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# Hydraulics

Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

33.1 Introduction

Spillway is a passage in a dam through which the design flood could be disposed off safely to the downstream. The ogee-crested spillway, because of its superb hydraulic characteristics, has been one of the most studied hydraulic structures. Its ability to pass flows efficiently and safely, when properly designed, with relatively good flow measuring capabilities, has enabled engineers to use it in a wide variety of situations. Although much is understood about the general ogee shape and its flow characteristics, it is also understood that a deviation from the standard design parameters such as a change in upstream flow conditions, slightly modified crest shape, or construction variances can change the flow properties. These small changes often require engineers to evaluate the crest and determine whether or not the change or deviation will be detrimental to the spillway's performance. Such is the case when an updated probable maximum flood calculation requires a spillway to pass a larger flow than it was designed to handle.

In general, spillways comprise five distinct components namely: (i) an entrance channel, (ii) a control structure, (iii) a discharge carrier, (iv) an energy dissipator, and (v) an outlet channel. The entrance channel transfers water from the reservoir to the control structure, which regulates the discharge from the reservoir. Water is then conveyed from reservoir to the low-level energy dissipator on the riverbed by the discharge conveyor. An energy dissipator is required to reduce the high velocity of the flow to a nonscouring magnitude.

Most common types of spillway-control system used are roller, tainter, vertical-lift, and drum gates. In view of the varying conditions, the choice of suitable gate is bound by the cost , the head on the crest, the height of dam, and the hydraulic behaviour of the gate. Piers are located on the spillway crest for the purpose of supporting the control gates, the gate-operating mechanisms or a roadway. Their size and shape will vary accordingly with their function. The piers should be streamlined both in the upstream

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(gates. 2. Siphon spillway. 4.L and M. This may be accomplished by constructing a stilling basin immediately downstream from the outlet.R. in order to control floods the gates could be provided at the top and the water level could be increased upto maximum water level. The size and number of river outlets satisfy the discharge requirements at various stages of the reservoir . The height between F. The crest of the spillway is usually provided at F. If the outlets are located in the overflow portion. Overflow spillway. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Side channel spillway. However. Chute. Breaching section (emerging spillway). The element which introduces the energy-reducing action is generally known as " stilling basin. Thandaveswara and the downstream sides to reduce contraction of the overflowing jet and to provide a smooth water surface. 6.W. Following are different types of spillways usually adopted in practice. B. or free-flow conduits) has a relatively high velocity. Reservoir level should not cross MWL.L is called the "Flood lift". penstocks. The discharge from an outlet. is the hydraulic jump. These structures may be river outlets.R. Other types used in conjunction with spillways are roller and trajectory buckets. 3. canal outlets. valves. Flow must expend the energy in order to prevent scour of the bed and banks of the river channel. Shaft spillway. the conduits should be aligned downwards to minimise disturbance to the flow over spillway. 1." One of the most common methods out of several methods are dissipating the flow at the toe of a spillway.Hydraulics Prof.L (Full Reservoir Level). 5.S. Spillway outlets means the combination of structures and equipment required for the safe operation and control of the water released for different purposes for which the dam is planned.

spillway face and the toe.1).Flow over a thin weir Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 33. However.Hydraulics Prof.1(a) . Figure 33. It divides naturally into three zones. 33. B. Crest. Thandaveswara Major dam will be usually provided with an overflow spillway with crest gates. the type and location of spillway depends on the site conditions of topography.2 Ogee Type Spillway Profile This type of spillway is the most common type adopted in the field. The concept evolves from replacing the lower nappe of the flow over thin plate weir by solid boundary (Fig.S.

From the experimental investigations by Rouse and Reid it is found that the actual head may exceed the design head by atleast 50% with a 10% increase in the coefficient of discharge subject to local pressures do not fall below the cavitation level. the analysis of flow profile is not aminable for analytical solutions. However.S. The latter behaves exactly in opposite manner namely sub atmospheric pressure.The fluid boundary bottom nappe) has been replaced by solid boundary The frictional resistance comes into play in case of solid boundary. B. The former will result in above atmospheric pressures on the crest and the lower discharge coefficient. Hence. higher discharge coeffiicient.Hydraulics Prof.1 (b) . Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the spillway will also have to operate at lower heads and possibly higher heads as well. Thandaveswara Figure 33. The high head spillways are designed for proposed design head for the given discharge.

