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Set 1 Q1 Explain the various automated systems for transfer of materials in the pro duction plant? Illustrate your answer by considering an example of an automobil e showroom? Ans.: Basically, automation system comes to reduce labour power and time in the production. Here we can see the evolution systems with some examples. The goods requited by society were produces in small quantities by craftsman who would kno w the need of the community and produced them by their own hands with simple too ls. The apprentices or by another craftsman, who would make them to meet the req uests made. The parts and components used to make these machines had to be replaced when the y wore making parts so that interchangeability was achieved made setting up stan dards and specifications important for meeting The craftsmen gave way to engineers, workers, superiors and inspectors. Division of labour became necessary to achieve efficiencies and the jabs that became spe cialized. Competition has necessitated improved quality, reduced sates and bette r services to the customer. Automation systems cost huge sums of money and therefore a deep analysis of the various factors has to be done. For services, automation usually means labour sa ving devices in education, long distance learning technology helps in supplement ing class room instruction. The facilitating goods that are used are web site an d videos. Automation in the banking sector has resulted in ATMs which same the banks a hug e amount customer satisfaction. Automation is ideas when the service provided or the product manufactured is highly standardized.
Some extent of automation can be designed even with customization i. e. product or service a meant to produce or deliver low volume specific to a requirement. T he advantages of automation is it has low variability and will be more consisten t on a repetitive basis The machines have sensing and control devices that enable them to operate automo bile. The simplest of them called machine attachments replace human effort. They guide, locate, move and achieve revise position by means of came, optical sensi ng. Load sensing mechanisms and activate the controls to remove human intention. Robots are higher in the order of automation as they perform a variety of tasks. They are designed to move movements according to programmers written into the c omputer that inside them. With the help of automation, inspection of component can be done 100% ensures hi ghest quality identification and movement of materials are helped by bar codes w hich are read and fed into the system far monitoring quantity, location, movemen t etc. They help the automated systems to start information and provide informat ion for effecting any changes necessary. To make effective use of automated mach ines, we need to have the movement of materials from and to different time as st ores, automated, Automated storage and Retrieval systems- ASRS- receive orders f or materials from anywhere in the production area, collect materials in the work s times. Computers and information systems are used for placing orders for matte rs, give commands adjust inventory records which show the location and quantity of materials needed. Automated guided vehicle systems- AGVS – are pallet trucks and unit load carriers follow embedded guide wires or paint strips to destinations as programmed. In an automobile showroom we can see all the work automatically with latest mach ine
Q2. State the important considerations for locating an automobile plant? Collect information on layout planning of an automobile plant from various sources and furnish the same. Ans. : To locate an automobile company or plant many thing should be consider. F or an automobile plant automated flaw lines, automated assembly lines, flexible manufacturing systems, global transition rapid prototyping. Building manufacturi ng flexibility things are necessity. About the automated flow lines we can say it is a machine which is linked by a t ransfer system which moves the parts by using handling machines which are also a utomated, we have an automated flow line. Human intervention ma is needed to verify that the operations ate taking place a ccording to standards. When these cab be achieved with the help of automation an d the processes are conducted with self regulation, we will have automated flow lines established. In fixed automation or hard automation, where one component is manufactured usin
g services operations and machines it is possible to achieve this condition. We assume that product life cycles are sufficiently stable to interest heavily on t he automate flow lines to achieve reduces cast per unit. Product layouts ate designed so that the assembly tasks are performed in the seq uence they are designed at each station continuously. The finished item came out at the end of the line. In automated assembly lines the moving pallets move the materials from station t o station and moving arms pick up parts, place them at specified place and syste m them by perusing, riveting, & crewing or even welding. Sensors will keep track of there activities and move the assembles to the next stage. The machines are arranged in a sequence to perform operations according to the t echnical requirements. The tools are loaded, movements are effected, speeds controlled automatically wi thout the need for worker’s involvement. The flexibility leads to better utilization of the equipments. It reduces the nu mbers of systems and rids in reduction of investment as well as a space needed t o install them. One of the major cancers of modern manufacturing systems is to b e able to respond to market Demands which have uncertainties. Prototyping is a process by which a new product is developed in small number so as to determine the suitability of the materials, study the various methods of m anufactured, type of machinery required and develop techniques to over come prob lems that my be encountered when full scale manufacture is undertaken. Prototypes do meet the specification of the component that enters a product and performance can be measured on these. It helps in con be reforming the design and any shortcomings can be rectified at low cost. Flexibility has three dimensions in the manufacturing field. They are variety, v olume and time. There demands will have to be satisfied. In that sense they beco me constraints which restrict the maximization of productivity. Every business w ill have to meet the market demands of its various products in variety volumes o f different time. Flexibility is also needed to be able to develop new products or make improvemen ts in the products fast enough to cater to shifting marker needs. Manufacturing systems have flexibility built into them to enable organization me et global demand. You have understood how the latest trends in manufacturing whe n implemented help firms to stay a head in business.
