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TERM PAPER THE QUESTION OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY
Submitted by Muhammed Kunhi
On the other hand. Zygmunt (2004) Europe: An unfinished adventure. the Europeans (members of the European Union) achieved some form of unity and integrity in various political and economic matters. Polity Press. Volume 41. The precise nature of the European identity is not a settled matter. Brewer (Eds. Marilynn B. and social scientists seem divided over its significance in everyday lives and its likely consequence for social cohesion. pp. and consequently of little consequence for social integration1. some researchers refocus attention on the possibilities of European identities that have little resonance with inclusive civic engagement or imagining a broad community. Number 4. however. national identity is a transitory „identity claim‟ made in only some social contexts. including their national identity.THE QUESTION OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY Since the end of the Second World War. Among the changes that occurred in post Second World War Europe. Breakwell.663-680 2 3 Bauman. Lanham. the development of the European Union is the most significant one and which brought about some unimagined changes in the European political system. in Transnational identities: becoming European in the EU. The development of the European Union through several integration processes has reshaped modern Europe in its social. with the establishment of various international. Others see „Europe‟ as remaining an empty category meaning different things to different people and nothing much to many. Sociology. Sue and Jamieson. If European identity claims are even more 1 Grundy.3 For some scholars. But still the question of „identity‟ of the European Union is very very complicated in all sense. how people choose to give meaning to Europe is very much contingent on other aspects of their identity. The so called “Eurozone” is the best example to show as a greater change occurred in Europe due to the development of European Union. Cambridge. Breakwell argues that the continued „emptiness‟ of Europe is devoid of any widely shared social meaning. deployed for particular audiences and occasions. (2004) “Identity Change in the Context of the Growing Influence of European Union Institutions”. regional and sub-regional institutions and the development of an unprecedented peaceful atmosphere in the history of modern Europe. Some emphasize European identity as a stepping stone in progress from divisive nationalism to an inclusive global citizenship.). economic and political levels. Glynis M. By the development of the European Union. Lynn (2007) “European Identities: From Absent-Minded Citizens to Passionate Europeans”. Thomas RisseKappen. . Europe has changed dramatically. According to Bauman European identity involves a utopian vision of Europe as „a hospitable user friendly planet determined to attain and secure a sustainable life for all its residents‟2. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Herrmann.Richard K.
. This examination also helps us to unveil the politics of exclusion/inclusion which has been practiced by Europe through the ages and European Union since its formation. In other words.sporadic and less fundamental to their sense of self. to forge a common destiny.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ. Building Europe: The Cultural Politics of European Integration (London: Routledge. The preamble to the Constitutional Treaty signed in October 2004 states that “while remaining proud of their own national identities and history. European Journal of Social Theory. But. p. and. one should consider the question.do?uri=OJ:C:2004:310:0003:0010:EN:PDF Cris Shore. united ever more closely. Although the motto "unity in diversity" is generally seen as best describing the aims of the EU. (2002) “Imagined Europe: The Shaping of a European Cultural Identity Through EU Cultural Policy”. first. they seem unlikely to be the basis of desiring or striving for „a hospitable user-friendly planet. The essay will essentially be a critique of the common 4 5 6 http://eur-lex. Volume 5. Number 4. opinions differ widely as to how it should be understood. 435-451.europa. Introduction of European Citizenship. 2000). pp. the founding father of European Union confess that "If we were to do it all again we would start with culture”5What is the force behind Germany‟s intention to introduce an EU-wide common history book? How can we look at the clear-cut “No” to the EU constitution by the two founding members. memories and myth/illusions have in European identity construction. there has dawned a realization that legal and economic integration alone will not create a united Europe6. France and Netherlands? All these developments in European Union direct us to more significant questions like why even after long six decades of functional integration.”4 But. why has the European Union introduced a „common cultural policy‟ against the backdrop of the motto “unity in diversity”? Why did Jean Monnet. do these initiatives lend a hand to unified Europe to surmount their identity crisis? To answer this question. Monica Sassattelli. European Cultural policy and Germany‟s proposal for introducing a common EU-wide history book are some of the institutional responses towards this crisis. what constitutes „European identity‟? The purpose of this historical examination is to know who the major players were and what roles. the “spill over” effect does not spread to the pillars like Security and Foreign policy in a competent manner? Does Europe fear anything which seems as a hurdle to future integration? A careful look at the aforesaid developments unveils the fact that European Union is facing an identity crisis which is unparalleled in the history of its integration. These institutional responses are the imminent outcomes of the realization that the absence of an “imagined identity” will affect their integration process in the future. the peoples of Europe are determined to transcend their former divisions. Debates about European identity have intensified in the context of the EU‟s eastward enlargement and the EU's Constitutional and Lisbon Treaties.