(i) In a region of rapidly accelerating flow. (ii) frictional shear promotes boundary layer growth. since (i) the flow is accelerating rapidly..5 to 3. If it is necessary to make estimates of flow conditions on the spillway. accuracy will be slightly improved if a head loss term is Indian Institute of Technology Madras . this pressure reduction is not normally a serious problem unless H > 1. ____ Hd However.positive gauge pressure on crest. If H > Hd .0 4 Ha Normalised Head (actual head to Design head).0 3. For these reasons.5 Hd.0 p (__)min γ -2.e. in practice. and may be 'expanding' as it leaves a bay-pier arrangement. i. Conditions in the flow down the spillway face may be quite complex.0 4. (iv) cavitation may occur (Velocity may reach 30 m/s for occurance of cavitation).aeration of the flow may arise.5 3. If H < Hd .5 Ha Actual Head 1. (iii) the phenomenon of self . separation will not occur until H → 3Hd. B. Indeed.0 Hd.5 4. Thandaveswara 5.negative pressure develops on the surface.5 Ha -1.0 ________ Hd -3.Hydraulics Prof. then empirical data must be used.5 Discharge intensity q ___________________ = __ 1. the usual equations for non-uniform flow developed for Gradually Varied Flow cannot really be applied. It is possible to obtain very rough estimates of the variation of V and y down the spillway on this basis.0 0.S.0 0 1 2 3 -4. the specific energy equation is usually applied.0 Separation p (__)min γ ________ Hd q __ 1. The acceptable range is 1.

which becomes white and foamy in Indian Institute of Technology Madras . conditions on the spillway are far from those which underly the energy equations. This may imply flow seperation. δ . commencing at the leading edge of the crest. For example Tungabhadra Dam. Such condtions may be instrumental in inducing cavitation at the spillway face. Nevertheless. δ .2 . It entails the entrainment of substantial quantities of air into the flow. (ii) A boundary layer will form in the spillway flow.Boundary Layer Growth on Ogee Spillway The flow of the crest is analogous to the flow round any fairly streamlined body. B.I (point of inception) h point of tangency face m 1 toe Figure 33. Ha Hd = design head Boundary layer P. will meet the free surface of the water (Fig. 33.S. below. The depth of the boundary layer. increases with the distance downstream of the crest. eddy shedding. There have been a number of cases of occurance of cavitation in major dams.2). Thandaveswara incorporated.Hydraulics Prof. or both. in the light of (ii) and (iii). The boundary layer thickness. (iii) Aeration has been observed on many spillways.

Observations of aeration have led to the suggestion that the point at which aeration commences coincides with the point at which the boundary layer depth meets the free surface called Inception point (Thandaveswara).85 y n -1 xn = KH d y Indian Institute of Technology Madras .282 Hd Y 0.175 Hd r1 = 0. 33. 33.20 Hd b = 0.85 = 2Hd y a = 0.4. axis (both quadrants) Hd r2 h b a origin X r1 x1.S. The entrainment mechanism appears to be associated with the emergence of streamwise vortices at the free surface. The geometric elements of an ogee spillway are shown in Fig.5 Hd r2 = 0. Thandaveswara appearance. A typical layout of the spillway is shown in Fig. B.Hydraulics Prof.3. The additional air causes the bulkage of the flow. Such vortices would originate in the spillway crest region.

Ogee Type Spillway Profile K and n depends on the slope of the upstream face. B.85 1.6 1.810 1.936 1.S.00 1.836 1.873 n 1.67 l slope of face m = m:1 h toe Figure 33.939 1.3 . Upstream face slope Vertical 3 (v) on 1 (H) 3 on 2 3 on 3 K 2.Hydraulics Prof.776 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Thandaveswara H Y X Hd = design head Y = X*/K 0.0 Point of tangency 1 Spillway face m = 1.