Q3. Who are the players in a project management? What are the various roles and responsibilities of the players in a project management? Ans.: At first we will discuss about project management then we will discuss abo ut players in project management. Project management is the practice of controll ing the use of resources, such as cost, time manpower, hardware and software inv olved in a project. That starts with a problem statement and end with delivery o
f a complete product. Here we will see the participants of project management: In the project management players individual and organizations both are involved That is actively involved in the project whose interests may be affected by the outcome of the project. Exert influence over the project and its results players or also called “stake hol ders’’ of the project Project manager- the individual responsible for managing the project. Customer- the individual or organization that will use the product- the end resu lt of the project. Performing organization- the enterprise whose employees are mast directly involv ed in doing the work of the project. Sponsors- the individual or group within or external to the performing organizat ion that funds the project. Now, we will define the role and responsibilities of project management. Here ar e some roles and responsibilities: There are number of projects which an organization works on. It is not possible for one individual to manage all the projects. There is a team of mangers who manage the projects. There may be different teams working as different projects. An experienced project manager and this team may manage more than one project at a time. The project team is responsible for ensuring that the project upon completion sh all deliver the gain in the business for which it is intended for. -the project team has to properly co-ordinate with each other working on differe nt aspects of the project. -the team members are responsible for the completion of the project as per the p lans of the project. Characteristics of project mindset: - some of the characteristics of project min dset are the following – Time - it is possible to improve the pace of the project by reducing the time fr ame of the process. The mindset is normally to work in a comfort made by stretch ing the time limits. Responsiveness – it refers to quickness of response of an individual. The vibrancy and livens of an individual or an organization are proportional to its capabili ty of evolving process and structure for superior responsiveness time constant. Information sharing – information is owner information is the matter key to today’s business. Information sharing is the characteristic of the project mindset today .
Process – project mindset lays emphasis on flexible process. The major difference in a process and a system is in its capabilities of providing flexibility to dif ferent situational encounters. Flexible process possesses greater capabilities o f adaptability. Structured planning – structure planning based a project management life cycle ena bles one to easily and conveniently work according to the plan.
Q4. What are the various steps in project monitoring and controlling a project? Ans.: Here we elaborate the project monitoring and control. Any project aimed at delivering a product or a service has to go through phases in a planned manner in order to meet the requirements. It only by careful monito ring of the project progress. It required establishing control factors to keep t he project on the track of progress. The results of any stage in a project, depe nds on the inputs to that stage. It is therefore necessary to control all the in puts and the corresponding outputs from a stage. A project management may use ce rtain standard trolls to keep the project on track. The project manager and the team members should be fully aware of the techniques and methods to rectify the factors influencing delay of the project and its product. The methodology of PER T (programmer Evolution Review Technique) and CPM (critical path method) may be used to analyze the project. In the PERT method one car find out the variance an d use the variance to analyze the various probabilistic estimates pertaining to the project. Using the CPM one can estimate the start time and the finish time f or every event of the project in its WBS (work Breakdown Structure). The analysis charts can be used to monitor, control, track and execute a project . Typical PERT/ CPM exercise of a project are worked out at the end of this sub unit- 9.2. The various steps involved in monitoring and controlling a project fr om start to end are as follows1. Perlirninary work- the team members understand the project plans, project sta ge schedule, progress controls, tracking the duels. Summary of the members have to understand the tolerances in any change and maintain a change control log. Th ey must realize the need and importance of quality for which they have to follow strictly quality agendas. They must understand the stage status reposes, stage and reports, stage end approval reports. 2. Project progress- The members must keep a track of the project progress and c ommunication the same to other related members of the project. They must monitor and control project progress, through the use of regular check points, quality charts. Statistical tables, control the quality factors which are likely to devi ate from expected values as any deviation may result in change to the stage she duel 3. Stage control- The manager must establish a project check paint cycle. For th is suitable stage version control procedure may be followed. 4. Resources- Plan the resources required for various stage of the project. Brie
f both the project team and the key resources about the objectives of every stag e, planned activities, products, organization. Metrics and project controls. 5. Quality control- This is very important in any project: Quality control is po ssible if the project member’s followSchedule quality review, Agenda for quality review, conduct quality review and f ollow up. 6. Progress control- It is the main part at assessmentProgress control assesses- monitor performance, update schedule, update casts, R e-plan stage schedule, conduct team status review etc. Along with we create status report, create flash reports, project status reports etc. 7. Approvals - lastly, project sage reviews and the decisions taken and actions planned need to be approved by the top management. The goals of such review are to improve quality by finding defects and to improve productivity by finding def ects in a cost effective manner. The group review progress includes several stag e like planning, preparation and overview, a group review meeting and rework rec ommendation and follow-up.
