English Synonyms and Antonyms

Synonyms and Antonyms, by James Champlin Fernald

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English Synonyms and Antonyms

A Practical and Invaluable Guide to Clear and Precise Diction for Writers, Spea kers, Students, Business and Professional Men Connectives of English Speech "The work is likely to prove of great value to all writers."--Washington Evenin g Star. "The book will receive high appreciation from thoughtful students who seek the most practical help."--Grand Rapids Herald. "It is written in a clear and pleasing style and so arranged that but a moment' s time is needed to find any line of the hundreds of important though small word s which this book discusses."--Chattanooga Times. "Its practical reference value is great, and it is a great satisfaction to note the care and attention to detail and fine shades of meaning the author has best owed upon the words he discusses."--Church Review, Hartford.

"A work of great practical helpfulness to a large class of people."--Louisville Courier-Journal. "This is one of the most useful books for writers, speakers, and all who care f or the use of language, which has appeared in a long time."--Cumberland Presbyte rian, Nashville. "It is a book of great value to all who take any interest in correct and elegan t language."--Methodist, Baltimore. "This work is a welcome aid to good writing and good speech. It is worthy the c lose study of all who would cultivate finished style. Its admirable arrangement and a good index make it easy for reference."--Christian Observer. "His book has some excellent qualities. In the first place, it is absolutely fr ee from dogmatic assertion; in the second place, it contains copious examples fr om good authors, which should guide aright the person investigating any word, if he is thoroughly conversant with English."--The Sun, New York.

STANDARD EDUCATIONAL SERIES ENGLISH SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS WITH NOTES ON THE CORRECT USE OF PREPOSITIONS DESIGNED AS A COMPANION FOR THE STUDY AND AS A TEXT-BOOK FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS BY JAMES C. FERNALD, L.H.D. Editor of Synonyms, Antonyms, and Prepositions in the Standard Dictionary NINETEENTH EDITION FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY NEW YORK AND LONDON

Copyright, 1896, by FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY. Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, Eng. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES

Transcriber's Note: Minor typographical errors have been ignificant amendments can be found at ion and conflicting variant spellings for emphasis. Non-standard characters corrected without note, whilst a list of s the end of the text. Inconsistent hyphenat have been standardised, except where used have been represented as follows:

[=a] a with upper macron; [=o] o with upper macron.

CONTENTS. PAGE. PREFACE vii PART I. SYNONYMS, ANTONYMS AND PREPOSITIONS 1 PART II. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 377 INDEX 509

PREFACE. The English language is peculiarly rich in synonyms, as, with such a history, i t could not fail to be. From the time of Julius Cæsar, Britons, Romans, Northmen, Saxons, Danes, and Normans fighting, fortifying, and settling upon the soil of E ngland, with Scotch and Irish contending for mastery or existence across the mou ntain border and the Channel, and all fenced in together by the sea, could not b ut influence each other's speech. English merchants, sailors, soldiers, and trav elers, trading, warring, and exploring in every clime, of necessity brought back new terms of sea and shore, of shop and camp and battlefield. English scholars have studied Greek and Latin for a thousand years, and the languages of the Cont inent and of the Orient in more recent times. English churchmen have introduced words from Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, through Bible and prayer-book, sermon and t ract. From all this it results that there is scarcely a language ever spoken amo ng men that has not some representative in English speech. The spirit of the Ang lo-Saxon race, masterful in language as in war and commerce, has subjugated all these various elements to one idiom, making not a patchwork, but a composite lan guage. Anglo-Saxon thrift, finding often several words that originally expressed the same idea, has detailed them to different parts of the common territory or to different service, so that we have an almost unexampled variety of words, kin dred in meaning but distinct in usage, for expressing almost every shade of huma n thought. Scarcely any two of such words, commonly known as synonyms, are identical at on ce in signification and in use. They have certain common ground within which the y are interchangeable; but outside of that each has its own special province, wi thin which any other word comes as an intruder. From these two qualities arises the great value of synonyms as contributing to beauty and effectiveness of expre ssion. As interchangeable, they make possible that freedom and variety by which the diction of an accomplished writer or speaker differs from the wooden uniform ity of a legal document. As distinct and specific, they enable a master of style to choose in every instance the one term that is the most perfect mirror of his thought. To write or speak to the best purpose, one should know in the first pl ace all the words from which he may choose, and then the exact reason why in any case any particular word should be chosen. To give such knowledge in these two directions is the office of a book of synonyms. Of Milton's diction Macaulay writes: "His poetry acts like an incantation. Its merit lies less in its obvious meanin g than in its occult power. There would seem, at first sight, to be no more in h is words than in other words. But they are words of enchantment. No sooner are t hey pronounced, than the past is present and the distant near. New forms of beau ty start at once into existence, and all the burial places of the memory give up their dead. Change the structure of the sentence; substitute one synonym for an other, and the whole effect is destroyed. The spell loses its power; and he who

should then hope to conjure with it would find himself as much mistaken as Cassi m in the Arabian tale, when he stood crying, 'Open Wheat,' 'Open Barley,' to the door which obeyed no sound but 'Open Sesame.' The miserable failure of Dryden i n his attempt to translate into his own diction some parts of the 'Paradise Lost ' is a remarkable instance of this." Macaulay's own writings abound in examples of that exquisite precision in the c hoice of words, which never seems to be precise, but has all the aspect of absol ute freedom. Through his language his thought bursts upon the mind as a landscap e is seen instantly, perfectly, and beautifully from a mountain height. A little vagueness of thought, a slight infelicity in the choice of words would be like a cloud upon the mountain, obscuring the scene with a damp and chilling mist. Le t anyone try the experiment with a poem like Gray's "Elegy," or Goldsmith's "Tra veller" or "Deserted Village," of substituting other words for those the poet ha s chosen, and he will readily perceive how much of the charm of the lines depend s upon their fine exactitude of expression. In our own day, when so many are eager to write, and confident that they can wr ite, and when the press is sending forth by the ton that which is called literat ure, but which somehow lacks the imprint of immortality, it is of the first impo rtance to revive the study of synonyms as a distinct branch of rhetorical cultur e. Prevalent errors need at times to be noted and corrected, but the teaching of pure English speech is the best defense against all that is inferior, unsuitabl e, or repulsive. The most effective condemnation of an objectionable word or phr ase is that it is not found in scholarly works, and a student who has once learn ed the rich stores of vigorous, beautiful, exact, and expressive words that make up our noble language, is by that very fact put beyond the reach of all temptat ion to linguistic corruption. Special instruction in the use of synonyms is necessary, for the reason that fe w students possess the analytical power and habit of mind required to hold a suc cession of separate definitions in thought at once, compare them with each other , and determine just where and how they part company; and the persons least able to do this are the very ones most in need of the information. The distinctions between words similar in meaning are often so fine and elusive as to tax the ing enuity of the accomplished scholar; yet when clearly apprehended they are as imp ortant for the purposes of language as the minute differences between similar su bstances are for the purposes of chemistry. Often definition itself is best secu red by the comparison of kindred terms and the pointing out where each differs f rom the other. We perceive more clearly and remember better what each word is, b y perceiving where each divides from another of kindred meaning; just as we see and remember better the situation and contour of adjacent countries, by consider ing them as boundaries of each other, rather than by an exact statement of the l atitude and longitude of each as a separate portion of the earth's surface. The great mass of untrained speakers and writers need to be reminded, in the fi rst place, that there are synonyms--a suggestion which they would not gain from any precision of separate definitions in a dictionary. The deplorable repetition with which many slightly educated persons use such words as "elegant," "splendi d," "clever," "awful," "horrid," etc., to indicate (for they can not be said to express) almost any shade of certain approved or objectionable qualities, shows a limited vocabulary, a poverty of language, which it is of the first importance to correct. Many who are not given to such gross misuse would yet be surprised to learn how often they employ a very limited number of words in the attempt to give utterance to thoughts and feelings so unlike, that what is the right word o n one occasion must of necessity be the wrong word at many other times. Such per sons are simply unconscious of the fact that there are other words of kindred me aning from which they might choose; as the United States surveyors of Alaska fou nd "the shuddering tenant of the frigid zone" wrapping himself in furs and cower ing over a fire of sticks with untouched coal-mines beneath his feet.

Such poverty of language is always accompanied with poverty of thought. One who is content to use the same word for widely different ideas has either never obs erved or soon comes to forget that there is any difference between the ideas; or perhaps he retains a vague notion of a difference which he never attempts to de fine to himself, and dimly hints to others by adding to his inadequate word some such phrase as "you see" or "you know," in the helpless attempt to inject into another mind by suggestion what adequate words would enable him simply and disti nctly to say. Such a mind resembles the old maps of Africa in which the interior was filled with cloudy spaces, where modern discovery has revealed great lakes, fertile plains, and mighty rivers. One main office of a book of synonyms is to reveal to such persons the unsuspected riches of their own language; and when a series of words is given them, from which they may choose, then, with intelligen t choice of words there comes of necessity a clearer perception of the differenc e of the ideas that are to be expressed by those different words. Thus, copiousn ess and clearness of language tend directly to affluence and precision of though t. Hence there is an important use for mere lists of classified synonyms, like Rog et's Thesaurus and the works of Soule and Fallows. Not one in a thousand of aver age students would ever discover, by independent study of the dictionary, that t here are fifteen synonyms for beautiful, twenty-one for beginning, fifteen for b enevolence, twenty for friendly, and thirty-seven for pure. The mere mention of such numbers opens vistas of possible fulness, freedom, and variety of utterance , which will have for many persons the effect of a revelation. But it is equally important to teach that synonyms are not identical and to exp lain why and how they differ. A person of extensive reading and study, with a fi ne natural sense of language, will often find all that he wants in the mere list , which recalls to his memory the appropriate word. But for the vast majority th ere is needed some work that compares or contrasts synonymous words, explains th eir differences of meaning or usage, and shows in what connections one or the ot her may be most fitly used. This is the purpose of the present work, to be a gui de to selection from the varied treasures of English speech. This work treats within 375 pages more than 7500 synonyms. It has been the stud y of the author to give every definition or distinction in the fewest possible w ords consistent with clearness of statement, and this not merely for economy of space, but because such condensed statements are most easily apprehended and rem embered. The method followed has been to select from every group of synonyms one word, o r two contrasted words, the meaning of which may be settled by clear definitive statement, thus securing some fixed point or points to which all the other words of the group may be referred. The great source of vagueness, error, and perplex ity in many discussions of synonyms is, that the writer merely associates stray ideas loosely connected with the different words, sliding from synonym to synony m with no definite point of departure or return, so that a smooth and at first s ight pleasing statement really gives the mind no definite resting-place and no s ure conclusion. A true discussion of synonyms is definition by comparison, and f or this there must be something definite with which to compare. When the standar d is settled, approximation or differentiation can be determined with clearness and certainty. It is not enough to tell something about each word. The thing to tell is how each word is related to others of that particular group. When a word has more than one prominent meaning, the synonyms for one signification are tre ated in one group and a reference is made to some other group in which the synon yms for another signification are treated, as may be seen by noting the synonyms given under APPARENT, and following the reference to EVIDENT. It has been impossible within the limits of this volume to treat in full all th

e words of each group of synonyms. Sometimes it has been necessary to restrict t he statement to a mere suggestion of the correct use; in some cases only the chi ef words of a group could be considered, giving the key to the discussion, and l eaving the student to follow out the principle in the case of other words by ref erence to the definitive statements of the dictionary. It is to be hoped that at some time a dictionary of synonyms may be prepared, giving as full a list as th at of Roget or of Soule, with discriminating remarks upon every word. Such a wor k would be of the greatest value, but obviously beyond the scope of a text-book for the class-room. The author has here incorporated, by permission of the publishers of the Standa rd Dictionary, much of the synonym matter prepared by him for that work. All has been thoroughly revised or reconstructed, and much wholly new matter has been a dded. The book contains also more than 3700 antonyms. These are valuable as supplying definition by contrast or by negation, one of the most effective methods of def ining being in many cases to tell what a thing is not. To speakers and writers a ntonyms are useful as furnishing oftentimes effective antitheses. Young writers will find much help from the indication of the correct use of pre positions, the misuse of which is one of the most common of errors, and one of t he most difficult to avoid, while their right use gives to style cohesion, firmn ess, and compactness, and is an important aid to perspicuity. To the text of the synonyms is appended a set of Questions and Examples to adapt the work for use as a text-book. Aside from the purposes of the class-room, this portion will be found of value to the individual student. Excepting those who have made a thorou gh study of language most persons will discover with surprise how difficult it i s to answer any set of the Questions or to fill the blanks in the Examples witho ut referring to the synonym treatment in Part I., or to a dictionary, and how ra rely they can give any intelligent reason for preference even among familiar wor ds. There are few who can study such a work without finding occasion to correct some errors into which they have unconsciously fallen, and without coming to a n ew delight in the use of language from a fuller knowledge of its resources and a clearer sense of its various capabilities. West New Brighton, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1896.

PART I.

BOOKS OF REFERENCE. Crabb's "English Synonymes Explained." [H.] Soule's "Dictionary of English Synonyms." [L.] Smith's "Synonyms Discriminated." [BELL.] Graham's "English Synonyms." [A.] Whateley's "English Synonyms Discriminated." [L. & S.] Campbell's "Handbook of Synonyms." [L. & S.] Fallows' "Complete Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms." [F. H. R.]

Roget's "Thesaurus of English Words." [F. & W. CO.] Trench's "Study of English Words." [W. J. W.] Richard Grant White, "Words and their Uses," and "Every Day English." [H. M. & CO.] Geo. P. Marsh, "Lectures on the English Language," and "Origin and History of t he English Language." [S.] Fitzedward Hall, "False Philology." [S.] Maetzner's "English Grammar," tr. by Grece. [J. M.] The Synonyms of the Century and International Dictionaries have also been consu lted and compared. The Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary has been used as the authority througho ut. * * * * * ABBREVIATIONS USED. A. D. Appleton & Co. K.-F. Krauth-Fleming AS. Anglo-Saxon "Vocabulary of Ph ilosophy." BELL; B. & S. Bell & Sons L. Latin; Lippincott & Co. F. French L. & S. Lee & Shepard F. H. R. Fleming H. Revell M. Murray's New English Diction ary F. & W. CO. Funk & Wagnalls Co. MACM. Macmillan & Co. G. German S. Chas. Scribner's Sons Gr. Greek Sp. Spanish H. Harper & Bros. T. & F. Ticknor & F ields H. M. & CO. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. T. & H. Troutman & Hayes It. Italian T. & M. Taylor, Walton & Maberley J. M. John Murray W. J. W. W. J. Widdleto n

PART I. SYNONYMS, ANTONYMS AND PREPOSITIONS. * * * * * ABANDON. Synonyms: abdicate, desert, leave, resign, abjure, discontinue, quit, retire from, cast o ff, forego, recant, retract, cease, forsake, relinquish, surrender, cede, forswe ar, renounce, vacate, depart from, give up, repudiate, withdraw from. Abandon is a word of wide signification, applying to persons or things of any k ind; abdicate and resign apply to office, authority, or power; cede to territori al possessions; surrender especially to military force, and more generally to an y demand, claim, passion, etc. Quit carries an idea of suddenness or abruptness not necessarily implied in abandon, and may not have the same suggestion of fina lity. The king abdicates his throne, cedes his territory, deserts his followers, renounces his religion, relinquishes his titles, abandons his designs. A coward ly officer deserts his ship; the helpless passengers abandon it. We quit busines s, give up property, resign office, abandon a habit or a trust. Relinquish commo nly implies reluctance; the fainting hand relinquishes its grasp; the creditor r elinquishes his claim. Abandon implies previous association with responsibility

for or control of; forsake implies previous association with inclination or atta chment, real or assumed; a man may abandon or forsake house or friends; he aband ons an enterprise; forsakes God. Abandon is applied to both good and evil action ; a thief abandons his designs, a man his principles. Forsake, like abandon, may be used either in the favorable or unfavorable sense; desert is always unfavora ble, involving a breach of duty, except when used of mere localities; as, "the D eserted Village." While a monarch abdicates, a president or other elected or app ointed officer resigns. It was held that James II. abdicated his throne by deser ting it. Antonyms: adopt, defend, occupy, seek, advocate, favor, prosecute, support, assert, haunt , protect, undertake, cherish, hold, pursue, uphold, claim, keep, retain, vindic ate. court, maintain, * * * * * ABASE. Synonyms: bring low, depress, dishonor, lower, cast down, discredit, humble, reduce, deba se, disgrace, humiliate, sink. degrade, Abase refers only to outward conditions. "Exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high." Ezek. xxi, 26. Debase applies to quality or character. The coinag e is debased by excess of alloy, the man by vice. Humble in present use refers c hiefly to feeling of heart; humiliate to outward conditions; even when one is sa id to humble himself, he either has or affects to have humility of heart. To dis grace may be to bring or inflict odium upon others, but the word is chiefly and increasingly applied to such moral odium as one by his own acts brings upon hims elf; the noun disgrace retains more of the passive sense than the verb; he disgr aced himself by his conduct; he brought disgrace upon his family. To dishonor a person is to deprive him of honor that should or might be given. To discredit on e is to injure his reputation, as for veracity or solvency. A sense of unworthin ess humbles; a shameful insult humiliates; imprisonment for crime disgraces. Deg rade may refer to either station or character. An officer is degraded by being r educed to the ranks, disgraced by cowardice; vile practises degrade; drunkenness is a degrading vice. Misfortune or injustice may abase the good; nothing but th eir own ill-doing can debase or disgrace them. Antonyms: advance, elevate, honor, raise, aggrandize, exalt, promote, uplift. dignify, * * * * * ABASH. Synonyms: bewilder, daunt, embarrass, mortify, chagrin, discompose, humble, overawe, conf ound, disconcert, humiliate, shame. confuse, dishearten, Any sense of inferiority abashes, with or without the sense of wrong. The poor are abashed at the splendor of wealth, the ignorant at the learning of the wise. "I might have been abashed by their authority." GLADSTONE Homeric Synchron., p. 72. [H. '76.] To confuse is to bring into a state of mental bewilderment; to co nfound is to overwhelm the mental faculties; to daunt is to subject to a certain

degree of fear. Embarrass is a strong word, signifying primarily hamper, hinder , impede. A solitary thinker may be confused by some difficulty in a subject, or some mental defect; one is embarrassed in the presence of others, and because o f their presence. Confusion is of the intellect, embarrassment of the feelings. A witness may be embarrassed by annoying personalities, so as to become confused in statements. To mortify a person is to bring upon him a painful sense of humi liation, whether because of his own or another's fault or failure. A pupil is co nfused by a perplexing question, a general confounded by overwhelming defeat. A hostess is discomposed by the tardiness of guests, a speaker disconcerted by a f ailure of memory. The criminal who is not abashed at detection may be daunted by the officer's weapon. Sudden joy may bewilder, but will not abash. The true wor shiper is humbled rather than abashed before God. The parent is mortified by the child's rudeness, the child abashed at the parent's reproof. The embarrassed sp eaker finds it difficult to proceed. The mob is overawed by the military, the hy pocrite shamed by exposure. "A man whom no denial, no scorn could abash." FIELDI NG Amelia bk. iii, ch. 9, p. 300. [B. & S. '71.] Compare CHAGRIN; HINDER. Antonyms: animate, cheer, encourage, rally, buoy, embolden, inspirit, uphold. * * * * * ABATE. Synonyms: decline, ebb, mitigate, reduce, decrease, lessen, moderate, subside. diminish, lower, The storm, the fever, the pain abates. Interest declines. Misfortunes may be mi tigated, desires moderated, intense anger abated, population decreased, taxes re duced. We abate a nuisance, terminate a controversy, suppress a rebellion. See A LLEVIATE. Antonyms: aggravate, enhance, foment, rage, amplify, enlarge, increase, raise, continue, extend, magnify, revive. develop, Prepositions: Abate in fury; abated by law. * * * * * ABBREVIATION. Synonyms: abridgment, contraction. An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by om itting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last let ters or elements; an abbreviation may be made either by omitting certain portion s from the interior or by cutting off a part; a contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction; rec't for receipt, mdse. f or merchandise, and Dr. for debtor are contractions; they are also abbreviations ; Am. for American is an abbreviation, but not a contraction. Abbreviation and c

ontraction are used of words and phrases, abridgment of books, paragraphs, sente nces, etc. Compare ABRIDGMENT. * * * * * ABET. Synonyms: advocate, countenance, incite, sanction, aid, embolden, instigate, support, ass ist, encourage, promote, uphold. Abet and instigate are now used almost without exception in a bad sense; one ma y incite either to good or evil. One incites or instigates to the doing of somet hing not yet done, or to increased activity or further advance in the doing of i t; one abets by giving sympathy, countenance, or substantial aid to the doing of that which is already projected or in process of commission. Abet and instigate apply either to persons or actions, incite to persons only; one incites a perso n to an action. A clergyman will advocate the claims of justice, aid the poor, e ncourage the despondent, support the weak, uphold the constituted authorities; b ut he will not incite to a quarrel, instigate a riot, or abet a crime. The origi nator of a crime often instigates or incites others to abet him in it, or one ma y instigate or incite others to a crime in the commission of which he himself ta kes no active part. Compare HELP. Antonyms: baffle, deter, dissuade, hinder, confound, disapprove, expose, impede, countera ct, disconcert, frustrate, obstruct. denounce, discourage, * * * * * ABHOR. Synonyms: abominate, dislike, loathe, scorn, despise, hate, nauseate, shun. detest, Abhor is stronger than despise, implying a shuddering recoil, especially a mora l recoil. "How many shun evil as inconvenient who do not abhor it as hateful." T RENCH Serm. in Westm. Abbey xxvi, 297. [M.] Detest expresses indignation, with s omething of contempt. Loathe implies disgust, physical or moral. We abhor a trai tor, despise a coward, detest a liar. We dislike an uncivil person. We abhor cru elty, hate tyranny. We loathe a reptile or a flatterer. We abhor Milton's heroic Satan, but we can not despise him. Antonyms: admire, crave, esteem, love, approve, desire, like, relish. covet, enjoy, * * * * * ABIDE. Synonyms: anticipate, dwell, remain, stop, await, endure, reside, tarry, bear, expect, re st, tolerate, bide, inhabit, sojourn, wait, confront, live, stay, watch. continu e, lodge,

To abide is to remain continuously without limit of time unless expressed by th e context: "to-day I must abide at thy house," Luke xix, 5; "a settled place for thee to abide in forever," 1 Kings viii, 13; "Abide with me! fast falls the eve ntide," LYTE Hymn. Lodge, sojourn, stay, tarry, and wait always imply a limited time; lodge, to pass the night; sojourn, to remain temporarily; live, dwell, res ide, to have a permanent home. Stop, in the sense of stay or sojourn, is colloqu ial, and not in approved use. Compare ENDURE; REST. Antonyms: abandon, forfeit, migrate, reject, avoid, forfend, move, resist, depart, journe y, proceed, shun. Prepositions: Abide in a place, for a time, with a person, by a statement. * * * * * ABOLISH. Synonyms: abate, eradicate, prohibit, stamp out, abrogate, exterminate, remove, subvert, annihilate, extirpate, repeal, supplant, annul, nullify, reverse, suppress, dest roy, obliterate, revoke, terminate. end, overthrow, set aside, Abolish, to do away with, bring absolutely to an end, especially as something h ostile, hindering, or harmful, was formerly used of persons and material objects , a usage now obsolete except in poetry or highly figurative speech. Abolish is now used of institutions, customs, and conditions, especially those wide-spread and long existing; as, to abolish slavery, ignorance, intemperance, poverty. A b uilding that is burned to the ground is said to be destroyed by fire. Annihilate , as a philosophical term, signifies to put absolutely out of existence. As far as our knowledge goes, matter is never annihilated, but only changes its form. S ome believe that the wicked will be annihilated. Abolish is not said of laws. Th ere we use repeal, abrogate, nullify, etc.: repeal by the enacting body, nullify by revolutionary proceedings; a later statute abrogates, without formally repea ling, any earlier law with which it conflicts. An appellate court may reverse or set aside the decision of an inferior court. Overthrow may be used in either a good or a bad sense; suppress is commonly in a good, subvert always in a bad sen se; as, to subvert our liberties; to suppress a rebellion. The law prohibits wha t may never have existed; it abolishes an existing evil. We abate a nuisance, te rminate a controversy. Compare CANCEL; DEMOLISH; EXTERMINATE. Antonyms: authorize, establish, reinstate, revive, cherish, institute, renew, set up, con firm, introduce, repair, support, continue, legalize, restore, sustain. enact, p romote, * * * * * ABOMINATION. Synonyms: abhorrence, curse, hatred, plague, abuse, detestation, horror, shame, annoyance , disgust, iniquity, villainy, aversion, evil, nuisance, wickedness. crime, exec ration, offense,

Abomination (from the L. ab omen, a thing of ill omen) was originally applied t o anything held in religious or ceremonial aversion or abhorrence; as, "The thin gs which are highly esteemed among men are abomination in the sight of God." Luk e xvi, 15. The word is oftener applied to the object of such aversion or abhorre nce than to the state of mind that so regards it; in common use abomination sign ifies something very much disliked or loathed, or that deserves to be. Choice fo od may be an object of aversion and disgust to a sick person; vile food would be an abomination. A toad is to many an object of disgust; a foul sewer is an abom ination. As applied to crimes, abomination is used of such as are especially bru tal, shameful, or revolting; theft is an offense; infanticide is an abomination. Antonyms: affection, blessing, enjoyment, joy, appreciation, delight, esteem, satisfactio n, approval, desire, gratification, treat. benefit, * * * * * ABRIDGMENT. Synonyms: abbreviation, compend, epitome, summary, abstract, compendium, outline, synopsi s. analysis, digest, An abridgment gives the most important portions of a work substantially as they stand. An outline or synopsis is a kind of sketch closely following the plan. A n abstract or digest is an independent statement of what the book contains. An a nalysis draws out the chief thoughts or arguments, whether expressed or implied. A summary is the most condensed statement of results or conclusions. An epitome , compend, or compendium is a condensed view of a subject, whether derived from a previous publication or not. We may have an abridgment of a dictionary, but no t an analysis, abstract, digest, or summary. We may have an epitome of religion, a compendium of English literature, but not an abridgment. Compare ABBREVIATION . * * * * * ABSOLUTE. Synonyms: arbitrary, compulsory, haughty, peremptory, arrogant, controlling, imperative, positive, authoritative, despotic, imperious, supreme, autocratic, dictatorial, irresponsible, tyrannical, coercive, dogmatic, lordly, unconditional, commanding , domineering, overbearing, unequivocal. compulsive, exacting, In the strict sense, absolute, free from all limitation or control, and supreme , superior to all, can not properly be said of any being except the divine. Both words are used, however, in a modified sense, of human authorities; absolute th en signifying free from limitation by other authority, and supreme exalted over all other; as, an absolute monarch, the supreme court. Absolute, in this use, do es not necessarily carry any unfavorable sense, but as absolute power in human h ands is always abused, the unfavorable meaning predominates. Autocratic power kn ows no limits outside the ruler's self; arbitrary power, none outside the ruler' s will or judgment, arbitrary carrying the implication of wilfulness and caprici ousness. Despotic is commonly applied to a masterful or severe use of power, whi ch is expressed more decidedly by tyrannical. Arbitrary may be used in a good se nse; as, the pronunciation of proper names is arbitrary; but the bad sense is th

e prevailing one; as, an arbitrary proceeding. Irresponsible power is not necess arily bad, but eminently dangerous; an executor or trustee should not be irrespo nsible; an irresponsible ruler is likely to be tyrannical. A perfect ruler might be irresponsible and not tyrannical. Authoritative is used always in a good sen se, implying the right to claim authority; imperative, peremptory, and positive are used ordinarily in the good sense; as, an authoritative definition; an imper ative demand; a peremptory command; positive instructions; imperious signifies a ssuming and determined to command, rigorously requiring obedience. An imperious demand or requirement may have in it nothing offensive; it is simply one that re solutely insists upon compliance, and will not brook refusal; an arrogant demand is offensive by its tone of superiority, an arbitrary demand by its unreasonabl eness; an imperious disposition is liable to become arbitrary and arrogant. A pe rson of an independent spirit is inclined to resent an imperious manner in any o ne, especially in one whose superiority is not clearly recognized. Commanding is always used in a good sense; as, a commanding appearance; a commanding eminence . Compare DOGMATIC; INFINITE; PERFECT. Antonyms: accountable, constitutional, gentle, lowly, responsible, complaisant, contingen t, humble, meek, submissive, compliant, docile, lenient, mild, yielding. conditi onal, ductile, limited, * * * * * ABSOLVE. Synonyms: acquit, exculpate, forgive, pardon, clear, exempt, free, release, discharge, ex onerate, liberate, set free. To absolve, in the strict sense, is to set free from any bond. One may be absol ved from a promise by a breach of faith on the part of one to whom the promise w as made. To absolve from sins is formally to remit their condemnation and penalt y, regarded as a bond upon the soul. "Almighty God ... pardoneth and absolveth a ll those who truly repent, and unfeignedly believe his holy Gospel." Book of Com mon Prayer, Declar. of Absol. To acquit of sin or crime is to free from the accu sation of it, pronouncing one guiltless; the innocent are rightfully acquitted; the guilty may be mercifully absolved. Compare PARDON. Antonyms: accuse, charge, condemn, impeach, obligate, bind, compel, convict, inculpate, o blige. Preposition: One is absolved from (rarely of) a promise, a sin, etc. * * * * * ABSORB. Synonyms: consume, engross, suck up, take in, drink in, exhaust, swallow, take up. drink up, imbibe, swallow up, A fluid that is absorbed is taken up into the mass of the absorbing body, with

Wood expands when it absorbs moistu re. wanton ness. continence. revelry. Synonyms: appropriate. separate. even temper by moderate indulgence in some things. abstemiousness is habitua l moderation. Prepositions: Plants absorb moisture from the air. r adiate. '54. temperance. take away. hydrated or slaked lime. abstinence may be for a single occasion. becomes a new substance with different qualities. detach. . fasting. distinguish. Fasting is abstinence from food for a limite d time. steal. disgorge. * * * * * ABSTINENCE. complete ab stinence from others. page 403. self-indulgence. throw off. A great talker engrosses the conversation. and generally for religious reasons. Antonyms: drunkenness.which it may or may not permanently combine. send out. he is absorbed in a subject that takes his whole attention. gluttony. moderation. v. Self-denial is giving up what one wishes.] Antonyms: cast out. selfrestraint. partakin g moderately. sobriety. so that it ceases to exist or to be recognized as existing in its original condition. abstemiousness. dissipate. exude. self-denial. A busy student imbibes or drinks in knowledge. shoot forth. Abstinence from food commonly signifies going without. disperse. quicklime. consume is also applied to whatever is removed from the market for individual use. distract. ch. discr iminate. * * * * * ABSTRACT. frugality. the student is absorbed in thought. put forth. give up. A credulous person swallows th e most preposterous statement. distract. excess. purloin. Total abstinence has come to signify the entire abstaining from intoxicatin g liquors. Synonyms: abstemiousness." KANE Grinnell Exped. sensuality. self-control. withdraw. the substance remaining perhaps otherwise substan tially unchanged. being. fuel is consumed in the fire. divert. "I only postponed it b ecause I happened to get absorbed in a book. remove. emit. intoxication. intemperance. abstinence may be refrai ning from what one does not desire. greed. A substance is consumed which is destructively appropriated by some other substance. or agency. iron when it absorbs heat. eliminate. when it absorbs water. We speak of temperance in eating. [H. Preposition: The negative side of virtue is abstinence from vice. eject. but of abstinence from v ice. silk and woolen goods are con sumed. 43. Sobriety and temperance signify mai ntaining a quiet. vomit. nutrim ent may be absorbed into the system through the skin. as. reveling. food in the body.

we drop the other out of thought. The mind is ab stracted when it is withdrawn from all other subjects and concentrated upon one. we separate some one element from all that does not necessarily belong to it. and hold both in mind in comparison or contrast. because his thoughts a re elsewhere. abstract it. We may separate two ideas. erroneou . so that it can not be given properly to any. absent or absent-minded to the effect. preoccupied. A paradoxical statement appe ars at first thought contradictory or absurd. thoughtful. and view it alone . ludicrous. Antonyms: add. restore. foolish when contrary t o practical good sense. monstrous. infatuated. In mental processes we discriminate b etween objects by distinguishing their differences. unite. oblivious. Synonyms: absent. prompt. strengthen. absent-minded. and preoccupied refer to the ca use. incorrect. A preoccupied person may seem listless and thoughtless. ill-judged. abstracted. combine. Compare ABSTRACT. foolish. wild. ill-considered. * * * * * ABSTRACTED. one may be ab sent-minded either through intense concentration or simply through inattention. Synonyms: anomalous. while it may be really true. on hand. ir rational. Antonyms: alert. purloin. diverted when it is drawn away from what it would or should attend to by some o ther interest. As regards mental action. The trouble with the distracted p erson is that he is not abstracted. thoughtless. that a part should be greater than the whole is absurd. false. Prepositions: The purse may be abstracted from the pocket. complete. * * * * * ABSURD. conjoin. fill up. absorbed. Anyth ing is irrational when clearly contrary to sound reason. as. The man absorbed in one thing will a ppear absent in others. a book into a compend. senseless. stupid. the substance from the accidents. Compare DISCERN. heedless. wide-awake. That is absurd which is contrary to the first principles of reasoning. attentive. negligent. mista ken. absorbed.The central idea of withdrawing makes abstract in common speech a euphemism for appropriate (unlawfully). preposterous. but the really listless and thoughtless have not mental energy to be preoccupied . listless. distracted when the attention is divided among different subjects . with fitful and aimless wandering of thought. inattentive. unreasonable. chimerical. indifferent. ridiculous. One who is preoccupied is intensely busy in thought. silly when petty and contemptible in its folly. The absent-minded man is oblivious of ordinary matters. erroneous. inconclusive. steal. paradoxical. bu t when we abstract one of them. no nsensical. ill-advised. ready. increase.

to oppress is generally for political or pecuniary motives. laud. Defame. Synonyms: aggrieve. To impose on or to victimize one is to injure him by abusing his confidence. Misemploy. vilify. Synonyms: abetter or abettor. retainer. consider. slander. "O monstrous! eleven buckram men grown out of t wo. Antonyms: applaud. accessory. attendant. disparage. as when the witness t ells the truth about the criminal. ruin. respect. Abuse covers all unreasonable or improper use or treatment by word or act. persecute. * * * * * ACCESSORY. conserve. wise. helper. perverts his talents. pervert. associate. attendant. associate. rational. favor. as when the criminal vi tuperates the judge. misuses his money and opportunities. sound. assistant. consistent. injure. Antonyms: certain. assistant. 14. true. incontes table. defame. misuse. slander. established. * * * * * ABUSE. almost always in a bad . ally. unreasonable when there seems a perverse bias or an intent to go wrong. henchman. participator. Monstrous and preposterous refer to wh at is overwhelmingly absurd. and vituperate are used always in a bad sense. panegyrize. conf ederate. extol. prostitute. ill-treat. shi eld. partner. regard. act ii." SHAKESPEARE 1 King Henry IV. accomplice. uphold. sensible. coadjutor. revile. i nfallible." though that may damage the property and injure its sale. indubitable.s when containing error that vitiates the result. abuses ev ery good gift of God. One may be justly reproached . substantial. "Thou shalt n ot oppress an hired servant that is poor and needy. vituperate. companion. The ridiculous or the nonsensic al is worthy only to be laughed at. ally. misemploy. Compare INCONGRUOUS. victimize. reproach. sagacious. the Mother Goose rimes are nonsensical. follower. A di ssolute youth misemploys his time. care for. unquestionable. sc. rail at. demonstrable. impose on or oppress. molest. malign. A te nant does not abuse rented property by "reasonable wear. wrongs his parents. ravish. wrong. 4. logical. vil ify. revile. vindicate. It is possible to abuse a man without harming him. commonly for religious b elief. demonstrated. sustain. xxiv. and pervert are commonly applied to objects rather than to persons. or to harm a man without abusing him. indisputable. damage. helper." Deut. misuse. undeniable. te nd. as. benefit. either in a good or a bad sense. ill-use. praise. Colleague is used always in a good sense. malign. abetter. defile. rail at. harm. confederate. cherish. incontrovertible. rea sonable. T o persecute one is to ill-treat him for opinion's sake. malt reat. The lunatic's claim to be a king is ridiculo us. ruins himself. upon. violate. accomplice. associate and coadjutor generally so. colleague. he may abuse it by needless defacement or neg lect. harms hi s associates. companion. eulogize. protect.

Follower. Compare EVENT. "Fortune favors the brave. hazard. Colleague i s applied to civil and ecclesiastical connections. enemy. mish ap. accident tends to signify some calamity or disaster. At common l aw. Since the unintended is often the undesirable. and generally bound to him by necessity. disaster. we say "he has a chance of success. one is an abettor. Antonyms: . * * * * * ACCIDENT. fee. a chance that which happens without any known cause. AUXI LIARY. Chance as purposeless. an accessory never. misfortune. In law. commander. possibility. in strictn ess. though only to stand outside and k eep watch against surprise. an accessory never. or reward. the accomplice or abettor can be convicted as a prin cipal. retainer are persons especially devo ted to a chief. we can not call it a chance. Fortun e is the result of inscrutable controlling forces. a surgeon's attendant is one who rolls bandages and the like. A surgeon's assistant is a physician or medical student who shar es in the treatment and care of patients. casualty. hap. antagonist. henchman. we speak of fickle Fortune. principal. rival. Fortune is regarded as having a fitful purpose. We can speak of a game of chance. but chance is spoken of where no special cause is manifest: "By chance there came down a certa in priest that way. before or after the fact. and not an accessory. b lind Chance. fortuity. foe. unless the co ntrary is expressed. An incident is viewed as occurring in the regular course of th ings. Partner has come to denote almost exclusively a business connection. no chance. Synonyms: adventure. A s light disturbing accident is a mishap. happening. Fortune and chance are nearly equivalent. Compare APPENDAGE. and can not be convicted until after the c onviction of the principal. even though they may be bitter opponents politically and personally. An accident is that which happens without any one's direct intention. oppo nent. unexpected defeat. chief. an abettor (the general legal spelling) is always present." or "there is one chance in a thousa nd. leader. but not of a game of accident. but the former is th e popular. or of some other connection regarded as great and important. at the commission of the crime. as when we say a fortunate or happy accident. HAZARD. but chance can be used of human effort and endeavor as fortune can not be.sense. a misadventure that which does turn out ill. but subordinate to the main purpose. the latter more distinctively the legal term. allies of despotism. an accessory implies a principal. 31. either actively or constructive ly. members of Congress from the same State are colleagues. all things being by divine causation and control. as. contingency. To the theist there is. chance. calamity. as personified. instigator." Luke x. or aside from the main design. the fortune of war. If present. If the direct cause of a railroad ac cident is known. the accessories of a figur e in a painting. opposer. hinderer. An adventure is that which may turn out ill. incident." where we could not substitute fortune. betrayer. An accomplice is usually a principal. An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court is near in rank to the Chief Justice." The slaughter of men is an incident of battle. Ally is oftenest used of national and military matters. misadventure. Accomplice and abettor have nearly the same meaning. Prepositions: An accessory to the crime. Antonyms: adversary.

which may arise from momen tary annoyance or habitual impatience. companionship. of one person with another. fellowship. asperity. fa miliarity is becoming restricted to the undesirable sense. unfamiliarity. decree. certainty. and conversely. Friendship includes acquaintance with some degree of intimacy. Compare ATTACHMENT. much companionship with little acquaintance. Prepositions: Acquaintance with a subject. from a sl ight or passing to a familiar or intimate acquaintance. There may be pleasant fellowship which does not reach the f ulness of friendship. with a touch of bitterness. purpose." hence. calculation. familiarity. inexperience.appointment. knowledge. pursuits. harshness. but acquaintance unmodif ied commonly signifies less than familiarity or intimacy. There may be pleasant acquaintance with litt le companionship. d enoting distinct irritation or vexation. the word intimacy. Acquaintance admits of many degrees. between persons. intention. for one may be well acquainted with an enemy. malignity. * * * * * ACQUAINTANCE. tartness. Synonyms: acerbity. * * * * * ACRIMONY. moroseness. foreordination. though in a wider sense friendship may exist between those who h ave never met. and by sight. necessity. law . fate. in speech asperity is often manifested by the tone of voice rather than by the words that are spoken. Acquaintance between persons supposes that each knows the other. FRIENDSHIP. Synonyms: association. Antonyms: ignorance. experience. preparation. So there may be association in busines s without intimacy or friendship. sharpness. Acquaintance does not involve friendship. but can not claim acquaint ance unless he personally knows us. severity. ignoring. and ordinarily companionship. Acrimony in speec . etc. ordinance. As regards persons. bitterness. but sympathy as well. in personal relations. plan. As regards studies. LOVE. sourness. There may be much friendship without much fellowship. Prepositions: The accident of birth. causticity. ordainment. which supposes minute kno wledge of particulars. but know each other only by word and deed.. provision. as between those whose homes or pur suits are far apart. "F amiliarity breeds contempt. acquaintance is less than familiarity. we may know a public man by his writings or speeches. Fellowship inv olves not merely acquaintance and companionship. a s between busy clerks at adjoining desks. intimacy. arising often from long experience or association. as in the proverb. wh ich refers to mutual knowledge of thought and feeling. virulence. asperity is keener and more pronounced. frie ndship. Acerbity is a sharpness. is now uniformly preferre d. an accident to the machinery. unkind ness.

exploit. In this sense an act does not necessarily imply an external effect. but rather a virtuo us course of action. proceeding. whether mental or physical. virulence is an envenomed hostility. but on ly a kind action. deed is co mmonly used of great. a feat of memory. The int ensest action is easier than passive endurance. consummation. as. courtesy. as. n. quiet. inertia. We say a virtuous act. As between act and deed. skill. execution. and impressive acts. A Country Town. A feat exhibits strength. legally. transactio n. we may say a kind act. not years. of justice. unless estrangement had begun. involving valor or heroism. Action is a doing. doing. Malignit y is the extreme of settled ill intent. good nature. es pecially the latter. One might speak with momentary asper ity to his child. not of its act. deed to the r esult accomplished. passi on. skill. exploit. performance. but not with acrimony. feat. a bad deed. An act is strictly and originally something accomplished by an exercise of powe r. sweetness. inactivity. achievement. not an action of kindness. Compare ANGER. loftiness of thought. effect. in which sense it is synonymous with deed or effect. quiescence. a voluntary act. and its effect enduring. deed. it springs from settled character or deepl y rooted feeling of aversion or unkindness. as. sc. Act and action are both in contrast to all that is merely passive and receptive. though oftener an act of kindness. the act of murder is in the determination to kill. We speak of the action of an acid upon a metal. malignity may be covered with smooth and co urteous phrase. In connection with other wo rds act is more usually qualified by the use of another noun. endurance. inaction. Antonyms: cessation. in thoughts. operation. Act is used. while an actio n does. kindness. Act and deed are bo th used for the thing done. Vir ulence of speech is a quality in language that makes the language seem as if exu ding poison. deliberation. usually combined with stren gth. Morally. also. and feat. an act of will. but act refers to the power put forth. an achievement is solid. action by an adjec tive preceding. and may be terrible. suffering. or habit of exerting power. true or false . momentary. as are achievement. Severity is always pai nful. but its eff ect may be transient. a feat of arms. an exploit is brilliant. * * * * * ACT. for the simple exertion of power. exertion. not breaths. an achievement is t he doing of something great and noteworthy. Festus: We live in deeds. .h or temper is like a corrosive acid. BITTER. individual. smoothness. or a proces s. motion. Antonyms: amiability. rest. the act is not complete without the striking of the fatal blow. 7. An exploit is a consp icuous or glorious deed. immobility. We say intense virulence. action a complex of acts. mildness. notable.[A] repose. but carries ordinarily the implication. work. deep malignity. exercise. BAILEY Festus. action. Synonyms: accomplishment. state. suspension. Virulence is outspoken. ENMITY. movement. and readiness of resource. gentleness. personal power. Act i s therefore single.

Sharpness. Insight and discernment are applied ofte nest to the judgment of character. sluggish. Compare ALERT. bustling. Antonyms: dull. the shrewdness of a usurer. and insight. r estless. as about other people's business. with busy. however deep. the busy are actually employed. . officious. in a cause. quick. alert. Sagacity is an uncultured skill in using quick perceptions for a desired end. industrious.[A] In philosophic sense. sagacity. a clergyman. quiescent. fall short of the meaning of acumen. keenness. wide awake. sprightly. mobile. discernment. or a merchant. however keen. energetic. sh rewdness. the sagacity of a hound. supple. i ndustrious. Active refers to both quickness and constancy of action. * * * * * ACUMEN. * * * * * ACTIVE. stupid. and penetration. vigorous. inactive. Prepositions: Active in work. an d applies to the most erudite matters. Shrewdness is keenness or sagacity. as ready to take advantage of duller intellects. lazy. acumen may increase with study. the ke enness of a debater. Per spicacity is the power to see clearly through that which is difficult or involve d. Synonyms: acuteness. in the former sense it is allied with agile. nimble. Acumen is sharpness to some purpose. the penetration. ALIVE. for an object. diligent. perspicacity. quiet.. Cleverness is a pr actical aptitude for study or learning. expeditious. lively. We speak of the acuteness of an observer or a reasoner. with persons or inst rumentalities. The restless are active from inabi lity to keep quiet. generally in practical affairs. The officious are undesirably active in the aff airs of others. Antonyms: bluntness. which implies also ability to use these qu alities to advantage. acuteness. the dili gent and the industrious are habitually busy. alert. busy. in the latter. inert. penetration and perspicacity to other subject s of knowledge. prompt. perspicacity. etc. dulness. diligent. heavy. and acumen of a philosopher. indolent. often with a somewhat evil bias. obtuseness. idle. slow. as for justice. brisk. sharpness. The active love employment. There are persons of keen insight and great penetration to whom these powers are practically useless. penetration. stupidity. about something. or out of all proport ion to the purpose contemplated. spry. and belongs to a mind that is comprehensive as well as keen. MEDDLESOME. the insight and disce rnment of a student. brisk . cleverness. ready. insight. Synonyms: agile. their activity may be without purpose.

To add is to increase by adjoining or uniting: in distinction from multiply. Preposition: Other items are to be added to the account. To augment a thing is to increase it by any mea ns. make up. remove. extend. We cast up or sum up an account.* * * * * ADD. given to study or to gluttony (in the bad sense. One i nclined to luxury may become habituated to poverty. * * * * * ADDICTED. inclined. a nation. as. a farm. wh ich is to increase by repeating. . withdraw. Addicted may be used in a good. increase. affix a seal or a signature. or given up. a farm. devoted. affix. attach a condition to a promise. is a stronger and more hopeless expression. augment. as is abandoned). We may enlarge a house. amplify. addicted to drink. Antonyms: abstract. disinclined. lessen. indisposed. one is wedded to science or to art. given up. Abandoned tells of the acquired viciousness of one who has given h imself up to wickedness. addicted to study. deduct. reduce. devote d to his religion. given over. A speaker may amplify a discourse by a fuller treatmen t throughout than was originally planned. attach or annex a building to one that it adjoins or papers to the document they refer to. Preposition: Addicted to vice. subtrac t. disposed. dissever. e xtend influence or dominion. or an empire. or involuntary tendency. subj oin. we do not augment a house. append. as to a habit or indulgence. given over. accustomed. One is addicted to that which he has allowed to gain a strong. annex. inclination. unaccustomed. One is wedded to that which has become a second nature. anne x a clause or a codicil. but more frequently a b ad sense. given. annex a territory. etc. as. a mother's devoted affection. our hearts are p rone to evil. Synonyms: abandoned. join on. attach. and en during hold upon action. as. sum up. augment riches. prone . as. but this word is seldom used directly of material objects. t hough add up and make up are now more usual expressions. enlarge. wedded. attached. A man may be accustomed to labor. or he may append or subjoin certain re marks without change of what has gone before. cast up. Antonyms: averse. habitual. habituated. Devoted is used chiefly in t he good sense. attached to his profession. and generally of natural tendencies. diminish. power or influence. Prone is use d only in a bad sense. Synonyms: adjoin.

ill man ners. the dexterity that comes of practise. since one may return ano ther's greeting. Antonyms: avoid. the president addressed the people in an eloquent speech. ta ct. Address is that indefinable something which enables a man to gain his object wi thout seeming exertion or contest. To accost is to speak first. unwisdom. To appeal is strictly to call for some form of help or support. to hail is to greet in a loud-voiced and commonly hearty and jo yous way. pass. overlook. and tact. appeal. to friend or stranger. as a soldier his commander. It is a general power to direct to the matter in hand whatever qualities are most needed for it at the moment. Synonyms: cost. folly. he accosts orally and briefly. Prepositions: Address the memorial to the legislature. or even the Deity." To salute is to greet with special token of respect. generally with a view to op ening conversation. ignore. v. greet and hail may imply but a passing word. hail. It includes adroitness and discretion to know what to do or say and what to avoid. greet is not so distinctly limited. readiness. clumsiness. a preacher may apostrophize virtue. One may address another at considerable length or in writing. he addressed an intruder with indignation. elude. clownishness. as appears in the expression "hail fellow. court. woo. Synonyms: adroitness. ill-breeding. though it may often be interchanged with them. speak to. greet . the address of an accomplished intriguer. salute. * * * * * . Compare SPEECH. dexterity. Prepositions: Address in dealing with opponents. Antonyms: awkwardness. the saints of old. fatuity. Address is slightly more formal than accost or greet. * * * * * ADDRESS. ingenuity to devise. well met. ingenuity. n. rudeness. To apostrophize is to solemnly address some person or personified attribute apart from the audi ence to whom one is speaking. pass by. manners. approach. politeness. and generally with the favor and approval of those with whom he deals. boorishness. stupidity.* * * * * ADDRESS. courtesy. an address to the audience. unmannerliness. cut. whic h is the power of fine touch as applied to human character and feeling. readiness to speak or act. as. shun. Courtesy and politeness are indispensable elements of good address. discretion. apostrophize. greeting may be al together silent.

antagonist. Work is satisfactory if it satisfies those for whom it is done. Adapted.ADEQUATE. qualified. signifying that which exactl y measures the matter in question. personal in its application. supporter. as. but that would not be a fit or suitable occupa tion for him. adapted. Allies are regard ed as equals. an adequate remedy for the disease. and qualified refer t o the qualities which match or suit the occasion. unsuitable. Adequate. fitted. suitable. worthless. cap able. unfit. Synonyms: aid. Commensurate is the more precise and learned word. insuffici ent. A clergyman may have strength adequate to the work of a porter. incompetent. a capable accountant. thus we say the disciples rather than the adherents of Christ. We say an able orator. th ough it may be very poor work judged by some higher standard. enemy. suitable. and sufficient signify equal to some given occasion or work. commensurate. Synonyms: able. as he may differ on every point except the specific ground of union. opponent. Prepositions: Adherents to principle. poor. Prepositions: Adequate to the demand. Able and capable suggest general ability and reserved power. useless. Partisan has the narrow and odious sense of adhesion to a party. * * * * * ADHERENT. follower. unsatisfactory. deserter. adherents of Luther. An ab le man will do something well in any position. aider. inadequate. fitting. for the purpose. T he Allies who overthrew Napoleon were united only against him. traitor. An ally is more independe nt still. adherents and disciples are followers. . and not in the best usage. equal. Antonyms: adversary. Compare ACCESSORY. One may be a n adherent or supporter of a party and not a partisan. backer. Antonyms: disqualified. One may be an aider and supporter of a party or church. Qualified refers t o acquired abilities. or the like. creed. unqualified. sufficient. right or wrong. able being the higher word of the two. The adherent depends more o n his individual judgment. A capable man will come up to any ordinary demand. competent. ca use. hater. An adherent is one who is devoted or attached to a person. Backer is a sporting and theatrical word. satisfactory. disciple. betrayer. commensurate. fit. ren egade. ally. while not an adherent to all its doctrines or claims. competent to both natural and acquired. unequal. a qualified teache r may be no longer competent. partisan. principle. party. fit. the disciple is more subject to command and instructi on. inferior. by reason of ill health. a sum sufficient to meet expenses.

and generally annoying. applaud. delight in. Conterminous would imply that their dimensions were exactly equal on the sid e where they adjoin. disjoined. coterminous. next neighbor implies a neighborhood. glutinous.* * * * * ADHESIVE. inadhesive. honor. places being called near upon the railroad which would els ewhere be deemed remote. bordering. adjoining. Preposition: The stiff. ne xt. viscous. cohesive expresses the tendency of particles of the same subs tance to hold together. Antonyms: free. sticking. distant. nigh. Polished plate glass is not adhesive. gummy. * * * * * ADMIRE. conterminous. disconnected. close. attached. and viscous are applied to f luid or semi-fluid substances. Synonyms: cohesive. Synonyms: adore. if adjoining. extol. Buildings may be adjacent or adjoining that are not attached. Antonyms: detached. enjoy. That which is adhesive tends to join itself to the surface of any other body with which it is placed in contact. but such plates pa cked together are intensely cohesive. Adjacent farms may not be connected. venerate. Contiguous may be used for either adjacent or adjoining. * * * * * ADJACENT. separate. gummy. beside. viscid. de gree of the same quality. near. Nea r is a relative word. separable. sticky. loose. Sticky expresses a more limited. An adhesive plaster is in popular language a sticking-plaster. contiguous. wet clay. Adhesive is the scientific. won . sticking or sticky the popular word. as pitch or tar. Next views some object as the nearest of several or ma ny. viscid. respect. impeded progress. neighboring. adhesive to the foot. Preposition: The farm was adjacent to the village. Neighboring always implies such proximity that the inha bitants may be neighbors. Ab utting refers rather to the end of one building or estate than to the neighborho od of another. remote. revere. Glutinous. Synonyms: abutting. they meet at the boundary-li ne.

and can not be put on by ornaments or decorations. esteem. the artist i llustrates it with beautiful engravings. a walk or a dinner. We approve what is excellent. hate. abominate. mar. We admire beauty in nature and art. To embellish is to brighten and enliven by adding something that is not necessa rily or very closely connected with that to which it is added. Adorn is more l ofty and spiritual. the feast was garnished with flowers. * * * * * . esteem the good. love. but ornament is more exclusively on the mater ial plane. ridicule. gild." At church. as. the word now expres ses a delight and approval. love our friends. dislike. despise. scorn. spoil. garnish. admire is practically obsolete. embellish. Antonyms: deface. approve. l. the gateway was adorned with beautiful carving. referring to a beauty which is not material. execrate. a mother bedecks her daughter with silk and jewels. dec k. if we say. We say of some admirable scholar or statesman. but seems in perfect harmony and unity with that to which it adds a grace. Synonyms: beautify. Preposition: Adorn his temples with a coronet. we revere and venerate it in the aged. Preposition: Admire at may still very rarely be found in the old sense of wonder at. deform. ornament. decorate. Antonyms: abhor. the binder gilds and decorates the volu me. to illustrate is to add something so far like in kind as to cast a side-light upon the principal matter. detest. An author embellishes his narrative with fine descriptions. Deck and bedeck are commonly said of apparel. disfigure. GOLDSMITH Deserted Village. We extol the goodness and adore the majesty and power of God. We honor and respect nob le character wherever found. contemn. a pplaud heroic deeds. * * * * * ADORN. we imply a unity and loftiness of design such as ornamented can not ex press. 178. In the old sense of wonder. "he touched nothing that h e did not adorn. delight in the innocent happiness of child ren. His looks adorned the venerable plac e. as. in which the element of wonder unconsciously mingles . Garnish is on a lower plane. the gateway was ornamented with delicate carving. bedeck. To adorn and to ornament alike signify to add that which makes anything beautiful and attractive. with meek and unaffected grace. enjoy books or society. illustrate. as.der.

to consent. tease. Synonyms: actor. Antonyms: conciliate. or inclinations. views. We may . admit. as it were. inventor. views coincide. performer. harmonize. To concur is to agree in general. an agent is not the prime actor. conforms to his views of doctrine or duty. so as to be free from jar. complies with his wishes. content. Accede expresses the more formal agreement. is to begin a contest. annoy. to coincide is to agree in every particular. honor. Synonyms: aggravate. One accepts another's terms. * * * * * AGREE. * * * * * AGENT. proportions. vexed at some careless neglect or needless misfortune. wound. combine. accedes or consents t o his proposal. vex. insult. Prepositions: An agent of the company for selling. causes concur. coincide. To tease is to give s ome slight and perhaps playful annoyance. operator. wounded by the ingratitude of child or friend. consent. Aggravate in the sense of offend is co lloquial. acting under orders or instructions. conflict. Whether in application to persons or things. co ncur tends to expression in action more than coincide. Comp are PIQUE. originator. but concur in a decision. doer. admits his statement. In strict philosophical usage. the prime mover or doer of an act is the agent. one provokes another to violence. Synonyms: accede. comply. offend. es pecially in business. to one's face. ass ent. signifying to have like qualities . mover.AFFRONT. provoke. accept. gratify. Compare CAUSE. One may be annoyed by the well-meaning awkwardness of a servant. i rritate. concur. Agree is the most general term of this group. acquiesce. consent the more com plete. approve. literally to call out or challenge. But in common usage. Antonyms: chief. factor. promoter. irritated by a tight shoe or a thoughtless remark. of the will. app roves his plan. or c ontradiction in a given relation. principal. accord. To provoke. it is somewhat less than to insult. exasperate. displease. To assent is an act of the understanding. etc. To affront is to offer some defiant offense o r indignity. a free agent. Thus we speak of man as a voluntary agent. we may either concur or c oincide in an opinion. please. but only an instrument or factor. instrument. means.

etc. the choice varieties of the strawberry ha ve been produced by wise and patient culture. flowers. a good crop in any year is the res ult of good cultivation. for the household. oppose. as if agreement in the opinion assured approval of the decision. gar dening is the close cultivation of a small area for small fruits. and by t he associated industries. but not strictly nor ordinarily of farming. farming is the practise of agriculture as a business. farming. we speak of t he science of agriculture. are all departments of agriculture. persons agree on or upon a statement of principles. gardening. * * * * * AIM. Synonyms: cultivation. refuse. as plowing. floriculture. or sometimes that which is aimed .. protest. mark. either in opinion or decision. manuring. the culture of fruits. purpose. Assent is sometimes used for a mild for m of consent. rules. He admits the charge brought. market-gardening. cultivation refers especially to the processes that bring forward the crop. determination. contradict. market-garden ing. flowers. we must agree among ourselves. the business of farming. but which he does not care to con test. the art. demur. object. One may silently ac quiesce in that which does not meet his views. and horticulture. etc. disagree. differ. Husbandry is a genera l word for any form of practical agriculture. Prepositions: I agree in opinion with the speaker. etc. floriculture. tendency. or the statement made.. or ve getables. we say an agri cultural college rather than a college of farming. and while it may be done upon a farm is yet a distinct industry. end. goal. design. by another--admit alw ays carrying a suggestion of reluctance. deny. farming is itself one department of agriculture. Ga rdening in general. the culture of flowers. Tilla ge refers directly to the work bestowed upon the land. especially b y care through successive generations. kitchen-gardening. husbandry. horticulture. under cultivation. but is now chiefly poetical.. dispute. there may be theoretical agriculture. the cultivation of corn. Synonyms: aspiration. intention. the raising of the same for sale. etc . Antonyms: contend. Farming refers to the cultiva tion of considerable portions of land. w e speak of the tillage of the soil. kitchen-gardening. i nclination. dissent. we also speak of la nd as in a state of cultivation. decline. * * * * * AGRICULTURE. and th e process of supplying human wants by raising the products of the soil. endeavor. but not theoretical farming.. etc. and the raising of the coarser crops. including at once the science. The aim is the direction in which one shoots. to the terms proposed. veget ables. scientific farming is practised upon the land. the cultivation of vegetables. intent. culture. Culture is now applied to the careful development of any product to a state of perfection. scientific agriculture may b e wholly in books.concur or agree with others. tillage. Agriculture is the generic term.

sprightly. endeavor. as. wh ere we could not well say aerial. as. he had the look of an adventurer. neglect. and yet lack the fixedn ess of purpose by which alone it can be attained. whose designs are wise. as. that which he would grasp as t he reward of his labors. the pure ether. * * * * * AIR. light. heedlessness. " an indignant mien. too. All alike indicate the direction of endeavor. fairylike. or the air of a villain. but airy also describe s that which seems as if made of air. manner. but the air o f a gentleman. Expression is o ftenest applied to that which is habitual. thoughtlessness. r . but less often used in a bad sense. a modest demeanor. acquired. Compare AMBITION. as. fashion. lively. DESIGN. Aspiration applies to what are viewed as noble aims. Aspiration has less of dec ision than the other terms. Manner and style are. heavenly. may hope to reach the goal of his ambition. We might sa y of a travel-soiled pedestrian. referring to the mental acts by which the aim is attained. Aerial and airy both signify of or belonging to the air. and so. as. way. wh ose aspirations are high. as. we say he has the air of a scholar. a look of dismay passed over his face. Compare BEHAVIOR. in large part at least. port. we speak of airy shapes. Purpose is stronger than inten tion. and whose purposes are steadfa st. look. as. bearing. he has a noble bearing. * * * * * AIRY. are often used as interchangeable wit h aim. Air is that combination of qualities which makes the entire impression we recei ve in a person's presence. he has the appearance of a tramp. The mark is that at which one shoots. port is practically identical in meanin g with bearing. Expression and look especially refer to the face. in tention. speak of the look or looks as indicating all that we look at. joyous. however. ethereal. including conduct. endeavor. animated. behavior . airy nothings. the goal. Synonyms: aerial. but is more exclusively a literary word. behavior. style. and will surely win some object worthy of a life's endeavor. carriage. The end is the point at which one expects or hopes to close his labors. Sprightly. Mien is closely sy nonymous with air. is gener ally used in a good sense. ethereal describes its object as belonging to the upper air. avoidance. purpose. carelessness. spiritlike. We say a rakish air rathe r than a rakish mien. One whose aims are worthy. expression. Aspiration. he has a pleasant expression of c ountenance. design. gay. one may aspire to an object. design. Design especially denotes the adaptation of means to an end." Demeanor goes beyond appearance. look may be momentary. often. that lady has a good carriage. sort. endeavor refe rs to the exertions by which it is to be attained. the object. Antonyms: aimlessness. Carriage. Synonyms: appearance. purposelessness.at. mien. Bearing is rather a lofty word. negligence. We may. purpose. demeanor. Appearance refers more to the dress and other externals. indifferently to the best or worst. frolicsome. Mien may be used to express some prevailing feeling. as. ove rsight. I did not like his looks. that toward which one runs.

Prompt expresses readiness for appointment or demand at t he required moment. Ready expresses more life and vigor than prepared. heavy. and terror are ove rwhelming fear. Prepositions: Alarm was felt in the camp. wooden. generally in the actual presence of that which is terrible. solicitude. overwhelms courage. fright. nimble is t he secondary and now less common signification of alert. Alert. fear. a readiness to be affected with fear. The gun is prepa red. thou gh these words also may have an anticipative force. Antonyms: drowsy. Synonyms: active. misgiving. consternation. That which is lively o r animated may be agreeable or the reverse. dismay. ALIVE. slow." is an arousing to meet and repel danger. consternation. The sense of brisk. cheerful activity of mind and body. terr or. Affright and fr ight express sudden fear which. Synonyms: affright. NIMBLE. the wandering Indian is alert. slow. prompt. free. the trained soldi er is ready. prepared. nimble. habit . prompt to seize occasion. * * * * * ALARM. Ready s uggests thoughtful preparation. the man is ready. brisk. Antonyms: clumsy. stony. as. hustling. apprehension. Timidity is a quality. inactive. The s entinel discovers with alarm the sudden approach of the enemy. lively. disquietude. and may be quite consistent with true courage. among the soldiers. Alarm. A person of great timidity is constantly liable to needless alarm and even terror. wide-awake. sluggish. dread. sluggish. at the news. the unarmed villa gers view it with affright. panic. dismay.efers to light. "to arms. alert to perceive opportunity or peril. Compare FEAR. confidence. VIGILANT. and sol icitude are in anticipation of danger. misgiving. * * * * * ALERT. ready. or condition. The good general is ready for emergencies. * * * * * . watchful. on the watch. disquietude. an animated discussion. dull. heavy. ponderous. stupid. according to its derivation all'arme. Apprehension. dull. a lively company. ready. and wide-awake refer to a watchful promptness for action. for the time at least. repose. dread. calmness. security. vigilant. Compare ACTIVE. timidity. Antonyms: assurance. inert.

hostile. A naturalized citizen is not an alien. He is a n alien in one country if his allegiance is to another. but alien and foreigner are ofte n used synonymously. Prepositions: Aliens to (more rarely from) our nation and laws. apropos. relevant. stranger. a. or opposed. and perhaps a stranger in the place where he resides. Synonyms: conflicting. * * * * * ALIEN. same. A person of foreign birth not natural ized is an alien. contradictory. tha t is alien which is conflicting. though a foreigner by birth. CONTRAST. The people of any countr y still residing in their own land are. proper. natural ized person. rem ote. impertinent. irrelevan t. unconnected. strictly speaking. Foreign refers to difference of birth. foreign. native. Impertinent and irrelevant matters can not claim consideration in a certain connection. In th eir figurative use. that is foreign which is remote. Compare ALIEN. Prepositions: Such a purpose was alien to (or from) my thought: to preferable. unlike. signifying as applied to two or more objects tha t some or all qualities of one are the same as those of the other or others. * * * * * ALIKE. Antonyms: citizen. equal. distant. contrasted.ALIEN. inappropriate matt ers could not properly be considered. fellow-countryman. appropriate. contrary. homogeneous.. uniform. unlike. alien to difference of allegiance. opposed. v. among our people. essential. resembling. strange. n. Alike is a comprehensive word. like. analogous. or unconnected. Synonyms: akin. kindred. foreigners to the peo ple of all other countries. pertinent. hostile. though he may have been resident in the country a large part o f a lifetime. n. identical. by . inappropriate. aliens in our land. Antonyms: akin. countryman. germane. native-born inhabitant. and ceased to be a stranger to its people or institutions. equivalent. similar. Synonyms: foreigner. rather than aliens.

still. two triangles are equal when they can be laid over one another." is now mostly applied to energy of life as shown in swiftness of action. exis tent. tranquilize." TENNYSON Princess can." is to say not merely that he is similar to the one I have in mind. Breathing is capable of like contrast.modifiers alike may be made to express more or less resemblance. compose. partially) alike. v. quiet. tho perhaps quite unlike in appearance. We say of a dying man. or character. these houses are exactly (i. they are equivalent when they simply contain the same amount of sp ace. NIMBLE. Two pieces of iron may be homoge neous in material. he is still breath ing. Cotton and wool are alike in this. beauteous ba ttle. dissimilar. alert. which began by signifying "having life. brisk. Compare ACTIVE. as when we say he is just alive. while not alike in size or shape. Substances are homogeneous which are made up of elements of the same kind. . breathing. appease. alive to every noble impulse. Antonyms: different. mollify. or "breathing and sounding. to that w hich implies the very utmost of vitality and power. as in the words "he is all a live. line for line and ang le for angle. subsisting. * * * * * ALLAY. which yet leaves room for question or denial of complete likeness or identity. heterogeneous. these house s are somewhat (i. alive through all his being. lifeless. In geometry. lively. unlike. 155. existing. dull. e. or we speak of a breathing statue. spiritless. vivacious. calm. Similar refers to close resemblance. or which are the same in structure. Antonyms: dead. To say "this is the identi cal man. plan. Alive applies to all degrees of life. deceased.. or seeming to ha ve. animate. use. Synonyms: active. and fit. An identical proposition is one that says the same thing precisely in subje ct and predicate." "thoroughly alive. from that which shows one to be barely ex isting or existent as a living thing. quick. the g ills of fishes are said to be analogous to the lungs in terrestrial animals. as. abundant life. Prepositions: Alive in every nerve. e. where it means having. animated. but that he is the very same person. pacify. Prepositions: The specimens are alike in kind. they are all alike to me. inanimate. Things are analogous when they are similar in idea. that they can both be w oven into cloth. distinct. hope. living. as.. in all respects) alike. defunct. soothe. live." So the word quick. dispirited. full and vigorous breath. alive with fervor. re solve. ALERT. Synonyms: alleviate. or. * * * * * ALIVE. l.

state. which the evidence is to sustain. etc. is to bring the evidence up to what has been alleged. affirm. declare. adjust to a calm and settled condition. pa cify the quarrelsome. Antonyms: agitate. and adduce the strongest possible evidence in its support. respectful. arouse. or tranquilize is to make still. an alleged crime. introduce suggestions. Synonyms: devotion. is either to question. When an alleged criminal is brought to tria l. The accused will usually assert his innocence. al leged simply concedes nothing and leaves the question open. A patrioti . quiet or s oothe that which is excited. to soothe (originally to assent to. obedience. to allay rage or panic. directly from the L atin. loyalty. The fe udal uses of these words have mostly passed away with the state of society that gave them birth. kindle. but without proving . or t hat the crime has been committed. that the will is genuine. aver. provoke. subjection.. literally to lead to. we alleviate suffering by doing something toward removal of the cause. We allay suffering by using means to soothe and tranquilize the sufferer. Synonyms: adduce. as. signify to bring to peace. of them we say introduce or produce. is to lighten a bu rden. they will produce documents and wit nesses. Compare STATE. in return for the protection he receives. We allay excit ement. * * * * * ALLEGIANCE. an alleg ed will. quiet the boisterous or clamorous. Adduce is not used of persons. however. fealty. appease a tumult. we alleviate poverty. stir. to mollify is to soften. homage. where the trouble is wholly or chiefly in the excitement . asseverate. plead. Pacify. soothe grief or distres s. and have been often i nterchanged in usage. as. excite. to place together. to calm. stir up. to alleviate. faithfulness.Allay and alleviate are closely kindred in signification. cite. nothing can be adduced in evidence till som ething has been stated or alleged. To allege is formally to state as true or capable of proof. fan. introduce. say. unite. papers or persons. claim. quiet. for instance. on the other hand. assert. rouse. To adduce. To produce is to bri ng forward. produce. An alleged fact stands open to question or doubt. Compare ALLEVIATE. offer pleas. assign reasons. and appease. calm agitation. compo se. * * * * * ALLEGE. and imply that the speaker was ready to brand it as unquestionably spurious. to speak of t he "so-called" will or deed. maintain. in strictness. humor) is to bring to pleased quietude. to allay the excitement is virtually to remove the trouble. Allegiance is the obligation of fidelity and obedience that an individual owes to his government or sovereign. assign. to allay is to lay to rest. To speak of an alleged document. would be to cast discredit upon the document. or at least very carefully to refrain from admitting. But. offer. Alleged is. but their origin still colors their present meaning. so that t here is less to suffer. the counsel on either side are accustomed to advance a theory. but do not allay it. cite precedents. from the Latin through the French. compose our feelings or countenance. Adduce is a secondary word. that the document exists. advance.

parable. he pays homage to God alone. as in "The Pilgrim's Progress. or the like which serves to let in light upon a subject may be called an illustration. * * * * * ALLEVIATE. or fable tells its story as if true. wife. he takes. of whic h the moral lesson is the substance. illustration." A fable is generally briefer. at a stroke. to alleviate is to lift a burden toward oneself. or friend. parable. metaphor. history. but his loyalty will lead him to do mo re than mere allegiance could demand. while a meta phor is an abbreviated simile contained often in a phrase. Th e simile carries its comparison on the surface. like. anecdote." A parable is exclusively mo ral or religious. but the word fiction is now applied almost excl usively to novels or romances. fiction. Synonyms: abate. In modern usage we may say that an allegory is an extended simile. the metaphor is given directly without any note of comparison. he a cknowledges the duty of obedience to all rightful authority. tale. represent ing animals as the speakers and actors. in the words as. Alleviate is thus less than re . narrative.c American feels an enthusiastic loyalty to the republic. an oath of allegiance to the government. soften. assuage. Fealty is becoming somewhat rare. Antonyms: disaffection. treason. fictions. and commonly conveying some lesson of pr actical wisdom or shrewdness. example. disloyalty. or simila r expressions. to remove is to take it away altogether. perhaps in a word. * * * * * ALLEGORY. nearly or qui te away. leaving the reader or hearer to discover its fictitious character and learn its lesson. reduce. as the only k ing and lord. except in elevated or poetic s tyle. An allegory is a moral or religious tale. remove. and all descriptions and incidents but acce ssories. and so lighten it for the bearer. All these are. lighten. rebellion. instance. We prefer to speak of the faithfulness rather than the fealty of citizen. Any comparison. as "The Fables of Æsop. Th e allegory. the government has a right to allegiance from the citizen. analo gy. or to those principles of right that are spiritually supreme. on occasion. fact. STORY. in strict definition. mod erate. Prepositions: We honor the allegiance of the citizen to the government. briefer and less adorned than an allegory. with its lesson mor e immediately discernible. Compare FICTION. Etymologically. as it were. Synonyms: fable. mitigate. record. simile. given. sedition. he resents the idea of subjection. Antonyms: chronicle. this word in its widest use includ ing all the rest. to relieve is to lift it back from the bearer. lessen. relieve.

Partnership is a mercantile word. relieve or remove th e trouble. hostility. and no union except for a specified ti me and purpose. we lighten or mitigate punishments." Locksley Hall. federation. assuage. or moderate grief. between. but prefers to be styled a federal union. Allot. alliance of. magnify. We abate a fever. fusion. separation. reduce inflammation. lessen anxiety. A definite period is appointed. portion out. lighten burdens. or remedy. In an alliance between nati ons there is no surrender of sovereignty. assi gn. enmity. award. we relieve. Synonyms: coalition. * * * * * ALLIANCE. as. Antonyms: antagonism. augment. moderate passions or desires. war. The Uni ted States is not a confederacy nor an alliance. league. We alleviate. we reliev e any suffering of body or mind that admits of help. * * * * * ALLOT. partnership. to make mild. divorce. confederacy. make worse. grant. by derivation. against the common enemy. Federa tion is mainly a poetic and rhetorical word expressing something of the same tho ught. Prepositions: Alliance with a neighboring people. embitter. In a confederacy or confederation there is an attempt to unite sep arate states in a general government without surrender of sovereignty. divide. the nation might be called a fe deration. to beat down. Allot may also refer to space. confederation. abate. Coalition is oftenest used of political partie s. l. as. less than remove. A portion or extent of time is allotted. select. to bring within measure. s often. t o sweeten. intensify. mitigate. Union imp lies so much concession as to make the separate states substantially one. discord. League and alliance are used with scarcely perceptible differenc e of meaning. Assuage is. distribute. fusion is now the more common word in this sense. and so make less. destine. disunion. relieve. 128. as. as in Tennyson's "federation of the world. enhance. not alleviate. the audience assembl ed at the appointed hour. Synonyms: appoint. set apart. comfort. alliance chiefly political or matrimonial. mete out.lieve. heighten. compact. for offense and d efense. applies to the giving of a definite thing t o a certain person. to allot a plot of . ordinarily. moderate. give. schism. Alliance is in its most common use a connection formed by treaty between sovere ign states as for mutual aid in war. mitigate or alleviate pain. increas e. Antonyms: aggravate. the sufferer. Allevia te has been often confused with allay. originally to assign by lot. secession. apportion. Compare ALLAY. I expect to liv e out my allotted time. uni on. or among nations.

but rather of places. Prepositions: To allow of (in best recent usage. who. resist. Allo t is not now used of persons. allow one i n such a course. retain. That which is allotted. he destines his son to follow his own profession. Antonyms: appropriate. sanction. Compare APP ORTION. submit to a surgical opera tion. concede. We allow that which we do not attempt to hinder. When this is given verbally it is called permissio n. and allowed the mob to enter. See also synonyms for PROHIBIT. there are others to which visitors are admitted at specified times. the medal was awarded for valor. or person. the appointed day. or person. the sheriff yielded the keys at the muzzle of a revolver . Appoint may be used of time. we concede a right. allow for spending-money. We allow a child's innocent intrusion. resume. permit. Synonyms: admit. Compare PERM ISSION. suffer. there are othe rs that no one is allowed to visit without a permit from the manager. as. place. or yield somethin g under compulsion. confiscate. protest. consent to. as.ground for a cemetery. simply to allow) such an action. refuse. tolerate the rudeness of a well-meaning servant. or things. an officer was appointed to this statio n. but it always has reference to what is considerably in the future. its place being taken by allow. permit. is now becoming rare. without a formal permi t. refuse. disapprove. tolerate. Antonyms: deny. seize. in the sense of mild concession. or tolerate. yield to a demand or necessity against our wish or will. grant. deny. . * * * * * ALLOY. must assign a reason for not doin g it. permit an inspection of accounts. reject. set apart. Destine may also refer to time. Suffer. when in writing it is commonly called a permit. as. that which is awarded is the due requital of something the receiver has done. we permit that to which we giv e some express authorization. withstand. a man appoints to meet his friend in fiv e minutes. c onsent to a sale of property. or assign. withhold. We assign a work to be don e and assign a man to do it. space. let. forbid. * * * * * ALLOW. yie ld. Assign is rarely us ed of time. persons. There are establishments that any one will be allowed to visit without challenge or hindrance. but we now oftener use select. grant a request. disallow. appointed. if he fails. the appointed place. Prepositions: Allot to a company for a purpose. or assigned is more or less arbitrary. an d he has right and claim to it. sanction a marri age.

s educe. tho he mentioned no name. decoy. not of the thing. Cajole and decoy carry the idea of deceiving and ensnaring. to seduce is to su cceed in winning one from good to ill. as it were in byplay. suggest a course o f action. mention. adulteration. and deterioration are always used in the bad s ense. the g ood unconsciously attract others to virtue. the others of language from which it may be inferred. point. We may attract others to a certain thing without intent. medicine. we refer to it by any c lear utterance that distinctly turns the mind or attention to it. and may be good or bad. Advert. hint. signify. imply his opinion. To allure is to draw as with a lure by some charm or some prospect of pleasure or advantage. To inveigle is to le ad one blindly in. Adulteration. as. coax. In the figurative sense. Win may be used in either a bad or a good sense. as by n aming it. 170. imply. A man may be coaxed to that which is by no means alluring. we advert to it when we turn from our path to treat it. lure. Lure is rather more akin to the physical nature. by purpose and endeavor. tempt. l. Coax expresses the attraction of the perso n. it was easy to see to whom he alluded. We allude to a matter slightly. An excess of alloy virtually amounts to adulteration. * * * * * ALLURE. cajole. but what is insinuated is a lways unfavorable. win. deterioration. "Allured to brighter worlds." GOLDSMITH Deserted V illage. and refer are used of language that more or less distinctly ut ters a certain thought. One may indicate his wis hes. The speaker adverted to the recent disturbances and the remissness of certain public officers. draw. Alloy may be either some admixture of baser with precious metal. because there the only standard is perfection. as. * * * * * ALLUDE.Synonyms: admixture. intimate his plans. refer. generally both hostile and cowardly. drink. as applied to character. etc. signify his will. alloy is commonly good in th e literal sense. debasement. but adult eration is now mostly restricted to articles used for food. marginal f igures refer to a parallel passage. One may hint at a thing in a friendly way. entice. We may allure either to that which i s evil or to that which is good and noble. admixture is neutral. inveigle. as in the fa miliar line. Compare SUGGESTION. perhaps by a word or phrase. insinuate. debasement. captivate. To tempt is to endeavor to lead one wrong. mention. or it may be a compound or mixture of two or more metals. in which latter it surpasses the highest sense of allure. Preposition: The passage evidently alludes to the Jewish Passover. intimate.. we mention a thing by explicit word. indicate. because it suc . as for giving hardness to coin or the like. and kindred uses. Synonyms: advert. Synonyms: attract. It is the word we would use of drawing on an animal. su ggest. and led the way. alloy is unfavorable.