And the construction of a single European identity is one of the significant threats to the European Union and its future. This is followed by an analysis of how national identities and symbolisms have been working in the Union. European migration policies will be focused-upon here. The conclusion will discuss the implications of these exclusionary politics and its promotion to the future European integration and the possibilities of a single European identity construction. 7 Lisheng Dong and Gunter Heiduk (eds. The memories of World Wars rather than the inheritance of the enlightenment gave velocity to the European integration process. Peter Lang. The major hypothesis put forth in this essay is. The EU’s Experience in Integration: A Model for ASEAN+3. Theoretical Understanding of the European Integration Inter-governmentalism. This essay is structured as follows. memories. the essay will engage with concepts like memory. Historical construction of European identity. Functionalism and Neo-functionalism. because it will be helpful to get a clear picture about the overall argument and the views of this essay. .(2008)European Identity Formation in the Public Sphere and in Foreign Policy. myths and illusions have played a significant role in the so called “European identity” construction. three major theories of European integration are firmly committed to a rationalist ontology which is agency centered 8. polices towards member states. which will shed light on the competing and conflicting identities in Europe. In other words. The first section undertakes a review of major theoretical debates about the European integration. It will also look at the possibility of the formation of a single European identity through the integration process. 8 Thomas Risse and Jana K. Then. Bern. That is rooted in their bitter historical memories rather than a celebrated past and rational humanistic culture. myths and illusion and its link with identity construction in general and the European Identity construction in particular. Grabowsky. RECON Online Working Paper 2008/04.) (2007).inclination to identify the people of Europe as one-„European citizen‟ and to make out the European Union as the model of regional integration7. membership politics especially the question of Turkish membership. The next part of the essay examines European identity construction and the politics of exclusion/inclusion both in the history of Europe and the European Union. The rational humanistic culture of Europe was an illusion based on „white middle class logic‟. The European Integration and the formation of European Union has been promoting a politics of exclusion rather than constructing a single European identity. their analyses focus on the central role of nation-states in the process of European integration.
319-63 15 British Geographers. Each of them focuses on different subject matter and themes. Andrew (1993) “Preferences and Power in the European Community: A Liberal Intergovernmental Approach”. Cambridge Adler. But.” Number 3. Volume 47. “The European Union in the Legacies of Imperial Rule? EU Accession The European International Relations. Second stream sees Europe as a „post-modern Empire‟16. Reflections on the Joy and Anguish of Pre-theorizing. pp.(1970) “The Study of Regional Integration. Cambridge University Press. The first theme can be identified with the notion of ‘Europe: one or many’15. Volume 13. Emmanuel (1997) “Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics” European Journal of Hudson. Volume31. Collective social environment. Functional theorists search the possibility of bringing states functionally together to achieve the common interest. According to them. Journal of Common Market Studies. the other leading theoretical approach for analyzing European integration. Transactions of the Institute of Behr. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp. Ernst B. 532-543 12 International Organization. 239-262. The third one relate European question to the 9 Moravscik. . David (1971) “The Functional Approach in Historical perspective” International Affairs. Number 3. Volume 3.Intergovernmental theorist takes actors‟ preferences are „given‟ and argue the preferences of actors (nation-states) that leads to the integration9. pp. 473-524 10 11 Ibid Mitrany. its inception European Community has been based on interstate bargains between its leading member states. pp. 607-646. Volume 25.409-426. Number 4. the substantive and institutional development in the post war Europe can be explained through the analysis of national preference formation and intergovernmental strategic interaction10. Since. Alexander (1999) Social Theory of International Politics . Haas. They persists on the mutual comprise of structures and agents14. pp.Social Constructivism. focuses socially constructed identity of actors to follow their interests13. They emphasized the central importance of power and interest. There are three different streams of discourse in European milieu. through dichotomizing the political process as „high and low‟ they inevitability miss the link of different factors and variables in the integration process11. Hartmut (2007). rather than rational individual state is their analytical units. Ray(2000) “One Europe or Many? Reflections on Becoming European”. 16 Union in the Legacies of Imperial Rule? EU Accession” European Journal of International Relations. Number 2. It helps us to move a step beyond the rational-choice by saying about the transformation of loyalties from national to supranational interest12. Number 3. The neo-functionalist approach has traditionally focused on the process of integration through spill-overs. pp. 13 14 Wendt.