Q5. Explain the necessity and objectives of SCM? Ans.: SCM is the abbreviation of supply chain Management. It is considered by ma ny express worldwide as the ultimate solution towards efficient enterprise manag ement. Now, we explain the necessity and objectives of SCMSCM is required by and enterprise as a tow to enhance management effectiveness w ith a following organizational objective: Reduction of inventory Enactment in functional effectiveness of existing systems like ERP, Accounting. Software and Documentation like financial reports statements ISO 9000 Documents etc. Enhancement of participation level and empowerment level Effective integration of multiple systems like ERP, communication systems, docum entation system and secure, Design R&D systems etc. Better utilization of resources- men, material, equipment and money. Optimization of money flow cycle within the organization as well as to and from external agencies. Enhancement of value of products, operations and services and consequently, enha
ncements of profitability. Enhancement of satisfaction level of customer and clients, supporting institutio ns, statutory control agencies, supporting institutions, statutory control agenc ies, suppliers and vendors, employees and executives. Enhancement of flexibility in the organization to help in easy implementation of schemes involving modernization, expansion and divestment, merges and acquisiti ons. Enhancement of coverage and accuracy of management information systems. With the objectives of SCM its implementation are required. Implementation is in the form of various functional blocks of an organization interpenetrated throug h which a smooth flow of the product development is possible. A relatively new SCM option involves web based software with a browser interface . Several electronic marketplaces for buying and selling goods and materials.
What are the steps involved in SCM implementation?
Ans.: There is many steps which involved in SCM implementation are- Business Pr ocess, sales and marketing. Logistics, costing, demand planning, trade- off anal ysis, environmental requirement, process stability, integrated supply, supplier management, product design, suppliers, customers, material specifications, etc. Some important aspect of SCMThe level of competition existing in the market and the impact of competitive fo rces on the product development. Designing and working on a strategic logic for better growth through value inven tion. Working out new value curve in the product development along with necessary brea k point. Using it to analyses markets and the economies in product design. Tine, customer , quality of product and the concept of survival of fittest. Steps of SCM principals: Group customer by need: Effective SCM groups, customer by distinct service meet that particular segment. Customize the logistics networks: In designing their logistics network, companie s need to focus on the service requirement and profit potential of the customer segments identified. Listen to signals of market demand and plan accordingly- sales and operations pl anners must monitor the entire supply chain to detect early warning signals of c hanging customer demand and needs.
Differentiate the product closer to the customer-companies today no longer can a fford to stock pile inventory to compensate for possible forecasting errors, ins tead, they need to postpone product differentiation in the manufacturing. Proces s closer to actual customer demand. Strategically manage the source of supply-by working closely with their key supp liers to reduce the overall casts of owning materials and services; SCM maximize s profit margins both for themselves, and their supplies. Develop a supply chain wide technology strategy- as one of the cornerstones of s uccessful SCM information technology must be able to support multiple levels of decision making. Adopt channel spanning performance measures- Excellent supply performance measur ement systems do more than just monitor internal functions. They apply performan ce criteria that embrace bathe service and financial metrics, including as such as each accounts true profitability
Subject code: MB0028 Set 2 Q1. Explain how material flow information helps in work centre decision. Conside r the example of a shopping centre to illustrate your answer. Ans.: The decision which involves during uses of material flow information has b elowA work center is a production facility comprising of one or more machines and on e or more workmen considered as a single unit for purposes of estimation of capa city. This unit may have a single operation or a number of them conducted on the input items. In the pipeline of production, each work center’s contribution is vi tal as materials are scheduled, routed and loads to be sent to it. In most organization, they are even considered as cash centers. Location trust m eans relative position of different centers so as to minimize the movement of ma terials, meet technological sequences, to reduce congestion, maximize throughput , improve part tracking ability and avoid repetitive movements. In addition anot
her consideration is to provide for expansion of production. Each work center receives information along with material that enter it the mate rial also leaves the word center with information. The route sheet contains info rmation about the material, process, quantities, and inspection procedures. Etc. the drawings or instructions tell the condition of the malarial of entry and th e required condition at exit. In this sense every operation consists of material transformation occurring on t he basis of information. Activities conducted are on the basis of information th at flows with material. Different locations have to accommodate the constraints of the basis of darning maximums benefit of the information that is available. B asically, each location is determined on the basis of from and to: where does it receive material goes. Some centers have to close as a matter of necessity, som e need not to be and some need to be as for away as possible. This aspect has been given a rating scale in terms of alphabets as under: Absolutely necessary to be close Essential to be close Ordinary closeness Ordinary closeness Unimportant that