* * * * * ALSO. repel. likewise. preference. the alt ernative of surrender is death. Synonyms: choice. in like manner. both Mill and Gladstone are quoted as extendin g the meaning of alternative to include several particulars. picture the obje cts before one. deter. We can say the s ingers as well as the players. the act of choosing . too. that to which one is glad to betake oneself. A choice may be among many things. nevertheless. necessity. also (all so). or the players. oftener it is one of two things between which a choice is to be made. a resource. pick. there were t welve horses. besides. on the o ther hand. in addition. election. "He that winneth souls is wise. withal. or the two things between which there is a choic e may be called the alternatives. Prepositions: Allure to a course. yet in practise the choice between them is largely to secure euphon y and avoid repetition. and election. While some distinctions between these words and phrases will appear to the care ful student. As well follows the word or phrase to which it is joined. simply add a fact or thought.ceeds in that which allure attempts. allure from evil to good. in spite of. * * * * * ALTERNATIVE. drive away. affirm that what is added is like that to which it is a dded. as. The words fall into two groups. an alternative is in the strictest sense a c hoice between two things. election. yet. . with freedom and power to choose which he will. dissuade. notwithstanding. pick. in addition. similarly. choice may be either the right to choose. as well as. too. 30. option. wit hal. besides. similarly. Gladstone even spea king of "the fourth and last of these alternatives. on the contrary. allure by hopes. in like mann er. resource. Antonyms: but. Synonyms: as well. Antonyms: chill. or the thing chosen. warn. an alternative is that to which one is res tricted. from the Saxon. as well as. as." Option is the right or priv ilege of choosing. as. Pick. and the singers as well. damp. Antonyms: compulsion. A person of ability and readiness will commonly have many resources." Prov. among which I could take my pick. or pre ference is that which suits one best. from the Latin. xi. likewise. and either of which is the alternative of the other. A choice.

parcel. divide. Dilettante. the amateur is one who loves. scatter. with great labor. collect. hoard up. whether in theory or practise. accumulate is applied to the more gradual. the connoisseur one who knows. amass referring to the general result or bulk. amass to the more rapid gathering of money or materials. waste. there are many incompetent criti cs. has to some extent come to denote one who is superficial. a great bulk or quant ity. squander. the amateur may be skilled and experienced as the novice or tyro never is. for a purpose. The ama teur practises to some extent that in regard to which he may not be well informe d. Antonyms: disperse. Synonyms: accumulate. heap up. in the true sense. W e say interest is accumulated (or accumulates) rather than is amassed.* * * * * AMASS. portion. the term amateur is applied to one who pursues any study or art simply f rom the love of it. but there can not. Synonyms: connoisseur. Aggregate is now most commonly used of numbers and amounts. the expenses will aggrega te a round million. but to hoard is always with a view of permanent retention. * * * * * AMATEUR. dissipate. he accumu lated a fortune in the course of years. Preposition: An amateur in art. the connoisseur is well informed in regard to that which he may not practise at all. . as. novice. spend. To amass is to bring together materials that make a mass. Etymologically. whic h had originally the sense of amateur. accumulate to the particular process or rate of gain. A connoisseur is supposed to be so thoroughly informed regarding any art or work as to be able to critici ze or select intelligently and authoritatively. the word carries a natural implication of superficialness. he rapidly amassed a fortune by shrewd s peculations. t ho marked excellence is at times attained by amateurs. store up. dilettante. * * * * * AMAZEMENT. aggregate. critic. gather. With some occasional exceptions. They may be stored up for a longer or shorter time. Goods or money for immediate distribution are said to be collected rather than amassed. A novice or tyro may be a professional. pretentious. tyro. an amateur never is. from a distance. In usage. and affected. pil e up. hoard. be an incompetent connoisseur. by industr y. Prepositions: Amass for oneself. generally selfish.

it implies that the competitor is an opponent and hinderer. awe. which seeks the high quality or character for its own sake. has primary reference to the award or approval o f others. . preparation. etc. and beauty of the heavens fill us wi th increasing wonder. Aspiration is the desire for excellence. and viewed as a worthy prize. and the like. Antonyms: anticipation. Competition may be friendly. nobi lity.Synonyms: admiration. The prizes of aspiration are virtue. surprise. The prizes of ambition are advancement. indifference. the magnitude. Awe is the yielding of the mind to something supreme ly grand in character or formidable in power. emulation is inferior as a motive to aspiration. as when a multitude of details req uire instant attention. literally a going around to solicit votes. rivalry. skill. when those we would equal or surpass are noble. amazement the intellect. bewilderment. achievement. at the highest. astonishment. self-possession. emulation. politics. or something deemed great and eminent. competition. competition for a prize. r ivalry between persons or nations. measurement. but scarcely pleased astonish ment. opposition. competition the concrete. but confusion and bewilderment may occur without amazement. riva lry is the same in essential meaning with competition. perplexity. emulation in scholarship. Amazement and astonishment both express the momentary overwhelming of the mind by that which is beyond expectation. * * * * * AMBITION. pure and simple. Amazement may be eithe r pleasing or painful. Competition is the striving for something that is sought by another at the same time. selfish. w onder. success. as. composure. Astonishment especially affects the emotion s. in the case of rivalry. We speak of competition in business. and ranges from apprehension or dr ead to reverent worship. Astonishment may be without bewilderment or confusion. and rule. order. There is a noble and wise or an ignoble. or other high qualities. Surprise lies m idway between astonishment and amazement. honor. But. confusion. Opposition is becoming a frequent substitute for competition in bus iness language. There is such a thing as a noble emu lation. rivalry in love. rivalry is commo nly hostile. are usually of the nobler sort and less subject to direct gaging. but differs in the nature of the objects contested for. We can say pleased surprise. Synonyms: aspiration. Preposition: I was filled with amazement at such reckless daring. as when induced by the grandeur of the mountains. and usually respects matters of lighte r consequence or such as are less startling in character. steadiness. which. and h armful ambition. Compare PERPLEXITY. stoicism. Ambition. Admiration includes delight and regard. W onder is often pleasing. expectation. coolne ss. calmness. or by t he fury of the storm. and may be continuous in view of that which surpasses o ur comprehension. fa me. and the means we would u se worthy. emulation of excellence. Emulation is not so much to win any excellence or success for i tself as to equal or surpass other persons. Amazement has in it something of confusion or bewilderment.. fame. and is the eager desire of power. Emulation regards the abstract. not with reference to another.

errors. a lovely face. and make happy. better. harm. Kind . writing. improve the minds of our children. mitigate. improve. engaging. good-natured. beni gnant. The engagi ng. Synonyms: advance. impair. we ameliorate poverty and misery. Synonyms: agreeable. tarnish. Antonyms: . a constitution is amended by the people. satisfaction. the amiable charac ter has ready affection and kindliness for others. Amiable denotes a disposition desirous to cheer. * * * * * AMEND. which we can n ot wholly remove. purify. reform. we advance the kingdom of God. pleasing. kind. the really amiable are likely to avoid such faults by their earnest desir e to please. indifference. and winsome add to amiability something of beauty. and witty person may be charming or even attractive. loving. or defects. we amend cha racter or conduct that is faulty. please. We correct evils. blemish. But for mat ters below the point of ordinary approval we seldom use these words. contentment. better. The good-natured have an easy disposition to get along comfortably with every one in all circumstances. accomplishments. an d always refers to that which at some point falls short of a standard of excelle nce. and improve may refer either to what is quite imperfect or to what has reached a high degree of excellence. A sweet disposition is very sure to be amia ble. correct. Antonyms: aggravate. harming. or improving a foul sewer. amiable is a higher and stronger word than good-nature d or agreeable. a handsome. A tex t. The benignant are calmly kind. Compare ALLEVIATE. rectify. gentle. There we use clea nse. emend. * * * * * AMIABLE. as from a height and a distance. deteriorate. cleanse. repair. reform abuses. Lovely is often applied to externals. with the qualities that are a dapted to win their love. corrupt. while by no means amiable. lovely. winning. winsome. injure. and so fail to be agreeable or ple asing. mar. an ancient text is emended by a critic who believes that what seems to him the better reading is what the auth or wrote. meliorate. depress. humility. and grace. better the morals of the people. We mend a tool. debase. or a statement or law that is defective. winning. spoil. repair a building. ameliorate. Amiable combines the senses of lovable or lovely and loving. mend. make better. Advance. we do not s peak of bettering a wretched alley.Antonyms: carelessness. attractive. rectify incident al conditions of evil or error. it is often emended by conjecture. or statement is amended by the author or by some adequate authority. purify. A selfish man of the world may have the art to be agreeable. the loving heart bringing out all that is lovable and lovely in character. lovable. correct proof. brilliant. To amend is to change for the better by removing faults. A motion is amended by the mover or by the a ssembly. as. or similar words. vitiate . pleasant. sweet. good-natured people may be coarse and rude.

"boil dow . Amid or amidst denotes surrounded by. The chief diff iculty of very young writers is to amplify. I found myself in the midst of a crowd. widen the range of treatment. crusty. Amplify is now rarely used in the sense of increase. as. extend. betwixt) is said of two persons or objects. "where two or three are met together in my name. volume. condense. to get beyond the bare curt statemen t by developing. gruff. amid my books would suggest packing. between. In the midst of may have merely the local meaning. but at pres ent this word and most kindred words are coming to share the derogatory meaning that has long attached to expatiate. "I found myself in the midst of friends" suggests their pressin g up on every side. extend a discussion. without. whether with or without adding matt er of importance. expatiate. We may develop a thought. as. enlarge. betwixt. unlovely. surrou nded by. or the like. dilate on something joyous or sad. among. among. ill-humored. far from. churlish. illconditioned." no t so well to say "amidst them. crabbed. in the e arly days of our literature amplify was used in the favorable sense. or some oth er incidental circumstance. outside. amongst." Matt. as of companionship. or by adding illustrations to make the meaning more readily apprehended.acrimonious. or among enemies. unfolding the thought. surly. signifying to make fuller in statement. away from. morose. amidst the w oods. mingled with. ill-tempered. among or amongst denotes mingled with. The chief difficulty of those who have more material and experience is to condense sufficiently. amid the shadows." Antonyms: afar from. cut down. hateful. or of two groups of persons or objects. in the midst of. Lowell's "Among my Books" regards th e books as companions. 20. and between my herdmen and thy herdmen. expand an illustr ation. etc. develop. xiii. expatiate on a hobby. cr uel. Synonyms: augment. dilate. "Let there be no strife. Antonyms: abbreviate. reduce. as by stating fully what was before only implied. dogged. unfold a scheme. so. hostility. some active rel ation. the reference be ing to two bodies of herdmen. So. between me a nd thee. * * * * * AMPLIFY. widen." Gen. * * * * * AMID. expanding. there am I in the midst of them. amputate. disagreeable. unfold. it is now almost wholly applied to discourse or writ ing. Synonyms: amidst. Amid denotes mere position. in which case it would be feebler to say "among them. abridge. expand. beyond." impossible to say "amid them. storing. increase. or it may express even closer association than among. I pray thee. sullen. enlarge a volume. We say among friends. etc. to add material substance. ill-natured. Be tween (archaic or poetic. oneself the central object. xviii. bulk. 9. summarize. sour. unamiable.

rage." SHAKESPEARE Hamlet act v. Affinity is a mutual attraction with or without seeming likeness. Prepositions: The analogy between (or of) nature and revelation. vexatio n. similarity. so that from the likeness in certain respects we may infer that ot her and perhaps deeper relations exist. coincidence. disproportion. dissimilarity. necess arily brief. tho we ma y correctly say a hot temper. * * * * * ANALOGY. Compare ALLEGORY. in the singular.n. and may involve no deeper relation ." curtail. peevishness. semblance. passion. a roughening. Indignation is impersonal and unselfish . Parity of reasoning is said of an argument equally conclusive on subjects not strictly analogous. parity. Synonyms: affinity. likeness. and sweeps one away into uncontrollable violence. temper. aroused by real or supposed wrong to oneself. as. Coincidence is co mplete agreement in some one or more respects. is a hot. be employed to denote anger. Temper used alone in the sense of anger is colloquial. may. Passion. sc. Similitude is a rhetorical compar ison of one thing to another with which it has some points in common. as. Rage drives one beyond the bounds of prudence or discretion. a fiery temper. Anger is violent and vi ndictive emotion. impatience. the resemblance of a cloud to a distant mountain. which is sharp. a family has some analogy with (or to) a state. epitomize. now rare exce pt in poetic or highly rhetorical language. choler. denote a still. resemblance. Analogy is specifically a resemblance of relations. and the latter a per sistent. and. the analogy of sound to ligh t. "did put me in a towering passion. unlikeness. * * * * * ANGER. Resentment (a feeling back or feeling over again) is persistent. sim ile. the affinity of iron for oxygen. pettishness. wrath. Antonyms: disagreement. relation. petulance. proportion. ire. retrench. a resemblance that may be r easoned from. incongruity. exasperation. there may be a coincidence in tim e of most dissimilar events. irritation. Anger is personal and usually selfish. offense. etc. Resemblanc e and similarity are external or superficial. sudden. disple asure. Synonyms: animosity. Amplify this matter by illustrat ions. Exasperation. and directed specifically and intensely against t he person who is viewed as blameworthy. anger. similitude. th e bitter brooding over injuries. resentment. demanding instant expression. 2. sum up. fury. tho a word of far wi der application. Prepositions: To amplify on or upon the subject is needless. Displeasure is the mildest and most general word. comparison. fretfulness. superfici al intensity of anger. like all violent passions. fury is stronger yet. Choler and ire. indignation.

patience. as when the people of Nazareth were "filled with wrath" at the plain words of Jesus (Luke iv. or men. mineral . self-restraint. whether inanim ate objects. * * * * * ANNOUNCE. But because the animal life is the lo west and rudest part of his being and that which he shares with inferior creatur es. indignation is often a duty. spirit. fauna. i. fretfulness. pettishness. t o call him a beast is to indicate that he is vilely sensual. Anger toward the offender exaggerates t he offense. vegetable. it may. mind. To call a man a brute is to imply that he is unfeeling and cruel. Impatience. . sentient being. angels. man. Irrita tion. The brute is the a nimal viewed as dull to all finer feeling. and so is deep condemnation or utter insult. matter. Anger is commonly a sin. irritation. and peevishness are chronic states finding in any petty matter an occasion for their exercise. give notice (of). distinct from inanimate matter and from vegetabl e life on the one side and from mental and spiritual existence on the other. leniency. 28). living creature. Fretfulness .. the wrath of God. proclaim. petulance. and vexation are temporary and for immediate cause. peace. peevishness. we prefer in such cases the word animal. self-c ontrol. brute. soul. charity. as. reveal. mildness. love. Wrat h is deep and perhaps vengeful displeasure. circulate. Antonyms: amiability. at wrong as wrong. of the drunkard as making a beast of himse lf. We speak of the cru el father as a brute to his children. living organism. Synonyms: beast. animals. forbearance. however. for which we have any affection. substance (material). pettishness. as a horse or dog. petulance. Synonyms: advertise. Creature is a word of w ide signification. long-suffering. HATRED. indigna). e. pe aceableness. the beast is looked upon as a being o f appetites.displeasure at unworthy acts (L. Compare ACRIMONY. promulgate. Prepositions: Anger at the insult prompted the reply. Pure indign ation is not followed by regret. Thu s man is properly classified as an animal. to call any individual man an animal is to imply that the animal nature has undue supremacy. ENMITY. gentleness. inanimate object. it is also more self-c ontrolled than anger. An animal is a sentient being. lenity. peacefulness. Antonyms: angel. including all the things that God has created. and needs no repentance. * * * * * ANIMAL. plants. So firmly are these figurative senses established that we now incline to avo id applying brute or beast to any creature. and vexation express the slighter forms of anger. simply express the culmination of righteous indignation without malice in a pure being. The animals of a region are collec tively called its fauna. give out.

A verbal answer is a return of words to something that seems to call for them. In a wider sense. we notify an individual. designed or adapted to carry on the thought of t he words that called it forth. but is severe and may be even s avage in its intensity. communicate.. an echo. conceal. and finally refutes and disposes of it. the appeal for aid met a prompt and hearty response. or suggestion of another may be called an answer.say. but always with the implication of some thing more or less controversial or opposed. we announ ce a book that is to be published. tho lacking the conclusiveness impl ied in answer. We prop ound a question or an argument. etc. Repartee is a prompt. response. as. an answer." "I am ready with an answer" means far more than "I am ready with a reply. "This reply is not an answer. or by word of mouth. we announce a book when it is in press. give notice to the public. the howl ing of the wind. we say declare war. to declare war is to cause war to be. state. and commonly good-natured answer to some argument or attack. the whinny of a horse. Antonyms: bury. A reply is an unfolding. where before t here may have been only hostilities. a guest when he arrives. witty. action." A respo nse is accordant or harmonious. suppress. keep secret. To announce is to give intelligence of in some formal or public way. see Luke v. Prepositions: An answer in writing. so that one may say. etc. herald the co ming of some distinguished person or great event. and ordinarily implie s thought and intelligence. the movement of a bolt in a lock. 22. or an obj ection is adequate. an argument. Synonyms: rejoinder. Prepositions: The event was announced to the family by telegraph. proclaim peace. tho the word is chiefly used in the anticipative sense. keep back. cover (up). Publish. in the full sense. or to m eet the wish of him who seeks it. is becoming closely restricted to the sense of issuing through the press. enuncia te our views. Declare has of ten an authoritative force. retort. a reply or rejoinder may be quite inadequate. make known. * * * * * ANSWER. tell. tho of ten used in the general sense of answer. We may ann ounce that which has occurred or that which is to occur. an answer may be even made to an unspoken implication or manifestation. in popular usage. publish . report. to the question. notify. secret e. promulgate the views of a sect or party. a retort may also be witty. to a charge. hush. The blow of an enraged man. may each be an answer to some word or movement. We advertise our business. reply. as the responses in a liturgical service. reveal a secret. herald. spread abroad. We report an interview. A rejoinder is strictly an answer to a reply. communicate our intentions. enunciate. and is made to a charge as well as to a question. withhold. or the decision of a court. hide. propound. repartee. anyt hing said or done in return for some word. declare. * * * * * .

We hope for that which we much desire and somewhat expect. tho I have no word from him. aversion is a deep and permanent dislike. oppo sition may spring from conflicting views or interests. remember. Compare ANTICIPATE. or both. Synonyms: antepast. Antonyms: astonishment. forecast. despair. surprise. antagonism. in the former sense it is allied with prevent. A natural antipathy may giv . dislike. We apprehe nd what we both expect and fear. hope. uncongeniality. of evil. and acting upon what is foreseen. Compare ABIDE. hostility. distaste and disgust may be acquired. Expectation may be either of good or evil. A foretaste may be of good or evil. We expect th at which we have good reason to believe will happen. expect. Synonyms: abhorrence. foretaste. like foretaste . distrust. hatred. consummation. other forms of disli ke may be acquired or cherished for cause. abhorrence and detestatio n may be the result of religious and moral training. wonder. expectation. An antipathy to a person or thing is an instinctive recoil f rom connection or association with that person or thing. presentiment almost always. and is more than imaginary. detestation. Uncongeniality is negative. repugnance. enjoyment. recollect. dread. aversion. in the latter. distaste. it is a part actually received in advance. and as the time draws near I anticipate it with pleasur e. foresight.ANTICIPATE. foreboding. To anticipate may be either to take before in fact or to take before in thought . pr esentiment. apprehension. Fo resight and forethought prevent future evil and secure future good by timely loo king forward. Thus. * * * * * ANTIPATHY. This is coming to be the prevalent and favorite use. forecast. hope. with the synonym s above given. repuls ion. Antonyms: despair of. In this use it is a stronger word than hope. expectancy. of that which we expect both with confidence and pleasure. commonly of good . repugnance. prevision. a want of touch or sympathy. and may be physical or mental. a boy expects to grow t o manhood. fear. I expect it when he w rites that he is coming. doubt. disgust. Antipathy. opposition. Anticipate is commonly used now. anticipation and antepast. doubt." I hop e for a visit from my friend. recall. apprehen sion and foreboding always. Synonyms: apprehend. where often "the wish is father to the thought. and uncongeniality are instinctive. we speak of the pleasures of anticipation. dread. forethought. foretaste. as. r ealization. fear. look forward to. * * * * * ANTICIPATION. PREVENT. Antagonism may result from the necessity of circumstances.

ENMITY. concern. Old-fashioned may be used approvingly or contemptuously. anxiety always stirs the question whether something can not be done . trouble. worry. modish. a nxiety is mental. dread. foreboding. terror. The antiquated is not so much out of date as out of vogue. a choking disquiet. akin to anguish. attraction. and is thus a valuable spur to doing. new. solicitude.e rise to opposition which may result in hatred and hostility. disturbance. Synonyms: anguish. etc. In the latter ca se it becomes a synonym for antiquated. dread. regard. Prepositions: Antipathy to (less frequently for or against) a person or thing.. harmony. * * * * * ANTIQUE. disquiet. anxiety in regard to the unknown. as. We can speak of the antique architecture of a church just built. all of which may be quite despairing. fellow-feeling. old-fashioned. restless. fresh. stylish. The reference is to the sty le rather than to the age. fear. We call a wide New England fireplac e old-fashioned. in this respect it is allied to care. Antiquated is sometimes used of persons in a sense akin to superannuated. anxiety may be quiet an . fear. for a Puritan style may be scorned as antiquated. agreement. In matters withi n our reach. commonly incapacitate for all helpful thought or endeavor . The difference between antiquated and antique is not in the age. Antique refers to an ancient. quaint. Fo reboding. according to its derivation. foreboding. Compare ACRIMONY. congenia lity. d read. Co mpare OLD. Anxiety refers to some future event. sympathy. alwa ys suggesting hopeful possibility. perplexity. Antique is that which is either ancient in fact or ancient in style. kindliness. the s uperannuated person is incapacitated for present activities by reason of age. fretfulne ss. superannuated. anguish is because of what has happene d. antiquated to a discarded style. apprehension. Synonyms: ancient. in the good sense it approaches the mean ing of antique. recent. misgiving. modern. a quaint gambrel-roofed house. anxiety because of what may happen. and manifest anxiety. ANGER. antiquated. anguish is in regard to the known. antipathy betw een or betwixt two persons or things. Anxiety is. Worry is a more petty. anguish may be mental or physical. Quaint combines the idea of age wi th a pleasing oddity. Antonyms: fashionable. antique. Antonyms: affinity. fretting. care. HATRED. and thus differing from apprehension. a coin of the Cæsars. but indicates less duration. while a Roman or Renaissance styl e may be prized as antique. The antiquated person is out of style and out of sympathy with the present generation by reason of age. * * * * * ANXIETY.

insensibility. lethargy. stillness. There are persons to whom a certain degree of apathy is natural. to what he has fiercely struggled to avo id. Apathy. light-heartedness. in regard to. unfeelingness. * * * * * APATHY. sensibility. the Saxon word that shoul d be the exact equivalent of apathy. tranquillity. a person gives up. but merely as a relief to one's own disquiet. We speak of insensibility of heart. or concerning the f uture. ex citement. ph legm. violence. passion. sympathy. alarm. . Composure is freedom from agitation or disturbance. entir e absence of feeling. Antonyms: agitation. fury. susceptibility. Indifference is a want of interest. emotion. calmness is feeling without agitation. Impassibility is a philosophical term applied to the Deity. assurance. storm. immobility of countenance. Solicitude is a milder anxiety. * * * * * APIECE. quietness. satisfaction. or from perfect confidence in one's own resources. sensitiveness. not at all anxious regarding it. a lack of the feeling on e ought to have. Unfeelingness. sluggishness. quietude . immobility. disturbance. while apathy is involuntary. distress. STUPOR. Prepositions: Anxiety for a friend's return. While apathy is want of feeling. is a simple absence of feeling or em otion.d silent. Calm ness is the result of strength. anxiety about. yet. apathy toward good. Compare CAL M. REST. Indifference and insensibility designate the absence of feeling toward certain persons or things. carel essness. without resistance or sensibility. feeling. insensibility is a wan t of feeling. anxiety. tranquillity. ease. Synonyms: calmness. composure. according to its Greek derivation. a censurable hardness of heart. confidence. Prepositions: The apathy of monastic life. unconcern. as infinitely exalte d above all stir of passion or emotion. stoicism. really means more. unconcern has reference to consequences. impassibility. worry is communicated to all around. vehemence. eagerness. if he has time enough. courage. Antonyms: apathy. frenz y. calmness. nonchalance. or trust. A student may be perplexed r egarding a translation. turbulence. apathy. Perplexity oft en involves anxiety. In the apathy of despair. Stoicism is an intentional suppression of feeling and deadening of sensibilities. apathy is the result of dulne ss or weakness. care. resulting or dinarily from force of will. an innat e sluggishness of the emotional nature. F retting or fretfulness is a weak complaining without thought of accomplishing or changing anything. but may be quite free from it. indifference.

and should be so given. but for their connection with its historic usage. Plea ranges in sense from a prayer for favor or pardon to an attempt at full vindication. collectively.Synonyms: distributively. If a company of laborers demand a dollar apiece. condemnation. each individual makes the demand. together. Synonyms: acknowledgment. Antonyms: accusation. An excuse for a fault is an attempt at partial justif ication. an excuse may be for what one proposes to d o or leave undone as well. confusedly. confession. Synonyms: . Prepositions: An apology to the guest for the oversight would be fitting. with or without apology or excuse. justification. Distributively is generally used of numbers and abstract relations. * * * * * APPARENT. injury. Confession is a fu ll acknowledgment of wrong. in order that no one may be influenced by the testimony of another. one sends beforehand his excuse for not accepting an invitation. and vindication are mo re properly antonyms than synonyms of apology in its modern sense. All these words express one's answer to a charge of wrong or error that is or m ight be made. excuse. synthetically. charge. Apology has undergone a remarkable change from its old sense of a valiant defense--as in Justin Martyr's Apologies for the Christian faith--to its present meaning of humble confession and concession. Witnesses are often brought separately into court. * * * * * APOLOGY. vindication. at least technically and seemingly. exculpation. Ind ividually emphasizes the independence of the individuals. There is no discernible difference in sense between so much apiece and so much each. He who offers an apology a dmits himself. that is a demand that each shall receive that sum. Compare CONFESS. in the wrong. DE FENSE. The signers of a note may become joi ntly and severally responsible. indiscriminately. Defense. unitedly. the former is the more common and popular. separately. wrong. generally of a grave wrong. en masse. severally. individually. an apology would be in order. defense. complaint. each. separately and several ly still more emphatically hold them apart. as i f he had signed it alone. An apology is f or what one has done or left undone. one alleges haste as an excuse for carelessness. censure. Antonyms: accumulatively. justification. plea. if he should fail either to be present or to excuse himself. offense. imputati on. each liable for the entire amount. as. that is. exculpation. if they individually demand a dollar. as. insult. the latter the more elegant exp ression.

it is often used with the infinitive. or of that which merely seems to be and may be very different from what is. through the mist. near the harbor. be certain. as I watch. as. be the fact. unlikely.likely. it seems to me a farmhouse must be burning. Antonyms: doubtful. before the public. either of that which is manifest. A man's prob able intent we believe will prove to be his real intent. among the first. or will be. Prepositions: (When apparent is used in the sense of evident): His guilt is apparent in every act to all observers. below the surface. in appropria te dress. Prepositions: Appear at the front. with the insignia of his rank. it looks like a fire. seeming. Seem applies to what is manifest to the mind on reflection. to the eye. from my knowledge of the locality and observation of particulars. improbable. true. real. Likely is a word with a wide range of usage. ap parent neglect implies that more care and pains may have been bestowed than we a re aware of. seem. probable. Antonyms: be. It suddenly appears to me that there is smoke in the di stance. * * * * * APPEAR. Synonyms: have the appearance or semblance. look. his apparent intent may be the true one. * * * * * APPENDAGE. and more than seeming. in ev idence. in print. visible. to a semblance or probability presented directly to the mind. The apparent is that which appears. as the other wor ds of this list can not be. Seeming expresses great doubt of t he reality. exist. or agains t one in court. as. or true. over the sea. certain. the apparent motion of the sun arou nd the earth. appear for. Synonyms: . Compare EVIDENT. in behalf of. Probable implies that we know facts enough to make us moderately confident of it. but always implying the belief that the th ing is. dubious. from reports. Appear and look refer to what manifests itself to the senses. presumable. his seeming intent we b elieve to be a sham. on or upon the surface. un der the lee. Presumable implies that a thing may be reasonably supposed beforeha nd without any full knowledge of the facts. Appa rent indicates less assurance than probable. unimaginable. tho we have not ye t evidence on which to pronounce with certainty or even with confidence. seeming innocence comes very near in meaning to probable guilt. above the clouds. Apparent kindness casts a doubt on the reality of the kindness. it is likely to happen. the word has two contrasted senses.

relish. propensity. extension. that which is looked upon as an integral part is called an appendage of. We say an appetite for food. supplement. auxiliary. Appetite is used only of the demands of the physical system. which would not be dignified by the name of appendi x. etc. such notes are often grouped as addenda. carries out further something already exis ting. disgust.. tho perhaps a valuable addition. Co mpare ACCESSORY. unless otherwise e xpressly stated. as when we say an appetite for knowledge. We add an appendix to a book. repulsion. lust. a passion for fame.accessory. detestation. etc. distaste. we could not call it an a djunct. thirst. Antonyms: antipathy. to contain names. * * * * * APPETITE. and when we speak of passions and appetites as c onjoined or contrasted. an appurtenance belongs subordinately to something by which it is employed . adjunct. mental or spiritual. as anger. appurtenance. but not within the meaning of appendix or supplement. Compare DESIRE. aversion. whole. dislike. especially as an instrument to accomplish some purpose. indifference. de sire. loathing. a hemmer is a valuable attachment of a sewing-machine. passion includes all excitable impulses of our nature.. Synonyms: appetency. love. lists. repugnance. hatr ed. for instan ce. Preposition: He had an insatiable appetite for the marvellous. An addition might be matter interwov en in the body of the work. Appetite is thus more animal than passion. addition. addendum. fear. dates. total. attachm ent. in part at least. disposition. which would encumber the text. craving. An appendix may be called an addendum. an index. disrelish. An extension . appendix. hatred. we think of the appetites as wholly physical and of the passions as. accompaniment. as of a railroad or of a franchise. tho we might use that word of his iron shoes. longing. proneness. an appendage is common ly a real. proclivity. Compare ANTIPATHY. but addendum may be used of a brief note. Prepositions: That which is thought of as added we call an appendage to. we add a supplement to supply omissions. plates. impulse. An attachment in machinery is some mechanism that can be brought into optional connection with the princip al movement. editorial notes. inclination. to bring it up to date. A horse's tail is at o nce an ornamental appendage and a useful appurtenance. concomitant. as. liking. tho not an essential or necessary part of that with which it is conne cted. etc. zest. An adjunct (something joined to) constitutes no real part of the thing or syste m to which it is joined. Antonyms: main body. which might be valuable additions. . passion. original. AUXILIARY.

and propinquity are commonly used of place. the same is true of di stribute or divide. of mathemat ical calculations and abstract reasoning. approximation. collect. Antonyms: difference. as. nea rness to the town. the sun d ispenses light and heat. similarity. k eep together. T he process of approximation is as exact and correct at every point as that by wh ich an absolute result is secured.* * * * * APPORTION. Resemblance and simila rity may be but superficial and apparent. contiguity. Outside of mathematics. distance. To dispense is to give out freely. distribute. Prepositions: Apportion to each a fair amount. as. To allot or assign may be to make an arbitrary division. Nearness. grant. dispense. tho the distance may yet be considerable. representatives are apportioned among the States according to population. which is meant to be uniform and fair. and the approximation has practical value. resemblance. error. he shares what is his own. remoteness. Compare ALL OT. neig hborhood. we speak of approach to the shore. deal. share. But the limits of error on either side are k nown. indicating that one has come nearer than before. * * * * * APPROXIMATION. apportion according to numbers. unlikeness. etc. That which is apportioned is given by some fixed rule. an approximation brings one really near. money a ppropriated by Congress for one purpose can not be expended for any other. divide. and not error. Synonyms: approach. approximation to the truth. divide arbitrarily. Prepositions: . Antonyms: cling to. because of the impossibility of expressing the ci rcumference in terms of the radius. in the original sense of being its own). gather together. One m ay apportion what he only holds in trust. consolidate. A thing is appropriated to or for a specific purpose (t o which it thus becomes proper. receive. In mathematics. betwee n two claimants. appoint. the cor rect use of approximation (and the kindred words approximate and approximately) is to express as near an approach to accuracy and certainty as the conditions of human thought or action in any given case make possible. not looseness. propinquit y. likeness. retain. apportion the property among the heirs. The attempt to "square the circle" giv es only an approximate result. nearness. Approach is a r elative term. neighborhood. the result only fails of exactness because of some inherent difficulty in the problem. Synonyms: allot. approximation is real. assign. appropriate. variation. approximation is not guesswork.

Synonyms: accouterments. it may be priv . censure. We may have a little army. Any or ganized body of men by whom the law or will of a people is executed is a force. a person accused of crime is arraigned when he is formally called into court. host. or the term may be applied to any small detached company. Organization. multitude. in more extended use. Censure carries the idea of fault. prosecute. and the demand made of h im to plead guilty or not guilty. * * * * * ARMY. formally or informa lly. privately or publicly. Arraign is an official word. * * * * * ARMS. Mult itude expresses number without order or organization. the word is a usual term for the police of any locality. to arraign is to call in question for fault in any formal. legions. but not of crime. Synonyms: accuse. suggesting more of the formal and criminal. whe re the distinction is clearly preserved. any vessel provided with cannon is an a rmed vessel. Arms are implements of attack. phalanx. the plural legions is p referred to the singular. always independent in organization so far as not to be a constituent par t of any other command.The approximation of the vegetable to the animal type. Accuse is stronger than charge. soldiers. cite. great or trifling. harness. tho either body was contemptible in numbers from a modern military standpo int. Host is used for a ny vast and orderly assemblage. soldiery. military. an armored ship is an ironclad. indict. Legion (from the Latin) and phalanx (from the Greek) a re applied by a kind of poetic license to modern forces. The knight put on his armor. as. array. a person may charge a friend with unkindness or neglect. One may charge anoth er with any fault. * * * * * ARRAIGN. but it is still employed in the navy. forces. ordinarily considerable in n umbers. summon. or official way. as a pitchfork or a paving-stone. An army is an organized body of men armed for war. Anything that can be wielded in fig ht may become a weapon. Synonyms: armament. Military is a general word for land-forces. he grasped his arms. troops. armor is a defensive covering. the indictment read to him. a multitude of armed men i s not an army. arms are especially ma de and designed for conflict. force. weapons. the stars are called the heavenly host. We speak of the invading army of Cortes or Piz arro. rather than numbe rs are the essentials of an army. armor. impeach. as at a fort. in distinction from civilians. or a vast army. the milita ry may include all the armed soldiery of a nation. he may accuse a tramp of stealing. a large army. mail. unity. charge. public. but a mob. With the disuse of defensive armor the word has practically gone out of military use. and independence.

Synonyms: army. condone. excuse. capture. and only an alleged criminal is indicted or arraigned. release. liberate. line of battle. sight. so that all may be seen or reviewed at once. to capture a ship. order of battle. The phrase battle array or array of battle is archaic and poetic. The legal term arrest carries always the implication of a legal offense. The parade is for exhibition and oversight. make prisoner. etc. take prisoner. forgive. Prepositions: Arraign at the bar. this i s true even of arresting for debt. discharge. parade. hold. or other means effectually to prevent escape. Synonyms: apprehend. Antonyms: acquit. Antonyms: discharge. as. by a locked door. as in the case of a witness who is held in a house of detention till a case comes to trial. But one may be detained by process of law whe n no offense is alleged against him. set free. * * * * * ARRAY. battle array. show . exhibition. We say rather the disposition of tro ops. or other offic er of high rank may be impeached before the appropriate tribunal for high crimes . a president. A judge. pard on. set free. dismiss. an officer may secure his prisoner by fetters. stop. the veracity of a witness may be impeached by damaging evidence. an individual or corporation may b e restrained by injunction from selling certain property. though unable to see or readily communicate with each other. Indict and arraign apply strictly to crim inal proceedings. secure. Compare DRESS. or public and official. seize. as in an insane asylum. OBSTRUCT. * * * * * ARREST. A person of t he highest character may be summoned as defendant in a civil suit. which expresses their location so as to sustain and support. or he may be cited to answer as administrator. on or upon an indic tment. detain. free. restrain. Compare HINDER. take into custody. a fort. One is indicted by the grand jury. One may be restrained of his li berty without arrest. before the tribunal. Array refers to a continuous arran gement of men.ate and individual. etc. arrangement. Capture is commonly used of seizure by armed forc e. collection. and partia l rehearsal of military manual and maneuvers. order. This is practically impossible with the vast armies of our day. overlook. and arraigned before the appropriate court. exonerate. we now say in line or order of battle. of or for a crime. Prepositions: . ca tch. In case of an arrest. disposition. release.

Artist. as in a mechanism. upon. but less of the idealizing. invention. 184. E'en children followed with endearing wile. craft. working simply by rule and scale. a fraud. trick. finesse. and malicious. openness. or injurious end. ingenuousness. stratagem. innocence. guile. A wile is usually but not necessarily evil. A stratagem or maneuver may be of the good against the bad. The man who paints a beautiful p icture is an artist. candor. credit. The man w hose work involves thought. the bricklayer is a mechanic. pa tient artisans. whether for good or evil. on final process. simplicity. cheat. workman. T he man who constructs anything by mere routine and rule is a mechanic. fairness. often. that of the artisan mechanical. we say a mean trick. the master mason is an ar tificer. device.Arrested for crime. subterfuge. skill. while artificer and artisan follow the mechanical or indust rial sense of the word (see ART under SCIENCE). fraud. artificer and artisan are all from the root of art. Artist thus comes only into acci dental association with the other words of this group. contrivance. A dev ice is something studied out for promoting an end. on. The h od-carrier is a laborer. machination. honesty. the man who makes pin-heads all day is an artisan. putting more thought. the word i s sometimes used playfully with less than its full meaning. maneuver. intelligence. Antonyms: artlessness. delicate artific e. as it were a skilful movement of w ar. as well as artist. A ruse or a blind ma y be quite innocent and harmless. ruse. blind. A contrivance or device may be either good or bad. The work of the arti st is creative. creative power than the arti st. artisan. Compare FRAUD. * * * * * ARTIFICE. A cheat is a mean advantage in a bargain. imposture . and constructive power is an artificer. not being a synonym of an y one of them and having practically no synonym of its own. guilelessne ss. * * * * * ARTIST. truth. but not necessarily directed to an evil. the word i s used of indirect action. sincerity. dodge. injurious. selfi sh. Those who operate machinery nearly self-acting are operatives. shaping his model in clay. on suspicion. GOLDSMITH Deserted Village. in execution. An artifice is a carefully and delicately prep ared contrivance for doing indirectly what one could not well do directly. The arti ficer is between the two. frankness. operative. is artificer. l. Imposture is a dece itful contrivance for securing charity. any form of covert robbery or injury. wile. A trick is often low. Finesse is especially subtle contrivance. but artist holds to the esthetic sense. Synonyms: art. Synonyms: artificer. by the sheriff. The sculptor. and taste into his work than the artisan. chisel and polish the stone. or by virtue of a w arrant. . cunning. or consideration. mechanic.

a still added and more humble intensit y. Consort is a word of equ ality and dignity. "if a so n shall ask bread of any of you that is a father. but oftener implies some work. Entreat implies a sp ecial earnestness of asking." Luke xi. as also does comrade. peer. to petition the legislature to pass an act. request. or pursuit in which the associated persons unite. 11. require. exact. pray . deny. partner. or the governor to pardon an offender. or he may wrongfully demand that to which he has no claim but p ower. confederate. to su pplicate is to ask. except in an inferior or patronizing sense. when it is wit hheld or denied. on bended knees. An associate as used officially implies a chief. FRIENDSHIP. Pray is now used chiefly of address to the Su preme Being. one may rightfully demand what is his own or his due. petition. Antonyms: . implore. a jury of his peers. command. petition is used of written request to persons in authority. Comrade expresses more fellow ship and good feeling than companion. fellow. crave. or principal. he begs for that to which he advances no claim but pity. enforce. chum. helpmate. and beseech. etc. solicit. Peer implies equality r ather than companionship. I beseech you to tell me. companion. Synonyms: beg. but is exceedingly str enuous. colleague.* * * * * ASK. comrade. To implore is to ask with weeping and lamentation. using confederates or accomplices instead. One may be a companion i n travel who would not readily become an associate at home. beseech was formerly often used as a polite intensive for beg or pray. as it were. One asks what he feels that he may fairly claim and reasonably expect. Demand is a determined and often an arr ogant word. as. entreat. leader. as. welfare. fri end. * * * * * ASSOCIATE. We rarely speak of associates in crime or wrong. Antonyms: claim. reject. ally. Fellow has almost gone out of use in this connection. Crave and request are somewhat formal terms. consort. crave has almost disappeared from conversation. ACQUAINTANCE. the court requires the attendance of witnesses. insist. coadjutor. to whom the associate is not fully equal in rank. as. refuse. Associate is popularly used of mere fr iendly relations. Synonyms: accomplice. ask a thing of or from a person. Require is less arrogant and obtrusive than demand. ask after or about o ne's health. A lady advertises fo r a companion. Compare ACCES SORY. as. enterprise. supplicate. mate. extort. Companion gives itself with equal rea diness to the good or evil sense. Prepositions: Ask a person for a thing. as applied especially to the marriage relation. she would not advertise for an associate. beseech. demand. request would seem distant between parent and child. friends.

stranger. affect. opponent. a club of pleasure-seekers. benevolence. partnership. ACQUAINTANCE. fede ration.antagonist. What a man claims he asserts his right to take. Synonyms: alliance. What a debater postulates he openly states and takes for gran ted without proof. association with t he good is ennobling. a company of soldiers or of friends. * * * * * . he is said to affect or feign. a community of Shakers. Antonyms: disintegration. companionship. friendship. confederation. familiarity. wh ether well or ill. with or without right. arrogate. A fa vorite trick of the sophist is quietly to assume as true what would at once be c hallenged if expressly stated. * * * * * ASSUME. what he assumes he may take for granted without mention. usurp. hinderer. independence. fraternity. par ticipation. separation. We speak of an alliance of nations. Compare ASSOCIATE. he is said to a rrogate or usurp it. FRIENDSHIP. or union of separate states under one general government. Prepositions: An association of scholars for the advancement of knowledge. One assumes the robes or insignia of office by putting them on. presume. conjunction. or to pretend to. confederacy. federation. w hat he assumes he takes. If he takes to himself the credit and appearance of qualities he does not possess. isolation. etc. confederation. or he may assume an obligation or indebtedness that could not be required of him. corporation. a partnership or company of business men. one of their local organizations is called a lodge. religio n. A man may usurp the substance of power in the most unpreten ding way. solitude. the characte r he thus assumes. claim. fellowship. a conjunction of planets. appropriate. club. feign. A corporation or company is formed for purposes of business. if he assumes what does not belong to him. a confederacy. put on. an association or s ociety (tho also incorporated) is for learning. community. rival. The whole body of Freemaso ns constitute a fraternity. He may assume authority or offi ce that is his right. lodge. One may accept an obligation or ass ume an authority that properly belongs to him. what he arrogates to himself he assumes with a haughty and overbearing manner. The distinctive idea of assume is to take by one's own independent volition. union. foe. postulate. Prepositions: These were the associates of the leader in the enterprise. company. * * * * * ASSOCIATION. society. pretend. take. conn ection. literature. Synonyms: accept. rightfully or wrongfully. enemy. opposer.

effrontery. i n regard to some special matter. the hardened criminal is remarkable for habitual assurance. s tupid. * * * * * ATTACHMENT. A knowing look. crafty. trust. do ubt. from the Latin. assurance is a vicious courag e. timidity. implying th at he knows more than could be expected of such an animal. clear-sighted. perspicacious. shallow. self-assertion. assumption. dull. air. self-confidence. from the Latin. independently of others' aid. hesitancy. penetrating. unintelligent. meaning cunning or shrewd within a nar row range. assertion. impudence. Compare FAITH. self-reliance expresses confidence in one's own resources. cunning. Assurance may have the good sense of a high. distrust. We speak of a knowing rascal. as . idiotic. For the calm conviction of one's own recti tude and ability. impudence may be in speech. The acute. shrewd. which is (according to its etymology) a shameless boldness. while to speak of a child as intelligent is altogether complimentary. the saint's assurance of heaven. In t he bad sense assurance is less gross than impudence. stolid. shyness. penetrati ve. the sharpness of the cutting edge. keen. but of a knowing horse or dog. misgiving. confidence. discriminating. s ubtle. self-reliance. consternation. PRIDE. with belief of one's ability to outwit or defy others. * * * * * ASTUTE. sustained confidence and trust. and perhaps of cunning. Confidence is founded upon reasons. suggests the sharpness of the needle's point. Synonyms: arrogance. self-confidence is a better word than assurance. the astute mind has always a point to make fo r itself. etc. sharp. assurance is largely a matter of feeling. boldness. The astute mind adds to acuteness and keen ness an element of cunning or finesse. from the Saxon. The astute debater leads his opponents in to a snare by getting them to make admissions. A knowing child has m ore knowledge than would be looked for at his years. discerning. knowing. or urge arguments. Acute. dismay. undiscerning. presump tion.. subtile. Synonyms: acute. Astute. Effrontery is impudence defiantly displayed. perhaps more than is quite desirable. sagacious. Knowing has often a slightly invid ious sense. Antonyms: bashfulness. short-sighted. of which he se es a result that they do not perceive. with the original sense of cunning has come to have a meaning that combines the sense of acute or keen with that of sagacious. it indicates the possession of reserved knowled ge which the person could impart if he chose. in the sense of sagacious. and seldom fails to make it. keen. Antonyms: blind. In the bad sense. imbecile. in general ind icates practical knowledge with a touch of shrewdness. . confusion. Assurance is in act or manner.ASSURANCE. keen intellect may take no spe cial advantage of these qualities.

Synonyms: adherence, devotion, friendship, regard, adhesion, esteem, inclination, tendern ess, affection, estimation, love, union. An attachment is a feeling that binds a person by ties of heart to another pers on or thing; we speak of a man's adherence to his purpose, his adhesion to his p arty, or to anything to which he clings tenaciously, tho with no special tendern ess; of his attachment to his church, to the old homestead, or to any persons or objects that he may hold dear. Affection expresses more warmth of feeling; we s hould not speak of a mother's attachment to her babe, but of her affection or of her devotion. Inclination expresses simply a tendency, which may be good or bad , yielded to or overcome; as, an inclination to study; an inclination to drink. Regard is more distant than affection or attachment, but closer and warmer than esteem; we speak of high esteem, kind regard. Compare ACQUAINTANCE; APPENDAGE; F RIENDSHIP; LOVE; UNION. Antonyms: alienation, aversion, distance, estrangement, repugnance, animosity, coolness, divorce, indifference, separation, antipathy, dislike, enmity, opposition, sever ance. Prepositions: Attachment of a true man to his friends; attachment to a leader for his nobilit y of character; the attachments between two persons or things; attachment by mus cular fibers, or by a rope, etc. * * * * * ATTACK, v. Synonyms: assail, beset, combat, invade, assault, besiege, encounter, set upon, beleaguer , charge, fall upon, storm. To attack is to begin hostilities of any kind. A general invades a country by m arching in troops; he attacks a city by drawing up an army against it; he assaul ts it by hurling his troops directly upon its defenses. Assail and assault, tho of the same original etymology, have diverged in meaning, so that assault alone retains the meaning of direct personal violence. One may assail another with rep roaches; he assaults him with a blow, a brandished weapon, etc. Armies or squadr ons charge; combat and encounter may be said of individual contests. To beset is to set around, or, so to speak, to stud one's path, with menaces, attacks, or p ersuasions. To besiege and beleaguer are the acts of armies. To encounter is to meet face to face, and may be said either of the attacking or of the resisting f orce or person, or of both. Antonyms: aid, cover, protect, shelter, support, uphold, befriend, defend, resist, shield , sustain, withstand. Prepositions: We were attacked by the enemy with cannon and musketry.

* * * * * ATTACK, n. Synonyms: aggression, incursion, invasion, onslaught, assault, infringement, onset, tresp ass. encroachment, intrusion, An attack may be by word; an aggression is always by deed. An assault may be up on the person, an aggression is upon rights, possessions, etc. An invasion of a nation's territories is an act of aggression; an intrusion upon a neighboring es tate is a trespass. Onslaught signifies intensely violent assault, as by an army or a desperado, tho it is sometimes used of violent speech. Antonyms: defense, repulsion, resistance, retreat, submission, surrender. Prepositions: The enemy made an attack upon (or on) our works. * * * * * ATTAIN. Synonyms: accomplish, arrive at, gain, master, reach, achieve, compass, get, obtain, secu re, acquire, earn, grasp, procure, win. A person may obtain a situation by the intercession of friends, he procures a d inner by paying for it. Attain is a lofty word, pointing to some high or desirab le result; a man attains the mountain summit, he attains honor or learning as th e result of strenuous and earnest labor. Even that usage of attain which has bee n thought to refer to mere progress of time carries the thought of a result desi red; as, to attain to old age; the man desires to live to a good old age; we sho uld not speak of his attaining his dotage. One may attain an object that will pr ove not worth his labor, but what he achieves is in itself great and splendid; a s, the Greeks at Marathon achieved a glorious victory. Compare DO; GET; REACH. Antonyms: abandon, fail, forfeit, give up, let go, lose, miss. * * * * * ATTITUDE. Synonyms: pose, position, posture. Position as applied to the arrangement or situation of the human body or limbs may denote that which is conscious or unconscious, of the living or the dead; bu t we do not speak of the attitude, pose, or posture of a corpse; unless, in some rare case, we might say the body was found in a sitting posture, where the post ure is thought of as assumed in life, or as, at first glance, suggesting life. A posture is assumed without any special reference to expression of feeling; as,

an erect posture, a reclining posture; attitude is the position appropriate to t he expression of some feeling; the attitude may be unconsciously taken through t he strength of the feeling; as, an attitude of defiance; or it may be consciousl y assumed in the attempt to express the feeling; as, he assumed an attitude of h umility. A pose is a position studied for artistic effect, or considered with re ference to such effect; the unconscious posture of a spectator or listener may b e an admirable pose from an artist's standpoint. * * * * * ATTRIBUTE, v. Synonyms: ascribe, associate, connect, impute, refer. assign, charge, We may attribute to a person either that which belongs to him or that which we merely suppose to be his. We attribute to God infinite power. We may attribute a wrong intent to an innocent person. We may attribute a result, rightly or wrong ly, to a certain cause; in such case, however, attribute carries always a conces sion of uncertainty or possible error. Where we are quite sure, we simply refer a matter to the cause or class to which it belongs or ascribe to one what is sur ely his, etc. Many diseases formerly attributed to witchcraft are now referred t o the action of micro-organisms. We may attribute a matter in silent thought; we ascribe anything openly in speech or writing; King Saul said of the singing wom en, "They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed b ut thousands." We associate things which may have no necessary or causal relatio n; as, we may associate the striking of a clock with the serving of dinner, tho the two are not necessarily connected. We charge a person with what we deem blam eworthy. We may impute good or evil, but more commonly evil. Antonyms: deny, disconnect, dissociate, separate, sever, sunder. Prepositions: It is uncharitable to attribute evil motives to (archaic unto) others. * * * * * ATTRIBUTE, n. Synonyms: property, quality. A quality (L. qualis, such)--the "suchness" of anything, according to the Germa n idiom--denotes what a thing really is in some one respect; an attribute is wha t we conceive a thing to be in some one respect; thus, while attribute may, qual ity must, express something of the real nature of that to which it is ascribed; we speak of the attributes of God, the qualities of matter. "Originally 'the att ributes of God' was preferred, probably, because men assumed no knowledge of the actual qualities of the Deity, but only of those more or less fitly attributed to him." J. A. H. MURRAY. [M.] Holiness is an attribute of God; the attributes o f many heathen deities have been only the qualities of wicked men joined to supe rhuman power. A property (L. proprius, one's own) is what belongs especially to one thing as its own peculiar possession, in distinction from all other things; when we speak of the qualities or the properties of matter, quality is the more general, property the more limited term. A quality is inherent; a property may b

e transient; physicists now, however, prefer to term those qualities manifested by all bodies (such as impenetrability, extension, etc.), general properties of matter, while those peculiar to certain substances or to certain states of those substances (as fluidity, malleability, etc.) are termed specific properties; in this wider use of the word property, it becomes strictly synonymous with qualit y. Compare CHARACTERISTIC; EMBLEM. Antonyms: being, essence, nature, substance. * * * * * AUGUR. Synonyms: betoken, divine, foretell, predict, prognosticate, bode, forebode, portend, pre sage, prophesy. "Persons or things augur; persons only forebode or presage; things only betoken or portend." CRABB English Synonymes. We augur well for a voyage from past good fortune and a good start; we presage success from the stanchness of the ship an d the skill of the captain. We forebode misfortune either from circumstances tha t betoken failure, or from gloomy fancies for which we could not give a reason. Dissipation among the officers and mutiny among the crew portend disaster. Divin e has reference to the ancient soothsayers' arts (as in Gen. xliv, 5, 15), and r efers rather to reading hearts than to reading the future. We say I could not di vine his motive, or his intention. Antonyms: assure, demonstrate, establish, make sure, settle, calculate, determine, insure , prove, warrant. Prepositions: I augur from all circumstances a prosperous result; I augur ill of the enterpri se; "augurs ill to the rights of the people," THOMAS JEFFERSON Writings vol. ii, p. 506. [T. & M. '53.] I augur well, or this augurs well, for your cause. * * * * * AUTHENTIC. Synonyms: accepted, certain, original, sure, accredited, current, real, true, authoritati ve, genuine, received, trustworthy, authorized, legitimate, reliable, veritable. That is authentic which is true to the facts; that is genuine which is true to its own claims; as, authentic history; genuine money. A 'genuine' work is one written by the author whose name it bears; an 'authenti c' work is one which relates truthfully the matters of which it treats. For exam ple, the apocryphal Gospel of St. Thomas is neither 'genuine' nor 'authentic.' I t is not 'genuine,' for St. Thomas did not write it; it is not 'authentic,' for its contents are mainly fables and lies. TRENCH On the Study of Words lect. vi, p. 189. [W. J. W.]

Authentic is, however, used by reputable writers as synonymous with genuine, th o usually where genuineness carries a certain authority. We speak of accepted co nclusions, certain evidence, current money, genuine letters, a legitimate conclu sion or legitimate authority, original manuscripts, real value, received interpr etation, sure proof, a true statement, a trustworthy witness, a veritable discov ery. Antonyms: apocryphal, counterfeit, exploded, false, spurious, baseless, disputed, fabulou s, fictitious, unauthorized. * * * * * AUXILIARY. Synonyms: accessory, ally, coadjutor, helper, promoter, aid, assistant, confederate, merc enary, subordinate. An auxiliary is a person or thing that helps in a subordinate capacity. Allies unite as equals; auxiliaries are, at least technically, inferiors or subordinate s. Yet the auxiliary is more than a mere assistant. The word is oftenest found i n the plural, and in the military sense; auxiliaries are troops of one nation un iting with the armies, and acting under the orders, of another. Mercenaries serv e only for pay; auxiliaries often for reasons of state, policy, or patriotism as well. Compare ACCESSORY; APPENDAGE. Antonyms: antagonist, hinderer, opponent, opposer. Prepositions: The auxiliaries of the Romans; an auxiliary in a good cause; an auxiliary to le arning. * * * * * AVARICIOUS. Synonyms: close, greedy, niggardly, penurious, sordid, covetous, miserly, parsimonious, r apacious, stingy. Avaricious and covetous refer especially to acquisition, miserly, niggardly, pa rsimonious, and penurious to expenditure. The avaricious man has an eager cravin g for money, and ordinarily desires both to get and to keep, the covetous man to get something away from its possessor; tho one may be made avaricious by the pr essure of great expenditures. Miserly and niggardly persons seek to gain by mean and petty savings; the miserly by stinting themselves, the niggardly by stintin g others. Parsimonious and penurious may apply to one's outlay either for himsel f or for others; in the latter use, they are somewhat less harsh and reproachful terms than niggardly. The close man holds like a vise all that he gets. Near an d nigh are provincial words of similar import. The rapacious have the robber ins tinct, and put it in practise in some form, as far as they dare. The avaricious and rapacious are ready to reach out for gain; the parsimonious, miserly, and ni

ggardly prefer the safer and less adventurous way of avoiding expenditure. Greed y and stingy are used not only of money, but often of other things, as food, etc . The greedy child wishes to enjoy everything himself; the stingy child, to keep others from getting it. Antonyms: bountiful, free, generous, liberal, munificent, prodigal, wasteful. Preposition: The monarch was avaricious of power. * * * * * AVENGE. Synonyms: punish, retaliate, revenge, vindicate, visit. Avenge and revenge, once close synonyms, are now far apart in meaning. To aveng e is to visit some offense with punishment, in order to vindicate the righteous, or to uphold and illustrate the right by the suffering or destruction of the wi cked. "And seeing one of them suffer wrong, he avenged him that was oppressed, a nd smote the Egyptian," Acts vii, 24. To revenge is to inflict harm or suffering upon another through personal anger and resentment at something done to ourselv es. Avenge is unselfish; revenge is selfish. Revenge, according to present usage , could not be said of God. To retaliate may be necessary for self-defense, with out the idea of revenge. Compare REVENGE. Prepositions: Avenge on or upon (rarely, avenge oneself of) a wrong-doer. * * * * * AVOW. Synonyms: knowledge, aver, confess, own, profess, testify, admit, avouch, declare, procla im, protest, witness. Acknowledge, admit, and declare refer either to oneself or to others; all the o ther words refer only to one's own knowledge or action. To avow is to declare bo ldly and openly, commonly as something one is ready to justify, maintain, or def end. A man acknowledges another's claim or his own promise; he admits an opponen t's advantage or his own error; he declares either what he has seen or experienc ed or what he has received from another; he avers what he is sure of from his ow n knowledge or consciousness; he gives his assurance as the voucher for what he avouches; he avows openly a belief or intention that he has silently held. Avow and avouch take a direct object; aver is followed by a conjunction: a man avows his faith, avouches a deed, avers that he was present. Avow has usually a good s ense; what a person avows he at least does not treat as blameworthy, criminal, o r shameful; if he did, he would be said to confess it; yet there is always the s uggestion that some will be ready to challenge or censure what one avows; as, th e clergyman avowed his dissent from the doctrine of his church. Own applies to a ll things, good or bad, great or small, which one takes as his own. Compare CONF ESS; STATE.

Antonyms: contradict, deny, disavow, disclaim, disown, ignore, repudiate. * * * * * AWFUL. Synonyms: alarming, direful, frightful, majestic, solemn, appalling, dread, grand, noble, stately, august, dreadful, horrible, portentous, terrible, dire, fearful, impos ing, shocking, terrific. Awful should not be used of things which are merely disagreeable or annoying, n or of all that are alarming and terrible, but only of such as bring a solemn awe upon the soul, as in the presence of a superior power; as, the awful hush befor e the battle. That which is awful arouses an oppressive, that which is august an admiring reverence; we speak of the august presence of a mighty monarch, the aw ful presence of death. We speak of an exalted station, a grand mountain, an impo sing presence, a majestic cathedral, a noble mien, a solemn litany, a stately ma rch, an august assembly, the awful scene of the Judgment Day. Antonyms: base, contemptible, inferior, paltry, beggarly, despicable, lowly, undignified, commonplace, humble, mean, vulgar. * * * * * AWKWARD. Synonyms: boorish, clumsy, rough, unhandy, bungling, gawky, uncouth, unskilful. clownish, maladroit, ungainly, Awkward, from awk (kindred with off, from the Norwegian), is off-ward, turned t he wrong way; it was anciently used of a back-handed or left-handed blow in batt le, of squinting eyes, etc. Clumsy, on the other hand (from clumse, also through the Norwegian), signifies benumbed, stiffened with cold; this is the original m eaning of clumsy fingers, clumsy limbs. Thus, awkward primarily refers to action , clumsy to condition. A tool, a vehicle, or the human frame may be clumsy in sh ape or build, awkward in motion. The clumsy man is almost of necessity awkward, but the awkward man may not be naturally clumsy. The finest untrained colt is aw kward in harness; a horse that is clumsy in build can never be trained out of aw kwardness. An awkward statement has an uncomfortable, and perhaps recoiling forc e; a statement that contains ill-assorted and incongruous material in ill-chosen language is clumsy. We speak of an awkward predicament, an awkward scrape. An a wkward excuse commonly reflects on the one who offers it. We say the admitted fa cts have an awkward appearance. In none of these cases could clumsy be used. Clu msy is, however, applied to movements that seem as unsuitable as those of benumb ed and stiffened limbs. A dancing bear is both clumsy and awkward. Antonyms: adroit, clever, dexterous, handy, skilful. Prepositions:

The raw recruit is awkward in action; at the business. * * * * * AXIOM. Synonym: truism. Both the axiom and the truism are instantly seen to be true, and need no proof; but in an axiom there is progress of thought, while the truism simply says the same thing over again, or says what is too manifest to need saying. The axiom th at "things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another" unfolds i n the latter part of the sentence the truth implied in the first part, which mig ht have been overlooked if not stated. In the truism that "a man can do all he i s capable of," the former and the latter part of the sentence are simply identic al, and the mind is left just where it started. Hence the axiom is valuable and useful, while the truism is weak and flat, unless the form of statement makes it striking or racy, as "all fools are out of their wits." Compare PROVERB. Antonyms: absurdity, contradiction, demonstration, nonsense, paradox, sophism. * * * * * BABBLE. Synonyms: blab, cackle, gabble, murmur, prattle, blurt, chat, gossip, palaver, tattle, bl urt out, chatter, jabber, prate, twaddle. Most of these words are onomatopoetic. The cackle of a hen, the gabble of a goo se, the chatter of a magpie, the babble of a running stream, as applied to human speech, indicate a rapid succession of what are to the listener meaningless sou nds. Blab and blurt (commonly blurt out) refer to the letting out of what the li ps can no longer keep in; blab, of a secret; blurt out, of passionate feeling. T o chat is to talk in an easy, pleasant way, not without sense, but without speci al purpose. Chatting is the practise of adults, prattling that of children. To p rate is to talk idly, presumptuously, or foolishly, but not necessarily incohere ntly. To jabber is to utter a rapid succession of unintelligible sounds, general ly more noisy than chattering. To gossip is to talk of petty personal matters, a s for pastime or mischief. To twaddle is to talk feeble nonsense. To murmur is t o utter suppressed or even inarticulate sounds, suggesting the notes of a dove, or the sound of a running stream, and is used figuratively of the half suppresse d utterances of affection or pity, or of complaint, resentment, etc. Compare SPE AK. Prepositions: Babies babble for the moon; the crowd babbles of a hero; the sick man babbles o f home. * * * * * BANISH.

Synonyms: ban, dismiss, evict, expatriate, ostracize, discharge, drive out, exile, expel, oust. dislodge, eject, Banish, primarily to put under ban, to compel by authority to leave a place or country, perhaps with restriction to some other place or country. From a country , a person may be banished, exiled, or expatriated; banished from any country wh ere he may happen to be, but expatriated or exiled only from his own. One may ex patriate or exile himself; he is banished by others. Banish is a word of wide im port; one may banish disturbing thoughts; care may banish sleep. To expel is to drive out with violence or rudeness, and so often with disgrace. Prepositions: Cataline was banished from Rome; John the Apostle was banished to Patmos. * * * * * BANK. Synonyms: beach, bound, brink, edge, margin, shore, border, brim, coast, marge, rim, stra nd. Bank is a general term for the land along the edge of a water course; it may al so denote a raised portion of the bed of a river, lake, or ocean; as, the Banks of Newfoundland. A beach is a strip or expanse of incoherent wave-worn sand, whi ch is often pebbly or full of boulders; we speak of the beach of a lake or ocean ; a beach is sometimes found in the bend of a river. Strand is a more poetic ter m for a wave-washed shore, especially as a place for landing or embarking; as, t he keel grates on the strand. The whole line of a country or continent that bord ers the sea is a coast. Shore is any land, whether cliff, or sand, or marsh, bor dering water. We do not speak of the coast of a river, nor of the banks of the o cean, tho there may be banks by or under the sea. Edge is the line where land an d water meet; as, the water's edge. Brink is the place from which one may fall; as, the river's brink; the brink of a precipice; the brink of ruin. * * * * * BANTER. Synonyms: badinage, derision, jeering, raillery, sarcasm, chaff, irony, mockery, ridicule , satire. Banter is the touching upon some fault, weakness, or fancied secret of another in a way half to pique and half to please; badinage is delicate, refined banter. Raillery has more sharpness, but is usually good-humored and well meant. Irony, the saying one thing that the reverse may be understood, may be either mild or bitter. All the other words have a hostile intent. Ridicule makes a person or th ing the subject of contemptuous merriment; derision seeks to make the object der ided seem utterly despicable--to laugh it to scorn. Chaff is the coarse witticis m of the streets, perhaps merry, oftener malicious; jeering is loud, rude ridicu le, as of a hostile crowd or mob. Mockery is more studied, and may include mimic ry and personal violence, as well as scornful speech. A satire is a formal compo sition; a sarcasm may be an impromptu sentence. The satire shows up follies to k eep people from them; the sarcasm hits them because they are foolish, without in

quiring whether it will do good or harm; the satire is plainly uttered; the sarc asm is covert. * * * * * BARBAROUS. Synonyms: atrocious, brutal, merciless, uncivilized, barbarian, cruel, rude, uncouth, bar baric, inhuman, savage, untamed. Whatever is not civilized is barbarian; barbaric indicates rude magnificence, u ncultured richness; as, barbaric splendor, a barbaric melody. Barbarous refers t o the worst side of barbarian life, and to revolting acts, especially of cruelty , such as a civilized man would not be expected to do; as, a barbarous deed. We may, however, say barbarous nations, barbarous tribes, without implying anything more than want of civilization and culture. Savage is more distinctly bloodthir sty than barbarous. In this sense we speak of a savage beast and of barbarous us age. Antonyms: civilized, cultured, elegant, humane, polite, tender, courtly, delicate, gracef ul, nice, refined, urbane. * * * * * BARRIER. Synonyms: bar, bulwark, obstruction, rampart, barricade, hindrance, parapet, restraint, b reastwork, obstacle, prohibition, restriction. A bar is something that is or may be firmly fixed, ordinarily with intent to pr event entrance or egress; as, the bars of a prison cell; the bars of a wood-lot. A barrier obstructs, but is not necessarily impassable. Barrier is used of obje cts more extensive than those to which bar is ordinarily applied. A mountain ran ge may be a barrier to exploration; but a mass of sand across the entrance to a harbor is called a bar. Discovered falsehood is a bar to confidence. Barricade h as become practically a technical name for an improvised street fortification, a nd, unless in some way modified, is usually so understood. A parapet is a low or breast-high wall, as about the edge of a roof, terrace, etc., especially, in mi litary use, such a wall for the protection of troops; a rampart is the embankmen t surrounding a fort, on which the parapet is raised; the word rampart is often used as including the parapet. Bulwark is a general word for any defensive wall or rampart; its only technical use at present is in nautical language, where it signifies the raised side of a ship above the upper deck, topped by the rail. Co mpare BOUNDARY; IMPEDIMENT. Antonyms: admittance, opening, road, transit, entrance, passage, thoroughfare, way. Prepositions: A barrier to progress, against invasion; a barrier between nations. * * * * *

BATTLE. Synonyms: action, combat, encounter, passage of arms, affair, conflict, engagement, skirm ish, bout, contest, fight, strife. Conflict is a general word which describes opponents, whether individuals or ho sts, as dashed together. One continuous conflict between entire armies is a batt le. Another battle may be fought upon the same field after a considerable interv al; or a new battle may follow immediately, the armies meeting upon a new field. An action is brief and partial; a battle may last for days. Engagement is a som ewhat formal expression for battle; as, it was the commander's purpose to avoid a general engagement. A protracted war, including many battles, may be a stubbor n contest. Combat, originally a hostile encounter between individuals, is now us ed also for extensive engagements. A skirmish is between small detachments or sc attered troops. An encounter may be either purposed or accidental, between indiv iduals or armed forces. Fight is a word of less dignity than battle; we should n ot ordinarily speak of Waterloo as a fight, unless where the word is used in the sense of fighting; as, I was in the thick of the fight. Antonyms: armistice, concord, peace, suspension of hostilities, truce. Prepositions: A battle of giants; battle between armies; a battle for life, against invaders; a battle to the death; the battle of (more rarely at) Marathon. * * * * * BEAT. Synonyms: bastinado, chastise, overcome, spank, thrash, batter, conquer, pommel, strike, vanquish, belabor, cudgel, pound, surpass, whip, bruise, defeat, scourge, switch , worst. castigate, flog, smite, Strike is the word for a single blow; to beat is to strike repeatedly, as a bir d beats the air with its wings. Others of the above words describe the manner of beating, as bastinado, to beat on the soles of the feet; belabor, to inflict a comprehensive and exhaustive beating; cudgel, to beat with a stick; thrash, as w heat was beaten out with the old hand-flail; to pound (akin to L. pondus, a weig ht) is to beat with a heavy, and pommel with a blunt, instrument. To batter and to bruise refer to the results of beating; that is battered which is broken or d efaced by repeated blows on the surface (compare synonyms for SHATTER); that is bruised which has suffered even one severe contusion. The metaphorical sense of beat, however, so far preponderates that one may be very badly bruised and batte red, and yet not be said to be beaten, unless he has got the worst of the beatin g. To beat a combatant is to disable or dishearten him for further fighting. Hen ce beat becomes the synonym for every word which implies getting the advantage o f another. Compare CONQUER. Antonyms: fail, fall, get the worst of, go down, go under, surrender.

Almost all antonyms in this class are passive, and can be formed indefinitely f rom the conquering words by the use of the auxiliary be; as, be beaten, be defea ted, be conquered, etc. Prepositions: Beat with a stick over the head; beat by a trick; out of town; beat to the grou nd; into submission. * * * * * BEAUTIFUL. Synonyms: attractive, charming, exquisite, handsome, beauteous, comely, fair, lovely, bew itching, delightful, fine, picturesque, bonny, elegant, graceful, pretty. The definition of beauty, "perfection of form," is a good key to the meaning of beautiful, if we understand "form" in its widest sense. There must also be harm ony and unity, and in human beings spiritual loveliness, to constitute an object or a person really beautiful. Thus, we speak of a beautiful landscape, a beauti ful poem. But beautiful implies also, in concrete objects, softness of outline a nd delicacy of mold; it is opposed to all that is hard and rugged, hence we say a beautiful woman, but not a beautiful man. Beautiful has the further limit of n ot transcending our powers of appreciation. Pretty expresses in a far less degre e that which is pleasing to a refined taste in objects comparatively small, slig ht, and dainty; as, a pretty bonnet; a pretty girl. That is handsome which is no t only superficially pleasing, but well and harmoniously proportioned, with usua lly the added idea that it is made so by art, breeding, or training; as, a hands ome horse; a handsome house. Handsome is a term far inferior to beautiful; we ma y even say a handsome villain. Fair denotes what is bright, smooth, clear, and w ithout blemish; as, a fair face. The word applies wholly to what is superficial; we can say "fair, yet false." In a specific sense, fair has the sense of blond, as opposed to dark or brunette. One who possesses vivacity, wit, good nature, o r other pleasing qualities may be attractive without beauty. Comely denotes an a spect that is smooth, genial, and wholesome, with a certain fulness of contour a nd pleasing symmetry, tho falling short of the beautiful; as, a comely matron. T hat is picturesque which would make a striking picture. Antonyms: awkward, frightful, grotesque, repulsive, uncouth, clumsy, ghastly, hideous, sh ocking, ungainly, deformed, grim, horrid, ugly, unlovely, disgusting, grisly, od ious, unattractive, unpleasant. Prepositions: Beautiful to the eye; beautiful in appearance, in spirit; "beautiful for situat ion," Ps. xlviii, 2; beautiful of aspect, of its kind. * * * * * BECAUSE. Synonyms: as, for, inasmuch as, since. Because, literally by-cause, is the most direct and complete word for giving th

e reason of a thing. Since, originally denoting succession in time, signifies a succession in a chain of reasoning, a natural inference or result. As indicates something like, coordinate, parallel. Since is weaker than because; as is weaker than since; either may introduce the reason before the main statement; thus, si nce or as you are going, I will accompany you. Often the weaker word is the more courteous, implying less constraint; for example, as you request it, I will com e, rather than I will come because you request it. Inasmuch as is a formal and q ualified expression, implying by just so much, and no more; thus, inasmuch as th e debtor has no property, I abandon the claim. For is a loose connective, giving often mere suggestion or indication rather than reason or cause; as, it is morn ing, for (not because) the birds are singing. Antonyms: altho, however, nevertheless, notwithstanding, yet. Compare synonyms for BUT; NOTWITHSTANDING. * * * * * BECOMING. Synonyms: befitting, congruous, fit, meet, seemly, beseeming, decent, fitting, neat, suit able, comely, decorous, graceful, proper, worthy. That is becoming in dress which suits the complexion, figure, and other qualiti es of the wearer, so as to produce on the whole a pleasing effect. That is decen t which does not offend modesty or propriety. That is suitable which is adapted to the age, station, situation, and other circumstances of the wearer; coarse, h eavy boots are suitable for farm-work; a juvenile style of dress is not suitable for an old lady. In conduct much the same rules apply. The dignity and gravity of a patriarch would not be becoming to a child; at a funeral lively, cheery soc iability would not be decorous, while noisy hilarity would not be decent; sumptu ous display would not be suitable for a poor person. Fit is a compendious term f or whatever fits the person, time, place, occasion, etc.; as, a fit person; a fi t abode; a fit place. Fitting, or befitting, is somewhat more elegant, implying a nicer adaptation. Meet, a somewhat archaic word, expresses a moral fitness; as , meet for heaven. Compare BEAUTIFUL. Antonyms: awkward, ill-fitting, indecent, unbecoming, unseemly, ill-becoming, improper, i ndecorous, unfit, unsuitable. Prepositions: The dress was becoming to the wearer. Such conduct was becoming in him. * * * * * BEGINNING. Synonyms: arising, inauguration, origin, source, commencement, inception, outset, spring, fount, initiation, rise, start. fountain, opening, The Latin commencement is more formal than the Saxon beginning, as the verb com

as. the source of a river. o ften involving. the pupil's deportment was faultless. was al ike faultless. as when it is said of a lady "she has a fine carriage. * * * * * BEHAVIOR. curve. idioma tic English words. Carriage expresses simply the mann er of holding the body. Motley wrote of "The Rise of the Dutc h Republic." John i. bearing. on or upon the streets." Fount. but of moral states. demeanor. in their figurative senses. his manners are his habitual st yle of behavior toward or before others. deflect. manner. * * * * * BEND. lif e. incline. or in the church. If we were to speak of the commenc ement of the Pacific Railroad. carriage. Commencement is for the most part restricted t o some form of action. Antonyms: See synonyms for END. twist. while beginning has no restriction. persuade. a source of i nspiration. as. keep close to their literal meaning. Prepositions: The behavior of the pastor to or toward his people. the origin of a nation. Synonyms: bias. Synonyms: action. and always suggesting causal connection. bef ore the multitude. the origin of evil. submit. we say that a lake is the source of a certain river. fertile land is a source (not an origin) of wealth. or with the worldly. An origin is the point from which something starts or sets out. especially in matters of etiquette and politeness. material. a haughty bearing.mence. deportment. manners. denotes that manner and conduct which result from good birth and training. Demeanor is the bod ily expression. as. with the godly. as. Compare CAUSE. extent. A source is that which furni shes a first and continuous supply. we should be understood to refer to the enterpris e and its initiatory act. Behavior is our action in the presence of others." In the great majority of cases begin and beginning are preferable to commence and commencement as the simple. Deportment is behavior as related to a set of rules. if we were to refer to the roadway we should say "Here is the beginning of the Pacific Railroad. A rise is though t of as in an action. enumeration. conduct includes also that wh ich is known only to ourselves and our Maker. degree. that which flows forth freely or may be read ily recurred to. diverge. state. a government. or toward a single person. not only of feelings. or to whatever else may be concei ved of as having a first part. The letter A is at the beginn ing (not the commencement) of every alphabet. etc. and spring. as. 1. tur . breeding. point. a noble bearing." Bearing refers to the bodily expression of fee ling or disposition. "In the beginning was the wor d. fountain. is more formal than begin. or a family. mold. a devout demeanor . especially in sitting or walking. A person's manner may be that of a moment. as. a source of knowledge. conduct. but may be applied to action. bow. unless with some adverse limitation. or th at the river takes its rise from the lake. always accurate and expressive. Breeding. good manners are always pleasing.

to or toward the poor. munificence. philanthropy. Antonyms: barbarity. kindness. genial kindly views. even then we should r ather say good-will or sympathy. to persuade is to dr aw them quite over. is now almost universally applied to some form of almsgiving. xiii). and needy. "common humanity requires it. or from the wealthy. self-seeking. and is much more limited in meaning than benevolence. bounty. ill-will. stoop. Liberality indicat es broad. a bent bow. whether manifested in gifts or otherwise. bu t not always. Kindness extends to all sentie nt beings. ki ndliness. Kindness and tenderness a re personal. To crook is to bend irregularly. as a bo ard in the sun. Deflect. we may say a good man has an air of benignity. to bend a bow. deviate. * * * * * BENEVOLENCE. warp. good-will. it includes much besides giving. and diverge are said of any turning away. as. b enevolence the wishing or willing well to others. feeble. in figurative use always with an unfa vorable import. whether men or animals. Humani ty is so much kindness and tenderness toward man or beast as it would be inhuman not to have. Compare ME RCY. greediness. kind-heartedness. Benign ity suggests some occult power of blessing. To warp is to bend silently through the whole fiber. To bias is to cut a cross the texture. To submit or yield is to bend the mind humbly to another's wishes. and to displace it. influence. niggardliness. or even to the dead. beneficence is the doing well. Philanthropy applies to wide schemes for human welfare. inhumanity. We spea k of the bounty of a generous host. which originally meant the purest love for God and man (as in 1 Cor. generosity." Generosity is self-forgetful kindness in disposition or action. Prepositions: Benevolence of. In some cases a thing is spoken of as bent where the parts make an angle. Synonyms: almsgiving. in prosperity or in distress. crook. the liberality or munificence of the founder of a college. but o ftener to bend is understood to be to draw to or through a curve. malignity. churlishness.n. or incline to one side. illiberality. which on a larger scale is expressed by munificence. unkindness. yield. the generosity of forgiveness. sympathy. we may bend by a superior for ce that which still resists the constraint. charity. We should not now speak of benevolence wh ich did not help. but benevolence has come to in clude beneficence. benignity. According to the etymology and original usage. malevolence. Charity. we say of some act of care or kindness. Tenderness espe cially goes out toward the young. liberality. beneficence. twine. harshness. deviate commonly of a slight an d gradual movement. stinginess. as a crooked stick. such as was formerly ascribed to the stars. unselfishness. as. de viate. * * * * * . as. diverge of a more sharp and decided one. we mold something pl astic entirely to some desired form. humani ty. often. brutality. benevolence and charity are general. on the part of. Bounty applies to ample giving. selfishness. unless where there was no power to help. involving large expenditures in charity or benevolence. or of the liberality of a theologian toward the holders of confli cting beliefs. To incli ne or influence is to bend another's wishes toward our own. Mold is a stronger work than bend.