Pier 7. Energy dissipator . End sill 1. Thandaveswara Reservoir 2 1 8 3 7 4 5 6 Schematic representation of typical spillway 5. Spillway crest / bay 6. B. Spillway face 8.stilling basin Figure 33.Hydraulics Prof. in which h e is the effective head ( m ) effective head = design head + velocity head he = ⎛ h ⎞ Cw = f ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ hd ⎠ Hd + Ha Q = C w L h 3/ 2 m3 / s e Indian Institute of Technology Madras .3 Spillway Discharge Equation Equation for estimating the spillway discharge.4 -Diagram of spillway layout 33.S. Q is given below. Armoured scour preventing bed 2. Sector gate 4. Power house 3.

end contraction L = (L ' .S.Hydraulics Prof.952 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜ = 10 to 15 ⎟ h⎠ ⎝h ⎠ ⎝ 2 Q = Cd ( L − 0.3 (MKS) b Pier shapes vary and has to be choosen carefully.1NH ) 2g H3/ 2 3 2 C w = Cd 2g 3 C w is a function of depth of flow.1 NH ) H h 1. C w = 1.804 + 0. Figure 33.40 ⎛H ⎞ ⎜ = 5 to 10 ⎟ ⎝h ⎠ ( MKS) ⎛H ⎞ ⎛ H⎞ C w = 2.0.5 in which N is the number of contractions. ranges between 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .5 shows typical pier shapes. B.6 to 2. Thandaveswara Effective length = measured length .

B.Hydraulics Prof.133 Hd Pier Type II Nose Shape semi circular Nose Shape circular Nose Shape Parabolic Nose Shape Rectangular with Rounded Corners Figure 33.Different Pier Shapes Indian Institute of Technology Madras .5 .S. Thandaveswara 0.

structural stability. 33. However. and Cd is the discharge coefficient. crest control (gates). The object of spillway design is to provide a safe and adequate structure for the least combined cost of spillway and dam. includes the velocity head. and downstream submergence. L is the crest width. Basic considerations affecting the design of spillways include design flood. Determination of the maximum flood to be used as a basis for spillway design results from hydrological studies and available flood peak data. The discharge coefficient Cd is not constant. the total head. crest shape related to the ideal nappe shape. and adequate dissipation of energy. Generally. The capacity of a spillway must be sufficient to accommodate the maximum discharge without allowing the reservoir surface to rise above a predetermined (maximum reservoir elevation). g is the gravitational constant. He is the total head upstream from the crest. Thandaveswara The general equation for discharge is given by 3 2 Q = Cd 2gLH e 2 3 in which Q is the total discharge. downstream apron. It may be noted that He. control system. this requires an iterative solution technique as the velocity head is unknown. as it depends on flow rate which is to be calculated. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . B. upstream face slope.Hydraulics Prof. It depends on several factors such as the depth of approach flow.4 Spillway Structures Spillways provide controlled releases of flood / surplus water in excess of the reservoir capacity and convey it to the river channel downstream below the dam in such a manner that the dam and foundation are protected from erosion and scour. as the velocity head is generally small . the equation converges quickly.S.

The choice of a physical model. engineers now face the decision of which method(s) to use in evaluating existing and proposed spillway designs. thereby permitting water to spill from the reservoir whenever the water surface is higher than the crest level. To determine the shape of the crest of an overflow spillway. a comprehensive laboratory investigation was first made to study the ogee shape.T. The spillway length is decided based on other parameters such as cost. The length of the spillway crest affects the elevation of the crest and also the required control. or it may be controlled by gates installed on the crest. Thandaveswara A spillway crest may be uncontrolled. type of gate. "open Channel Hydraulics". student edition.S. 1958. In 1888. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . different methods are available that depend on the relative height and upstream face slope of the spillway . and design curves from the USBR and USACF.Hydraulics Prof. Choice of Spillway in the field Ogee Spillways Chute Spillways Shaft (Tunnel) Spillways Side Channel and Shaft Spillway Siphon Spillway Used in concrete and Masonry dams Used in earthen and rock fill dams Used in earthen and rock fill dams When gorge is very narrow Almost constant head for design range of discharge Reference Chow V. computational model.5 Computation of Water Surface Profile Over Spillway With the rapidly changing advances in computational modelling for solving the governing equations of fluid flow. B. This type of study was completed at the Utah Water Research Laboratory (UWRL) to compare the discharge and crest pressures from flow over an uncontrolled ogeecrested spillway using a physical model. McGraw Hill Publciation. or interpolating/extrapolating the needed information from design/performance curves can be a tough task. computational model.. 33.