Coser. Milward. Maurice Halbwachs noted that people generally acquire memories from the societies. it became a multi-level polity. Thus collective identities are the outcome 17 Waever. This essay seeks to analyze the European identity crisis (crisis in the construction of identity) by incorporating afore said three recurrent themes. Abrams. a person‟s identity extends to whatever of his or her past he or she can remember. Equating these notions with the collective memory and collective identity look like more accurate.18 Through the 'Spill over' effect19 and federal-functionalist cooperation20. (1992) On Collective Memory. Memory connects past and present within one uninterrupted sequence is a condition of a unitary consciousness what makes an individual identical with himself throughout the time and the corporal changes the passing of time inevitably brings. Haas. formed European Economic Community for providing cooperation in economic matters in functional level. Routledge. International Affairs. Ole and Hansen. 18 19 20 Alan. The Maastricht Treaty which had given a new structure and shape to the European Union and institutionalize the integration process in a brisk phased manner. Erikson‟s term “identity crisis” has implicitly deﬁnes “identity” as one‟s feelings about one‟s origins. pp. Lene (2008) European Integration and National Identity: the Challenge of Nordic States. (1993) The European Rescue of the Nation State. and Anthony D. Smith. M. of what sort of people they are. Identity is people‟s concepts of who they are. Before going to examine construction of European identity. (1988) Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. Ernst B. translated and edited by Lewis A. Volume 68.language. national traditions and socio-economic divisions17. Number 1. Chicago University Press. They recollect. Routledge. and how they relate to others. Chicago. 55-76. Stanford University Press. The Treaty also heralded a 'new contention' (European identity is a contested one in the periods) over the concept of 'European Identity' (European Union Identity) through the creation of European Union Citizenship. 21 22 Benedict Anderson. For him memory is a constitutive of personal identity. (1958) The Uniting of Europe. London. S. recognize and reconstruct their memories in the society itself23. Stanford. . Verso. London. Palgrave Macmillan. Hogg and D. London. gender. 23 Maurice Halbwachs.(1992) “National Identity and the Idea of European Unity”. it is essential to know the concept of identity and its construction. Richard Münch.A. (1991) Imagined Communities. (2001) Nation and Citizenship in the Global Age: From National to Transnational Ties and Identities. London. imaginary nature of collective identity21. Anderson speaks about the constructed. Palgrave.22 In Locke‟s view. London. Europe's unification began with the Treaty of Rome.
and struggle over memory is the struggle over the self‟s most valued possessions24. Content. Memory is central to the construction and reproduction of political and social identities. in relation or contrast to one or more actual or imagined sets of others and a corresponding sense of community26. Massachusetts 26 International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences . Princeton University J. eds. Blackwell. Press. It can be defined as “selfdefinitions in terms of social category membership”25.(1996). Oxford. in N. (1995) The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.A. Oxford: Blackwell.htm. It is not seen as something naturally given. (1935) Our Oriental Heritage. . They are formed in the negotiation between ascription by others and assessment by oneself. Cambridge. (2001) “Collective identity and Expressive Forms”. Allan Young argued that memory is the proof as well as the record of the selfexistence. Spears. Social Identity: Context. Snow. Nauert Jr. 25 Ellemers. 27 28 J.eu/lisbon_treaty/ Full_text/ index_en. Thus. but rather as something that is constructed through interactions with others. the identity of a collective consists on the one hand of the common consciousness of individuals to belong to a social entity that is marked by specific characteristics27. Doosje. Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-categorization Theory. Construction of European Union Identity Treaty of Lisbon says “Drawing Inspiration from the cultural. Volume 4. Turner (1987).of collective memories. J. B Baltes (eds. Simon and Schuster. C. R. religious and humanist inheritance of Europe? Even though. democracy. Turner. Commitment. Social identity is a part of an individual identity that is shared with others. Collective identity as a shared and interactive sense of “we-ness” anchored in real or imagined shared attributes and experiences. (1999) “Some Current Issues in Research on Social Identity and Self-categorization Theories”. Smelser & P. These processes are central to the origin and reproduction of individual and communal identities as well as explaining the various challenges and transformations of such identities. New York. C. scholars have a widespread predisposition to glorify European history and to project a unified European identity.). Also see Charles G. In a nutshell. Treaty of Lisbon Article 1 Preamble 1 (a). Princeton. Humanism and Culture of Renaissance Europe. 29 Also 24 Allan Young. For more details see http://europa. UK: Elsevier. European past was a disputed one. D. pp. On the other hand it consists of a feeling of belonging together. Collective identity is an identity shared among members of a group. memory plays a significant role in determining the dynamics of individual and collective identity formation. religious and humanist inheritance of Europe.. Cambridge University Press. What was the cultural. & B. equality and the rule of law”28. 22122219. freedom. 29 Will Durant. in N. from which have developed the universal values of the inviolable and inalienable rights of the human person.