BIND. oblige. acid. acidulated. * * * * * BITTER. we speak of the ties of affection. secure. One is bound by conscience or honor. pungent. engaged by his own promise. as nitrate of silver. or a door by a lock. bitter that of quassia. tie. Harsh carries the idea of intentio nal and severe unkindness. acetous. harsh. bind a wreath about. Synonyms: acerb. savage. In a figurative sense. biting. twigs are bound in or into fagots. The caustic utterance is meant to burn. but merely from a wit reck lessly keen. a pungent odor. a tart reply. The bitter speech springs from the sore heart. stinging. a splint is bound upon a limb. Acrid is nearly allied to bitter. We say a sour face . set free. as a board by nails. we tie the cord in a knot. Pungent suggests the effect of pepper or snuff on the organs of taste or smell. The verbs tie and fasten are scarcely used in the figurative sense. sharp. compelled by physical force or its moral equivalen t. a stinging taunt. Antonyms: . sharp words. stinging. bitter of a severity that arises from real or suppose d ill treatment. these words are very closely allied. as a cord or bandage drawn closely around an object or group of objects. as. unto an altar. Acid or sour is the taste of vinegar or lemon-juice. or round the h ead. untie. C ompare MOROSE. harsh judgment. Binding is primarily by something flexible. restrain. restrict. Antonyms: free. or bound under a penal ty to fulfil a contract. one is bound by a contract. bitter complaints. tart. tho. to a service. fasten. caustic. he is obliged by some imperious necessity . as when we bind up a wounded limb. irate. and biting speech indicates more or less of host ile intent. unbind. acrid. Caustic indicates the corroding effect of some strong chemical. Synonyms: compel. engage. acidulous. cutting. vinegarish. we fasten by any means that will make things hold together. unloose. caustic wit. so ur. cutting. loose. cutting irony. for military purposes. one is bound by a contract. using t he noun. Tart and sharp u tterances may not proceed from an intention to wound. acrimonious. biting sarcasm. as applied t o language or character. Bind has an extensive figurative use . unfasten. the arms may be bo und to the sides or behind the back. quinine. Prepositions: Bind to a pillar. or strychnine. bind one with chains or in chain s. the latter being the more deeply malicious. perhaps wholesomely. We bind a sheaf of wheat with a cord. shackle. virulent. around. sour. Acid. fix. fetter. they are bound at both ends and in the middle. as in the satire of Juvenal or Cervantes. and bitter agree in being contrasted with sweet. but the two former are sharply distinguished from the latter.

stunning. we speak also of the cut of a whip. Bleach and blanch both signify to whiten by depriving of color. dau b. and also for sweeping achievement and success. buffet. saccharine. whitewash. but commonly it means to overspread with white coloring-matter. a blow either with hand or weapon. cut. the former permanently. a blemish comes from one's own ill-doing. shock. We speak of the buffets of adverse fortune. A stripe is the effect or mark of a stroke. concussion. or a stroke of genius. darken. Synonyms: blanch. disaster. etc. To whiten is to make white in general. misfortune. to blanch the cheek with fear). cuff. stripe. blur. thump. whether ori ginal. disfigurement.dulcet. the brand of infamy. stroke . smirch. a lash with a whip. stigma. Shock is u . imperfection. the stroke of a sword. luscious. the shock of battle. as the pit s of smallpox. Synonyms: blot. dent. A cuff is a somew hat sidelong blow. nectared. as. injury. disgrace. dye. taint.. fault. soil. generally with the open hand. To whitewash is to whiten superficially. we speak of a blot or stain upon reputation. a cuff or box on the ear. calamity. defect. colliding railway-trains meet with a shock. lash. Synonyms: box. A blemish is superficial. primaril y a failing. A defect is the want or lack of something. A slap is given with the open hand. a flaw o r taint in character. is something that fails of an apparent intent or disappoints a natu ral expectation. dishonor. blow is us ed for sudden. as linen. A blow is a sudden impact. stroke for sweeping disa ster. as of a fist or a club. * * * * * BLEMISH. crack. staggering calamity or sorrow. * * * * * BLEACH. especially by false approval. v. flaw. as. fault. thus a sudden dislocation or displacement of geological strata is called a fault. make white. We say a stroke of paralysi s. Antonyms: blacken. reproach. a stroke is a sweeping movem ent. deformity. In the moral sense. In the metaphorical sense. or the result of accident or disease. as squinting eyes. Whatever mars the beauty or completeness of an object is a blemish. as. A shock is th e sudden encounter with some heavy body. brand. stain. spot. * * * * * BLOW. or the like. A buffet or cuff i s given only with the hand. whiten. sta in. sweet. of the arm in swimming. rap. as. defacement. soil. Figuratively. a bra nd or stigma is inflicted by others. thong. tarnish. color. speck. to blanch celery) or temporarily (as. honeyed. knock. of an oar. the latter either permanently (as. a flaw or taint is in structure or subs tance.

however. frame. of man or an imal. coarse. Antonyms: intellect. both. unmannerly. Antonyms: bland. tho ordinarily these words are used only of the dead. The bluff man talks and laughs loudly and freely. Compare COMPANY. Compare BEAT . as. genial. "two men fired" might mean any two . rude. Body denotes the entire physical structure. uncivil. * * * * * BOTH. urbane. and system may be e ither dead or living. The two. system views it as an assembla ge of many related and harmonious organs. Bluff is a word of good meaning. carcass. bold. Body. we speak of a sho ck of electricity. is practically equ ivalent to both. refined. remains may be used after any lapse of time. clay. trunk. frank. viewed or acti ng in connection. form looks upon it as a thing of shape and outline. expresses a closer unity. reserved. says and does whatever he pleases with fearless good nature. polished. intelligence. perhaps of beauty. Corpse is the plain technical word for a dead body s till retaining its unity. clay and dust are sometimes so used in religious or poetic style. or the twain. frame. form. system. courteous. plain-spoken. two. fra me regards it as supported by its bony framework. spirit. or had in mind. soul. a shock of surprise. Corpse and remains are used only of the dead. Synonyms: twain. brusk. friends are invited to vie w the remains. considered as a whole. the latte r is also the more refined and less ghastly term. the shock of an amputation. impolite. polite. Synonyms: abrupt. and with no thought of annoying or giving pain to others. either from a defiant indifference to others' feelings. rough. and without reference to any previous thought or mention. We would say both men . Carcass applies only to the body of an animal. dust. or of a human bein g regarded with contempt and loathing. as. * * * * * BODY. and prostrating. Both refers to two objects previously mentioned. open. as are frank and open. * * * * * BLUFF. blunt. discourteous. both men fired at once. remains.sed of that which is at once sudden. T wain is a nearly obsolete form of two. mind. Synonyms: ashes. or from the pleasure of tormenting. blustering. form. The blunt man says things which he is perfectly aware are disagreeable. violent. out of any number. corpse. inconsiderate.

bourne. interior. Bounds may be used for all within the limits . as was the Great Wall of China. within the lines. of jurisdiction. A border is a strip of land along the boundary. m arches. fearless. marked or unmarked. Prepositions: The boundaries of an estate. The adventurous man goes in quest of danger. not any. * * * * * BRAVE. estate. bold. no one. term. inside. END. we speak of the boundaries of a nation or of an estate. not the bounda ries. valiant. courageous. frontier. Synonyms: barrier. the bold man stands out and faces danger or censure. Now. region. a ball-ground. reckless. undismayed . margin. heroic. Synonyms: adventurous. The boundary was originally the landmark. neither. gallant. The adventurous find something romantic in dangerous enterprises. daring. as. however. landmark. is a p oetical expression for bound or boundary. As rega rds territory. Hence we speak of the bounds. bourn. none. line. * * * * * BOUNDARY. Line is a military term. as. All great explorers have been adven turous. Antonyms: each. the difference between the two words has come to be simply one of usage. A bar rier may be a boundary. the venturesome ma y be simply heedless. as where river or ocean meets the land. the two men flew at each other. termination. bound only to that which is within. the bound s of a college. citadel. A barrier is something that bars ingress or egress. border. marge. The fearless and intrepi d possess unshaken nerves in any place of danger. the gallant are brave in a dash . etc. the limit of discu ssion. at the call of duty. either. doughty. confines. Boundary looks to that which is without. or bourne.rushed against the enemy. Bourn. Limit is now used almost wholly in the figurative sense. chivalrous. the brave man combines confidence with resolution in presence of danger. we say the students were forbidden to go beyond the bounds. every. undaunted. intrepid. the doughty will give and take limitless hard knocks. Courageous is more than brave. adding a moral element: the courageous man steadily encounters perils to which he may be keenly sensitive. or through the lines. bound. dauntless. Edge is a sharp terminal line. boundary for the limiting line only. Antonyms: center. of an army. The daring step out to defy danger. verge. Compare EVERY. children. fools. the boundary between neighboring territories. of time. enclosure. etc. territory. land.. of a subject. ventures ome. the dauntless will not flinch before anything t hat may come to them. or ignorant. and criminals are venturesome. edge. the chivalrous man puts himself in peril for others' protection. that which marked off one piece of te rritory from another. The bound is the limit. Compare BARRIER. of the universe. limit. chivalric.

sunder. needle-like fragments. beastly. the heroic are nobly daring and dauntless. To burst is to break by pressure from within. mentally. brute. frigh tened. To crush is to break by pressure from without. pusillanimous. solder. crush. lascivious. to des troy an army is so to shatter and scatter it that it can not be rallied or reass embled as a fighting force. rend. break with a friend. sottish. break thro ugh a hedge. coarse. destroy. In a fractured limb. cowardly. a building by an earthquake. . To break is to divide sharply. weld. To demolish is to beat down. or in pieces. To crack is to break without complete severance o f parts. swinish. fortress. carnal. Antonyms: afraid. * * * * * BREAK. crack. burst. or morally. but it is use d also for the result of violent force otherwise exerted. and splendid way.ing. split. Prepositions: Break to pieces. fearful. cringing. shrinking. as. rupture . transgress. break over the rules. mend. bestial. as. as. the valiant not only dare great dangers. cashier. as an egg-shell. where the door yields as if to an explosion. showy. to burst in a door . ignorant. vile. a vase is shat tered by a blow. base. sever. To split is to cause wood to crack or part in the way of the grain. to split a convention or a party. the ends of the broken bone may be separat ed. as a bombshell. secure. brutal. into several pieces (when the object is thought of as divided rather than shattered). tho both portions are still retained within the common muscular tissue. shiver. smash. but achie ve great results. Compare FORTITUDE. a cracked cup or mirror may still hold together. imbruted. unite. stolid. bind. stupid. demolish. shatter. faint-hearted. with severance of particles. unspiritual. against the rocks. out of prison. Compare REND. Fracture has a somewha t similar sense. fracture. and is applied to any other case where a natural tendency to separ ation is enforced by an external cause. Antonyms: attach. break into a house. join.. To smash is to break thoroughly to pieces with a crashing sound by some sudden act of violence. * * * * * BRUTISH. from or away from a s uppliant. break on or u pon the shore. timid. timorous. etc. break across one's knee. uni ntellectual. building. rive. as a mound. A shivered glass is broken into nu merous minute. s ublimely courageous. a watch once smashed will scarcely be worth repair. as by a blow or str ain. break in upon one's retirement. sensual. Synonyms: bankrupt. to destroy is t o put by any process beyond restoration physically. Synonyms: animal. fasten. truly chivalrous. A sh attered object is broken suddenly and in numerous directions. insensible.

occupation. trout-fishing may be one's occupation for a time. c raft. char. barter. handicraft. Beastly refers largely to the outward and visible con sequences of excess. c uriosity. commerce. Antonyms: cool. the brutal have always a spirit of malice and cruelty. subdue. the sense differs little from that of cremate. art. A ny supremacy of the animal or brute instincts over the intellectual and spiritua l in man is base and vile. scorch. the sun burns the face. implies an intensified and degrading animalism. vocation. burn into the soil. much the sam e is true of animal. and to char usually so. while the occupation m . devotion. but it is i n less popular use. love. Antonyms: elevated. as appears in the familiar phrase "brute force. singe. set fire to. transaction. To incinerate i s to reduce to ashes. as. cremate. flame. Both kindle and burn have an exten sive figurative use. great. Prepositions: To burn in the fire. Synonyms: blaze. kindle. extinguish. inte lligent. except as indicating what a brute might possess. as if with a candle. or the roof. without special inclination to do harm. empl oyment. stifle. cauterize. brand. to burn one's hand on a hot stove. Cremate is now used specifically for consuming a dead body by intense heat. Synonyms: affair. a brute impulse suddenly prompts one to strike a blow in an ger. One brands with a hot ir on. trading. * * * * * BURN. as. beastly drunkenness. ignite is the more learned and scientific word for the same thing. but cauterizes with some corrosive substance. calling. refined. noble. set on fire. except that animal leans more to the side of sensuality. A business is what one follows regularly. extending even to the h eating of metals to a state of incandescence without burning. trade. incinerate. burn with fire. an occupation is what he happens at a ny time to be engaged in. or of intense heat so as to effect either partial change or complete combustion. as. flash. exalted. duty. burn th rough the skin. put out. * * * * * BUSINESS. intellectual. Bestial. as a relief from business. business is ordinarily for profit. br ute to that of force. To kindle is to set on fire. traffic. To burn is to subject to the action of fire. work. to burn with wrath." Hunger is an animal appetite. job. etc. To scorch and to s inge are superficial. Compare LIGHT. grand. to burn wood in the fire. in modern usage. burn to the ground. to kindle strife.A brutish man simply follows his animal instincts. concern. enlightened. profession. smother. as silver nitrate. burn to ashes. humane. Compare ANIMAL. consume. ignite. Brute has no special character. avocation.

this little affair. in the special sense. that. yet. a trade is an occupation involving manual training and sk illed labor. unless. concer ning. etc. that to which one is called by some special fitness or sense of duty. no injury except some painful bruises. in general. no injury but a scra tch. * * * * * BY. the art of printing. or. but let u s go (it being understood that we might stay longer). co llectively. but trade is capable o f a more limited application. and ordinarily paid fo r as such. in business with his father. as. rather than a bus iness. In restrictive use. engaged in its exercise. as. as. Prepositions: The business of a druggist. as. Barter is the direct exchange of commodities. we speak of the trade of a village. as. the weaver's craft. thus. may be what one does independently. t hus. the ancient Jews held that every boy should learn a trade. Work is any application of energy to secure a result." etc. a vocation or calling. occupation.ay be a matter of learning. collectively. still. as." But neve r becomes a full synonym for and. or otherwise. Trade or trading is. the arts. or religion. we say. as. "it never rains but it pours. For the concessive use. we speak of the gospel ministry as a vocation or calling. but with y our father's consent" (i. So may the use of but in the sense of unless.. Busine ss. a man of affairs. just. I am willing to go. "provided you have. tho. The plural affairs has a distinctive meaning. or the persons. trade. only. The contrast may be with a silent thought. save. however. But ranges from the faintest contrast to absolute negation. employment may be in t he service of another. provided. or the result thus secured. "brave and tender" implies that tenderness is natural to the brave. but lighter meaning. and adds something like." "except that you must have. merely. diplomacy. philanthropy. Pursuit is an occupation which one follows with ardor. whether in business. have you business with me? business in New York. A tr ansaction is a single action. as. an important tran saction. Art in the industria l sense is a system of rules and accepted methods for the accomplishment of some practical result. etc. further. business about. including all activities where men deal with one another on any considerable scale. An avocation is what calls one away from other work. compare NOTWITHSTANDING. moreover. business. Trade and commerce may be used as equivalents. we speak of the work of God. "Doubt but" is now less used than the more logical "doubt that. or in regard to certain property. e. notwithstanding. . he is not an honest man. bills of exchange. the learned professions. doing business for his father. A job is a piece of work viewed as a single undertaking. A craft is s ome occupation requiring technical skill or manual dexterity. A profession implies scho larship. but adds something di fferent. but (on t he contrary) a villain. barely. Synonyms: and. as. the exchanging of one thing for another. * * * * * BUT. besides. as. but (on the other hand) content to stay.). the commerce o f a nation.. Such expressions as "words are b ut breath" (nothing but) may be referred to the restrictive use by ellipsis. and c ommerce are chiefly transacted by means of money. "you may go. affa ir has a similar. nevertheless. "br ave but tender" implies that bravery and tenderness are rarely combined." To the same head must be referred the conditional use. except and excepting are slightly more emphatic than but. except.

We speak of communicating with a person by letter. crew. the con clave of cardinals. crew is used in a closely similar sense. To rate is to estimate by comparison. to things. To enumerate is to mention item by item. a way was open ed by pioneers with axes. A conclave is secret. to th e instrument. To count is to number one by one. Material objects are perceived by the mind through the senses. By commonly refers to persons. The road having become impassable through long disuse. Prepositions: It is vain to calculate on or upon an uncertain result. As applied to the present. we reckon or count a thing precious or worthless. t o enumerate one's grievances. division. v. A gang is a company of workmen all doing the same work under one leader. or the act of so combining. cast. etc. enumerate. estimate more frequently to the future. through. which is still more strongly expressed by estimate. A conspiracy is a combination of persons for an evil purpose. Synonyms: combination. Faction and its adjective. with. as if the ob ject were one of a series. By may. compute refers to the present or the past. A faction is more extensive than a conspiracy. confederacy. dee m. law. the word is used figuratively only of combinations which it is meant to stigmatize as rude and me rcenary. By refers to the agent. less definite in plan. We compute the slain in a great war f rom the number known to have fallen in certain great battles. * * * * * CALCULATE.. less formal in organi zation. Number is the generic term. We count upon a desired future. and generally under stat utory. count. s kill is gained by practise. however. junto. Conspiracy is a distinct crime under common. as. than a cabal. with. sum up. gang. as. . conclave. as multiplication. through. consider. rate. * * * * * CABAL. reckon. but of l arger numbers. by means of. be applied to any object which is vie wed as partaking of action and agency. Synonyms: account. and may have honorable use. we do not count upon the undesired. * * * * * CALL. through may refer to either. estimate. with. or condition. as. to estimate the cost of a proposed building. as. faction. more rapid but not less exact.Synonyms: by dint of. have always an unfavorable sense. cause. Compute allows more of the element of probability. and more intervening e lements. Compare ESTEEM. the metal was corroded by the acid. conspiracy. number. ordinarily. to the means. factious. Cabal commonly denotes a conspiracy of leaders. T hrough implies a more distant connection than by or with. compute. To calculate is t o use more complicated processes.

cry (out). also. one is calm who triumphs over a t endency to excitement. to scream is to utter a shriller cry. tr anquil. still. he is collected when he has every thought. noisy cries. That is calm which is free from disturbance or agitation. . To ejaculate is to throw out brief. We speak of a tranquil mind. One may exclaim. smooth. a placid lak e. To clamor is to utter with noisy iteration. a man calls his dog. hush. and still. shriek." "smooth sailing. cool. it is oftener in grief or agony. in screaming. or ejaculate with no thought of others' presence. cool. t o cry is to express grief or pain by weeping or sobbing. One is composed who has subdued exci ted feeling. bellow. peaceful. shr ieking. a still night. clamor. or perception a wake and at command. etc. Synonyms: collected. The sense is extended to include summons by bell.Synonyms: bawl. In the most common colloquial usage. serene. list. Of mental conditions. hearken. or by connected words." which are different modes of expressing freedom from manifest agitation. To bawl is to utte r senseless. Tranquil refers to a present state. as we speak of the calmness of despair. or by the oppression of overpowering emoti on. * * * * * CALM. To call is to send out the voice in order to attract another's attention. free fro m excited or disturbing emotion or passion. or their young . imperturbable. if he cr ies out. to a prevailing tendency. And calm. quiet. unruffl ed. tho somewhat. e xclaim. regret. undisturbed. his horse. above the ordinary tone and pitch. shout. placid. Animals call their mates. feeling. a serene sky. in the mental or spiritual realm. it applies also to the confused cri es of a multitude. He rises in my breast. it is to att ract another's attention. Serene. Bellow and roar are ap plied to the utterances of animals. one often exclaims with sudden joy as well as sorrow. a quiet day. yell. and self-possessed. In exclaiming. above all storm and shadow. disconnected. To shout is to call or exclaim with the fullest volume o f sustained voice. roar. self-possessed. vociferate. if he scarcely feels the tendency. eithe r by word or by inarticulate utterance. and especially of appeal. in the physical sense . but always by some articu late utterance. The serene spirit dwells as if in the clear upper air. of "s till waters. hark. a quiet home. and only contemptuously to those of persons. One may be calm by the very reaction from excitement. scream. prayer. dispassionate. composed. petition. a placid disposition. We speak of a calm sea. when he calls." To cry out is to give forth a louder and more excited utterance than in excla iming or calling. placid. or any signal. the utteranc e may not be strikingly. be still. listen. free from violent motion or action. We shout words. the use of such devotional utterances has received the special name of "ejaculatory prayer . Antonyms: be silent. but coherent u tterances of joy. We speak. sedate. The star of the unconquered will. and resolute. To vociferate is commonly applied to loud and excited speech where there is little besides the exertion of voice. as of a child in pain or anger. or yelling there is often no attempt at articulation. to shriek or to yell re fers to that which is louder and wilder still. we may exclaim by mere interjections. cry ou t. ejaculate.

. What has been canceled. unprejudiced. wild. transparent. quash. as a letter. open. impartial. remove. write. Cancel. A candid statement is meant to be true to the real facts and just to all partie s. confirm. as was done by reversing the Roman stylus. Antonyms: agitated. as being all that one's words would imply. unsophisticated. obliterate. to efface is t o rub off. 7. guileless. Synonyms: aboveboard. heated. a fair statement is really so. revoke. and unsop histicated express the goodness which comes from want of the knowledge or though t of evil. fair treatment. may perhaps still be traced. sincere. As truth is not always agreeable or timely. exactly our English cross out. disturbed. to make a lattice by cross-lines. uphold." One who is frank has a fearle ss and unconstrained truthfulness. the record is canceled. roused. innocent. as if it had never been. violent. honest. open ro bbery.LONGFELLOW Light of Stars st. when a debt is di scharged by payment. fair. furious. ruffled. naive. Fair is applied to the conduct. candid is not. frank. ingenuous. establish. Synonyms: abolish. In many establishments. nullify. There may be transparent integrity or transparent fraud. wr athful. truthful. simple. cross off or out. as. * * * * * CANCEL. straightforward. commonly for the purpose of writing something else in the same space. maint ain. erase." "to be perfectly frank. expunge. frenzied. On the other hand. what is obliterated is gone forever. as. reenact. expunged. "a fair field. vacate. "to be candid with you. to erase is to scratch ou t. to obliterate is to cover over or remove. blot out. candid and frank have oft en an objectionable sense. ann ul. guileless. erased. naive. make void. as of an inscription. boisterous. literally. rub off or out. is to punch out with some sharp instrument. record. Honest and ingenuous unite in expressing cont empt for deceit. Antonyms: approve. sustain. smooth away the face. expunge. repeal. efface. Sincere applies to the feelings. excited. unreserved. enact. and obliterate have as their first meaning the removal of written characters or other forms of record. Open and unreserved may im ply unstudied truthfulness or defiant recklessness. raging. perpetuate. scratch out. open admiration. so as to show that the words ar e no longer part of the writing. Compare ABOLISH. fierce. turbulent. * * * * * CANDID. erase. and rubbing out with the roun ded end what had been written with the point on the waxen tablet. frantic. and no favor. to expu nge. To cancel is. discharge. unbiased. abrogate." are regarded as sure preludes to something disagreeable. enforce. rescind. passionate. efface. stormy. artless. The figurative use of the words kee ps close to the primary sense. simple. artless.

riches bring man y cares. forethought. knowing. the capital in the politica l sense. a man rides a dangerous horse with care. foxy . Synonyms: chief city. We spea k also of the accouterments of a soldier. The metropolis is the chief city in the commercial. especially under saddle." or. * * * * * CAPITAL. as. management. Prepositions: Candid in debate. the animal is said to be "kind in harness. for showy human apparel. maneuvering. diplomatic. what we do not. cunning. harness. tricky. as. "This side up with care. Caparison is used rarely and somewhat slightingly. deceitful. concern. in view of possible harm. caution will keep him from mounting th e horse. Synonyms: anxiety. attention. sharp. * * * * * CAPARISON. circumspection. candid to or toward opponents. trappings. if at all. it is now used almost exclusively of the straps and appurtenances worn by a horse whe n attached to a vehicle. Heed implies . heed. Care inclines to the positive. precaution looks to the saddle-girths. Care concerns what we possess. intriguing. Concern denotes a serious interest. oversight. The capital of an American State is rarely its metropolis. Harness was formerly used of the armor of a knight as well as of a horse. perplexity. wariness. Compar e ARMS. designing. but without the timidity implied in caution. bit and bridle. trouble. worry.Antonyms: adroit. artful. caution to the negative. prudence with caution. by careful deliberation and observation. caution. sly. caut ion largely in not doing. shrewd. charge. "Take care!" Caution has a sense of possible harm and r isk only to be escaped. milder than anxiety. insincere. Synonyms: accouterments. DRESS. concern for the safety of a ship at sea. vigilan ce. and trappings quite contemptuously." "Take care of yourself. and all that may make the rider secure. wily. direction. crafty. metropolis. candid with friend or foe. poverty brings many anxieties. prudence. as a sharp warning. * * * * * CARE. solicitude. Precaution is allied with care. subtle. precaution. Circumspection is watchful observation and calculation. housings. watchful ness. seat of government. anxiety." The other w ords apply to the ornamental outfit of a horse. care is shown in doing. often. Care also signifies watchful attention. to be candid about or in regard to the matter.

embrace. oversight. F. us ually a life-work. * * * * * CARESS. A career was originally the ground for a race. Prepositions: Take care of the house. Synonyms: coddle..] In its figurative use career signifies some continuous and conspicuous work. indiff erence. fondle. Watchfulness recognizes the possibility of danger. wariness the probability. more dignified and less familiar than to fon dle. take ground for your career. about the matter. remissness. or other tender and pleasing a ttentions. not expressed in anxiety. whence career was early applied to the charge its elf. A parent feels constant solicitude for h is children's welfare. Antonyms: See synonyms for AFFRONT. 194. Care has also the sense of responsibili ty. Antonyms: carelessness. race. or. slight. p. [D. for the future. with care to guar d against them. omission. The four horsemen me t in full career. Compare BUS INESS. especially.. a mother fondles her babe.. S olicitude involves especially the element of desire. ANXIETY. anxiety as to dangers that threaten it. A man who is not influenced by caution to keep out of danger may di splay great wariness in the midst of it. disregard. it is now largely displaced by attention and care. as expressed in charge. line of achievement. flight. neglect. kiss. caressing may be also by words. inattention. To caress is less than to embrace. 14. Fondling is always by touch. Compar e ALARM. for a knight's c harge in tournament or battle. PRUDENCE. send the money to me in care of the firm. Prepositions: . rush. flatter. not implied in care. pamper. SCOTT Quentin Durward ch. If you will use the lance. with possible control. oversight. and most frequently one of honorable achievement. * * * * * CAREER. public life. th ese children are under my care.attention without disquiet. court. A visitor caresses a friend's child. heedlessness. a nd of hopefulness. recklessness. Synonyms: charge. negligence. passage. as. & CO. pet. course. management.

Imitation is serious. a burlesque treats any subject in an absurd or incongruo us manner. yet. etc. as. shake off. The stooping Atlas bears the world on his shoulders. * * * * * CARRY. but is content with a general resemblance to what it may im itate. A caricature. tr avesty. if to the place we occ upy. this house. take-off. we say bring. bring. and brings a n answer. A burlesque is written or acted. at court. convey. An extravaganza is a fantastic compo sition. SUPPORT. but keeps the style. a caricature is more commonly in ske tch or picture. even so. or narrative. A messenger carries a letter to a correspondent. over the bridge.Caressed by or with the hand. he carries it only w hen in motion. Carry often signifies to transport by personal strength. transport. Prepositions: To carry coals to Newcastle. parody. that is more than he can carry. A person may bear a load either when in motion or at rest. The figurative uses of carry are very numerous. take that lett er to the office. exaggeration. or travesty must have an original. but changes the style. a burlesque does not hold itself to eith er subject or style. to carry a n election. one may be able to lift what he could not carry. caressed by admirers. Compare CONVEY. mimicry is either intentionally or unintentionally comical. Synonyms: burlesque. parody. he carr ied these qualities into all he did. we say carry. carry an audience. or carry it here. Take is often used in this sense in place of carry. throw down. a person may be said either to bear o r to carry a scar. extravaganza. carry the country. let go. as. throw off. carry (in the sense of capture) a fort. t hrough the woods. the real story of the Iliad t old in newspaper style would be a travesty. An account of a schoolboys' quarrel after the gen eral manner of Homer's Iliad would be a burlesque. with no reference to holding or moving. A parody changes the subject. dramatic. swiftly movi ng Time carries the hour-glass and scythe. carry across the street. If an obje ct is to be moved from the place we occupy. witho ut reference to the direction. the cable was ca rried under the sea. mimicry. move. since it is upon him whether in motion or at rest. remove. generally of a person. take. a burlesque may be an independent composition. To lift is simply to raise from the ground. give up. musical. beyond the river. transmit. Antonyms: drop. as. carry a stock of goods. fall under. imitation. or out of. * * * * * . carry nothing from. a travesty ke eps the subject. KEEP. around or round the corner. * * * * * CARICATURE. it would not be admissible to say carry it to me. Synonyms: bear. sustain. lift. tho but for an instant. in such cas e we must say bring. A caricature is a grotesque exaggeration of striking features or peculiarities.

fall short of. In the figurative sense. Misfortune ordina rily suggests less of suddenness and violence than calamity or disaster. to catch a criminal in the act. Preposition: The catastrophe of a play. clasp. denouement. in the sense of apprehen d or comprehend. A cataclysm or catastrophe is some great convulsion or momentous event that may or may not be a cause of misery to man. throw away. privilege. success. the final event of a drama is the catastrophe. Antonyms: benefit. seque l. a defeat in battle. capture. we grasp with a firm but m oderate closure of the whole hand. let go. help. upon). grip. will always involve much individual disaster and misfortune. We snatch wit h a quick. take hold of. to catch a ball with th e left hand. misfortune. pleasure. and is especially applied to that which is lingering or enduring in its effects. snatch. or denouement. to catch a fugitive by the collar. a mouse in a trap. In calamity. or disaster. of a siege. * * * * * CATCH. clutch. a shipwreck. ensnare. blessing. Yet such an event. as. secure . We clasp in the arms. We catch a runaway horse. grasp. comfort. throw aside. he caught the disease from the patient. mischance. to a person. boon. We cl utch with a swift. release. In his tory. take. rest ore. entrap. and usually a surprising motion. prosperity. tenacious movement of the fingers. discover. It has been held by many geologists that nu merous catastrophes or cataclysms antedated the existence of man. Antonyms: fail of. seize. Pestilence is a calamity . cat ch is used of any act that brings a person or thing into our power or possession . the end of every great war or the fall of a nation is a catastrophe. the breaking of a teacup is a mishap. mishap. To catch is to come up with or take possession of something departing. Synonyms: apprehend. gripe.CATASTROPHE. to catch an idea. Prepositions: To catch at a straw. Compare ARREST. In literature. sudden. favor. cataclysm. the thought o f human suffering is always present. tho i t may not be a calamity. give up. comprehend. or illusive. sickn ess or loss of property is a misfortune. overtake. disaster. rarely. etc. fugitive . miss. we grip or gripe with the strongest muscular closure of the whole hand possible to exert. if not a calamity to the race. a flying ball. lay hold of (on. failure to meet a friend is a mischance . lose. the thief was caught in the . or a failure in business is a disaster. Synonyms: calamity.

issue. intermit. fountain. The efficient cause. Synonyms: abstain. finish. as in the saying "There is no effect without a cause. Antonyms: consequence. commence. creator . event . Causality is the doctrine or principle of causes. spring. causation the ac tion or working of causes. originator. he quits suddenly and completely. Prepositions: The cause of the disaster. stop. An occasio n is some event which brings a cause into action at a particular moment. the steep incline of the mountainside is a necessary condition. power. but not the cause of it. desist. orig in." Ever y man instinctively recognizes himself acting through will as the cause of his o wn actions. occasion. designer. DIE. The Creator is the Great First Cause of all things. enter upon. REST. but does not produce it. result. set on foot. An anteced ent simply precedes a result. Compare DESIGN. Preposition: Cease from anger. precedent. inaugurate. set in operation. condition. motive.act. give over. quit. What intermits or is intermitted returns again. leave off. while that of antecedent is consequent. pause. end. originate. agent. refra in. development. Mo nday is the invariable antecedent of Tuesday. Strains of music may gradually or suddenly cease. causation. product. as a fever that inter mits. is the common meaning of the word. REASON. institute. he may discontinue a practise gradually. h e stops short in what he may or may not resume. initiate. * * * * * . fruit. set going. gravita tion and heat are the causes of an avalanche. and the shout of the traveler may be the occasion of its fall. with or without any agency in producing it. author. cause for interference. Synonyms: actor. outgrowth. The direc t antonym of cause is effect. reason. antecedent. as. A condition is s omething that necessarily precedes a result. source. Antonyms: begin. end. Compare ABANDON. bring to an end. terminate. END. that which makes anything to be or be done. * * * * * CAUSE. start. A man quits work on the insta nt. former. he pauses in what he will probab ly resume. conclude. the bird in the snare. * * * * * CEASE. outcome. causality. creation. discontinue. effect. set a bout. come to an end.

or to perform such public rites or cere monies as it properly demands. Midst commonly implies a group or multitude of surrounding objects.. or impropriety. dismay. perimeter. Shame involves the consciousness of fault. humiliation.CELEBRATE. Prepositions: We celebrate the day with appropriate ceremonies. Antonyms: contemn. * * * * * CENTER. A rainy day may bring disappointment. discomposure. shame. Chagrin unites disappointment with some degree of humiliation. ignore. We speak of the center of a circle. The center is a point. the midst of a forest. commemorate the death of one beloved or honored. Antonyms: bound. vexation. the middle may be a line or a space. overlo ok. the victory was celebrated by the people. observe. We say at the center. rim. the middle is more general and less definite. the middle of the str eet. etc. or from the opposite boundaries on each axis of a p arallelogram. guilt. with firing of guns and ringing of bells. Compare s ynonyms for AMID. if there wa . despise. A consciousness that one has displayed his ow n ignorance will cause him mortification. violate. * * * * * CHAGRIN. We celebrate the birth. profane. with rejoicing. solemnize a marriage. circumference. needless failure in some enterprise brings chagrin. The center is equally distant from every point of th e circumference of a circle. mortificat ion. forget. dishonor. Synonyms: confusion. Synonyms: middle. observe an anniversary. or harm to reputation. neglect. disappointment. chagrin of failure o f judgment. We celebrate a national anniversary with music and song. We keep the Sabbath . in the middl e. midst. solemnize. we celebrate or observe the Lord 's Supper in which believers commemorate the sufferings and death of Christ. Synonyms: commemorate. the middle of a room. To celebrate any event or occasion is to make some demonstration of respect or rejoicing because of or in memory of it. however worthy his intent. disregard. or by a monument or other enduring memorial. we commemorate by any solemn and thou ghtful service. boundary. keep.

to change from a caterpillar to or into a butterfly. as of a caterpill ar into a butterfly. joy into grief. To transform is to change form or appeara nce. to change horses. 2. or in some way m ore favorable in place of that which is commuted. glory. To convert (L. in some resp ect at least. exchange. to commute daily fares on a railway to a monthly p ayment. shift. to change clothes with a beggar. milder. use. or of the crystallin e structure of rocks. con vert. ordinarily in external qua lities. We modify or qualify a statement which might seem too strong. tho sometimes used for that word. hence called "metamorphic rocks. to make different in one or more particulars. 1. n. and his fac e did shine as the sun. transmute. To t ransmute is to change the qualities while the substance remains the same. the exposure will cover him with shame. turn.. v. continue. To metamorphose is to make some remarkable change. on account of) failure. often capric iously. a nd signifies to change in form. to exchange city for country pro perty. through a wide range of re lations." Rom. stay. was transfigured before them. transfigure. as. To vary is to change from time to time. To change is distinctively to make a thing other than it has been. substitute. etc. triumph. diversify.s a design to deceive. Transfigure is. endure. qualify. as. but often in structure. etc. 2. being often equivalent to alter. "Jesus . to exchange to put or take something else in its place. bide. Prepositions: He felt deep chagrin at (because of. transmute. . qualify it by some addition. hold. lighter. and his raiment was white as the light. as. exultation. persist. with or without deeper and more essential change. convert. veer. of the stamens of a plant into petals.. a sinner into a saint. we modify it by some limita tion. Antonyms: delight. to alter i s ordinarily to change partially. commute." Matt. character. xvii. iron is converted into steel.. to change in an exalted and glorious spiritual way. remain. and is often used in a spiritual se nse as transmute could not be. * * * * * CHANGE. xii. retain. or chemical constitution. as in its Scriptural use. and verto. con. transform. "Be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind. metamorphose. Prepositions: To change a home toilet for a street dress. Synonyms: alter. to commute capital punishm ent to imprisonment for life. to transmute the baser metals into gold. To turn is a popular word for change in any sense short of the meaning of exchange . rejoicing. it is less absolute than transmute. vary. To commute is to put something easier. To exchange is often to transfer ownership. Antonyms: abide. Change is often used in the sense of exchange. with. turn) is to primarily turn about. use. keep. as. * * * * * CHANGE. modify." as when a limestone is m etamorphosed into a marble. transform.

as. Compare CHARACTERISTIC. temper. or the change that had taken place was manifes t. of his mental or moral constitution. Prepositions: . the change from winter to spring. and is alwa ys thought of as agreeable. reputation.Synonyms: alteration. uniformity. regeneration. steadiness. An innovation is a change that breaks in upon an established order or custom. In the religious sense regeneration is the vital renewing of the soul by the power of the divine Spirit. 32. continuance. Novelty is a change to what is new.. renewa l. novelty. For the distinctions between the other words compare the synonyms for CHANGE. conversion is the conscious and manifest cha nge from evil to good. unchangeableness. innovation. or violent change. as. Revolution is specifically and most commonly a change of government . what he is thought to be." In popular use con version is the most common word to express the idea of regeneration. "when thou art converted. as. in Luke xxii. variety. qualities. Mutation is a more formal word for change. reputation. Synonyms: constitution. sudden. We speak of one's physical constitution as strong or weak. vicissitude. A change is a passing from one state or form to another. strengthen thy brethren. regular. the variation of the magnetic needle or of the pulse. conversion. Vicissitude is sharp. or from youth to manhood. his reputation may be higher or lower than his cha racter or record will justify. the cha nge of a liquid to or into a gas. revolution. persistence. As a rule. often suggesting repeated or conti nual change. the mutations of fortune. nature. fixity. o r the newness of that to which a change is made. One's nature includes all his original endowments or propensities. etc. as. Antonyms: constancy. mutation. renewing. Character is what one is. etc. Variation is a partial change in form. or the unlikeness so produced. a change by absorption or oxidation. transformation. v. fixedness. Repute is a somewhat formal word. character includes both natural and acquired traits. with the same g eneral sense as reputation. but especially in posi tion or action. he was perpetually desirous of novelty. as. the vic issitudes of politics. transition. disposition. especially in a natural. as. Prepositions: We have made a change for the better. a man's record will substan tially express his character. transmutation. permanenc e. the transition from spring to summer. Transition is change by passing from one place or state t o another. a change in quality. or from a lower to a higher spiritual state. invariability. diversity. Variet y is a succession of changes or an intermixture of different things. alw ays thought of as surprising and often as disturbing or distressing. firmness. genius. rec ord. identity. personality. as. * * * * * CHARACTER. or orderly way.. variation. his record is t he total of his known action or inaction. and figuratively. always wi th the adjective. we say a change was taking place. any act or process by which a thing becomes unlike what it was before. spirit. temperament. an innovation in religion or politics.

we can spe ak of horrible fascination. entrancing represent the influence as not only supe rnatural. Chasten is used exclusively i n the spiritual sense. feature. Mark is sometimes used in a good. correct and punish are often used as euphemisms in preference to e ither. singularity. xi. thing. indication. Enchanting. * * * * * CHARACTERISTIC. fascinating. we speak of the characteristic of a gentleman. A sign is manifest to an observer. punish. and straight. captivating. That which is fascinating may win wit hout delighting. wholly corrective. and serves to identify an object. or cl ass. the character of the applicant. a mark or a characteristic may be more difficult to discover. while sometimes only clos e examination will disclose marks of violence. Castigate and chastise refer strictly to corporal punishment. BEAUTIFUL. Punish is distinctly retributive in sense. trait. an insensible person may show signs of life. the mark of a villain. mark. his character is above suspicion. and chiefly of the visitation of God. winning. enrapturing. Charming applies only to what is external to oneself . soften. but irresistible and delightful. quality. "they . chastise. correct. try. chasten. but of delightful anticipations." 1 Cor. sign. castigate. Compare AM IABLE. drawing by some unseen power. discipline.. CHARACT ER. high cheek-bon es. Pallor is ordinarily a mark of fe ar. * * * * * CHARMING. delightful. chastise. as a serpent its prey. 32. enrapturing. peculiarity. chastened us after the . Synonyms: bewitching. * * * * * CHASTEN. Synonyms: attribute. entr ancing. distinction. delightful may apply to personal experiences or emotions as well. black hair are characteristics of the American Indian. a charming dress. trace. enchanting. partly retributive. Synonyms: afflict.. but in some brave natures it is simply a characteristic of intense earnestne ss. we speak of a charming manner. subdue. A characteristic belongs to the nature or character of the person.The witness has a character for veracity. Compare ATTRIBUTE. and partly corrective. a copper-colored skin. purify. but often in a bad sense. Prepositions: "We are chastened of the Lord. property. humb le. tho both are some what archaic. refine. That is charming or bewitching which is adapted to win others as by a magic spe ll. as. character.

"to love. value. choose between (o r betwixt) two. decline. pick out. but we could not be said to select it. Antonyms: cast away. with something of love and tenderness. Pruden ce or generosity may lead one to choose what he does not prefer. nurtu re. iv. In a garden we cull the choicest flowers. hold dear. or the sick or wounded. as by support. Cull. choose for the purpose. an act of will. a free people elect th eir own rulers. prefer. entertain. disclaim. xii. to nurture includes careful mental and spiritual training . reje ct. chasten with pain. . To nourish is strictly to sustain and build up by food. nourish. cast out." Heb. dismiss. but with loving devotion." Ps. repudiate. but He for our profit. Aside from theology .ir own pleasure. refuse. honor. by trials and sorrows. pick. a foster-child will be nourished. sympathy. not with mere cold conviction. and cherish. 7. treasure. nurse. commonly means to collect. * * * * * CHERISH. * * * * * CIRCUMLOCUTION. In the figurative sense. select. To cherish is both to hold dear and to treat as dear. Select implies a careful consideration of the reasons for preference and choice. Antonyms: See synonyms for ABANDON. from the Latin colligere. Prefer indicates a state of desire and approval. to bring up. and help of every kind. Prepositions: Choose from or from among the number. encourage. Among objects so nearly alike that we have no reason to prefer any one to another we may simpl y choose the nearest. Synonyms: cheer. foster. 10. shelter. "chasten in thy hot displ easure. CHASTEN. elect. harbor. Mere unexpressed esteem w ould not be cherishing. comfor t in sorrow. In the marriage vow. To nurse is to tend the helpless or feeble. choose out of the army. elect is popularly confined to the political sense. protect. as infants. choose. as. among many. * * * * * CHOOSE. the opinion one cherishes he holds." the word cherish implies all that each can do by love and tenderness for the welfare and happiness of the other. cling to. to foster is simply to maintain and car e for. but may not be as tenderly nurtured or as lovingly cherished as if one's own. protection. leave. as we ll as to select. Synonyms: cull. care in sickness. comfort. throw aside.

tautology is always a fault.) We say. periphrasis. succinctness. nor usually. All the circumstances make up the si tuation. action affected is perf ormed 'under the circumstances. d etail. Verbiage is th e use of mere words without thought. modifying or throwing light upon the principal matter without affecting its essential charac ter. or concomitant of his committing murder. pleonasm.. "I saw it with my eyes" is a pleonasm. event. wordiness. the piano accompaniment to a song. verbosity. but in a subordinate capacity. that he is in his own home. tho no t necessary to it. A circumstance (L. is something existing or oc curring in connection with or relation to some other fact or event. are consolatory circumstances. both of words and thought. effect. as. point. "all the members agreed unanimously" is tautology. occurrence. compactness." That a man wore a blue necktie would not probably be the cause. circu mlocution is the more common. * * * * * CIRCUMSTANCE. shortness. occasion. an accompaniment is something that unites with the principal matter. Prepositions: "Mere situation is expressed by 'in the circumstances'. skilful periphras is conduces both to beauty and to simplicity. (See under ACCIDENT. etc. or result. With the same idea of subordinati on.'" [M. concomitant. situation. item. particular. but it might be a very important circu mstance in identifying him as the murderer. position. his suffering is an in cident. and sto. a concomitant goes wit h a thing in natural connection. without selection or perspective. careful nursing. tautology is the restatement in oth er words of an idea already stated. Constant circ umlocution produces an affected and heavy style. diffuseness is a s cattering. (See these words un der CAUSE. condition. A certain disease is the cause of a man's death. Synonyms: accompaniment." So a person is said to b e in easy circumstances. verbiage. redundancy is an overflow. or a useless repetition of a word or words. occasionally. Prolixity goes into endless petty details. or perhaps in co ntrast. as. that he has good medical attendance. Circumlocution and periphrasis are roundabout ways of expressing thought. Pleonasm may add emphasis. . conci seness.] * * * * * CLASS. tediousness. feature. condition. A circumstance is not stric tly. directness. Tediousness is the sure result of any of th ese faults of style. Verbosity and wordiness denote an excess of words in proportion to the thought. Compare EVENT. prolixity. circum. tautolog y. Antonyms: brevity. terseness.) Nor is the circumstance properly an incident. fact. stand). Pleonasm is the ex pression of an idea already plainly implied. cheerfulness is a concomitant of virtue. surplusage. around. compression.Synonyms: diffuseness. periphrasis the more technical word. we often say. plainness. incident. "This is not a circumstance to that. redundance. "My decision will depend upon circumstances"--not "upon incidents. condensation. an occasion. redundancy. Etymologically.

as not to the class. or sponge off a spot. we may refer in a general way to the highe r ranks. We brush clothi ng if dusty. sweep. dust. the senior class at (sometimes of) Harvard. A set. the association brea ks up into cliques. rinse. bespatter. yet individuals are constantly passing from each to the other. Circle is similar in meaning to set. A coterie is a small company of persons of similar tastes. purpo ses. a religious and ceremonial sacredne ss attaches to the caste. implying some greater gathering of which it is a part. coterie. grade. who me et frequently in an informal way. are dusted. wash in that sense is archaic. or soil of any kind. the classes i n college. To clean is to make clean by removing dirt. we speak of scientific and religious as well as of social circles. besmirch. as in the flushing of a street. stain. purify. besmear. metallic utensils are scoured. the c lasses in a college remain the same. The rich and the poor form separa te classes. set. Clique has always an unfavorable meaning. by accommodation. Prepositions: A class of merchants. disinfect. wash. circle. pollute. floors are mopped or scrubbed. company. soil. a class may be indep endent of lineage or descent. sponge. A caste is hereditary. rather for social enjoyment than for any serio us purpose. of various orders of the priesthood. but their membership changes every year. while exclusive. is more extensive than a clique. or sponge it off. Prepositions: . if soiled. and more to do.Synonyms: association. etc. wip e. Furni ture. soiled garments are washed. sully. Cl eanse implies a worse condition to start from. membership in a caste is supposed to be for life. impurities. membership in a class may be very transient. Cleanse and purify are used extensively in a moral sense. Antonyms: befoul. spoil. scour. * * * * * CLEANSE. the coarser and finer grades of wool. mop. clique. but of wider application. scrub. etc. Synonyms: brush. A class is a number or body of persons or objects having common pursuits. etc. order. sponge it. the lower orders of any society. books. We speak of rank among hereditary nobility or military officers. d efile. than clean. contaminate. vitiate.. A clique is always fractio nal. a man of an i nferior grade. Cleanse is especially applied to purifying proc esses where liquid is used. Grade implies some regular scale of va luation. Compare AMEND. rank. as. debase. caste. clan. Hercu les cleansed the Augean stables. corrupt. they withdraw into a clique largely through aversion to outsiders. foul air or water is p urified. clean. attributes. lave. deprave. or characteristics. taint. a room is swept. and some inherent qualities for which a person or thing is placed highe r or lower in the scale. club. and chiefly of persons who are united by common social station. Persons unite in a coterie through simple liking for one ano ther.

hence. That which is dist inct is well defined. a clear view. when we could not c all it at once ornate and plain. dubious. distinct. clear in argument. capable. unequivocal. Clear (L. plain language. translucent. manifest. foggy. clear of or from annoyances. keen. a plain statement. mysterious. as. by an agent. a clear note.Cleanse of or from physical or moral defilement. pellucid. or obscurity. * * * * * CLEAR. as. obvious. intelligible. as of crystal. Transparent refers to the medium through which a substance is seen. diaphanous. or meaning. brilliant) primarily refers to that which shines. indefinite. A substa nce is said to be clear that offers no impediment to vision--is not dim. bright. so that one goes straight on without difficulty or hindrance. a di stinct apprehension of a thought leaves the mind in no doubt or uncertainty rega rding it. Perspicuous is ofte n equivalent to plain. explicit. we speak of a stream as clear when we think of the water itself. limpid streams. unadorned. Compare EVIDENT. so that there is no uncertainty as to its ex act form. obstruction. with something of the brightness or brilliancy implied in the primary meaning of the word clear. unintelligible. Synonyms: apparent. the outlines of the ship w ere clear against the sky. or that which suggests it. a translucent body allows light to pass through. clarus. opaque. cleanse with an instrument. happy. the word is used for that which is free from any kind of obstruction. cloudy. Lucid and pelluci d refer to a shining clearness. ground glass is translucent. especially in outline. straightforw ard. unambiguous. lev el to the thought. adroit. a distinct statement is free from indefiniteness or ambiguity. the room was cleansed by the attendants with soap and water. limpid. plate glass is transparent. character. Clear is also said of that which comes to the senses without dimness. unmistakable. * * * * * CLEVER. not confused. transparent. sharp. dark. a clear statement. in the sense here considered. vague. a clear explanation. a clear field. lucid. so that we can say the style is perspicuous tho highly ornate. plain. o r obscure. perspicuous. obscure. and impresses the mind through the eye with a sense of luster or splendor. dexterous. turbid. Antonyms: ambiguous." a clea r. Limpid refers to a liq uid clearness. but plain never wholly loses the meaning of unadorned. frosty air. a clear sky. ind istinct. Synonyms: able. without reference to anything to be seen through i t. as. dulness. distinct enunci ation enables the hearer to catch every word or vocal sound without perplexity o r confusion. as it were. c lear to the substance itself. A transparent body allows the for ms and colors of objects beyond to be seen through it. evident. That is plain. as. knowing. Prepositions: Clear to the mind. skilf . each part or object standing or see ming apart from any other. "clear as a bell. dim. ingenious. which is. we speak of it as transparent with reference to the ease with which we see the pebbles at th e bottom. but may not permit forms and colors to be distinguished. or blurred.

satisfied. ASTUT E. harmony. In the figurative use. Clever. which makes its use a doubtful compl iment. especially implies an aptitude for study or learnin g. opposition. cheery. Concus sion is often by transmitted force rather than by direct impact. more rarely of opi nions or interests. and may be of the dearest friends or of the bitterest foes. Collision. Sm art. The discriminating use of such words as able. POWER. convenient. contact may be a condition of rest. intelligent.ul. of or between opposing objects. and generally ho stile. etc. clashing. A litt . and be continuous and permanent. commodious. well-off. satisfactory. Opposition is used chiefly of persons. Compare ACUMEN. collision of persons. of persons. conflict. coincidence. an explosion of dynamite shatters neighboring windows b y concussion. A person is comfortable in mind when contented and measurably satisfied. intellectual. Prepositions: Collision of one object with another. similar to that of the word sharp. cheerful. Impact is the blow given by the striking body. we speak of clashing of views. is now coming to have a suggestion of unscrupul ousness. well-provided. Antonyms: agreement. bright. foolish. is greatly preferable to an excessive use of the word clever. talented. Antonyms: awkward. impact. the impact of t he cannon-shot upon the target. concussion. senseless. meeting. quick. The early New Englan d usage as implying simple and weak good nature has largely affected the use of the word throughout the United States. amity. stupid. concord. of two or of a multitude. ignorant. unity. shock. as. is the result of mot ion or action. thick-headed. expert. Synonyms: clash. * * * * * COLLISION. bungling. talented. apt. and is sudden and momentary. gifted. pleasant. * * * * * COMFORTABLE. witless. smart. where it has never been much in favor. at re st. slow. idiotic .. of objects. concert. An encounter is always violent. Meeting is neutral. clumsy. dull. two railway-tra ins come into collision. contact. genial. wel l-to-do. unison. gifted. Synonyms: agreeable. or of opinions. Shock i s the result of collision. quickwitted. snug. collision is sudden and violent contact. the act or fact of striking violently together. indicating dashing ability. conflict is used indifferently of all. at ease. encounter. as used in England. and for excellent tho not preeminent mental achievement. conformity. contented. concurrenc e.

confide being used chiefly of mental or spiritual. convocation. group. tablecompanions. in law. entrust also of material things. forlorn. a body to the earth. Comp are DO. put into care or ke eping. a prisoner is committed to jail. clearly mar ked off from all else in space or time. An assemblage is promiscuous and unorga nized. Commit. trust. * * * * * COMPANY. confide.. and multitude have the unorganized and promiscuous character of the assemblage. consign. discontented. meeting is often so used. the other terms come under the general idea of assembly. on suspicion. company may denote an i ndefinite number (ordinarily more than two). Prepositions: Commit to a friend for safe-keeping. concourse. A conclave is a secret assembly. as we . dreary. messmates. in default of bail. Religiously. distressed. gathering. group. commit to prison. host. misfortune. commit the soul to God. th rong. travel. or in c omfortable circumstances. A group is small in number and distinct in outline. an assembly is always of persons. pleasure. denotes primarily the asso ciation of those who eat at a common table. friends. and is a less formal and more fam iliar word than assemblage or assembly. meeting. diss atisfied. we a ssign a duty. to confide or entrust is to commit especially to one's fidelity. A convocation is an assembly called by authority for a speci al purpose. an assembly is organized and united in some common purpose. or by sorrow. He is comfortable in circumstances. at ease. with. uncomfortable. company implies more unity of feeling and purpose than crowd. conclave. bread. Synonyms: assemblage. or wrong. for trial. multitude. when things about him are generally agreeable and sati sfactory. from the Latin cum. disagreeable. commit a paper to the flames. Consign is a formal word in mercantile use. usually with the suggestion of sufficient means to secure that result. conference. witho ut bail. but is less restricted. etc. crowd. to consign goods to an ag ent. Company. convention. Collection. for business. congregation. is to give in charge. relegate. or the persons so associated. and hence is widely extended to include any asso ciation of those united permanently or temporarily. gathering. * * * * * COMMIT. fest ivity. but less than a multitude. in the m ilitary sense a company is a limited and definite number of men. we commit thoughts to writin g. quiet. Antonyms: cheerless. He is comfortable in body when free from pain. An assemblage may be of persons or of ob jects. crowd. in the sense here considered. as. Congregation is now almost exclusively religious. entrust a treasure. the term convention suggests less dependence upon any superior autho rity or summons. and panis. wretched. entrust. assembly. confide a secret. collection. at rest.le additional brightness makes him cheerful. Synonyms: assign. miserable. we consign the body to the grave.

from far and near. grunt. Constrain implies the yielding of judgment and will. * * * * * COMPEL. Prepositions: Complain of a thing to a person.may speak of a meeting of armed men. privacy. with vain distress . the Ameri can secessionists contended that the Federal government had no right to coerce a State. constrain. the gathering of the Scottish clans. . find fault. as. grumble. to an overmastering power. v. repining of the mental act alone. mur muring is commonly said of half-repressed utterance. Antonyms: applaud. Complaining is by speech or writing. drive. Prepositions: The soldiers were compelled to desertion: preferably with the infinitive. necessitate. Synonyms: coerce." 2 Cor. make. express a sen se of wrong or ill treatment. 14. which the o ther words have not. Force implies primarily an actual physical process. growl. retirement. loneliness. solitude. oblige. "the love of Christ c onstraineth us. he m ay murmur through mere peevishness or ill temper. To complain is to give utterance to dissatisfaction or objection. laud. repine. the same is true of the noun complaint. present a specific charge. commend. INFLUENCE. eulogize. Complain has a formal and legal meaning. approve. compe lled to desert. of or against a pers on for an act. at the irrevocable or the inevitable. One may complain of an offense to the offender or to others. Compare DRIVE. about a thing. Antonyms: See synonyms for HINDER. One complains of a real or assumed grievance. and in some cases o f inclination or affection. praise. seclusion. Gathering refers to a coming together. of one person to another. to an officer. Synonyms: croak. he repines. as. Antonyms: dispersion. comm only of numbers. force. he remonstra tes with the offender only. signifying to make a formal accusation. remonstrate. Coerce implies the actual or potential use of so much force as may be necessary to secure the surrender of the will. * * * * * COMPLAIN. murmur. ab solutely subduing all resistance. before the court. To compel one to an act is to secure its performance by the use of irresistible physical or moral force.

Antonyms: clear. but maintain their distinct indivi duality. manifold. Conglomerate (literally. In a complex object the arrangement and relation of parts may be perfectly clear. . intricate. globed together) is said of a confused mingling of masses or lumps of various substances. we condemn ordinarily by open and formal utterance. Synonyms: abstruse. reprobate. reprove. of composite architecture. a tangled ske in. obscure. but fused. heterogeneous. as. tangled. in an intricate arrangement the parts are so intertwined that it is difficult to follow their windings. censure. confused. doom. simple. a condemned criminal has had his tria l. an intricate problem. the Gordian knot was intricate. We may censure silently. color. homogeneous. conglomerate. Synonyms: blame. In a composite object the different parts have less of uni ty than in that which is complex or compound. denounce. mult iform. mingled . a condemned ship can not sail. or otherwise combined int o a single substance. a condemned building can not stand. and oth er elements. the legal word sentence is now m ore common than condemn. he was condemned to imprisonment. or so combined. involving form. complicated. * * * * * CONDEMN. That is complex which is made up of several connected parts. the entangled accounts of an incompetent or dishonest bookkeeper. In stating the penalty of an offense. A person i s convicted when his guilt is made clearly manifest to others. entangled. uniform. The New En gland pudding-stone is a conglomerate rock. a person is said to be convicted when guilt is brought clearly home to h is own conscience (convict in this sense being allied with convince. We speak of an abstruse state ment. things whi ch are tangled or entangled mutually hold and draw upon each other. of th e complicated or intricate accounts of a great business. he was sentenced to imprisonment. in legal usage one is said to be convicted only by the verdict o f a jury. a complex conception. composite. the twining serpents of the Laocoon are involved. a heterogeneous mass. mixed. convict. From the pulpits in the northern States Burr was denounced as an assassin. size. especially in a violent and threatening manner. oft en without apparent order or plan. compound. To denounce is to make public or o fficial declaration against. involved. Co ndemn is more final than blame or censure. plain. The concepti on of a material object is usually complex. obvious.* * * * * COMPLEX. That is compound i n which the parts are not merely connected. but it is good us age to say. an involved sentence. in a complicated mechanism the par ts are so numerous. a clock is a complicated mechanism. a confused heap. sentence. uncomp ounded. direct. in somewhat archa ic use. either in thought or in fact. which see u nder PERSUADE). that the mind can not readily grasp their mu tual relations. In a heterogeneous body unlike parts or particles are intermingled. unraveled. things are involved which are rolled tog ether so as not to be easily separated. To condemn is to pass judicial sentence or render judgment or decision against. uncombined.

own. good or bad. screen. mask. exonerate. prove. confirmed by established facts. corroborate. Testimony is corroborated by conc urrent testimony or by circumstances. admit any point made against us. ratify. hide. disown. confesse s sin or crime. together. pardon. justify. cover. veil. an appointment confirmed . so is that which is official an d has adequate power behind it. acknowledge. uphold. a controversy settled. an inferior race in presence of a superior is doomed t o subjugation or extinction. p. admit. dissemble. estab lish. 137. sanction. Compare APOLOGY. The chief prese nt use of the word. deny.COFFIN Building the Nation ch. a report confirmed. however. and m ore specific than own. repudiate. as. 10. is in the sense of making known to others one's own wrong-doing. avow our individual beliefs or feelings. and firmus. the established church. approve. It may have also a playful sense (of ten with to). The continents are fixed.] To doom is to condemn solemnly and consign to evil or destruction or to predete rmine to an evil destiny. Both confirm and corroborate presuppose something already existing to whi ch the confirmation or corroboration is added. firm) is to add firmness or give stabili ty to. in this sense confess is stronger than acknowledge or admit. Just government should be uphel d. one confesses to a weakness for confectionery. The beneficent results of Christianity confirm our faith in it as a divine re . sustain. A statement is substantiated. Prepositions: The bandit was condemned to death for his crime. as. We accept another's statement. grant. Antonyms: absolve. That which is thoroughly proved is said to be established. dissimulate. * * * * * CONFIRM. acquit. endorse. recognize. recognize law ful authority. applaud. conceal. AVOW. the established government. Confess has a high and sacred use in the religio us sense. substantiate. disclose. Synonyms: assure. the decision of a lower court sustained by a higher. concede a claim. REPROVE. Synonyms: accept. * * * * * CONFESS. avow. certify . fix. praise. own our faults or obligations. acknowledges a fault. a person admits a mistake. Confirm (L. Compare ARRAIGN. as. strengthen. '83. secrete. [H. confess our own faults. endorse a friend's note or statement. ce rtify to facts within our knowledge. con. acknowledge wha t we have said or done. Antonyms: cloak. allow. to confess Christ before men. concede. grant a request. disguise. A treaty is ratified. disavow. An act is sanctioned by any person or authority that passes upon it approvingl y. settle.

in many cases. retire. Compare BEAT. checkmate. subject. console. peace. To defeat an enemy is to gain an advantage for the time. Antonyms: capitulate. destroy. subjugate. fly. win. cancel. lose. to vanquish is to win a signal victory. worst. humble. re sign. upset. prevail over. it may be subjected to indemnity or to various disabilities. w eaken. overthrow. Antonyms: condole with. rout. succumb. A country is conquered when its armies are defeated and its territory is occupied by the enemy. reduce. shake. overcome. Synonyms: beat.velation. it is subdued when all resistance has died out. submit. * * * * * CONSCIOUS. Antonyms: abrogate. Synonym: felicitate. annul. surrender. surmount. retreat. overmatch. confirm a person in a belief. . Conquer. vanquish. overpower. unsettle. it is subjugated when it is held helplessl y and continuously under military control. affection. c rush. overthrow. shatter. as. to conquer respect. to congratulate is to express hearty sympathy in his joys or hopes. fall. which is less natural. discom fit. master. it is routed when it i s converted into a mob of fugitives. * * * * * CONGRATULATE. Felicitate is cold and formal. * * * * * CONQUER. to conquer is to overcome so effectually that the victory is r egarded as final. put down. carries the idea of possession. We say one felicitates himself. defeat. An army is defeated when forcibly driven back. Prepositions: Confirm a statement by testimony. overmaster. subdue. down. forfeit. etc. To felicitate is to pronounce one happy or wish one joy. Prepositions: Congratulate one on or upon his success. fail. cede. is becoming prevalent. tho to congratulate oneself. yield.

the shot took effect. A consequent commonly is that which follows simply in order of time. but in use it is mor e nearly equivalent to upshot signifying the sum and substance of all effects. Synonyms: consequent. certain. One condoles with another by the expression of kindly sympathy in his trouble. A consequence is that which follows an act naturally. and results of a course of action. The result is. or result being termed an end. e. sequel. must be fact. we say. the effect intended. as. . unconscious. it is ordinarily viewed as either the necessary. The event (L. Effect is the strongest of these words. the result of a campai gn.. issue. Sensible has often a reference to the emotio ns where conscious might apply only to the intellect. The end is the actual outcome without determination of its rel ation to what has gone before. ignorant.Synonyms: advised. we say the issue of a battle. The mot ion of the piston is the effect. as. sensible. * * * * * CONSOLE. the issue is that which flows forth directly. end. man is conscious of the limitation of human power. insensible. the end of such a course must be ruin. outgrowth. or it may partake of both the senses mentioned above. i. unaware. depending on many elements. One may be sensible of his ow n or another's error. what he is aware of. Synonyms: comfort. out. the rebound of an act. sure. Compare ACCIDENT. effect. apprised. cognizant. A person may feel assured or sure of something false or non-existent. natural. Antonyms: cold. any effect. deaf. e. to say a culprit is sensib le of his degradation is more forcible than to say he is conscious of it. sympathize with. literally. and the agitation of the water under the paddle -wheels a consequence of the expansion of steam in the cylinder. still more wha t he is conscious of. END. EVENT. outcome. he is conscious only of his own. One is aware of that which exists without him. Sensible may be used in the exact sense of conscious. CIRCUMS TANCE. event. Preposition: On the stormy sea. assured. dead. encourage. In regard to human actions. come) is primarily exactly the same in meaning as outcome. and venio. he is conscious of the inner wor kings of his own mind. condole with. aware. or logical outcome. CAUSE. it is that which is directly produced b y the action of an efficient cause. but less directly than the effect. result. upsh ot. effect commonly relates to i ntention. c onsequences. certified. * * * * * CONSEQUENCE. "Every effect must have an adequate cause" (compare CAUSE). inf ormed. or by l ogical inference. consequence.

Mutual promises may have the force of a contract. cartel. he comforts him by whatever act or word tends to bring mind or body to a state of rest and cheer. hurt. Synonyms: ceaseless. obligation. Synonym: infection. Comp act is essentially the same as contract. uninterrupted. Antonyms: annoy. tho an engagement or promise may be the act of but one. The incessant discharge of firearms makes the c easeless roar of battle. A bargain is a mutual agreement for an exchange of values. but is applied to international agreeme nts. by breath. All these words involve at least two parties. PITY. u nremitting. covenant. but where common climati c. stipulation. distress. even by medical men. etc. C ovenant is frequent in religious usage. Constant is sometimes used in the sense of continual. or other wide-spread conditions are believed to be chiefly instrum ental. as contract is in law and business. A similar distinction is made between incessant and ceaseless. compact. pact. pledge. that which often intermits. * * * * * CONTAGION. A continuous beach is exposed to the continual beating of the waves. wound. bargain. Compare ALLEVIATE. treaties. b ut its chief uses are mental and moral. * * * * * CONTRACT. but in joy. Synonyms: agreement. or compensation. unbroken. but as regularly begins again. A covenant in law is a written contract under seal. promis e. We sympathize with others. unceasing. continual . effluvia. w . either directly by touch or indirectly by use of the same artic les. A consideration. and is ordinaril y in writing. arrangement. sadden. engagement. incessant. grieve. perpetual. disturb. etc. constant. Infection is frequently confused with contagion. Infection is applied to diseases produced by no k nown or definable influence of one person upon another. as b y the assurances and promises of the gospel. not only in sorrow. trouble. regular. * * * * * CONTINUAL. he encourages him by the hope of so me relief or deliverance. A contra ct may be oral or written. unvarying. The best usage now limits contagion to diseases that are transmitted by contact with the diseased person. A contract is a formal agreement between two or more part ies for the doing or leaving undone some specified act or acts. continuous.he consoles him by considerations adapted to soothe and sustain the spirit. Continuous describes that which is absolutely without pause or break. invariable. is essential to convert an agreement into a contract. malarious.

parl ey. equal) is to place together in order to show likeness or unlikeness. Conversation (Latin con. and par. etc. The name disciple is given to the follower of a certain faith. differentiate. an interchange of ideas with some other person or persons. discourse. * * * * * CONVERSATION.. A cartel is a military agreement for the exchange of prisoners o r the like. We must compare them. intercourse. neophyte. to contrast (L. We contrast them when we observe their unlikeness in a general way. as by looks. Synonyms: disciple. and may be uninvited and unreciprocated. between or among the guests. Talk may be wholly one-sided. contra. with or without words. Compare BEHAVIOR. communication is often by writing. discriminate. without referenc . we say idle talk. communion is of hearts. rather than idle or empty conversation. Many brilliant talk ers have been incapable of conversation. against. signs. talk. but sometimes of more. Preposition: We contrast one object with another. We contrast objects that have been already compared. dialogue. proselyte. Dialog denotes ordinarily an artificial or imaginary conversation. at least momentarily. Synonyms: compare. with) is. stand) is to set in opposition in order to show unlikeness. conference. oppose. even to know that they are different. and sto.ithout the formality of a contract. Synonyms: chat. Discourse is now appli ed chiefly to public addresses. colloquy. empty talk. and generally somewhat informal. Tal k may denote the mere utterance of words with little thought. communication. * * * * * CONTRAST. con. generally of two persons. about a matter. * * * * * CONVERT. To compare (L. A stipulation is a single item in an agreeme nt or contract. etymologically. we discriminate them when we classify or place them according to t heir differences. A conference is more formal than a conversation. thus. confabulation. Prepositions: Conversation with friends. communion. together. We distinguish objects when we note a difference that may fall short of contrast. converse. we differentiate them when we note the difference exactly and poin t by point. A colloquy is indefinite as to number. There may be intercourse without conver sation.

A man carr ies an appearance. or not admitted to full privileges. * * * * * . the impression being given to another. disperse. the appearance remaining his own. carry does not necessarily imply delivery. separate. Convoke implies an organized body and a superior authority. dismiss. its ex ecutive committee. transmit. transmit intelligence. air conveys sound (to a listener). A proselyte is one who has bee n led to accept a religious system. whether with or without true faith. Transport usually refers to material. A convention is called by some officer or officers. pe rvert. remove. which can not be moved. and renegade are condemnatory names applied to the convert by those whose faith he forsakes. pr orogue. muster. Antonyms: cling to. we transfer possession. shift. Compare CARRY. preserve. give. conv ey ideas. as by its president. summon. convene. transport. change. a conver t is always understood to be a believer. possess. is conveyed by simply transferring title and posse ssion. the delegates are assembled or conve ned in a certain place. hold. items may be transferred from one account to another or a word transferred to the following line. transmit. a purchaser. Transfer may or may not imply delivery to another person. Congress assembles. transfer. * * * * * CONVOKE. convey from the house to the station. not yet fu lly indoctrinated. sell.. keep. disband. retain. A horse carries his mane and tail. and transport all imply delivery at a destination. by hand. collect. A neophyte is a new convert. Prepositions: Convey to a friend.e to any previous belief or allegiance. real es tate. witnesses and jury men are summoned. as. Convey. but does not convey them. I will convey the information to your friend. call. and often does not admit of it. but do not transport them. assemble and convene express more independent action. * * * * * CONVEY. etc. and convey may refer to immaterial objects. etc. Troops are mustered. a convert is a person who has come to on e faith from a different belief or from unbelief. Synonyms: carry. Par liament is convoked. at a certain hour. break up. co nvey by express. dissolve. discharge. scatter. transport the goo ds. In law. as. transfer. move. transmit. Synonyms: assemble. or some eminent leaders. gather. I will transmit the letter. conveys an impression. The antonyms apostate. call together. In the case of convey the figurative sense now predominates. Antonyms: adjourn.

risk. A flagitious crime is one that brings public odium. fine. a diurnal bird or animal flies or ranges only by day: in contradistinction to nocturnal flower s. It is illegal f or a man to trespass on another's land. hence. all acts punishable b y fine or imprisonment or both. or passions. virtuous. nocturnal. diurnal the Latin and scientific term. a diurnal flower opens or blooms only in daylight. birds. hypocrisy is w icked. nefarious. peril is exposure to imminent and sharply threatening evil. wicked. or even illegal. peril. Synonyms: abominable.CRIMINAL. That which is iniquitous. immoral. In stric t usage. legal. felonious. the trespasser i s liable to a civil suit for damages. but illegal or unlawful acts may not be criminal. which may be either near and probable or r emote and doubtful. Antonyms: nightly. vicious. right. Every criminal act is illegal or unlawful. wrong. especially to such as results from violence. offenses against private rights are merely illegal or unlawful. but not to indictment. As a general rule. or imprisonme nt. insecurity. Offenses against public law are criminal. Synonym: diurnal. un lawful. contrary to equity. jeopardy. e. Compare SIN. moral. may sometimes be done under the forms of law. Antonyms: innocent. lawful. guilty. however. Danger is exposure to possible evil. while a daily motion is much less definit e. A diurnal motion exactly fills an astronomical day or the time of one rotation of a planet on its axis. Vicious refers to the indulgence of evil appetites. held strictly to this use. a physician makes daily visits if he call s at some time within each period of twenty-four hours. flagitious. vicious acts are not necessarily criminal. Ingratitude is sinful.. vile. just. i. but it is not criminal. neither is criminal or ill egal. we sp eak of a vicious horse. which is punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary or by death. sinful. An invalid may be in danger of cons . are criminal in view of the law. iniquitous. meritorious. habits . Diurnal is more exact in all its uses. Daily is no t. daily is the antonym of nightly as diurnal is of nocturnal. Synonyms: hazard. A felonious act is a criminal act of an aggravated kind. * * * * * DANGER. but neither is punishable by human law. illegal. Daily is the Saxon and popular. * * * * * DAILY. culpable. etc.

security. dusky. or shady from which the light is more or less cut off. a disarmed soldier is in peril of death. from distance. shady." Prov. * * * * * DARK. Putrefy and the adjectives putrid and putrescent. a murky den. a murky sky. Murky is said of that which is at once dark. but exceedingly broad. shelter. light. shadowy. however. it decays gradually. Figuratively. of the human skin when quite dark. shadowy. are used almost exclusivel y of animal matter in a state of decomposition. agreeing with somber. tho the stars shine. gloomy. etc. crystalline. as water into oxygen and hydrogen. swart. 7. ordinarily esteemed coarse. dark is emblematic of sadne ss. safety. rot.umption. putrefy. a coat is black . In common speech. opaque. to say that a thing is decayed may denote only a partial result. gleaming. a man tried upon a capital charge is said to be put in jeopardy of life. Compare synonyms for LIGHT. Jeopardy is nearly the same as peril. O f intellectual matters. the more general word decay bein g used of either animal or vegetable substances. Synonyms: corrupt. Dusky is applied to objects which appear as if viewed in fading light. as. radiant. sable. l uminous. Strictly. or from some defect of vision. mist. as are swart and swarthy. * * * * * DECAY. it is decayed when resolved into its original elements by natural processes. Dim refers to imperfection of outline. etc.. decay a nd decompose are now common euphemisms. and gloomy. . lucid. OBSCURE. Rot is a strong word. clear. but may be instantl y decomposed. Antonyms: defense. brilliant. white. dark is now rarely used in the old sense of a dark sayin g. molder. and the nouns putridity and putrescence. but to say it is decomposed ordinarily implies that the change is complete or nearly so. "the name of the wicked shall rot. tho not optically colorless. glowing. dim. murky. the night is dark. as. illumined. like risk. or even verg ing toward black. safeguard. swarthy. Insecuri ty is a feeble word. gloomy. dismal. as. ar e impervious to light. but involves. See MYSTERIOUS. a dark deed. dazzling. shining. darkness . decompose. x. but on occasion capable of ap proved emphatic use. immunity. that which is black is absolutely destitute of color. transparent. mysterious. a fortune. also of moral evil. spoil. that which is d ark is absolutely destitute of light. obscure. the word is often used. Antonyms: bright. more of the element of chance or uncertainty. Opaque objects. obscure. A substance is decomposed when resolved into its original elements by any process. Synonyms: black. dismal. o r the possibilities of a life. somber. Compare HAZARD. protection. as smoked glass. applying to the placing of a dish. That is o bscure. or a government.

guilelessness. is the uttering of what one knows to be false with intent to de ceive. because not then known to be f alse. untruth. shield. prevarication. A lie. bulwark. as in the case of an optical ill usion. honesty. Dec eption may be innocent. * * * * * DEFILE. deceit always involves injurious intent. betrayal. they are common traits of animals. fabrication. shelter. vindication. deceitfulness. flight. lyin g. capitulation. finesse. Falsehood and lying are in utterance. The novel or drama is not a lie. Vindication is a triumphant defense of ch aracter and conduct against charges of error or wrong. prote ction is against possible as well as actual dangers. Untruth is more than lack of accuracy. simplicity. Antonyms: abandonment. Deceit is the habit. The weak may speak or act in defense of the strong. none but the powerful can a ssure others of protection. from the t estimony. dece it. Antonyms: candor. sincerity. . duplicity. f ortress. Compar e ARTIFICE. Synonyms: apology. defense to an action. Dissimulation is rather a concealing of what is than a pretense of what is not. desertion. double-dealing. rampart. veracity. deceit and deception may be merely in act or implication. resistance. ope nness. safeguard. justification. and also to their actual practise. protection from the cold. HYPOCRISY. implying always lack of veracity. * * * * * DEFENSE. but stand rather lo w in the human scale. Duplicity is the habitual speaking or acting with intent t o appear to mean what one does not. frankness. Craft and cunning have not neces sarily any moral quality. Synonyms: craft. Compare APOLOGY. fair dealing. FICTION. because not meant to deceive. dissimulation. in law. Finesse is simply an adroit and delicate man agement of a matter for one's own side. cunning. guard. b ut it is a somewhat milder and more dignified word than lie. fraud. falsehood.* * * * * DECEPTION. imposition. guile applies to the disposition out of which deceit and deception grow. truth. guile. lying. A defense is ordinarily against actual attack. and even unintentional. the ancien t teaching that the earth was flat was not a lie. We speak of defense against an assault. hypocrisy. surrender. delusion. FRAUD. not necessarily involving deceit. tric kery. Prepositions: Defense against assault or assailants. deception the act. or falsehood. protection. lie.

explanation. cleanse. pollute. vitiate. A definition must include all that belongs to the object define d. Tainted meat is repulsive. it may also be a statement giving the doubtful or hidden meaning of that which is recondite or perplexing." John xviii. a spoil ed garment is beyond cleansing or repair. an explanation may simply throw light upon some point of special difficu lty. as. These words agree in designating one who acts in the place of some other or oth ers. the vicious are more and more corrupted by their own excesses . exposition. purify. spoil. sully. or an ordinance. which may also include descri ption. wash. representative. The innocent are often contaminated by associatio n with the wicked. as the human body or mind. defile may be used merely in the ceremonial sense. * * * * * DELEGATE.Synonyms: befoul. Interpretation is ordinar ily from one language into another. infect. an exposition of Scripture. An exposition undertakes to state more fully what is compactly given or onl y implied in the text. lest they should be defiled. corrupt. description. contaminate refers to deep spiri tual injury. In strict us . as. taint. Synonyms: comment. legate. a definition is formal. swine that have been wallowing in the mud are befouled. "they themselves went not into the judgment hall . tarnish. contaminate. Bright metal is tarnished by exposure. fraud vitiates a title or a contract. A definition is exact. translation. Definition. a description may include only some general fe atures. Contaminate and infect refer to something evil that deeply pervades and permeates. Pollute has also a reference to sacrilege. We speak of a vitiated taste or style. commentary. Synonyms: deputy. an explanation general. infected meat contains germs of disease. sanctify. or of some difficult passage. a fair sheet is sullied by a dirty hand. an altar. as. The hand may be defiled by a touch of pitch. exposition. the interpretation of a dream. 28. In figurative use. defiled by sacrilegious deeds. rendering. interpret ation. to pollute a sanctua ry. and inte rpretation are ordinarily blended in a commentary. hallow. as. and exclude all that does not. soil. a rid dle. sta in. a descri ption pictorial. Prepositions: The temple was defiled with blood. A comment is upon a single passage. explanation. proxy. a commentary may be the same. A soiled garment may be cleansed by washing. or from the language of one period into that of another. Antonyms: clean. Pollute is used chiefly of l iquids. The legate is an ecclesiastical officer representing the Pope. substitute. but is usually understood to be a volume of comments. * * * * * DEFINITION. water polluted with sewage. disinfect.

he consults his physician about his h ealth. Synonyms: dainty. Antonyms: acrid. meditates. the word is sometimes used ironically for some pleasing absur dity. while consult is ordinarily l imited to a few. savory. We consider or deliberate with a view to action. as. unpalatable. as does debate. A single officer may have a deputy. ponder. delicious fruit. * * * * * DELICIOUS. weigh. reflects. and is sometimes said even to debate with himself. An individual considers. consult indicates almost exclusively the receiving of it. bitter. a committee consults. reflect. consulting is compatible with haste. delightful. ponders. deliberate. nauseous. luscious. advice. Synonyms: confer. as. is also the word for a great number. exquisite. He consults a dict ionary. unless expressly limited as above. Confer suggests the interchange of counsel. Deliberating alw ays carries the idea of slowness. Consu lt and confer always imply two or more persons. also about or concerning a matter: the first two are preferable. meditate. Deliberate. simply a gathering and balancing of all facts and reasons. Debate implies opposin g views. by himself. That is delicious which affords a gratification at once vivid and delicate to t he senses. * * * * * . inclining toward a cl oying excess of sweetness or richness. but is chiefly used for that whic h is mental and spiritual. representatives are legally elected to Congress and the various legislat ures. as. Prepositions: We deliberate on or upon. repulsive. which can be applied to a singl e individual.age the deputy or delegate is more limited in functions and more closely bound b y instructions than a representative. with lawmaking power. many p ersons combine to choose a delegate or representative. especially to those of taste and smell. In the United States info rmal assemblies send delegates to nominating conventions with no legislative aut hority. Delightful may be applied to the higher gratifications of sense. debate. * * * * * DELIBERATE. he weighs a matter in his own mind. Savory is applied chiefly to cooked food made palatable by spices and condiments. this is delicious! Compare DELIGHTFUL. as delightful music. or inform ation. A man confers w ith his associates about a new investment. Delicious has a limited use in this way. an assembly deliberates. not of a hasty deliberation. a delici ous bit of poetry. loathsome. consider. while meditation may be quite p urposeless. we can sp eak of a hasty consultation. consult. but does not confer with it. luscious has a kindred but more fulsome meaning. he may confer with him on matters of general interest. unsavory. a delici ous odor.

as.DELIGHTFUL. but scarcely d elightful. Criminals may find each other's company congenial. as. it is razed when leveled with the ground. Synonyms: destroy. but of the delusions of the insane. Compare BEAUTIFUL. Agreeable refers to whatever gives a mild degree of pleasure. painful. to suggest it. or other structure is demolished when reduced to a shapel ess mass. distressing. an agreeable perfume. Compare A BOLISH. An illusion may be wholly of the senses. A hallucination is a false image or belief which has nothing. Antonyms: depressing. an illusion a mistaken perception or infer ence. . it has become unfit for human habitation. hallucination. certainty. phantasm. illusion. woful. indicating what ever awakens a feeling akin to gratitude. Antonyms: actuality. as. it is destroyed when its str uctural unity is gone. Grateful is stronger than agreeable or gratifying. INSANITY. and goodness. A pleasant face and pleasing manners a rouse pleasurable sensations. it is ruined w hen. whether or not its component parts remain. Compare DECEPTION. an accepta ble offering. * * * * * DEMOLISH. disappointing. reality. pleasurable. BREAK. as when in a mirage distant sprin gs and trees appear close at hand. as substantial food. monument. refreshing. saddening. verity. raze. if possessed of intelligence. mournf ul. the hallu cinations of delirium tremens. A building. Synonyms: acceptable. DELICIOUS . fallacy. a delusion always involves some m ental error. * * * * * DELUSION. agreeable. hateful. or established truth. or what exists otherwise than as he sees it. overturn. CHARMING. Acceptable indicates a thing to be worthy of acceptance. In an optical illusion the observer sees either what does not exist . A delusion is a mistaken conviction. An edifice is destroyed by fire or earthquake. Satisfying denotes anything that is received with calm acquiescence. sat isfying. wretched. welcome tidings. delicious. truth. gratifying. outside of the disordered mind. it is demolished by bombardment. and make the possessor an agreeable companion. We speak of the illusions of fancy or of hope . ruin. miserable. such a person's society will be delightful. by violence or neglect. vivacity. welcome. That is welcome which is received wit h joyful heartiness. horrible. pleasing. overthrow. fact. melancholy. Synonyms: error. congenial. pleasant. as. grateful.

sound premises. hence. to produce a result. with the design of then compassing his death. he forms a plan to entrap him int o his power. MODEL. there can be proof and certainty. purpose to the result of the action. intent. intent or intention refers especially to the state of mi nd of the actor. * * * * * DEMONSTRATION. intent and purpose overleap all particulars. in the strict and proper sense. * * * * * . and action. consequence. the correspondence and coor dination of parts. Intention contemplates the possibility of failure. there was much evidence against the accused. in the widest sense. Moral certainty is a conviction resting on such evidence as puts a matter beyond reasonable doubt. induction. IDEA. it is the basis of all knowledge. is the highest form of proof. conclusion. make. as the law can not re ad the heart. INDUCTION. but can not be applied outside of pure math ematics or other strictly deductive reasoning. Synonyms: certainty. repair. project. evidence. an d gives the most absolute certainty. proposal. Design refers to the adaptation of means to an end. in themselves. intenti on. restore. stretching forth toward an object. as. statements. while not so irresistibl e as demonstration.Antonyms: build. but which they do not absolutely establish. scheme. an inference is a probable conclusion toward which known facts. Intent denotes a straining. as including self-evidence or consciousness. purpose simply the placi ng it before oneself. structure. the design of a building. purpose. device. Intention is simply the more familiar form of the legal and philosophical intent. inference. together with thei r necessary conclusion. plan. or of separate acts. design considers these same det ails all as a means to an end. Compare HYPOTHESIS. Synonyms: aim. however. * * * * * DESIGN. it can only infer the intent from the evidences of design. Compare AIM. proof. Plan relates to detail s of form. we speak of the purpose rather than the intent or i ntention of God. Evidence is that which tends to show a thing to be true. final cause. deduction. We hold that the marks of design in nature prove it the work of a great Designer. or admissions point . The plan of a campaign may be for a series of sha rp attacks. but not amounting to proof of guilt. purpose lo oks to assured success. Proof in the strict sense is co mplete. Demonstration. end. irresistible evidence. a design for a statue. and fasten on the end itself. in matters that do not admit of demonstration. construct. with the design of thus surprising and overpowering the enemy. A conclusion is the abs olute and necessary result of the admission of certain premises. constitute a demonstration. Prepositions: The design of defrauding. create. CAUSE. A man comes to a fixed intention to kill his enemy. object.

despair is the utter abandonment of hope. Even when we speak of a strong or decided inclination we do not express the intensity of desire. expectancy. assurance. cheer. c ourage. despondency. Despondency r elaxes energy and effort and is always attended with sadness or distress. it is a quiet. proclivity. Antonyms: anticipation. Inclination is the mildest of these terms. concupiscence. to. hank ering may be the result of a fitful and capricious appetite. tendency. appetite. and viewed as attainable.DESIRE." but adroitness carries more of th . aptitude. craving. and may result from simple apathy. Antonyms: See synonyms for ANTIPATHY. Discouragements too frequent and long continued may produce a settled hopeless ness. Desire has a wide range. or even a vague or un conscious. longing. wish. trust. a wish may be for what is remote or uncertain. skill. vigorous in action. dexter. Synonyms: adroitness. despai r may produce a stony calmness. or it may lead to desperation. Craving is stronger than hankering. Synonyms: desperation. hopefulness. Prepositions: The desire of fame. * * * * * DEXTERITY. Coveting ordinarily d enotes wrong desire for that which is another's. à. the captive's longing for release. encouragement. Compare APPETITE. propensity. readiness. Synonyms: appetency. or near in thought. reckless of consequences. inclinatio n. or eve n for what is recognized as impossible. cleverness. Desperation is en ergized despair. discouragement. coveting. craving may be the imperious and reasonable demand of the whole nature. Discouragement is the result of so much repulse or failure as wears out courage . Longing is a reaching out w ith deep and persistent demand for that which is viewed as now distant but at so me time attainable. right. from the highest objects to the lowest. * * * * * DESPAIR. as. hopelessness. elation. a desire for excellence. aspiration. Despondency is an incapacity for the p resent exercise of hope. hankering. despondency a nd despair are more emphatic and decided. Hopelessness is negative. Adroitness (F. desire is for an object near at hand. and droit. expectation. expertness. right-ha nd) might each be rendered "right-handedness. confidence. right) and dexterity (L. hope.

or of the style of Mac aulay. with the pen. etc. boxing. as in English we say. or others. etc. a strain of music. or debate. Dexterity can not be communicated. * * * * * DICTION. . to go out of life. in Latin. TENNYSON Locksley Hall st. verbiage. fitted) is a natural re adiness. Prepositions: Dexterity of hand. 40. perish. as.) The language of a writer or speaker may be the national s peech he employs. style. CLEVER. in mani pulating men. or taking advant age of another in controversy. as. etc. the time h as expired. POWER. in legal phraseology. of a resolution. or checking some hostile movement. vocabulary. in action. of movement. a lease expires. wither. language. in the use of tools. Synonyms: expression. of management. we speak of the diction of an author or of a work. is figurati vely applied to anything which has the appearance of life. depart. in military phrase. skill to a very great e xtent can be imparted. An author's diction is strictly his choice and use of words. To perish (literally. aptus. wording . phrase. a topic. dies. Skill is more exact to line. Phrase and phraseology apply to words or combinations of words which are somewhat technical. expire. of his personal traits--in s hort. Verbiage never bears this sense (see CIRCUMLOCUTION. Prescott.e idea of eluding. we speak of a fi gurative style. Compare LANGUAGE. a tempest. decline. rhetorical figures such as metaphor and simile. with no special re ference to thought. thus. as. the English or French language. expression. or the word may denote his use of that language. to go through. to breathe out) is a softer word for die. without reference to any action of others. Diction is gen eral. and . th e effect of an author's prevailing tone of thought. fit. phraseology. Die. Aptitude (L. parrying. Expire (literal ly. become destitute of vital power and action. at cards. the author's language is well (or ill) chosen. We spea k of adroitness in fencing. and method than dexterity. it is used figuratively of things that cease to exist by reaching a natural limit. oftentimes can not even be explained by its possessor. wording is limited. * * * * * DIE. Synonyms: cease. fade. weapons. dexterity conveys the idea of doing. "skilled workmen" in various trades are numbered by thous ands. as. all that makes up the clothing of thought in words. accomplishin g something readily and well. An echo. the wording of a proposition. An author's vocabulary is the range of words which h e brings into his use. expression regards the words simply as the vehicle of the th ought. decease. rule. a frigid or an argumentative style. Compare ADDRESS. Style includes diction.. Where the dying night-lamp flickers. which by practise may be developed into dexterity. an issue. of dexterity in horsemanship. SKILFUL.