including the flip bucket. Biirgisser and Rutschmann in 1999 used finite elements and an eddy viscosity to iteratively solve the incompressible 2D vertical steady Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations.Hydraulics Prof. he obtained the solution for free surface and crest pressures and his results were in good agreement with experimental data. Quo et al. Savage and Johnson approached the problem numerically using the RANS equations. Given a flow rate. Olsen and Kjellesvig in 1998 showed excellent agreement for water surfaces and discharge coefficients for a limited number of flows. pressure data were only recorded at five locations downstream from a nonstandard crest at one flow and showed some variability.4 and at flip buckets. Crest pressures are compared at three different flow rates. Although there seems to be considerable data in the literature of crest pressures up to the tangent section located at x / Hd = 1. These pressures are required if one intends to complete an overall stability analysis of the dam. B. Li et al. there is a dearth of information on pressures extending from the tangent section to the flip bucket. Thandaveswara Cassidy. in 1998 extended the potential flow theory by using the analytical functional boundary . Better convergence of Cassidy's solution was obtained by Ikegawa and Washizu in 1973 and Betts in 1979 using linear finite elements and the variation principle.S. Furthermore. This method was applied successfully to spillways with a free drop. Olsen and Kjellesvig in 1998 also included viscous effects by numerically solving the RANS equations in two and three dimensions. they successfully computed the free surface and velocity and pressure fields using a finite-element grid that adapts locally for a changing water surface. in 1989 improved on the 2D irrotational gravity flow by using higher-order elements to model the curved water surface and spillway surface.value theory. in 1965 using potential flow theory and mapping into the complex potential plane. However. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . using the standard k − ε equations to model turbulence. the pressures are compared over the entire length of the spillway.

Also. For uncontrolled flow over an ogee spillway. and applying boundary conditions at the interface. numerical methods may offer accurate solutions. within given parameters. As an alternative. model studies cost more and take more time to complete than a numerical study. numerical tools are sufficiently advanced to calculate discharge and pressures on the spillway. B. at a cost and time that may be less than model studies. Tracking involves three parts: locating the surface. it is important that the free surface be accurately tracked. Physical model studies are still considered the basis from which all other methods are compared. It has been established that the relative error of the numerical model agrees within 1% with the physical model for He /Hd > 0. To numerically solve the rapidly varying flow over an ogee crest. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .S. However. design nomographs provide quick solutions.7.Hydraulics Prof. Thandaveswara The commercially available CFD package Flow-3D uses the finite-volume method to solve the RANS equations. However. The VOF method is similar to the FAVOR method in defining cells. This tool may be very useful when reevaluating a dam for higher flows or improved hydrologic event flood calculations. New numerical techniques provide practicing engineers with an additional tool in the design or analysis of spillways. VOF numerical techniques tend to be dissipative in nature. the VOF method allows for a changing free surface over time and space. defining the surface as a sharp interface between the fluid and air. If only approximate discharge and pressures are required. Fractional Area / Volume Obstacle Representation (FAVOR) method can be used for computing the free surface over uncontrolled spillway. The general governing continuity and momentum equations for non compressible flows are solved. numerical models have the advantage of providing more details of pressure and velocity.

