.3DStudio Max course notes – Joseph Brabet. If there are errors and the camera cannot be created. Choose Create Camera and a camera is created to match the one that took the picture. but once you get it right the match should work. 44 . throughout the scene rather than features that are all clustered in the front or back. It’s easy to make a mistake doing either. f. Use the Camera Match utility to assign the CameraPoints to pixel locations on the bitmap. g. Position these CameraPoints to correspond to points in your photo. You can use the Transform Type-In to position the points in the correct locations in 3D space.

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