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Carbureted systems : Air enters through the air cleaner and passes through the carburetor to be mixed with the correct amount of fuel. Air-fuel mixture then passes through the inlet manifold, and enters the cylinders. EFI systems : Electronic fuel injection is controlled by an electronic control unit. It has replaced the carburetor on most modern engines. EFI engines run more smoothly, with lower fuel consumption and emissions, and more power than carbureted engines. Diesel induction systems : Diesel engines draw in air only. Speed and power is controlled by the amount of fuel injected at the end of the compression stroke. 2-stroke diesels use a blower for induction and to improve scavenging.
It is connected to the throttle body by a duct. Forced induction : Engine performance can be improved using an air pump to force air or mixture into the cylinders. usually expressed as a percentage. clean air. Carburetor air cleaners : Most air cleaners trap abrasive particles using a pleated dry paper element but some use the dust-attracting property of oil. In spark ignition engines. fuel is either mixed with the air at the entrance to the manifold. The filter must stop minute particles without restricting air-flow.Intake system Air cleaners : Air cleaners filter the air before it reaches the engine. They remove abrasive particles which cause wear and damage. Volumetric efficiency : Volumetric efficiency is a measure of the airfuel mixture burned in the cylinder. or injected close to the cylinder head. Intake manifolds : The intake manifold carries the air of the air-fuel mixture to each cylinder. many air cleaners include a system to maintain airintake temperature. For optimum performance. A pump driven by 3 exhaust gases is called a turbocharger. regardless of outside air temperature. . it needs to be supplied with cool. EFI air cleaners : The air cleaner on a multi-point fuel injected engine uses a dry-type element. Intake air heating : To maintain ideal combustion conditions and reduce emissions.
INTAKE SYSTEM 4 .
INTAKE SYSTEM Inlet runners : The length and diameter of the intake manifold inlet runners also have an effect on volumetric efficiency. 5 . longer and thinner inlet runners produce higher volumetric efficiency. shorter and wider inlet runners are more efficient. More modern engine designs utilize such innovations as multi-valve engines and variable intake systems to increase volumetric efficiency. During low engine speeds. During high engine speeds.
At lower engine speeds. These intake subsystems are used to provide increased air flow when required to improve torque and performance. some engines utilize variable length induction systems. the air flows through the long runners for best performance.INTAKE SYSTEM Variable induction systems : Because the length and diameter of the intake runners affect performance.Intake manifold tuning (IMT) valve 6 . These systems use both long and short intake runners. a valve opens to allow air also to flow through the short runners for maximum output at high engine speeds.Intake manifold runner control (IMRC) actuated system . efficiency and exhaust emissions. At a certain engine speed. There are basic two types of variable length intake manifold designs: .
Intake manifold runner control (IMRC) system : The intake manifold has two runners per cylinder. The IMRC assemblies are located between the intake manifold and cylinder heads. Above a certain rpm. One air passage is always open and the other passage switches from closed to open by means of a valve plate. in what becomes a two piece intake manifold assembly. the IMT valve opens allowing more into the cylinders to improve high speed engine performance. feeding each of the intake ports in the cylinder heads. The engine control system controls the IMT valve. 7 . The IMRC assemblies are actually the lower manifold. Below a certain rpm the IMT valve is closed. Intake manifold tuning (IMT) valve : The IMT valve is an electric actuator controlling a valve plate or shutter device mounted directly to the intake manifold. providing two air passages for each cylinder.
As long as the engine relies on atmospheric pressure to push the air through the intake system.INTAKE SYSTEM Forced induction : Most vehicle engines draw in the air-fuel mixture from vacuum created by the downward travel of the piston. which meets or exceeds 100% volumetric efficiency. and for this reason are called naturally aspirated engines. Without external help. A naturally aspirated engine usually has about an 80% volumetric efficiency. the engine does not produce as much power as it is capable of producing. Pumping air into the cylinders can increase the air-fuel charge. This means that the engine draws in about 80% of its displacement. The air still has difficulty reaching the cylinder. Naturally aspirated engines rely on atmospheric air pressure to supply air to the cylinder. Streamlining passages and increasing port sizes improves volumetric efficiency. This forcing of more air into the cylinders allows the engine to fill its cylinders with a charge. The power output of an engine is directly linked to its volumetric efficiency. an engine receives only a partial air-fuel charge. There are two different methods used to pump air into an engine: turbocharging and supercharging. 8 . This process of pumping more air into the engine cylinders is called forced induction.