they are close or not Not desirable that the centers are close It can be seen that this is only a guide for Indian location as the work centers as there will many competing factors that have to be accommodated. Q2. What are the reasons for failure of a project? Give suitable examples. Ans.: Before knowing the reasons of failure we have to know about project. Project is a set of activities which are networked in order and aimed towards ac hieving goal of a project. Now, the reasons are project failure: Incidence of Project failure Projects being initiated of random at all levels Project objective not in line with business objective Project management not observed Project manager with no prior experience in the related project Non- dedicated team Lack of complete support from clients Factors contributing to project success not emphasized: Project objective in alignment with business objective Working within the framework of project management methodology Effective scoping planning, estimation, execution, controls and reviews, project bottlenecks Communication and managing expectations effectively with clients, team merits an d stake holders Prior expectance of PM in a similar project Overview of information and communication Technologies (ICT) project: Involve information and communication technologies such as the word wide web, email, fiber-optics satellites Enable societies to produce, access, adapt and apply information in greater amou nt, more rapidly and at reduce casts
Offer enormous opportunities for enhancing business and economic viability Common problems encountered during projects No prioritization of project activity from an organizational position One or more of the stages in the project mishandled Less qualified non-dedicated manpower Absence of smooth flow of communication between the involved parties These basic reasons lead a project to failures. In the project failures business management and project management is directly involved. From the management poi nt of view it is basic things to care above topics to success of a project. Proj ect is the core business of a company. In the MBA assignment its role has been d efined from the management prospective. Q3. Explain the various phases in project management life cycle? Ans.: This is the initial phase of any project. In this phase information is col lected from the customer pertaining to the project and the requirements are anal yzed. The entire project has to be planned and it should be done in a strategic manner. The project manager conducts the analysis of the problem and submits a d etailed report to the top project justification, details on what the problem is a method of solving the problem, list of the objectives to be achieved, project budget and the success rate of completing the project. The report must also cont ain information and the project feasibility, and the risks involved in the proje ct. Project management life cycle is the integrated part of management. It is attach with project responsibility or failure of a project. For the MBA assignments it is the most valuable chapter in production management. The important tasks of this phase are as follows: Specification Requirements Analysis (SRA): It has to be conducted to determine t he essential requirements of a project in order to achieve the target. Feasibility study: To analyze whether the project is technically, economically a nd practically feasible to be undertaken. Trade off analysis: To understand and examine the various alternatives which cou ld be considered. Estimation: To estimate the project cost, effort requires for the project and fu nctionality of various process in the project. System design: Choose a general design that can fusil the requirements. Project evolution: Evaluate the project in terms of expected profit, cost and ri sks involved marketing phase. A project proposal is prepared by a group of people including the project manage r. This proposal has to contain the strategies adopted to market the product to the customers. Design phase: This phase involves the study of inputs and outputs of the various project stages. Execution phase: In this phase the project manager and the teams members work on the project objectives as per the plan. At every stage during the execution rep orts are prepared.
Control – Inspecting, Testing and Delivery phase during this phase. The project te am works under the guidance of the project manager. The project manager has to e nsure that the team working under his, implements the project designs accurately , the project manager has to ensure ways of managing the customer, perform quali ty control work. Closure and post completion analysis phase upon satisfactory completion and deli very of the intended product or service the staff performance has to be evaluate d. Document the lessons from the project. Prepare the reports on project feedbac k analysis followed by the project execution report. The phase which involve in the above are: The preparation stage involves the preparation and approval of project outline, project plan and project budget. The next stage involves selecting and briefing the project team about the propos als followed by discussions on the roles and responsibility of the project membe r and the organization. The project management life cycle: A Life cycle of a project consists of the following: 1)Understanding the scope of the project 2)Establishing objectives of the project 3)Formulating and planning various activities 4)Project execution and 5)Monitor and control the project resources
Q4. What are the seven principles of SCM? Ans.: Seven principles of SCM are: • Group customer by needs- Effective SCM groups, customer by distinct service need s, regardless of industry and then tailors services to this particular segment. • Customize the logistic network- In designing their logistics network; companies need to focus on the service requirement and profit of the customer segments ide ntified. • Listen to signals of market demand and plan accordingly- Sales and operations pl anners must monitor the entire supply chain to detect early warning signals of c hanging customer demand and needs. This demand driven approach leads to more con sistent forecast and optimal resource allocation.