Dis similarity is between things sharply contrasted. in agony. unlikeness. (Ezek. Difference is the state or quality of being unlike or the amount of such unlike ness. similarity. 15). dive rgence. inequality. severe. there may be a difference betwe en those almost alike. a difference in character. a distinction is in our definition or description or mental image of them. dissimilarity. as. so. Careful discrimination of real differences results in clear distinctions." Luke xv. a discrimination is in our judgmen t of them. trying. Prepositions: To die of fever. variatio n is a difference in the condition or action of the same object at different tim es. Antonyms: agreement. but the opposite. contrast. harmony."the fire goes out") is oftenest used of death by privation or exposure. unity. vii. discrimination. the word denotes utter destructi on and decay. toilsome. famine. it is a mild word for opposition and conflict. hard. discrepan cy. disparity. with the sword. Disagreement is not merely the lack. a difference of one thing from (incorrectly to) another. Arduous (L. differences among men. die to the world. survive. dissimilitude. likeness. of style. as. exist. inconsistency. of agreement. rise from the dead. art and empires. 17. begin. laborious. etc. grow. of action. the disparity of our achievements when compared with our ideals. may be said to perish. steep) signifies primarily so steep and lofty as to be diff . disagreement. be immortal. Antonyms: be born. consonance. flourish. Variety involves more than two objects. * * * * * DIFFERENCE. Synonyms: arduous. * * * * * DIFFICULT. come into being. Synonyms: contrariety. variety. Prepositions: Difference between the old and the new. by violence. to die for one's country. variation. onerous. identity. in general. resem blance. rise again. of death by violence. Knowledge an d fame. difference is sometimes used in the same sense. implying that one thing falls far below a nother. live. uniformity. sometimes. "I perish with hunger. (less frequently) a difference (controversy) wit h a person. in one's bed. There is a discrepancy in accounts that fail to balance. does diversity. to die at sea. diversity. Disparity is stronger than inequality. arduus. sameness. come to life. A difference is in the things compared. distinction. rarely. exhausting.

a mountain difficult to ascend. Objects may be dimly discerned at twilight. or the line in which the object is moving. Responsib ility may be onerous even when it involves no special exertion. OVERSIGHT. What we discern we see apart from all other objects. or address. facile. * * * * * DIRECTION. light. CARE. what we distinguish we mark apart. That which is laborious or toilsome simply requires the steady applicat ion of labor or toil till accomplished. Difficult is not used of that which merely taxes physical force. the direction toward which anything stretches or reaches out. way. Hard applies to anything that resists our endeavors as a scarcely penetra ble mass resists our physical force. or recognize by some special mark or manifest difference. discriminate. Antonyms: easy. and especially with refere nce to the points of the compass. perceive. Hard may be active or passive. that toward which a stationary object leans. recognize.icult of ascent. a geometrical problem may be difficult t o solve. Compare DISCOVER. inclination. tendency is stronger and more ac tive than inclination. as. Compare AIM. Arduous is always active. * * * * * DISCERN. We discriminate by real differences. way is almost a perfect synonym of direc tion. that is difficult which involves skill. a dead lift is called hard rather than difficult. Synonyms: behold. conversationally. a thing may be hard to do or hard to bear. see. Anything is hard that involves tax and stra in whether of the physical or mental powers. trivial. We descry (originally espy) what is difficult to d iscover. slight. when yet we can not clearly distinguish one from another. distinguish. we distinguish by o utward signs. in which direction? Bearing is the direction in which an object is seen with reference to another. onus. observe. sagacity. * * * * * DISCOVER. toilsome is the stronger word. pleasant. ORDER. course. with or without a cons iderable expenditure of physical force. descry. literally the road or path. Synonyms: aim. a tangled skein to unravel. tendency. Course is the direction of a moving object. Synonyms: . bearing. and hence applies to that which involves great and sustained ex ertion and ordinarily for a lofty aim. The direction of an object is the line of motion or of vision toward it. That whic h is onerous (L. LOOK. comes naturally to mean the direction of the road or path. what we discriminate we ju dge apart. breaking stone on the road would be called hard rather than difficult work. an officer is readily distinguished from a common soldier by his u niform. considered from our own actual or mental st andpoint. trifling. great learning can only be won by arduous toil. which way did he go? or. Way. in clination. tendency. a burden) is mentally burdensome or oppressive.

which may be applied to any degree of ill health. vigor." and to hold ill and illness as the only proper words to u se in a general sense. slight or severe. as blindness or lamen ess. * * * * * DISEASE. oftener in t he good. "Elisha was fallen sick of his sickness whereof he died. Antonyms: See synonyms for HIDE. Of human actions or character. the auditor finds the account to be correct. a nervous affection. sturdiness. complaint. depreciate. or finds his own which he is searching for." 2 Kings xiii. In sci entific language.. he was detected in a fraud. * * * * * DISPARAGE. malady. a tendency to restrict the words sick and sickness to nausea.. for every form of physical disorder. carp at. Morse invented the electric telegraph. a slight indisposition. a painful sickness. expose. as abun dantly appears in the English Bible: "Jesus went about . ferret out. Antonyms: health. we invent combinations or arrangements not before in use. descry. un healthiness. There is now. Columbus discovered America. dishono r. We speak of trifling ailments. Synonyms: affection. 14. or "sic kness at the stomach. almost without exception. derogate from. indisposition. Find is the most general word for every means of coming to know what was not before certainly known. a slight or severe illness. as. discredit. A man finds in the road some stranger' s purse. The expert discovers or det ects an error in an account. real merit is sure to be discovered. where sick and sickness have the earlier and wider usag e. a serious or a deadly disease. . disorder and affection are rather partial and limited. robustness. detract from. a disorder of the digestive syste m. distemper. underrate. discern. decry. healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people. i n England. undervalue. detect is used. till the close of the eighteenth century at least. invent. strength. a slight fluttering of the pulse could be detected. soundness. We d iscover what has existed but has not been known to us. Infirm ity denotes a chronic or lingering weakness or disability. detect. in a b ad sense. ailment. lower. Complaint is a popular term. 23. Synonyms: belittle. disorder. find out. disclose. This distinction has received but a very limited acceptan ce in the United States. Sickness was generally used in English speech and literature. unsoundness. infirmity. underestimate." Matt. sickness. in a more limited se nse it denotes some definite morbid condition. fin d. discover may be used in either the good or the bad sense. detect is used of delicate indications that appear in course o f careful watching. as. illness. iv. Compar e DISCERN.ascertain. Disease is the general term for any deviation from health.

A man's ac hievements are disparaged. a son fulfils a father's hopes. execute. discharge.To decry is to cry down. or required. "Well done!" Finish and complete signify to bring to an end what was previou sly begun. perp etrate. achieve. to complet e a scheme of philosophy. work out. set in order. * * * * * DISPLACE. to discharge the duties of the office. actualize. mislay. assort. execute refers rather to the final steps. we may underrate or undervalue in statement to others. there is frequently the difference in usage that finish is applied to the fine details and is superficial. carry through. a good name is dis honored by unworthy conduct. and consummate all signify to embody i n fact what was before in thought. etc. being app lied to the whole ideal. attainments. place." and of the grandest human achieveme nt. it is used only of things. what he has mislaid he can not locate. One may realize that which he has done nothin g to bring about. the currency is depreciated. or conspicuous manner. Effect includes all that is done to accomplish the intent. public. consummate is limited quite sharply t o the concluding act. bring to pass. crowd out. * * * * * DO. To discharge is to do what is given in charge. dispose. as. plan. slandered. expecte d. remove. finish. or desired. disturb. we underestimate in our own minds. he himself is calumniated. carry out. bu t he can not effect his early designs except by doing the utmost that is necessa ry to make them fact. merits. his motives depreciated. disarrange. as. Execute refers more commonly to the commands of another. and execution. consummate. commit. order. These words are used. Do is the one comprehensive word which includes this whole class. Antonyms: See synonyms for PRAISE. Synonyms: confuse. realize. a purchase is consummated when the money is paid and the property deli vered. "It is done. expected. derange. effect. Compare SLANDER. perform. with few exceptions . To fulfil is to do or to be what has been promised. Realize. his professions discredited. Antonyms: adjust. We may say of the least item of daily work. fulfil. One may know where to find what he has misplaced. put in place. unsettle. sort. Synonyms: accomplish. execute. Objects are displaced when moved out of the place they have occupied. etc. put in order. classify. he may realize the dreams of youth by inheriting a fortune. in some noisy. array. while complete is comprehensive. mispl ace. An officer executes the law when he proceeds against its v iolators. effect. tran sact. gr oup. complete. they are misplaced when put into a place where they should not be. to finish a statue. A witnes s or a statement is discredited. jumble. hoped. as. of things such as qualities. bring about. effect and consu . To disparage is to beli ttle by damaging comparison or suggestion.

teachable. tame. inflexible. * * * * * DOCTRINE. Achieve--to do some thing worthy of a chief--signifies always to perform some great and generally so me worthy exploit.. as. precept. as of direct revelation. etc. Compare DUTY. Perform and accomplish both imply working toward the end. opinionated. One who is docile is easily taught. dis charge a duty. or a murder. As between c omplete and accomplish. because his officers and men promptly executed his commands. We finish a garment or a letter. neglect. a dogma rests on authority. miscarry . but to c onduct. firm. principle. obstinate. In Longfellow's lines. Tenet is simply that which is held. while accomplish carries the thought of full completion. manageable. unyielding. Compare FAITH. "Patience. tract able. gentle. intractable. the fundamental b asis on which the teaching rests. submissive. ruin. come short. and is applied to a single item of belief. pliable. teaching. yielding. a creed is a summary of doctrines or dogmas. * * * * * DOCILE. effect a purpose. principl e. wilful. Synonyms: article of belief. A doctrine is reasoned out. the decisio n of the church. tenet. one who is pliant is easily bent in any direction. Dogma has commonly. Compare TRANSACT. a tre spass. belief. at the pre sent day. Doctrine primarily signifies that which is taught. perpetrate an outrage or a felony. A doctrine or dogma is a statement of some one item of bel ief. Commit. Antonyms: baffle. execute a command. spoil. complete an edifice or a life-work. compliant. perform ou r daily tasks. defeat. self-willed. it is a neutral word. realize an ideal. A precept relates not to belief.mmate to one's own designs. perpetrate is used chiefly of aggra vated crimes or. somewhat humorously. Synonyms: amenable. accomplish thy labor. fail. but perform always allows a possibility of not attaining. an offensive signification. consummate a bargain or a crime. TRANSACTION. obedient. dogged. the commander effected the capture of the fort. miss. of the tenets of others. LAW. A man may commit a sin. neither approving nor condemning. is used only of t hose that are bad. article of faith. as applied to actions. the whole process of doing it. mar. fulfil a promise. compliant represents one as inclined or persuaded to agreement with another's will. of blunders. destroy. pliant. we speak of the doctrines of ou r own church. as of a belief arrogantly asserted. achieve a victory. one who is tractable is easily led. dogma. and may be defende d by reasoning. resolute. . accomplish." etc. Antonyms: determined. frustrate. complete considers rather the thing as done. perform could not be substituted without great loss. accomplish a design. whether grave or trivial. stubborn.

and may be more partial than the term systematic would imp ly. to the contrary. as implying wi . unbelief refers to a settled state of mind. Synonyms: disbelief. v. n. intentions. Perplexity is active and painfu l." giv es definite propositions. n. indecision. distrust. dictatorial. as. Mistrust is now rarely. confide in. incredulity. trust. * * * * * DOUBT. Distrust may express simp ly a lack of confidence. rely upon. etc. Mistrust and suspe ct imply that one is almost assured of positive evil. To doubt is to lack conviction. depend on. generally accompanied with opposition of heart. allied with arrogant and kindred words. Distrust is always serious. perplexity. authoritative. unbelief. hesitation. irresolution. a dogmatic s tatement is one for which the author does not trouble himself to give a reason. positive. I distrusted that man from the start. magisterial. doubt may be co ntent to linger unresolved. As regards belief. Perplexity presses toward a solution. or because of his contempt fo r those whom he addresses. Any improbable statement awakens incredulity.* * * * * DOGMATIC. mistrust. imperious. or it may be nearly equ ivalent to suspect. Compare synonyms for DOUBT. in common use. either because of the strength of his convictions. s uspicion. surmise. which it holds to be delivered by authority. I distrust my own judgment. Outside of theology. systematic. doctrinal to that which is stated in the form of do ctrine to be taught or defended. Synonyms: distrust. Incompleteness of evidence may compel one to do ubt. Dogmatic is technically applied in a good sense to that which is formally enunc iated by adequate authority. Antonyms: believe. he suspects others. In the ological usage unbelief and skepticism have a condemnatory force. disbe lief is conviction. systemati c theology considers the same propositions in their logical connection and order as parts of a system. rely on. hesitancy. Synonyms: arrogant. domineering. called also "dogmatics. self-opinionated. if ever. * * * * * DOUBT. suspect. doctrinal. question. scruple. dogmatic has generally an offensive sense. but only of motives. opinion ated. Compare SUPPOSE. ske pticism. suspense. misgiving. Doubt is a lack of conviction that may refer either to matters of belief or to matters of practise. one may distrust himself o r others. overbearing. thus dogmatic is. used of persons. a doctrinal statement is less absolute in its claims than a dogmatic treatise. as. or some perverse bias of mind may incline him to. Dogmatic theology. mistrust is of ten used playfully. uncertainty. depend upon. doubt may be quiescent. while doubt is lack of conviction.

fantasy. Prepositions: To draw water from or out of the well. determination. as. character. persuasion. As regards practical matters. a resisting object with a continuou s straining motion. all objects are attracted toward the earth. To attract is to exert a force that tends to draw. attract. repulse. A dream is strictly a train of thoughts. Antonyms: alienate. induce. haul. and be quite indifferent. hesitation. attract is more nearly akin to incline. Suspense regards the future. uncertainty may relate to any peri od. incline. * * * * * DRAW.. pull. drag. hallucination. a dentist pulls a tooth. To tug is to draw. and are due oftene r to infirmity of will than to lack of knowledge. belief. over the stones. and are more decidedly adv erse than doubt. draw the boat through the water. INFLU ENCE. repel. to haul a seine. conviction. indecision. or a carriage up a steep hill. tow. whether adequate or inadequate. draw to induce. estrange. Antonyms: assurance. reject. as. the wagon is drawn by h orses. resolution. In the figurative sense. along the road. lure. Compare ALLURE. reverie. through the woods. fancy. drawn to his side. as. * * * * * DREAM. Distrust and suspicion apply e specially to the motives. resolve. and is eager and anxious. doubt implies some negative evidence. and images passing through . uncertainty appl ies to the unknown or undecided. See synonyms for DRIVE.lful rejection of manifest truth. One object draws another when it moves it toward itself or in the direction of its own motion by the exertion of adequate force. To haul is to draw somewhat slowly a heavy object. Synonyms: day-dream. tho it may produce no actual mo tion. tu g. the fish pulls on the line. tho they may be sustained from falling. and irresolution ha ve reference to something that remains to be decided or done. Misgiving is ordinarily in regard to the outcome o f something already done or decided. vision. trance. To pull is to exert a drawing force. draw with cords of love. We ar e attracted by one's appearance. To drag is to draw against strong resistance. entice. or try to draw. One vessel tows another. lead. to the barn. confidence . of others. whether slight or powerful. draw air into the lungs. Synonyms: allure. to haul logs. ARRAY. across the field. rebuff. romance. fantasies. decision. as. to drag a sled over bare ground. to the shore. certainty. to tug at the oar. etc. Scruple relates to matters of conscience and duty.

dishabille. ride. Synonyms: compel. hence. Clothing denotes the entire covering of the body. clothing. ves tments. exposure. raiment. robes. costume. exce pt in ecclesiastical use. repel. Antonyms: certainty. The word vestments is now rare. repulse." Dress may be used. etc. etc. substance. too. is habit. drive is a synonym equally for compel or for repel or repulse. clothes. array. a trance is an abnormal state. One may be driven to a thing or from it. resist. We speak of a trance of delight when the emotion almost sweeps one away from the normal exercise of the faculties. Antonyms: bareness. garb. as. fact. tho Shakespeare speaks of "poor and mean attire. drives him with whip and rein. A fancy is some image pres ented to the mind. Hallucination is the seeming perception of non-existent objects. conceive d as more real and authoritative than a dream. Apparel and attire are most frequently used of somewha t complete and elegant outer clothing. attire. vesture. reality. it is the direct reverse of draw. profession. clothes and garments view it as composed of separate parts. and in clear exerci se of the senses and mental powers. disarray. To drive is to move an object with some force or violence before or away from o neself. as in insanity or delirium. Clothes. often in the fullest exercise of its powers. nakedness. nudity. vision is often applied to something seen by the mind through supernatural agency. push. A man leads a horse by the halter. so. taken as a whole. A reverie is a purposeless dr ifting of the mind when awake. Garb denotes the clothing characteristic of som e class. or the like. except in tec hnical use to denote a lady's riding-dress. Arr ay. as. court dress. all the other words in the list (with p ossible rare exceptions in the case of raiment) refer to the outer garments. * * * * * DRIVE. for a woman's gown. whether in sleep or wakefulness. habiliments. complete. verity. wh ich is different from normal sleep or wakefulness. a vision may occur when one is awake. raiment. uniform. specifically. propel. and vesture are archaic or poetic. realization. a theatrical costume. with litt le difference of meaning except that the vision is thought of as fuller and more vivid. and in that sense may be either rich or shabby. as. under the influence of mental images. garments. In the figurative sense. undress. impel. urge on. we speak of dreams of fortune. thrust. the garb of a priest. and garments may be used of inner or outer covering. Dress has now large ly displaced apparel and attire. a day-dream that which passes before the mind in such condition. evening dress.the mind during sleep. but in the general sense it denotes outer clothing which is meant to be elegant. and appropriate to some social or publi c occasion. Costume is chiefly u sed for that which befits an assumed character. we som etimes speak of a national costume. * * * * * DRESS. visions of glory. clothing. lead. full dress. habit. etc. Synonyms: apparel. Repulse is .

a du plicate is exactly like the original. imitation. INFLUENCE. requires us to say that we drive in a carriage. Prepositions: Drive to market. drive into exile.stronger and more conclusive than repel. alo ng the beach. model. as the coachman. authenticated by the signature of the proper officer. we may have an inaccurate copy. drive by. Jer. et c. with. a duplicate is the same as the original in substance and effect. * * * * * DUTY. out of the city. pattern. especially i n England. While strictly there could be but one duplicate. a duplica te will open the lock. but is not repulsed except by the direct re fusal or ignoring of his suit. drive by or past beautiful estates. containing the same provisions and si gned by the same persons. facsimile. so that it may have in all respects the same force and effect. Antonyms: archetype. prototype. a copy of an instrume nt has in itself no authority. good examples of the same usage may be found abundantly in the older Englis h. the signatures.). A facsimile of a key might be quite useless. around the s quare. or under the lash. a carbon copy of a typewritten document mu st be a duplicate. from one's presence. one may be repelled by the very aspect of the person whose favor he seeks. Synonyms: . beside the river. an imitation of Milton. may be copied. likeness. ride upon a horse. to the door. The propriety of a person's saying that he is going to drive when he is simpl y to be conveyed in a carriage. is exceedingly questionable. out of the sunshine. a transcript is an official copy. 25. Antonyms: See synonyms for DRAW. A replica is a c opy of a work of art by the maker of the original. as well as other matters. the word is now extended to an indefinite number of exact copies. Compare BANISH. while a copy is intentional. replica. does all t he driving. A counterpart exactly corresponds to another object. but perhaps without design. A facsimile is like the original in appearance. but never an inaccurate dupli cate. into the barn. * * * * * DUPLICATE. through the park. reproduction. 16. original. where some one else. COMPEL. Synonyms: copy. trans cript. a duplicate is really an original. A certain conventional modern usage. counterpart. An imitation is always thou ght of as inferior to the original. xvii. to despair. across the field. and by the seal of the appropriate court. Many good authorities prefer to use rid e in the older and broader sense as signifying to be supported and borne along b y any means of conveyance. a facsimile of the Declaration of Indepen dence is not a duplicate. Reproduction is chiefly applied to living organisms. In law. as. A copy is as nearly like the original as the copyist has power to make it. th o in Scripture we read of riding in a chariot (2 Kings ix.

cool. Ease may be either of condition or of action. or character. uninterested. impatient. but more deep. honor. facility is always of action. expertness. function. his obligations and responsibilities are to others. and so be the converse of duty. earnest. purposeless. inten se. ardent. tax. indifferent. Eager usually refers t o some specific and immediate satisfaction. Etymologically. office. stolid. Prepositions: Eager for (more rarely after) favor. resolute. keen. desirous. Duty arises from the nature of things. It is the creditor' s right to demand payment. Synonyms: easiness. readiness is of action or of expected action. stony.. We speak of a parent's duty. any applian . importunate. zealous. regardless. that to or by wh ich one is bound. co ld. right. Facility is always active. the speaker has facility of expression.accountability. Synonyms: animated. One lives at eas e who has no pressing cares. right is impersonal. or strain. phlegmatic. longing. impetuous. readiness. Compare BUSINESS. Righteousn ess is right incarnated in action. knack. * * * * * EASE. a debtor's obligation. etc. readiness of wit. In a more limited sense. right. straight. burning. obligation and responsibi lity may be created by circumstances. responsibility. one is earnest wit h a desire that is less impatient. neg ligent. or by the accepta nce of a trust. etc. that for which one must answer. when wholly without constraint. and constant. the patriotic soldier is earnest in his devotion to his country. ferven t. Ease in the sense here considered denotes freedom from conscious or apparent ef fort. duty is that which is owed or due. heedless. one stands at ease. earnest to something permanent and e nduring. facility. eager in pursuit. yearning. righteousness. unconcerned. hot. Right is that which accords with the moral system of the universe. calm. or in the direct line of truth and goodness. dispassionate. eager for a decisive battle. vehement. One is eager for the gratification of any appetite or pas sion. business. responsibility. obligation. unmoved. he is earnest in conviction. that which is correct. purpose. One's duty may be to others or to himself. * * * * * EAGER. glowing. obligation. one is anxious with a desire that foresees rather the pain of disappointment than the delight of attainment. One is eager who impatiently desires to accomplish some end. right may be used of what one may rightly claim. or of a child's duty of obedience. enthusiastic. readiness may be active o r passive. intent. unmindful. and the debtor's duty to pay. frigid. moves or speaks with ease. Duty and responsibility are thought of as to some person or persons. stupid. Antonyms: apathetic. as by one's own promise. anxious. and a parent's responsibility for the child's welfar e. careless.

any one can press down th e keys of a typewriter with ease. constraint. facility always implies practise and skill. Easiness applies to the thing do ne. to build in or into) is but a part of education. information. but of the expertness of a gymnast. development. '94. like the latter word. and nothing whatever of that moral de velopment which is included in education in its fullest and noblest sense. knowledge. breeding having reference largely to manners with such qualities as are deemed distinctively characteristic of high birth. We speak of the teaching. * * * * * EDUCATION. Stud y is also used in the sense of the thing studied. Discipline is systematic a nd rigorous training. difficulty. Compare KNOWLEDGE. Antonyms: annoyance. nurture (literally nouris hing) having more direct reference to moral qualities.'" JOHN LUBBOCK The Use of Li fe ch. culture. POWER. instruction. Antonyms: ignorance. Expertness applies to the more mechanical processes of body and mind. worry.] Instruction. Knowledge and learning tell nothing of mental development apart from the capacity to acquire and remember. Teaching is the more familiar and less formal word for instruction . tuition is narrower than teaching. Study is emphatically what one does fo r himself. only the skilled operator works the machine wi th facility. uneasiness. and one more important. awkwardness. learn ing. persevering study is one of the best elements of training. p. Compare COMFORTABLE. to lead or draw out) is the systematic development and c ultivation of the mind and other natural powers. 'has two educations.. perplexity. not. Synonyms: breeding. learning. and personal association. rather than to the doer.. but not of the edu cation or tuition of a dog or a horse.' says Gibbon. Training refers not merely to the impartation of knowledge. It begins in the nursery. cultivation.ce is in readiness for use. Readiness in the active sense includes much of the meaning of ease with the added idea of promptness or alertness. training. too. discipline. but any full education must be the result in great part of instruction. . "Education is the harmonious de velopment of all our faculties. irritation. whether we will or not. and in which instruction and t uition can only point the way. disquiet.. tuition. Education (L. study. training. but does not end there. and goes on at school. a studious pursuit. vii. encourage the student to advance. educere. Study is emphatically what one does for himself. vigorous. reading. instruere. which he gives himself. schooling. REFINEMENT. with the idea of subjection to authority and perhaps of pu nishment. DEXTERITY. one which he receives from othe rs. WISDOM. including training. nurture. It continues through life. not overlooking the physi cal and mental. may be acquired by one's unaided industry. often the s mallest part. ' Every person. Tuition is the technical term for teaching as the business of an instr uctor or as in the routine of a school. the impartation of knowledge by ot hers (L. but to the exercis ing of one in actions with the design to form habits. especially as directed by and dependent upon home life and personal a ssociation. or discipline. 111. we speak of the readiness of an orator. vexation. a subject to be mastered by st udy. illiteracy. [MACM. trouble. and remove obst acles. discomfort. Breeding and nurture include teaching and training. teach ing. training. Ease of action may imply merely the possession of am ple power.

self-conceit. self-esteem. in the sense here considered. in the good sense. diffidence. vanit y always a source of satisfaction. the merely impudent or shameless person may take no thought of consequences. Self-consciousness is the keeping of one's thoughts upon oneself. with alwa ys an offensive implication. or personal rights. Effrontery (L. shrinking. vanity. boldness. Self-esteem is more solid and better founded than self-conceit. Antonyms: bashfulness. unobtrusiveness. duty. coyness. self-forgetfulness. egoism. sensitiveness. PRIDE. Boldness is forward-stepping courage. . Hardihood defies and disregards the rational judgment of men. self-conceit is ridiculous or pitiable. impudence. but the word is frequently used in an unfavorable sense to indicate a lack of pr oper sensitiveness and modesty. claims. Antonyms: bashfulness. yet not to the extent implied in impudence or shamelessness. shameless) adds to audacity and hardihood the special element of defiance of considerations of propriety. insolence. or manner of what one believes to be his due. and respect f or others. public opinion. Compare ASSURANCE. Synonyms: assurance. boldness. barefaced. but self-conceit is always a weakness. t imidity. spoken of with reference to the presence and observat ion of others. Self-assertion at times becomes a duty. but is ordina rily a weakness. deference. effrons. is a reckless defiance of law. modesty. humility. Impudenc e disregards what is due to superiors. Self-assertion is the claim by word. Audacity. conceit aro uses resentment. or supreme regard for oneself. self-conceit is an overestimate of one's ow n powers or deserts. shameles sness. self-confidence. audacity. decency. modesty. self-assertion. Vanity is an overweening admiration of self. * * * * * EFFRONTERY. and never has the worthy sense of self-confidence. shamelessness defies decency. with the constant anxious question of what othe rs will think. se lf-consciousness. act. Egoism is giving the "I" undue supremacy in thought. * * * * * EGOTISM. Egotism is sometimes used in the sense of egoism.Compare synonyms for IGNORANT. egotism is giving the "I" undue prominence in speech. approaching the meaning o f impudence or shamelessness. craving equal admira tion from others. BRAVE. but always carrying the thought of the personal ri sk that one disregards in such defiance. shyness. Compare ASSU RANCE. or views. hardihood. is courage viewed from the outside. self-consciousness is commonly painful to its possessor. Synonyms: conceit. brass. the audacious person recognizes and reckle ssly braves them. There is a worthy self-confidence which springs from consciousn ess of rectitude and of power equal to demands. Conceit is a briefer expression for self-conceit. except as it fails to receive its supposed du e.

or astronomical symbols. or any object that might b e compared with. An emblem has some natural fitness to suggest that for which it stands. A sta tement of doctrine is often called a symbol of faith. as in the case of animal or vegetable typ es. a symbol has been chosen or agreed upon to suggest somethi ng else. a figure i nlaid in wood. Emblem is the English form of emblema. To migrate is to change one's dwelling-place. especially in sculpture. and also its accepted symbol. and immigrates to the land where he takes up his abode. a ring. chemical. also. A figure in the sense here considered is something that represents an idea to the mind somewhat as a form is represented to the eye. usually with the idea of repeated change. figure. and to many birds and animals. The Gr eek word symbolon denoted a victor's wreath. the two words are used distinctively of human beings. signifying a figure beaten out on a metallic vessel by blows from within. a check. or other material as a copy of some natural object. the attribute is often an emblem or symbol. Prepositions: A person emigrates from the land he leaves. or found to correspond with another. A symbol may b e also an emblem. unostentatiousness. thus the eagle is the attribute of St. An image is a visible representation. migrate. having or supposed to have a close resemblance to that which it represents. kind looks may be signs of regard. and apply to the same person and the same a ct. but it is not an emblem. the same thing may be both a sign and a symbol. symbol. A type is in religion a represent ation of a greater reality to come. a symbol represents. Emigrate and immigrate carry the idea of a permanent cha nge of residence to some other country or some distant region. it applies to wandering tribes of men. or sculpture. which is a natural emblem of eternity. O n the other hand. stone. while the sign may be unintentio nal. a figure may be practically the same as a type. . as in drawing. Compare SIGN. self-distrust. token. the token is voluntary. * * * * * EMIGRATE. diffidence. according to the side from which the action is viewed. or of periodical return. type. a gift is a toke n. image. but letters are often used as math ematical. thus the elements of bread and wine in the Lord's Supper are b oth appropriate emblems and his own chosen symbols of suffering and death. a letter of th e alphabet is a sign which indicates a sound. with or without natural fitness. Synonyms: attribute. John as an emblem of lofty spiritual vision. painting. as representin g a future reality. we speak of one object as the type of the cl ass whose characteristics it exhibits. a sign does actually suggest the thing with or without reason. An attribute in art is some accessory used to characterize a figure or scene . Thus an emblem re sembles. a Latin word of Greek origin. and with or without intention or choice. sign. whether there was or was n ot anything in the objects compared to suggest the comparison. is frequently given as a token of friendship or love. Synonyms: immigrate. * * * * * EMBLEM.shyness. A token is something given or done as a pledge or expression of feeling or intent.

says of the preacher. when an argument i s concluded all that is deemed necessary to prove the point has been stated. the statue is finished. conclude. v. use up. "I have finished my course. A thing stops that comes to rest from motion. as in the expression "to add the fini shing touches. use. terminate. stop frequently signifies to bring or come to a s . indeed. wind up. or of tumult in the audience. the poem." but this sense is archaic. In general terms it may be said that to employ is to devote to one's purpose. Synonyms: break off. to speak of hiring a pastor. that is closed. the Scripture says. what is used is viewed as more absolutely an instrument than what is employed. or the motion stops or ceases when the object comes to rest. expire.* * * * * EMPLOY. or when the business side of the transaction is referred to. the spire terminates in a cro ss. upon. of which there is no more. or finished which has come to an expected or appropriate end. iv. quit.. a mercenary adventurer is hired to fight a tyrant's battles. the picture. as. In this connection employ is a word of mor e dignity than hire." That which is used is ofte n consumed in the using. cease. in the strict sen se. the speech is neither closed. stop. we used twenty tons of coal last winter. business. " We are laborers together with (co-workers with) God. concluded. except in a degrading sense. he u ses pen and paper. the Scripture. A speech may be ended almost as soon as begu n. Synonyms: call. engross. as. or about a work. Hence the expression commo n in some religious circles "that God would use me" is not to be commended. at a certain salary. or is ended. a merchant employs a clerk." The enumeration is completed. etc. engaged. t o use is to render subservient to one's purpose. desist. completed. as. it h as also the fault of representing the human worker as absolutely a passive and h elpless instrument. "The laborer is worthy of his hire. not merely to complete in the essentials. but to perfect in all the minute details. in such a cas e. the phrase is altogether unscriptural. at a stipu lated salary. or possibly emplo yed. make use of. complete. in such cases we could not substitute employ. f inish. hire. in the latter case the servic e is always understood to be for pay. 7. concluded. It is unsuitable. An argument may be closed with nothing proved. Prepositions: Employ in. on." a Pastor is properly said to be called. nor finished. To finish is to do the last thing there is to do. * * * * * END. Finish has come to mean. engage. To terminate may be either to bring to an arbitrary or to an approp riate end. according to present usage. or in familiar phrase used up. he terminated his remarks abruptly. That ends." 2 Tim. the conspirators used him as a go-between. for a purpose. completed. because of the speaker's illness. whether or not more was inte nded or needed. use is not said of persons. as e xpressed in the noun "hireling. and hi re now implies that the one hired works directly and primarily for the pay. close. a general is employed in his country's service. A person may be employed in his own work or in that of another. as. nor. as a rule.

fulfilment. a s in a race. or action of any kind. or privilege. cessation. we say I will endeavor (not I will attempt) while I live. point in such connections is said of that which is drawn out to exceeding fineness or sharpness. labor. as. Tip has nearly the same meaning as extremity. to endeavor. point. Synonyms: attempt. the l imits of an estate (compare BOUNDARY). achievement. Limit implies some check to or restraint upon further advance. or abstractions of any kind. right.udden and decided cessation of motion. A goal is an end sought or striven for. the tip of the finger. or by extension the town or village where it i s situated. r esult. To attempt expresses a single act. To strive suggests little of . to endeavor is to attempt strenuously and wit h firm and enduring purpose. also for AIM. as. Antonyms: See synonyms for BEGIN. purpose. DESIGN. to essay. the extremit y is distinctively the terminal point. completion. extremity. close. undertake. To attempt is with the view of accomplishing. finis. the extremity is viewed as that which is most remo te from some center. To attempt is to take action somewhat experimentally with the hope and purpose of accomplishing a certain result. bound. with a view of testing our own powers. Antonyms: See synonyms for BEGINNING. n. as. compare the synonyms for the verb END. boundary. as the point of a needle. extremity is said of something considerable. * * * * * ENDEAVOR. and may thus be but part of the end in th e general sense of that word. limit. as some business. utmost. TRANSACT. goal. CONSEQUENCE. the southern extremity or point is Cape Horn. but is chiefly used of time. words. or a sword. strive. Compare DO. the furthermost stati on in any direction on a railway. I will undertake to produce the witness. Expi ration signifies the coming to an end in the natural course of things. the word often implies complete assurance of su ccess. v. essay. tip. we do not speak of the extremity of a needle. conclusion. uttermost. design. a fork. Terminus is chiefly used to designate th e end of a line of travel or transportation: specifically. expiration. finish. For the figurative senses of end and its associated words. intent. consummation. Termination is the Latin and more formal word for the Saxon end. progress. or some mean or standard position. The end is the terminal part of a material object that has length. try. issue. it is used of things of some consequence. undertakings. effect. the southern end of Sout h America includes all Patagonia. as. terminus. outcome. but is said of small or slight and tapering objects. we do not ordinarily speak of the expiration of an hour or of a day. a c ontinuous exertion. or of a lease. conseq uence. finale. or trust. Synonyms: accomplishment. the e xpiration of a year. period. extent. To undertake is to accept or take upon oneself as an obligation. termination. * * * * * END.

e. Synonyms: attempt. pass by. an endeavor a continued series of acts. Attempt is more experimental than effort. endure conveys a fulle r suggestion of contest and conquest than bear. * * * * * ENDEAVOR." but "I'll try. grief. Compare ENDEAVOR. give up. v. permit. pain. exertion. Allow and permit involve large concession of the will. without sinking. to try implies using other mean s and studying out other ways if not at first successful. To brook is quietly to p ut up with provocation or insult. submit to. or repining. a state tolerates a religion which it would be glad to suppress. as. if the thing is not accomplished at a stroke. I will spare no labor and exertion to do it. struggle. undergo. annoyance. end eavor less strenuous but more continuous. fail. one puts up with the presence of a disagreeable visitor. or the like. n. Every effort is an exertion. surrender. droop. suffer. neglect. whispering is allowed by the school-teacher who does not fo rbid nor censure it. To endure is to b ear with strain and resistance. I will abide the result. strain. in seeking it. Antonyms: break. I will strive to fulfil your wishes. * * * * * ENDURE. fall. to be able to bear it. sir!" Antonyms: abandon. trial. throw up. One may choose to endure the pai n of a surgical operation rather than take anesthetics. and contest. an endeavor is sustained and enduring. sustain. SUPPORT. sink. we do not have a society of Christian Attempt. support. Bear is the most general of these words. throw away. effort. allow. An essay is an attempt. exertion is a putting forth of power without special reference to an object. To afford is to be equ al to a pecuniary demand. overlook. A struggle is a violent effort or strenuous exertion. or of Christian Effort. faint . i. and may be l ifelong. Endeavor is more mild and formal. let go. but with conscious power. it reaches toward a definite end. throw over. the pilot in the burning pilot-house does not say "I will endeavor" or "I will attempt to hold the ship to her course. or endeavor made as a test of the powers of the one who makes it." To attempt suggests giving u p. put up with and tolerate imply decided aversion and reluctant withholding of opposit ion or interference. effort. tolerate. Synonyms: abide. bear up under. put up with.. give out. drop . essay. The original idea of testing or experiment ing is not thought of when a man says "I will try. Abide combines the senses of await and endure. dismiss. break down. bear with. Effort denotes the voluntary putting forth of power to attain or accomplish som e specific thing. i.. afford. Try is t he most comprehensive of these words. omit. bu t not every exertion is an effort. lam enting.the result. it is metaphorically to hold up or kee p up a burden of care. he permits the thing to come which he must brace himself to endure when it comes. e. despair. much of toil. Compare ABIDE. brook. but of Christian Endeavor. An effort is a single act. bear.

malignity is intense and violent enmity. Adversary was formerly much used in the g eneral sense of antagonist or opponent. Enmity is the state of being an enemy or the feeling and disposition characteri zing an enemy (compare ENEMY).. regard. k indness. Bitterness is a resentful feeling arising from a belief that one has bee n wronged. bitterness. animosity. . ally. amity. opp onents in debate may contend with no personal ill will. acrimony is a kindred feeling. * * * * * ENMITY. and largely rest ricted to the hostile sense. ranc or. but often less enduring and determined. Compare synonyms for AMBITION. supporter. friendship. antagonism. for the gra tification of some evil passion. an opponent. but deeper and more persistent. as. hostility. rival. succumb. Antonyms: agreement. where no injustic e or wrong is felt. foe. the term hostilities between nations denotes actual armed col lision. Animosity denotes a feeling more active and vehem ent. foe. Compare synonyms for ACRIMONY. rarely avoid inimical feeling. Malice is a disposition or intent to injure others. Synonyms: acrimony. concord. an adversary is ordinarily one who not only opposes another in fact. malignity. and ma y arise from the crossing of one's wishes or plans by another. but does so with hostile spirit. competitor. but in military language all who fight on the opposite side are called enemies or collectively "the enemy. Antagonism. one who seeks the same object for w hich another is striving." where no personal animosity may be implied. kindliness. but ordinarily suggests a shade. a competitor. accessory. antagonist. Hostility is enmity in action. falter. hatred. Enmity distinctly reco gnizes its object as an enemy. malevolence. Prepositions: He was the enemy of my friend in the contest. ANGER. one in whom the attitude of res istance is the more prominent. at least. as between two competing authors or merchants. * * * * * ENEMY. which is rather a poetical and literary word. implies intensely hostile spirit and purpose. to be met or dealt with accordingly.. opponent. etc. the great Adversary. than enmity. alliance. An enemy in private life is one who is moved by hostile feeling with active dis position to injure. or perhaps out of pure malign ity. Antonyms: abettor. give up. helper. hatred . competitors in business. friend. sympathy. rivals in love. malice. accomplice. but is now less common. d oes not necessarily imply enmity. antagonists in wrestling. ambition . harmony. or malice. ill will. spite. yield. of hostile feeling. An antagonist is one who opposes and is opposed act ively and with intensity of effort. HATRED. Synonyms: adversary.

tho involving a certain grade of me ntal action. to amuse is to occupy the attention in an especially bright and c heerful way. fun and frolic are apt to be boisterous. enliven a dull evening or company. according to their in dividual tastes. often with that which excites merriment or laughter. is to engage mind or body in so me pleasing activity that restores strength and energy for serious work. please. fatigue. occupy. labor. beguile. recreate. disturb. lassitude. entertain. cheer. recreation. Compare synonyms f or ENTERTAIN. We beguile a weary hour. as. . as it were. enjoyment. distract. and pr edominantly even there.* * * * * ENTERTAIN. disport ourselves when merry. work. tho in an agr eeable. d elight. Spo rts are almost wholly on the physical plane. To divert is to turn from serious thoughts or lab orious pursuits to something that lightly and agreeably occupies the mind. cheer. o ccupy idle time. divert. pleasure. many slight thin gs may be pastimes which we should hardly dignify by the name of amusements. * * * * * ENTERTAINMENT. sport. and usually does. disport. refreshing way. enliven. c heer the despondent. and baseball are sports. weary. diversion. gra tify. busy. Amusement and pasti me are nearly equivalent. they are therefore words of a high order. frolic. but entertainment and recreation are capable of a meaning so hi gh as never to be approached by any meaning of sport. we amuse ourselves or others with whatever pleasantly passes the time without speci al exertion. To begu ile is. is used of somewhat mirthful mental delight. interest. divert the preoccupied. merriment. Cheer may be very quiet. tire. combine the mental with the physical. fun. horse-racing. Entertainment. but enjoyment may be too keen to be called amusement. apart from its special senses of a public performance or a social party. Amusement is a form of enj oyment. the latter probably the lighter word. in the sense here considered. he enterta ined us with an amusing story. weariness. fox-hunting. Antonyms: annoy. recreate when worn with toil. recreation may. Certain sports may afford entertainment or recreation to certain persons. is to engage and pleasantly occupy the attention. Antonyms: ennui. interest. merriment is with liveliness a nd laughter. delight. Synonyms: amuse. a s the cheer of a bright fire to an aged traveler. disquiet. bore. please a listening audience. literally to re-create. toil. To entertain. pastime. gratify our friends' wishes. Entertainment and recreation imply thought and mental occupation. one m ay be entertained or amused who has nothing serious or laborious from which to b e diverted. each according to his taste. Synonyms: amusement. to cheat into cheer and comfort by something that insensibly draws thought or feeling away from pain or disquiet. To recreate.

wariness. access is coming all the way t o his presence. fervency. transport. entrée. approach. Antonyms: departure. refusal. on or upon a work or course of action. or at least to opportunity afforded by some one's act or n eglect. An intruder may gain admittance to the hall of a society who would not be allowed admission to its m embership. excitement. Prepositions: Entrance into a place. entry . Zeal is burning ea rnestness. inlet. favor. the act of entering. policy. fanaticism. Entrance. always tending to vigorous action with all the devotion of enthusiasm . An unworthy favorite may prevent even those who gain admittance to a king's audience from obtaining any real acc ess to the king. procure. gateway. obtain. we speak of one's entrance upon college life. Compare EAGER. an almost frantic e xtravagance in behalf of something supposed to be an expression of the divine wi ll. Approach is a movement toward another. We may effect or force an entrance. vehe mence. caution. calmness. rapture. En thusiasm has now chiefly the meaning of an earnest and commendable devotion. ejection. eagerness. coldn ess. inspiration. win. fervor. doorway. exclusion. * * * * * ENTRANCE.* * * * * ENTHUSIASM. and consideration. admission refers also to position. or of entrance into the ministry. intensity. within the gates. recognition. opening. as. devotion. into or upon offi ce. or becoming a member of some organization. courage. admission. extravagance. The old meaning of enthusiasm implies a pseudo-inspiration. but not admittance or admission. Antonyms: calculation. into or among the com pany. by or through the door. gate. Synonyms: access. introduction. nothing great a nd good can be carried without a certain fervor. etc. Admittance refers to place. friendship. indifference. accession. admittance. timidity. Entrance is also used figuratively for setting out upon some ca reer. and hopefulness make enthusiasm. dulness. deadness. exit. ecstasy. expulsion. secure. intensity. admission and admittance refer to entering by or wit h some one's consent. passion. . Synonyms: ardor. and vehemence. door. r ejection. these joined with faith. prudence. frenzy. privilege. egress. adit. refers merely to the fact of passing from withou t to within some enclosure. lukewarmness. an intense and eager interest. warmth. tho se we gain. portal. penetration. zeal. This sense remains as the controlling one in the kindred noun enthusiast. earnestness. into battle. tho often without its hopefulness. ingress. Against the hindrances of the world. withdrawal.

voice. That which is enigmatical must be guessed like a riddle.* * * * * ENVIOUS. Prepositions: Envious of (formerly at or against) a person. as a rule. Questionable may be used nearly in the sense either of dubious or of doubtful. Synonyms: jealous. A person is envious of that which is another's. acco rding to its object and tendency. suspicious. indefinite. questionable. it is equivocal when it woul d naturally be understood in one way. well-disposed. or even without re ason. an equivocal expression is. a dubious reputation. trustful. Compare CLEAR. Ambiguous is applied only to spo ken or written statements. enigmatical. doubtful. he is jealou s of intrusion upon that which is his own. An envious spirit is always bad. A statement is ambi guous when it leaves the mind of the reader or hearer to fluctuate between two m eanings. used in this sense. word) denotes that which may equall y well be understood in either of two or more ways. friendly. which would fit the language equally well. tho more rarely. perplexing. that is dubious which has b ecome the subject of doubts so grave as scarcely to fall short of condemnation. indistinct. Antonyms: . a questionable statement is one that must be proved bef ore it can be accepted. e nvious of him for. envious of his wealth or power. satisfied. a suspicious temper is inclined to susp ect the motives and intentions of others. A suspicious characte r gives manifest reason to be suspected. A free people must be jealous of their liberti es if they would retain them. possessions. Eq uivocal is sometimes. or the like. obscure . as. Equivocal (L. uncertain. Compare DOUBT. lead) signifies lacking in distinctness or certainty. a statement may be purposely made enigmatical in order to provoke thought and st udy. and vox. ambi. obscure or doubtful through indefiniteness of expression. enigmatic. indeterminate. Synonyms: ambiguous. while an amb iguous utterance may be simply the result of a want either of clear thought or o f adequate expression. One is suspicious of another from unfavorable indi cations or from a knowledge of wrong in his previous conduct. but is capable of a different interpretati on. intentionally deceptive. equivocal has other applications. Ambiguous (L. equal. or to which he maintains a right or c laim. drive. * * * * * EQUIVOCAL. with or without reason. dubious. on account of his wealth or power. That is doubtful which is fairly open to doubt. One is envious who cherishes selfish ill will toward another because of his sup erior success. equus. because of. kindly. To say that one's honesty is questionable is a mild way of saying that in the opinion of the speaker he is likely to prove dishonest. and to which he himself has no right or claim. endowments. Antonyms: contented. around. and ago. a jealous spirit may be good or bad. suspicious.

Antonyms: . while regard is more often mutual. observe) is to have a certain mental view favorable or unf avorable. regardless of personal qualit ies. or may prize it as the gift of an esteemed friend. tho ra rely. hold. as. Respect may be wholly on one side. used of persons. we regard the Sabbath. I regard him as a villain. we regard a person's feelings. worthy. he stood high in publi c estimation. This sense of esteem is now chi efly found in literary or oratorical style. obvious. respect is a more distant word than esteem. n. or to a person of such qualities. dutie s. a s hell greatly esteemed for inlaid work. the word is similarly. deem. to see its full import. proprieties. To prize is to set a high value on for something more tha n merely commercial reasons. regarder.certain. as. with a cordial and hearty friendlines s. * * * * * ESTEEM. va lue. etc. To appreciate anything is to be deeply or keenly sensible of or sensitive to its qualities or influence. Compare ESTEEM.. favor. as. the word may be used in a similar sense of material things or abstractions. to appreciate one's services in a cause. One may value some object. unquestio ned. as said of persons. excellence. Regard is more personal and less distant than esteem. and adds a special kind liness. v. regard. respect. joined with a feeling of interest in and attraction toward the per son. I esteem it an honor. as. regard ha s a distinctively favorable sense as applied to institutions. of mor al approbation. showing respect for the office. as. as a picture. especially of moral worth. look at. my es timate of the man. indubitable. without at all appreciating its artistic merit or commercial value. n.. plain. be alive to its value. but does not share the use of the noun regard as applied to persons. respect in the fullest sense is given to what is lofty. or of his abilities. v. I regard him as a friend. To regard ( F. LOVE. Esteem and estimate alike imply to set a certain mental value upon. in the highest sense. but esteem is less precise and mercantile than calculate or estimate. Regard for a person is the mental view or feeling that springs from a sense of his value. one whose friendship I esteem. We esteem a jewel pre cious. a favor. we have a regard for the per son. estimate. distinct. as. or. and is especially used of the feeling entertained by numbers of people. and in certain conventional phrases. estimation. beyond all price. one whom I highly esteem. is very high. In popular usage esteem. calculate. Estimation involves the id ea of calculation or appraisal with that of esteem or regard. * * * * * ESTEEM. as a family heirloom. consider. think. to appreciate beauty or harmony. unquestionable. clear. we ma y pay an external respect to one of lofty station. Esteem for a person is a favorable opinion on the basis of worth. or superiority. Compare ESTEEM. Synonyms: estimate. and honorable. Synonyms: appreciate. lucid. denotes a union of respect and kindly feeling and. FRIENDSHIP. indisputable. perspicuous. regard. unequivocal. evident. manifes t. or worth. unambiguous. Estimate has more of calculation. as. importance. we estimate it to be worth so much money. prize.

but not infinite duration. perpetual. and event the Latin for expressing the same original idea. as in the phrases an endless screw. Consequence or result would express more of logical conn ection. w ithout end. events of history. in which sense it applies to God alone. we speak of trifling incidents. Synonyms: case. immortal applies to that which now has life. unen ding. but implies a more direct connection with the principal matter. the event that which comes out. connection or tendency. t he everlasting hills. aversion. incidents of daily life. issue. . event is thus greater and more signal than incident. end. eternal is also used in this more limited sense. incident. so we speak of interminable quarrels. Compare CIRCUMSTANCE. like an incident or circumstance. b ut will never cease. without end. * * * * * EVENT. but en dless is constantly used in inferior senses. consequence. END. fadeless. fortune. Everlasting and endless are both use d in a limited sense of protracted. the event is what has been accomplished. possibility. * * * * * EVERY. great events. endless night. The end may be simple cessation.abhorrence. without though t of its origin. Since the future is contin gent. hatred. repugnanc e. imperishable. "incidental evidence" would be some evidence that happened unexpectedly to touch it. endless. event comes to have the meaning of a contingency. everlasting chains. loathing. unfading. that which we run against. everlasting. perhaps. never-failing. contempt. CONSEQUENCE. * * * * * ETERNAL. fact. as. immortal. episode. undying. unceasing. and eternal may be applied to that which has no life. but is of more independent in terest and importance. the end of the war is reached when a treaty of peace is signed. never-ending. the incident is that which falls in. in the event of his death. Circumstanc e agrees with incident in denoting a matter of relatively slight importance. antipathy. everlasting applies to that which may or may not have beginning. as. endless. endless. Synonyms: deathless. in its utmost reach. "circumstantial evi dence" is evidence from seemingly minor matters directly connected with a case. Everlasting. and is forever exempt f rom death. the fullest idea of eternal. and be more comprehensive. Timeless carries. and not to be measured by it. Ete rnal holds quite strictly to the vast and sacred meaning in which it is applied to the Divine Being and the future state. eonian. ete rnal death. time less. Outcome is the Saxon. the policy will at once fall due. dislike. Eternal strictly signifies without beginning or end. etymologically. unfailing. endless debates. circum stance. an endless chain. ever-living. as above and beyond time. especially in mechanics. the event of a war is victory or defeat. contingency. outcome. is not distinguishable from everlasting. result. An episode is connected with the main c ourse of events. as. occurrence. perennial. indefinite. Etymologically. sequel. interminable. chance. An occurrence is.

undiscovered. the application of the remark was obvious. unimagined. as touch is more absolute than sight. Antonyms: concealed. both unites. Either properly denotes one of two. unthought-of. That is conspicuous which stands out so as necessarily or strikingly to attract the attention. impenetrable. any. manifest. conspicuous. any.Synonyms: all. * * * * * EXAMPLE. The use of eith er in the sense of each or both. either. That is obvious which is directly in the w ay so that it can not be missed. and must extend to all. that the pictur e was a modern copy of an ancient work was evident. if the meaning is on both sides. or a microscopic object. that is evident of which the mind is made s ure by some inference that supplements the facts of perception. Synonyms: . a promise made to any may not reach all. hid den. it would be bet ter to say so. unseen. if he fires each barrel. Each is thus more individual and specific than every. requiring strain and effort in order to be seen. covert. each and every make no exception or omission. distinct. tho sustained by good authority. to the exclusion of the other. and every are distributive. His friends sat on either side of the room would naturally mean on one side or the other. a man may fire both barrels of a gun by a single mo vement. obvious. as. each and every proceed through the units to the total. overt. secret. one by one. plain. All and both are collective. Palpa ble and tangible express more emphatically the thought of manifest. both. each. Discernible applies to that which is dimly or faintly visible. Visible applies to all that can be perceived by the sense of sight. each. clear. indubitable. patent. manifest is t hus stronger than evident. open. A promise made to all omits none. unknown. tangible. transparent. That is manifest which we can lay the hand upon. if a certain sum is given to each of two persons. Each divides. palpable. both must be aware of what has been sepa rately communicated to each. a promise made to e very one is so made that no individual shall fail to be aware of it. is objectionab le because ambiguous. the marks of a s truggle were apparent in broken shrubbery and trampled ground. invisible. and the finding o f a mutilated body and a rifled purse made it evident that robbery and murder ha d been committed. obscure. Any makes n o selection and may not reach to the full limits of all. discernible. That is apparent which clearly appears to the senses or to the mind as soon as the attention is directed toward it. each individualizes. the ship was discernible through the mist. * * * * * EVIDENT. glaring. occult. Synonyms: apparent. he discharges them separately. all sweeps in the units as part o f a total. dark. a ship on the horizon. visible. whether the noonday sun. impalpable. and on comparison with the o riginal its inferiority was manifest. both (t ogether) must receive twice the amount. indefinitely. every classifies. as. a promise m ade to each is made to the individuals personally. imperceptible. unmistakable. perceptible. latent.

exemplum) example derives the seemingly contradictory meanings. enforce. since this in very many cases indi cates a lack either of judgment or of self-control. Careless expenditure in excess of income is extravaganc e. lavishness of h ospitality. deficiency. In its application to a person or thing. An example. model. ideal. redundancy . but example is most frequently used for an act . surplus. type. on the one hand of a pattern or model. precedent. intemperance. without any reference to its being copied or repeated. the word is used frequently in an unfavorable sense. superfluity. failure. redundance. one sets a good (or a bad) example. excess. Redundance or redundancy refers chiefly to literary style. extravagance. it may be the very archetype or prototype to which the whole class must conform. wastefulness. or course of action. a gener ous. Example comes nearer to the possible freedom of th e model than to the necessary exactness of the pattern. Overplus and superabundance denote in the main a satisfa ctory. prototype. carry out. do. an exemplification illustrates or explains. SAMPLE. and especially in pecunia ry demands upon others. lack. perform. exactly imitate the best example. An exemplification is an illustrative working out in action of a principle or law. poverty. intemperance. inadequacy. standard. and on the other hand of a warning--a sample or specimen of what is to be followed. and superfluity an undesirable. etc. as. need. * * * * * EXECUTE. or of what is to be shunned. Surplus is neutral. Excess is more than enough of anything. Synonyms: dissipation. superabundance. frugality. however. profusion. Compare MODEL. sample. To execute is to follow through to the end.archetype. p rodigality. As extravagance is excess in outlay. prodigality. in a g iven case. often we can not. shortcoming. as when Christ is spoken of as being an example or leaving an example for his disciples. lavishness. want. as. From its original sense of sample or specimen (L. exemplar can scarce ly be distinguished from example. exorbitance. economy. may be more than a sample or spe cimen of any class. but is practically obsolete outside of Scriptural or theological langua ge. we may have also extravagance of language. scantiness. or amiable excess. an exam ple guides. but only adapt its teachings to alt ered circumstances. lavishness and profusion. put into absolute and final effect . waste. overplus. Antonyms: dearth. insufficiency. defect. Ensample is the same as example. denoting an exc ess of words or matter. specimen. exorbitance is excess in demands. having none of the unfavorable meaning that ofte n attaches to excess. exemplar. and. a profusion of fair hair. etc. a surplus is that which remains over after all demands are met. destitution. Synonyms: administer. ensample. warning. pattern. exemplification. for which exemplar is not used. bountiful. Excess in the moral sense is expressed by dissipation. professions. * * * * * EXCESS.

We say. or merely for enjoyment. the expense of making up. to enforce a precep t or a duty. violent exercise. actual or potent ial." we speak of a joke at another's expense. to enforce is to put into effect by force. for this enforce is the more general word. or even unconsciously. to execute th e laws is the province of a sheriff. operation. a charity. rest. But b y qualifying adjectives we may bring exercise up to the full sense of exertion. MAKE. Exercise is action taken at any time with a view to employ ing. drill. Enforce signifies also t o present and urge home by intellectual and moral force. * * * * * EXERCISE. dispense . a ctivity. mete out. marshal. Antonyms: idleness. the sheriff executes a writ. The cost of a thing is whatever one surrenders or gives up for it." "I know it to my cost. use. outgo of a steady drain or of incidental expenses. to administer is to conduct as one holding a trust. See PRICE. and blows. or increasing power. exertion. but the practise of it is better. practise. the practise of law or medicine. constable. action. an d commonly enforced practise under a teacher or commander. Compare DO. Synonyms: act. inaction. are said to be administered: a usage thoroughly est ablished and reputable in spite of pedantic objections. as for the purchase of supplies. KILL. to execute the law is to p ut it in force. etc. a person takes a walk for exercise. inactivity. There is a tendency to use cost of what we pay for a possession.in action. execute the more spec ific. practise is syst ematic exercise with a view to the acquirement of facility and skill in some pur suit. performance. * * * * * EXPENSE. expense of what we pay for a service. employment.. medicine. we speak of the cost of goods. as. etc. a profession of relig ion is good.. maintaining. "he won his fame at the cost of his life. or other executive offi cer. intentionall y or unintentionally. Compare HABIT. application. outgo. as a minister and not an originator. Practise is also used of putting into action and effect what one has learned or holds as a theory. Outlay is used of some definite expendi ture. Exercise. Drill is systematic. outlay. Synonyms: cost. rigorous. as. occupation. is the easy natural action of any power. at another's cost woul d seem to make it a more serious matter. expenditure. administer passes by a natural transition to signify inflict. Antonyms: . An exercise-drive for a horse is so much as will develop strength and health and not appreciably weary. exert ion is the putting of any power to strain and tax. or takes time for practise on the pian o. to administer the law is to declare or apply it. as. the trustee administers an esta te. in the ordinary sense. From signifying to superintend officially some application or infliction. expense is what is laid out by calc ulation or intention. relaxation. To administer the laws is the province of a court of justice.

indeterminate. impromptu. wipe out. remove. banish. the extempora neous speech may chance to be prosy. profits. and vigorous. proceeds. Synonym: express. and is now chiefly a pplied to addresses of which the thought has been prepared. ready utterance as is generally designated by impromptu. out. Offhand is still more emphatic as to the re adiness and freedom of the utterance. prepared. studied. denoting absolute want of preparation. doubtful. * * * * * EXTEMPORANEOUS. Extemporaneous. income. extempore. root out. and is now almost exclusively used for removal by death. Eradicate (L. Compare CLEAR.gain. denoting something that springs from the instant. expel. the word is applied to races of men o r animals. and terminus. direct. indefinite. a boundary) signified primarily to drive beyond the bounds or limits of a country. eradicate. receipt. offhand. that which is express is uttered or stated so decidedly that it may not be forgotten nor overlooked. Synonyms: annihilate. implicit. profit. Both explicit and express are opposed to what is merely implicit or implied. so that it may not be obscure. e. read. receipts. uproot. and radix. An explicit statement is too clear to be misunders tood. overthrow. Antonyms: elaborated. premeditated. an express command is too emphatic to be disregarded. originally signifying of or from the time or occasion. unpremeditated. root) is primarily applied to numbers or groups of plants which it is desired to remov . impro mptu keeps its original sense. Unpremeditated is graver and more formal. * * * * * EXPLICIT. individuals are now said to be banished or expelled. dest roy. Exterminate (L. * * * * * EXTERMINATE. but is rather too heavy a word to be appl ied to such apt. return. written. improvised. and only the languag e and incidental treatment left to the suggestion of the moment. doubtful. ex. Synonyms: extemporary. recited. uncertain. Th at which is explicit is unfolded. or am biguous. extirpate. so that an exte mporaneous speech is understood to be any one that is not read or recited. implied. out. has come to mean done or made with but little (if any) preparation. v ague. the impromptu utterance is generally brief. product. re turns. Antonyms: ambiguous.

Written ch aracters may be faint or dim. hearty. but not of giving belief. increase. confidence. faded. fatigued. strong. but is not said to b e eradicated. assurance. we speak of eradicating a disease. we seek to eradicate or extirpate all vices and evils. we speak of giv ing credence to a report. stock) is not only to destroy the individuals of any race of plants or animals. so that the race can never be res tored. out. creed. o r because they have become faded by time and exposure. o r lacking in purpose. Antonyms: augment. Goods are sold on credit. worn. languid. energet ic. weak. trust. reliance. replenish. or because half-hearted in the cause. we labor to eradicate or root out noxious weeds. a single tree may be uprooted. conviction. settle. propagate. but the very stock. and seems to imply somewhat more of volition. fresh. * * * * * FAINT. colonize. indistinct. timid. wearied. or lacking definit eness or distinctness of color or sound. Antonyms: bright. of extirpating a cancer. exhausted. doctrine. assent to a proposition or to a proposal. be lief. or energy. listless. daring. develop. exterminating wild beasts or hostile tribes. faint-hearted. fost er. stem. We give credence to a re port. Belief is stronger than credence . as said of written characters. Prepositions: Faint with hunger. ha lf-hearted. Conviction is a belief established by argu . conspicuous. brilliant. To extirpate (L. Synonyms: dim. Faint. cherish. breed. ill-defined. and stirps. through want of mental energy and purpose. credence is a more formal word than belief. as said of persons. either because originally written with poor ink. worn out. a listless worker. signifying overcome with physical weakness or exhaustion. worn down.e effectually from the soil. ex. irresolute. A person may be faint when physically wearied. credit. faltering. he may be a faltering supporter because n aturally irresolute or because faint-hearted and timid in view of perils that th reaten. vigorous. we give one credit for good intentions. resolute. he may be a faint adherent because naturally feeble or purposeless. is the acceptance of some thing as true on other grounds than personal observation and experience. faint in color. covers a wi de range of meaning. purposeless. * * * * * FAITH. Compare ABOLISH. clear. populate. or when overcom e with fear. credence might be described as a prima facie belief. build up. feeble. opinion. voices. sturdy. as an intellectual process. with the general sense of lacking strength or effectiveness. Synonyms: assent. Belief. credence. courage. or musical notes. beget. plant.

skepticism. notoriety. Reliance is confidence on which we act or are ready to act unquestioningl y. false.ment or evidence. A person is faithful who will keep faith. loyal. assurance is belief beyond the reach of argument. misgiving. to duty. unfaithful. F aith is chiefly personal. Fame is the widely disseminated report of a person's character. trustworthy. friendship. stanch. faith in a promise. We may speak of a faithful but feeble f riend. sure. faithful among the faith less. invol ving the heart as well as the intellect. firm. untrue. distinction. the Chri stian's assurance of salvation. credit. a creed is a summary statement of doctrines. Faith is a union of belief and trust. whether with or without power to aid or serve. deeds. B ut belief in a person is often used with no appreciable difference from faith. or abili . glory. Prepositions: Have faith in God. we have trust in God. a trusty sword. Synonyms: devoted. a persuasion is a more confident opinion. true. a trusty steed. tho without full certainty. as any other truth might be believed. to comrade or commander. Prepositions: Faithful in service. Synonyms: celebrity. honor. distrust. laurels. * * * * * FAITHFUL. Confidence is a firm dependence upon a statement as true. or pro mises of a person. An opinion is a general conclusion held as proba ble. suspicion. belief may be quite impersonal. Antonyms: denial. doubt. infidelity. or saving faith. kindness. incredulity. we say a trusty agent. waveri ng. a doctrine is a statement of belief regarding a single point. the faith of the gospel. Trust is a practical a nd tranquil resting of the mind upon the integrity. disbelief. untrustworthy. dissent. or upon a person as w orthy. repute. and belief of the heart. fickle. I n religion it is common to distinguish between intellectual belief of religious truth. eminence. faithless. u nwavering. In religion. we have a calm reliance upon the uniformity of nature. a person or thing is trusty that possesses such qualities as to justif y the fullest confidence and dependence. Antonyms: capricious. reputation. reno wn. rejection. because the promise emanates from a person. unbelief. as. we speak of belief of a proposition. incorruptible. trusty. * * * * * FAME.

Bigotry. Notoriety is evil repute or a dishonorable counterfeit of fame. fa naticism is fierce. grotesque. but not of evil honor. and superstition are perversions of the religious sentiment. which is unwillingness to tolerate beliefs or opinions contrary to on e's own. contumely. credulity is weak. superstition has not the knowledge and mental discipline. Bigotry has not the capacity to reason fairly. bigotry is obstinate and unrea soning attachment to a cause or creed. fanaticism. infamy. renown. we can speak of an evil fame. Fanaticism is extravagant or even frenzied zeal. station. intolerance ha s not the disposition. Eminence and distinction may result from ran k. Antonyms: . intolerance is severe. Compare synonyms for DREAM. or character. Antonyms: contempt. glory has a more exalted and often a sacred sense. dishonor. Glory and honor are of good import. or world-wide fame. shame. Credulity is not distinctively religious. * * * * * FANCIFUL. free-thinking. imaginative. a fantastic arr angement is striking. Antonyms: cynicism.ties. A fanciful theory or suggestion may be clearly recognized as such. superstition is ignorant and irrational religious belief. the fantastic extravagantly. but it is always given as someth ing good and worthy. a visionary scheme is erroneously supposed to have a basis in fact. the patriot's renown. we speak of local celeb rity. fanaticism and bigotry usually include in tolerance. intolerance. but is a general readiness to believe without suffi cient evidence. * * * * * FANATICISM. as such applause worthily won. superstition. ignominy. and may be either good or bad. IMAGINATION . Bigotry is narrow. with a proneness to accept the marvellous. Synonyms: chimerical. oblivion. That is fanciful which is dictated or suggested by fancy independently of more serious considerations. a grotesque arrangement is laughable. latitudinarianism. Fame in its best sense may be defined as the applause of numbers. superstition is ignorant. indifference. we speak of the conqueror's f ame. A fanciful arrangement of objects is commonly pleasing. The fanciful swings away from the real or the o rdinary lightly and pleasantly. disrepute. credulity. discredit. and is oftenest used in the favorable sense. fantastic. disgr ace. fanaticism has not the pa tience. credulity and intolerance often accompany skepticism or atheism. IDEA. Synonyms: bigotry. Celebrity is limited in range. the grotesque ridic ulously. obscurity. Reputation and repute are mor e limited than fame. honor may be give n for qualities or acts that should not win it. visionary. humiliation. the fantastic is the fanciful with the added elements of whimsicalness and extravagance.

) An intellectual fancy or conceit may be pleasing or amusing. * * * * * FANCY.accurate. predilection. liking. parting salutation. is commonly contemptuous or supercilious. some answering reality. calculable. good-by. truth. vagary. mood. Adieu. associated. Good-by is the homely and hearty. or (without preposition) I bade my comrades far ewell. while a conception always has. IMAGINATION. reasonable. Antonyms: actuality. desire. solid. sure. farewell the formal English word at parting. a conceit has less of the picturesque and more of the theoretic than a fancy. congé. humor. prosaic. literal. In a broader sense. a conceit is somewhat aside from the common laws of reasoning. as a fancy is lighter and more airy than the common mode of though t. real. or combined. * * * * * FAREWELL. sound. fact. also from the French. A valedictory is a public farewell to a company or assembly. supposi tion. certainty. verity. imagination. conceit. congé. Synonyms: adieu. I took a sad farewell of my friends. or is believed to have. idea. * * * * * FEAR. An emotional or personal f ancy is a capricious liking formed with slight reason and no exercise of judgmen t. Synonyms: . inclination. true. An intellectual fancy is a mental image or picture founded upon slight or whims ical association or resemblance. sens ible. calculated. A conceit or fancy may be wholly unfounded. Compare synonyms for DREAM. reality. valediction . image. (Compare REASON. we speak of a mere fancy. and liable to fade as lightly as it was formed. whim. from the French. and equivalent to dismissa l. caprice. ordinary. leave-taking. is still more ceremonious than farewell. the fancy signifies the faculty by which fancies or mental images are formed. Valediction is a learned word never in popular use. but is never worth serious discussi on. regular. valedictory. IDEA. commonplace. Synonyms: belief. Prepositions: To have a fancy for or take a fancy to a person or thing. a droll or odd conceit. Prepositions: I bade farewell to my comrades. conception.

and terror are always sudden. Fear is the generic term denoting an emotion excited by threatening evil with a desire to avoid or escape it. fear of the intellect and the imagination. dismay. fright and terror render one incapable of defense. or may nerve one to desperate defense. fear may be sudden or lingering." Where horror includes fear. or any other substance that can bind. irons. I n a like sense we speak of a financial panic. Manacles and handcuffs are for the hands. womanly. female. bodily and mental. trepidation. to scream. and only of men as possessing woman ly traits such as are inconsistent with true manliness. chains.affright. apprehension. vast armies or crowded audiences are liable to panic upon slight occasion. Synonyms: effeminate. * * * * * FETTER. a horse is subject to fright or terror. and in actual presen ce of that which is terrible. fri ght may cause one to fly. or to swoon. tremor. Womanish denotes the undesirable. timidity. fright. chains are of linked metal. leather. we say of a desperate but fettered criminal. imprisonment. Horror (etymologically a shivering or shuddering) denotes a shuddering fear accompanied with abhorrence or such a shock to the feelings and sensibilities as may exist without fear. womanish. The w ord effeminate is always used reproachfully. Synonyms: bondage. Womanly tea rs would suggest respect and sympathy. Fear may overwhelm. Compare ALARM. custody. dread. Dismay is more reflective. of imminent. fright. tremb ling. bonds. durance. especially the finer phy sical or mental qualities that distinguish the female sex in the human family. terror paralyzes. horror. Antonyms: See synonyms for MASCULINE. in view of prese nt. o r to the objects appropriate for or especially employed by them. We apply female to the sex. and despairing than fright. in the latter sense dre ad is oftener used. fright and terror overwhelm the will. awe. Dismay is a helpless sinking of he art in view of some overwhelming peril or sorrow. womanly the admirable or lovely qualities of woman. disquietude. Bonds may be of cord. shackles. fetters are primaril . "I looked upon him with horror. du ress. Awe is a reverential fear. fear may be controll ed by force of will. ( See ABHOR.) Affright. terror. or of distant and only possible danger. panic. but n ot to dismay. terror of all the faculti es. end uring. feminine to the qualities. handcuffs. A female voice is the voice of a woman. manacles. * * * * * FEMININE. affecting numbers at on ce. Panic is a sudden fear or fright. Antonyms: See synonyms for FORTITUDE. it is fear mingled with abhorrence. misgiving. consternation. Fright is largely a matter of the nerves. womanish tears a touch of contempt. gyves. a feminine voice may belong to a man. as when one suddenly encounters some gh astly spectacle.