Cambridge University Press. 1996).New York. Anthony Pagdon. Cambridge. Africa and the Middle East. Orientalism. at best an illusion32. 1979. neither Greek nor Roman civilizations can be described as European. Hobson. (2002) The idea of Europe from Antiquity to the European Union. New York. The present infallible cultural identity of the West is an illusion based on the white middle class logic. Pantheon. On the other hand. In history there have been the ideas of a Europe of a common descent and heritage. The invention of a historical continuity between the ancient Roman Empire and the Carolingian empire represented the first construction of a European unity and identity. A Grand Illusion? An Essay on Europe (New York: Hill &Wang. Reason. The European identity is often described in a somewhat high-flown manner as having its foundations in antiquity. Emergence of an alternative modernity was obvious there. civilized one. humanism and democracy had their cradle in Athens and Rome. which are (partly) rooted in the 30 Edward Said (1979). Said. The European cultural identity in the past was not a unified. Both were Mediterranean cultures with centers of influence in Asia Minor. . as they are claiming. irrational European behaviors.30 The much celebrated European past and European identity is constructed „grand illusion' and their history glorified as the history of humanity and democracy31. free thought. Orientalism. Following the Reformation. Zionism was a European product. a large part of continental Europe was preoccupied for several centuries with religious wars and rivalry between Protestants and Catholics. represents only a specific Eurocentric and elitist set of ideas. Capitalism was essentially a byproduct of the Renaissance and Reformation and it could not free from the debris of Christianity. Oxford University Press. (2004) The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization. People in Europe always like to identify them with the Renaissance and Enlightenment. dating back to the Roman-Greek civilization.John M. 31 32 Judt. Cambridge University Press. Anthony Pagdon correctly observes there are no „European identity‟ and those who have argued that any such thing as a European identity is. democratic. Progress. individualism. Janet Abu Lughod. (1989) Before European Hegemony: The World System AD. There were various examples which explicitly shows the fragmented and undemocratic. It only manifested a middle class European secular identity and led to the emergence of parochial ethnic nationalism. the Greek-Hellenistic ideas. But it is remarkable to note that the outcome of Renaissance and Reformation was modernity with a dual temperament. Cambridge. European ideals are traced back to the Renaissance instead and the concept of the individual as the smallest and inviolable element of society.there are a plenty of works which made scholarly criticism to this manipulated perceptions.1250-1350. Locating the European identity in the inherited Judaeo-Christian religion.