• Differentiate the product closer to the customer- companies today no longer can afford to stock pile inventory to compensate for possible forecasting errors. In stead, they need to postpone product differentiation in the manufacturing proces s closer to actual consumer demand. This strategy allows the supply chain to res pond quickly and cost effectively to change in customer needs. • Strategically manage the sources of supply- by working closely with their key su ppliers to reduce the overall costs of owning materials and services; SCM maximi zes profit margins both for themselves and their suppliers. • Develop a supply chain wide technology strategy- as one of the cornerstones of s uccessful SCM information technology must be able to support multiple levels of decision making. It also should afford a clear view and ability to measure the f low of products, services and information. • Adopt channel spanning chain performance measures- Excellent supply chain perfor mance measurement system do more than just monitor internal functions. They appl y performance criteria to every link in the supply chain-criteria that embrace b oth service and financial metrics
Q5. Explain what is meant by bullwhip effect and how it could be prevented? Ans.: An organization will always have ups and downs. It is necessary that the m anagers of the organization keep track of the market conditions and analyze the changes. They must take decisions on the organization to meet the market demands . Failing to do so may adversely affect the functioning of the organization resu lting in lack of coordination and trust among supply chain members. The changes may effect the information and may lead to demand amplification in the supply ch ain. The bullwhip effect is the uncertainty caused from distorted information fl owing up and down the supply chain. This has its affect on almost all the indust ries, poses a risk to firms that experience large variations in demand. And also these firms which are dependent on suppliers, distributors and retailers. A bullwhip effect may arises because ofIncrease in the lead time of the project due to increase in variability of deman d Increase in the stock to stock to accommodate the increasing demand arising out of complicated demands models and forecasting techniques Reduced service levels in the organization Inefficient allocation of resources Increased transportation cast How to prevent it? Bullwhip effect may be avoided by one or more of the following measures- Avoid m
ultiple demand forecasting Breading the single orders into number of batches of orders Stabilize the prices avoid the risk involved in overstocking by maintaining a pr oper stock Reduce the variability and uncertainty in paint of sale (POS) and shaving inform ation Reduce the lead time in the stages of the project Always keep analyzing the past figures and track current and future levels of re quirements Enhance the operational efficient and outsourcing logistics to capable and effic ient agency
Q6. What do you understand by Line Balancing? What is the importance of order picking in material handling? Give suitable examples. Ans.: Production lines have a number of work centers in a particular sequence so that the material that gets proceed has to move further without encountering an y bottlenecks. The quantities produced the rate of production at each center, th e number of operations and the total production required are factors taken into account. The purpose of taking place between work centers and minimum inventory gets crea ted. We use the principles of JIT and lean Manufacturing to achieve these. Linea r programming, Dynamic programming and other mathematical models are used to stu dy these problems. In order picking important pants are: Order picking is a process by which items of products for supply is to be made h aves to be retrieved from specific storage location. It is found to take 60% of labour activities in the warehouse. Since it is critical to the business to meet customer’s demand expeditiously and accurately, lot of attention is being given t o this aspect of operations. In the manufacturing arena, we desire to move towar ds small lot sizes and cycle time reductions. Efficient order picking is necessary for being competitive. In the supply chain Storage, retrieval and delivery do not add value to the product, but are necessa ry. Material Handling: The purpose is to take the job through the technological steps in which the proc essing needs to be done for the transformation that is to be effected on the mat erial that is getting processed. The major concerns are about the quantities tha t need to be processed and the time that the different operations required. In c ase the product has to enter assembly, along with other parts that are being man ufactured parallel, will all the required parts arrive at that point at the same time. Some components may be outsourced. To handle different parts, we have mat erial handling equipments such as cranes lifting forks, trucks etc.
The problem for the manager is the limited supply of these equipments and the ne ed to optimize utilization of the equipment and see that the manufacturing line has smooth flow. Our concern is to reduced inventory, minimums movement and time ly availability.
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