In 1973 there were heavy floods throughout Gujarat and damage worth crores of rupees had taken place. The energy dissipation is by a roller bucket.L. the design floods of all the dams were revised. is at R. Against a design flood of 28. 400 m3 / s .R.02 m high. only two spans could be added Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Almost all the major rivers of Gujarat had unprecedented floods. It has 21 gates of 15. Thandaveswara 33. The F. the Sabarmati and the Banas had very heavy floods. Immediately downstream of the lip a concrete apron 15.Hydraulics Prof. 400 m3 / s to 44 . As a result.0 m long and 1. Kadana Dam Spillway Main spillway in the Mahi river Kadana Dam across the Mahi river and located about 71 km upstream of Wanakbori weir. the Mahi. The spillway was designed for an outflow capacity of 31.105.82 m and the lip level at R.35 * 14. 600 m3 / s a flood of 37 .100 m3 / s was experienced in 1968. Accordingly the design flood of Kadana was revised from 31. 9 to 11. As there was foundation difficulty in spillway spans No.5 m thick has been provided horizontally. the Narmada. the invert of the roller bucket has been kept 3 m above seperating the spillway in three parts.15 m and the invert of the ski-jump bucket is at 51. The Tapi.5 m above the foundation with a gross storage of 1554 M m3 .300 m3 / s . It has 22 radial gates of 15. It has a maximum height of 76.54 * 14.S.58. and there was practically no damage took place to the diversion channel and the performance of the diversion as predicted by the model.900 m3 / s .L. B. The spillway has been designed for an outflow of 45.22 m.2 m.L.71 m. and the total length of the spillway is 425.6 Salient Features of Selected Spillways Ukai Dam Spillway The Ukai Dam on the river Tapi is an important Dam in Gujarat state.

The invert of the roller bucket was kept at R.5 * 8. It has been provided with 11 radial gates of 12. 15. which required deep excavations in hard rock.94 m and exit angle of 35 whereas the ski-jump bucket invert was kept at R. Immediately downstream of the glacis the width converges to 52 m (46 %) in a short distance. The original design provided a stilling basin as an energy dissipator.000 m3 / s was planned in the adjoining saddle by cutting the hill beyond the right flank. Out of this 9 .e.137. Thandaveswara on the main river .3 m. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A narrow and deep channel has been excavated in the hills about 50 m high width side slopes 4:1.144. Additional spillway has six radial gates of the same size as the main spillway i. with a divide wall 38 m long beyond the roller bucket. 203 m3 / s have been taken care of in the 202 m long Ogee-shaped spillway and the remaining 8.L. 495 m 3 / s is allowed over a breaching dyke of length 365.02 m. It has a bed slope of 1 in 93.L. was 183.54 * 14. The width of the spillway is 113 m.0 m. This dam is having a design flood of 17 .R.20 m with a radius of 15.6 m with a radius of 21. Coming out of the gorge it meets a small natural nala which drains in the Mahi at a short distance from the main dam. The design discharge for the spillway had been fixed at 6654 m3 / s . The F. 698 m3 / s .S.76 m. Dantiwada Dam Spillway Dantiwada dam has been constructed on the river Banas at Dantiwada about 30 km from Palanpur in north Gujarat. B.Hydraulics Prof. Spillway in Panchet Tail Pool Dam on Damodar The lower pool on Damodar about 4 km downstream of Panchet dam is mainly an earthen dam with a concrete gravity spillway in the river bed near the left bank.24 m and exit angle of 35 . Thus Dantiwada spillway is a unique combination of a roller bucket and a Ski-jump bucket. Six spans on the right in the main river gorge are provided with a roller bucket whereas the remaining five spans on the left flank are be provided with a ski-jump bucket. As such an additional spillway with a capacity of 10 .L.

Aldeadavila (Cuba) 10000 m3/s.44 m (e) Width of bay 16.F.53 m (h) River bed level 94.49 m (i) Type of energy dissipator stilling basin (j) Length of stilling basin 30. Dennison (Canada) 21000 m3/s. (one emergency) (d) Width of pier 2.48 m (k) Elevation of basin floor level 90. Melones (Cuba) 8740 m3/s. 203 m3 / s (b) Total length 202 (c) Total number of bays 11 Nos.8 m (g) Crest level 97.S.L 106. Bhakra details Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Thandaveswara The Salient Features of the Spillway (a) Discharge capacity 9 .Hydraulics Prof.22 m Spillway design discharge Tarbella dam (Pakistan) 18500 to 24000 m3/s. B.15 m (f) H.