INTAKE SYSTEM 9 .
This design helps the turbocharger reach optimal speed at a lower rpm which increases lowspeed engine performance and reduces turbo lag. This short interval of time is called turbo lag. There are different types of superchargers.INTAKE SYSTEM Turbocharging : Because a turbocharger is driven by exhaust gas flow. Supercharging : A supercharger is a type of air pump or compressor. Some turbochargers use a variable inlet design. Unlike some turbocharged engines. its main purpose is to force more air into the cylinders and help the engine produce more power. The crankshaft drives the supercharger through a belt. 10 . it does not consume engine power. gear or chain. when accelerating a supercharger immediately delivers extra engine power. the engine does not deliver the extra power that the turbocharger provides at higher rpm. Although it takes engine power to drive a supercharger. a supercharger helps produce much more power in return. The power source of a supercharger is the engine itself. No matter how a supercharger is designed. Exhaust gases do not drive a supercharger. the amount of power available to drive the supercharger depends upon engine speed. Intake manifold pressures of up to 13 psi are typical for supercharged engines. During this period of turbo lag. Some turbocharged engines experience a short interval of time before the turbocharger begins to pump a large amount of air into the engine. As with a turbocharger.
INTAKE SYSTEM 11 .
Exhaust Systems An exhaust system must reduce engine noise and discharge exhaust gases safely away from the vehicle. 12 . An efficient exhaust system can improve engine performance.
Flexible connections : Flexible connections are used to allow movement between components. Exhaust pipe : The exhaust pipe carries the hot exhaust gases to where they can be discharged into the atmosphere. Mufflers : The muffler reduces exhaust noise by dampening the pulsations in the exhaust gases and allowing them to expand slowly. They are used to assist in the fast extraction of exhaust gases in engines. Extractors : Extractors are sometimes known as ¶headers¶.Exhaust system components Exhaust manifold : The exhaust manifold collects exhaust gases as they leave each cylinder and directs them into the exhaust system. 13 . Catalytic converters : The catalytic converter provides a chemical reaction with the exhaust gases to reduce the level of exhaust pollutants entering the atmosphere.
Exhaust Systems 14 .
Exhaust system components Exhaust manifold Exhaust pipe Extractors Catalytic converters Flexible connections 15 .
Fuel Systems 16 .
the more efficiently it burns in the engine. The more effectively liquid gasoline is changed into vapor. The sudden rise in pressure can cause a knocking sound. mainly hydrocarbons.Fuel system basics Petrol / Gasoline : Petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons. caused by uncontrolled combustion. which vary widely in physical and chemical properties. The properties of gasoline must be balanced to give satisfactory engine performance over a wide range of operating conditions including heat. Gasoline fuel : Gasoline is a mixture of nearly 300 different components. altitude. Controlling fuel burn : Detonation is a violent collision of flame fronts in the cylinder. 17 . used as fuel in internal combustion engines. and driving patterns.