Synonyms: affray. n ovel. An affray or broil may arise at a street co rner. the brawl or broil may be confi ned to violent language. romance. the lesson of the fiction. and the other words are mostly restricted to the lit erary style. or both. and cov ers the various senses of all the words in the group. "That statement is a figment of his imagination. clasp. we say. Controversy is commonly in words. the prisoner was put in irons. Dissension is used of a number of persons. fetters. contention a nd strife very rarely so. is inwrought. Gyves is now wholly poetic. While all the other words of the group may refer to that which is transient . A fiction is stu died. The moral of the fable is expre ssed formally. controversy. and chains are used in a general way for almost any form of restraint. or bracelet-like fastening for encircling and re straining a limb: commonly one of a pair. A feud is enmity between families. A sha ckle is a metallic ring. but is now know n to be false. used either for hands or feet." The story may be either true or false. but is really stronger. handcuffs is the specific and irons the general term in popular usa ge. never of nati ons. contention. Fiction is now chiefly used of a prose work in narrative form in which the char acters are partly or wholly imaginary. animosity. contest. strife. e nmity. chains. fray. contention and strife may be in word or deed. a romance portrays what is picturesque o r striking. dissension. as. if any. quarrel. * * * * * FICTION. but can not be histo rically verified. Affray. Synonyms: allegory. Bonds. legend. Bonds. a feud is long-enduring. of a party or other organization. * * * * * FEUD. enm ity and hostility involve will and purpose to oppose or injure. Apologue. and which is designed to portray human li fe. invention. A figment is something imaginary which t he one who utters it may or may not believe to be true. as we speak of child ish quarrels. brawl. novel is a general name for any contin uous fictitious narrative. apologue. feud is rarely used of individuals. as a mere fiction may not do. it is a less odious word th an falsehood. A quarrel is in word or act. myth. story. and is commonly slight and transient. a word simply tr . A fabrication is designed to deceive. strife extends from verbal controversy to the contests of armies. Bitterness is in feeling only. brawl. like qua rrel. especially a love-story. as a falsehood may be a sudden unpremedita ted statement. the affray always involves physical force. hostility. a myth has been received as true at some time. and shackles are frequentl y used in the metaphorical sense. with acts of hostility mu tually retaliated and avenged. while a fabrication is a series of statements carefully studied a nd fitted together in order to deceive. Contest is often used in a good sense. except that novel characterizes a work in whic h the emotional element is especially prominent. the fabricat ion may mingle the true with the false. and often hereditary. fable. dispute. A legend may be true. gyves may be for either. fabrication. bitterness. a myth grows up without intent. fiction and novel are used w ith little difference of meaning. the falsehood is all false. are words of inferior dignity. and broil. broil. contest ordinarily i nvolves some form of action. with or without a practical lesson.y chains or jointed iron fastenings for the feet. figment. falsehood. clans. or parties.

wild delig ht. Pecuniary refers to that in which money is involved. we speak of a ferocious animal. Synonyms: ferocious. patient. pure. savage. or to private transactions of considera ble moment. or expenditures. refined. impetuous. receipts. fiery. tender. peaceful. polished. raging. Compare ALLEGORY. Ferocious refers to a state or disposition. that which is fierce flashes or blazes. sweet. clea r. clarified. as. * * * * * FINANCIAL. docile. subtile. a financial enterprise. It is common to speak of the fi scal rather than the financial year. more commonly the latter. harmless. the word may imply no anger or harshness. It applies to that which is now intensely e xcited. history. tame. intensely cruel. but less directly. it is more distinctly bloodthirsty than the other words. Fierce signifies having a furious and cruel nature.ansferred from Greek into English. That which is wild is simply unrestrained. or liable to intense and sudden excitement. w ith no special reference to the handling of cash. Ferocious always de notes a tendency to violence. coin. or only the sudden anger of the moment. wild alarm. a fierce countenance may express habitual fierceness. k . * * * * * FIERCE. and not at all ferocious. currency. Antonyms: certainty. mild. smooth. Monetary relates to actual money. uncultivated. Financial applies especially t o governmental revenues or expenditures. is the same as fable. a monetary transaction i s one in which money is transferred. the monetary system. a fierce passion. Antonyms: affectionate. A fiery spirit with a good disposition is quickly excitable in a good cause. dainty. Synonyms: beautiful. a person may be deeply. but may not be fi erce or ferocious. or being in a furious and c ruel mood. a fero cious countenance expresses habitual ferocity. reality. truth. small. Synonyms: fiscal. fact. splendid. excellent. un trained. gentle. we speak of one's pecuniary affairs or interests. * * * * * FINE. These words all relate to money. furious. gauzy. as. Savage signifies untrained. pecuniary. handsome. sensitive. we give a ne edy person pecuniary (not financial) assistance. kind. violent. wild. exquisite. comminuted. submissive. verity. we speak of a pecuniary reward. uncultivated. literalness. monetary. that which is ferocious steadily burns.

coarse. causing words quite re mote from each other to be alike synonyms of fine. burning. as. horses. fine trees. as in a blastfurnace. elegant. delicate. That which is finished is apt to be polished. clumsy. exquisite. Group is the general word for any gathering of a small number of objects. or . a fine woman. sharp. slight. hatch. nice. Flock is applied to birds and to some of the smaller animals. tenuous. Synonyms: blaze. pure. or on the surface of the sun. fine wire. Fire is always attended with light. f ine gold. a fine house. as we ll as heat. min utely exact in outline. immense. swarm. as. fine perceptions. slender. blaze. herd. and extend ing from slow processes. as. fine manners. evolving heat. rude. thin. drove. if a thing that admits of the removal of impurities. Compare LIGHT. That which is truly finished. flame. as. as. but rarely of me n. a fine morning. a litter of puppies. if a thing th at admits of beauty. as. a covey of partridges. minute. is excellent of its kind. and hence fine signifies clarified. blunt.een. covey. and as a thin ed ge is keen. brood. Bevy is used of birds. huge. heavy. subtle. we speak of a bevy of quail. comminuted. and beautiful. designate the mingled light and heat of a fire. From this root-sense many derived meanings branch out. animals. a fine touch. The individuals in a brood or litte r are related to each other. pack. group. combustion being the continuous chemical co mbination of a substance with some element. large. a fine lace. hence fine comes to be a synonym for all words like dain ty. such as those by which the heat of the human body is ma intained. etc. brought to an ideal end. a f lock of blackbirds. clear. refined. or a flock of sheep. a fine point . end) denotes that which has been brought to a full end. Antonyms: big. th ick. great. or for filmy. stout. Compare BEAUTIFUL. fine sand. buffaloes. A conflagration is an exten sive fire. smooth to the touch. minute. finis. t hin. Synonyms: bevy. litter of certain quadrupeds which bring forth many young at a birth. Fine (L. a fine edge. combustion. set. tenuous. conflagration. herd is confine d to the larger animals. fire the popular term.. sharp. wheth er of persons. brood i s sometimes applied to a family of young children. Brood is used chiefly of fowls and birds. lot. finishe d. slight. * * * * * FLOCK. Combustion is the scientific. As th at which is delicate is apt to be small. litter. * * * * * FIRE. flame. to the processes producing the most intense light also. MINUTE. fine becomes also a synonym for these words. by an easy extension of meaning fine be comes a synonym for slender. those in the other groups may not be. delicate. we speak of a brood of chickens. and fi guratively of any bright and lively group of women or children. as oxygen. a herd of cattle. it is not finished till th ese are removed. Combustion is the essential fact which is at the basis of that assemblage of vi sible phenomenon which we call fire. or inanimate things. a fine thread.

Synonyms: gas. he may w aver between decision and indecision. th o capable of being reduced to a liquid form by special means. waves fluctuate or undulate. but they are not liquids under ordinary circumstances. * * * * * FOLLOW. A pendulum oscillates. Persons he sitate. there is some orderly connec . but t aking always the form of the containing vessel. a pack of hounds. the chase is closer and hotter t han the pursuit. a liquid is a body in that state in which the particles move freely among themselves. if it ensues. stick. Synonyms: hesitate. * * * * * FLUID. fluctus. but not all fluids are liquids. the wind veers when it suddenly chang es its direction. as by cold and pre ssure. As regards mental states. chase. observe.elephants. practise. heed. attend. imitate. a wave) is to move like a wave with alternate rise an d fall. stay. All liquids are fluids. come after. swerve. a pack of wolves. one vacillates between contrasted decisions or actions. liquid. obey. either in space or in time. a nd now another. he who hesitates sticks (L. is said to follow it. fluctuates. res ult. vacillate. copy. a tool or weapon swerves from the mark or line. A fluid is a substance that. waver. Synonyms: accompany. undulate. feelings fluctuate or vary. Anything that comes after or goes after another. * * * * * FLUCTUATE. Water at the ordinary temperature is at once a fluid and a liquid. he chases or pursues with intent to overtake and attack. persist. air and all the gases are fluids. hold fast. he w ho wavers does not stick to a decision. or wavers returns upon its way. Compare SHAKE. adhere. A servant follows or attends his master. but remain in one mass. go after. a swarm of bees. hærere) on the verge of decision. undulates. a frightened steed swerves from his course. oscillate. he who vacillates decides now one way. a liquid is an inelastic fluid. a victorious genera l may follow the retiring enemy merely to watch and hold him in check. like air or water. the temperature varies. a light or a flame w avers. To fluctuate (L. or between action and inaction. ensue. A collection of animals driven or gathered for driving is called a drove. keeping the same volume. veer. yields to any force that tends to change its form. stand fast. pursue. Antonyms: abide. a gas is an elastic fluid that tends to expand to the utmost limits of the conta ining space. waver. vacillate.) One event may follow another eithe r with or without special connection. succeed. (Compare synonyms for HUNT. that whi ch oscillates. vary. That which veers may steadily hold the new direction.

the ensuing year. viands.. a formidable man may not be dangerous if not attacked. nutrition. homely word for whate ver may be eaten. etc. sustenance. primarily as obtained by a military force in scouring the country. or the like. redoubted. a for midable array of troops. cold victuals. and needs watchi ng. Nourishment and sust enance apply to whatever can be introduced into the system as a means of sustain ing life. we speak of liquid food. in the popular sense. Feed. f odder denoting hay. nourishment. the incoming succeeds the out going official. harmless. if it results from another. whether grain or hay. sumptu ous fare. pabulum. of wholesome. etc. we speak of food and drink. fare. cornstalks. wretched fare. especially an enemy's country. fodder. with reference to preservation of health. nutriment. tremendous. good or bad. weak. a charge of cavalry is terrible. Nutriment and nutr ition have more of scientific reference to the vitalizing principles of various foods. imitates hi s speech and manners. feed. when taken into the diges tive organs. * * * * * FOOD. we speak of choice viands. the full shock of great armies is tremendous. formidab le is less overwhelming than tremendous. but in a more scientific sense whatever. Formidable is a word of more dignity th an dangerous. a park of ar tillery is formidable. or of evidence. th e word is extended to plants to signify whatever taken in any way into the organ ism serves similar purposes. fodder. Antonyms: contemptible. or inference. whatever one eats in contradistinction to what o ne drinks. Forage denotes any kind of f ood suitable for horses and cattle. Fare is a general word for all table supplies. but more commonly grain. and the silent pressure in the oc ean depths. A dangerous man is likely to do mischief. and su stenance. Regimen consi ders food as taken by strict rule. thus." prove nder is dry feed. A loaded gun is dangerous. feeble. consequence. * * * * * FORMIDABLE. but applies more widely to the whole ordering of life. the force of ocean waves in a storm. as. diet. Synonyms: dangerous. powerless. there is some relation o f effect. straw. helpless. an enraged maniac is terrible. A clerk observes his employer's directions. sometimes called "long feed. as. unwholesome. The compositor follows copy. nourishment. That which is formidable is worthy of fear if encountered or opposed. follows or copies his example. plant food. Diet refers to the quantity and quality of food habitually taken. he is taking nourishment. in this wider sense food is closely synonymous with nutriment. terrible. are tremendous. . thus.tion. prove nder. regimen. feed denoting anything consumed. we say of a convalescent. or indig estible food. serves to build up structure or supply waste may be termed food. victuals. wheat is said to contain a great amount of nutriment. Synonyms: aliment. Victuals is a plain. as. forage. Thus. despicable. Food is. and suggests more calm and collected power than terrible. A child obeys his parent's commands. and provender are used only of the food o f the lower animals.

endurance is partly physical. Compare BRAVE. strong) is the strength or firmness of mind or soul to en dure pain or adversity patiently and determinedly. Fortification is the general word for any artificial defensive work. lucky. Fortitude has been defined as "passive courage. a fortress is regarded as per manent. or to which the defenders may retire if the outer works are captured. endurance. fortitude to stand still under an enemy's fire. he is kn own as a successful man if he has achieved or gained worthy objects of endeavor. we speak of the fortifications of a city. as we speak of the fortunate. Synonyms: favored. Synonyms: courage. successful. as when we speak of a luck y hit. A citadel is a fortification within a city. stronghold. the medieval castle was the fortified residence of a king or baron . a fort or fortification may be te mporary. prospered.Prepositions: Formidable by or in numbers. he is fortunate or lucky if advantages have come to him without or beyond his d irect planning or achieving. fortis. it requires resolution to resist temptation. Resolution is of the mind. Fort is the common military term for a detached fortified building or enclosur e of moderate size occupied or designed to be occupied by troops. * * * * * FORTIFICATION. it tak es courage to charge a battery. fortress. citadel. and is ordinarily an independent work. heroism. or against which one has no adequate defense. fortunate is more naturally applied to the graver matters ." which is a good definition. within which a garrison may be placed t o overawe the citizens. A man is successful in any case if he achieves or gains what he seeks. fort. but steadily to confront dangers that c an not be actively opposed. fortunate the more elegant word. resolution. PATIEN CE. rather than the lucky. happy. is a fastness or stronghold. endurance to resist hunger and cold. Synonyms: castle. a lucky guess. or the for tified inner part of a city or fortress. * * * * * FORTITUDE. issue of a great battle. Fortitude (L. but not complete. fastness. formidable to the enemy. Lucky is the more common and colloquial. a fortification may be but part of a defensive system. * * * * * FORTUNATE. a fortress is a fortification of especial size and strength. The fortificat ions of a modern city usually consist of a chain of forts." it is that quality which is able not merely to endure pain or trial. Any defensible place. or of one as "born under a lucky star. lucky more strongly emphasizes the element of chance." Favored is used in . Fortitude migh t be termed "still courage. in strength. whether made so by nature or by art." or "enduring courage. prosperous.

crushed. and may be practised by a street beggar or by the pretender to a throne. * * * * * FRIENDLY. duplicity. genial. imposture. treachery. but of a petty sort. etc. deception. or position to which one is not entitled. but the term dishonesty i s generally applied in business. Synonyms: accessible. woful. Treason is a specific form of treachery of a subject to the go vernment to which he owes allegiance. sw indling. An imposture is designed to obtain money. to deceitful practises which ar e not directly criminal. In its application to persons. prospered rather denotes the action of a superintending Providence. Co mpare ARTIFICE. uprightness. kind. who might. as said of acts. good faith. imposition. government. an imposi tion. cordial. brotherly. unhappy. * * * * * FRAUD. a swindle is more serious than a cheat. hold themselves at a distance from others. deceit. A deceit or deception may be designed me rely to gain some end of one's own. One is said to be happy or prosperous whether his prosperity be the result of fortune or of achie vement. loving. A fraud is an act of deliberate deception with the design of securing something by taking unfair advantage of another. or war. signifies possessed of the means of happiness. cheating and swindling are for the mos t part out of the reach of legal proceedings. amicable. accessible is used of public and eminent persons. Synonyms: artifice. unfortunate. fallen. treason. truth. in t his connection. and to be in friendly rela tions often signifies little more than not to be hostile. honesty. to take some small advantage of another. Companionable and sociable refer t o manner and behavior. tender . if dispose d. Treachery is chiefly used of disho nesty in matters of friendship. trick. affable. social. ill-starred. wretched. Fraud is commonly actionable at law. The adjective friend ly does not reach the full significance of the nouns "friend" and "friendship. as said of persons." one may be friendly to those who are not his friends. affectionate. or simply to make another ridicul ous.. cheat. treachery may be more harmful than fraud. cordial and genial express genuine kindliness of heart. implying that one is the object of divine favor. complaisant. integrity. hearty. well-disposed. it signifies befitting or worthy of a friend. so ciable. but deceit may not reach the gra vity of fraud. swindle. fond. kindly. signifies having the disposition of a friend. dishonesty. social relations. a cheat is of the nature of fraud. and is not ordinarily open to legal redress. and is definable and punishable at law. cheating. Friendly. credit. with no intent of harming another. Fraud includes deceit. W . but is not so gross. DECEPTION.a religious sense. companionable. politics. neighborly. miserable. Antonyms: fairness. Antonyms: broken. Happy. All action that is not honest is dishonesty. favorable. involving larger values and more flagrant dishone sty. u nlucky.

not of his friendship for God. The Saxon friendly is stronger than the Latin amicable. warlike. with care of each other's right. unfriendly. love often rises to intens est passion. but while there is hostility or coldness on one side there can not be friendship between the two. an affection ate son. Antonyms: See synonyms for BATTLE. quiet. Fond is commonly applied t o an affection that becomes. * * * * * FRIGHTEN. founded upon mutual respect an d esteem. Friendliness is a quality of friendly feeling . it is easier to give reasons for friendship than for love. Friendship is a deep. cow. favor. browbeat. ill-disposed. alienated. friendship is a growth. estra nged. consideration. (There is more latitude in the use of the con crete noun friend. or at least appears. daunt. bellicose. devot ed. belligerent. enduring affection.e speak of a cordial greeting. . devotion. "the tender mercy of our God. alarm. a friendly regard. t he comity of nations. cold. terrif y. not necessarily implying special friendliness. comity. appal. the amicable may be merely formal. or amity between neighboring countries. one may have friendly feelings toward an enemy. antagonistic. Compare FR IENDSHIP. love. love more fervent. or the friendship between t hem. regard. inimical. good will. 78. frigid. a favorable reception. a kind interest. Synonyms: affright. Co mity is mutual kindly courtesy. Synonyms: affection. a neighborly call. Antonyms: adverse. the friendly is from the heart. as. esteem.") Compare ACQUAINTANCE. amity. * * * * * FRIENDSHIP. a devoted friend. unrequited love. intimidate. bu t never unreciprocated or unrequited friendship. indifferent. an amicable settlement. Friendship implies s ome degree of equality. friendliness. Abraham was called "the friend of God. and amity a fri endly feeling and relation. LOVE. while love does not. and tender are almost always used in a high and good sense. distant. as. HATRED. FEUD. excessive. Affectionate. Prepositions: The friendship of one person for or toward another." Luke i. we can not speak of the passion of friendship. there may be unreciprocated affection or attachment. a heart y welcome. a socia ble visitor. unkind. Affection may be p urely natural. contentious. we can speak of man's love toward G od. scare. Friendship is more intellectual and less emotional than love. dismay. Friendship is always mutual. hostile. disaffected. without the deep and settled attachment implied in the state of friendship." Christ was called "th e friend of sinners. attach ment. or even unrecognized and unappreciated devotion. friendship is more calm and quiet. ENMITY.

riches. scrimping. and unintelligible. either may be lively and for a time entertaining. the means of intimidation may act through the senses. thrift at once e arns and saves. whethe r articulate words or such as resemble them. A savage beast is intimidated by the keeper's whip. extravagance. (See PRUDENCE. for the mere sake of hoarding money. with or without an abundance of words. luxury . a talkative or loqua . providence plans. with a view to wholesome and profitable expenditure at a fitting time.) Thrift seeks not merely to save. or sparing of supplies or provision. parsimony. instead of as a means to an end. * * * * * FRUGALITY. To browb eat or cow is to bring into a state of submissive fear. Chattering signifies utt ering rapid. * * * * * GARRULOUS. bounty. Synonyms: chattering. opulence. waste. saving. and sacrifice the present to the future. sparing. Co mpare ALARM. Verbose is applied to utterances m ore formal than conversation. to daunt is to give paus e or check to a violent. threatening. or may appeal only to the intellect or the sensibilities. The talkative person has a strong disposit ion to talk. frugality saves. See ABSTINENCE. unnerving fear. the quiet leveling of a highwayma n's pistol intimidates. verbose. becomes the vice of parsi mony.One is frightened by a cause of fear addressed directly and suddenly to the sen ses. Antonyms: abundance. Synonyms: economy. a talkative child. Th e sudden rush of an armed madman may frighten. and self-absorbed. as to writings or public addresses. sounds. or even a brave spirit. he is intimidated by an apprehension of contingent consequences dependent o n some act of his own to be done or forborne. noisy. or scarcely intelligible. fr ugality is a withholding of expenditure. saving as much as m ay be necessary for that end. Frugality exalted into a virtue to be practi sed for its own sake. We speak of a chattering monkey or a chattering idiot. a mother may be intimidated through fear for her child. wealth. miserliness. talkative. the loquaciou s person has an abundant flow of language and much to say on any subject suggest ed. chattering is often used of vocal s ounds that may be intelligible by themselves but are ill understood owing to con fusion of many voices or other cause. b ut to earn. Garrulous signifies given to constant trivial talking. To scare is to cau se sudden. petty. Prudence and provide nce look far ahead. repetitious. liberality. parsimony is excessive and unreason able saving for the sake of saving. or many ideas. Empl oyers may intimidate their employees from voting contrary to their will by threa t of discharge. prudence. Economy is a wise and careful administration of the means at one's disposal. to terrify is to awaken fear that is overwhelming. loquacious. to a noticeable and often to a painful degree. providence. affluence. the garrulous person is te dious. thrift . Economy manages. Miserliness is the denying oneself and others the ordinary comforts or eve n necessaries of life. parsimoniousness.

general truth. liberal.cious woman. as. while there are but two sexes. a universal law. common also signifies pertaining to or participated in by two or mo re persons or things. unusual. but not necessarily to all. USUAL. A common remark is one we often hear. a general experience is one th at comes to the majority of people. It is dangerous for a debater to affirm a universal propo sition. everyday. speechless. Synonyms: common. and those that maintain it are often quite arbitrary in its application. the male or female sex. open-han . Antonyms: exceptional. rare. taciturn. while a general state ment is not invalidated even by adducing many exceptions. general applies to all with possible or comparatively slight exceptions. a general rule. Sex is a distinction among living beings. frequent. not out of the regular course. uncommon. silent. usual. habitual. common applies to very many without deciding whether they are even a majority. common experience. * * * * * GENERAL. which are of no se x. Synonyms: bountiful. free. normal. etc. noble. magnanimous. race. reticent. We say a common opinio n. reserved. some langu ages are without the distinction of gender. Compare CIRCUMLOCUTION. popular. a universal experience is one from which no human being is exempt. public. Compare sy nonyms for NORMAL. Common signifies frequently occurring. inferior. The French language has but two genders and m akes the names of all inanimate objects either masculine or feminine. ordinary. there are in some languages. infrequent. familiar. commonplace. not excellent or distinguished. We speak of the masculine or feminine gende r.. hence. a verbose writer. universal. singular. gender is a distinction in language partially corresponding to this distincti on in nature. Synonym: sex. as in English and German. since that can be negatived by a single exception. free-handed. or even low. but very commonly signifies pertai ning to the greater number. c ustomary. not excep tional. unknown. a garrulous old man. * * * * * GENDER. chivalrous. Universal applies to all without exception. three genders. it is also the characteristic by whic h most living beings are distinguished from inanimate things. sorrow is common to the race. Antonyms: laconic. General may signify pert aining equally to all of a class. not above the average. prevalent. * * * * * GENEROUS.

illiberal. giving freely. obtain. A person is sometimes said to gain and often to acquire what has not been an object of direct endeavor. senselessness. open-hearted. invention. the swimmer gains the shore. obtuseness. penurious. genus. or desire. and in a special sense. A person gets whatever he comes to possess or experience. talent is largely the capacity to lea rn. is commonly thought of as both ample a nd hearty. liberal to the amount of the gift. a fever. Genius is higher than talent. especially above every petty or ignoble motive or fe eling pertaining to one's self. win. a c hild may show himself generous in the gift of an apple. rapacious. secure. petty. earn. a fall. he incidentally gains some knowledge of foreign countries. POWER. in th e pursuits of trade. gain. soul) that rises above all t hat is poor. whatever the motive of its besto wal. expectation. One may be free with another's money. a millionaire makes a li beral donation. great. expression. munificent. Antonyms: dulness. free and abundant in giving. covetous. Synonyms: talent. Get is a most comprehensive word. hea rtily. one acquires a foreign language. talents. a particular and uncommon aptitude for some special mental work or attainment. a race) primarily signifies having the qualities worthy of noble or honorable birth. acquire. parsimonious. generous. however. attain. Disinterested suggests rather the thought of one's own self-denial. Genius is exalted intellectual power capable of operating independently of tuit ion and training. hence. appropriate. Synonyms: achieve. mise rly. A munificent gift is vast in amount. ignoble. and animus. adapt oneself to demand. etc. stupidity. disinterested. One is magnanimous by a greatness of soul (L. he can be generous only with his own. mean. receive. * * * * * GENIUS. or weak.ded. imbecility. he gains what he comes to by effort or strivi ng. magnus. close. and marked by an extraordinary faculty for original creation. generous refers rather to the self-sacrificing heartiness of the giver. free-hearted. less amenable to training. whether with or without endeavor. he gets a bargain. Yet the genius that has won t he largest and most enduring success has been joined with tireless industry and painstaking. Compare synonyms for MIND. more spontaneous. greedy. as. mean. procure. o ne is generous by a kindness of heart that would rejoice in the welfare rather t han in the punishment of the offender. less dependent up on instruction. niggardly. and thus above resentment of injury or insult. * * * * * GET. a man acquires by continuous and ordinarily by slow process. stingy. o f one's hearty interest in another's welfare or happiness. Generous (L. acquire. . and self-sacrificingly. Talent is marked mental ability. discovery. folly. As regards giving. a generous gift. a blow. Antonyms: avaricious.

grant. A boon is a gif t that has been desired or craved or perhaps asked. in po pular language. A present is a gift o f friendship. donation. in the latter case he is said to receive it. bribe. In Scriptural language gi ft is often used for bribe. Synonyms: . gratuity. On the other hand. with a suggestion of chance or hazard. the temptation to all dishone sty is the desire to get a living or a fortune without earning it. * * * * * GIVE.he acquires by association with others a correct or incorrect accent. 4. bribe always in the evil sense to signify payment for a dishonorable service under the semblance of a gift. largess. * * * * * GIFT. perhaps of great. in such use. as. remuneration. usually to be distribute d among many. Compare synonyms for ATTAIN. but not necessarily of value beyond the immediate present. A donation is something. One obtains a thing commo nly by some direct effort of his own. present. when he gets it firmly into his possession or under h is control. Antonyms: See synonyms for ABANDON. but in legal phrase he is said to gain his suit. a donation to a pastor. A grant is commonly considerable in amount and given by public authority. or something freely given th at meets some great desire. and viewed as of enduring value. he is said to obtain it. a grant of public lands for a college. as. or cause. as an endo wment for a college. A p erson earns what he gives an equivalent of labor for. xxix. Gift is now almost alwa ys used in the good sense. but he that receiveth gifts overthroweth it. whether he has gained or ear ned it or not. given usually on some public ground. one is strictly passive. he may get what he has not earned. A gratuity is usually something of moderate value and is always given as to an inferior. never of trivial value. he secures what has se emed uncertain or elusive. what he gains is viewed as desirable. not of right. When one gets the object of his desire. a gratuity to a waiter. and as of favor. In receivi ng. he may get an estate by his own exertions or by inh eritance. tho he may not get it. Antonyms: compensation. Largess is archaic for a bountiful gratuity. MAKE. bounty. he procures it commonly by the interventio n of some one else. case. he acquire s a bronzed complexion by exposure to a tropical sun. bequest. as among the heralds at ancient tournaments. what he acquires as slowly and gradually resulting. a person is often said to win a lawsuit. A gift is in the popular. Synonyms: benefaction. Win denotes contest. wages. and given as to an equal or a superior. guerdon. as. REACH. earnings. no one's pride is hurt by accepting what is viewed as strictly a present. generally of large amount. as to a cause or to a person repres enting a cause. or to win in a suit at law." Prov. and also in the legal sense that which is voluntarily bestowed without expectation of return or compensation. boon. "The king by judgment establisheth the land. penalty. or conciliation. A benefaction is a charita ble gift. he procures a dinner or an interview.

wit h power of inflicting penalty if not obeyed. To impart is to give of that which one still. a person contro ls his temper. or claims. reig n. restrain. a parent may c ommand a child whom he can not govern or control. grant. but to shape character. sways the feelings and molds the lives of her children. supply. control is effective. a fortress commands t he region when no enemy can pass against its resistance. as. curb. To grant is to put into one's possession in some formal way. Command is. Congress grants lands to a railroad corporati on. as blows. control. as well as requiring. give a person a sum of money). as. he governs one whom h e actually does cause. * * * * * GOVERN. To bestow is to give that of w hich the receiver stands in especial need. now simply de notes that one holds the official station of sovereign in a monarchy. One controls what he holds or can hold at will absolu tely in check. submission or obedience. reign over. in its secondary sense in popular use. to be able to manage servants is an importa nt element of good housekeeping. the teacher imparts instruction. etc.. as. to a greater or less degree. to mold is not only to influence feeling and action. for a purpose. confer. as when we speak of a commanding influence. we grant a request or petition. reproof. sway. with or wi thout effective power. mold. information. a skilful horseman controls a spirited horse. retains. but when there is nothing in the context to indicate the contrary . direct. (or without proposit ion. impart. like get. and I will give you the money. and often of giving what is not agreeable to the recipient." we speak of giving answers. a buyer may say "Give me the goods. cede. but do no t confer it. as. we give a thing to or into one's care or kee ping. but govern or control their pupils largely by other means." A person comman ds another when he has. influence. a man comm ands the situation when he can shape events as he pleases. manage. deliver. a term of such general import as to be a synonym for a wide variety of words. Synonyms: command. to ma nage is to secure by skilful contrivance the doing of one's will by those whom o ne can not directly control. to sway is to move by quiet but effectual influence. this book was given me. Govern implies the exer cise of knowledge and judgment as well as power. The best teachers are not grea tly prone to command. . Gi ve thus becomes. however. communicate. To give is primarily to transfer to another's possession or ownership without c ompensation. to confer a degree or an honor. the Queen of England reigns. it is to put into another's possession by any means and on any terms whatever. rule. a wise mother. To speak of granting a favor carries a claim or concession of superiority on the part of the one by whom the grant may be made. often used in the sense of securing. give is always understood in its primary sense. Prepositions: We give money to a person for a thing. we bestow alms. regularly or constantly. we say to one who is excited. or by authoritative act. he controls another whom he can eff ectually prevent from doing anything contrary to his will. to obey his will. by gentle means. "control yourself. the weary fugitive gave himself up to his pursuers. the Czar of Russia both reig ns and rules. the right to make that other do his will. to confer has a similar sens e. furnish. medi cine.bestow. To rule is more absolute and au tocratic than to govern. The word reign. Govern carries the idea of authoritative administration or some exercise of aut hority that is at once effective and continuous. once so absolute. but may b e momentary or occasional. etc.

wo. sorrow. with a certain degree of delicacy. from a low state of health. * * * * * GRACEFUL. or delicacy of form. and may become chronic.Antonyms: be in subjection. trouble. graceful d rapery. mourning. especially of the lighter motions. but neither is graceful. Sorrow and grief are for definite cause. regret. Antonyms: See synonyms for HAPPINESS. comply.. Graceful applies to the perfection of motion. * * * * * GRIEF. etc. Antonyms: See synonyms for AWKWARD. be subject. Prepositions: Grief at a loss. which convey no suggestion of stress or strain. or posture. for a friend. Grief is more acute and less enduring than sorrow. yield. a Hercule s is massive. Synonyms: affliction. sadness. BECOMING. as. * * * * * HABIT. melancholy. Graceful commonly applies to beauty as addressed to the eye. Grief is acute mental pain resulting from loss. Affliction expresse s a deep heart-sorrow and is applied also to the misfortune producing such sorro w. sadness may be mom entary. misfortune. proportion. mourning most frequently denotes sorrow publicly expressed. graceful denotes a pleasing ha rmony of outline. tho we often speak of a graceful poem or a grac eful compliment. submit. distress. Synonym: beautiful. obey. Compare BEAUTIFUL. beautiful may apply to absolute fixity. sadness and melancholy may arise from a vague sense of want or loss. it is common to observ e thirty days of mourning on the death of an officer of state. with ease of action. and are in har monious curves. Apart from the thought of motion. melancholy is more enduring. We speak of a graceful attitude. Synonyms: . a landscape o r a blue sky is beautiful. That which is graceful is marked by elegance and harmony. an Apollo is graceful. attitude. or deep disappointm ent. or other ill-defined cause. Graceful commonly suggests motion or the possibility of motion. or the public exp ression of such sorrow as may reasonably be expected. t ribulation.

fall.custom. pleasure. spontaneous. but of the habit of going to sleep. Educationally. a person happens on or upon a fact. felicity. come to pass. or a condition so induced. Betide is especially used for anticipated evil. Synonyms: blessedness. Habit is a tendency or inclination toward an action or condition. or an action or regula r series of actions. rule. Use and usage denote the manner of using something. betide.] Prepositions: An event happens to a person. satisfaction. or. joy. fashion. befall. wo betide him! One event supervenes upon a nother event. and may be uncontrollable. usage. the habits of an indiv idual. especi ally in dress. merriment. occur. as. wont. routine. one disease upon another. comfort. Custom is chiefly used of the action of many. Habit always includes an invol untary tendency. I make it my invariable rule. it is the rule of the house. or even unconscious. Habitude is habitu al relation or association. we speak of one person's use of language. Synonyms: bechance. raptur e. practise is the voluntary and persistent attempt to make skill a habit. is not authorized by good usage: a thing that has happened is properly said t o transpire when it becomes known. a lawyer's or a physician's practise." in the sense of happe n. but of the usage of many. or none especially though t of. chance. take place. * * * * * HAPPINESS. etc. something befalls or betides a person or happen s to him. system. * * * * * HAPPEN. as. rejoicing. and to follow a regular routine of business until closing-time. it is said to chance when it appears to be the result of accident (compare synonyms for ACCIDENT). happen is intransitive. et c. a thought or fancy occurs to him. we do not speak of the practise. ["Transpire. a use or usage is al most always a habit. natural or acquired. Custom is the uniform doing of t he same act in the same circumstance for a definite reason. A rule is prescribed either by some external authority or by one' s own will. we speak of the customs of society. greatly strengthened by frequent repetitio n of the act. use. S ystem is the coordination of many acts or things into a unity. It is the custom of tradesmen to open at a uniform hour. cheer. habit of the action of one. something external or ac tual happens to one. we spea k of a tradesman's custom. which by repe tition has become easy. ecstasy. delight. thought of as waiting and coming at its appointed time. supervene. Befall and betide are tra nsitive. habitude. gratification. and is more and b etter than routine. Fashion is the generally recognized custom in the smaller matters. An incident happens or occurs. enjoyment. or even unconscious. . routine is the doing of customary acts in a regular and uniform sequence and is more mechanical than custom. bliss. practise. as. discovery. gladness. Wont is blind and instinctive habit like that which attaches an animal to a locality: the word is now almost wholly poetic. A thing is said to happen when no design is manifest. fall out. Compare DRESS. prac tise in penmanship. Practise is the active doing of something in a systematic w ay.

gratification is used to denote a mild form of happiness res ulting from some incident not of very great importance. sprightly. dexterous. felicitous. joyful. jocund. blithe. more demonstrative than gladness. ecstasy is a state of extreme o r extravagant delight so that the one affected by it seems almost beside himself with joy. lucky. an d is viewed as resulting from some worthy gratification or satisfaction.contentment. * * * * * HAPPY. we may speak of a brute as experiencing comfort or pleasure. pleasure is of necessity transient. Happiness. success. in the full sense. Happiness is t he positively agreeable experience that springs from the possession of good. prosperous." a chance that bri ngs prosperity. the b liss of heaven. sunny. the word has come to be feeble and tame in ordinary use. manner. expressing itself in countenance. but not of vici ous happiness. bright. the sympathy of a true friend affords comfort in sorrow. satisfaction is the giving such a desire all that it craves. cheerful. benefit. Bliss is ecstatic. exalted. a sick person finds comfort in relief from pain. is mental or spiritual or both. the gratification or satisfaction of the desires or the relief from pain and evil. we speak of vicious pleasure. rapturous. satisfaction should prop erly express a happiness deeper. and may be eternal. Triumph is such joy as results from victory. rapture is closely allied to ecstasy. Gaiety is more superficial than joy. there is comfort by a warm fireside on a wintry night. triumph. blithesome. rejoici ng. we speak of pleasures. rejoiced. or joy. joyous. cheering. Gratification is the giving any mental or physical desire something that it cra ves. colder and more formal than hap piness. gay. to which it is akin. Synonyms: blessed. or satisfaction. buoyant. being the agreeable consciousness of having all that our faculties demand or cr ave. merry. while he may be far from a state of enjoyment. enjoyment. mirth. delight. Enjoyment is more posi tive. cheery. and action. or success. Compare COMFORT. voice. Delight is vivid. deeper than gladn ess. gaiety. Comfort may be almost wholly negative. nobler and more enduring than pleasure. successful. mirthful. glad. Felicity is a philosophical term. jolly. Antonyms: See synonyms for GRIEF. but as intelle ct or sensibilities of a low order may find satisfaction in that which is very p oor or unworthy. Pleasure is still more vivid. and more abiding. Rejoicing is happiness or joy that finds utterance in word. happiness is abiding. when a worthy pleasure is past. Happin ess is more positive than comfort. but scarcely as in possess ion of happiness. more complete. but is more serene. As referring to a mental state. achievement. as. satisfaction is more tranquil than pleasure. And grasps the skirts of happy chance. fortunate. Gladness is happiness that overflows. Joy is more intense than happiness. as. festivity. delightful. song. Happy primarily refers to something that comes "by good hap. blissful. being found in security or relief from th at which pains or annoys. . pleased. etc. the blessedness of the righteous. perfected happiness. smiling. delighted. more serene and r ational than pleasure. an d enduring. a worthy satisfaction remains. being an arousing of the faculties to an intensely agreeable activity. thus. B lessedness is at once the state and the sense of being divinely blessed. but the plural of happiness is scarcely used. always implying something to be definitely and consciously delighted in. ove rflowing happiness of a somewhat transient kind.

consent. as it were. Conformity is correspondence in form. or to that by which happiness is expressed. conformity. (See FORTUNATE. the word often signifies submission to authority or ne cessity. unanimity. Cheerful applies to the possession or expression of a moderate and tran quil happiness. a mong his children. In its most frequent present use. happy in his home. when it becomes a synonym for dexterou s. A buoyant spirit is. happy at a reply. st. but never a superficial. 2.TENNYSON In Memoriam lxiii. amity. or patched-up agreement. Gay applies to an effusive and superficial happiness (often not really worthy of that name) perhaps result ing largely from abundant animal spirits: we speak of gay revelers or a gay hors e. concurrence. or use. or feelings. individually different. happy at retort (compare CLEVER). agreement. as. so far diverged from this original sense as to apply to adva ntages where chance is not recognized. forced. Harmony is deeper and more essent ial than agreement. Antonyms: Compare synonyms for GRIEF. A cheery word spontaneously gives cheer to others. A sunny dispositio n has a constant tranquil brightness that irradiates all who come within its inf luence. We may speak of being in accord with a person on one point. when it becomes almost equivalent to blessed. happy is the man whom God correcteth. a happy face. but discover it. combine to form a co nsistent and pleasing whole. Job v. Happy is also applied to the ready dexterity or skill by which favorable result s (usually in minor matters) are secured. borne up by joy and hope. uniformity. a cheering wo rd is more distinctly planned to cheer and encourage. over his success. symmetry. In this sense happy is closely allied to fortunate and lucky. or. as. Concord is less full and spiritual than harmony. as in the different statemen ts of the same person or the different periods of one man's life. union. thoughts. happy tears (compare synonyms for HAP PINESS). congruity. Congruity involves the element of suitable ness. forced. happy is applied to the sta te of one enjoying happiness. w e do not secure accord. by conference concord was secured. sta tements. accordance. unison. When tones. as. there is harmony. * * * * * HARMONY. and may be as far as possible from harmony. he has a happy wit. concord. or is even excluded by direct reference t o the divine will. with his friends. 17. however. Synonyms: accord. consistency. uni ty. their vi ews were found to be in perfect accord. Behold. manner. consonanc e. the attempt to secure c onformity to an established religion. Concord implies more volition than accord. we may have a superficial. unanimity is t . happy at the discovery. as. happy laughter. or patched-up harmony. consistency implies the absence of conflict or contradiction in views. or acts which are brought into comparison.) Happy has. felicitous. and the associated words. a happy heart. but harmony is wider in range. Prepositions: A happy event for him.

fruits. one speaks by general c onsent when no one in the assembly cares to make formal objection. reaping. we speak of the potato-crop. the act or process of gathering a crop or crops. MELODY. and hence a crop gathered or ready for gathering. Harvest. incongruity. harvesting. but we should not speak of his selling his harvest.. rancor. * * * * * HATRED. we term a religious revival a harvest of souls. we speak of produce coll ectively. dislike. ill will. Antonyms: antagonism. anger. * * * * * HARVEST. battle. the result of lax enforcement of law is a harvest of crime. a good crop. The word proceeds is chiefly used of the return from an investment: we s peak of the produce of a farm. but consent is more passive than concurrence." and as that is th e usual season of gathering ripened crops in Northern lands. proceeds. but the la borers are few. 2. difference. almost wholly restricted to this sense. harvest-tide. conflict." John iv. variance. we speak of an ample or abu ndant harvest. harvest. or the products of the farm. return. harvest-time. but of the yield of corn or oats. Harvest is the elegant and literary word. Harvest is applied almost wholly to grain. we speak of the products of manufacturing. crop is the common and commercial expression. consent and concurrence refer to decision or action. produce. increase. As regards time. but of the proceeds of the money invested in farm ing. result. repugnanc . Harvest-home ordinarily denotes the festi val of harvest. Harvest has also a figurative use. harvest-home. yield. ingathering. the products of thought. g rowth. harvest-tide. whether su mmer or autumn. The yield is what the land gives up to the farmer's demand. disunion. Com pare AGREE. from the Anglo-Saxon. FRIENDSHIP. butter . and when used to denote simply the season always gives a suggest ion of festivity and rejoicing. may be termed farm-produce. Product is a wo rd of wider application than produce. crop appl ies to almost anything that is gathered in. a decision of the Supreme Court depends upon the concurrence of a majority of the judges. fruit. such as crop more rarely permits. and harvest-time alike denote the period or season when the crops are or should be gathered (tide bein g simply the old Saxon word for time). not the potato-harvest. harvest-feast. etc. Produce is a collective word for all that is produced in farming or gardening. for they are white already to harvest. opposition. inconsistency. also. hostility. separation. disagreement. we say a man sells his crop. such as harvest and harvest-time by themselves d o not express. and is. controversy. "The harvest truly is great. Synonyms: abhorrence. Synonyms: crop. warfare." Luke x. contest. "Lift up your eyes and look on the fields. schism. we may say either the wheat-crop or the wheat-harvest. vegetables. 35. i n modern usage. the word came to it s present meaning of the season of gathering ripened grain or fruits. eggs. dispropor tion. signified originally "autumn. discord. harve st-festival. or the product obtained by multiplying one number by a nother. hostility. dissension.he complete hearty agreement of many. but of a product or various products. product. contention. we speak of the return from an expenditure of money or labor. detestation.

or has need. ANGER. grudge. as applied to persons. To own is to have the right of property in. To have rea son is to be endowed with the faculty. grudge. and is applied to whatever belongs to or is conn ected with one. always holds itself to be justifiable. reveng e. or what he has stolen. he holds a promissory n ote. Have is the most general word. grudge is deeper than spite. ENMITY. malevolence. but looks less cert ainly to action than grudge or revenge. grudge being the disposition. is intense and continued av ersion. but more vehement. pressing toward a result. malice. . * * * * * HAVE. while to be in pos session denotes simply the fact with no affirmation as to the right. the proprietor owns the property. Malice is direct. what has been entrusted to him. or hatred. to possess is to have that right in actual exercise. To hold is to have in one's hand. Hate. own. they will be moved to revenge only by what they deem an injury or a ffront. a frie nd or an enemy. but the tenant is in possession. aversion. with or without ownership. lingering. with some degree of permanency. Repugnance applies to that which one feels himself summoned or impelled to do o r to endure. hate. animosity. and from which he instinctively draws back. he has time. a highwayman would be said to entertain malice toward the unknown traveler whom he attacks. Compare ABOMINATION. a man has a head or a head-ache. malignity is deep. be possessed of. hatred of evil is a righteous passion. and ve nomous. Aversion is the turning away of the mind or feelings from some person or thing. what he has borrowed. revenge the determination to repay real or supposed offe nse with injury. * * * * * HAZARD. or he holds a struggling horse. hatred is intense aversion. he may be said to have what is his own . antipathy. or securely in one's control. Antonyms: See synonyms for FRIENDSHIP. and revenge are all retaliatory. even tho with no personal ill will." TENNYSON Pelleas and Ettarre st. Spite is petty ma lice that delights to inflict stinging pain. ANTIPATHY. resentment. a fortune or an opinion. rancor (akin to rancid) is cherished malignit y that has soured and festered and is virulent and implacable. "Her wrath became a hate. a man holds his fri end's coat for a moment. 16. akin to abhorrence. usually with disposition to injure. in the legal sense. malignity. it is sinister and bitter. the be st word of the three. anger is sudden and brief. or holds an office. LOVE. Malice involves the active intent to injure.e. a man may own a farm of which he is not in poss ession because a tenant occupies it and is determined to hold it. Synonyms: be in possession of. resentment. or from some course of action. spite. as. with desire to destro y or remove. A man occupies his own house or a room in a hotel. etc. to occupy is to have possession and us e. Simple goodness may arouse the hatred of the wicked. resentment. tho often impotent to act. hatred is lingering and enduring. occupy. revenge may denote also the retaliatory act. hold. To be in possession differs from possess in that to possess denotes both right and fact. T o possess a thing is to have the ownership with control and enjoyment of it. possess. to be in possession of one's reason denot es that the faculty is in actual present exercise. enmity. As applied to things. mali ce is the intent to injure.

as. worn d own. aid. danger. A contingency is simply an indeterminable fu ture event. safeguard. worn out. which may or may not be attended with danger or risk. Antonyms: delicate. but not of aiding them. chance. foster. plan. fainting. the foolhardy take great risks in mere wantonness. With healthful are ranged the words hygienic. Hazard is the incurring the possibility of loss or harm for the possibility of benefit. Antonyms: assurance. or promote health. In law to aid or abet makes one a principa . the hazard or risk of losing. In extremity we say "God help me!" rather than "God aid me!" In time of danger we cry "help! help!" rather than "aid! aid!" To aid is to second another's own exertions. casualty. sustain. contingency. tending or adapted to confer. strong. a salutary lesson. venture. See ACCIDENT. certain to happen to some. hygienic. * * * * * HEALTHY. support. but aid m ay fall short of the meaning of help. Salutary is now chiefly used in the moral sense. stand by. frail. we speak of the chance of winning. failing. he freely seeks a venture. Synonyms: hale. emaciated. befriend. death and wounds are casualties of battle. We can spe ak of helping the helpless. s ecurity. safety. preserve. certainty. bu t uncertain as to whom or how many. while the other words are associated with healthy. Healthy is most correctly used to signify possessing or enjoying health or its results. second. a he althful climate. unhealthy. peri l. worn. encourage. as. fortuity. danger may have no compensating alternative. salutary. Help includes aid. cooperate. DANGER. exhausted. Wholesome food in a healthful climate makes a healthy man. risk.Synonyms: accident. salubrious. Healthful signifies promotiv e of health. healthful. Help expresses greater dependence and deeper need than aid. sanitary. Accidents are incalculable. weak. as. one may be driven by circumstances to run a risk. ill. sound. necessity. but of an insurance company's risk. sanitary. well. unsound. salubrious. wholesome. assist . hearty. jeopardy. fragile. succor. a healthy person. we speak of a merchant's venture. in chance and ve nture the hope of good predominates. casualties may be to a certain extent antic ipated. wasted. sick. in risk the possibility of loss is the ch ief thought. Synonyms: abet. In hazard the possibilitie s of gain or loss are nearly balanced. vigorous. a healthy condition. Salubrious is always used in the physical sense. * * * * * HELP. protection. salutary. surety. uphold. and is chiefly applied to air or climate. and wh olesome. diseased.

discorda nt. but the cement is said to be homogeneou s if the different constituents are evenly mixed throughout. a schismatic differs in doctrine or practise. oppose. is said to be non-homogeneous. school. non-homogeneous. or other system. against the enemy. heresiarch. schismatic. Substances quite unlike are heterogeneous as regards each other. if the objects are alike in k ind. a heretic is one who takes or chooses his own belief. hence. various. succor and support. resist.. conglomerate. non-conformist. miscellaneous. With advancin g ideas of religious liberty. thwart. philosophical. use. unhomogeneous. the former term is extended to non-adherents of the established church in some other countries. (Compare synonyms for ACCESSORY. A heterogeneou s mixture is one whose constituents are not only unlike in kind. or for any other reason is not of uniform structure and density throughout. or party. sand. or even silent. oftenest to material assistance. unlike. * * * * * HETEROGENEOUS. help to success. mixed.) To cooperate is to aid as an equal.l. and clay. succor the endangered. form. so that any one por tion of the mixture is exactly like any other. which are heterogeneous as regards each other. the religious sense of the word is the predominant one. the odious sense once attached to these words is l argely modified. or who holds opinions contrary to the recognized standard or tenets of a ny established religious. mingled. Dissenter and non-conformi st are terms specifically applied to English subjects who hold themselves aloof from the Church of England. support the weak. in which case it is said to be non-homoge neous or unhomogeneous. Antonyms: counteract. * * * * * HERETIC. as Russia. Etymologically. dissimilar. a heretic is one who denies commonly accepted views. A misc ellaneous mixture may or may not be heterogeneous. We encourage the timid or despondent. etc. A heretic may be reticent. Synonyms: confused. but unevenly di stributed. Encourage refers to mental aid. etc. a schismatic is primarily on e who produces a split or rent in the church. to assi st implies a subordinate and secondary relation. cement is composed of substances such as lime. he cooperates with him in helping others. air-bubbles. Prepositions: Help in an enterprise with money. instead o f the belief of his church. as uphold now usually does.. A substance may fail of being hom ogeneous and yet not be heterogeneous. PROMOTE. and is thus at once a heretic and a schismatic. Synonyms: dissenter. or in both. A heretic differs in doctrine from the religious body with which he is connected. discourage. One assists a fallen friend to rise. tho no foreign substance be mixed with the iron. and heretic is often used playfully. Compare ABET. a schismati c introduces divisions. uphold those who else might be shaken or cast down. withstand. a bar of iron that contains flaws. A heresiarch is the author of a heresy or the leader of a heretical party. quality. and without special order . variant. but different in size.

advertise. or by the imperfection of the faculties of the one from whom it is h idden. suppress. entomb. attack. one may hide his face in ange r. in their games. See COMPLEX. an officer may also be said to secrete himself to watc h the thief. to conceal is always intentional. tell. So a person may be covered with wraps. a body is buri ed in the sea. one may be said to be buried in business. make known. unveil. Bury may be used of any object. Anything which is effectually covered and hidden under a ny mass or accumulation is buried. proud. and not buried under them. or from their ordinary surroundings. he conceals his face when he fears recognition. a man conceals a scar on his face. in study. uniform. dissemble. he conceals an evil or hostile intent. same. disguise. A thing is covered by putting something over or around it. overwhelm. the collection is miscellaneous. discover. . tall. if the objects differ in kind. Synonyms: elevated. always wit h some purpose of protection from observation. Hide is the general term. the contents of a school-boy's pocket are commonly miscella neous and might usually be termed heterogeneous as well. it is screened by putting something before it. exalted. As an act of persons. publish. cloak. or abstraction. and more strictly. expose. Figurativ ely. etc. reveal. Whatever is buried is hi dden or concealed. Antonyms: admit. a cloud hides the sun. entomb and inter only of a dead body. a thi ef secretes stolen goods. unmask. or hides a thing from himself by laying something else over it. disinter. including all the rest. screen. or a building hides some p art of the prospect by intervening between it and the observer's position. similar. uncover. suc h a mixture is also. exhume. conceal. lofty. divulge. lay open. raise. Money is buried in the ground. Synonyms: bury. homogeneous. but does not secrete it. confess. b y accident. exhibit. and put in unlook ed-for places. Antonyms: alike. or hide themselves from each o ther. but there are many ways of hiding or concealing a thing witho ut burying it. show. whether by accident or design. as. noble. cover. disclose. e tc. lay bare. pure. avow. a pile of unassorted lumb er is miscellaneous. a paper is buried under other documents. manifest. the bird's nest is artfully concealed. Compare IMMERSE. heterogeneous. grief. signifying to put out of sigh t or beyond ready observation or approach. mask. veil. a thing may be hidden by intention. a person may hide honorable feelings. * * * * * HIDE. a man unconsciously hides a picture from another by standing before it. children hide the slipper. like. inter. uplifte d. inconvenience. A hous e is hidden by foliage. Secrete is a stro nger word than conceal. steep. eminent. In the figurative use. identical. P ALLIATE. promulgat e. towering. betray. and is used chiefly of such material objects as may be s eparated from the person. * * * * * HIGH. Even an unconsciou s object may hide another.or relation. secrete. censure.

may apply to the very same distance si mply measured in an opposite direction. lovely . Towering. stunted. to say that the start is delayed. or with some standard. as. it is hindered by anything that keeps it from either b eginning or ending so soon as it otherwise would. foil. tho there may be no force strong enough to oppose it. we term a spire tall with reference to its altitu de. but sometimes of high feel ings. a motion. words. a lofty ambition is worthy and noble. it is a criminal offense to resist an officer in the discharge of his duty. deep. to hinder a thing lo ng enough may amount to preventing it. a towering ambit ion disregards and crushes all opposing considerations. To retard is simply to make slow by any means whatever. c heck. To obstruct is to hin der. Compare STEEP. lofty. Antonyms: base. but in the figurative sen se. In the figurative sense. or as expected or intended. Antonyms: See synonyms for QUICKEN. or growth. low. depressed. we speak of high. progress. as. delay. short. or possibly to prevent by directly contrary or hostile action. resist being the stronger term and having more suggestion of ph ysical force. prevent. OBSTRUCT. that is eminent which is far above the m. retard. a table is high if it exceeds thirty inches . or surface. the physical system may resist the attack of disease or the action of a remedy. counteract. an eminent promontory.. hamper. an amendment . and deep to vertical distance measured from above downwar d. High is a relative term si gnifying greatly raised above any object. It is more common. * * * * * HINDER. obstructed roads hinder the march of an enemy. that which is prevented does not take place at all. in the literal sense compares with lofty and majestic. as. while an antonym of high in usage. high applying to vertical distance measu red from below upward. stop. thwart. That is elevated which i s raised somewhat above its surroundings. dwarfed. IMPEDIMENT. as. or holy. a deep valley nestling between high mountains. An action is prevented by anything that comes in before it to make it impossible. A high ambition may be merely selfish. oppose. or lofty with reference to its majestic appearance. a tall tree. to oppose or resist is to hinder. tall grass. base. degraded. block. inferior. a towering passion. it may by special order be prevented from startin g. That is lofty which is i mposing or majestic in height. A railroad-train may be hindered by a sno w-storm from arriving on time. balk. or growth later in beginning or completion than it wou ld otherwise have been. To hinder is to keep from action. an elevated platform. or elevated thoughts. ele vated is less than eminent. stay . etc. in comparison with w hat is usual. embarrass. its use is almost always invidious. or to make such action. however rational. in the good sense. Compare CONQUER. obstruct. etc. the progress hindere d. Synonyms: baffle. clog. bar. however. An action that is hindered does not take place at the appointed or appropriat e time. or possibly to prevent advance or passage by putting something in the way. a tall man. one opposes a measure. or the like. frustrate. motion. interrupt. progress. aims. encumber. mean.Deep. impede. and whose actual height is great for an objec t of its kind. resist. . in the invidious sense of haughty or arrogant.. and this less than exalted. a hill is not high at a hundred feet. looks. motion. That is tall whose height is greatly in excess of its breadth or diameter.

therefore in its lower applications it is less than holy. polluted. in the line either of goodnes s or of mere power. their causes and conseq uences. memoir. unholy.. by opposition. narration. unhallowed. * * * * * HOLY. muniment. . and memoirs and oth er records furnish the materials of history. iii. saintly. as designating that which belong s to or is worthy of the Divine Being. Divine has been used with great loosen ess. consecrated. se cular. PURE. tho sometimes we speak of the history of a single eminent life. a rchives. possessing intrins ic moral purity. Compare PERFECT. story. worldly. or association. and perspective. History is a systematic record of past events. That which is sacred may be made so by institution. wicked. and with complete subservie ncy to their succession in time. common. Annals and chronicles relate eve nts with little regard to their relative importance. set apart. register. etc. their mutual relations. In such use h oly is more than sacred. biography. memorial. unconsecrated. that which is holy is so by its own nature. devoted. his commands are sacred. * * * * * HISTORY. from acting promptly. A biography is distinctively a written account of one person 's life and actions. Synonyms: blessed. music. H istory is usually applied to such an account of events affecting communities and nations. recital. which may be annals. and. 5. record. in the highest sense. decree . selection. Synonyms: account. Annals are yearly records. autobiography. History recounts events with carefu l attention to their importance. Memoirs generally record the lives of individuals or facts pertaining t o individual lives. etc. and so is not restricted to divine things. hallowed. sacred. as to eloquence. impure. Annals. archives. Antonyms: abominable. chronicles. annals. as if the very qualities of a spiritual or divine prese nce were imparted to the place or object. Antonyms: See synonyms for FICTION. Sacred is applied to that which is to be regarded as inviolable on any account. cursed. "the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. but there is a commendable ten dency to restrict the word to its higher sense. chronicle. unsanctified. Both necessarily lack emphasis. biographies. narrative. as applying to anything eminent or admirable. or chronicles." Ex. Compar e RECORD. or deeds of proper ty. Holy may be applied also to that which is hallowed. an autobiography is a biography written by the person whose life it records. selecting and grouping events on the ground of interest or importance. Arc hives are public records.Prepositions: Hinder one in his progress. absolute moral perfection. as. chronicles follow th e order of time. God is ho ly. divine.

unscrupulous. denoting originally a dwelling. hypocritical. traitorous. equitable. from the Angl o-Saxon. one who is honorable scrupulously observes the dictates of a personal ho nor that is higher than any demands of mercantile law or public opinion. Synonyms: candid. faithful. came to mean an endeared dwelling as th e scene of domestic love and happy and cherished family life. habitation. mendacious. Synonyms: abode. and especially heav en. since we have other words to denote the mere dwelling-place. In this sense honest differs from honorable as having regard rather to absolute truth and right than to even the highest personal honor." Home's not merely four square walls. trusty. or defraud.* * * * * HOME. dishonest. fraudulent. domicil. l ying. honorable. hearthstone. ingleside. and habitation are used with little difference of meaning to d enote the place where one habitually lives. JUSTICE. sincere. The honest man does not steal. trustworthy. go od. cheat. ingenuous. frank. just. abode and habitation belong to the p oetic or elevated style. when his own sense of right demands it. fair. untrue." Home. as the soul's peaceful and eternal dwelling-place. and wil l do nothing unworthy of his own inherent nobility of soul.Where its shrine the heart has builded. we say "The wretched tenement co uld not be called home. faithless. Abode. Com pare CANDID. fireside. Tho with pictures hung and gilded. One who is honest in the highes t and fullest sense is scrupulously careful to adhere to all known truth and rig ht even in thought. false. disingenuous." or more formally "my residence. One who is honest in the ordinary sense acts or is always disposed to act with careful regard for the rights of others. Home is where affection calls-." or "The humble cabin was dear to him as the home of his childhood. Synonyms: . * * * * * HONEST. a sense to which t here is an increasing tendency to restrict the word--desirably so. Antonyms: deceitful. or will make a sacrifice which no one could require of him. genuine. * * * * * HORIZONTAL. straightforward. Thus the word comes to signify any place of rest and peace. the honorable man will not take an unfair advantag e that would be allowed him. house. a person says "my house. especially in matters of business or pr operty. dwelling. treacherou s. residence. perfidious. Even dwelling is not used in familiar speech. unfaithful. hearth." "my home. dwelling. true. upright.

a plain country. the human race. a floor is flat. as we speak of "a wide plain. The humane man will not needlessly inflict pain upon the meanest thing that lives. a plane surface (especially in the scientific sense). The compassionate man sympathizes with and desires to relieve actual suffering. Flat. while one who is humane would forestall and prevent the suffer ing which he sees to be possible. but the original sense appears in the noun. tender. or excellences. a level road. and is used with more mathematical exactness than flat.even. origina lly the same word as plane. forgiving. pitying." We sp eak of a horizontal line. flat is also applied in a derived sense to any pl ane surface without irregularities or elevations. That which is level may not be eve n. * * * * * HUMANE. inquisition. clement. level. sloping. a flat morass. PITY. benignant. A chase or pursuit is after that which is fleeing or departing. merciful. slanting. in the first and most usual sense. search. hilly. plain. Plane applies only to a surface. pursuit. a floor. Antonyms: See synonyms for BARBAROUS. a . human follies. charitable. tend er-hearted. or a combinatio n of the two. uneven. a sl ope may be even. * * * * * HUNT. a humane enterprise or endeavor is one that is intended to prevent or relieve s uffering. Human denotes what pertains to mankind. flat. according to its derivation from the A nglo-Saxon flet. compassionate. plane. The adjective plain. kind-hearted. hunting. rough. Synonyms: benevolent. a merciful man is disposed to withhold or mitigate the suffering ev en of the guilty. PITIFUL. as the more popular word. vices. Synonyms: chase. sympathe tic. gentle. Antonyms: broken. and. Horizontal signifies in the direction of or parallel to the horizon. human qualities. is more loosely used of that which has no especially noticeable elevations or inequalities. is now rarely used except in the figurative senses. with no suggestion as to its being good or evil. human. as. applies to a surface only. gracious. A hunt may be either the act of pursuing or the act of seeking. as. a level road. For practi cal purposes level and horizontal are identical. v irtues. and that which is even may not be level. we speak of human achievements. rugged. as a picture may be painted on the flat surface of a perpendicular wall. a level road may be very rough. or crimes. rolling. Compare MERCY. a line may be level. Humane denotes what may rightly be expected of mankind at its best in the treatment of sentient beings. inclined. tho level. kind. to a surface that is horizontal or level in all directions. irregular.

the hypocrite seeks not merely to cov . sham. but with more of dash and aggressiveness. Cant (L. inclines to the unfav orable sense of inquisition. we make a search of or through a house. taste. deceiver. * * * * * HYPOCRITE. openn ess. or of the pursuit of knowledge. or for the sake of the credit and advantage attaching to virtue. and is especially applie d to a locality. and the chase till it is hunted down. sanctimony. Pretense (L. formalism. in figurative use. whether truly or falsely. for an object. dissembler. The dissembler is content if he can keep some base cond uct or evil purpose from being discovered. or that shame fully disappoints expectation or falsifies appearance. etc. primarily the singsong iteration of the language of a ny party. we speak of literary pursuits. pretense commonly signifies the offering of something for what it i s not. truthfulness. ingenuousness. an actor. Antonyms: candor. prætendo) primarily signifies the holding something forward as havin g certain rights or claims. pharisaism. truth. Deceiver is the most comprehensive term. A hypocrite (Gr. * * * * * HYPOCRISY. either as a cover fo r actual wrong. genuineness. honesty. where it includes both search and chase. Synonyms: affectation. in which connection it would be colloquial to say a hunt. it is n ow rarely used except with a negative. a song). The deceiver seeks to give false impressions of any matter where he has an end to gain. one who answers on the stage. As cant is hypo crisy in utterance. a search is a minute and careful seeking. sincerity. Synonyms: cheat. in the good sense. or sect. there can be no pretense that this is due. is now chiefly used for an unregulated emotionalism. a hunt may be for that which is either hidde n or fleeing. frankness. the search till the game is hunted out. a search for rea sons. tones. impostor. a false pretense implies the possibility of a true pretense. cantus. without corresponding earnestness of heart. transparency. or assumes a character other than the real. without corresponding feeling or character. sham (identical in origin with shame) is a trick or device that puts one to shame. rit es. but. as in looks . as. sanctimoniousness is the assumption of a saintly manner without a saintly character. much what hypocrisy is in morals and religion. denotes the mechanical and pretentious use of religio us phraseology. pretender. affec tation might be termed petty hypocrisy.. hunt. originally a word of good import. Compare DECEPTION. school. Hypocrisy is the false pretense of moral excellence. dissimulation. pretense. alone an d unlimited. especially a mimic actor) is one who acts a false part. Hunt never quite loses its ass ociation with field-sports. Figuratively. as. a hun t for heresy. Pietism. the dissembler or hypocrite seeks to give false impressio ns in regard to himself. and ceremonies. Affectation is in matters of intellect. sanctimoniousne ss. formalism is an exaggerated devotion to forms. pietism. etc. hypokrites. including all the other words of the group.search is for that which is hidden. so sanctimoniousness is hypocrisy in appearance. the chase of fame or honor. cant.

A hypothesis may be termed a comprehensive guess. and often sinister. Idea is in Greek a form or an image. * * * * * HYPOTHESIS. sincere. assumed and reason ed upon as if certainly true. A hypothesis is a statement of what is deemed possibly true. be lief. while one confessedly lacks material for ab solute certainty. This high sense ha s nearly disappeared from the word idea. etc. Scheme may be used as nearly equivalent to theory. pattern. ideal. Synonyms: conjecture.er his vices. like a guess. and has been largely appropriated by id . concept. phenomena. Compare SYSTEM. supposition. design. notion. a conjecture. demonstration. purpose. Compare HYPOCRISY. a hypothesis is a comprehensive tentative explana tion of certain phenomena. discovery. of the Copernican system of the univers e. conceit. honest. supposition. but useless in fa ct. speculation. it is regarded as verified. is preliminary and tentative. and held as probable or tentative. ingenuous. but is more frequently ap plied to proposed action. system is the highest of these terms. archetype. we speak of a system of theology. while a supposit ion is still slower and more settled. especially. or doctrines into an orderly and consistent whole. plan. a s ystem unites many facts. if the hypothesis explains all the facts. a supposition is more nearly final. guess. thought. a machine may be perfect in theory. scheme. opinion. as. impression. judgment. A conjecture is more methodical than a guess. in the sciences. system. theory. as the thimble-rig gambler. that is . fact. Theory is used of the mental coordination of facts and principles. A specu lation may be wholly of the brain. Antonyms: certainty. true. theory. The cheat is the inferior and more mercenary. surmise. evidence. but to gain credit for virtue. * * * * * IDEA. a surmise that a stranger may be a pickpoc ket. sentiment. imagination. proof. the impostor may aspire to a fortune or a throne. resting upon no facts worthy of consideration . The word signified in early philosophical use the archetype or primal image which the Platonic philosophy supposed to be t he model or pattern that existing objects imperfectly embody. fancy. one that may answer for present practical purposes. i mage. and in the sense of a somewhat visionary plan. conception. fantasy. and which is assumed as true till there has been opportunity to bring al l related facts into comparison. which is meant to include all other facts of the same class. that may or may not prove correct. The cheat and impostor endeavor to make something out of those they may deceive. till then it is regarded as a working hypothesis. Antonyms: The antonyms of hypocrite are to be found only in phrases embodying the adjecti ves candid. Synonyms: apprehension. having most of assurance and fixity. a surmise is more floating a nd visionary. with a view of reaching truth not yet surely known . A guess is a swift conclusion from data directly at hand . model.

opinion. good or bad.. which may or may not be as complete as that of idiocy. pattern. action. senselessness. incapacity. Folly and foolishness denote a want of m . and ordinarily unattainable. as in metrology. original. achievement. stupidity. may now be called an idea. as a belief. Incapacity. almost any mental product. as from insanity or from age. necessarily results from imbecility. act. of corn . as. an ideal is meant to be perfect. or lack of legal qualification fo r certain acts. tho something of the original meaning still appears when in theological or philosophical language we speak of the ideas of God. attainment. not merely the thing that has be en attained or is to be attained. the prototype has or has had actual existence. but the best conceivable thing that could by p ossibility be attained. IDEAL. foolishness. as. model. conside red as an object of knowledge or thought. realization . The idea of virtue is the mental concept or image of virtue in g eneral. Antonyms: actuality. embodim ent. the standard of weights and measures. Synonyms: archetype. or may be slowly developed even from failures and by negations. but is at least such as to incapacita te for the serious duties of life. Compare FANCY. according to which any existing thing is constructed. The present popular use of idea makes it to signify any product of mental apprehension or activity. in the derived sense. but may also result from ot her causes. reality. incarnation. Antonyms: accomplishment. practise. of which his finished work is but an imperfect expression. performance. while insanity is disorder or abnormal action of mind. development. IDEA. prototype. sex. imbecility. The standard may be below the ideal. the ideal of virtue is the mental concept or image of virtue in its high est conceivable perfection. being a measure to which all else of its kind must conform. thus. the original of a master is superior to all copies. etc. etc.eal. Idiocy is a state of mental unsoundness amounting almost or quite to total abse nce of understanding. standard. * * * * * IDEAL.. design . a prototype may not be the original form. The archetype is the primal form. conception. substance. Synonyms: fatuity. but one having equal authority with that as a sta ndard. fact. The ideal is imaginary. doing. Imbecility is a condition of mental weakness. actual or im aginary. execution. th e standard is concrete. the incapacity of a min or to make a contract. Compare EXAMPLE. and ordinarily attainable. fact. Idiocy or imbecility is weakness of mind. The artist's ideal is his own mental image. idea. reality. * * * * * IDIOCY. An ideal may be primal. folly. The original is the first specime n. this coincides with the primitive sens e at but a single point--that an idea is mental as opposed to anything substanti al or physical. An ideal is that which is conceived or taken as the highest type of excellence or ultimate object of attainment. or of cotton.

empty.ental and often of moral balance. or lacking knowledge or information. slothful. astuteness. as derived from the Anglo-Saxon i del. the most active person ma y sometimes find the bodily or mental powers sluggish. lazy. The inert person seems like dead matter (characterized by inertia). denoting a self-indulgent aversion to exertion. Fatuity is sometimes used as equivalent to idi ocy. it grieveth him to bring it again to his mouth. * * * * * IDLE. idleness is in fact. unlet tered. Ignorant signifies destitute of education or knowledge. it is thus a relative term. unem ployed. the idle schoolboy may be very actively whittling his desk or tormenting his neighbo rs. . Ignorance is relative. 15. no statistics of ignorance are possible. Doing nothing whatever is the secondary meaning of idle. uninstructed. Antonyms: acuteness. the uneducated man has never taken any systematic course o f mental training. We speak figuratively of a lazy str eam. Compare VAIN. Antonyms: active. if he is habitually idle. busy." Prov. sense. the slothful man hates action. wisdom. working. but vain action--the absence of useful. unlearned. diligent. "The slothful hideth his hand in his bosom. unenlightened. * * * * * IGNORANT. sluggish. but more frequently signifies conceited and excessive foolishness or folly. inert. common sense. the sluggish moves heavily and toilsomely. unskilled. illiteracy is absolute. laziness is i n disposition or inclination. employed. powerle ss to move. capacity. Stupidity is dulness and slowness of mental action which may range all the way from lack of normal readiness to absolute imbecility. Unlettered is similar in meaning to illiterate. but less absolut e. Idle thus denotes not primarily the a bsence of action. soundness. the ignorant savage may be well i nstructed in matters of the field and the chase. Synonyms: inactive. untutored. persons are spoken of as ignorant who have not the knowledge th at has become generally diffused in the world. illiterate. Compare INSANITY. indolent. effective action. the indolent man loves inaction. uninformed. unoccupied. Illiterate is without letters and the knowledge that comes t hrough reading. intelligence. it is his own fault. Lazy signi fies indisposed to exertion. untaught. Idle in all uses rests upon its root meaning. occupied. x xvi. trifling. averse to labor. Slothful belongs in the m oral realm. we have statis tics of illiteracy. brilliancy. which signifies vain. industrious. The most learned man is still ignorant of many things. useless. One may be temporar ily idle of necessity. the unlettered man may have acquired the art of reading and writing and some elementary knowledge. vacant. and is thus more properly untut ored than ignorant. Synonyms: ill-informed. Indolent is a milder term for the same quality. sagacity. A lazy person may chance to be employed in useful work. uneducated. but he acts without energy or impetus.

and with reason and will in torpor. and for a different purpose. Fancy does not require that the materials which she makes use of should be susceptible of changes in their constitution from her touch. phantasy. the one great distinction between them is that fancy is superf icial. of combining the product s of knowledge in modified. an d evanescent. The expression is.' Having to speak of stature. who was the first clearly to draw the distinction between the fancy and the imagination. Phantasy or fantasy.Antonyms: educated. belong as well to the i magination as to the fancy. Imagination and fancy differ from fantasy in bringing the images and their combinations under the control of the will. sta tes it as follows: To aggregate and to associate. Both fancy and im agination recombine and modify mental images. Directly the reverse of these are the desires and demands of the i magination. well-informed. wise. . are bo unded. She recoils from everything but the plastic. somnambulism. including fancy. which simply reprod uces the images that the mind has in any way acquired. graceful. often combining them into new forms with exceeding vividness. She leaves it to fancy to describe Queen Mab as coming: 'In shape no bigger than an agate stone On the forefinger of an alderman. while imagination is deep. imagination is the broader and higher term. The old psychology treated of the Reproductive Imagination. or of combining them with little regard to rati onal processes of construction. but also as purposeless and unsystemati zed as the visual images in a kaleidoscope. fantasy. and the ind efinite. yet without any true constructive power. much less that he was twelve cubits or twelve hundred cubits high. whimsical. or ideal forms--the creative or constructive po wer of the mind. Synonyms: fancy. skilled. presents numerous and varied image s. spiritual. as appears in th e adjective fantastic. sage. trained. blindly and passively follow ing the laws of association. while fancy is the act or power of forming pleasing. the pliant. reverie. To this Reproductive Imagination President Noah Porter and others have g iven the name of phantasy or fantasy (many psychologists preferring the former s pelling). but with the mind adrift. the mental imag es being perhaps as varied and as vivid. and where they admit of modification.. or that his dimensions equalled those of Teneriffe or Atlas. imagination may glorify the tiniest flower. essential. it would be the same. to evoke and to combine. Wordsworth.. or odd mental images. learned. so understood. imagination is the act or power of im aging or of reimaging objects of perception or thought. such fantasy (often loosely called i magination) appears in dreaming. a sense of the truth of the l ikeness from the moment that it is perceived grows--and continues to grow--upon . either may work with the other's m aterials. and if they were a million times as high. 'His stature reached the sky!' the illimitable firmame nt!--When the imagination frames a comparison. imagination in its lower form. it is enough for her purpose if it be slight. Fantas y in ordinary usage simply denotes capricious or erratic fancy. instructed. * * * * * IMAGINATION. becau se these. and the Productive Imagin ation which modifies and combines mental images so as to produce what is virtual ly new. new. fancy may play around a mo untain or a star. she does not tell you that her gigantic angel was a s tall as Pompey's Pillar. or they are brought together under a different law. and intoxication. but either the materials evoked and combined are dif ferent. limited.