It is obvious in the history of colonial age that how the Europeans treated the people and territories. and more recently. Europe does not only represent modernity and tolerance but religious persecution. the GanHai day-care center was ransacked.nineteenth century imperial project33. New York. “white and black” are a colonial construction. pp. Basques. J. Rattansi and S. Since. eds. Random House Publishers. there were at least two arson attacks on synagogues in 2003. Imperialism is more authoritative than any other form of government. Jews. London. a Molotov cocktail was thrown at a Jewish community center in Toulon that houses a synagogue. rather than what they aspired for.Penguin. Tony Judt. the construction of European Union identity was based of negative memories of European history rather than a celebrated past.129-49 34 1995). Identity: on the Western front. (2005) Postwar : A History of Europe since 1945. pp. It seems like an irony that generally nations celebrate glorious events in their history. 35 36 . Modernity. (1994) “Unpacking the West: how European is Europe?” in A. „In the beginning of European integration. The dichotomies of “civilized and savage”. However. Westwood Benzion Netanyahu. In the Jewish community in Uccle. Belgium. This sentiments of Europe is not a story of past. It is based on the concept of “primitive” and savage and rest upon the moral claim of civilizing mission. with excrement thrown against windows and posters written in Hebrew. Netanyahu provides a significant account of the annihilation and expulsion of Jews in 15th century Spain34. Leonard. The colonial subjects were considered as inferior. Muslims. „Never again war. Anti-Semitism is a very old and deeply rooted cultural trait that has found a specific political expression since the 19th century initially in the context of the development of racist ideology and later in the context of national socialist ideology. In France. Colonialism divided the world population in various types. and Scots are some victims. on the night of March 22. on July 9.(2005)Why Europe will Run the 21st Century. but in the context of Europe it was a unique experience of a catastrophe. 2003.. there was no future. and even less can it be used as the basis for European domestic and foreign policies. They were determined to make it impossible for anyone to make another war in Europe. Cambridge: Polity. hitherto. European identity cannot be defined on grounds of cultural heritage and history. not only democracy but fascist dictatorship as well. In other words. these were the founding myths of the project of European Unity‟36 The foundation of European Economic 33 NederveenPieterse. 803-834. 2004. In other words.New York. Racism. the inception of European Economic Community. M. the peoples of Europe were united more in what they rejected. never again Nazism. Racism and genocide were invented in Europe in the twentieth century. only the „recent past‟35. Perseus Books Group. the Second World War brought Europeans as one. (1995)The History of Inquisition in 15th Century Spain.
Peter Van Ham. Europe sees integration as a remedy to centuries of imperialism. for the good of all its inhabitants. The distance between Western. In fact. The collapse of Soviet led communist bloc again reshuffled the European identities. war and other kinds of interstate conflicts. reason and myth. intends to continue along the path of civilization. but it was an admission of weakness. Eastern and central European identities geographically abridged but the cultural gap amplified in an unprecedented manner. “European integration shows that we have learnt the painful lessons of a history marked by bloody conflict. London. both positive and negative variables in their history. Routledge. rather than a prism that concentrates the minds and hearts of its peoples around a single central theme. Number 4.37 The political challenges of dealing with historical legacies were obvious in the European integration process. […] With European unification a dream of earlier generations has become a reality. symbols and myths. 38 39 Declaration of Principle. The preamble of the draft treaty of the constitution for European Union said “Believing that Europe. the European identity is not a homogenous one that one can easily identified with the Greco-Roman empires or the phenomena of the Renaissance and Reformation. Use of historical myths referring to a common Christian heritage was explicit in this construct. and is shown as the only possible alternative to Europe‟s self-destruction and decay. bringing together many contradictions. (2002) European Integration and Postmodern Condition: Governance. Volume 21. It was a complex construction of differences. 37 Gerard Delanty. The coming in terms with the past has become a core principle of EU integration. The geographical framework of the Europe and European identity is challenged by the contemporary integration processes.49 . democracy and oppression. pp. reunited after bitter experiences. progress and prosperity. (1995) “The Limits and Possibilities of a European Identity: A Critique of Cultural Essentialism”. p.39 Hence. „Europe‟ is a forest of ideas. such as law and force. Democracy and Identity.Community was neither a sign of European strength nor an expression of its historical identity. Our history reminds us that we must protect this for the good of future generations. The unity of Europe can only be conceived as multiple and complex. spirituality and materialism. Fall of Berlin wall and the process of globalization have a decisive impact on the reconstruction of the old identities in Europe.36. united Europe as a community. Philosophy and Social Criticism.”38 These clearly highlight the memory of the Second World War rather than the inheritance of Renaissance and Reformation. It is also in many ways a mirror that reflects the image of a multitude of concepts and meanings. One can distinguish the shaping and reshaping of these identities through the integration and fragmentation. 15. Today we live together as was never possible before.