Some high-performance engines are designed to operate with a compression ratio associated with high octane numbers. called "Motor Octane Number" (MON). which is a better measure of how the fuel behaves when under load.Octane rating The most important characteristic of petrol is its Research Octane Number (RON) or octane rating. So an 87-octane petrol has the same knock resistance as a mixture of 87% isooctane and 13% nheptane. Depending on the composition of the fuel. which is a measure of how resistant petrol is to premature detonation (knocking). and thus demand high-octane petrol. This is false engines perform best when using fuel with the octane rating they were designed for. Using a fuel with a higher octane allows an engine to be run at a higher compression ratio without having problems with knock.4-trimethylpentane) and n-hepta ne. Compression is directly related to power. It is measured relative to a mixture of isooctane (2. 18 . so engines that require higher octane usually deliver more power. Normally fuel specifications require both a minimum RON and a minimum MON. the MON of a modern petrol will be about 10 points lower than the RON. Some people believe that adding a higher octane fuel to their engine will increase its performance or lessen its fuel consumption. which bears no simple relationship to the octane rating. It should be noted that the power output of an engine also depends on the energy content of its fuel. There is another type of Octane.2. Its definition is also based on the mixture of isooctane and n-heptane that has the same performance.
it makes a low pressure area and as a result. The carburetor has to supply the correct mixture of air and fuel to suit all operating conditions. which is connected to the accelerator pedal. One end of a tube is immersed in the fuel. Atmospheric pressure on fuel in the float bowl is now greater than the pressure on the end of the nozzle. The carburetor turns liquid fuel into a fine spray and mixes it with air. of about 15 to 1. A filter cleans the fuel. will cause loss of power and possible engine damage. The venturi here is narrower than the rest of the barrel. This is done by the throttle valve near the bottom of the carburetor. A carburetor mixes the air and fuel and controls how much mixture enters the engine. An air cleaner supplies clean air. 19 Too little. The downdraft carburetor is the most common kind. .Carbureted systems principles A basic carbureted system consists of the fuel tank to store the fuel. It mixes with the passing air. It creates a low pressure area where the end of the nozzle protrudes into the airflow. Fuel lines or pipes carry fuel in the system. An intake manifold carries the mixture to the engine. It also controls how much air-fuel mixture is delivered to the engine. by mass. The other end is a fuel discharge nozzle. This down-draft carburetor has a float bowl for fuel. This forces fuel to flow from the nozzle. in the venturi. A light vehicle under normal conditions needs an air-fuel ratio. or atomizing. that¶s 11. and it is shaped to make the air speed up as it passes through. As the piston moves through intake. The side-draft model is less common. air from the atmosphere flows through the venturi. Too much fuel for the air will waste fuel and cause pollution. By volume. It¶s mounted on the intake manifold. A pump moves fuel from the tank to the engine. This ratio can vary to suit engine operating conditions.000 to 1. breaking up into droplets.
the secondary throttle opens to admit more air-fuel mixture. At higher speeds.Carburetor components The carburetor : The carburetor atomizes the fuel and mixes it with air. An extra jet supplies additional fuel for maximum power. suddenly depressing the accelerator delivers extra fuel into the airstream. and controls the delivery of the correct mixture to the engine. Carburetor barrels : A 2-stage carburetor has a primary throttle open only from idle to medium speeds. Carburetor systems : Low speed and idling ports allow the engine to operate with a low throttle opening before the main system is operating fully. Metering jets : The main jet size is selected to provide the best mixture for fuel economy. 20 . Accelerating : For acceleration.
into the carburetor. It can be controlled so that it operates only if the engine is running Tachometric relay : The tachometer indicates engine RPM. 21 .Carbureted system components Mechanical fuel pumps : The mechanical fuel pump has a diaphragm separating 2 chambers. Electric fuel pumps : An electric fuel pump operates with the ignition switched on. A return line may carry excess fuel back to the tank. to keep fuel system components cool. prevent surging of fuel. Moving the diaphragm down draws fuel into the pumping chamber. forcing fuel from the pump. A spring then moves the diaphragm up. Fuel lines : The fuel tank is connected to the engine by fuel lines. \ Charcoal canister : Used in some emission systems as a means of preventing pollution to the atmosphere. and ensure fuel is available at the pickup-tube. Baffles make the tank more rigid. Carburetor filters : Used to prevent particles from entering the fuel carburetion/injection components. Tanks & lines : Most fuel tanks are in 2 parts joined by a weld around the flanges where the parts fit together.
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