Pref. straightway. planets. i magination moves and thrills. griffins and chimæras . forthwith. penetrative power of imagination is to them the b reath of life. 646. the resemblance depending less upon outline of form and feature than u pon expression and effect. and stars into unity with the earth and the app le that is drawn irresistibly to its surface. Fancy keeps the material image prominent and clear. interval or lapse of time. both fancy and imagination are limited t o the materials furnished by the external world. and yet all keep the unity of the inventor's thought. The strong and general human tendency to procrastination is shown in the progre ssive weakening of the various words in this group.. and wi ll well repay. and compare an image drawn from the external world with some spiritual truth born in the mind itself. '34. molding them as needed for its more vivid expression. it is remarkable that among all the representations of gods or demigods. and the inventor sees the unity and varied inte ractions of a machine never yet constructed. and is airy and playful. th is instant. sometimes petty and sometimes fa lse. and sees them all within the circl e of one grand law. By imagination the architect sees the un ity of a building not yet begun. but for it. Synonyms: at once. but the creative. Science. careful study. p. serious. the perfection of which is in Milton. imagination transforms and exalts. fiends and demons. right off. earnest. the human mind has never invented one organ or attribute that is not presented in human or animal life. '51.. and the dramatic. variegates. and seeks always and everywhere for essential truth. Fancy sets off. since when the machine is in actual motion. Immediately primarily signif ies without the intervention of anything as a medium. By and by. right away. imagination always uses the material object as the minister of some thing greater than itself. even a unity that no human eye ever can see. individually. IDE A. instantly. the lion may have a human head and an eagle's wings an d claws. which was .[B] Poetical Works. without delay. and the condition of all advance and success.the mind. philosophy. Imagination is not only poetic or literary. even the briefest. to Ed. one part may hide the conn ecting parts. there is absolutely nothing new. By imaginati on a Newton sweeps sun. of which Shakspeare is the absolute master. and often almost loses the object in the spiritual id ea with which she has associated it.] So far as actual images are concerned. Fancy delights and entertains. See also FANCY. and is deep. hence without the interven tion of any. and mechanical invention have little us e for fancy. imagination goes to the heart of things. or i nfuse a series of images with such a spiritual truth. instanter. philosophical. of 1815. & H. [B] The whole discussion from which the quotation is taken is worthy of. * * * * * IMMEDIATELY.. less upon casual and outstanding than upon inherent a nd internal properties. [T. But imagination can transcend the work of fancy. There is the epic imagination. app. and gives unity to variety. The imagination modifies images. it sees all things in one. and works not only with it. COLERIDGE Table Talk June 23. and practical. Fancy fl its about the surface. but in the various features. directly. presently. and for which alone she values it. but sc ientific. now. an d decorates.

dip out. instantly. but always with hope that it may be averted. with the sense of projecting over. submerge. immerge. unexpected. Submerge implies that the object can not readily be removed. hereafter. etc. Compare synonyms for BURY. Directly. if he immerses it. Synonyms: bury. duck. perhaps very near. dangerous and close at hand. but before very long. but dip implies that the object dipped is at once removed from the liquid. now mea ns after some little while. while immerse is Latin for the same initial act. tho entirely proper and usual in early English. Imminent is more immediate. * * * * * IMMERSE. To plunge is to im merse suddenly and violently. as. Antonyms: after a while.. if at all. by and by. threatening. an imminent peril is one liable to befall very s peedily. when we would make promptn ess emphatic. dip is according ly the more popular and commonplace. also from the Latin. a submerged wreck. so tha t we are fain to substitute at once. Preposition: The object is immersed in water. impending more remote. Dip is used. one may dip his sleeve or dip a s ponge in a liquid. plunge. Right away and right off are vigorous conversational expressions i n the United States. in this sense we say dip up. in the future. also. sink. Even immediately is sliding from its instantaneousness. Impending. which once meant with no intervening time. and covers it with the liquid. as some calamity. he completely sinks it under. * * * * * IMMINENT. Dip is Saxon. signifies liable t o happen at once. Imminent. To dip and to immerse alike signify to bury or submerge some ob ject in a liquid. presently no longer means in this very present. Antonyms: chimerical. has become an antonym of immediately. To speak of baptism by immersion as dipping now seems rude . An impending evil is almost sure to happen at some unc ertain time. immerse the more elegant and dignified expr ession in many cases. unlike the other words.once a synonym. contingent. while immerse is wholly silent as to the removal. for which douse and duck are colloquial terms. improbab . problematical. is closely akin to imminent. to denote the putting of a hollow vessel into a liquid in order to remove a portion of it. some time. thr eatening more contingent. if he but touches the edge. unlikely. douse. with the sense of hanging over. Immerse also sugg ests more absolute completeness of the action. Baptists now universally use t he word immerse. meaning at some (perhaps r emote) future time. from the Latin. a threatening peril may be near or remote. bu t somewhat less emphatic. Synonyms: impending. dip. doubtful.

barrier. or relation of the person interfered with or of the one who interferes. help. presumptuous. and is often as well-meant as it is annoying. An im pediment may be either what one finds in his way or what he carries with him. a fence is an obstruction. aid. shameless imp udence. obstruction. and may becom e an obstruction if it closes an inlet or channel. loo se stones are impediments. i. encumbrance. Antonyms: bashfulness. e. An impediment is primarily something that checks the foot or in any way makes advance slow or difficult. boldness. boxes and bales placed on the sidewalk are obstructions to travel. EFFRONTERY. Difficulty makes an undertaking otherwise than easy. a cliff or a boulder acros s the way is an obstacle. Compare ARROGANCE. A difficulty or a hindrance may be either within one or without. Rudenes s is the behavior that might be expected from a thoroughly uncultured person. co ntinuous. intrusiveness. presumption. forwardness. We speak of thoughtless impertinence. Impertinence has less of intent and d etermination than impudence. hindrance. position. forward.le. Im pudence is shameless impertinence. a knapsack is an encumbrance. at least for a time. or meddlesome speech. submi . as. A hindrance (kindred with hin d. a speaker may find difficulty in expressing himsel f. * * * * * IMPUDENCE. meekness. an ice-floe is an obstacle to navigation. and hence comes to signify interference by word or act not consis tent with the age. especially. benefit. an impediment in one's speech. or difficulty in holding the attention of restless children. insolence. humility. What would be arrogance in a superior becomes impertinence or impudence in an inferior. pertness. That which rests upon one as a burden is an encumbrance. Officiousness is thrusting upon others unas ked and undesired service. An obstruction is always an obstacle. Insolence is literally that which is against custom. relief. im pedimenta was the Latin name for the baggage of a soldier or of an army. Antonyms: advantage. The ten dency is to view an impediment as something constant or. sauciness. Synonyms: bar. clog. an d may be either deliberate and insulting or unintentional and even unconscious. effrontery. impertinence. offi ciousness.. the violatio n of customary respect and courtesy. ASSURANCE. coyness. Impertinence primarily denotes what does not pertain or belong to the occasion or the person. behind) is anything that makes one come behind or short of his purpose. An encumbrance i s always what one carries with him. PERTNESS. rudeness. an obstacle or an obstruction is always with out. an obstacle is something that stands across the way. diffidence. * * * * * IMPEDIMENT. an obstruction something that is built or placed ac ross the way. succor. assistance. incivility. difficulty. obstacle. modesty. lowliness. Synonyms: assurance. but an obstacle may not alwa ys be properly termed an obstruction. To a marching soldier the steepness of a mountain path is a difficulty.

and incompatible in fact. inapposite. through some attribute common to th em all. two colors are incongr uous which can not be agreeably associated. or an occasion. irreconcilable. incompatible.ssiveness. unsuitable. but is a milder term. mismated. inference. Incong ruous applies to relations. induction is reasoni ng from the particular to the general. or occasion. Synonyms: absurd. Discordant is applied to all things that jar in association like musical notes that are not in accord. or are not adapted to each ot her. Thus what is ordinarily known as scienti fic induction is a constant interchange of induction and deduction. agreeing. slavery and free dom are inconsistent with each other in theory. if the general rule is true. or impudence from. because we can never be sure that we have collated all instances. place. unsuitable to purpose or use. conflicting. Things are incompatible which can not exist together in harmonious relations. con tradictory. In deduction . contrary. disc ordant. to a general principle. inconsistent means unable to sta nd together. a thing is said to be incongruous that is not a dapted to the time. Two or more things that do not fit well together. on the other hand. or with some standard of truth or right. repugnant. Synonyms: deduction. are said to be incongruous. a subordinate to a superior. mismatched. inconsistent. a room. An indu ction is of the nature of an inference. Prepositions: The impudence of. suitable. consistent. discrepant. applying to t wo or more quantities that have no common measure or aliquot part. The proof of an induction is by using its conclu sion as the premise of a new deduction. and the special case falls under the rule. the co nclusion is certain. * * * * * INDUCTION. Incommensurable is a mathematical term. compatible. ill-matched. Incompatible primaril y signifies unable to sympathize or feel alike. harmonious. the term is also applied to a thing made up of ill-assorted parts or inharmonious elements. either may be unsuitable for a perso n. Antonyms: accordant. Inconsistent applies to things that can not be made to agree in th ought with each other. Deduction is reasoning from the general to the particular. induction can ordinarily give no more than a probable concl usion. incommensurable. * * * * * INCONGRUOUS. p roceeds from a number of collated instances. Preposition: The illustrations were incongruous with the theme. inharmonious. and whose action when associated tends to ultimate extinction of one by the other. Induction. but while an inference may be partial an . inappropriate. inhar monious has the same original sense. Deduction proceeds from a general princip le through an admitted instance to a conclusion.

sedulousn ess. intentness. action. Compare DEMONSTRATION . sedulous. an induction is careful. diligent. It would be ridiculous or satirical to say. hence. negligence. appli cation (L. But busy can be used in the sense of industrio us. he is industrious just now. occupied at the moment with something that takes his full attention. * * * * * INDUSTRY. employed. . We say one is a diligent. effort. business. perseverance. and aims to be complete. as when we say he is a busy man. fold) bends to its work and concentrates all one's powers upon it with utmost intensity.. ad. attention. HYPOTHESIS. engaged. we speak of plodding industry. A ssiduity (L. that is. Compare ACTIVE. and continued att ention or devotion to any useful or productive work or task. diligo. or profession. but not of plodding diligence. labor. steady. occupied. Industry is diligence applied to some avocation. fickleness. industrious to a ha bit of life. INDUSTRY. Synonyms: active.d hasty. Industrious signifies zealously or habitually applying oneself to any work or b usiness. to. with love of the work or deep interest in its accomplishment. inatten tion. assiduity. reader of the Bib le. busy. love. Synonyms: application. Pati ence works on in spite of annoyances. application can hardly be as unrem itting as assiduity. Antonyms: changeableness. idleness. Busy applies to an activity which may be temporary. indolence. assiduous. perseverance. constancy. Industry is the quality. as the etymology suggests. Diligent indicates also a disposition. In the use of the nouns. Diligence (L. implying that one persists in spite of co nsiderations that should induce him to desist. persistence has v ery frequently an unfavorable meaning. sloth. refer t o his continuance in the work. sits down to a task until it is done. Antonyms: See synonyms for IDLE. diligence. etc. rather than an industrious. choose) invests more effort a nd exertion. sit). perseverance overcomes hindrances and diff iculties. Labor and pains refer to the exertions of the worker and the tax upon him. remissness. patience. inconstancy. exertion. * * * * * INFINITE. We say a man is busy just now. whic h is ordinarily habitual. and suggests more of heartiness and volition than indu strious. while assiduity. and plico. * * * * * INDUSTRIOUS. to. manual or mental. ad. neglect. persistence strives relentlessly against opposition. Constancy is a steady devotion of heart and principle. persistence. and sedeo. pains. or habit of earnest.

retard. One may be driven either by his own passions or by external force or urgency. unfathomable. urge. every one is influenced to s ome extent by public opinion. unconditioned. illimitable. move. impel. one is compelled only by some external power. To urge and impel signify to produce strong excitation toward some act. measureless. dispose. and finis. compel. innumerable. vegetation is influenced by light. or act u pon by physical. Incite and instigate. in or into. mental. prevent. draw. flow) is to affect. dispose. One may i nfluence. countless. To excite is to arouse one from lethargy or indifference to action. Act uate refers solely to mental or moral power impelling one from within. which should be the same as infinite. innumerable delays.Synonyms: absolute. induce. are in common usag e vaguely employed to denote what it is difficult or practically impossible to c ount or number. in. moderate. boundless. as. we speak of the boundless ocean. quantity. Countless. limitless. and unlimited are loosely used in reference to what has no apparent or readily determinable limits in spa ce or time. inhibit . We are urged from without. excite. stir. Infinite (L. as. to spur or goad one to action. tho it may be used of motives regarded as forces acting upon the will. but in thought. prompt. not only in fact. influence is chiefly used of power acting from wit hout. modify. incline. transitory. little. lead. Compare syn onyms for ETERNAL. limitless. countless leaves. restricted. measu reless. finite. sway. infinite time is truly eternal. circumscribed. short. impelled from within. Antonyms: deter. in. Infinite space is without bound s. transient. too. Prompt and stir are words of mere suggestion toward some course of action. numberless battles. Drive and compel imply irresistible i nfluence accomplishing its object. draw. DRIVE. limit) signifies without bounds or limits in a ny way. illimitable. tho perhaps falling far short of infinite. not. restrain. . the countless sands on the seashore. unbounded. drive. but one may be actuated to cruel ty by hatred which another's misrepresentation has aroused. discourage. small. subtle. i nfluence. Prepositions: Actuated to crime by revenge. incite. unlimited. narrow. a s. and numberless. So . evanescent. and lead refer to the use of mild means to awaken in another a purpose or disposition to act. especially in some gentle. and fluo. but can not directly actuate another. brief. impede. instigate. To influence (L. eternal. Synonyms: actuate. numberless. limited. as. innum erable. incline. in terminable. hinder. per suade. or moral power. unmeasured. differ in the f act that incite may be to good. Antonyms: bounded. shall ow. dissuade. and may be applied to space. * * * * * INFLUENCE. while instigate is always to evil (compare ABET) . or number. immeasurable. measurable. boundless. the owner was compelled by his misfortunes to sell his estate. Compare COMPEL . and gradual way. time.

deterere. Ingrained signifies dyed in the grain. as. but inherent applies to qualities. whatever is so done as to operate a dversely to one in his person. Synonyms: congenital. congenital id iocy. injustice. Immanent is a philosophic word. casual. Antonyms: accidental. inwrought. hurt. fortuitous. while intrinsic applies to essence . not. natural. or reputation is an injury. evil. and is usually thought of with reference t o some outworking or effect. Inherent signifies permanently united as an element or original quality. transient. that which is inborn. utility. innate. inborn. of persons. as a rule. native. right. damage always aff ects real worth or utility. and jus. but innate is preferred in philoso phic use. superimpos ed. in. superfluous. * * * * * INJURY. to denote that which dwells in or pervades any substance or spirit without necessarily being a part of it. but far milder. as when we speak of innate ideas. often with the suggestion of fault on the part of the one causing it. hence. or desirableness of anyt hing is an injury to that thing. innate. an inherent difficulty. damnum. Injury (L. disadvantage. loss) is th at which occasions loss to the possessor. Innate and inborn are almost identical. intrinsic. Frequently intrinsic and inherent can be int erchanged. I njury is the general term including all the rest. Congenital is frequent in medical and legal use with special application to defects. infixed. detriment (L. superficial. inhering. or innate may be original with the individual. but that which is inbred is inherit ed. ingrained. internal. as. essential. as. impairment. loss. prejudice. detriment. juris. utility. inbred. Synonyms: blemish. the slightest use of an article by a purc haser operates to its detriment if again offered for sale. harm. supplemental. rights. inborn. outward. unconnected. loss is properly absol . whatever reduces the value. subjective. so that to speak of intrinsic excellence conveys higher praise than if we say inherent excellence. and without referenc e to any working out (compare SUBJECTIVE). Damage (L. apply to living beings. inbred. congenital. That which is inherent is an insepara ble part of that in which it inheres. the word is especially used of whatever mars the integrity of the body or causes pa in. damage. inseparable. natura lly existent or incorporated in something so as to have become an integral part. to rub or wear away) is simila r in meaning. wrong. or beauty. when rescued from the wreck his injuries were found to be very slight. something contrary to some standard of righ t or good. beauty. property. immanent. damage reduces v alue. Inherent and intrinsic may be said of persons or things. subsidiary. extrinsic. and denotes that which is deeply wrou ght into substance or character. tho the article may h ave received not the slightest damage. law) signifies primarily something d one contrary to law or right. external. mischie f. superadded. any impairment of value. indispensable. co ngenital. incidental. outrage. God is said to be imman ent (not inherent) in the universe. Damage is partial.* * * * * INHERENT. hence. Detriment may affect value only. indwelling.

an innocent babe. inoffensive. Mischief is disarrangement. etc. An outrage combines insult and injury. or estate. property. Innocent i s a negative word. trouble. property. CRIMINAL. * * * * * INNOCENT. or harm usually caus ed by some voluntary agent. Compare synonyms for CRIMINAL. is a want of or a deviation from equity. the loss of a ship implies that it is gon e beyond recovery. right. pure. while injury may concern only estimat ed value. righteousness. integrity. * * * * * INJUSTICE. fair play. clear. harmless. unfairness. or both. which i . injury. Innocent. righteous. iniquity. A hurt is an injury that causes pain. signifies not tainted with sin. spotless. mind. stainless. but always affects real worth. Harm is closely synonymous with injury. a child's thoughtl ess sport may do great mischief. Compare synonyms for BLEMISH. rectitude. but since the loss of a part still leaves a part. upright. injury by fire. faithfulness. a slight hur t may be no real harm. justice. honest y. Synonyms: grievance. injustice applies to civil damage or loss. the injustice of unequal taxes. boon. or reputation. innoxious. lawfulness. as by misrepresentation of goods which does not amount to a legal warranty. amelioration. r emedy. Antonyms: advantage. interest. as. one who attributes another's truly generous act to a selfis h motive does him an injustice. sinless. improvement. the loss of the rudder is a damage to the ship. clean. In legal usage a w rong involves injury to person. wrong. not necessarily involving inju ry to person or property. by or from collision. while wrong a lways involves both. as the result of evil i ntent. immaculate. expressing less than righteous. with or without injurious intent. blessing. SIN. utility. or character. not having done wr ong or violated legal or moral precept or duty. uprightness. Prepositions: The injury of the cause. honor. Evil commonly suggests suffering or sin. the evils of poverty. wrong is harm done with evil intent. innocuous. impartiality. and no harmful intent. in the original sense. guiltless. Injustice is a violation or denial of justice.ute as far as it is predicated at all. gu ileless. In popular usage. fairness. Antonyms: equity. faultless. it may apply to body. an injury to the structure. Synonyms: blameless. as. help. the social evil. unrighteousness. INJUSTICE. we may speak of a partial or a total loss. Iniquity. benefit. right. in the full sense. as. service. but it is now applied in the widest sense to any form of ill-doing. upright. interference. injustice may involve no direct injury t o person. physical or mental. an act or omission that is contr ary to equity or justice. virtuous. or virtuous.

intrusive. Synonyms: aberration. Lunacy originally denot ed intermittent insanity. upright. even if not helpful. dementia. Antonyms: Compare synonyms for CRIMINAL. inattent ive. signifies free from the guilt of a particular act. craziness. but without the active tenden cy that inquisitive implies. man ia. tho in such con nection inquiring is to be preferred. lunacy.mply knowledge of good and evil. and hence is generally meddlesome and prying. as. heedless. Synonyms: curious. scrutinizing. Prepositions: Inquisitive about. Innocent. an inquiring mind. peeping. delirium. uninterested. frenzy. A little child or a lamb is innocent. now less common. but in its more frequent restricted use applied to those forms in which the mental disorder is persistent. the thief was found to be innocent of the murder. concerning. * * * * * INQUISITIVE. Inn ocent is used of inanimate substances in the sense of harmless. inquiring. alienation. especially of little and personal matters. in a specific case. luna): the term is now applied in general and legal use to any form of mental unsoundness except idiocy. for . a well-bred person may be curious to know. I mmaculate. pure. an innocent remedy. Craziness is a vague popular term for any sort of disordered mental action. in regard to. as. regarding trifles. as. prying. and sinless may be used either of one who has never known the p ossibility of evil or of one who has perfectly and triumphantly resisted it. Of these terms insanity is the most exact and comprehensive. S ee CANDID. Antonyms: apathetic. with free choice of the good. indifferent. but will not be inquisitive in trying to ascertain. Madness is the old popular term. As applied to a sta te of mind. or for conduct suggesting it. Inquisitive may be used in a good sense. madness. monomania. meddlesome. that is. curious denotes a keen and rather pleasurable desire to know fully s omething to which one's attention has been called. supposed to be dependent on the changes of the moon (L . virtuous. search ing. as distinguished from those in which it is temporary or transient. hallucination. * * * * * INSANITY. what is of interest in the affairs o f another. careless. An inquisitive person is one who is bent on finding out all that can be found o ut by inquiry. one not dangerous. unconcerned. including in its w idest sense all morbid conditions of mind due to diseased action of the brain or nervous system. PURE. a tried and faithful man is righteous. meddling. even tho the total cha racter may be very evil. derangement.

Antonyms: avoid. intercept. and is specifically the insanity of disease. and plead with the stronger in behalf of the weaker. rationality. sanity. include. embarrass. intermeddle. but with suggestion of excitement. keep out. Dementia is a general weakening of the mental powers: the word is specificall y applied to senile insanity. entangle. akin to mania. One who arbitrates or m ediates must do so by the request or at least with the consent of the contending parties. withdraw. Prepositions: Interpose between the combatants. as the seeing of specters or of reptiles in delirium tremens. Aberration is eccentricity of mental actio n due to an abnormal state of the perceptive faculties. as. interfere. med iate. stand back. let be. Compare synonyms for DELUSION. and is manifested by err or in perceptions and rambling thought. and interfere frequently so. intermeddle always in a bad sense. as in acute fever s. the other words of the group imply that he steps in of his own accord. * * * * * INTERPOSE. or be expected to take place. One may interpose with authority. implicate. Frenzy and mania are forms of raving and furious insan ity. Hallucination is the apparent perception of that which does not exist or is not present to the senses. lucidity." Prov. he intercedes by pet ition. dotage. lunacy denotes what is insanely foolish. keep away. Derangement is a common euphemism for insanity. to interfere is to intrude into others' affairs wit h more serious purpose. Antonyms: clearness. Synonyms: complicate. Synonyms: arbitrate. as. overwhelm. t o intercept a letter or a messenger. meddle. stand aside. to break) by some disturbing power. IDIOCY. imply. keep aloof. hold off. stand off. . Monomania is mental derangement as to one subject or object.insanity in its widest sense. "every fool wil l be meddling. hold aloof. retire. with or without acknowledged right or propriety. rumpere. the conversation was interrupted. stand away. To intermeddle is to thrust oneself into the concerns of others with a pe tty officiousness. good sense. keep clear. meddling commonly arises from idle curiosity. interrupt is applied to an action which mig ht or should be continuous. let alo ne. but is broken in upon (L. usually as a means of obstruction or prevention of some effect or result that would otherwise occur. in the matter. interrupt. Delirium is always temporary. intercede. embroil. To interpose is to place or come between other things or persons. 3. * * * * * INVOLVE. In the derived sense. xx. madness what is insanely desperate. Intercede and interpose are used in a good sense. Interce pt is applied to an object that may be seized or stopped while in transit. To inter cede is to come between persons who are at variance.

as. in. A trip is a short and direct journey. an excursion to Chautauqua. separate. or business tour. or perplexities. from L. trip. by land. one is implicated in a crim e. retains in derived uses something of that sense. but implicate applies only to that which is wrong. o n the cars. over the s ea. * * * * * JUDGE. among savages. justice. roll) is to roll or wind up with or in so as to combine inextricably or inseparably. as. by rail. while involve is more commonly used of that which is unfortunate. a bridal tour. journée. in. daily) was primarily a day's work. diurnus. explicate. or the journey of life. implicate is always used in an unfavorable sense. as. Travel is a passing from place to place . As a pplied to persons. generally over a considerable distance. Synonyms: arbiter. misfortunes. hence. especially by water. a movement from place to place within one day. An excursion is a brief tour or journey. referee. pilgrimage. taken for pleasure. tour. which was formerly a journey of any kind. the nation is involved in war. See COMPLEX. etc. remove. Synonyms: excursion. extricate. that th e roof shall be water-tight is implied. not necessarily in a direct line or with fixed destination. or nearly so. distinguish. the contrary supposition involves an abs urdity. the bookkeeper's accounts. a rough passag e across the Atlantic. for health. transit. and involve ordinarily so. on foot. that which is involved is n ecessarily to be inferred. Invo lve is a stronger word than implicate. Pilgrimage. Passage is a gener al word for a journey by any conveyance. as. * * * * * JOURNEY. literally the act of passing over or through. a journey into Asia. as. denoting more complete entanglement. a voyage to India.To involve (L. arbitrator. but may include many journeys in d ifferent directions. is now a going to a considerable distance by water." in its extended modern use a journey is a direct going from a starti ng-point to a destination. expedition. umpire. transit. voyage. through Mexico. and volvo. Antonyms: disconnect. but is naturally to be inferred. A tour is a journey that returns to the starting-point. once always of a sacred character. we speak of a day's journey. travel. A voyage. a slate roof is included in the contract. that which is imp lied is not stated. ordinarily over a considerable distance. disentangle. especially by sea. is used specifically of the conveyance of passengers or merchandise. or the writer's sentences are involved. as. a journey through Europe would be a passage to some destination beyond or at the farther boundary. rapid transit is demanded for suburban residents or perishable goods. across the continent. . As regards logical connection that which is included is usually expressly stated. as. Prepositions: A journey from Naples to Rome. involved in embarrassments. o ften by many persons at once. a p ilgrimage to Stratford-on-Avon. which we now describe as "a day' s journey. A journey (F. travel in Europe may be in no direct course.

as. in the widest sense. impartiality.. the Supreme Arbiter of our destinies. 27. faithfulness. a person is said to be a j udge of pictures. and thus including perfect j ustice. but it has a philoso phical and legal precision that those words have not. but in its higher sense s ignifying accordance with the supreme law of right. integrity. meaning in its narrower se nse mere legality. in the legal sense. lawfulness. ch. de vised to supply the insufficiencies of law. whether in act. legality. Justness refers rather to logical relations than to practical matters. 429. which is giving others that which is their due. the judges o f election. rect itude. the name is sometimes given to other legally constituted officers. rectitude. with its suggestion of final and absolute decision. in other relations. unprejudiced. the umpire of a game of ball or cricket. or consideration as is given to any other. Arbiter. a s. has come to be used only in a high or sacred sense." BL ACKSTONE bk. wrong. and thus necessarily include justice. unlawfulness. the judges at an agricultural fair. just in the main. as. injustice. honor. or of doing justice to a subject. n. or though t. an arbitrator is ch osen by the contending parties to decide matters in dispute without action by a court. not necessarily involving any consideration of what any other may deserve. * * * * * JUSTICE. in matters of reasoning. In legal proceedings cases arise for which the law has not adequately provided. word. In its governmental relations. Integrity. unreasonableness. Synonyms: equity. uprightness. as. it is that which is equally right or just to all concerned. are technically known as justices. fair play. partiality. See JUDGE. we speak of the justness of a statement or of a criticism. In most games the judge is ca lled an umpire. rightfulness. deals with cases "to which the law b y reason of its universality can not apply. equity is equal justice and is thus a close synonym for fairness and impartiality. any person who has good capacity for judging is called a judge. which may be very far from justice. or literary work of any kind. as the Uni ted States Supreme Court. In personal and social relations justice is th e rendering to every one what is due or merited. inequity. In certain cases an umpire is appointed by a court to decide where arbitr ators disagree. any person duly appointed to pass upon the merit s of contestants or of competing articles may be called a judge. is a judicial officer appointed or elected to pres ide in courts of law. Lawfulness is an ambiguous word. privilege. and to decide legal questions duly brought before him. virtue. t ruth. iii. as. as. unfairness. and unbiased adherence to essential truth or fact. p. would work individual hardship. we speak of the justice of a statement. righteousness and virtue denote conformity of personal conduct to the moral law. untruth. right. or a good judge of a horse. law. The judges of certain courts. justice is close. fait hful. righteousness. or in which general provis ions. justice is the giving to every person exactly what he deserves.. or at a race-track. is the soul and spirit of all law. human or divine. The system of equity. right. positive law is construed and rational law is made by it. war must now be the arbiter . fairness. A referee is appoin ted by a court to decide disputed matters between litigants." "Equity. favoritism. etc. Antonyms: dishonesty. . equity (the quality of being equal) is giving every one as much advantage. justness. then.A judge. Prepositions: .

we keep or hold a prisoner in custod y. murder. defend. murder. To slay is to k ill by a blow. from evil. slaughter. with a dagger. to massacre is s aid when there is no chance of successful resistance. an occasion. to or for the oppressed. Assassinate. etc. * * * * * . observe. Keep. refrain. sup port. Compare CELEBRATE. or v iolence. grief. slay. such words as preserve or maintain could not be substituted without loss. stro ng Saxon term for many acts which are more exactly discriminated by other words. in or within the house. with no sugg estion of how or why. we keep or obey a commandment. etc. massacre is applied primarily and almost exclusively to human bei ngs. soldiers mown down in a hopeless charge are said to be s laughtered when no brutality on the enemy's part is implied. a man support s his family. this word is chiefly applied to the killing of public or eminent person s through alleged political motives. observe. To kill is simply to deprive of life. we keep or maintain a horse. pestilence. to murder is to kill with premeditation and malicious intent. put to death. Synonyms: assassinate. keep the peace. preserve. Prepositions: To kill with or by sword. guard. we keep from or refrain from evil. he keeps or carr ies a certain line of goods. signifying generally to have and retain in possession. in mind. keep for a person. a servant. In the ex pressions to keep a secret. butcher. keep or fulfil a promise. to butcher when the killin g is especially brutal.. whether secretly or openly. animal. celebrate. retain. hold. maintain. keep one's own counsel. ourselves. conducts or carries on a business. to assassinate is to kill by assault. killed for his money. by a robber. signifying to kill them indiscriminately in large numbers. execute. despatch. out of mischief.The justice of the king. Prepositions: Keep in hand. To despatch is to k ill swiftly and in general quietly. we keep or preserve silence. or by a weapon. we may keep or restrain one from folly. keep faith. crime. conduct. apply only to the taking of human life. keep to the subject. * * * * * KEEP. human. RESTRAIN. care. to exe cute is to kill in fulfilment of a legal sentence. always with intention. massacre. restra in. Butcher and slaughter apply primarily to the kill ing of cattle. with or without right . Synonyms: carry. famine. is the terse. or celebrate a festival. obey. carry on. fulfil. preserve order--preserve being t he more formal word.. execute. or keep the fait h. sustain. A p erson keeps a shop or store. or vegetable. detain. * * * * * KILL. withhold. Keep in the sense of guar d or defend implies that the defense is effectual. etc. protect. We keep.

humankind. There is a tendency to regard knowledge as accurate and systematic. Synonyms: affinity. family. from whatever source derived or obtained. and ability. kindred. Lore is used only in poetic or elevated style. the aggregate of facts. blood. apprehension. misconception. since strangers. kind. descent. Intuition is primary knowledge antecedent to all teaching or r easoning. or of an intelligent man of the world. relatives or relations. Antonyms: ignorance. opportunity. as of the who le human species in mankind. or observation. Synonyms: . that he has a fund of varied information. the result of long. causes. race. Knowledge is all that the mind knows. experience is knowledge that has entered directly into one's own life. Compare ACQUAINTANCE. for accumulated knowledge. a child's experience that fire will burn. intuition. WISD OM. and is regarded as casual and h aphazard. light . fo reigners. derived from persons.. denoting the most general relationship. We speak of p erception of external objects. EDUCATION. Synonyms: acquaintance. kin and kindred denote direct rela tionship that can be traced through either blood or marriage. Learning is much higher than info rmation. a ssiduous study. learning. erudition. consanguinity. lore. etc. SCIENCE. aliens. There are no true antonym s of kin or kindred. inexperience. misapprehension. or by whatever process. Kind is broader than kin. perception. consanguinity is relationship by blood.KIN. illiteracy. Information is knowledge of fact. being preeminently wide and systematic knowledge. misunderstanding. principles. rudeness. cognizance. science. real or suppos ed. an d to a certain degree complete. erudition is recondite learning secured only by extraordinary in dustry. and foes may still be kin or kindred. We say of a studious man that he has a great store of knowledge. relationship. wisdom. except those made by negatives. or in a more limited sense for learning or erudition. comprehension. birth. merely as such. including alike the intuitions native to the mind and a ll that has been learned respecting phenomena. apprehension of intellectual truth. we take cognizance of it. etc. recognition. information. Affinity is relationshi p by marriage. * * * * * LANGUAGE. preferably the for mer. literat ure. truths. or principles acquired or retained by the mind. as of a pe ople or age. either of these words may signify collectively all persons of the same bloo d or members of the same family. the cognitio n of the same objects is a knowledge of them in some relation. experience. intelligence. cognizance is the formal or official recognition of something as an object of knowledge. books. as. alliance. Simple percep tion gives a limited knowledge of external objects. cognition. laws. unfamiliarity. scholarship. * * * * * KNOWLEDGE.

principle. from the Latin. and beyond the average of t he class to which the object belongs. Compare DICTION. slight. as in the case of the Italian lazzaroni or the former negro slaves in the United States. gigantic. Language (F. A tongue is the speech or language of some one people. Synonyms: abundant. * * * * * LAW. or race. slender. commandment. regulation. the words or combinations forming a means of communication among the members of a single nati on.barbarism. mean. grand. expression. order. edict. narrow. broad. polity. economy. great. a large room. those who speak a patois understand the cultured form of their own language. diminutive. considerable. vernacular. and the way of forming or using words. speech. the language of the eyes. minute. extensive. insignificant. comma nd. commodi ous. Speech involves always the power of articulate utterance. coarse. and. Large denotes extension in more than one direction. of one's native language. bulky. colossal. Idiom refers to the construc tion of phrases and sentences. or some usage akin to that. dialect. ju risprudence. We do no t say that George Washington was a big man. but of a long line. spacious. statute. etc. paltry. Vernacular. infinitesimal. or that of a people. or race. Synonyms: canon. it is the peculiar mold in which each language casts its thought. in a more limited sense. Antonyms: brief. tongue. inconsiderable. but not of their speech. legislation. trifling. langage < L. language in its broadest sense denotes all the utter ed sounds and their combinations into words and sentences that human beings empl oy for the communication of thought. as. diction. the Scriptures were translated into the vernacular. small. microscopic. but speak onl y the degraded form. mother tongue. w e can speak of the language of animals. vocabulary. Big is a more emphatic word than large. limited. * * * * * LARGE. enactment. belonging to the lower classes. tiny. country. decree. massive. code. immense. A large man is a man of more than ordinary size. a large apple. not recognized as in accordance with the best usage. capacious. scanty. formula. mandate. vast. rule. but now in its widest sense it signifies expression o f thought by any means. a large field. long. short. ordinance. patois. a great man is a man of remarkable men tal power. The great difficulty of translation is to give the thought expressed in one language in the idiom of ano ther. the tongue) signified originally expression o f thought by spoken words. A dialect may be used by the highest as well as the lowest within its rang e. people. the language of flowers. pe tty. lingua. big. we speak of a large surface or a large sol id. little. . idiom. huge. as. A s regards the use of words. a barbarism is a perversion of a language by ignorant foreigners. has the same general s ense as the Saxon mother tongue. trivial. but of less dignity. a patois is distinctly illiterate. ample. wide. A dialect is a special mode of speaking a language peculiar to some locality or class. enormous.

for an occasion or a purpose. Statute is the recognized legal term for a s pecific law. the code of Draco. state. jurisprudence is the science of law. fr eedom is the absence of restraint. as. as. primarily the management of a house) is any comprehensive system of administration. domestic economy. the laws of business. the decree of a court. freedom an d liberty of individuals. the t en commandments. t he term is applied to any legislative act. in the wider sense. as. Roman jurisprudence. . in its broadest sense. with the entire system. liberty relative. ecclesiastical canons. enactment is the more vague and general expression. a superior court issues its mandate to an inf erior court to send up its records. A mandate is speci fic. a bounded liberty. church. Compare ALLOW. especially the latter. and interpreted. In more strictly scientific use. independence. legislation. Law is often used. and we speak of the English common law. denotes also the body of statutes enacted by a legislative body. we speak of the edict of an emperor. An edict is the act of an absolute sovereign or other authority . the commands of a parent. it is the state of being exempt from the d omination of others or from restricting circumstances. with adequate penalty for disobedience. army regulat ions. but the principles on which they are based. or to the system as administered. military orders. British le gislation. or the law of nations . or gains his freedom. hence commonly with special reference to details or particulars. the Mosaic economy. We speak of alg ebraic or chemical formulas. from polis. the rules of a business house. and a reckless doing of all that individ ual caprice or passion may choose to do--a base and dangerous counterfeit of fre edom. in its limited sense. Freedom and liberty are c onstantly interchanged. In general terms. while polity h as more reference to broad principles. A code is a system of laws. signifying a body of laws and regul ations. License is. classed. o f which they form a part. however imperfect or unjust. in common use. or method of government of a nation. freedom. for a recognized principle. a lso. in usage it differs from economy as applying rather to the system. in its ideal. Polity (Gr. Liberty keeps quite strictly to the thought of being clear of restraint or compulsion. a city) signifies the form. but the word is extended to the admini stration or government of a state or people. it may be said that freedom is absolute. * * * * * LIBERTY. including not only all special law s. liberty is primarily the removal or avoidance of restraint. municipal ordinances. or other institution. An economy (Gr. PERMISSION. a permission or privilege granted by adeq uate authority. Command and commandment are personal and particular. thus. freedom takes a wider range. we speak of freedom from annoyance or intrus ion. license. as. politeia.Law. or a system of laws scientifically c onsidered. as. whose violation is attended with injury or loss that acts like a penalty. The Mosaic economy is known also as the Mosaic law. Synonyms: emancipation. the slave is set at liberty. a natural law is simply a recognized system of sequenc es or relations. primarily the act of legislati ng. political or religious. constitution. while economy applies especially to method. by competent authority. an economy might be ter med a polity considered with especial reference to its practical administration. the independence of the United States did not secure l iberty or freedom to its slaves. Law is also used as a collective noun for a syste m of laws or recognized rules or regulations. the laws of nature. applying to other oppressive influences. Independence is said of states or nations. is the statement of a principle of right in mandatory form. license is an ignoring an d defiance of all that should restrain. but f reedom is the nobler word. Kepler's laws of planetary distances. oikonomia.

luster. servitude. necessity. of the shimmer of waves in sunlight or moonlight. the glare of torches. as. obligation. s uperstition. glare. imprisonment. flame. shadow. and usually. shining. the flash of gunpowder. Glistening is a shining as from a wet surface. a thing is conjectural which is conjectured as possible or proba . glistening. likely in such connection is used ironically to signify the rever se. the glitter of bu rnished arms. as. A sparkle is a sudden light. brilliant light. A flare is a wavering flame or blaze. and shimmer denote wavering light. flash. a likely story! A thing is conceivable of which the mind can entertain t he possibility. constraint. Antonyms: blackness. a glitter is a hard light. as. scintillations of wit o r of genius. Synonyms: apt. a sudden gleam of light c ame through the half-open door. incandescence. glow. gleam. glister ing. if it contain s few solid particles it will yield little light. A flame is both hot and luminous. from the faintest phosphorescence to the blaze of the noonday sun. twinkling. dimness. as. slavery. Likely refers to a contingent event regarded as very probable. glimm er. liable. the glow subdued. dark. gleaming. compulsion. presumable. illumination. Illumination is a widespread. The glare and glow are steady. glitter. Gli mmer. flicker. gloom. the glow of dying embers. an industrious wor ker is likely to succeed. as. shade. gloominess. favorable. serfdom. dusk. Credible signifies readily to be believed. is used as a general term fo r any luminous effect discernible by the eye. Liable refers to a contingency regarded as unfavorable. a flash of lightning. A blaze is an extensive. but transient or intermittent. glitter. conjectural. as. Synonyms: blaze. a credi ble narrative. as in the case of a hydrogen-flame. tho not always. We speak of the glimmer of dis tant lamps through the mist. * * * * * LIKELY. reasonab le. tho it may afford intense heat . scintillatio n is the more exact and scientific term for the actual emission of sparks. Twinkle and twinkling are used of the intermittent light of the fix ed stars. Light. A gleam is not wavering.Antonyms: captivity. as. sparkle. shine. as. conceivable. oppression. also the figurative term for what suggests such emission. The light of incandescence is intense and white like that from metal at a white heat. flare. obscurity. brilliant flame. shimmer. usually by reflection. * * * * * LIGHT. twinkle. a flash is a light that appears and disapp ears in an instant. as when all the windows of a house or of a street are l ighted. strictly denoting a form of radiant energy. an impetuous person is apt to speak hastily. sheen is a faint shining. the ship wa s liable to founder at any moment. darkness. Shine and shining refer to a steady or co ntinuous emission of light. the glare painfully bright. sheen. probable. Apt implies a natural fitness or tendency. thraldom. credible. scintillation. as of sparks thrown out.

In the broad sense. as the orations of Demosthenes. the works collectively that embody taste.ble without other support than a conjecture. hark. or in s ome department of human knowledge. loftiness of thought. referring to all that has been published in some land or age. in the narrower sense. as words suddenly uttered in an adjoining room. slight. Antonyms: be deaf to. hear. or we may listen wit hout hearing. Prepositions: We listen for what we expect or desire to hear. To heed is not only to atten d. as the "Republic" of Plato. writ ings. dubious. SCIENCE. including also much of philosophical writing. Literature is collective. * * * * * LITERATURE. or in a more limi ted sense. a train. Literature is also used to signify literary pursuits or occupations. that seems a reasonable supposition. unreasonable. we listen to what we actually d o hear. independently of external grounds for belief or disbelief. i.. harken. * * * * * LISTEN. but to remember and observe. denotes what has been called "polite literature" or belles-lettres. Between listen and hear is a difference like that between the words look and se e. (Compare synonyms for LOOK. used abso lutely. and dramatic compositio ns. tho listening implies so me attention to the meaning or import of the sound. history. may betaken for granted in adv ance of proof. the literature of politics or of art. questionable. unlikely . We may hear without listening. literary productions. as. a thing is p resumable which. books. Antonyms: doubtful. In listening the ear is intent upon the s ound. feeling. as. the literature of Greece. neglect. list. as to a distant speaker. publications. Compare APPARENT. to listen is to make a conscious effort or endeavor to hear. fiction. we speak of lite rature and science as distinct departments of knowledge. incredible. literary works. ignore. listen to the debate.) To hear is simply to become conscious of sound. listen for a step. in attending the mind is intent upon the thought. from what is antecedently known. we can speak of the literature of science. an d oratorical productions. and purity and beauty of style. Synonyms: attend. Literature. a signal. including in the most general sense all the written o r printed productions of the human mind in all lands and ages. Compare KNOWLEDGE. as poetry. heed. e . as. scorn. Reasonable in this connection signifies such as the reason can be satisfied with. to devote one's life to litera ture. Harken is nearly obsolete. improbable. . the literature of the Augustan age. Synonyms: belles-lettres. or tentative judgment.

n. A hasp is a metallic strap that fits over a staple. alarm. etc. or what is custo marily so imposed. view. as the clasp of a book. calculated to be secured by a padlock. by which an op ening is obstructed. and the animal is known as a pack-horse or pack-mule. Weight measures the pressure due to gra vity. cargo. regard. which is. freight. sliding in a socket and adapted for secu ring a door or window. a two-horse load. or vehicle for conveyance. contemplate. or rudeness. clasp. scan. A clasp is a fastening that can be sprung into place. or carriage) is what is laid upon a person. To gaze is to look int ently. see. as in pitch-darkness. pack. as. incubus. said to be "shipped. cover. To glance is to look casually or momen tarily. the bolt is the essential part of the lock. stare. * * * * * LOCK. catch. long. glance. usually of considerable size. Synonyms: burden. animal. To see is simply to become conscious of an object of vision. A burden (from the Anglo-Saxon byrthen. bear) is what one has to bear. gaze. We may look without seeing. hasp. as in case of a flash of lightning. * * * * * LOOK. Synonyms: behold. etc. fastening. and steadily upon an object. d escry. To behold is to fix the sight and the m ind with distinctness and consideration upon something that has come to be clear ly before the eyes. to look is to make a conscious and direct endeavor to see. or it may be known as freight or lading. from the verb beran.* * * * * LOAD. latch. to note every visible . course. bolt. A latch or catch is an accessible fastening designed to be easily m ovable. lading. a way. or other device. To stare is to look with a fixed intensity such as is the effect of surp rise. A lock is an arrangement by which an enclosed bolt is sho t forward or backward by a key. Synonyms: bar. hook. Freight denotes merchand ise in or for transportation and is used largely of transportation or of merchan dise transported by rail. and the word is used always of that which is borne by a living agen t. a simple hook that fits into a staple is also called a hasp. To scan is to look at minutely. in commercial language. and we may see without looking. a door held fast. encumbrance. discern. to draw and hold the parts of som e enclosing object firmly together. inspect. watch. carrying. the same weight that one finds a moderate load when in his full strength b ecomes a heavy burden in weariness or weakness. A load (from the Anglo-Saxon l[=a]d. A bar is a piece of wood or metal. a bolt is a movable rod or pin of metal. weigh t. charge. survey. A ship's load is called distinct ively a cargo. A bar may be movable or permanent. and simply to secure against accidental opening of the door. " A load to be fastened upon a horse or mule is called a pack. clog.

Synonyms: become. Antonyms: See synonyms for ANTIPATHY. Love can never properly denote mere anima l passion. and to desire to please and benefit the person. friendship. construct. . or for abstract qualities that enlist the affections. survey expressing the greater exactness of measu rement or estimate. bring about. etc. Love may denote the sublim est and holiest spiritual affection as when we are taught that "God is love. more intense. devotion. compel. Love of articles of food is better expressed by liking. Compa re APPEAR. exe cute. for humanity. bring to pass.feature. deep. make out. being less fervent and ardent than love. Synonyms: affection. the love that normally leads to marriage. impulsive. liking. tender. * * * * * LOVE. reach . establish. perform. To inspect is to go below the surface. ENMITY. uncover. desire. or other object of affection. attraction. love to God and man. xiii. bring into being. charity. Prepositions: Love of country. fondness. a signal. for inanimate objects. love may be briefly defined as strong and absorbing af fection for and attraction toward a person or object. attachment. The Revised Version uses love in place of charity in 1 Cor. force. beautiful. going out to some pers on or object. Vie w and survey are comprehensive. study item by item. FRIENDSHI P. fabricate." Ch arity has so far swung aside from this original meaning that probably it never c an be recalled (compare BENEVOLENCE). absorbing. ocean. we speak of fervent love. constrain. effect. whether applied to person s or things. w e watch for a movement or change. tendernes s. make up. drawing one toward a pers on or object and causing one to appreciate. or of love of nature. and crave the presence o r possession of the person or object loved. One may p roperly be said to have love for animals. constitute. and elsewhere. truth. render. Love is an intense and absorbing emotion. for mountains. or of close. woods. such as can have no place in connectio n with objects that minister merely to the senses. * * * * * MAKE. Love is used specifically for personal affection between th e sexes in the highest sense. fashion. and love of virtue. shape. do. create. as we speak of love for a horse or a dog. and subs ists throughout all happy wedded life. in its full sense. firm . which is expressed by such words as appetite. the approach of an enemy. and tend er than friendship. or desirable. it is the yearning or outgoing of soul toward something that is regarded as excellent. manufacture. but of deep or tender affection. occ asion. delight in. cause. lust. Compare ATTACHMENT. compose. Love is more intense. HATRED. strong friendship. or to advance the cause. Affection is kindly feeling. get. require. Watch brings in the element of time and often of wariness. and perhaps passionate than affecti on. regard. expr esses something spiritual and reciprocal. as love. and constant. frame.

virile. celibacy. as in Gen. CONFESS. or compel him to do it. as. i. made with hands. by which two persons are united as husband and wife. she acted with masculine courage or decision. Antonyms: See synonyms for ABOLISH. tho one may say in a commendat ory way. of one person to or with another. (make better) AMEND. * * * * * MASCULINE. or the like. manlike. Wedding denotes the ceremony . To make is to cause to exist. make on the accomplished fact. virginity. BREAK. nuptials. (make haste) QUICKEN. hardier. divorce. as. and more imperious qualities that distinguish the male sex. wedlock. or from certain materials. 31. maidenhood." Make includes also the idea of compose. rude. "And God saw everything that he had made. to the idea of cause all its various senses may be traced (compare synonyms for CAUSE). manly. especially to the stronge r. Similarly. into a certain form. AVOW. made by a prisoner. the word thus includes the idea of create. Prepositions: Make of. (make void) CANCEL. by hand. behold. Matrimony denotes the state of those who are united in the relation of husband and wife. espousals. widowhood. to cause a voluntary agent to do a certain act is to make him do it. manful. (make known) ANNOUNCE. * * * * * MARRIAGE. or h arsh. matrimony. with any attendant festivities. We apply male to the sex. out of. wedding. (make prisoner) ARREST. and . Compare COMPEL. union. mannish. Manlike may mean only hav . for a certain purpose or person. masculine has often the depreciatory sense of unwomanly. Prepositions: Marriage of or between two persons. Antonyms: bachelorhood. Synonyms: conjugal union. a word of specific legal use. Synonyms: male. espousal. the parts make up the whole. as appli ed to women. DO. nuptials being the more formal and stately term to express the same idea. among the Greeks. DEMOLISH. sp ousal. marriage denotes primarily the act of so uniting. is the Saxon t erm for the state or relation denoted by matrimony. or to caus e to exist in a certain form or in certain relations. but is extensively u sed for the state as well.Make is essentially causative. masculine to the qualities. with a jack-kni fe. IN FLUENCE. Wedlock. a masculine face or voice. it was very good. compel fixing the atte ntion more on the process. constitute. spousals. (make up) ADD.

Antonyms: See synonyms for FEMININE. etc. unobtrusive. flesh) refers to widely scattered or heaped up corpses of the slain. * * * * * MEDDLESOME. Manly refers to all the qualities and traits worthy of a man. intrusive remarks. or may be closely equivalent t o manly. manful.. and may be applied to organizations. . but refers more to the process. etc. nor so coldly bruta l as butchery. retiring. officious. carnis. virile appl ies to the distinctive qualities of mature manhood only. Havoc may not be so complete as massacre. Synonyms: impertinent. interests. The meddlesome person interferes unasked in the affairs of others. A massacre is the indiscriminate killing in numbers of the unresisting or defen seless. obtrusive. as opposed not only to feminine or womanly but to childish. meddlesome is used indifferently of persons. butchery is the killing of men rudely and ruthlessly as cattle are kille d in the shambles. Obtrusive is oftener applied to words. tho we speak of officious attentions.. Masculin e may apply to the distinctive qualities of the male sex at any age. Mannish is a depreciatory word referring to the mimicry or parad e of some superficial qualities of manhood. the officious person thrusts his services. a mannish boy or woman. upo n others. actions. it is destruction let loos e. havoc. manly decision. etc. unassuming. as is officious. s laughter is similar in meaning. as well as to human lif e. or of words. as when we say the enemy was repulsed wi th great slaughter. * * * * * MELODY.ing the outward appearance or semblance of a man. as carnage does to the result. but is more widely spread and furious. shy. and is thus an emphatic word for sturdy. qualities. "as for Saul. slaughter. unasked and undesired. qualities. Compare INQUISITIVE. these two words only of the group may be used of great destructio n of life in open and honorable battle. INTERPOSE. meddling. Carnage (Latin caro . Synonyms: butchery. * * * * * MASSACRE. we say manly gentleness or tenderness. 3. as. we speak of a manful strug gle. etc." Acts viii. intrusive is used chiefly of persons. carnage. e specially to the valor and prowess that become a man. in trepid. than to persons. he made havoc of the church. we could not say man ful tenderness. actions. or the carnage was terrible. intrusive. the intrusiv e person thrusts himself uninvited into their company or conversation. Antonyms: modest. the obtru sive person thrusts himself or his opinions conceitedly and undesirably upon the ir notice. reserved.

leniency. Pardon remits the outward pe nalty which the offender deserves. kindness. There may be mercy without pardon. A symphony (apart from its t echnical orchestral sense) is any pleasing consonance of musical sounds. gentleness. a thing is brought to remembrance or we cal l it to remembrance. melody is successive. or blessing shown to the undeserving. Tones sounded at the interval of an octave are also said t o be in unison. bringing long periods under survey. pardo n. forgiveness. Retrospection is to reminiscence muc h what recollection is to remembrance. as in the mitigation of sentenc e. retrospection. Accordant notes of different pitc h sounded simultaneously produce harmony. the same is true of memory. Gra ce is favor. music. lenience. blessing. kindness. in a more gen eral sense. or fixing the attention actively upon it when recalled. A melody may be wholly in o ne part. as a voice and a bell may sound in unison. forbearance. Reminiscence is a half-dreamy memory of scenes o r events long past. memory is a retention of knowledge within the grasp of the mind. benignity. Harmony is simultaneous. mercy seeks the highest possible good of the offender. * * * * * MEMORY. Memory is the faculty by which knowledge is retained or recalled. as of many accordant voices or instruments. Synonyms: benevolence. retrospect. forgiveness. unison. unison is the simultaneous sounding of two or more notes of the same pitch. favor. * * * * * MERCY. oversight. whi le remembrance is the having what is known consciously before the mind. harmony is the pleasing correspo ndence of two or more notes sounded at once. the granting of kindness or favor beyond what one may rightly claim. tenderne ss. Remembra nce may be voluntary or involuntary. or in a more extended sense. mercy. and pardon are exercised toward the ill-deserving. grace. the mind making a distinct effort to recall something. Music may denote the simpl est melody or the most complex and perfect harmony. compassion. harmony must be of two or more parts. vocal o r instrumental. there may be u nison between sounds of very different volume and quality. obliviousness. When the pitch is the same. oblivion. reminiscence. Recollection involves volition. Antonyms: forgetfulness. remembrance. Synonyms: recollection. clemency. pity. forgiveness dismisses resentment or displeasu re from the heart of the one offended. melody the pleasing succession of a number of notes continuously following one another. symphony. lenity. this usage arises from the fa ct that bass and tenor voices in attempting to sound the same note as the sopran o and alto will in fact sound a note an octave below. Mercy is the exercise of less severity than one deserves. there may be cases wher . mildness. altho this is not literally exact.Synonyms: harmony. or in all possible alleviation of necessary severity. retrospection is a distinct turning of the mind back upon th e past. unconsciousness.

Mercy is also used in the wid er sense of refraining from harshness or cruelty toward those who are in one's p ower without fault of their own. as. includes all the powers of sentient being apart from the physical factors in bodily faculties and activities. measure. etc. disp osition. the clemency of a conqueror. and deno tes a measured rhythm with regular divisions into verses. justice. Leniency or lenity denotes an easy-going avoidance of severity. we should speak of the leniency of a parent.." As the seat o f mental activity. is often used to denote the thinking faculty. these words are more general and less magisterial than clemency. in the general sense. and rh ythm denote agreeable succession of sounds in the utterance of connected words. punishment. in a general sense. stanzas. the other words ap ply to lines. min d is nearly synonymous with intellect. euphony may apply to a single word or even a single syllable. rhythm. sentences. implacability. harshness. Synonyms: brain. spirit. Compare MELODY. Verse. severity. instinct. applies only to poetry. reason. verse. Synonyms: euphony. and without its religious associations. intelligence. sense. * * * * * METER. but includes disposition. prose and verse. A verse is strictly a metrical line. Prepositions: The mercy of God to or toward sinners. or power of thinking. yet the apparent difference is very . etc. vengeance. rhythm or measure may apply either to prose or to poetry. since it would encourage to repetition of the offen se. da ncing. but the word is often used as synonymous with stanza. Mind. however produced. denotes metrical writing without refer ence to the thought involved. Cle mency is a colder word than mercy. intelligence. thought. or by accent and quantity combined.. they besought the robber to have mercy. as in Greek or It alian. it often denotes a habitual mildness of disposition on the part of the powerful. or the tendency toward action. POETRY. and especially the reason. signi fying mildness and moderation in the use of power where severity would have lega l or military. as. Compare PITY. penalty. rigor. have mercy on or upon one. strophes.e pardon would not be mercy. from which timely punishment might have saved. Antonyms: cruelty. Thought. soul. rhythm and meter may be produced by a ccent only. but inferior and limited. understanding. consciousness. in a limited sense. etc . or to music. as in English. reveng e. and is matter rather of good nature or policy than of principle. The insti nct of animals is now held by many philosophers to be of the same nature as the intellect of man. intellect. the act. meter is more precise than rhythm. hardness. paragraphs. rather than moral sanction. intellect. Euphony is agreeable linguistic sound. sternness. * * * * * MIND. measure. brain (colloquially brains) is often used as a synonym for mi nd. process. meter. as appears in the phrase "to have a mind to work.

thus denoting tendencies independent of reasoning or instruction. he showed good sense. we say a substance is finely comminuted. or willing. and brownies of mythology might be termed spirits. which Sir Wm. "the hidden soul of harmony. comminuted referring more to the process. sense. perhaps impatience. the soul denotes especially t he moral. knows. thinks. the mind. detailed. really hears. Antonyms: See synonyms for LARGE. * * * * * MINUTE. An instinct is a propensity prior to experience and independent of instruction. not the eye. . not the ear. fine to the result. Compare FINE. An account extended to very minute particulars is circumstantial . it may in ma ny cases be substituted for soul. exact. the understanding. the soul (not the mind) ha s fled. the fairies . Soul denotes e nergy and depth of feeling. even in its mater ial signification. good judgment. fine sand. we say of a dead body. as when we speak of soulful eyes. sensibilities. beyond what is expressed by the word mind. PALEY Natural Philosophy ch. he is a man of sense. little. exact. kind. excitability. as a grain of dust. he replied with spirit. or. whether with or without distinct thinking. must be reckoned among the activities of mind. That which is broken up into minute p articles is said to be comminuted. or which attends to matters of exceedingly slight amount or apparent importance. as. comminuted. as. the mind. we can conceive of spirits as having no moral nature. of the savage. spirit denotes animation. Hamilton has called "the faculty of relations and comparisons. critical. but is chiefly used of the reasoning powers. the immortal nature. Spirit is used especially in contradistinction from matter." is distinguished by many philosophers from reason in that "reason is the faculty o f the higher cognitions or a priori truth. particular. 18. but not souls. diminutive. as. fine. acum en. but sense is used also as denoting clear mental action. an d will. a minute account. Consciousness includes all that a sentient being perceives. an examination so extended is critical. a lad of spirit. or it may denote t he very life of anything. precise. brute force.great. That is minute which is of exceedingly limited dimensions. tho dependent on bodily functions. detailed. minute observation. material substance. as. The soul includes the intellect. in using the adverb. feeling. The intel lect is that assemblage of faculties which is concerned with knowledge. elves. he sang with spirit. tiny. particular. things may be termed fine which would not be termed comminuted. precise." Antonyms: body. or feels. Sense may be an antonym of intellect." MILTON L'Allegro l. we s peak of the consciousness of the brute. or of the sage. or degree. but. as when we speak of the sense of hear ing. as. slender. 144. fine gravel. as disti nguished from emotion and volition. Understanding is the Saxon word of the same general import. brawn. In th e figurative sense. really sees. Synonyms: circumstantial. but soul has commonly a fuller and more determ inate meaning. matter. from whatever source arising and of whatever character. In this sense we speak of human instincts. sma ll.

the mo dels in the Patent Office. Calamity and disaster are used of sudden and severe misfortunes. standard. We speak of an affliction. Compare CATASTROPHE. a model may be either the thing to be copied or the copy that has been made from it. The rabble is despicable. good fortune. harm. which may endure for years or for a l ifetime. suggesting some disciplinary purpose of God with bene ficent design. visitation. A crowd may be draw n by mere curiosity. disappointment. a mob is disorderly and lawless. good luck. ill luck. Affliction. and tribulation have all an esp ecially religious bearing. gratification. a mob may have effective desperate purpose. as loss of fortune. prosperity. We speak of the misery of the poor.* * * * * MISFORTUNE. he had the misfortune to be born blind. calamity. For the loss of friends by de ath we commonly use affliction or bereavement. image. mold. ill fortune. s orrow. Synonyms: adversity. pleasure. A pattern is always. masses. facsimile. pervading excitement is needed to make it a mo b. Misfortune is adverse fortune or any instance thereof. that which is to be copied. some strong. joy. triumph. the hardship s of the soldier. ha ppiness. comfort. usua lly of lingering character or consequences. and such as the sufferer is not deem ed directly responsible for. since trib ulation is viewed as a continuous process. tribulation. imitation. misery. tribulation is long and wearing. bereavement. failure. constitutes adversity. as. lower classes. as. purposeless. any untoward event. crowd. mishap. The populace are poor and ignorant. relief. but brief. type. boon. trial. ruin. mischance. ill. but we speak of our daily trials. disaster. A pattern is commonly superficial. when long continued or attended with enduring consequences. ill fortune and ill luck. or misfortune. the vulgar. and the like. stroke. rabble. Affliction may be keen and bitter. representation. as regards outward circumstanc es. Any con siderable disappointment. trouble. chastening. misadventure. failure. consolation. position. design. chastening. dregs of the people. Antonyms: blessing. * * * * * MOB. Compare PEOPLE. tr ial. original. success. but may be law-abiding. reverse. but rarely of a tribulation. a model is usually . of lighter troubles and failures. Synonyms: canaille. affliction. * * * * * MODEL. distress. worthle ss. often overwhelming. but may be rich and influential. blow. pattern. in modern use. chastisement. hardship. Synonyms: archetype. example. copy. populace. prototype.

impudence. c onceit. and money is not property. silver. property is not money. What are termed in England bank-notes are in the United States commonly call ed bills. as such. Bullion is either gold or silver uncoined. coin. * * * * * MONEY. property. IDEA. the cash price. specie. diffidence. reserve. bashfulness. or t he coined metal considered without reference to its coinage. Synonyms: bills. self-sufficiency. sauc iness. Synonyms: . and may or may not have intrinsic value. timidity. a humble estimate of oneself in comp arison with others. but they are not money. a distinct fear of criticism. on the other hand. PRIDE. cash. loquacity. The notes of responsible men are readily trans ferable in commercial circles. shyness. a five-dollar bill. or holding back one's feelings from expression. A pattern must be closely followed in its minutest particulars by a faithful copyist. as. or failure. Cash is specie or money i n hand. A sculptor may id ealize his living model. TACITURN. currency. or paid in hand. sociability. assumption. the stock was sold fo r $500 in money and the balance in merchantable paper. Money is the authorized medium of exchange. half avoidance of offered attention. Synonyms: backwardness. uno btrusiveness. his workmen must exactly copy in marble or metal the mo del he has made in clay. * * * * * MOROSE. or with the demands of some undertaking. constraint. assurance. indiscretion. while money. coyness. loquaciousness. Compare ABASH. Antonyms: abandon. confidence. as. forwardness. has but representative value. error. arrogance. Diffidence is self-distrust. a model may allow a great degree of freedom. for property is that which has inherent value. and may be real or affe cted. when its value as bullion may be very different from its value as money. Bashfulness is a shrinking from notice without assignable reason. egotism. funds. or. but simply as merch andise. Coyness is a half encouragement. capital. the cash account. * * * * * MODESTY. modesty. frankness . or one's affairs from communication to othe rs. The word capital is used chiefly of accumulated property or money invested in p roductive enterprises or available for such investment. n otes. freedom. self-conceit. IDEAL. Modesty has also th e specific meaning of a sensitive shrinking from anything indelicate. pertness. the contemptuo us withdrawal of pride and haughtiness. coined money is called coin or spec ie. coldness. In the legal sens e. Reserve is the holding oneself aloof from others. Compare EXAMPLE. gold.in relief. bullion. as. haughtiness. Reserve may be the retreat of shyness. Shyness is a tendency to shrink from observation. boldness. timidity.

Antonyms: immobility. a shrewd move of the opposition. stillness. as. Move is used chiefly of contests or competition. On e is made to rue an act by some misfortune resulting. that is. The sullen and sulky are for the most part silent. gloomy. movement is always concrete. We now rarely speak of mental or spi ritual motions. rue. splenetic. c rabbed. quiescence. Actio n is a more comprehensive word than motion. the morose growl out bi tter speeches. tender. * * * * * MOTION. it is your move. good-natured . The morose are bitterly dissa tisfied with the world in general. " One deplores with settled sorrow which may or may not find relief in words. but rather of mental or spiritual acts or processes. The sullen and sulky are discontented and resentful in regard to that against w hich they are too proud to protest. gruff. kind. sullen. Motion is change of place or position in space. grieve. but a formal proposal of action in a deliberative assembly is termed a motion. sulky. loving. regret. repose. snappish. To mourn is to feel or express sadness or distress because of some loss. sympathetic. Synonyms: bemoan. change. of military movements . considered in connection with the thing that moves or is moved. surly. or of the l aws of mental action. but of the laws of planetary motion. we speak of the move ments of the planets. transit. or misfortune. more frequently the former. sulky more of resentful obstinacy. * * * * * MOURN. resenting approach as intrusion. Motion may be either abstract or concre te. rue. or by some penalty or veng eance inflicted because of it. bewail. complaisant. One regrets a slight misfortune or a hasty word. process. he bemoans with suppressed and often inarticulate sounds of grief. and disposed to vent their ill nature upon ot hers. . but of perpetual motion. One may grieve or mourn.acrimonious. move. pleasant. ill-natured. and ready to take offense at anything. churlish. ill-humored. regret. quiet. or sorrow without a sound. gentle. A surly person is in a state of latent anger. He lamen ts in plaintive or pathetic words. transition. movement. crusty. he bewails with passionate utterance. benignant. as i n chess or politics. Antonyms: amiable. genial. afflic tion. indulgent. passage. one who is morose or surly is commo nly so by disposition or habit. bland. thus we speak of a surly do g. Sullen and sulky moods may be transitory. lament. rest. as the prophet Jeremiah in his "Lamentations. or consider all protest vain. grief or regret may be transient. deplore. Compare ACT. transition is a passing from on e point or position in space to another. mourning is thought of as prolonged. action. dogged. mild. whether of inarticulate cries or of spoken words. friendly. severe. sour. thus. sorrow. sullen denotes more of pride. Synonyms: act.

as th e decrees of God or the origin of life. disunited . unreciprocated. where the effect becomes in turn a cause. * * * * * NAME. Many good writers hold it incorrect to say "a mutual friend. interchangeable. Antonyms: See synonyms for CLEAR. of ordinary or inferior. unfathomable. a dark providence. mysti c. inscrutable. severed. That is mysterious in the true sense which is beyond human comprehension. correlative. unrequited. distinct. hidden. and others). enigmatical. Antonyms: be joyful. Synonyms: . mystical. transcendental. separated. rejoice. especially of a religious kind . the reciprocal action of cause and effect. dark. incomprehensible. dissociated. reciprocal o bligations. That is mystic or mystical which has ass ociated with it some hidden or recondite meaning. joint. unshared. Synonyms: abstruse. especially if sadly perplexing. obscure. * * * * * MYSTERIOUS. disconnected. that is recipr ocal in respect to which one act or movement is met by a corresponding act or mo vement in return. but "common friend" is practically never used. Scott. as. Synonyms: common. make merry. the expression being quite naturally derived from the thoroughly cor rect phrase mutual friendship. mutual affection. separate. unknown. occult. Compare DARK. Antonyms: detached. and a considerable usage of good society in its favor. to change) which is freely interchanged. exult.he sorrows over the death of a friend. That is secret which is intentionally hidden. That is common to which two or more persons have the same or equal claims. sundered. secret. in the strictest sense. joy. recondite. That is dark which we can not person ally see through. because of the disagreeable suggestion that attaches to common. inexplicable." a nd insist that "a common friend" would be more accurate. unfatho med. cabalistic. Dickens. as. triumph. unconnected. * * * * * MUTUAL. we speak of our common country. that is mutual (Latin mutare. "Mutual friend" has high literary authority (of Burke. or i n which they have equal interest or participation. reciprocal. the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse.

Name in the most general sense. but is given to mark some assumed characteristic. Style is the legal designation by which a person or house is known in official or business relation s. Among the Romans the prenomen was the individ ual part of a man's name. oceanic. a personal name. When scientists name an ani mal or a plant. Compare INHERENT. style. as in the ph rase "the sounding sea. The term denomination is applied t o a separate religious organization. signifying the word by which a person or thing is called or known. foreign. naval. something added. natural denotes that which rests upon inherent qualities of character or being. An epithet (Gr . unnatural. assumed. natal. and tha t any word used opprobriously is an epithet is a popular error. the sum was in notes of the deno mination of one thousand dollars. and is often called the given name or Christian name. * * * * * NATIVE. alien. es pecially money or notes of a certain value. independentl y of any rank or achievement. or of his natal day. epitheton. and the agnomen was added to refer to his achievements or character." the idea that an epithet is always opprobrious. original. in the more limited sense a name is personal. denomination. Native denotes that which belongs to one by birth. In modern use. the cognomen showed his family and was borne by all patricians. appellation. as. maritime. the name and style of Baring Brothers. as John or Mar y. artificial. is given in infancy." also. We speak of one's native country. King of E ngland. which belongs to him personally. of n atural ability. put) is something place d upon a person or thing. the "nomen" designated the gens to which he belonged. RADICAL. a title is official. or a word or phrase used as an adjective. and is prop erly used to emphasize a characteristic but not to add information. Antonyms: acquired. . Synonyms: indigenous. the cognomen or surname is the fam ily name which belongs to one by right of birth or marriage. they give it a binary or binomial technical name comprising a ge neric and a specific appellation. includes all other words of this group.agnomen. Conqueror is the appellation which he won by his a cquisition of England. ocean. without the opprobrious meaning attaching t o the word "sect. Compare TERM. good or bad. surname. * * * * * NAUTICAL. and tithemi. from epi. Synonyms: marine. In the phrase William the Conqueror. designation. innate. titl e. to designate any class of like objects collectively. or simply the first name (rarely the prenomen). natal that which pertains to the event of birth. native genius. cognomen. on. natural. as. an appellation is descriptive. whi le an appellation may be fanciful. William is the man's name. but is more distinctive or specific in meaning. Designation may be used much in the sense of appellation. epithet. King is the title denoting his royal rank. a designation properly so called rests upon some inherent quality. prenomen. the epithet does not strictly belong to an object like a name. in this sense every noun is a name. an epith et is always an adjective. PRIMEVAL.

we speak of ocean c urrents. that whic h is indispensable may be only an adjunct. a secondary d erivative from the same root. a room or desk is orderly when every article is in place. undeniable. inevitable. That which is clean is simply free from soil or defilement of any kind. maritime nations. bordering on or connected with the ocean. Gr. as. Synonyms: essential. Dapper is spruce with the suggestion of smallness and slightne ss. but it is one that can not be spared. sea) signifies belonging to the ocean. a naval force. natty. affected nicety. a person is orderly who habitually keeps things so. naus. s . as when we speak of plain but ne at attire. needful. as. not. or. perhaps. That which is essential belongs to the essence of a thing. slouchy. marine animals. a spruce servi ng man. Trim denotes a certain shapely and elegant firmness. a trim figure. suggests minute elegance. or be true. uncared for. but may not be so absolutely. often with supplene ss and grace. requisite. Prim applies to a precise. A clean cut has no ragged e dges. a neat stroke just does what is intended. impl ying value and beauty. naut es. Ocean." etc. negligent. slovenly. and. vigorous health is essential to an arctic explorer. by extension. rough." "a neat turn. disorderly. Synonyms: clean. infallible. warm clothing is indispensa ble. unkempt.Marine (L. used adjectively. navis. dapper. or which is similar to or suggestive of an ocean. * * * * * NECESSARY. a ship) refers to the armed forc e of a nation on the sea. but would no t be termed nice. and hence with ships or navigation. mari ne products. the same idea of freedom from the superfluous appears in the phrases "a neat speech. so that the thing can not exist in its completeness without it. cleanly. Neat refers to that which is clean and tidy w ith nothing superfluous. in. rude. d owdy. That which is requisite (or required) is so in the judgment of the person r equiring it. maritime laws. needed. of an oceanic intellect. spruce. a cheap. an unlaced shoe may be perfectly clean. Things are orderly when in due relation to other things. soiled. Nice is stronger than neat. is applied t o that which belongs to or is part of the ocean. as. a dapper little fellow in a natty business suit. unavoidable. but is not tidy. conspicuous. That is necessary which must exist." "a neat reply. thus. with a tendency towar d the exquisite. Nautical (Gr. a diminutive of neat. tidy. a nautical almanac. natty. trim. as. untidy. and is always a term of mild contempt. * * * * * NEAT. a sailor) denotes primarily anything connected with sailors. oceanic may be used in the same sense. a trim suit. Antonyms: dirty. which in the nature of t hings can not be otherwise. nice. required. Inevitable (L. maritime. coarse dress may be perfectly neat. prim. the requisite is more a matter of personal feeling than the indispensable. but is especially applied to that which borders on (or upon) or is conne cted with. Tidy denotes that which conforms to propriety in general. naval (L. mare. to similar forces on lakes and rive rs. oceanic islands. or showy. indispensable. Spruce is applied to the show and affectation of neatness with a touch of smartness. orderly. and evito. occur. as. formal.

to say that he has need of decision implies that he can exercise or attain it. Synonyms: . fo rtuity. * * * * * NEGLECT. Need s uggests the possibility of supplying the deficiency which want expresses. unity is ne cessary to (to constitute) completeness. Antonyms: casual. as a quality. while that which is necessary may meet with no objection. As applied to a deficiency. ne ed. necessary food is what o ne can not live without. * * * * * NECESSITY. want. Prepositions: Necessary to a sequence or a total. Compare NECESSARY. or in any complete idea or statement of it. useless. unavoidableness. necessity is more imperative than need. become. we speak of a necessary inference. extremity. while needful food is that without which he can not enj oy comfort. this is a necessity to me. both words are applied to things which some at least would escape or prevent. a necessary conclusion satisfies a thinker. Antonyms: choice. freedom. uncertainty.hun) is primarily the exact equivalent of the Saxon unavoidable. death is inevitable. and respect an end to be attained. non-essential. necessity may be used in this sense. Needed and needful are more concrete than necessary. PREDESTINATIO N. dubiousness. or be true. that belongs to the essence of something else so as to be inseparable from it in its normal conditi on. when rest becomes a necessity he has no choice but to sto p work. health. option. but in the higher philosophical s ense necessity simply denotes the exclusion of any alternative either in thought or fact. food is necessary. contingent. Need and want always impl y a lack. exigency. doubtfulness. An essential is something. Necessity is the quality of being necessary. or f or a commander. essential. contingency. sine qua non. emergency. for or to a result or a person. a weary pers on is in need of rest. possibility. or be accepted as true. unnecessary. requisite. or element. a necessity for action. needless. requirement. An infallible proof is one that necessarily leads the mind to a sound conclusion. an inevitable conclusion silences o pposition. wo rthless. or the quality of that which can n ot but be. optional. decision is necessary for command. indisp ensability. fate. righteousness is a necessity (not a need) of the divine nature. Prepositions: The necessity of surrender. doubt. destiny. Synonyms: compulsion. fatality. and strength. indispensableness. urgency. to spe ak of a person's want of decision merely points out a weakness in his character.

Young and youthful are applied to that whi ch has life. possession. modern. That which is recent is not qui te so sharply distinguished from the past as that which is new. friends. recent denotes that which h as come into existence within a comparatively brief period. negligence. and negligence the habit. e. that which is young is possessed of a comparatively new existence a s a living thing. etc. slackness. is but partially true. nec. one may be guilty of h abitual neglect of duty. in which cases we c ould not use negligence. and may or may not b e existing still. of the child by the parent. late. recent. young. Negligence.. the wife may suffer from her husband's constant neglect . remissness. we speak of neglect of his books. and is still existing. negligence is intrans itive. or use. youthful. m odern literature. Antonyms: See synonyms for CARE. not. a new hou se is just built. That which is late is somewhat removed from t he present. modern architecture. in such cases the law provides punishment for criminal negligence. neglectfulness. inadvertence. Neglect has a passive sense which negligence has not. etc. That which is new has lately come into existence. from bei ng neglected by others. but with a slighter force. the child was suffering from neglect. indifference. * * * * * NEW. failure. default. Synonyms: fresh.. That which is novel is either absol utely or relatively unprecedented in kind. and lego. negligence in dress implies want of care as to its arra ngement. pay such courtesy. and on the part of one ordinarily careful and attentive. may be used in almost the same se nse. The distinction sometimes made that neglect denotes the act. moths. scorn. Neglect (L. upstart. neglect of one's garments would imply leaving them expo sed to defacement or injury. ne w-fashioned. etc. Modern history pertains to any period since the middle ages. as may be rightfully or reasonably expe cted.. the child was suffering from negligence would imply that he himself was neglectful. new-made. juvenile. or duties. disregard." but negligence is often used to denote the quality or trait of character of which the act is a manifestation. new-fangled. tidiness. or to denote the habit of negl ecting that which ought to be done. are not strikingly remote from the styles and types prevalent to-day. etc. that which is new may be of a familiar or even of an ancien t sort. there was neglect on the part of t he teacher. Neglect is transitive. which is the same in origin. as by dust. heedlessness. or in a more general sense is one that has just come into the possession of the present owner or occupant. possessing actual youth. show such attention. as a new copy of an old book. Prepositions: Neglect of duty. that which is youthful manifests the . Modern denotes that which has begun to exist in the present age. but not far enough to be called old. inattention. thoughtlessness. gather) is the failing to take such care. novel. i. a novel experience is one that has never before occurred to the same person. slight. a novel contrivance is one that has n ever before been known. as when Whittier speaks of "the negligence which friendship loves. oversight. recent publicati ons range over a longer time than new books. disrespect.carelessness. while the negligence which causes a railroad accident may be that of a moment. omission..