has a more pronounced „instrumental‟ dimension. there are many Europe‟.htm B. 40 41 Hans Slop. People in Great Britain regard themselves as „Europeans‟ but they speak about „Great Britain and Europe‟ to stress their differences with continental Europe. This rejection of membership by Norway is bounded with their national belonging. London. With reference to the nexus of these identities to each other. 44 Expanding on the European Experience. Several authors explore the subtle ways in which national identity is framed and politically mobilized in relation to European integration. shared customs and culture. (1996) “The Politics of Identity and Political Order in Europe”. 69-91.). is stronger and could be represented as a kind of inner circle. 42 43 http://eiop. cultural and political factors may have decisive impact. Anthony Pagdon. cultural based on a common language. Anderson. or a common religion.”40„Europe is not one. (1999) “Territorial Identities in the European Union. while a European identity. The ESRC project on “One Europe or Several” has cast light on the how do Europeans imagine Europe and how the feeling attached to one‟s nation prevents people from sharing a sense of belonging to Europe? National identity. is weaker and could be thought of as an outer circle. Journal of Common Market Studies. (2002) The idea of Europe from Antiquity to the European Union. Cambridge.” in Regional Integration and Democracy: Volume 34. 42In other words. Cambridge University Press. on the other hand. The Swiss and Norwegian cases shows that European integration process is not perceived as an economic necessity. But this has no wider cultural or affective meaning.National Symbolism in European Union A whether forecast from Great Britain might be like this. . Number 1. Jeffrey J. It merely describes the signatory states of the Maastricht Treaty. “Europe is isolated due to huge fog”. Laffan. pp. (2000) European Politics in the Twenty-First Century: Integration and Division. the attachment to national identities is stronger than the attachment to a European identity.at/erpa/one. based on ethno-cultural elements. the most prevalent proposition is that national identities are rooted or nested in.or. rather than antithetical to. European identities. Gary Marks. Praeger. The “Europe” now exists as an economic and increasingly political entity.43 In 1992 a survey that explore the multiple identities in Europe unveils 23 percent of the people envisage their “country‟s identity disappearing over time if a European Union came about”44. Lanham. The national identities primarily. The national memories of individual states are there in the Europe sometimes as a hurdle to the European deeper integration.41. People of Kingdom of Sweden sometimes regard their position as one outside the European continent and then refer to Denmark as “Where the continent begins. Rowman& Littlefield. (eds. The blends of identities in Europe are usual. based more on instrumental elements.
It is easy to observe the populist right-wing political parties in France. which carried out on 31 countries (27 EU member state and four candidate countries). London. University of California Press. and thus to both inclusion and exclusion of people. It is neither possible nor desirable to level out the national identities of member nations. religion. .European identity. Number 2. 45 46 47 48 http://ec. The term identity locates mutually constructed and evolving images of „self‟ and „other‟49. Polity Press. but to retain the now threat nation state system. nor melt them down into a “Nation of Europe”47. California. 91% of the interviewers felt attachment to their own nations rather than European Union and only 49% felt attachment to the European Union45. According to a Eurobarometer survey published in May 2008. 49 Peter J. European countries are inevitably divided by their history. but also creates the 'other'. Identity refers to the ways in which individuals and collectivities are distinguished in their social relations with other individuals and collectivities. Identity construction is the way individuals and groups deﬁne themselves and deﬁned by others on the basis of race. Hence.europa. Italy and Austria. Volume 88. language.) (1996). Identity Politics of European Union What is the link between identity construction and the politics of exclusion/ inclusion? Construction of a particular identity needs both exclusion and inclusion.(1994) “Collective identity formation and the international state” . Columbia University Press. the European Union is a community of conflicting and shared memories that one nations celebrating memories becomes another one‟ haunting.Katzenstein. New York.”46. Milward in his classic “The European Rescue of the Nation State” argued the objectives of nation states was not to construct new cross frontier organization. The notion of collective identity which help to define the community they belong to and the formation of such a community will not only lead to a definition of the 'self'. 384–96. Jurgen Habermas. Attachment of citizens to their national identity is quite a strong feeling in Europe. pp. and culture.American Political Science Review. role-specific understandings and expectations about self48. tap nationalism and ethnocentrism to throw out further integration. According to Wendt identities are relatively stable. Denmark. The construction of an „other‟ and the confrontation with this intimate enemy lies at the heart of identity politics. ethnicity.pdf Milward. From the above discussions it is clear that European identity construction was led by both positive and negative factors and they are also obsessed with their national identities. (ed. Alexander Wendt. (2001) The Postnational Constellation. The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb68/eb_68_en. (1992) European Rescue of the Nation State. Alan S.