ALERT. siz e. Compare GENERAL. or an ocean steamer is swif t. Antonyms: clumsy. brisk. young to old. as opposed to that which is fitful and changeable. New is opposed to old. a type of some more comprehensive group. while normal is more common ly applied to the parts of a single object. freedom. or unfaded. lively. exceptional. Alert. with readiness to turn suddenly to any point. monstrous. quick. an arrow. dilatory. we speak of nimble wit. as. unready. typical. a normal state of health is rare. that which is normal is according to the standard or rule which is observed or claimed to prevail in nature. singular. Nimble refers to lightness. hence that which is steady and constant.) Fresh applies to that which has the cha racteristics of newness or youth. fresh e ggs. regular. Synonyms: active. swift intelli gence. g enus. peculiar. heavy. unspoiled. speedy. Antonyms: abnormal. etc. prompt.. a race-horse. a fresh countenance. the normal color of the crow is blac k. * * * * * . dull. which is strictly a synonym for ready. modern to ancient. a pickpocket is nimble-finge red. slow. uncommon.attributes of youth. normal. ordinary. inert. usual. Antonyms: See synonyms for OLD. The regular is etymologically that which i s according to rule. disease is co mmon. speedy. a de formity may be natural. Typical refers to such an assemblage of qualities as makes the specimen. spr ightly. inactive. while capable of deterioration by lapse of tim e. comes so metimes near the meaning of nimble or quick. * * * * * NORMAL. agile. Synonyms: common. Figuratively. a dancer nimble-footed. natural. while the normal color of the sparrow is gray. the normal action of the heart is regular. the specimen was typical. rare. but one is as natural as the o ther. alert. irregular. * * * * * NIMBLE. and quickness of motion within a somewhat narrow range. bustling. Shakespeare's "nimble lightnings" is said of the visual appearance in sudden zigzag flash across the sky. wideawake person is likely to be lively. fresh flowers. (Compare YOUTHFUL. sluggish. Compare ACTIVE. symmetry is normal. spry. and other characteristics. quick. That which is common is shared by a great number of persons or things. USUAL. swift destruction. swift. That which is natural is according to nature. swift applies common ly to more sustained motion over greater distances. that which is unworn. recent to remote. etc. aged. from the fact that the ready. color. unprecedented. unusual.

he failed notwithstanding his good intentions. Curse may be just and authoritative. conj. Malediction is a general wish of evil. and (like the archaic howbeit) says "be that as it may. of man. a vow. Yet and still ar e weaker than notwithstanding. an affidavit is a sw orn statement made in writing in the presence of a competent officer. while insisting that it can not. after all. execration. Anathema is a solemn ecclesiastical condemnation of a person or of a proposition. to God without the intervention. an adjurat ion is a solemn appeal to a person in the name of God to speak the truth. howbeit. Execration expresses most of personal bitterness and hatred .NOTWITHSTANDING. as. affidavit. Synonyms: altho(ugh). * * * * * NOTWITHSTANDING. However simply waives discussion. prep. this is true. blaspheming." nevertheless concedes the truth of what precedes. "i n spite of the storm" is said as if the storm had a hostile purpose to oppose th e undertaking. curse." to say "we are guilty. reprobation. as in a court of justice. he persevered in spite of the most bitter hostility. but thou art good. a less usua l but very expressive word. or. anathema. imprecation refers especially to the coming of the desired evil upon the perso n against whom it is uttered. swearing. yet. as it were. withstand the other. curse. Anathema. Tho and altho make as li ttle as possible of the concession. thou art good. but claims that what follows is none the less true. "an oath is a reverent appeal t o God in corroboration of what one says. notwit hstanding the force of the enemy is superior. YET. but. as. Synonyms: despite. " tho we are guilty. An oat h is made to man in the name of God. profanity. s worn statement. it may be wanton and powerless: "so the curse causeless shall not c ome." wo uld make the concession of guilt more emphatic. however." Prov. d enunciation. xxvi. imprecation. execration. In the lower sense. When despite and in spite of are applied to inanimate things. while stronger than but. still. * * * * * OATH. Notwithstanding simply states that circumstances shall not be or have not been allowed to withstand. vow. In the highest sense. Compare BUT. tho(ugh). oft en without the knowledge. blasphemy. admits the one and its seeming contradiction to the ot her. 2. as. . notwithstanding marshals the two statements face to face. it is with something of personification. dropping it.. ban. cursing. as. malediction. incidentally. an oath may be mere blasph emy or profane swearing. the curse of God." ABBOTT Law Dict. Synonyms: adjuration. we shall conquer. and imprecation are modes of invoking vengeance or retribution from a superhuman power upon the person aga inst whom they are uttered. nevertheless. in spite of. or . Compare TESTIMONY. despite and in spite of refer primarily to personal and pe rhaps spiteful opposition. profane swearing.

dusky. heady. MYSTERIOUS. having been ob solete. a word is arch aic which is falling out of reputable use. e tc. complex. immovable.Antonyms: benediction. persistent. cloud y. enigmatical. Synonyms: ancient. unyielding. it is hard to see to the bottom of the profound. mother. fixed. turbid. or. In that which is abstruse (L. Antonyms: See synonyms for NEW. The headstrong person is not to be stopped in his own course of action. dense. a word is rare if there are fe w present instances of its reputable use. stubborn. hidden. push) as i f removed from the usual course of thought or out of the way of apprehension or discovery. antiquated. unconquerable. That is obscure which the eye or the mind can not clearly discern or see throug h. Compare COMPLEX. determined. intricate. decided. firm. * * * * * OBSCURE. unflinching. muddy. as a muddy pool. so that it may perhaps regain its position as a living word. doubtful. opinionated. blessing. disused. benison. old. deep. obdurate. and trudo. * * * * * OBSOLETE. * * * * * OBSTINATE. resolved. A word is obsolete which has quite gone out of reputable use. DIFFI CULT. inflexible. in that which is obscure there may be nothing to hide. as father. Compare OLD. the thought is remote. mysterious. is taken up tentatively by writers or speakers of influence. or b ecause of mere defect of light. dogged. but the most shallow turbidness is obscure. involved. hidden. dark. difficult. headstrong. Antonyms: See synonyms for CLEAR. obsolescent. indomitable. because of its depth. intractable. rare. That which is complicated is likely to be obscur e. whether because of its own want of transparency. profound. resolute. abs. while t . co mplicated. incomprehensible. Synonyms: abstruse. but that may be obscure which is not at all complicated and scarcely complex. on the other hand. DARK. darksome. Some of the oldest or most ancient words are not obsolete. dim. its depth or intricacy. archaic. Synonyms: contumacious. from. ambiguous. refractory. mulish. out of date. pertinacious. indistinct. unintelligible.

olden. * * * * * OLD. decrepit. interrupt. obedient. is the more stately. gray. clog. * * * * * OBSTRUCT. tractable. forward. On the other hand. facilitate. obstructi ng the way may have the effect of arresting progress. time-honored. the passage of liquid through a tube is obstructed by solid deposits. the re fractory animal plunges. docile. resolute. "the old homestead. One is obdurate who adheres to his purpose in spite of appeals that would move any tender-hearted or right-minded person. old. from the Latin. wavering. as. Synonyms: aged. Synonyms: arrest. senile. ba rricade. advance. impede. on one side. embarrass. is near to contempt." "Tell me the old." the "old oaken b ucket. The un yielding conduct which we approve we call decided. Anything that mak es one's progress slower. teachable. patriarchal. Olde . IMPEDIMENT . an obstr uction is always from without. Antonyms: accelerate. undecided. hoary. ancient. stubborn. Compare HINDER. pliable. venerable. immemorial. choke. clear. free. "tell me that ancient story" would remove it out of all touch of human sympathy. furt her. complaisant. yieldi ng. oppose. and thus old is a word of endearment. Familiarity. from the Saxon. The headstrong a ct. Stubborn is the term most frequently applied to the lower animals and inanimate things. retard. th e more familiar word. promote. Ancient. Refractory implies more activity of resistance.he obstinate and stubborn is not to be driven to another's way. old story!" has been sung feelingly by millions. the road is obstructed by fallen trees. bar. obstinate. That is termed old which has existed long. submissive. stay. stop. the obstinate and stubborn may simply refuse to stir. compliant. elderly. whether from within or from without. aid. impedes. remote. or which existed long ago. rears. hinder. inflexible. To arrest is to cause to stop suddenly. metals that resist ordinary processes of reduction are termed refractory. the stubborn person is for the most part h abitually so. dutiful. pave the way for. antique. irresolute. an old coat. familiarity is akin to tenderness. as of the summ ons of a court. stubborn resistance. We may hinder one's advance by following and clinging to him. anti quated. Pertinacious demand is contrasted with obstinate refusal. we speak of obstinate determination. we obstruct his cours e by standing in his way or putting a barrier across his path. firm. through the French. gentle. To obstruct is literally to build up against. Antonyms: amenable. The most amiable perso n may be obstinate on some one point. the stubborn horse balks. t hat which we condemn we are apt to term headstrong. open. time-worn. and kicks. pliant. an old hat. Compare PERVERSE. C ontumacious refers to a proud and insolent defiance of authority. thus we say . check.

n is a statelier form of old, and is applied almost exclusively to time, not to places, buildings, persons, etc. As regards periods of time, the familiar are al so the near; thus, the old times are not too far away for familiar thought and r eference; the olden times are more remote, ancient times still further removed. Gray, hoary, and moldering refer to outward and visible tokens of age. Aged appl ies chiefly to long-extended human life. Decrepit, gray, and hoary refer to the effects of age on the body exclusively; senile upon the mind also; as, a decrepi t frame, senile garrulousness. One may be aged and neither decrepit nor senile. Elderly is applied to those who have passed middle life, but scarcely reached ol d age. Remote (L. re, back or away, and moveo, move), primarily refers to space, but is extended to that which is far off in time; as, at some remote period. Ve nerable expresses the involuntary reverence that we yield to the majestic and lo ng-enduring, whether in the material world or in human life and character. Compa re ANTIQUE; OBSOLETE; PRIMEVAL. Antonyms: Compare synonyms for NEW; YOUTHFUL. * * * * * OPERATION. Synonyms: action, effect, force, performance, result. agency, execution, influence, proce dure, Operation is action considered with reference to the thing acted upon, and may apply to the action of an intelligent agent or of a material substance or force; as, the operation of a medicine. Performance and execution denote intelligent a ction, considered with reference to the actor or to that which he accomplishes; performance accomplishing the will of the actor, execution often the will of ano ther; we speak of the performance of a duty, the execution of a sentence. Compar e ACT. Antonyms: failure, ineffectiveness, inutility, powerlessness, uselessness. inaction, inef ficiency, * * * * * ORDER. Synonyms: command, injunction, mandate, requirement. direction, instruction, prohibition, Instruction implies superiority of knowledge, direction of authority on the par t of the giver; a teacher gives instructions to his pupils, an employer gives di rections to his workmen. Order is still more authoritative than direction; soldi ers, sailors, and railroad employees have simply to obey the orders of their sup eriors, without explanation or question; an order in the commercial sense has th e authority of the money which the one ordering the goods pays or is to pay. Com mand is a loftier word, as well as highly authoritative, less frequent in common life; we speak of the commands of God, or sometimes, by polite hyperbole, ask o f a friend, "Have you any commands for me?" A requirement is imperative, but not always formal, nor made by a personal agent; it may be in the nature of things; as, the requirements of the position. Prohibition is wholly negative; it is a c

ommand not to do; injunction is now oftenest so used, especially as the requirem ent by legal authority that certain action be suspended or refrained from, pendi ng final legal decision. Compare ARRAY; CLASS; LAW; PROHIBIT; SYSTEM. Antonyms: allowance, consent, leave, liberty, license, permission, permit. * * * * * OSTENTATION. Synonyms: boast, flourish, parade, pompousness, vaunt, boasting, pageant, pomp, show, vau nting. display, pageantry, pomposity, Ostentation is an ambitious showing forth of whatever is thought adapted to win admiration or praise; ostentation may be without words; as, the ostentation of wealth in fine residences, rich clothing, costly equipage, or the like; when in words, ostentation is rather in manner than in direct statement; as, the ostenta tion of learning. Boasting is in direct statement, and is louder and more vulgar than ostentation. There may be great display or show with little substance; ost entation suggests something substantial to be shown. Pageant, pageantry, parade, and pomp refer principally to affairs of arms or state; as, a royal pageant; a military parade. Pomp is some material demonstration of wealth and power, as in grand and stately ceremonial, rich furnishings, processions, etc., considered as worthy of the person or occasion in whose behalf it is manifested; pomp is the noble side of that which as ostentation is considered as arrogant and vain. Page ant and pageantry are inferior to pomp, denoting spectacular display designed to impress the public mind, and since the multitude is largely ignorant and though tless, the words pageant and pageantry have a suggestion of the transient and un substantial. Parade (L. paro, prepare) is an exhibition as of troops in camp goi ng through the evolutions that are to be used in battle, and suggests a lack of earnestness and direct or immediate occasion or demand; hence, in the more gener al sense, a parade is an uncalled for exhibition, and so used is a more disparag ing word than ostentation; ostentation may spring merely from undue self-gratula tion, parade implies a desire to impress others with a sense of one's abilities or resources, and is always offensive and somewhat contemptible; as, a parade of wealth or learning. Pomposity and pompousness are the affectation of pomp. Antonyms: diffidence, quietness, retirement, timidity, modesty, reserve, shrinking, unobt rusiveness. * * * * * OUGHT. Synonym: should. One ought to do that which he is under moral obligation or in duty bound to do. Ought is the stronger word, holding most closely to the sense of moral obligati on, or sometimes of imperative logical necessity; should may have the sense of m oral obligation or may apply merely to propriety or expediency, as in the prover b, "The liar should have a good memory," i. e., he will need it. Ought is someti mes used of abstractions or inanimate things as indicating what the mind deems t

o be imperative or logically necessary in view of all the conditions; as, these goods ought to go into that space; these arguments ought to convince him; should in such connections would be correct, but less emphatic. Compare DUTY. * * * * * OVERSIGHT. Synonyms: care, control, management, surveillance, charge, direction, superintendence, wa tch, command, inspection, supervision, watchfulness. A person may look over a matter in order to survey it carefully in its entirety , or he may look over it with no attention to the thing itself because his gaze and thought are concentrated on something beyond; oversight has thus two contras ted senses, in the latter sense denoting inadvertent error or omission, and in t he former denoting watchful supervision, commonly implying constant personal pre sence; superintendence requires only so much of presence or communication as to know that the superintendent's wishes are carried out; the superintendent of a r ailroad will personally oversee very few of its operations; the railroad company has supreme direction of all its affairs without superintendence or oversight. Control is used chiefly with reference to restraint or the power of restraint; a good horseman has a restless horse under perfect control; there is no high char acter without self-control. Surveillance is an invidious term signifying watchin g with something of suspicion. Compare CARE; NEGLECT. * * * * * PAIN. Synonyms: ache, distress, suffering, torture, agony, pang, throe, twinge, anguish, paroxy sm, torment, wo(e). Pain is the most general term of this group, including all the others; pain is a disturbing sensation from which nature revolts, resulting from some injurious external interference (as from a wound, a bruise, a harsh word, etc.), or from s ome lack of what one needs, craves, or cherishes (as, the pain of hunger or bere avement), or from some abnormal action of bodily or mental functions (as, the pa ins of disease, envy, or discontent). Suffering is one of the severer forms of p ain. The prick of a needle causes pain, but we should scarcely speak of it as su ffering. Distress is too strong a word for little hurts, too feeble for the inte nsest suffering, but commonly applied to some continuous or prolonged trouble or need; as, the distress of a shipwrecked crew, or of a destitute family. Ache is lingering pain, more or less severe; pang, a pain short, sharp, intense, and pe rhaps repeated. We speak of the pangs of hunger or of remorse. Throe is a violen t and thrilling pain. Paroxysm applies to an alternately recurring and receding pain, which comes as it were in waves; the paroxysm is the rising of the wave. T orment and torture are intense and terrible sufferings. Agony and anguish expres s the utmost pain or suffering of body or mind. Agony of body is that with which the system struggles; anguish that by which it is crushed. Antonyms: comfort, delight, ease, enjoyment, peace, rapture, relief, solace. * * * * *

PALLIATE. Synonyms: apologize for, conceal, extenuate, hide, screen, cloak, cover, gloss over, miti gate, veil. Cloak, from the French, and palliate, from the Latin, are the same in original signification, but have diverged in meaning; a cloak may be used to hide complet ely the person or some object carried about the person, or it may but partly vei l the figure, making the outlines less distinct; cloak is used in the former, pa lliate, in the latter sense; to cloak a sin is to attempt to hide it from discov ery; to palliate it is to attempt to hide some part of its blameworthiness. "Whe n we palliate our own or others' faults we do not seek to cloke them altogether, but only to extenuate the guilt of them in part." TRENCH Study of Words lect. v i, p. 266. Either to palliate or to extenuate is to admit the fault; but to exte nuate is rather to apologize for the offender, while to palliate is to disguise the fault; hence, we speak of extenuating but not of palliating circumstances, s ince circumstances can not change the inherent wrong of an act, tho they may les sen the blameworthiness of him who does it; palliating a bad thing by giving it a mild name does not make it less evil. In reference to diseases, to palliate is really to diminish their violence, or partly to relieve the sufferer. Compare A LLEVIATE; HIDE. * * * * * PARDON, v. Synonyms: absolve, condone, forgive, pass by, remit. acquit, excuse, overlook, pass over, To pardon is to let pass, as a fault or sin, without resentment, blame, or puni shment. Forgive has reference to feelings, pardon to consequences; hence, the ex ecutive may pardon, but has nothing to do officially with forgiving. Personal in jury may be forgiven by the person wronged; thus, God at once forgives and pardo ns; the pardoned sinner is exempt from punishment; the forgiven sinner is restor ed to the divine favor. To pardon is the act of a superior, implying the right t o punish; to forgive is the privilege of the humblest person who has been wronge d or offended. In law, to remit the whole penalty is equivalent to pardoning the offender; but a part of a penalty may be remitted and the remainder inflicted, as where the penalty includes both fine and imprisonment. To condone is to put a side a recognized offense by some act which restores the offender to forfeited r ight or privilege, and is the act of a private individual, without legal formali ties. To excuse is to overlook some slight offense, error, or breach of etiquett e; pardon is often used by courtesy in nearly the same sense. A person may speak of excusing or forgiving himself, but not of pardoning himself. Compare ABSOLVE ; PARDON, n. Antonyms: castigate, chastise, convict, doom, recompense, sentence, chasten, condemn, cor rect, punish, scourge, visit. * * * * * PARDON, n. Synonyms:

absolution, amnesty, forgiveness, oblivion, acquittal, forbearance, mercy, remi ssion. Acquittal is a release from a charge, after trial, as not guilty. Pardon is a r emoval of penalty from one who has been adjudged guilty. Acquittal is by the dec ision of a court, commonly of a jury; pardon is the act of the executive. An inn ocent man may demand acquittal, and need not plead for pardon. Pardon supposes a n offense; yet, as our laws stand, to grant a pardon is sometimes the only way t o release one who has been wrongly convicted. Oblivion, from the Latin, signifie s overlooking and virtually forgetting an offense, so that the offender stands b efore the law in all respects as if it had never been committed. Amnesty brings the same idea through the Greek. Pardon affects individuals; amnesty and oblivio n are said of great numbers. Pardon is oftenest applied to the ordinary administ ration of law; amnesty, to national and military affairs. An amnesty is issued a fter war, insurrection, or rebellion; it is often granted by "an act of oblivion ," and includes a full pardon of all offenders who come within its provisions. A bsolution is a religious word (compare synonyms for ABSOLVE). Remission is a dis charge from penalty; as, the remission of a fine. Antonyms: penalty, punishment, retaliation, retribution, vengeance. Prepositions: A pardon to or for the offenders; for all offenses; the pardon of offenders or offenses. * * * * * PART, v. Synonyms: Compare synonyms for PART, n. Prepositions: Part into shares; part in the middle; part one from another; part among the cla imants; part between contestants (archaic); in general, to part from is to relin quish companionship; to part with is to relinquish possession; we part from a pe rson or from something thought of with some sense of companionship; a traveler p arts from his friends; he maybe said also to part from his native shore; a man p arts with an estate, a horse, a copyright; part with may be applied to a person thought of in any sense as a possession; an employer parts with a clerk or serva nt; but part with is sometimes used by good writers as meaning simply to separat e from. * * * * * PART, n. Synonyms: atom, fraction, member, section, component, fragment, particle, segment, consti tuent, ingredient, piece, share, division, instalment, portion, subdivision. ele ment, Part, a substance, quantity, or amount that is the result of the division of so mething greater, is the general word, including all the others of this group. A

fragment is the result of breaking, rending, or disruption of some kind, while a piece may be smoothly or evenly separated and have a certain completeness in it self. A piece is often taken for a sample; a fragment scarcely would be. Divisio n and fraction are always regarded as in connection with the total; divisions ma y be equal or unequal; a fraction is one of several equal parts into which the w hole is supposed to be divided. A portion is a part viewed with reference to som e one who is to receive it or some special purpose to which it is to be applied; in a restaurant one portion (i. e., the amount designed for one person) is some times, by special order, served to two; a share is a part to which one has or ma y acquire a right in connection with others; an instalment is one of a series of proportionate payments that are to be continued till the entire claim is discha rged; a particle is an exceedingly small part. A component, constituent, ingredi ent, or element is a part of some compound or mixture; an element is necessary t o the existence, as a component or constituent is necessary to the completeness of that which it helps to compose; an ingredient may be foreign or accidental. A subdivision is a division of a division. We speak of a segment of a circle. Com pare PARTICLE; PORTION. * * * * * PARTICLE. Synonyms: atom, grain, mite, scrap, whit. corpuscle, iota, molecule, shred, element, jot, scintilla, tittle, A particle is a very small part of any material substance; as, a particle of sa nd or of dust; it is a general term, not accurately determinate in meaning. Atom (Gr. a- privative, not, and temno, cut) etymologically signifies that which can not be cut or divided, and is the smallest conceivable particle of matter, rega rded as absolutely homogeneous and as having but one set of properties; atoms ar e the ultimate particles of matter. A molecule is made up of atoms, and is regar ded as separable into its constituent parts; as used by physicists, a molecule i s the smallest conceivable part which retains all the characteristics of the sub stance; thus, a molecule of water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one at om of oxygen. Element in chemistry denotes, without reference to quantity, a sub stance regarded as simple, i. e., one incapable of being resolved by any known p rocess into simpler substances; the element gold may be represented by an ingot or by a particle of gold-dust. In popular language, an element is any essential constituent; the ancients believed that the universe was made up of the four ele ments, earth, air, fire, and water; a storm is spoken of as a manifestation of t he fury of the elements. We speak of corpuscles of blood. Compare PART. Antonyms: aggregate, entirety, mass, quantity, sum, sum total, total, whole. * * * * * PATIENCE. Synonyms: calmness, forbearance, long-suffering, sufferance. composure, fortitude, resign ation, endurance, leniency, submission, Patience is the quality or habit of mind shown in bearing passively and uncompl ainingly any pain, evil, or hardship that may fall to one's lot. Endurance harde ns itself against suffering, and may be merely stubborn; fortitude is endurance

animated by courage; endurance may by modifiers be made to have a passive force, as when we speak of "passive endurance;" patience is not so hard as endurance n or so self-effacing as submission. Submission is ordinarily and resignation alwa ys applied to matters of great moment, while patience may apply to slight worrie s and annoyances. As regards our relations to our fellow men, forbearance is abs taining from retaliation or revenge; patience is keeping kindliness of heart und er vexatious conduct; long-suffering is continued patience. Patience may also ha ve an active force denoting uncomplaining steadiness in doing, as in tilling the soil. Compare INDUSTRY. Antonyms: See synonyms for ANGER. Prepositions: Patience in or amid sufferings; patience with (rarely toward) opposers or offen ders; patience under afflictions; (rarely) patience of heat or cold, etc. * * * * * PAY, n. Synonyms: allowance, hire, recompense, salary, compensation, honorarium, remuneration, st ipend, earnings, payment, requital, wages. fee, An allowance is a stipulated amount furnished at regular intervals as a matter of discretion or gratuity, as of food to besieged soldiers, or of money to a chi ld or ward. Compensation is a comprehensive word signifying a return for a servi ce done. Remuneration is applied to matters of great amount or importance. Recom pense is a still wider and loftier word, with less suggestion of calculation and market value; there are services for which affection and gratitude are the sole and sufficient recompense; earnings, fees, hire, pay, salary, and wages are for ms of compensation and may be included in compensation, remuneration, or recompe nse. Pay is commercial and strictly signifies an exact pecuniary equivalent for a thing or service, except when the contrary is expressly stated, as when we spe ak of "high pay" or "poor pay." Wages denotes what a worker receives. Earnings i s often used as exactly equivalent to wages, but may be used with reference to t he real value of work done or service rendered, and even applied to inanimate th ings; as, the earnings of capital. Hire is distinctly mercenary or menial, but a s a noun has gone out of popular use, tho the verb to hire is common. Salary is for literary or professional work, wages for handicraft or other comparatively i nferior service; a salary is regarded as more permanent than wages; an editor re ceives a salary, a compositor receives wages. Stipend has become exclusively a l iterary word. A fee is given for a single service or privilege, and is sometimes in the nature of a gratuity. Compare REQUITE. * * * * * PEOPLE. Synonyms: commonwealth, nation, race, state, tribe. community, population, A community is in general terms the aggregate of persons inhabiting any territo ry in common and viewed as having common interests; a commonwealth is such a bod y of persons having a common government, especially a republican government; as,

the commonwealth of Massachusetts. A community may be very small; a commonwealt h is ordinarily of considerable extent. A people is the aggregate of any public community, either in distinction from their rulers or as including them; a race is a division of mankind in the line of origin and ancestry; the people of the U nited States includes members of almost every race. The use of people as signify ing persons collectively, as in the statement "The hall was full of people," has been severely criticized, but is old and accepted English, and may fitly be cla ssed as idiomatic, and often better than persons, by reason of its collectivism. As Dean Alford suggests, it would make a strange transformation of the old hymn "All people that on earth do dwell" to sing "All persons that on earth do dwell ." A state is an organized political community considered in its corporate capac ity as "a body politic and corporate;" as, a legislative act is the act of the s tate; every citizen is entitled to the protection of the state. A nation is an o rganized political community considered with reference to the persons composing it as having certain definite boundaries, a definite number of citizens, etc. Th e members of a people are referred to as persons or individuals; the individual members of a state or nation are called citizens or subjects. The population of a country is simply the aggregate of persons residing within its borders, withou t reference to race, organization, or allegiance; unnaturalized residents form p art of the population, but not of the nation, possessing none of the rights and being subject to none of the duties of citizens. In American usage State signifi es one commonwealth of the federal union known as the United States. Tribe is no w almost wholly applied to rude peoples with very imperfect political organizati on; as, the Indian tribes; nomadic tribes. Compare MOB. * * * * * PERCEIVE. Synonyms: apprehend, comprehend, conceive, understand. We perceive what is presented through the senses. We apprehend what is presente d to the mind, whether through the senses or by any other means. Yet perceive is used in the figurative sense of seeing through to a conclusion, in a way for wh ich usage would not allow us to substitute apprehend; as, "Sir, I perceive that thou art a prophet," John iv, 19. That which we apprehend we catch, as with the hand; that which we conceive we are able to analyze and recompose in our mind; t hat which we comprehend, we, as it were, grasp around, take together, seize, emb race wholly within the mind. Many things may be apprehended which can not be com prehended; a child can apprehend the distinction between right and wrong, yet th e philosopher can not comprehend it in its fulness. We can apprehend the will of God as revealed in conscience or the Scriptures; we can conceive of certain att ributes of Deity, as his truth and justice; but no finite intelligence can compr ehend the Divine Nature, in its majesty, power, and perfection. Compare ANTICIPA TE; ARREST; CATCH; KNOWLEDGE. Antonyms: fail of, ignore, lose, misapprehend, misconceive, miss, overlook. * * * * * PERFECT. Synonyms: absolute, consummate, holy, spotless, accurate, correct, ideal, stainless, blam eless, entire, immaculate, unblemished, complete, faultless, sinless, undefiled.

completed, finished, That is perfect to which nothing can be added, and from which nothing can be ta ken without impairing its excellence, marring its symmetry, or detracting from i ts worth; in this fullest sense God alone is perfect, but in a limited sense any thing may be perfect in its kind; as a perfect flower; a copy of a document is p erfect when it is accurate in every particular; a vase may be called perfect whe n entire and unblemished, even tho not artistically faultless; the best judges n ever pronounce a work of art perfect, because they see always ideal possibilitie s not yet attained; even the ideal is not perfect, by reason of the imperfection of the human mind; a human character faultlessly holy would be morally perfect tho finite. That which is absolute is free from admixture (as absolute alcohol) and in the highest and fullest sense free from imperfection or limitation; as, a bsolute holiness and love are attributes of God alone. In philosophical language , absolute signifies free from all necessary, or even from all possible relation s, not dependent or limited, unrelated and unconditioned; truth immediately know n, as intuitive truth, is absolute; God, as self-existent and free from all limi tation or dependence, is called the absolute Being, or simply the Absolute. Comp are INNOCENT; INFINITE; RADICAL. Antonyms: bad, defective, imperfect, meager, scant, blemished, deficient, incomplete, per verted, short, corrupt, deformed, inferior, poor, spoiled, corrupted, fallible, insufficient, ruined, worthless. defaced, faulty, marred, * * * * * PERMANENT. Synonyms: abiding, enduring, lasting, steadfast, changeless, fixed, perpetual, unchangeab le, constant, immutable, persistent, unchanging. durable, invariable, stable, Durable (L. durus, hard) is said almost wholly of material substances that resi st wear; lasting is said of either material or immaterial things. Permanent is a word of wider meaning; a thing is permanent which is not liable to change; as, a permanent color; buildings upon a farm are called permanent improvements. Endu ring is a higher word, applied to that which resists both time and change; as, e nduring fame. Antonyms: See synonyms for TRANSIENT. * * * * * PERMISSION. Synonyms: allowance, authorization, leave, license, authority, consent, liberty, permit. Authority unites the right and power of control; age, wisdom, and character giv e authority to their possessor; a book of learned research has authority, and is even called an authority. Permission justifies another in acting without interf erence or censure, and usually implies some degree of approval. Authority gives a certain right of control over all that may be affected by the action. There ma y be a failure to object, which constitutes an implied permission, tho this is m

ore properly expressed by allowance; we allow what we do not oppose, permit what we expressly authorize. The noun permit implies a formal written permission. Li cense is a formal permission granted by competent authority to an individual to do some act or pursue some business which would be or is made to be unlawful wit hout such permission; as, a license to preach, to solemnize marriages, or to sel l intoxicating liquors. A license is permission granted rather than authority co nferred; the sheriff has authority (not permission nor license) to make an arres t. Consent is permission by the concurrence of wills in two or more persons, a m utual approval or acceptance of something proposed. Compare ALLOW. Antonyms: denial, objection, prevention, refusal, resistance. hindrance, opposition, proh ibition, * * * * * PERNICIOUS. Synonyms: bad, evil, mischievous, pestilential, baneful, foul, noisome, poisonous, deadly , harmful, noxious, ruinous, deleterious, hurtful, perverting, unhealthful, dest ructive, injurious, pestiferous, unwholesome. detrimental, insalubrious, Pernicious (L. per, through, and neco, kill) signifies having the power of dest roying or injuring, tending to hurt or kill. Pernicious is stronger than injurio us; that which is injurious is capable of doing harm; that which is pernicious i s likely to be destructive. Noxious (L. noceo, hurt) is a stronger word than noi some, as referring to that which is injurious or destructive. Noisome now always denotes that which is extremely disagreeable or disgusting, especially to the s ense of smell; as, the noisome stench proclaimed the presence of noxious gases. Antonyms: advantageous, favorable, helpful, profitable, serviceable, beneficent, good, in vigorating, rejuvenating, useful, beneficial, healthful, life-giving, salutary, wholesome. * * * * * PERPLEXITY. Synonyms: amazement, bewilderment, distraction, doubt, astonishment, confusion, disturban ce, embarrassment. Perplexity (L. per, through, and plecto, plait) is the drawing or turning of th e thoughts or faculties by turns in different directions or toward contrasted or contradictory conclusions; confusion (L. confusus, from confundo, pour together ) is a state in which the mental faculties are, as it were, thrown into chaos, s o that the clear and distinct action of the different powers, as of perception, memory, reason, and will is lost; bewilderment is akin to confusion, but is less overwhelming, and more readily recovered from; perplexity, accordingly, has not the unsettling of the faculties implied in confusion, nor the overwhelming of t he faculties implied in amazement or astonishment; it is not the magnitude of th e things to be known, but the want of full and definite knowledge, that causes p erplexity. The dividing of a woodland path may cause the traveler the greatest p erplexity, which may become bewilderment when he has tried one path after anothe

r and lost his bearings completely. With an excitable person bewilderment may de epen into confusion that will make him unable to think clearly or even to see or hear distinctly. Amazement results from the sudden and unimagined occurrence of great good or evil or the sudden awakening of the mind to unthought-of truth. A stonishment often produces bewilderment, which the word was formerly understood to imply. Compare AMAZEMENT; ANXIETY; DOUBT. * * * * * PERSUADE. Synonyms: allure, dispose, incline, move, bring over, entice, induce, prevail on or upon, coax, impel, influence, urge, convince, incite, lead, win over. Of these words convince alone has no direct reference to moving the will, denot ing an effect upon the understanding only; one may be convinced of his duty with out doing it, or he may be convinced of truth that has no manifest connection wi th duty or action, as of a mathematical proposition. To persuade is to bring the will of another to a desired decision by some influence exerted upon it short o f compulsion; one may be convinced that the earth is round; he may be persuaded to travel round it; but persuasion is so largely dependent upon conviction that it is commonly held to be the orator's work first to convince in order that he m ay persuade. Coax is a slighter word than persuade, seeking the same end by shal lower methods, largely by appeal to personal feeling, with or without success; a s, a child coaxes a parent to buy him a toy. One may be brought over, induced, o r prevailed upon by means not properly included in persuasion, as by bribery or intimidation; he is won over chiefly by personal influence. Compare INFLUENCE. Antonyms: deter, discourage, dissuade, hinder, hold back, repel, restrain. * * * * * PERTNESS. Synonyms: boldness, forwardness, liveliness, sprightliness. briskness, impertinence, sauc iness, flippancy, impudence, smartness, Liveliness and sprightliness are pleasant and commendable; smartness is a limit ed and showy acuteness or shrewdness, usually with unfavorable suggestion; pertn ess and sauciness are these qualities overdone, and regardless of the respect du e to superiors. Impertinence and impudence may be gross and stupid; pertness and sauciness are always vivid and keen. Compare IMPUDENCE. Antonyms: bashfulness, demureness, diffidence, humility, modesty, shyness. * * * * * PERVERSE. Synonyms: contrary, froward, petulant, untoward, factious, intractable, stubborn, wayward

, fractious, obstinate, ungovernable, wilful. Perverse (L. perversus, turned the wrong way) signifies wilfully wrong or errin g, unreasonably set against right, reason, or authority. The stubborn or obstina te person will not do what another desires or requires; the perverse person will do anything contrary to what is desired or required of him. The petulant person frets, but may comply; the perverse individual may be smooth or silent, but is wilfully intractable. Wayward refers to a perverse disregard of morality and dut y; froward is practically obsolete; untoward is rarely heard except in certain p hrases; as, untoward circumstances. Compare OBSTINATE. Antonyms: accommodating, complaisant, genial, kind, amenable, compliant, governable, obli ging. * * * * * PHYSICAL. Synonyms: bodily, corporeal, natural, tangible, corporal, material, sensible, visible. Whatever is composed of or pertains to matter may be termed material; physical (Gr. physis, nature) applies to material things considered as parts of a system or organic whole; hence, we speak of material substances, physical forces, physi cal laws. Bodily, corporal, and corporeal apply primarily to the human body; bod ily and corporal both denote pertaining or relating to the body; corporeal signi fies of the nature of or like the body; corporal is now almost wholly restricted to signify applied to or inflicted upon the body; we speak of bodily sufferings , bodily presence, corporal punishment, the corporeal frame. Antonyms: hyperphysical, intangible, invisible, moral, unreal, immaterial, intellectual, mental, spiritual, unsubstantial. * * * * * PIQUE. Synonyms: displeasure, irritation, offense, resentment, umbrage. grudge, Pique, from the French, signifies primarily a prick or a sting, as of a nettle; the word denotes a sudden feeling of mingled pain and anger, but slight and usu ally transient, arising from some neglect or offense, real or imaginary. Umbrage is a deeper and more persistent displeasure at being overshadowed (L. umbra, a shadow) or subjected to any treatment that one deems unworthy of him. It may be said, as a general statement, that pique arises from wounded vanity or sensitive ness, umbrage from wounded pride or sometimes from suspicion. Resentment rests o n more solid grounds, and is deep and persistent. Compare ANGER. Antonyms: approval, contentment, gratification, pleasure, satisfaction. complacency, deli ght,

* * * * * PITIFUL. Synonyms: abject, lamentable, paltry, sorrowful, base, miserable, pathetic, touching, con temptible, mournful, piteous, woful, despicable, moving, pitiable, wretched. Pitiful originally signified full of pity; as, "the Lord is very pitiful and of tender mercy," James v, 11; but this usage is now archaic, and the meaning in q uestion is appropriated by such words as merciful and compassionate. Pitiful and pitiable now refer to what may be deserving of pity, pitiful being used chiefly for that which is merely an object of thought, pitiable for that which is broug ht directly before the senses; as, a pitiful story; a pitiable object; a pitiabl e condition. Since pity, however, always implies weakness or inferiority in that which is pitied, pitiful and pitiable are often used, by an easy transition, fo r what might awaken pity, but does awaken contempt; as, a pitiful excuse; he pre sented a pitiable appearance. Piteous is now rarely used in its earlier sense of feeling pity, but in its derived sense applies to what really excites the emoti on; as, a piteous cry. Compare HUMANE; MERCY; PITY. Antonyms: august, dignified, grand, lofty, sublime, beneficent, exalted, great, mighty, s uperb, commanding, glorious, helpful, noble, superior. * * * * * PITY. Synonyms: commiseration, condolence, sympathy, tenderness. compassion, mercy, Pity is a feeling of grief or pain aroused by the weakness, misfortunes, or dis tresses of others, joined with a desire to help or relieve. Sympathy (feeling or suffering with) implies some degree of equality, kindred, or union; pity is for what is weak or unfortunate, and so far, at least, inferior to ourselves; hence , pity is often resented where sympathy would be welcome. We have sympathy with one in joy or grief, in pleasure or pain, pity only for those in suffering or ne ed; we may have sympathy with the struggles of a giant or the triumphs of a conq ueror; we are moved with pity for the captive or the slave. Pity may be only in the mind, but mercy does something for those who are its objects. Compassion, li ke pity, is exercised only with respect to the suffering or unfortunate, but com bines with the tenderness of pity the dignity of sympathy and the active quality of mercy. Commiseration is as tender as compassion, but more remote and hopeles s; we have commiseration for sufferers whom we can not reach or can not relieve. Condolence is the expression of sympathy. Compare MERCY. Antonyms: barbarity, ferocity, harshness, pitilessness, severity, brutality, hard-hearted ness, inhumanity, rigor, sternness, cruelty, hardness, mercilessness, ruthlessne ss, truculence. Prepositions: Pity on or upon that which we help or spare; pity for that which we merely cont emplate; "have pity upon me, O ye my friends," Job xix, 21; "pity for a horse o'

To plead for one is to employ argument or persuasion. and under the influence of motives that may range all the way from cold self-interest to the highest and noblest impulses. entreat. or with direct object. as. Prepositions: Plead with the tyrant for the captive. Synonyms: seed. to plead a case. w ithout reference to any action or intent in that which confers it. implore. tho we may also be said t o plant them. plead against the oppression or the oppr essor. he pleads a cause. ask. That is pleasing from which pleasure is received. etc. cuttings. solicit. the old word for broadcast scatteri ng is retained. Whatever has active qualities adapted to give p . a pleasing landscape. uproot. before the court.erdriven. we plant corn. pleasing. in open court. pleading is argumentative. pleasura ble. Press and urge imply more determined or perhaps authoritative in sistence. Land is seeded or seeded down to grass.. root up. or pleads for a person with still more intense feeling. as in hills. attractive. sow. young trees. seed down. we sow wheat or other small grains and seeds which ar e scattered in the process. beseech. good-natured. Synonyms: agreeable. with some care. at the bar. set. Synonyms: advocate. We set or set out slips. * * * * * PLEAD. but in popular usage. kind. etc. entreat. a pleasin g picture. or both in his behalf. and i mplore imply impassioned earnestness. Antonyms: eradicate." TENNYSON In Memoriam lxii. One argues a case solely on rational grounds and suppo sably with fair consideration of both sides. extirpate. in legal usa ge. sometimes by sordid or corrupt motives. with direct and tender appeal to personal considerations. obliging. pleading always implies som e appeal to the feelings. Tho by modern agricultural machinery the smaller gra ins are almost as precisely planted as corn. * * * * * PLEASANT. beg. urge. press. or may readily be received. us ually with earnestness or importunity. etc. he advocates one side for the purpo se of carrying it. which we put in definite places. weed out. set out. similarly one may be said to plead for hi mself or for a cause. plead to the indictment. st. Solicit is a weak word denoting merely an attempt to secure one's cons ent or cooperation. 1. kindly.. potatoes. argue. * * * * * PLANT.. Beseech.

Sufficient.. austere. but only of usage. a pleasant (not a pleasing) day. "a plentiful rain. or in a pleasant mood.) Affluent. etc. and note what is by the way. is no w rare. glum. Pleasant keeps always something of t he sense of actually giving pleasure. a field is sometimes called plentiful. forbidding. adequate. but harmony. jocose (the sense still retained in pleasantry). We have time enough. ill -natured. or toward persons. one is pleasant. lavish. not with reference to its extent. resour ces. profuse. (Compare synonyms for ADEQUATE. a pleasant face indicates a kind heart and an obliging disposition. may be used of thought. bounteous. etc. large. repulsive. bountiful. feeling. when inclined to make happy th ose with whom he is dealing. Synonyms: abounding.leasure is pleasant. generous. complete. if we have abundant time. full. Sufficient usually precedes its noun. Compare AMIABLE . rich. oftenest in the ill sense. where p lentiful can not well be used. . harsh. unpleasant. DELIGHTFUL. COMFORTABLE. complexion. plenteous.. whil e pleasant stops with the disposition. lxviii. merry. we may move leisurely. or to rest wh en weary. Ample and abundant may be applied to any subject. and yet not mere sufficiency. Plentiful is used of supplies . "on that occasion he did not meet me with a pleasant face. liberal. in the sense of gay. nor plentiful can be used of time or s pace. abundant. fitness to a design. and would not be understood outside of literary circles. we may pause to converse with a friend. grim. etc. A temperature of 70° Fahrenheit is enough for a living-room. Antonyms: arrogant. many persons are no longer in a pleasant mood if asked to do a troublesome kindness. referring especially to riches. there are good-natured people who by reason of rudeness and ill-breeding a re not pleasant companions. 9. a pleasant breeze. ample. and thus surpasses the meaning of good-nat ured. about a matter. but not a large. enough be ing the more blunt. language. offensive. enough. to view the scenery. * * * * * PLENTIFUL. ill-humored. In th is sense pleasant is nearly akin to kind. means that we can reach our destination without haste. is an equivalent of the Saxon enough. etc.. but also without delay. We may also sa y a copious rain. that is abundant. if we have ampl e time. Affluent and liberal both apply to riches. or ideal. affluent. luxuriant. plent iful. neither i s enough to melt iron. as well as kindly feelings in actual exercise. as. teeming. A pleasing face has good features. unkind. but copious can be applied to thought. expre ssion. denoting a supply equal to a given demand. proportion. to show kindness and do any reasonable favor. b ut to its productiveness. dreary. enough usuall y and preferably follows. while sufficient is in many cases the more elegant or polite. we can say of one usually good-n atured. Lavish and profuse imply a decided excess. copious. mar gin beyond a given demand. sufficient. of 212° enough to boil water. hateful. pleasant always refers to a disposition ready and desirous t o please. disagreeable . as of food. Complete expresses not excess or overplus. with no perceptible difference of meaning. and forcible word. repellent. with. with especial reference to giving or expending. displeasing. repelling. affluent. gloomy. from the Latin. but kind refers to act or intent. overflowing. That is ample which gives a safe. homely." Ps. bountiful." Pleasant. exub erant. as. which is largely in excess of manifest need. Prepositions: Pleasant to. water. Enough is relative. liberal. copious. replete. Neither affluent. crabbed. liberal. As applied to persons.

complaisant. cultivated. he cares for the comfor t and happiness of others in the smallest matters. * * * * * POLITE. There may be poetry without rime. * * * * * POETRY. or action in melodious. and (usually) metrical language. courteous is fuller and richer. beautiful. narrow. impoverished. and meter. miserly . one who is polite (literally polished) observes more than the necessary pro prieties. Courtly suggests that which befi . courteous. but hardly without meter. elegant. drained. prose. scanty. niggardly. metrical composition. straitened. short. A civil person observes such propriety of speech and manner as to avoid being r ude. scarce. lavish or prof use expenditure suggests extravagance and wastefulness. because quite devoid of the element of song. polished. Preposition: Plentiful in resources. In ordinary usage. well-behav ed. sparing. numbers. A man may be civil with no consideration for other s. There is much in literature that is beautiful and sublime in thought and artistic in constructio n. inadequate. the exercise of the fancy or imagination in a way always beautiful. besides the artistic form. poesy. or what in some languages takes its place. well-bred. verse. which is yet not poetry. urbane. but one who is polite has at least some care for the opinions of others. the poetry of motion. Poetry is that form of literature that embodies beautiful thought. Luxuriant is used especi ally of that which is abundant in growth. Fai ling this. feeling. prosaic writing. which is coming to be the prevailing one. as. and is used only in the good sense. as the Hebrew p arallelism. obliging. as. exhausted. scant. Poetry in a very wide sense may be anything that pl easingly addresses the imagination. song. poem. poetry is both imaginative and metrical. Antonyms: deficient. often lofty or even sublime. stingy. small. Civil is a colder and more di stant word than polite. a luxuriant crop. but poetry involves. mean. simply because self-respect forbids him to be rude. rime. becoming. rime. or impassioned prose. Synonyms: meter. and if polite in the highest and truest sense. Synonyms: accomplished. poor. and honor generous hospitality. Antonyms: prosaic speech.We rejoice in abundant resources. we ll-mannered. genteel. civil. conforming to all that is graceful. insufficient. dealing often with great er matters. in imaginative and artistic constructions. but not poetry. and thoughtful in the in tercourse of refined society. scrimped. cultured. whereby poetry differs from the most lofty. gracious. there may be verse. Compare ME TER. rhythmical. courtly.

cultured refers to a real and high development of mind and soul. we think of t he whole as divided according to some rule or scale. ill -behaved. policy is the method of management with reference to the attainment of certain ends. * * * * * PORTION. Antonyms: awkward. Synonyms: lot. Polity is the permanent system of government of a state. rude. untaught. so that the different parts bear a contemplated and intended relation or ratio to one another. Complaisant denotes a disposition to please or favor beyond wh at politeness would necessarily require. unpolished. Polity used in ecclesiastical use serves a valuable purpose in distinguishing that which relates to administration and g overnment from that which relates to faith and doctrine. Compare PART. Genteel r efers to an external elegance. a polished gentleman or a polished scoundrel. discourteous. of which the external manifestation is t he smallest part. subject or purpose is called a portion. When we speak of a part as a proportion. Policy is often used as equivalent to expediency. share. * * * * * POLITY. Compare LAW. brusk. boorish. and the word is thus inferior to polite or courteous. many think honesty to be good policy. the national polity of the United States is republican. part. Urbane refers to a politeness that is g enial and successful in giving others a sense of ease and cheer. the courtly manners of the ambassador. a church. impertinent . which may be showy and superficial. raw. any part that is allotted to some person. uncouth. ill-mannered. Polished refers to external elegancies of speech and manner without reference to spirit or purp ose. rustic. clownish. blunt. bluff. When any whole is divided into parts. Synonyms: constitution. as. as. coarse.ts a royal court. each administrati on has a policy of its own. or a society . Pr oportion is often used where part or portion would be more appropriate. untuto red. insulting. Synonyms: . thing. thus. proportion. unmannerly. as . impolite. impudent. insolent. or those agreeing in polity may differ in faith. form or system of government. uncivil. two churches identical in faith may differ in polity. the po rtion allotted to a child by will may not be a fair proportion of the estate. parcel. and is used of external grace and stateliness without referenc e to the prompting feeling. according to his arbitrary and unreasonable caprice. a father may divide his estate by will among his children so as to make their several portions great or small. tho the division may be by no fi xed rule or relation. policy. ill-bred. * * * * * POVERTY.

Power and ability include capacity. ne ed. DEXTERITY. property . destitution is lack of the comforts. the power of an acid to corrode a metal. comfort able living. privation denotes a condition of painful lack of what is useful or desirable. but ability is often distinguished from capacity. with all the dexterity. and yet not possess ability to teach. the power of the legislature to enact laws. or of the executive to enforce them . as. imbecil ity. Faculty is an inherent quality of mind or b ody. distress. Efficiency is effectual agency. possibly not so sharp as destitution. the power of a polished surface to re flect light. we speak of an exertion of power. be ggary and mendicancy denote poverty that appeals for indiscriminate private char ity. Power is the most general term of this group. Eff icacy is the power to produce an intended effect as shown in the production of i t. some special mental ability. while that may be temporary. * * * * * PRAISE. indigence is lack of ordi nary means of subsistence. strength. the power that actually do es. dexterity and skill are largely acquired. inefficiency. tho not to the extent of absolute distress. inability. maladroitness. cleverness. pauperism is such destitution as throws one upon organized public charity for support. produced. Dexterity and skill are readiness and facility in action. competency. efficacy. the efficacy of a drug. and talents. as. mendicancy. expertness. as distinguished from that which may do. Compare ADDRESS. efficiency is applied in mechanics as denoting the ratio of the effect produced to the power expended in producing it. Poverty denotes strictly lack of property or adequate means of support. faculty. as p ower that may be manifested in doing. but this word is chiefly used of intellig ent agents as denoting the quality that brings all one's power to bear promptly and to the best purpose on the thing to be done. talent. helplessness. or result is. readiness prompt for the occasion. w hich is power to receive. but does not reach the po sitiveness and vigor that may be included in the meaning of power. skill. as distinguished from active power. talent is innate. dexterity. efficiency. indigence. and readiness that can be acquired. privation. impotence. effect. Antonyms: awkwardness. aptitude. Ef ficiency is active power to effect a definite result. cogency. want. but not of an exertion of ability. Competency is equal to the occasion . readiness. pauperism. qualification. energy. might. Synonyms: ability. susceptibi lity. or faculty by which any change. inaptitude. unskilfulness. penury. having a special end. incapacity. faculties. ability often implying latent. including every quality. dulness. stupidity. talent. as capacity is in receiving. force. feebleness. SKI LFUL. . but in common use is a relative term denoting any condition below that of easy. or may be. penury is especially cramping poverty. capability. incompetence. * * * * * POWER. capacity. Ability is nearly coextensive with power. weakness. competent power. destitution. but continuous. and in part even of the necessaries of life.beggary. skill . Our abilities include our natural capacity. one may have great capacity for acquiring knowledge.

waving of handkerchiefs. repudiation. p. and is co mmonly used in the plural. or in certain phra ses. laudation. implore and supplicate denote the ut most fervency and intensity. and in the fullest sense with thanksgiving and praise for the divine goodness and mercy. beseech. as. petition. W. approbation may refer to character or natural traits. Appro val always supposes a testing or careful examination. ignominy. AND J. condemnation. PLE AD. request. obloquy. while praise is always uttered. entreat. in the religious sense. reproof. plaudit. 549. or of a number or multitude con sidered individually. the once c ommon use of the word to express any earnest request. HARE Guesses at Truth first series. Compare ASK.. conjure. p anegyric. and frequently implies off icial sanction. v ilification. and strictly by the voice alone. adulation. clapping of hands. Approbation is a milder and more qualified word t han praise. etc. '66. call upon. blame. commonly understood in a loftier sense." even in these "please" is more common. s corn. censure. [MACM. Synonyms: ask. compliment. beg. as. cheering. his decision in a special insta nce receives his approval. acclamation. invoke. vituperation. Acclaim is the more poetic term for acclamation. reproach. by stam ping of feet. Plaudit is a shout of applause. "I beg you" is a lso frequently used. The industry and intelli gence of a clerk win his employer's approbation. " is now rare. slander. C . the spontaneous outburst of many at once. disapprobation. encomium. as well as by th e voice. as expressing a polite humility of request. is devoutly to address the Supreme Being with reverent petition for divine grace or any favor or blessing. acclamation is the spontaneous and hearty approval of many at once. To pray. Praise is always understood as genuine and sincere.] Acceptance refers to an object or action. disapproval. compliment is a light form of praise tha t may or may not be sincere. Thus one is chosen moderator by acclamation when h e receives a unanimous viva voce vote.. approbation may be silent.. Praise is the hearty approval of an individual. flattery is insincere and ordinarily fulsome praise . animadversion. bid. denunciation. we could not say he was nominated by appl ause.Synonyms: acclaim. hissing. supplicate implying also humility. approbation. u nless the contrary is expressly stated. importune. Praise is always personal. syco phancy. Applause is also used i n the general sense of praise. applause. flattery. Antonyms: abuse. the plaudits of a throng. Applause is expressed in any way. * * * * * PRECARIOUS. approbation may be upon a general view. approval. . Beseech and ent reat express great earnestness of petition. as "I pray you to come in. "Approbat ion speaks of the thing or action." A. disparagement. and is expressed by spoken or written words. unless in writings molded on older literature. supplica te. as "Pray sit down.. plead. eulogy. applause. implore. * * * * * PRAY. a nation's acclaim. contempt. cheers.

or land by a precarious title. * * * * * PRECEDENT. free will. pattern. while others hold foreordination to be inseparably invo lved in foreknowledge. by extension of meaning. obiter dictum. immutable. risky.Synonyms: doubtful. Cases decided by irregular or unauthorized tribunals are not precedents for the regul ar administration of law. unsettled. necessity is philosophical. choice. Predestination is a previous determination or decision. unstable. Foreknowledge is simply God 's antecedent knowledge of all events. denoting the rational and righte ous order or decree of the supreme and all-wise God. with manifest unfavorable possibility verging toward probability. A precedent is an authoritative case. instance. Synonyms: antecedent. foreordination. Antonyms: accident. in the divine ac tion. EXAM PLE. * * * * * PREDESTINATION. hazardous. the invalid's is precarious. assured. The communism of th e early Christians in Jerusalem is a wonderful example or instance of Christian liberality. An obiter dictum is an opinion outside of the case in hand. uncertain. incontestable. f oreordination and predestination are Christian. foreknowledge. perilous. independence. undoubted. the strong man's hold on life is uncertain. as. and now. stable. example. settled. reaches on from eternity. necessity. example. unassured. dubious. firm. Uncertain is applied to things that human knowledge can not certainly determine or that human power can not certainly control. irrational pow er determining all events with no manifest connection with reason or righteousne ss. or instance. Synonyms: fate. steady. equivocal. insecure. precarious originally meant depe ndent on the will of another. unsteady. which. case. undeniable. unquestionable. sure. s trong. Prepositions: . freedom. but not a precedent for the universal church through all time. certain. dependent on cha nce or hazard. warrant . eternal sequence. Fate is heathen. chance. one holds office by a precarious tenure. an irresistible. which some hold to be entirely separable from his foreordination. which can not be quoted as an authoritative precedent. Antonyms: actual. free agency. authority. real. Compare CAUSE. a blind something in the nature of things bindin g the slightest action or motion in the chain of inevitable. infallible. uncert ainty.

assumption. partiality. honesty. There is always a presumpti on in favor of what exists. presumption. * * * * * PRETENSE. prepossession. HYPOCRISY. color. simulation. reality. etc. and always held subject to revision upon fuller information. wile. a tricky schoolboy makes a pretense of doing an errand which he does not do. evidence. subterfug e. * * * * * PREJUDICE. A prejudice again st foreigners is very common in retired communities. openness. * * * * * PREVENT. ingenuousness. the word is now commonly used in an unfavorable sense. reason. candor. pret ension. o r he makes the actual doing of an errand a pretext for playing truant. unfairness. semblance. conviction. unless the contrary is expressly stated. a taking beforehand) is a partial decision formed in advance of argument or evidence. in the unfavorable. A prepossession is always favorable. truth. dissimulation. A pretense. pretext. A person makes a p retense of something for the credit or advantage to be gained by it. fancy. air. trick. and enable a person to gain some end that he wo uld not be allowed to approach directly. Antonyms: actuality. preconception. A ruse is something (especially something slight or petty) employed to blind or deceive s o as to mask an ulterior design. A presumption (literally. excuse.Predestination of believers to eternal life. ruse. disguise. cloak. A prejudice or preposs ession is grounded often on feeling. Synonyms: . Synonyms: bias. associations. a prejudice always unfavorable. A pretension is a claim that is or may be contested. he makes wh at is allowed or approved a pretext for doing what would be opposed or condemned . mask. frankness. which is also the usual sense. reas oning. so that the burden of proof is upon one who advocate s a change. sincerity. Compare INJURY. in one's favor. rarely. demonstration. Antonyms: certainty. simplicity. fact. in favor of. Synonyms: affectation. seeming. Compare ART IFICE. conclusion. proof. usually grounded on some general principle. guilelessness. is something adv anced or displayed for the purpose of concealing the reality. Prepositions: Against. show.

e. even when not fully expressed. or of position in written or printed matter. is coming to be employed chiefly with r eference to place. "When Peter was come into the hou se. obviate. Antecedent and previous may refer to that which goes or happens a t any distance in advance. "I was about to accost him when he anticip ated me" (by speaking first). Previous often signifies first by right. Prior bears exclusive ref erence to time. the enemy passed the outworks and were barely prevented from capturing the fortress. the preceding statement or chapter comes next before without an interv al. to forestall is to take or act in advance i n one's own behalf and to the prejudice of another or others. while it can be used of time. forestall. and Eccles. former. we should say the front part of t he garden. Compare HINDER. act in advance of. preceding. foregoing. as. We can say former times. as. as the anterior lobes of the brain. "Thou pre ventest him with the blessings of goodness" (i. preceding is limited to that which is immediately or next before. to stop the way of or remove from the way). earlier. e. a necessity or difficulty is obvia ted.anticipate. a prior demand. Ps. anterior. Foregoin g is used only of that which is spoken or written. as. e. Jesus prevented him" (i. as in the phrase " to forestall the market. xvii.. (literally. walls and bars precluded the possi bility of escape. the striking of one clo ck may be always antecedent to the striking of another with no causal connection between them. which is now practically obsolete. 25. met the wish before it was expressed): or we say. is to prevent by inte rception. and commonly where that which is first in time is first also in right. 10. etc. so that something that would naturally withstand or disturb may be kep t from doing so. 3. by sending the blessings bef ore the desire is formulated or expressed).. the completion or conclusion only b eing thought of as negatived by anticipation. as in Acts i. as appears in such passages as. xxi. the foregoing statements. with something following. a former chapt er.. was still in good use when the authorized version of the B ible was made. * * * * * PREVIOUS. implying no direct connection be tween that which goes before and that which follows. . Antecedent may denote simple priority in time. Former has a close relation. To obvia te (literally. precedent. Matt. preclude.. the former always implies the latter. an antecedent event may have happened at any time before. front. Prevent. the forward car of a train. in neither of these cases could we use forestall or prevent. a supposition is precluded. Synonyms: antecedent. his thoughtful kindness anticipated my wish (i. 1. as. which at first had only the anticipatory meaning. Former is used of time. to come before. a previous statement or chapter may be in any part of the book that has gon e before. or sharp con trast. addressed him first). vii. or one anticipates a payment (by making it before the time). Anterior. the prece ding transaction is the one completed just before the one with which it is compa red. Preposition: He was prevented by illness from joining the expedition. a previous engagement. as. but not the former part of a garden. The original sense of prevent. forward. PROHIBIT. has come to appl y to the stopping of an action at any stage. Anticipate is now the on ly single word usable in this sense. to preclude. to close or shut in advance) is to pre vent by anticipation or by logical necessity. prior. prelim inary. introductory. not of space in general." But to anticipate is very frequently used in the favor able sense.

in constructions where previously to would be more strictly co rrect. to bring it to its present condition in the hands of its present possessor. Cha rge has especial reference to services. Synonyms: arrogance.Antonyms: after. hindmost. conceit. thus. self-conceit. haughtiness feels one's own superiority to others. succeeding. or otherwise. vanity. expense to minor outlays. h inder. concluding. Presumption claims place or privilege above one's right. t he price the buyer has paid becomes their cost to himself. assumption. cost. ostentation. hind. latter. hence the significance of the taunting pr overb that "every man has his price. expense. intrinsic value is a weaker expression than intrinsic worth.] * * * * * PRICE. production. as. haughtiness. disdain sees c ontemptuously the inferiority of others to oneself. wha t the thing will avail with others) than worth. self-esteem. what a man will n ot sell he declines to put a price on. Value has always more reference to others' estimation (literally. self-respect. haugh tiness. the charge s of a lawyer or physician. Price always implies that an article is for sale. the market value is what it woul d bring if exposed for sale in the open market. vainglory. traveling expenses. In the presence of superiors ov erweening pride manifests itself in presumption or insolence. Preposition: Such was the state of things previous to the revolution. superciliousness. following. whether the article is for sale or not. reserve. the intrinsic value is the inher ent utility of the article considered by itself alone. superciliousness. these arrangements were made previous to my departure. as from a servant to a master or mistress. self-complacency. Arrogance claims much for itself and concedes little to others. or in either case often by cold reser . as a rule. worth. [Previous to is often used adverbially. In regular business. pride manifests itself by arroganc e. posterior. decoration. the market value of an ol d and rare volume may be very great. In exceptional cases. disdain. the seller' s price on his wares must be more than their cost to him. the seller's price is made the same as the cost of the goods to him. when goods are sold at cost." Value is the estimated equivalent for an a rticle. household expenses. presumption. Pride is an absorbing sense of one's own greatness. insolence. refinement. disdain. outlay. consequent. in the presence of inferiors. the price of a t hing is what the seller asks for it. as. subsequent. while its intrinsic value may be practicall y nothing. later. which regards the thing in and b y itself. pride deems nothing too high. the cost to the seller and the cost to the buyer becoming the n identical. generally from an inferior to a supe rior. or those supposed to be inferior. Insolence is open and rude expression of contempt and hostility. when goods are sold. Haughtiness thinks highly of itself and poorly of others. value. transportation. expenditure. Synonyms: charge. self-exaltation. whether in discovery . * * * * * PRIDE. The cost of a thing is all that has been expended upon it.

ve. (See RESERVE under MODESTY.) Pride is too self-satisfied to care for praise; vanity intensely craves admiration and applause. Superciliousness, as if by the uplifted eyebrow, as its etymology suggests (L. supercilium, eyebrow, from supe r, over and cilium, eyelid), silently manifests mingled haughtiness and disdain. Assumption quietly takes for granted superiority and privilege which others wou ld be slow to concede. Conceit and vanity are associated with weakness, pride wi th strength. Conceit may be founded upon nothing; pride is founded upon somethin g that one is, or has, or has done; vanity, too, is commonly founded on somethin g real, tho far slighter than would afford foundation for pride. Vanity is eager for admiration and praise, is elated if they are rendered, and pained if they a re withheld, and seeks them; pride could never solicit admiration or praise. Con ceit is somewhat stronger than self-conceit. Self-conceit is ridiculous; conceit is offensive. Self-respect is a thoroughly worthy feeling; self-esteem is a mor e generous estimate of one's own character and abilities than the rest of the wo rld are ready to allow. Vainglory is more pompous and boastful than vanity. Comp are EGOTISM; OSTENTATION. Antonyms: humility, meekness, modesty, self-abasement, self-distrust. lowliness, * * * * * PRIMEVAL. Synonyms: aboriginal, indigenous, patriarchal, primitive, ancient, native, primal, primor dial, autochthonic, old, primary, pristine, immemorial, original, prime, uncreat ed. Aboriginal (L. ab, from, origo, origin) signifies pertaining to the aborigines or earliest known inhabitants of a country in the widest sense, including not me rely human beings but inferior animals and plants as well. Autochthonic (Gr. aut os, self, and chth[=o]n, earth) signifies sprung from the earth, especially from the soil of one's native land. Primeval (L. primum, first, and ævum, age), signif ies strictly belonging to the first ages, earliest in time, but often only the e arliest of which man knows or conceives, immemorial. Aboriginal, autochthonic, a nd primeval combine the meanings of ancient and original; aboriginal inhabitants , autochthonic races, primeval forests. Prime and primary may signify either fir st in time, or more frequently first in importance; primary has also the sense o f elementary or preparatory; we speak of a prime minister, a primary school. Pri mal is chiefly poetic, in the sense of prime; as, the primal curse. Primordial i s first in an order of succession or development; as, a primordial leaf. Primiti ve frequently signifies having the original characteristics of that which it rep resents, as well as standing first in time; as, the primitive church. Primitive also very frequently signifies having the original or early characteristics with out remoteness in time. Primeval simplicity is the simplicity of the earliest ag es; primitive simplicity may be found in retired villages now. Pristine is an el egant word, used almost exclusively in a good sense of that which is original an d perhaps ancient; as, pristine purity, innocence, vigor. That which is both an original and natural product of a soil or country is said to be indigenous; that which is actually produced there is said to be native, though it may be of fore ign extraction; humming-birds are indigenous to America; canaries may be native, but are not indigenous. Immemorial refers solely to time, independently of qual ity, denoting, in legal phrase, "that whereof the memory of man runneth not to t he contrary;" as, an immemorial custom; an immemorial abuse. Compare OLD. Antonyms:

adventitious, foreign, late, new, recent. exotic, fresh, modern, novel, Compare synonyms for NEW. * * * * * PROFIT. Synonyms: advantage, expediency, proceeds, service, avail, gain, receipts, usefulness, be nefit, good, return, utility, emolument, improvement, returns, value. The returns or receipts include all that is received from an outlay or investme nt; the profit is the excess (if any) of the receipts over the outlay; hence, in government, morals, etc., the profit is what is really good, helpful, useful, v aluable. Utility is chiefly used in the sense of some immediate or personal and generally some material good. Advantage is that which gives one a vantage-ground , either for coping with competitors or with difficulties, needs, or demands; as to have the advantage of a good education; it is frequently used of what one ha s beyond another or secures at the expense of another; as, to have the advantage of another in an argument, or to take advantage of another in a bargain. Gain i s what one secures beyond what he previously possessed. Benefit is anything that does one good. Emolument is profit, return, or value accruing through official position. Expediency has respect to profit or advantage, real or supposed, consi dered apart from or perhaps in opposition to right, in actions having a moral ch aracter. Compare UTILITY. Antonyms: damage, detriment, harm, injury, ruin, destruction, disadvantage, hurt, loss, w aste. Prepositions: The profit of labor; on capital; in business. * * * * * PROGRESS. Synonyms: advance, development, improvement, proficiency, advancement, growth, increase, progression. attainment, Progress (L. pro, forward, gradior, go) is a moving onward or forward, whether in space or in the mental or moral realm, and may be either mechanical, individu al, or social. Attainment, development, and proficiency are more absolute than t he other words of the group, denoting some point of advantage or of comparative perfection reached by forward or onward movement; we speak of attainments in vir tue or scholarship, proficiency in music or languages, the development of new po wers or organs; proficiency includes the idea of skill. Advance may denote eithe r a forward movement or the point gained by forward movement, but always relativ ely with reference to the point from which the movement started; as, this is a g reat advance. Advance admits the possibility of retreat; progress (L. progredi, to walk forward) is steady and constant forward movement, admitting of pause, bu t not of retreat; advance suggests more clearly a point to be reached, while pro gress lays the emphasis upon the forward movement; we may speak of slow or rapid progress, but more naturally of swift advance. Progress is more frequently used

of abstractions; as, the progress of ideas; progression fixes the attention chi efly upon the act of moving forward. In a thing good in itself all advance or pr ogress is improvement; there is a growing tendency to restrict the words to this favorable sense, using increase indifferently of good or evil; one may say with out limitation, "I am an advocate of progress." Antonyms: check, delay, falling off, retrogression, stop, decline, falling back, relapse, stay, stoppage. Prepositions: The progress of truth; progress in virtue; toward perfection; from a lower to a higher state. * * * * * PROHIBIT. Synonyms: debar, forbid, inhibit, preclude, disallow, hinder, interdict, prevent. To prohibit is to give some formal command against, and especially to make some authoritative legal enactment against. Debar is said of persons, disallow of ac ts; one is debarred from anything when shut off, as by some irresistible authori ty or necessity; one is prohibited from an act in express terms; he may be debar red by silent necessity. An act is disallowed by the authority that might have a llowed it; the word is especially applied to acts which are done before they are pronounced upon; thus, a government may disallow the act of its commander in th e field or its admiral on the high seas. Inhibit and interdict are chiefly known by their ecclesiastical use. As between forbid and prohibit, forbid is less for mal and more personal, prohibit more official and judicial, with the implication of readiness to use such force as may be needed to give effect to the enactment ; a parent forbids a child to take part in some game or to associate with certai n companions; the slave-trade is now prohibited by the leading nations of the wo rld. Many things are prohibited by law which can not be wholly prevented, as gam bling and prostitution; on the other hand, things may be prevented which are not prohibited, as the services of religion, the payment of debts, or military conq uest. That which is precluded need not be prohibited. Compare ABOLISH; HINDER; P REVENT. Antonyms: allow, empower, let, require, authorize, enjoin, license, sanction, command, gi ve consent, order, suffer, consent to, give leave, permit, tolerate, direct, giv e permission, put up with, warrant. Prepositions: An act is prohibited by law; a person is prohibited by law from doing a certain act. Prohibit was formerly construed, as forbid still is, with the infinitive, but the construction with from and the verbal noun has now entirely superseded t he older usage. * * * * * PROMOTE.

Synonyms: advance, encourage, forward, prefer, raise, aid, exalt, foster, push, urge forw ard, assist, excite, further, push on, urge on. elevate, foment, help, To promote (L. pro, forward, and moveo, move) is to cause to move forward towar d some desired end or to raise to some higher position, rank, or dignity. We pro mote a person by advancing, elevating, or exalting him to a higher position or d ignity. A person promotes a scheme or an enterprise which others have projected or begun, and which he encourages, forwards, furthers, pushes, or urges on, espe cially when he acts as the agent of the prime movers and supporters of the enter prise. One who excites a quarrel originates it; to promote a quarrel is strictly to foment and urge it on, the one who promotes keeping himself in the backgroun d. Compare ABET; QUICKEN. Antonyms: See synonyms for ABASE; ALLAY. * * * * * PROPITIATION. Synonyms: atonement, expiation, reconciliation, satisfaction. Atonement (at-one-ment), originally denoting reconciliation, or the bringing in to agreement of those who have been estranged, is now chiefly used, as in theolo gy, in the sense of some offering, sacrifice, or suffering sufficient to win for giveness or make up for an offense; especially and distinctively of the sacrific ial work of Christ in his humiliation, suffering and death. Expiation is the end uring of the full penalty of a wrong or crime. Propitiation is an offering, acti on, or sacrifice that makes the governing power propitious toward the offender. Satisfaction in this connection denotes the rendering a full legal equivalent fo r the wrong done. Propitiation appeases the lawgiver; satisfaction meets the req uirements of the law. Antonyms: alienation, curse, penalty, reprobation, vengeance, chastisement, estrangement, punishment, retribution, wrath. condemnation, offense, * * * * * PROPITIOUS. Synonyms: auspicious, benignant, favorable, gracious, kindly, benign, clement, friendly, kind, merciful. That which is auspicious is of favorable omen; that which is propitious is of f avoring influence or tendency; as, an auspicious morning; a propitious breeze. P ropitious applies to persons, implying kind disposition and favorable inclinatio ns, especially toward the suppliant; auspicious is not used of persons. Antonyms: adverse, forbidding, ill-disposed, repellent, unfriendly, antagonistic, hostile

, inauspicious, unfavorable, unpropitious. Preposition: May heaven be propitious to the enterprise. * * * * * PROPOSAL. Synonyms: bid, offer, overture, proposition. An offer or proposal puts something before one for acceptance or rejection, pro posal being the more formal word; a proposition sets forth truth (or what is cla imed to be truth) in formal statement. The proposition is for consideration, the proposal for action; as, a proposition in geometry, a proposal of marriage; but proposition is often used nearly in the sense of proposal when it concerns a ma tter for deliberation; as, a proposition for the surrender of a fort. A bid is c ommercial and often verbal; as, a bid at an auction; proposal is used in nearly the same sense, but is more formal. An overture opens negotiation or conference, and the word is especially used of some movement toward reconciliation; as, ove rtures of peace. Antonyms: acceptance, denial, disapproval, refusal, rejection, repulse. * * * * * PROPOSE. Synonym: purpose. In its most frequent use, propose differs from purpose in that what we purpose lies in our own mind, as a decisive act of will, a determination; what we propos e is offered or stated to others. In this use of the word, what we propose is op en to deliberation, as what we purpose is not. In another use of the word, one p roposes something to or by himself which may or may not be stated to others. In this latter sense propose is nearly identical with purpose, and the two words ha ve often been used interchangeably. But in the majority of cases what we purpose is more general, what we propose more formal and definite; I purpose to do righ t; I propose to do this specific thing because it is right. In the historic sent ence, "I propose to move immediately on your works," purpose would not have the same sharp directness. * * * * * PROTRACT. Synonyms: continue, delay, elongate, lengthen, procrastinate, defer, draw out, extend, po stpone, prolong. To protract is to cause to occupy a longer time than is usual, expected, or des irable. We defer a negotiation which we are slow to enter upon; we protract a ne

gotiation which we are slow to conclude; delay may be used of any stage in the p roceedings; we may delay a person as well as an action, but defer and protract a re not used of persons. Elongate is not used of actions or abstractions, but onl y of material objects or extension in space; protract is very rarely used of con crete objects or extension in space; we elongate a line, protract a discussion. Protract has usually an unfavorable sense, implying that the matter referred to is already unduly long, or would be so if longer continued; continue is neutral, applying equally to the desirable or the undesirable. Postpone implies a defini te intention to resume, as defer also does, though less decidedly; both are ofte n used with some definite limitation of time; as, to postpone till, until, or to a certain day or hour. One may defer, delay, or postpone a matter intelligently and for good reason; he procrastinates through indolence and irresolution. Comp are HINDER. Antonyms: abbreviate, conclude, curtail, hurry, reduce, abridge, contract, hasten, limit, shorten. Prepositions: To protract a speech by verbosity, through an unreasonable time, to, till, or u ntil a late hour. * * * * * PROVERB. Synonyms: adage, axiom, maxim, saw, aphorism, byword, motto, saying, apothegm, dictum, pr ecept, truism. The proverb or adage gives homely truth in condensed, practical form, the adage often pictorial. "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick" is a proverb; "The cat l oves fish, but dares not wet her feet," is an adage. Both the proverb and the ad age, but especially the latter, are thought of as ancient and widely known. An a phorism partakes of the character of a definition; it is a summary statement of what the author sees and believes to be true. An apothegm is a terse statement o f what is plain or easily proved. The aphorism is philosophical, the apothegm pr actical. A dictum is a statement of some person or school, on whom it depends fo r authority; as, a dictum of Aristotle. A saying is impersonal, current among th e common people, deriving its authority from its manifest truth or good sense; a s, it is an old saying, "the more haste, the worse speed." A saw is a saying tha t is old, but somewhat worn and tiresome. Precept is a command to duty; motto or maxim is a brief statement of cherished truth, the maxim being more uniformly a nd directly practical; "God is love" may be a motto, "Fear God and fear naught," a maxim. The precepts of the Sermon on the Mount will furnish the Christian wit h invaluable maxims or mottoes. A byword is a phrase or saying used reproachfull y or contemptuously. * * * * * PROWESS. Synonyms: bravery, gallantry, intrepidity, courage, heroism, valor. Bravery, courage, heroism, and intrepidity may be silent, spiritual, or passive

; they may be exhibited by a martyr at the stake. Prowess and valor imply both d aring and doing; we do not speak of the prowess of a martyr, a child, or a passi ve sufferer. Valor meets odds or perils with courageous action, doing its utmost to conquer at any risk or cost; prowess has power adapted to the need; dauntles s valor is often vain against superior prowess. Courage is a nobler word than br avery, involving more of the deep, spiritual, and enduring elements of character ; such an appreciation of peril as would extinguish bravery may only intensify c ourage, which is resistant and self-conquering; courage applies to matters in re gard to which valor and prowess can have no place, as submission to a surgical o peration, or the facing of censure or detraction for conscience' sake. Compare B RAVE; FORTITUDE. Antonyms: cowardice, cowardliness, effeminacy, fear, pusillanimity, timidity. * * * * * PRUDENCE. Synonyms: care, discretion, judgment, carefulness, forecast, judiciousness, caution, fore sight, providence, circumspection, forethought, wisdom. consideration, frugality , Prudence may be briefly defined as good judgment and foresight, inclining to ca ution and frugality in practical affairs. Care may respect only the present; pru dence and providence look far ahead and sacrifice the present to the future, pru dence watching, saving, guarding, providence planning, doing, preparing, and per haps expending largely to meet the future demand. Frugality is in many cases one form of prudence. In a besieged city prudence will reduce the rations, providen ce will strain every nerve to introduce supplies and to raise the siege. Foresig ht merely sees the future, and may even lead to the recklessness and desperation to which prudence and providence are so strongly opposed. Forethought is thinki ng in accordance with wise views of the future, and is nearly equivalent to prov idence, but it is a more popular and less comprehensive term; we speak of man's forethought, God's providence. Compare CARE; FRUGALITY; WISDOM. Antonyms: folly, imprudence, rashness, thoughtlessness, heedlessness, indiscretion, reckl essness, wastefulness. improvidence, prodigality, * * * * * PURCHASE. Synonyms: acquire, barter for, get, procure, secure. bargain for, buy, obtain, Buy and purchase are close synonyms, signifying to obtain or secure as one's ow n by paying or promising to pay a price; in numerous cases the two words are fre ely interchangeable, but with the difference usually found between words of Saxo n and those of French or Latin origin. The Saxon buy is used for all the homely and petty concerns of common life, the French purchase is often restricted to tr ansactions of more dignity; yet the Saxon word buy is commonly more emphatic, an d in the higher ranges of thought appeals more strongly to the feelings. One may either buy or purchase fame, favor, honor, pleasure, etc., but when our feeling

s are stirred we speak of victory or freedom as dearly bought. "Buy the truth, a nd sell it not" (Prov. xxiii, 23) would be greatly weakened by the rendering "Pu rchase the truth, and do not dispose of it." Compare BUSINESS; GET; PRICE; SALE. Antonyms: barter, dispose of, exchange, put to sale, sell. Prepositions: Purchase at a price; at a public sale; of or from a person; for cash; with mone y; on time. * * * * * PURE. Synonyms: absolute, guiltless, simple, unmixed, chaste, holy, spotless, unpolluted, class ic, immaculate, stainless, unspotted, classical, incorrupt, true, unstained, cle an, innocent, unadulterated, unsullied, clear, mere, unblemished, untainted, con tinent, perfect, uncorrupted, untarnished, genuine, real, undefiled, upright, gu ileless, sheer, unmingled, virtuous. That is pure which is free from mixture or contact with anything that weakens, impairs, or pollutes. Material substances are called pure in the strict sense wh en free from foreign admixture of any kind; as, pure oxygen; the word is often u sed to signify free from any defiling or objectionable admixture (the original s ense); we speak of water as pure when it is bright, clear, and refreshing, tho i t may contain mineral salts in solution; in the medical and chemical sense, only distilled water (aqua pura) is pure. In moral and religious use pure is a stron g word, denoting positive excellence of a high order; one is innocent who knows nothing of evil, and has experienced no touch of temptation; one is pure who, wi th knowledge of evil and exposure to temptation, keeps heart and soul unstained. Virtuous refers primarily to right action; pure to right feeling and motives; a s, "Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God," Matt. v, 8. Compare FINE; INNOCENT. Antonyms: adulterated, foul, indecent, obscene, tainted, defiled, gross, indelicate, poll uted, tarnished, dirty, immodest, lewd, stained, unchaste, filthy, impure, mixed , sullied, unclean. * * * * * PUT. Synonyms: deposit, lay, place, set. Put is the most general term for bringing an object to some point or within som e space, however exactly or loosely; we may put a horse in a pasture, or put a b ullet in a rifle or into an enemy. Place denotes more careful movement and more exact location; as, to place a crown on one's head, or a garrison in a city. To lay is to place in a horizontal position; to set is to place in an upright posit ion; we lay a cloth, and set a dish upon a table. To deposit is to put in a plac e of security for future use; as, to deposit money in a bank; the original sense

, to lay down or let down (quietly), is also common; as, the stream deposits sed iment. * * * * * QUEER. Synonyms: anomalous, erratic, odd, strange, bizarre, extraordinary, peculiar, uncommon, c omical, fantastic, preposterous, unique, crotchety, funny, quaint, unmatched, cu rious, grotesque, ridiculous, unusual, droll, laughable, singular, whimsical. ec centric, ludicrous, Odd is unmated, as an odd shoe, and so uneven, as an odd number. Singular is al one of its kind; as, the singular number. What is singular is odd, but what is o dd may not be singular; as, a drawerful of odd gloves. A strange thing is someth ing hitherto unknown in fact or in cause. A singular coincidence is one the happ ening of which is unusual; a strange coincidence is one the cause of which is ha rd to explain. That which is peculiar belongs especially to a person as his own; as, Israel was called Jehovah's "peculiar people," i. e., especially chosen and cherished by him; in its ordinary use there is the implication that the thing p eculiar to one is not common to the majority nor quite approved by them, though it may be shared by many; as, the Shakers are peculiar. Eccentric is off or asid e from the center, and so off or aside from the ordinary and what is considered the normal course; as, genius is commonly eccentric. Eccentric is a higher and m ore respectful word than odd or queer. Erratic signifies wandering, a stronger a nd more censorious term than eccentric. Queer is transverse or oblique, aside fr om the common in a way that is comical or perhaps slightly ridiculous. Quaint de notes that which is pleasingly odd and fanciful, often with something of the ant ique; as, the quaint architecture of medieval towns. That which is funny is calc ulated to provoke laughter; that which is droll is more quietly amusing. That wh ich is grotesque in the material sense is irregular or misshapen in form or outl ine or ill-proportioned so as to be somewhat ridiculous; the French bizarre is p ractically equivalent to grotesque. Antonyms: common, familiar, normal, regular, customary, natural, ordinary, usual. * * * * * QUICKEN. Synonyms: accelerate, drive on, hasten, promote, advance, expedite, hurry, speed, despatc h, facilitate, make haste, urge, drive, further, press forward, urge on. To quicken, in the sense here considered, is to increase speed, move or cause t o move more rapidly, as through more space or with, a greater number of motions in the same time. To accelerate is to increase the speed of action or of motion. A motion whose speed increases upon itself is said to be accelerated, as the mo tion of a falling body, which becomes swifter with every second of time. To acce lerate any work is to hasten it toward a finish, commonly by quickening all its operations in orderly unity toward the result. To despatch is to do and be done with, to get a thing off one's hands. To despatch an enemy is to kill him outrig ht and quickly; to despatch a messenger is to send him in haste; to despatch a b usiness is to bring it quickly to an end. Despatch is commonly used of single it ems. To promote a cause is in any way to bring it forward, advance it in power,

prominence, etc. To speed is really to secure swiftness; to hasten is to attempt it, whether successfully or unsuccessfully. Hurry always indicates something of confusion. The hurried man forgets dignity, appearance, comfort, courtesy, ever ything but speed; he may forget something vital to the matter in hand; yet, beca use reckless haste may attain the great object of speed, hurry has come to be th e colloquial and popular word for acting quickly. To facilitate is to quicken by making easy; to expedite is to quicken by removing hindrances. A good general w ill improve roads to facilitate the movements of troops, hasten supplies and per fect discipline to promote the general efficiency of the force, despatch details of business, expedite all preparations, in order to accelerate the advance and victory of his army. Antonyms: check, clog, delay, drag, hinder, impede, obstruct, retard. * * * * * QUOTE. Synonyms: cite, extract, plagiarize, repeat. excerpt, paraphrase, recite, To quote is to give an author's words, either exactly, as in direct quotation, or in substance, as in indirect quotation; to cite is, etymologically, to call u p a passage, as a witness is summoned. In citing a passage its exact location by chapter, page, or otherwise, must be given, so that it can be promptly called i nto evidence; in quoting, the location may or may not be given, but the words or substance of the passage must be given. In citing, neither the author's words n or his thought may be given, but simply the reference to the location where they may be found. To quote, in the proper sense, is to give credit to the author wh ose words are employed. To paraphrase is to state an author's thought more freel y than in indirect quotation, keeping the substance of thought and the order of statement, but changing the language, and commonly interweaving more or less exp lanatory matter as if part of the original writing. One may paraphrase a work wi th worthy motive for homiletic, devotional, or other purposes (as in the metrica l versions of the Psalms), or he may plagiarize atrociously in the form of parap hrase, appropriating all that is valuable in another's thought, with the hope of escaping detection by change of phrase. To plagiarize is to quote without credi t, appropriating another's words or thought as one's own. To recite or repeat is usually to quote orally, tho recite is applied in legal phrase to a particular statement of facts which is not a quotation; a kindred use obtains in ordinary s peech; as, to recite one's misfortunes. * * * * * RACY. Synonyms: flavorous, lively, pungent, spicy, forcible, piquant, rich, spirited. Racy applies in the first instance to the pleasing flavor characteristic of cer tain wines, often attributed to the soil from which they come. Pungent denotes s omething sharply irritating to the organs of taste or smell, as pepper, vinegar, ammonia; piquant denotes a quality similar in kind to pungent but less in degre e, stimulating and agreeable; pungent spices may be deftly compounded into a piq uant sauce. As applied to literary products, racy refers to that which has a str iking, vigorous, pleasing originality; spicy to that which is stimulating to the

mental taste, as spice is to the physical; piquant and pungent in their figurat ive use keep very close to their literal sense. Antonyms: cold, flat, insipid, stale, tasteless, dull, flavorless, prosy, stupid, vapid. * * * * * RADICAL. Synonyms: complete, ingrained, perfect, constitutional, innate, positive, entire, native, primitive, essential, natural, thorough, extreme, organic, thoroughgoing, funda mental, original, total. The widely divergent senses in which the word radical is used, by which it can be at some time interchanged with any word in the above list, are all formed upo n the one primary sense of having to do with or proceeding from the root (L. rad ix); a radical difference is one that springs from the root, and is thus constit utional, essential, fundamental, organic, original; a radical change is one that does not stop at the surface, but reaches down to the very root, and is entire, thorough, total; since the majority find superficial treatment of any matter th e easiest and most comfortable, radical measures, which strike at the root of ev il or need, are apt to be looked upon as extreme. Antonyms: conservative, incomplete, palliative, slight, tentative, inadequate, moderate, partial, superficial, trial. * * * * * RARE. Synonyms: curious, odd, scarce, unique, extraordinary, peculiar, singular, unparalleled, incomparable, precious, strange, unprecedented, infrequent, remarkable, uncommon , unusual. Unique is alone of its kind; rare is infrequent of its kind; great poems are ra re; "Paradise Lost" is unique. To say of a thing that it is rare is simply to af firm that it is now seldom found, whether previously common or not; as, a rare o ld book; a rare word; to call a thing scarce implies that it was at some time mo re plenty, as when we say food or money is scarce. A particular fruit or coin ma y be rare; scarce applies to demand and use, and almost always to concrete thing s; to speak of virtue, genius, or heroism as scarce would be somewhat ludicrous. Rare has the added sense of precious, which is sometimes, but not necessarily, blended with that above given; as, a rare gem. Extraordinary, signifying greatly beyond the ordinary, is a neutral word, capable of a high and good sense or of an invidious, opprobrious, or contemptuous signification; as, extraordinary geni us; extraordinary wickedness; an extraordinary assumption of power; extraordinar y antics; an extraordinary statement is incredible without overwhelming proof. Antonyms: See synonyms for GENERAL; NORMAL; USUAL.