It is the way regions govern European rationality has always been tied to some hypothetical other such as Orient. But for Lefebvre geography is a socially constructed one51. Look at Milen Kundera‟s writing where he sees the East. There is also a tendency to equate Europe with the West of the Continent. and they have to be European. It is interesting to note that how the construction of “other” has working in the contemporary Europe. Anti-Semitism.For example the fall of Berlin Wall and the Eastward expansion and the integration of ex-communist states in to the European Union make worthless the assumption of the geographical identity. In the process or the strategy of Exclusion the in-group is defined as the fork of multiple categories including only those that have the overlapping group memberships in common. Inclusion and Exclusion are one of the notable features of regional identity construction. cleansing atrocities and mindsets. Then the term Eastern Europe implies that the peoples who used behind the iron curtain were somehow less European. For example. According to the treaty of European Union. they have to be democratic. members of the organization have to be states. The scientific racial conceptions of “Europeanness” show the way to the rise of Nazism and Fascism and authorize them in the externalization. The inclusive strategy is additive and preservative. purging. Atlantic slave trade and the extermination of aborigines in the name of European superior civilization are some examples.West division in Europe is nonsensical. A simple look at the map of Europe makes it clear that the term was never just a 50 51 Supra note 30. European history has filled with politics of the externalization and creation of „negative others‟ as the internal dynamics of group formation. First. East and Undemocratic etc. it is not difficult to argue that' European identity exists by virtue of Europe's geographical and historical position alone. one feels a sense of belonging to India and to the Hindu religion and identifies with all Indians and all Hindus worldwide. As Lyotard correctly observe the Republican and Nazi versions of the project of modernity authorize their policy of purification by way of a division between "us" and "them.50 For centuries Europe has been a major laboratory of purificatory.The two strategies are at hand to combine the identities of the groups to which one belongs. Page 6 Lefebvre (1991) . Examples are Hindu Indians who only feel close to fellow Hindus sharing an Indian identity." All modern European states have in variant forms of this generic process leading to the formation of „other‟. Two questions are significant here. The shared in-group identity is enlarged to incorporate the whole members of the involved identity groups. what are the criteria to become a European? Second. who are Europeans or in Klaus Eder‟s words “Who is unmistakably and undeniably a European”? Some argued that since some identities are given.
their inability to meet the criteria. Swiss and Russians and Norwegians? The speech of former Russian President Gorbachev helps us to make public the European exclusionary politics. Timothy Garton Ash‟s comment on a headline in the International Herald Tribune titled „End Sanctions on “European” Austria. [T]o say that Austria is European is rather like saying the sea is wet.they equate Europe with “Western Europe”. At 50 Europe is not One Strong but Many. and upon her . a woman clothed with the sun. „European Identity in the Making? Turkey in a Post national Europe‟.54 When East European countries are qualified to join the European 52Thimothy Garton Ash. However. 2000 53 Feyzi Baban.. there are many who do not possess an EU-passport. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Canadian Political Science Association. The question of Turkish membership often projected as a „Turkish problem‟. The “Agenda 2000”. Toronto. But actually the European cultural minimalism and the politics of exclusion is the real factor behind the closing door. What about the. Such ploys cannot change the geographic and historical realities. Some in the west are trying to “exclude” the Soviet Union from Europe. If the present European Union follows the scientific and rational values of Renaissance why there is a mystery of twelve stars on European Union flag. enlargement package had included nearly the entire ex-communists Eastern European states but not Turkey. But in the case of Turkey it is apparent that there are some other criteria also to be fulfilled. and the moon under her feet.1: there appeared a great wonder in heaven. Valery Giscard D‟estaing argued against the Turkish membership because according to him Europe is defined by the cultural richness of ancient Greece and Rome as well as the creative energy of the Renaissance and its impact on rational and scientific thinking. but claim to be European.geographical description. Also see Europe: Weaving a New Identity. which itself goes back to Revelation 12. 54 Which resonates the Roman Catholic iconography of the Virgin Mary. 2006.. The Copenhagen criteria for membership have only political and economic measuring scale.53 The Turkish question helps us to disclose the various imaginations of Europe and its emerging identity. would help to clear the picture. The former French President. In the context of European Union one can argue that the people those who possess a passport of one of the member states of European Union are European. International Herald Tribune. panel advises EU‟. A panel of three „wise man‟ had just concluded after long deliberation that Austria was European. . [T]hey had a catalogue of what are called „European standards‟ or „European values‟52 Why turkey is out from EU after a long half century of negotiation history began in 1959. A keen observation about the prospects of Turkish membership from Ankara Agreement in 1963 to Copenhagen criteria it is explicitly clear that there was no single genuine signal from European Union.
But. If the stars represent the member states. It is interesting to note. 55 www. Europe conveniently trying to hide the fact that they were assimilated and once ruled by Turks for a long time in their centers. head a crown of twelve stars” for more details see ww. the Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties. These policies people from the „outside‟ which actually or potentially endanger the „safe inside‟ must be kept outside or brought under appropriate control and enforcement action.56A fear caught the European epicenter is today that the fear of incursion of Islam into its heartlands.com. The argument about the exclusion/inclusion in European Union will be distorted without the facts on the migration and asylum policies. Turkey has mostly been part of the European set of powers. „The enlargement of the European Union and the European identity 2004 . The latest among the exclusionary politics was the comment by French President. including Germany and Britain in favor of Turkish membership. Here. This statement was against the backdrop of the majority of EU countries. actura.com 56 Karlsson.55The creation of a pan-European identity risks being accompanied by a cultural exclusion mechanism.wordpress. Islam is the clearest case of an Other. Hence. The asylum policy. have granted the European Union with powers and responsibilities in the field of migration.project due to their Christian character and Turkey kept outside the European project because of its Islamic culture. Nikolas Sarkozy in 2007. it is pretty clear that the initial membership was six and during the time of the discussion about the flag there are 15 member states. that “Turkey is not a European Country and consequently has no place in the European Union”. dating from the seventh century and creating a powerful myth about where the boundaries of Europe lie. Historically. Through the Justice and Home Affairs. migration policy and Shengen Visa. repression and violence –both in Europe‟s war-torn regions and in the wider world. The illusion of the linear progression of Europe from ancient Greece to present and the assumption of homogeneous European culture are the two major impediments to the Turkish EU membership. The search for a European identity in the form of demarcation against "the others" would lead to a racial culde-sac while at the same time the mixing of races continues to rise in Europe. why still now (the membership is 27) the Union embrace it. Critique would argue that the twelve stars represent the numbers of the founding members of the Union. the attributed „otherness‟ will keep Turkey as a permanent other. Union implements its policies of exclusion and inclusion. asylum seekers and poor people seeking to escape poverty.diplomaticobserver. in conjunction with Schengen Convention. asylum and domestic security. Larner and Walters notes “European asylum and migration policies are largely motivated by the desire to seal the EU‟s borders to many refugees. developed in the „London resolutions‟ for restricting immigration aimed at excluding asylum seekers and have a clear tendency towards exclusion.
this discourse is exclusionary since citizenship is denied to particular groups of inhabitants because of their stated lack of historical and cultural ties to the European community. It questions the European high-flown manner identity. Arab or Asian etc. The division between 'Eurocitizens' and 'Euroforeigners' has been created with evident exclusionary consequences. European Union‟s membership politics. individualism. Britain and the Netherlands the foreigner is most frequently regarded to be Turkish. In the same way. the essay explores the European crisis in construction of a homogenous identity. which had their cradle in Athens and Rome. Union Law and Migration policies will lead to a Europe with more secure borders which also creates others. humanism and democracy. East. These policies of exclusion/inclusion will work as a hurdle in their future integration. The European historical rationality of constructing a hypothetical otherOrient. have become a kind of new compatriots. France. It mapped the history of European identity construction and the role of myth and memories in it. Germany. Though the European Union‟s declared aim is „an open and secure European Union‟ the policies adopted by the Union exposes its exclusion strategies. and Undemocratic etc. Conclusion This essay has assessed the dynamics of the European identity construction and its politics of exclusion and inclusion. while third country residents have become the incarnation of the 'other'. Examination of the prominence of diverse national identities in European Union facilitates the way to identify the existing identity crisis in Europe. having its foundations in antiquity. Denmark. are present in European Union also. Most of these non-nationals are often of European nationality. European citizens who used to be considered foreigners. It seems that the identification with the European project remains marginal but that at the same time the boundaries between 'us' and 'them' are drawn between natives and immigrants from other EU-countries is very prominent. By incorporating the three discourses on European integration. free thought.Contemporary Europe has been identifying all non-nationals as „other‟ and foreigners. Through such policies and programs Europe can‟t overcome the debris of national symbolism and its existing crisis in identity. In countries like Belgium. „Again a “Fortress Europe” is looming at the horizon‟. It implicitly and explicitly proved one of the initial hypotheses of the essay that through its policies and programs European Union is promoting exclusion/inclusion rather than constructing a homogenous European identity. Over time. It helps us to identify the diverse forces which played a significant role in the identity construction process against the European claims that European identity emanate from the enlightenment tradition. .
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