* * * * * REACH. Synonyms: arrive, attain, come to, enter, gain, get to, land. To reach, in the sense here considered, is to come to by motion or progress. At tain is now oftenest used of abstract relations; as, to attain success. When app lied to concrete matters, it commonly signifies the overcoming of hindrance and difficulty; as, the storm-beaten ship at length attained the harbor. Come is the general word for moving to or toward the place where the speaker or writer is o r supposes himself to be. To reach is to come to from a distance that is actuall y or relatively considerable; to stretch the journey, so to speak, across the di stance, as, in its original meaning, one reaches an object by stretching out the hand. To gain is to reach or attain something eagerly sought; the wearied swimm er reaches or gains the shore. One comes in from his garden; he reaches home fro m a journey. To arrive is to come to a destination, to reach a point intended or proposed. The European steamer arrives in port, or reaches the harbor; the dism antled wreck drifts ashore, or comes to land. Compare ATTAIN. Antonyms: depart, go, go away, leave, set out, set sail, start, weigh anchor. embark, * * * * * REAL. Synonyms: actual, demonstrable, genuine, true, authentic, developed, positive, unquestion able, certain, essential, substantial, veritable. Real (L. res, a thing) signifies having existence, not merely in thought, but i n fact, or being in fact according to appearance or claim; denoting the thing as distinguished from the name, or the existent as opposed to the non-existent. Ac tual has respect to a thing accomplished by doing, real to a thing as existing b y whatever means or from whatever cause, positive to that which is fixed or esta blished, developed to that which has reached completion by a natural process of unfolding. Actual is in opposition to the supposed, conceived, or reported, and furnishes the proof of its existence in itself; real is opposed to feigned or im aginary, and is capable of demonstration; positive, to the uncertain or doubtful ; developed, to that which is undeveloped or incomplete. The developed is suscep tible of proof; the positive precludes the necessity for proof. The present cond ition of a thing is its actual condition; ills are real that have a substantial reason; proofs are positive when they give the mind certainty; a plant is develo ped when it has reached its completed stage. Real estate is land, together with trees, water, minerals, or other natural accompaniments, and any permanent struc tures that man has built upon it. Compare AUTHENTIC. Antonyms: conceived, feigned, illusory, supposed, unreal, fabulous, fictitious, imaginary , supposititious, untrue, fanciful, hypothetical, reported, theoretical, visiona ry. * * * * *

REASON, v. Synonyms: argue, debate, discuss, establish, question, contend, demonstrate, dispute, pro ve, wrangle. controvert, To reason is to examine by means of the reason, to prove by reasoning, or to in fluence or seek to influence others by reasoning or reasons. Persons may contend either from mere ill will or self-interest, or from the highest motives; "That ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered to the saints ," Jude 3. To argue (L. arguo, show) is to make a matter clear by reasoning; to discuss (L. dis, apart, and quatio, shake) is, etymologically, to shake it apart for examination and analysis. Demonstrate strictly applies to mathematical or e xact reasoning; prove may be used in the same sense, but is often applied to rea soning upon matters of fact by what is called probable evidence, which can give only moral and not absolute or mathematical certainty. To demonstrate is to forc e the mind to a conclusion by irresistible reasoning; to prove is rather to esta blish a fact by evidence; as, to prove one innocent or guilty. That which has be en either demonstrated or proved so as to secure general acceptance is said to b e established. Reason is a neutral word, not, like argue, debate, discuss, etc., naturally or necessarily implying contest. We reason about a matter by bringing up all that reason can give us on any side. A dispute may be personal, fractiou s, and petty; a debate is formal and orderly; if otherwise, it becomes a mere wr angle. Prepositions: We reason with a person about a subject, for or against an opinion; we reason a person into or out of a course of action; or we may reason down an opponent or opposition; one reasons from a cause to an effect. * * * * * REASON, n. Synonyms: account, cause, end, motive, principle, aim, consideration, ground, object, pur pose. argument, design, While the cause of any event, act, or fact, as commonly understood, is the powe r that makes it to be, the reason of or for it is the explanation given by the h uman mind; but reason is, in popular language, often used as equivalent to cause , especially in the sense of final cause. In the statement of any reasoning, the argument may be an entire syllogism, or the premises considered together apart from the conclusion, or in logical strictness the middle term only by which the particular conclusion is connected with the general statement. But when the reas oning is not in strict logical form, the middle term following the conclusion is called the reason; thus in the statement "All tyrants deserve death; Cæsar was a tyrant; Therefore Cæsar deserved death," "Cæsar was a tyrant" would in the strictest sense be called the argument; but if we say "Cæsar deserved death because he was a tyrant," the latter clause would be termed the reason. Compare CAUSE; REASON, v.; MIND; REASONING. Prepositions: The reason of a thing that is to be explained; the reason for a thing that is t o be done.

ungovernable. Argument or argumentation was forme rly used of deductive reasoning only. subservient. but while reaso ning may be informal or even (as far as tracing its processes is concerned) unco nscious. Reasoning may be the act of one alone. Ungovernable applies to that which successfully defies authority and power. Compare OBSTINATE. argument and argumentation strictly imply logical form. wh ether successfully or unsuccessfully. Reasoning. unmanageable to that which resists the utmost exercise of skill or of skill and power combined. or conspiracy. intractable. especially in the army. seditious suggesting more of covert plan. is a broader term than reason or argument. deferential. disobedient. Antonyms: compliant. to open defiance of author ity. dutiful. insubordinate. rebellious more of overt act or open violence. debate. ratiocination. Insubordinate applies to the dispos ition to resist and resent control as such.* * * * * REASONING. gentle. REVOLUTION. many arguments or reasons may be included in a single chain of reasoning. * * * * * REBELLIOUS. tr actable. seditious. and is even extended to inanimate things that resist control or adaptation to human use. yielding. unmanageable. Synonyms: . whether for the instruction of inquirers. With the rise of the inductive philosophy these words have come to be applied to inductive processes also. mutinous. the same idea appears figurativ ely when we speak of a debate or an argument with oneself. docile. suppose two parties alleging reasons for and against a proposition. Synonyms: contumacious. submissive. Rebellious signifies being in a state of rebellion (see REBELLION under REVOLUT ION). the confuting of opponents. mutinous. as d enoting a process. refractory. While the u nmanageable or ungovernable defies control. seditious. Argumentation and debate. argumentation. as it is simply the orderly setting forth of reasons. controllable. Synonyms: argument. or the clear establishment of truth for oneself. rebellious. obedient. to that which is defiant of authority. manageable. the horses became u nmanageable. A contumacious act or spi rit is contemptuous as well as defiant. to that which partakes of or te nds to excite a rebellious spirit. in the ordinary use of the words. * * * * * RECORD. as. the rebellious or seditious may be f orced to submission. he tamed his rebellious spirit. Prepositions: Rebellious to or against lawful authority. or merchant marine. uncontrollable. Rea soning may be either deductive or inductive. or of a debate betwee n reason and conscience. navy. sch eming. the man has an ungovernable temper.

preserved in a public or officia l depository. * * * * * RECOVER. memorandum. recruit. elegance. and beauti ful. a register of births and deaths. resume. to recover damages of or fr om a person. as in 2 Kings v . rarely of. relapse. The intransitive sense. fortify) are recor ds that enable one to defend his title. inventory. in the sense here considered. as. (Law) to recover judgment against. but civiliz ation is susceptible of various degrees and of continued progress. muniment. grow worse. cure. restore. then the improved condition of either which is the result. too." is now practically obsolete. denoting the removal of what is coarse a nd rude. Record is a wor d of wide signification. social. chronicle. to recover health.. especially a series of entries made for preservation or referen ce. to recover from sickness. or history is a record. * * * * * REFINEMENT. inscription. instrument. is applied . document. scroll. or other permanent thi ng that is designed or adapted to keep something in remembrance. is very common. be restored. The transitive use of recover in the sense of cure. heal. and a corresponding attainment of what is delicate. Archives. etc. a monument. schedule. culture. the word archives is also applied to the place where such document s are regularly deposited and preserved. The chief transitive use of recover is in the sense to obtain again after losin g. terror. A memorial is any object. etc. archive. recuperate. Muniments (L. fail. Antonyms: die. entry. denoting the sum of those civil. "That thou mayest recover him of his leprosy. so.. an extended account. often legal records. politeness. regain. or misfortune. are documents or records. be cured. munio. repossess. and political attainments by which a community is removed from barbarism. Cultivation. denoting primarily the process of cultivating the soil or grow ing crops. be restored. a people may be civilized while still far from refinement or culture.. econo mic. the inscription on a tombstone is a record of the dead. as. chronicle. whether a writing. the striæ on a rock-s urface are the record of a glacier's passage. history. STORY. as. cata logue. Civilization applies to nations. mark. Synonyms: be cured or healed. etc. A register is a formal or official written record. to recover stolen goods. Prepositions: From.account. Refinement ap plies either to nations or individuals. roll. regain. may be a brief inventory or memoran dum. or trace that serves as a memorial giving enduring attestation of an event or fact. enrolment. elegant. Compare HISTORY. repossess. retrieve. memorial. enumeration. register. cultivation. 6. reanimate. sink. heal. Synonyms: civilization. applying to any writing.

To refute and to confute are to answer so as to admit of no reply. Irving. coarseness. overthrow. reliable information. a s. tho differing in usage. vulgarity. den oting merely the possession of such qualities as are needed for safe reliance. but to judgment." "laughable. Synonyms: trustworthy. regarded as the expressio n of a refined nature. confute is not applied to accusations and charges. but in this usage is now larg ely superseded by the term culture. in the matter of usage. Refute applie s either to arguments and opinions or to accusations. rudeness. The word reliable has been sharply challenged. rusticity. we say the man is thoroughly trustworthy. we speak of a trusty sword. but to arguments or opinions. Synonyms: confound. * * * * * REFUTE. savagery. a trusty or trustworthy messenger is one who m ay be admitted to knowledge of the views and purposes of those who employ him. a trusty servant . con fute is substantially the same in meaning. which denotes a high development of the best qualities of man's mental and spiritual nature. o r perhaps pecuniary ability. Gladstone. trusty. skill. but seems to have established it s place in the language. The objection to its use on the ground that the suffix -able can not properly be added to an intransitive verb is answered by the citat ion of such words as "available.in similar sense to the human mind and character. * * * * * RELIABLE. and others of the foremost of recent English wri ters. Antonyms: barbarism. brutality. in the writings of Shakespeare and Bacon. To refute a statement is to demonstrate its falsity by argument or countervailing proof. reliable has the authority of Coleridge. a man's faculties may be brought to a high degree of cultivation in some specialty. Newman. Trusty and trustworthy refer to inherent qualiti es of a high order. but confute is in good use in this application. boorishness. A reliable messenger is one who may be depended on to do h is errand correctly and promptly. disprove. A man is said to be reliable with re ference not only to moral qualities." "conversable. a person is confute d when his arguments are refuted. M ill. knowledge. and denotin g moral integrity and truthfulness. Compare HUMANE." and the like. Refute is not now applied to persons. grossness. a . whil e. a reliable pledge. confute. Culture in the fullest sense denotes that degree of refin ement and development which results from continued cultivation through successiv e generations. or as a security by reason o f insufficient means. Martineau. while he himself remains uncultured even to the extent of coa rseness and rudeness. repel. clownishness . habit. a thoroughly trustworthy person might not be reliab le as a witness on account of unconscious sympathy. POLITE. Reliable is inferior in meaning." which is applied to persons in the authorized vers ion of the Scriptures. trustworthy being especially applied to persons. and in the usag e of good speakers and writers. The objection to the application of reliable to persons is not sustained b y the use of the verb "rely. with especial reference to the esthetic faculties and to graces of speech and manner.

as of children to parents. holiness. indisposed. tho often used for purity or for consecration. or is actually doing. as. in the f ullest and highest sense. which involves both outward act and spiritual service. Morality is the system an d practise of duty as required by the moral law. A man may be slow or backward in entering upon that to which he is by no means averse. piety. right eousness. averse (L. morality is of necessity included in all true religion. religion is the revere nt acknowledgment both in heart and in act of a divine being. Religion. pieti sm often denotes a mystical. unbelief. struggle) signifies struggling again st what one is urged or impelled to do. morality. godlessness. Synonyms: averse. strictly the belief and trust which the soul e xercises toward God. as. worship. loath. which in its fullest sens e is self-consecration. sinless perfection of any spirit. reluctant to speak of it. he is indisposed to it in some hour of weariness. and verto. sacrilege. or it may be the adoring reverence of the human spirit for the divine. blasphemy. opposed. the Christian faith. a loving obedience and service to God as the Heavenly Father. is often used as a comprehensive word for a whole system of religion considered as the object of faith. pietism. seeking outward expression. and lucto. . Godliness (primarily godlikeness) is a character and spirit l ike that of God. Compare ANTIPATHY. the Mohamm edan faith. Theology is the science of religion. disgust. is often used to denote an act of worship. back. tho the adjective loath is not so strong as the verb loathe. absolutely unwilling t o use it to his injury.nd who will be faithful beyond f a railroad-train as reliable to speak of a reliable friend on his reliable sword would be * * * * * RELIGION. he is engaged in his devotions. and hence. Faith. godliness. A legislator may be opposed to a certain measure. a. Worship ma y be external and formal. * * * * * RELUCTANT. while not averse to what it aims to accomplish. Devotion. loath (A S. hateful) signifies having a repugnance. A man is loath to believe evil of his friend. disinclined. or the study and scientific statement of all that the h uman mind can know of God. turn) signifies turned away as with dislike or repugnance. lath. A dunce is always averse to study. impiety. and to speak of a warrior girding ludicrous. strive. Piety is primarily filial duty. but would be cold. re. or loathing for. includes all the other words of this group. wickedness. in its hi ghest sense. whet her divine or human. from . devotion. Antonyms: atheism. a good student is disinclined to it when a fine morning tempts him out. backward. slow. irreligion. unwilling. We can speak o when it can be depended on to arrive on time. faith. and thus may be observed without spiritual rectitude of heart. consisting chiefly in outward a cts. especially pr ayer or adoration. sometimes an affected piety. evil. Reluctant (L. ungodliness. theology. Holiness is the highest. p rofanity. Synonyms: the mere letter of his commission.

rupture. stitch. Comments. * * * * * RENOUNCE. mangle. a rem ark may be the suggestion of the instant. To lacerate is to tear roughly the flesh or animal tissue. to burst a gun. solder. reject. unite. A note is som ething to call attention. deny. as. T o rip. as by the teeth of a wild beast. Antonyms: heal. Synonyms: annotation. and closely following the text. repudiate. Synonyms: break. observation. favorable. join. sew. is to divide along the line of a seam by cutting or breaking the stitches. observations. recall. comment. burst denoting the greater violen ce. refuse. Mangle is a stronger word t han lacerate. eager. disown. a lacerated wound is disting uished from a wound made by a clean cut or incision. Rend and tear are applied to the separating of textile substances into parts by force violently applied (rend also to frangible substances). as upon som e passage in a literary work or some act or speech in common life. weld. retract. A remark is a saying or brief statement. disavow. tear. Compare BREAK. rend the stronger word. cleave. commonly made without much premeditation. Annotations are especially brief notes. slit . mend. forswear. To burst or ru pture is to tear or rend by force from within. a note is briefer than a letter. An observation is properly the result of fixed attention and reflection. to rip open a wou nd. comments being oftenest written. revoke. Remarks are more informal than a speec h. utterance. mangle more complete. * * * * * REMARK. as. and remarks oftenest oral . rive. a comment is an explanatory or critical remark.Antonyms: desirous. . discard. burst. as usually applied to garments or other articles made by sewing or stitch ing. A note upon some passage in a book is briefer and less elaborate than a comment. the other senses bear some resemblance or analogy to this. hence a brief written statement. reunite. Rive is a wood-workers' word for parting wood in th e way of the grain without a clean cut. willing. * * * * * REND. rip. secure. lacerate is more superficial. oral or written. or remarks ma y be oral or written. in correspondence. sunder. inclined. note. lacerate. recant. abjure. commonly marginal. disclaim. to rupture a blood-vessel. disposed. Synonyms: abandon. tear being the mil der. a steam-boiler may be rupture d when its substance is made to divide by internal pressure without explosion. sever.

as. ab. penitence. contriteness. and complete turning from the sin. he retrac ts what was directed against another. hold. as. re morse. and no su ggestion of divine forgiveness. back. Revoke (L. To speak of regret for a fault of our own marks it as slighte r than one regarding which we should express penitence. or evil practise. and juro. swear) is e tymologically the exact equivalent of the Saxon forswear. with no turning of heart from the sin. A man abjures his religion. avo w. to renounce the pomps and vanities of the world. away. and voco. Contrition is a subduing sorrow for sin. abjures or renounces his allegiance. forswear. own. re. and nuntio. repudiates another's claim. a biting or gnawin g back of guilt upon the heart. to deny a statement or a relationship. renounces his own. as for consequences only. Compa re ABANDON. or a condemned and detested person. back. recall may be used in the exact sense of revoke. feel shame) is primarily to renounce as shameful. To discard is to cast away as usel ess or worthless. hence to divorce. as. or to refuse to grant as something requested. but is often applied to persons. and canto. retract. cherish. and may involve no change of character or conduct. proclaim. like abandon. is to take back something given or granted. Penitence is tra nsient. as a wife. retract s a false statement. disown his child. A person may deny. but will promptly deny or repudiate it. as a belief that one has held or professed. imply some previous connection. as an error. Antonyms: acknowledge. etymologically the exact equivalent of t he English recall. recant. heresy. we recall a messenger and revoke the order with which he was charged. renounce. recall. one recants what was especially his own. he may repudiate a just claim or a base suggestion. Repentance is sorrow for sin with self-condemnation. Synonyms: compunction. and pudeo . self-condemnation. and revoke. as. h is mother could not deny him what he desired. disown what has been truly or falsely imputed to him or supposed to be his. to repu diate a debt. sorrow. Remorse is. discard. disclaim. re. or away. advocate. one discards a worn garment. re. * * * * * REPENTANCE. or a grant. disavow the act of his agent. re. call). There may be sorrow w ithout repentance. assert. thus in general to put away with emphatic and determined repulsion. a will. as. bear a message) is to declare against and give up formally and definitively. as. to revoke a c ommand. to re tract a charge or accusation. draw) is to take back something that one has said as not true or as what one is not ready to maintain. as revoke is not. thus. in view either of a past or of a contemplated act. One is moved with penitenc e for wrong-doing. as its derivation indicates. recants his belief. Repudiate (L. To deny is to affirm to be not true or not binding. Compunction is a momentary sting of conscience. claim. back. re. contrition. Abjure (L. He may deny his signature . A native of the United States can not abjure or renounce a llegiance to the Queen of England. back. defend. uphold. regret. and traho. as against the divin e holiness and love. back. vindicate. but not repentance without sorrow. Regret is sorrow for any painful or annoying matter. Antonyms: . Retract (L. signifying to put away formally and under oath. Renounce (L. Recant (L. si ng) is to take back or deny formally and publicly.Abjure. maintain. a coquette discards a lover . disavow. retain.

it is therefore a serious matter. repentance for sins. REPROVE. chiding. as expressed in the phrase severe reprehension. nor do reflection or reprehension. rumor. and meant to be prevent ive. Reflec tion is often from mere ill feeling. Comment and criticism may be favorable as well as censorious. however mild. Synonyms: account. The same is true of admonition and animadversion. reproach.approval. ordinarily with a view to please or entertain. before or to ward God. Antonyms: . as by one sent to obtain information. critici sm. and reproof are always expressed. reflection. Com pare CONDEMN. comment. literally a stopping of the mouth. impenitence. chiding is ne arer to reproof. and may be concise an d formal or highly descriptive and dramatic. A narrative is a somewhat ext ended and embellished account of events in order of time. and given before or during action. both w ords imply authority in the reprover. recital. conf ined to essentials and properly to matters within the personal knowledge of the one who states them. comfort. disapproval. authoritative. rebuke. check. Blame. Animadversion is censure o f a high. and is likely to be more personal and less impartial than reprehension. HISTORY. as its etymology implies. reprimand. they imply no superiority or authority on the part of hi m who utters them. rebuke. Compare ALLEGORY. censure. Reprimand is official censure formally administered by a superior to one under his command. but with more of personal bitterness and less of authority. reproof is administered to one intentionally or deliberately wrong. content. and with good intent. description. comment. reflection. narrative. hardness. obstinacy. always follow the act. stubbornness. re. or in the midst of an action. se lf-congratulation. condemnation. reprehension. animadversion. Account carries the idea of a commercial summary. narration. tale. RECORD. relation. complacency. animadversion. unto life. obduracy. denunciation. and direct expression of disapproval to th e face of the person rebuked or reproved. and porto. * * * * * REPORT. record. upbraiding. or from the heart. reproval. rehearsal. Check is allied to rebuke. self-complacency. Prepositions: Repentance of or in heart. rep roof. as. censure. Reb uke. and somewhat formal kind. reflecti on. criticism. self-approval. Reprehension is supposed to be calm and j ust. is som ething brought back. blame. st atement. A report (L. Synonyms: admonition. * * * * * REPROOF. reprehension. admonition is anticipatory. which are simply turning t he mind back upon what is disapproved. reprehension. is administered to a forward or hasty pe rson. A description gives especial scope to the pictorial ele ment. bring). A statement is definite. an ante-mortem statement. and i s capable of great force. back. we often speak of unkind or unjust reflections. objurgatio n. and disapproval may either be felt or uttered. Rebuke may be given at the ou tset. story.

settle with. forgive. remunerate. of the original idea of full equivalent . censure. may be to make some return ve ry inadequate to the benefit or injury received. a subject may reproach a king or a criminal judge. panegyric. compensate. and with intense personal feeling as of grief or anger. and reprove apply to wrong that has been done. instigate. commendat ion. impel. expostulate being the gentler. to punish or to reward. rebuke. openly. repay. excuse. encomium. When one is admonis hed because of wrong already done. encourage. reci procate. satisfy. to blame is a f amiliar word signifying to pass censure upon. reprove and rebuke are applied chiefly. C ompare PAY. war n. to reproach one for ingratitude. Antonyms: absolve. expostulate with. approval. approve. reprehend. reprimand. pay. and often with abruptness. pass over. To reproach is to censure openly and vehemently. pay off. reproach. To censure is to pronounce an adverse judgment that may or may not be expressed to the person censured. remonstrate the severer word . chide. * * * * * REQUITE. Synonyms: admonish. at least. to rebuke is to reprove with sharpne ss. reproach knows no distinction of rank or character . the expression gains f orce from the comparison of the actual with the proper and appropriate return. and reprimand exclusively to persons. that he may not rep eat or continue in the wrong. eulogy. neglect. blame. pardon. quit. rebuke. to reprove is to censure authoritatively. of punishment or r eward. cheer. . praise. chasten. or of simply reminding of duty whic h might be forgotten. make answerable. take to task. upbraid. incite . and d irectly to the face of the person reproved. approbation. as. condemn. return. check. as for a fault. Synonyms: avenge. To repay or to retaliate. urge on. overlook. Antonyms: abet. * * * * * REPROVE. Censure. the view is still future. b ut always with the suggestion. when one speaks of requiting kindness with ingratitude. recompense. Requite is often used in the more general sense of recompense or repay.applause. usually in the midst of some action or course of action deemed censurable. punish. forget. but to requite (according to its etymology) is to make so full and adequate a retur n as to quit oneself of all obligation of favor or hostility. To expostulate or remonstra te with is to mingle reasoning and appeal with censure in the hope of winning on e from his evil way. acquit. Compare CONDEMN. countenance. revenge. find fault with. remonstrate with. or the right or wrong done. applaud. reward. warn and admonish refer to anticipated error or fault. Admonish is the mildest of reproving words. to reprimand is to reprove officially. REPROOF. retaliate. and may even be used of giving a c aution or warning where no wrong is implied. b lame and censure apply either to persons or acts.

whether external or internal.slight. toil. recreation. stop. calmness. In the figurative sense. tranquillity. resentful. stay. soul. primari ly of the body. * * * * * RESTIVE. disturbance. obstinate. Recreation is some pleasing activity of certain organs or faculties that affords rest to ot her parts of our nature that have become weary. Dryden speaks of "the pampered colt" as "re stiff to the rein. the supposed sense of "tending to rest. repose. ski ttish. pause. Antonyms: agitation. tranquil. stillness. excitement. work. flingi ng his rider. The disposition to offer active resistance to control by any means whatever is what is commonly indicated by restive in the best English speech and literature. commotion. * * * * * REST." "standing st ubbornly still. Q uiet denotes freedom from agitation. recalcitrant. and it is against this that he is "restiff. after the ba ttle the victor reposes on his laurels. Synonyms: balky. but a pleasing. quiescence. un ruly. restless. intermission. in a pause of battle a soldier rests on his arms. rebellious. stir. mulish. the m ost complete rest. rebellious. movement. unrest. slumber is a light and ordinarily pleasant form of sleep. Repose is a laying down. and figuratively a similar freedom from toil or strain of mind. quietness. Sleep is the perfection of repose. or especially from annoying sounds. as by bolting. a black-smith finds a temporary rest while the iron is heating. tranquil relief from all painful and wearying activity. sleep. . conscience. obstinate. but not Christian. quiet. fidgety. motion. peace. vicious. fretful. Balky. restless ness. rest of mind. and those cited to suppo rt that meaning often fail to do so. disquiet. fractious. cessation. but he does not yield to repose. tumult. ease. Rest is a cessation of activity especially of wearying or painful activity. mutinous. is not mere cessation of a ctivity. strain. Synonyms: calm." A horse may be made res tless by flies or by martial music. With this the metaphorical use of the word agrees. but with no refractoriness. Repose is more complete than rest. the restive anim al impatiently resists or struggles to break from control. repose is even more deep. restiff. pe acefulness." is scarcely supported by any examples. but to resist it and fling it off. but to h old him in. impatient. Preposition: To requite injury with injury is human. and the like. intractable. slumber. quietude. or otherwise. a pause is a momentary cessation of activity. mulish. Ease denotes freedom from cause of disturbance. and stubborn are synonyms of restive only in an infre quent if not obsolete use." but the rein is not used to propel a horse forward. and complete. stubborn. refractory. rush. frisky. intractable. w hich is always in the sense of such terms as impatient. a people restive under despotism are not disposed to "rest" under it.

to suppress is finally and effectually to put down. seclusion. withhold. let loose. literally to press back. To restrain an action is to hold it partially or wholly in check. solitude may be enforced. restrain is negative. or advancing. passive. Antonyms: aid.Antonyms: docile. solitude. as when one is glad to be alone. sub missive. incite. manageable. we speak of a moment's privacy. confine. free. in solitude no other person is present. hi nder. as when we spea k of putting one under restraint. animate. one is const rained to an action. curb. hold in. but within which it is free. privacy. society. Antonyms: association. tho he may still be much in co mpany. yielding. that which is still very active. it is a feebler word than restrain. excite. To restrain is to hold back from acting. to suppress a rebellion. he is restrained from an action. * * * * * RETIREMENT. keep. emancipate. obedient. hol d back. so that it is under pressure even while it acts. * * * * * . arouse. circumscribe. As "private" denotes what concerns oursel ves individually. release. While seclusio n is ordinarily voluntary. bridle. gentle. To repress. either by ph ysical or moral force. fellowship. companionship. keep down. suppress. keep in. repress. company. to restrict an action is to fix a limit or boundary which it may not pass. as. quiet. restrain frequently to physical force. imp el. Compare ARREST. is to hold in check. restrict. we speak o f the retirement of a public man to private life. set free. and perha ps only temporarily. we speak of the solitude ra ther than the seclusion of a prisoner. Synonyms: abridge. check. constrain. keep back. In retirement one withdraws from association he has had with others. tractable. In seclusion one shuts himself away from the society of all except intima te friends or attendants. as amid an unsympathizing crowd. KEEP. Constrain is positive. Constrain refers almost ex clusively to moral force. suppress is a much stronger word than restrain. converse. The re may be loneliness without solitude. privac y is more commonly temporary than seclusion. hold. * * * * * RESTRAIN. Synonyms: loneliness. keep under. and soli tude without loneliness. peaceable. encourage. BIND. privacy denotes freedom from the presence or observation of th ose not concerned or whom we desire not to have concerned in our affairs. proceeding.

literally an unveiling. Antonyms: compassion. which once meant an indignant vindication of justice. mercy. is the act o r process of making known what was before secret or hidden. reconciliation. revenge is meant to be complete. veilin g. * * * * * REVENGE. hiding. lawlessness. pity. tumult. sedition. rebellion. from. and velum. riot. Prepositions: To take revenge upon the enemy. as if to the very gaze of the seer. manifestation. the whole gospel is a disclosure of the mercy of God. Synonyms: avenging. Synonyms: anarchy. veil). Compare AVENGE. Ret aliation may be partial. or what may still be future. cloudiness. REQUITE. vengeance. mu tiny. vengeance the ill desert of those upon w hom it is inflicted. confusion. o f which Scripture is the fuller and more express revelation. Retaliation and revenge are personal and often bitter. and even if poor or unworthy is given as complete and adequate. * * * * * REVOLUTION. the character of Christ is a manifestation of th e divine holiness and love. disintegration. literally an uncovering . insubordination. mystery. such as to quit one of obligation for what has been received. forgiveness. for the injury. Revenge is the act of making return for an injury done to oneself by doing inju ry to another person. obscuration. shrouding. retaliation. requital. disclosure. Revelation (L. retribution. The essential idea of revolution is a change in the form of government or const . comes into English as the name of the closing book of the Bible. now signifies t he most furious and unsparing revenge. re. Avenging and retribution give a solemn sense of exact justice. insurrection. Antonyms: cloud. HATRED. grace. Apocalypse (Gr. Revenge emphasizes more the personal inju ry in return for which it is inflicted.REVELATION. all Scripture is a revelation of the divine will. The Apocalyps e unveils the future. Vengeance. Or we might say that nature is a manifestation of the divine character and will. excuse. and may be excessive. and retribution the impersonal visitation of the doom of righteous law. pardon. whether by God or man. disorder. back. revolt. Synonyms: apocalypse. apo. and kalypto. avenging being more personal in its infliction. concealment. cover). A requital is strictly an even return.

and tumult are incidental and tempor ary outbreaks of lawlessness. subjec t provinces rise in revolt. Antonyms: authority.itution. loyalty. but t here may be revolution without rebellion. supremacy. Sedition is the plotting. Turn is a conversational and popular word often used vaguely for ro tate or revolve. Any object that is in contact with or connected with a rolling body is often s aid to roll. or the ship rolls in the trough of the sea. disorder. A cylinder over which an endless belt is d rawn is said to roll as regards the belt. election. Anarchy refers to the condition of a state when human government is superseded or destroyed by factions or other ca uses. * * * * * RIDDLE. Compare SOCIALISM. ocean waves roll in upon the shore. submission. control. in popular usage. the earth is often said t o revolve about its own axis. and almost without a shot. stick. as. Objects whose motion ap proximates or suggests a rotary motion along a supporting surface are also said to roll. or for any motion about a fixed point. A revolt is an uprising against existing authority without the comprehensive views of change in the form or administration of government that are involved in revo lution. while such change is apt to involve armed hostilities. l aw. tho it rotates as regards its own axis . and rotates on its own axis. the earth revolves around t he sun. against the existing government. order. When rebellion is successful it is called revolution. the se make no necessary part of the revolution. * * * * * REVOLVE. or a change of rulers. government. To rotate is said of a body that has a circular motion about its own cent er or axis. empire. soldiers or sailors break out in mutiny. Confusion. but may not be anarchy. so as to return periodically to the same relative position that it held at some previous time. Antonyms: bind." but rotate and "r otation" are the more accurate terms. grind. Any round body rolls which continuously touches with successive portions of its surface successive portions of another surface. domination. was accomplished without a battle. and Brazil changed from an empire to a republic. obedience. Lawlessness is a temper of mind or condition of the community which may re sult in anarchy. The revolution by which Dom Pedro w as dethroned. in which it is imagined that social order might exist without gover nment. is a proposed disintegration of society. turn. the gate turns on its hinges. as a circ le or an ellipse. riot. or to have a daily "revolution. when more than temporary disorder. otherwise than as provided by the laws of succes sion. n. the car rolls smoothly along the track. Anarchy. Synonyms: roll. Insubordination is individ ual disobedience. as." a man turns his head or turns o n his heel. command. rebellion the fighting. slip. a wagon-wheel rolls along the g round. stand. sovereignty. A revolving b ody may also either rotate or roll at the same time. as. rule. rotate. etc. slide. about a center outside of itself. to revolve is said of a body that moves in a curving path. chafe. the English Revolution of 1688. especially for a motion less than a complete "rotation" or "revolution.. but always with the purpose of establishing some other gove rnment in its place. dominion. . Slaves make insurrection.

immunity from arres t. etc. enigma. advantage. there are many dark enig mas in human life and in the course of providence. Synonyms: arise. liberty. a peculiar benefit. and the pursuit of happiness" a re the natural and inalienable rights of all men. Synonyms: claim. or of natural or positive law. as. a puzzle may be in something other than verbal statement. liberty. the location of a missing obj ect is often a puzzle. immunity. A franchise is a specific right or privilege granted by the government or est ablished as such by governmental authority. and often artificial. n. puzzle applying to something more commonplace and mechanical. a paradox is a true statement that at f irst appears absurd or contradictory. especially one in herent in the royal or sovereign power. . Compare DUTY. as a dissected map or any perplexing mechanical contrivance. m orality. in the latter case it is an exemption or immunity. Conundrum. * * * * * RISE. JUSTICE. equity. it is something not enjoyed by all. an enigma is a dark saying. spring. a railro ad franchise. a word of unknown origin. flow. are individual and special. a privi lege of hunting or fishing. problem. favor. franchise. a problem may re quire simply study and scholarship. proposition. emanate. solution. * * * * * RIGHT. puzzle. proceed. and artific ial. license. kings and nobles have often claimed prerogatives and privileges opposed to the inherent rights of the people. etc. inheritanc e. as. exceptional. A privilege may be of d oing or avoiding. explanation. natural or artificial. "Life. as a problem in mathematics.Synonyms: conundrum. prerogative. exemption. the riddle is not so petty a s the conundrum. A privilege is always special. The riddle is a n ambiguous or paradoxical statement with a hidden meaning to be guessed by the mental acuteness of the one to whom it is proposed. Both enigma and puzzle may be applied to any matter diff icult of answer or solution. axiom. as the right of inher itance by primogeniture. rights of property. A prerogative is an official right or privilege. and may require much acuteness for its answer. paradox. exemption from military service. puzzle (from oppose) referred originally to the intricate arguments by whi ch disputants opposed each other in the old philosophic schools. in a wider sense it is an exclusive and peculiar privilege which one possesses by reason of being what he is. or only to be enjoyed on certain specia l conditions. A right is that which one may properly demand upon considerations of justice. reason is the prerogative of man. Antonyms: answer. issue. privilege . as. signifies some question or statement in wh ich some hidden and fanciful resemblance is involved. enigma conveying an idea of greater dignity. A right may be either general or special. the elective franchise. the answer often depending upon a pun. ascend. a problem is something thrown out for solu tion..

regal. go down. brigand. a thi ef by stealth and secrecy. a subjec t may assume regal magnificence in residence. freebooter. the royal r esidence is that which the king occupies. so a deliberative assembly or a committee is said to rise when it breaks up a session. but the tendency of the best usage is as here suggested. fall. royal raiment that which the king wear s. set. mean. kinglike. which has " two thieves" (Matt. depredator. The sun rises or arises. rise at the summons. Antonyms: beggarly. Antonyms: decline. Synonyms: august. The distinctions between these words are not absolute. footpad. 38). servile. Royal denotes that which actually belongs or pertains to a monarch. burglar. a kingly bearing. reclining. poor. or lying down. expenditure. sink. xxvii. princely. highwayman. we rose with the lark. a sun or star rises wh en to our apprehension it comes above the horizon and begins to go up the sky. thief. descend. pirate. rise to duty. especially of character and conduct. T o ascend is to go far upward. to rise is to come to an erect position after kneeling. Light and heat emanate from the sun. my fr iend rose as I entered. raider. A robber seeks to obtain the property of others by force or intimidation. majestic. Smoke issues from a chimney and ascends toward the sky. despoiler. In early English thief was freely used in both senses . the guests rose to depart. pillager. the mists rise. as. as princely munificence. except in poetic or elevated style. Regal denotes that which in outward state is appropriate for a king. and equipage. dress. buccaneer. . Prepositions: Rise from slumber. the waves rise. as said of persons. a princely fort une. the r iver springs at a bound from the foot of the glacier and flows through the lands to the ocean. sitting. * * * * * ROBBER. vile. Christ a scended to heaven. marauder. The shorter form rise is now generally preferred to the longe r form arise. a kingly resolve.To rise is to move up or upward whether slowly or quickly. munificent." * * * * * ROYAL. whether through the least or greatest distance. forager. the river rises afte r heavy rains. where the Revised Version more correctly substit utes "two robbers. and is often used in a stately sense. Kingly denote s that which is worthy of a king in personal qualities. as. gifts. magnificent. drop. Princely is especially used of treasure. where regal could not so well be used and royal would change the sense. settle. contemptible.. etc. as in Shakespeare and the Authorized Version of the English Bible. Synonyms: bandit. slavish. plunder er. kingly. to rise from a sick-bed. as.

as. elegant. the ceremonies of a coronation. rustic frequently an unfavorable one. especially a public act. even when viewed simply as a representation or memorial. inelegant. we may speak of religious ceremonies. ord inance. polished. while the sacrament possesses a sacredness due to something in itself. considered as the work of nature. a rustic las s. etc. viewed as a means of serving God is called a service. pastoral. untaught. boorish. The terms sacrament and ordinance. Pastoral refers to the care of flocks. artless. the word communion is once applied to it (1 Cor. observance. The Lord's Supper is the Scriptural name for the observance commemorating the death of Chri st. rustic gar b. a stated religious observance. or at least respect. urban. communion. awkward. often used of a studied simplicity. A religious service ordained as an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace is called a sacrament. an artistic rude ness. unsophisticated. clownish. pastor al poetry. city-like. urbane. which is pleasing and perhaps beautiful. Ceremon y is a form expressing reverence. are o ften used interchangeably. Rural has always a favorable sense. of the rural population. The te rm eucharist describes the Lord's Supper as a thanksgiving service. We speak. but not as a distin ctive name. bucolic. * * * * * SACRAMENT. as. and some times slightly contemptuous. An observance has more than a formal obligation. but i n usage rural refers especially to scenes or objects in the country. Bucolic is kindred to pastoral. the ceremonies of polite society. rude. reaching o r approaching a religious sacredness. as d enoting the communing of Christians with their Lord. service. Antonyms: accomplished. Rustic is. a rustic cottage. rural. similar ideas are suggested by a rustic feast. rite. a n inauguration. however. at an early period. but is a less elevated term. 16). country. and may be alik e defined as pertaining to. sylvan. Any religious act. Synonyms: ceremony. unpolishe d. the word commonly includes the entire series of exercises of a single occasion of public worship. the name communion was so applied. as denoting a la ck of culture and refinement. Rural and rustic are alike derived from the Latin rus. hoidenish. Lord's Supper. outlandish. as.* * * * * RUSTIC. a rural scene. uncouth. coarse. Synonyms: agricultural. and to the shepherd's life with the pleasing associations suggested by the old poetic ideal of that life. however. plain. a rustic ch air. it is also c alled by preeminence the sacrament. however. as the ratifying of a solemn vow of consecra . or dwelling in the country. etc. verdant. a rustic party. countrified. viewed as e stablished by authority. eucharist. rustic politeness expresses that which is we ll-meant. rustic refers to their effect upon man or to their condit ion as affected by human agency. country. thus. x. cultured. characteristic of. in the religious sense. polite. the ordinance derives its sacredness from the authori ty that ordained it. it is a rite. or with one another. refined. well-bred. solemnity. but awkward. etc. is called an ordinance. rural simplicity. viewed as an established custom .

unintelligent. the word being used generally w ith reference to portable commodities. keen-sighted. ap plying only incidentally to the transfer of property or value. Bart er is the exchange of one commodity for another. ignorant. sharp. and accurate inference from observed facts perhaps in themselves very slight. In human affairs sagacious refers to a power of ready. foolish. judicious. * * * * * SAMPLE. that seems like a special sense. discerning. shrewd. and with increasing strictness. simple. barter. the nomination was the result of a dea l. but it frequently signifies simply a sale or exchange. especially upon human motives or conduct--a kind of prophetic common sense. trade. sage. perspicacious. a dealing.tion to Christ. as. dull. Trade in the broad sense may apply to vas t businesses (as the book-trade). stupid. rat ional. A bargain is strictly an agreement or contract to buy and sell. sottish. tho the word is often used to denote the entire transaction and also as a designation for the t hing sold or purchased. sagacious is less lofty and comprehensive than wise in its full sense. apt. or to a similar readiness to foresee the results of any action. Sagacious refers to a power of tracing the hidden or recondite by slight indica tions. irrational. as. Synonyms: able. limited to the tr ansfer of property for money. . and more limited to matters of direct practical mo ment. clear-sighted. silly. substitution. a heavy deal in stocks. sharp-witted. Compare ASTUTE. wise. in business it may have a similar meaning. acute. and circles around till he s trikes it again. quick-scented. an exchange secures something as an equivalent or return. Synonyms: bargain. as at the edge of a stream. exchange. on the other hand. undiscerning. * * * * * SALE. but if he loses the scent. We do not call a hound sagacious in following a clear trail. A deal in the poli tical sense is a bargain. keen. deal. his conduct is said to be sagacious. but as denoting a single transaction is used c hiefly in regard to things of moderate value. a change secures something different in any way or by any means. futile. * * * * * SAGACIOUS. obtuse. keen-witted. Antonyms: absurd. quick of scent. and not capable of the invidious sense which the latte r word often bears. Change and exchange are words of wider signification. Sagacious is a broader and nobler word than shrewd. it is not now applied to mere keenness of se nse-perception. Sale is commonly. tho not necessarily as payment for what is given. or transfer for the benefit of certain p ersons or parties against all others. when it becomes nearly synonymous with barter. or for something estimated at a money value or con sidered as equivalent to so much money in hand or to be paid. sensible. intelligent. change. senseless . far-reaching. WISDOM. as by instinct or intuition.

exemplification. example. aggregate. A specimen is one unit of a series. instance. Antonyms: check. a specimen of coinage. To sate or satiate is to gratify desire so fully as for a time to extinguis h it. savant. content.. Prepositions: Satisfy with food. sate. the word is generally understood in this latte r sense.Synonyms: case. Compare EXAMPLE. a sample of cloth. To cloy or surfeit is to gratify to the point of revulsion or disgust. accomplished person: when used without qualification. or of architecture. mental. or a fragment of a mass. surfeit. master of what the schools can teach. straiten. as. satisfy one (in the sense of make satisfac tion) for labors and sacrifices. Synonyms: disciple. thence the word pa sses to denote one who is apt in school work. he is manifestly a scholar. restrain. to glut a vengeful spirit with slaughter. * * * * * SATISFY. satisfy oneself by or upon inquiry. or a specimen of quartz. while all the rest is supposed to be exactly like the sample. with gifts. and finally one who is thoroughly schooled. disappoint. as. learner. suffice. Those under instruction . refuse. REQUITE. stint. monstrosity. To satisfy is to furnish just enough to meet physical. specimen. we s peak of glutting the market with a supply so excessive as to extinguish the dema nd. student. fill. Synonyms: cloy. A sample is a portion taken at random out of a quantity supposed to be homogene ous. etc. An instance is a s ample or specimen of action. all of which is supposed to possess t he same essential qualities. an erudite. or spiritual des ire. restrict. starve. pupil. The primary sense of a scholar is one who is being schooled. Glu t is a strong but somewhat coarse word applied to the utmost satisfaction of veh ement appetites and passions. glut. a sample of sugar. Antonyms: abnormality. as. so that the qualities found in the sample may reasonably be expected to be found in the whole. exception. whole. deny. less than a sufficiency may content one of a patient and submissive spirit. No other unit or portion may be exactly like the specimen. satiate. * * * * * SCHOLAR. t antalize. Pupil signifies one under the close per sonal supervision or instruction of a teacher or tutor. illustration. total. C ompare PAY. as. Much less than is needed to satisfy may suffice a frugal or abstemious perso n.

Compare KNOWLEDGE. while the art is perfected by the a dvance of the science. Creative art seeking beauty for its own sake is closely a kin to pure science seeking knowledge for its own sake. ignoramus. no rules can be given for the production of a painting like Raffael's "Transfigura tion. like the mechanic arts. On the other hand. as the academic.. science is knowledge reduced to law a nd embodied in system." a statue like the Apollo Belvedere. Synonyms: bail. LITER ATURE. pledge. according to the common expression. earnest. as. The mechanic arts are the province of the artisan. fool. Not only must art be discrimin ated from science. "to bind the bargain. compare synonyms for ADHERENT. yet its possible productive application in the arts is a constant stimulus to scientific investig ation. scientific. idler. * * * * * SECURITY. surety. as of wea ving or printing. idiot. Antonyms: dunce. etc." A pledge or security may be wholly different in kind from that to be given or pai . collegiate. arithmetic or navigation. The word pupil is uniformly so used in the Reports of the Commissioner of Educ ation of the United States. as when part of the purc hase-money is paid. The knowledge of various countries gathered by an observa nt traveler may be a heterogeneous medley of facts.in schools below the academic grade are technically and officially termed pupils . gage. all the industrial arts. Student is applied to those in the higher grades or courses of study. the esthetic or fine arts are the province of the artist. teachers and scholars enjoyed a holiday. Synonyms: art. are governed by exact rules. etc. or of many facts not known as having any mutual relations or as comprehended under any general l aw. the former aims chiefly at utility. Those under instructi on in Sunday-schools are uniformly designated as Sunday-school scholars. a portion of it delivered in advance. but art in the industrial or mechanical sense must be disting uished from art in the esthetic sense. The first four words agree in denoting something given or deposited as an assur ance of something to be given. Art always relates to someth ing to be done. but popular American usage prefers scholar in the or iginal sense. Knowledge of a single fact. the scholar one who has learned. * * * * * SCIENCE. or done. the l atter at beauty. or a poem like the Iliad. illiterate person. paid. thus. the science. For disciple. the student being one who is learning. make production its direct aim. student suggests less of personal supervision than pupil. knowledge. Student suggests less proficiency than scholar in t he highest sense. is urged on to h igher development by the demands of the art. An earnest is of the same kind as that to be given. not known as related to any other. transcends all rule. science to something to be known. does not reach the meaning of science. while it makes use of rules. the college student often becomes the private pupil of some instruc tor in special studies. which gain real value only w hen coordinated and arranged by the man of science. as in the case of chemistry or electricity. Art in the highest esthetic sense. Science doe s not.

self-renunciation. s elf-sacrifice. an application. self-will. transmit. as. Self-sacrifice is the strongest and completest term of all." Prepositions: Security for the payment of a debt. launch. send. A mother will care for a sick child with complete self-abnegation. project. depute. There have been devotees who practised v ery little self-denial with very much self-renunciation. propel. discharge. . self-denial. Send in its mos t common use involves personal agency without personal presence.. a messenger or a message. in the latter case. in the sum of a thousand dollars. to dismiss is to send away from oneself without referen ce to a destination. impel. self-seeking. * * * * * SEND. it is with an approach to personification that we speak of the bow sending the arrow. * * * * * SELF-ABNEGATION. and may greatly exceed it in value. Self-renunciation surrenders conscious rights and claims. dart. appeara nce in court.. land. self-abnegation forge ts that there is anything to surrender. bonds. where any other of the above terms would be feeble or inap propriate. but without a thought of self-denial . the giving up of pleasures for the sake of duty. dismiss. A person may become security or surety for another's payment of a debt. self-indulgence. self-immolation. Gage survives only as a literary w ord. etc. Security may be of real or personal prope rty--anything of sufficient value to make the creditor secure. merchandise. the action is away from the dire cting hand. emit. Antonyms: self-gratification. are frequently offered and accepted as security. or an annoying subj ect. Self-control is holding oneself within due limits in pleasures and duties. he is said to become bail for that perso n. drive. to dismiss a clerk. To despatch is to send hastily or very promptly.d. a pledge is alway s of personal property or chattels. and contemplates the gift of self as actually made. We speak of the self -sacrifice of Christ. "If you want your business done. Every pawnshop contains unredeemed pledges. despatch. selfishness. and always in fact or thought away from the agent or agency that controls the act. and he is viewed as the passive recipient of his own act. as. according to th e adage. To send is to cause to go or pass from one place to another. chiefly in certain phrases. ordinarily wit h a destination in view. go. if not. for the prisoner. sling. or t he gun the shot. etc. security to the state. if one sends a ball into his own heart. self-denial. hurl. self-devotion. fling. the person accused gives bail for himself. To discharge is to send away so as to relieve a person or thing of a load. Synonyms: cast. throw. lance." one sends a letter or a bullet. "the gage of battle. forward. In all the derived uses this same idea co ntrols. Synonyms: self-control. Self-devotion is heart-consecration of self to a person or cause with readines s for any needed sacrifice. dele gate. as i n all things else.

as it were. Such feelings are not infrequently styled sensat ions. perception. as. sensitiveness. the sensitiveness of a magnetic needle is the ease with which it m . whether through the body or b y the mind alone. receive. in the "sensitive-plant. Thus . receive. sense." Susceptibility is ra ther a capacity to take up. so tha t a person of great susceptibility is capable of being not only readily but deep ly moved. retain. denotes the capacity of emotion or feel ing. Antonyms: bring. sensitiveness is more superficial. to transmit the crown. '90. p. Transmit. are wholly of the mind. send a person into banishment. perception is the cognition of some external object which is the cause or occasion of the sensation. carry. as. though improperly. and includes both sensation and emotion. Synonyms: emotion. feeling. as. the sensation of heat may be connected with the perce ption of a fire. in physics. as anger and envy. * * * * * SENSATION. impressibility. but preferabl e at times in literary or scientific use. ready to be excited by the slightest c ause. as applied to persons. often less vigorous than the Saxon send. the sensibility of the artist or the poet. with no ref erence to a destination. sometimes. as joy. [S.] Feeling is a general term popularly denoting what is felt. as displayed. as. While sensations are connected with the body. send a shell among the enemy. which are acknowledged by all to belong exclusively to the spirit. send to a friend by a me ssenger or by mail. or those passions.. a person of great or fine sensibility. give. for instance. etc. Sensibility in the philosophical sense. to contain feeling. and to involve no relation whatever to matter or the bodily organism. a peculiar readiness to be th e subject of feeling. from generation to generation. keep.we discharge a gun or discharge the contents. the sun emits light and heat. as hope or terror. Sensitiveness den otes an especial delicacy of sensibility. sensibility to heat or cold." PORTER Human Intellect § 112. Sensation is the mind's consciousness due to a bodily affection. Transmit f ixes the attention more on the intervening agency. as distinguished from the intellect and the will. grief. hand. * * * * * SENSIBILITY. is a dignified term. or the feud .) In popular use sensibility denotes sometimes capacity of feeling of any kind. (Compare synonyms for SEN SATION. get. susceptibility more pervading. A sense is an organ o r faculty of sensation or of perception. to transmit a charge of electricity. discharge i s a harsher term than dismiss. from the La tin. as of heat or cold. Prepositions: To send from the hand to or toward (rarely at) a mark. emotions. "As the most of them [the sensations] are positively agreeable or the opposite. susceptibility. hold. they are nearly akin to those emotions. and. convey. To emit is to send forth from within. as send does upon the points of departure and destination. 128. Synonyms: feeling. especially of the higher feelings.

wave. hav ing reference to action or active qualities. strict in self-restraint or discipline. shudder. or winter. mildness. amplific ation. tremble . insensibility. mild. oscillate. pliable. bland. harsh. and strict obedience. numbness. fever. as by music. Rigid signifies primarily stiff. hardness. rigorous discipline punishes severely any infr action of it. but it is always strong an d may be grand. stringo. rock. or ridicule. totter. inexorable. flutt er. as said even of inanimate objects. strenuously exact. lenient. a severe style. * * * * * SEVERE. unmitigated . as. yielding. The austere character is seldom lovely. but is a stronger word. waver. Strict discipline holds one exact ly and unflinchingly to the rule. a severe pain. tractable. as. shiver. uncompromising. jounce. gentle. Austere signifies severely simple or temperate. strict injunctions. That is severe which is devoid of all softness. or (in literature and art) devoid of unnecessary ornament. rigid. genial. We speak of austere morality. in meta phorical sense. harsh speech or a harsh voice. rigorous. rigorous discipline. stern commands. a rigid rule or statement is one that admit s of no deviation. Antonyms: coldness. rigid rules. reel. sway. relentless. Synonyms: austere. inflexible. tense. s uggests something authoritative or forbidding. fluctuate. while a person of great susceptibility is not only touched. resisting any e ffort to change its shape. unconsciousness. Prepositions: The sensibility of the organism to atmospheric changes. commanding. hard. indulgenc e or levity. * * * * * SHAKE. stiff. severe punishment. and similarly unrelenting toward others. a corpse is said to be rigid in death. severe signifies such as heavily taxes endurance or resisting power. jolt. hence. tenderness. swing. sweet. hard requireme nts. unrelenting. vibrate.ay be deflected. deadness. jar. Stern unites harshness and au thority with strictness or severity. brandish. bind) signifies b ound or stretched tight. So a person of great sensitiveness is quickly and keenly affected by an y external influence. flap. indul gent. morose. Synonyms: agitate. strict. pathos. and estimable. but moved to his inmost soul. a rigid rule may be rigorously enforced. quaver. . its susceptibility is the degree to which it can be magnetized by a given magnetic force or the amount of magnetism it wi ll hold. a rigid person or character is one that resists all efforts to c hange the will or course of conduct. as said of anything pai nful. stern. Strict (L. quiver. Rigorous is nearly akin to rigid. thrill. or embellishment of any kind. Antonyms: affable. joggle. quake. tender. soft. easy. unyielding. stern. as rigid does to state or character . as by another magnet.

to oscillate is to swing with a smooth and regular returning motion. To shelter is to cover so as to protect from injury or annoyance. as. the swaying of a reed in the wind. Sway applies to the movement of a body suspended from above or not firmly sustained from below. A thing trembles that shakes perceptibly and wit h an appearance of uncertainty and instability. as a pendulum. Anything is covered over which something is completely extended. to cover before) implies the possible use of force or r . as. A thing rocks that is sustaine d from below. as. shield. a drunken man reels. smoother than vibrating. as a person under the influence of fear. or oscillate. one says. To joggle is to shake slightly. in the metaphorical use agitate is more tra nsitory and superficial. An extended mass which seems to lack solidity or cohesion is said to quake. A tree is "shaken w ith a mighty wind. That which covers may also def end or protect. To reel or to tter always implies liability to fall. as. etc. hence. To agit ate in its literal use is nearly the same as to shake. as a crane or a bridge-draw." a man slowly shakes his head. in human beings often the eff ect of emotional or moral recoil. protegere. Jolting is a lifting from and letting down suddenly upon an unyielding surface. vibrate. Sway used transitively especially app lies to motions of grace or dignity. we speak of the tottering step of ag e or infancy. to strike away) implies the actual . a monarch sways the scepter. a cock flaps his wings. or pivoted at th e side." To quiver is to have slight and often spasmodic contract ile motions. Quaver is applied almost exclusively to tremulous s ounds of the human voice. a s forward and backward. his faith. thus. To defend (L. and not necessarily constant as oscillati ng. woods sh elter from the heat. a passing touch joggles th e desk on which one is writing. quiver is similarly used. fl utter applies to a less pronounced and more irregular motion. brandish denotes a threatening or hostile m otion. but suggests somewhat more of outward manifestation. his credit. and fluctuate refer to wave-like moveme nts. a quaking bog. the roof shelters from the storm. the jol ting of the carriage jars the windows. ward. the head is covered with a hat. a person's feeling s are agitated by distressing news. Flap. a captive bird or a feeble pulse flutters. shudderin g is a more pronounced movement of a similar kind. tho we speak of the sea a s agitated when we could not say it is shaken. harbor. or his t estimony is shaken. it swings if suspended from above. as. Thrill is applied to a perv asive movement felt rather than seen. The pe ndulum of a clock may be said to swing. as a human body under the influence of cold. a vessel is co vered with a lid. flutter. his courage. the Latin agitate is preferred in scientific or technical use to the Saxon shake. protect. troops interposed between some portion of their own army a nd the enemy are often called a covering party. the ruffian brandishes a club. "I s hudder at the thought. shake more fundamental and enduring. a steel bridge vi brates under the passage of a heavy train. a thing shivers when all its particles are stirred with a slight but pe rvading tremulous motion. the word is applied by extension to suc h feelings even when they have no such outward manifestation. flap generally to such as produce a sharp sound. defend. tot tering more irregular. the term vibrate is also applied to m olecular movements. screen. up and down. a carriage jolts over a rough road.A thing is shaken which is subjected to short and abruptly checked movements. a vibrating motion may be tremulous or jarring. A jarring motion is abruptly and very rapidly repeated through an exceedingly limited space. the nerves thrill with delight. and the motion of which is less pronounced t han swinging. defendere. and especially as applied to th e action of mechanical contrivances. Rattling refers directly to the sound pro duced by shaking. Compare FLUCTUATE. protect (L. as. reeling is more violent than swaying. * * * * * SHELTER. Synonyms: cover. guard. from side to side. as. as the flesh under the surgeon's knife.

An inanimate object may protect. as a garment from cold. "All unrighteousness is sin. he defends him by some form of active championsh ip. evil. behind or within the wall s. natural or artificia l. Synonyms: emblem. wrong-doing. expose. thus. A sign (L. a blush may be a sign of shame. con federates or sympathizers harbor a criminal. wickedness. and may be intentional or accidental. viciousness. Synonyms: crime. but signals of distress are a distinct appeal for aid. See CHERISH. ungodliness. Sin is any lack of holiness. Prepositions: Shelter under a roof from the storm. in medical language a sign is an indication of any physical condition. immorality. one may guard another by standing armed at his s ide. CHARACTERISTIC. offense. note. descriptive. a person harbors evil thoughts or d esigns.esisting power. in such connection. depravity. reject. defend him by fighting for him. criminality. w e defend a person or thing against actual attack. To shield is to interpose s omething over or before that which is assailed. we guard or protect against po ssible assault or injury. refuse. delinque ncy. and is usually concerted. EMBLEM. whether of commission or omission. symptom. suggestive. expel. Protect is more co mplete than guard or defend. in the fortress. surrender. indication. as "the sign of the trout . signal. While a sign may be involuntary. presage. symbol. any defect of moral purity and truth. whether morbid or healthy. DEFENSE. and has a comparatively passive sense. from attack. iniquity. and by somewhat violent metaphor. cast out. misdeed. * * * * * SIN. mark. an object may be faithfully guarded or bravely defe nded in vain. the footprint of an animal is a sign that it has passed. transgression. defend is used but rarely. so as to save from harm. manifestation. vice. or shield him from a missile or a blow by i nterposing his own person. token. dulness of some portion of the lungs under percus sion is one of the physical signs. the sign of a bu siness house now usually declares what is done or kept within. and even unconscious. a signal is always voluntary. Compare AUGUR. Antonyms: betray. omen. Compare synonyms for HIDE. signum) is any distinctive mark by which a thing may be recognized o r its presence known. ill-doing. guilt. w rong. guard implies sustained vigilance with readiness for conflict." 1 . whether in h eart or life. unrighteousness." the letters of the alphabet are signs of certain sounds. A symptom is a vital phenomenon resu lting from a diseased condition. a hot skin and rapid pu lse are symptoms of pneumonia. but that which is protected is secure. Harbor is generally used in an unfavorable sense. but formerly migh t be an object having no connection with the business. A powerful person may protect one who is weak by simpl y declaring himself his friend. or wholly arbitrary. fault. thus. give up. ty pe. prognostic. * * * * * SIGN. a ship may show signs of distress to the casual observer.

To sing is primarily and ordinarily to utter a succession of articulate musical sounds with the human voice. purity. as denoting a state of heart. freethinke r. etc. as in the expression a sin. sinlessness. crime. but there may be sin. The word has come to include any succession of mus ical sounds. as ingratitude. The skeptic doubts divine revelation. chirp. vi rtue. deist. or may denote some moral activity that could not be characterized by terms so positive. Immora lity denotes outward violation of the moral law. transgressi on is always an act. warble. morality.John v. goodness. the disbeliever and the unbeliever reject it. is the stepping over a s pecific enactment. tran sgression. To chant is to sing in solemn and somewhat uniform cad ence. T o chirrup is to utter a somewhat similar sound. nor immorality. we say the bird or the rivulet sings. the unbeliever (in the c ommon acceptation) with indifference or with opposition of heart as well as of i . righteousness. unbeliever. mental or physical. godliness. insects. infidel. all crimes. * * * * * SKEPTIC. and to warble (kindred with whirl) is to sing with trill s or quavers. offense. Depravity deno tes not any action. etc. Guilt is desert of and exposure to punishment because of sin. Sin is thus the broadest word. right. the word is often used of a brie f. * * * * * SING. as by certain small birds. disbeliever. whether of God or man. but a perverted moral condition from which any act of sin ma y proceed. the term may be synonymous with transgression. sharp sound uttered as a signal to animate or rouse a horse or other animal. properly so called. misdeed. which is neither crime. are sins. and all immoraliti es. Sin in the generic sense. innocence. ordinarily by overt act. Synonyms: agnostic. Antonyms: blamelessness. and there may be immorality which is not crime. but in the br oadest sense. the disbeliever with more of intellectual dissent. as fa lsehood. is synonymous with depravity. us ually with closed lips. 17. Compare synonyms for VIRTUE. excellence. Compare CRIMINAL. rectitude. we speak of "the singing qual ity" of an instrument. To hum is to utter murmuring sounds with somewhat monotonous musical cadence. as its etymology indicates. and immorality next in scope. pe rhaps often repeated in the same key. chant is ordinarily applied to non-metrical religious compositions. etc. we speak also of the hum of machinery. Synonyms: carol. chant. To car ol is to sing joyously. and by still wider extension of meaning we say the teaket tle or the cricket sings. doubter. in volition or desire. hum. uprightness. usually also with the idea of joy. Crime is often used for a flagrant viol ation of right. To chirp is to utter a brief musical sound. holines s.. Sin may be either act or state. Carol and warble are especially applied to the singing of birds. atheist. chirrup. integrity. Transgression. but in the technical sense denotes specific violation of human l aw. in the specific sense.

proficient. a draft is an incomplete or unfinished drawing. Christian. he is expert in that of which training. adroit. like the shading or color. skilled. being sufficiently exact and complete to form. and style is given in a sketch. drawing. the brief has none of th e vagueness of a sketch. but if he says. In writt en composition an outline gives simply the main divisions. a plan o f the cellar. Infidel is an opprobrious term that might once almost have been said t o be geographical in its range. dexterous. picture. whether graphic or li terary. outline. The Crusaders called all Mohammedans infidels. clever. apt. origina lly at the level of the ground. deft. now in a wider sense at any height. the word is commonly applied to any decided opponent of an accepted religion. the hues of which change so rapidly. draft. a plan is strictly a view from above . happy. design. A lawyer's brief is a succinct state ment of the main facts involved in a case. but shading and color. must of necessi ty be a sketch. Skilful signifies possessing and using readily practical knowledge and ability. a somewhat fuller suggestion of illustration. treatment. as of a building or machine. plan. * * * * * SKETCH. adept. and drawing are also used. giving the lines of a horizontal section. Draft and plan apply especially to mechanical drawing. The lines of a sketch are seldom so full and continuous as those of an outline. expert. sketch. "The design is mine. the d eist admits the existence of God. and is understood to be original. skeleton. An outline gives only the bounding or determining lines of a figure or a s cene. practised. a design is s uch a preliminary sketch as indicates the object to be accomplished or the resul t to be attained. the basis for the decision of the court without oral argument. trained. Synonyms: accomplished." he claims it as his own invention or composition. but is hasty and incomplete. little more than indications or su ggestions according to which a finished picture may be made. commonly intended to be preliminary to a more complete or extended treat ment. and of the main heads of his argument on points of law. ingenio us. * * * * * SKILFUL. a sketch may give not only lines. being.ntellect. on occas ion." Compare DESIGN. but denies that the Christian Scriptures are a revelation from him. experience. One may make a drawing of an y well-known mechanism. the agnostic denies either that we do know or that we can know whether there is a God. having alert and well-trained faculties with reference to a given work. a nd were so called by them in return. One is adept in that for which he has a natural gift improved by practise. Antonyms: believer. A sketch is a rough. The atheist denies that there is a God. as. of which outline. the artist's first representation of a sunset. Synonyms: brief. and study have given him a thorough mast . a plan of the attic. when the cas e is said to be "submitted on brief. A mechanical drawing is always understood to be in full detail. handy. suggestive presentation of anything. and in the case of a sermon is often called a skeleton. with reference to authorities cited. or a drawing from another man's design.

calumniates. DEXTERITY. as for instance. the slander is uttered. malign. Synonyms: asperse. with a pen or tool of any kind. calumniate . club . unskilled. to calumniate is to invent as well as u tter the injurious charge. educated persons are apt to allow themselves some colloquialisms in familiar conversation. and perhaps not incorrect. traduce. to traduce is to exhibit one's real or assumed tra its in an odious light. to defame is specifically and directly to attack one's reputation. by written words. a master of his branch of knowledge. ability. untrained. clumsy. especially in work of the hand or bodily activities. backbite. POWER. * * * * * SLANDER. eulogize. Slang. praise.ery. denotes expressions that are either coarse and rude in themselves or chiefly current among the coarser and ruder par t of the community. To backbite is to s peak something secretly to one's injury. "an expert" denotes one who is "experienced" in the fullest sense. but below the literary grade. shiftless. Antonyms: defend. and power of adaptation. in addition to his acquired kno wledge and dexterity. depreciate. vulgarism. the libel written. disparage. untaught. or pictured. college slang. to defame by sp oken words is to slander. To asperse is. A skilled workman is one who has thoroughly learned hi s trade. maladroit. printed. To dis parage is to represent one's admitted good traits or acts as less praiseworthy t han they would naturally be thought to be. laud. he is dexterous in that which he can do effectively. though he may be naturally quite dull. there are also many expressions current in special senses in certain communities that may be characterized as slang. revile. to malign is to circulate studied and mali cious attacks upon character. to libel. decry. colloquialism. a skilful workman has some natur al brightness. To slander a person is to utter a false and injurious report concerning him. One may "abuse. To libel or slander is to ma ke an assault upon character and repute that comes within the scope of law. as. Antonyms: awkward. * * * * * SLANG. or traduces him behind his back. as it were. Prepositions: Skilful at or in a work. by ascribing a man's benevolence to a desire for popularity or display. he asperses. libel. to revile or vilify is to attack with vile abuse. In the case of the noun ." "assail. slanders. which they would avoid in writing or pu blic speaking. inexpert. unhandy. in the primary sense. A colloquialism is an expression not coarse or low. with or without traini ng. helpless. Synonyms: cant." or vilify another to his f ace. vindicate. Compare CLEVER. bungling. extol. vulgarity. vilify. to bespatter with injurious charges. defame.

the taunt is defiant. ix. especially in doing a work or arriving at a place. and the use of w hich is a mark of ignorance or low breeding. inert. racing slang. gibe. mode rate. dilatory. inactive. A scoff may be in act or word. Compare BANTER. which w ould seem to give the attack undue importance: Who can refute a sneer? PALEY Moral Philosophy bk. v. and is commonly directed against that which claims honor. A sneer may be simply a contemptuous facial contortion. * * * * * SNEER. A vulgarism is an expression decidedly incorrect. Slow signifies moving through a relatively short distance. as used in this connection. a person is dilato ry who lays aside. * * * * * SLOW. d enotes the barbarous jargon used as a secret language by thieves. a watch or a clock is said to be slow when its indications are behind those of the standard time. as of a stream. deliberate. Synonyms: fling. gradual. A fling is careless and commonly pettish. a step) signifies advancing by steps. taunt. Synonyms: dawdling. dull. sluggish. procrastinating. drowsy. Tardy is applied to that which is behind the proper or desired time. and often sly or covert. Deliberate and dilatory are used of pers ons. Cant. tho the latter may be used also of things. the sneer is supercilious. or with a relatively small number of motions in a given time. slack. the gibe is bitter. etc. gradu s. a person is deli berate who takes a noticeably long time to consider and decide before acting or who acts or speaks as if he were deliberating at every point. tardy. a s of muscle or of will. or puts off as long as possible. C ompare DICTION. The jeer and gibe are uttered. delaying. necessary or required action .slang. jeer. mock. the jeer is rude and o pen. lingering. or worship. In the evolution of language many words originally slang a re adopted by good writers and speakers. Antonyms: See synonyms for NIMBLE. Gradual (L. reverence. scoff. or it may be some brief satirical utterance that throws a contemptuous side-light on what it attacks wi thout attempting to prove or disprove. LANGUAGE. and ultimately take their place as acce pted English. and refers to slow but regular and sure progression. Slack refers to action that seems to indicate a lack of tension. sluggish to action that seems as if reluctant to advance . . a taunt is intentionally insulting an d provoking. a depreciatory implication may be given i n a sneer such as could only be answered by elaborate argument or proof. tramps. ch. slow also applies to that which is a r elatively long while in beginning or accomplishing something. both words may be applied either to undertaking or to doing.

Synonyms: collectivism. if anything. Aside from its musical use. noise is sound considered without re ference to musical quality or as distinctly unmusical or discordant. As used of a musical instrument. fabianism. as it would destroy . tone deno tes the general quality of its sounds collectively considered." We speak of a fine. applying to landownership and productive capital. but in the most careful usa ge the latter is now distinguished as the "interval. chat. note. "I heard a sound. discourse. tone may denote either a mu sical sound or the interval between two such sounds." or "I heard a noise.Preposition: Only an essentially vicious mind is capable of a sneer at virtue. converse. appl ying to anything that is audible. Anarchism is properly an antonym of socialism. tone. increase of wealth. and we say almost indiffer ently. . socialism i s a purely economic term. is a theory of civil polity that aims t o secure the reconstruction of society. leaving th e future to determine what. Many socialists call themselves collectivists. * * * * * SPEAK. Sound is the most comprehensive word of this group. the word is similarly applied to the voices of birds and other animals . pronounce. In music. communism. Commun ism would divide all things. say. and sometimes to inanimate objects. but never thus of a noise. chatter. express. should be raised upon their ruins. by violence if necessary. talk. utter. deliver. including the profits of individual labor. Tone is sound considered as having some musica l quality or as expressive of some feeling. * * * * * SOCIALISM. many of its advocates would abolish marriage and the fam ily relation." leaving tone to stand only for the sound. Thus. Synonyms: noise. declaim. as defined by its advocates. tell. Socialism. all existing government and social order. as. tone is chiefly applied to that quality of the human voice by which feeling is expressed. among me mbers of the community. Synonyms: announce. Sound is the sensation produced through the organs of hearing or the physical c ause of this sensation. in th e most general sense noise and sound scarcely differ. and their system collectivism. musical. but in loose popular usage it denotes the sound also. or pleasing sound. and becomes practically equivalent to tone. enunciate. * * * * * SOUND. Note in music strictly denotes the character representing a soun d. he spoke in a che ery tone. articulate. declare. Its aim is extended industrial cooperation. and a more equal dis tribution of the products of labor through the public collective ownership of la nd and capital (as distinguished from property). and the public collective manag ement of all industries.

oration. Synonyms: automatic. or a speec h that has something disputatious and combative in it. That is spontaneous which is freely done. A babe's smile in answer to that of its mother is spontaneous. unbidden. A spontaneous outburst of applause is of nece ssity an act of volition. harangue. We speak of spontaneous generation. To speak is to give articulate utterance even to a single word. In the fullest sense of that which is not only without the will but distinctly in opposition to it. Thus voluntary a nd involuntary. To talk is to utter a succession of connected words. speechlessness. taciturnity. dissertation. will ing. silence. involuntary servitude. talk. spontane ous sympathy. willi ng submission. Prepositions: Speak to (address) a person. a wi lling act is not only in accordance with will. that is voluntary which is freely done with distinct act of will. ceaseless way like a magpie. th e smile of a pouting child wheedled into good humor is involuntary. Speech is the general word for utterance of thought in language. voluntary agreement. stillness. speak with a person (converse with him). which are antonyms of each other. as distinguished from singing. in parliamentary language. voluntary.To utter is to give forth as an audible sound. without special premeditation or distinct determination of the wil l. the growth of the hai r and nails is spontaneous. To chat is ordinarily to utter in a familiar. To speak is also to utter words with the ordinary intonation. to chatter is to talk in an empty. are both partial synonyms of s pontaneous. free. d isquisition. spontaneous combustion. speaking. intended to convey instruction. as. impulsive. but so completely dependent on sympathetic impulse tha . oratory. discourse. ordinarily with the expectation of being listened to. beyond which it becomes involuntary or automatic. * * * * * SPONTANEOUS. that is inv oluntary which is independent of the will. and perhaps in opposition to it. an oration is an elabo rate and prepared speech. Compare CONVERSATION. speak to the question. involuntary. utterance. DICTION. conversational way. articulate or not. involuntary becomes an antonym. speak of or about a thing (make it the subject of remark). * * * * * SPEECH. an unbidden tear. Antonyms: hush. LANGUAGE. A speech may b e the delivering of one's sentiments in the simplest way. in h uman actions. sermon. a harangue is a vehement appeal to passion. but with desire. language. o r compulsory. th e officer speaks the word of command. an involuntary start. A discourse is a set spee ch on a definite subject. Synonyms: address. but does not talk it. speak on or upon a subject. with no external compulsion and. instinctive. not only of voluntary but of spont aneous. the action of swallowing is voluntary up to a certai n point. In physiolog y the action of the heart and lungs is called involuntary.

to capital punishment. declare. or particularly in speech or writing. yarn. however. testify. to assume a color in any way. etc. allege. scout. set forth.. or. specify. an assassin's weap on is stained with the blood of his victim. a spy is held to have forfeited all rights. a character stained with crime or guilt is debased and perverted. dye. An emissary is rather political than mi litary. Synonyms: detective. s . he is not only an emissary. disgrace. inform. propound. has the rights of a prisoner of war. To dye is to impart a color intentionally and with a view to per manence. to. stand) is to set forth explicitly. tell. A scout. sto. swear. a stand ard or a garment may be dyed with blood in honorable warfare. in which coloring-matter is spread upon the surface. St ain is. but without disguise. of an enemy. as. but a s py. and sero. and m ay also be used of giving a slight flavor. Thus. cloth. * * * * * SPY. in the intransitive use. to impart a color undesired a nd perhaps unintended. color. spot. a character "dyed in the wool" is one that has received some early. avow. To tinge is to color slightly. permanent. aver. bind) is strongly personal. predicate. or si milar materials which are dipped into the coloring liquid.t it would seem frigid to call it voluntary. To stain is primarily to discolor. express. Figuratively. tarni sh. Synonyms: blot. and which may or may not be permanent. The scout and the spy are both employed to obtain information of the numbers. claim. Assert (L. depose. soil.. dishonor. assert. emissary. in distinction from painting. To state (L. if captured. * * * * * STATE. tinge. dyeing is generally said of wool. and pervading influence. avouch. discolor. used of giving an intended and perhaps pleasing color to wood. or a slight admixture of one ingredie nt or quality with another that is more pronounced. sully. certify. formally. glass. The scout lurks on the outskirts of the hostile arm y with such concealment as the case admits of. say. he colored with sham e and vexation. p rotest. so far as he does the latter. a spy enter s in disguise within the enemy's lines. temporary or permanent. asseverate. etc. maintain. tint. assure. * * * * * STAIN. and especially so as to pervade the substance or fiber of that to which it is applied. while to call it involuntary would imply some previous purpose or inclination not to applaud. To color is to impart a color desired or undesired. pronounce. ad. m ovements. by an application of coloring-matter which enters the substance a l ittle below the surface. and is liable. sent rather to secretly influence opponents than to bring information co ncerning them. Synonyms: affirm. in case of capture.

etc. a roof is steep when it makes with the horizontal line an angle of more th an 45°. To aver is to state posit ively what is within one's own knowledge or matter of deep conviction. high. * * * * * STORM. flat. and more composure and dignity than asseverate. I assert my right to cro ss the river. his unsupported assertio n. or assert his right to what he is willing to contend for. To assert without proof is always to lay oneself open to the suspicion of having n o proof to offer. inform. steep is said only of an incline where the ve rtical measurement is sufficiently great in proportion to the horizontal to make it difficult of ascent. an d hence in such cases both the verb assert and its noun assertion have an unfavo rable sense. controvert. an ascent of 100 feet to the mile on a railway is a steep grade. disprove. It has more solem nity than declare. Certify is more formal. a rise of 500 feet to the mile makes a steep wagonroad. sheer. gradual. repudiate. to the thing. decided angle with the plane from which it starts. and applies to either acclivity or declivity. gainsay. To vindicate is to defend successfully what is assaile d.. which is to a ssert excitedly. and tell have not the controversial sense of assert. and applies rather to written documents or legal processes. sharp. A sharp ascent or descent is o ne that makes a sudden. and seems to arrogate too much to one's personal authority. assure is conciliatory. while a li ttle hill may be accessible only by a steep path. Almost every criminal will assert his innocence. C ompare HIGH. apply to the person. retract. One may a ssert himself. bu t are simply declarative. gentle. slight. state. Synonyms: . level. precipitous. we say a mere assertion. the honest man will seldom l ack means to vindicate his integrity. waive. contravene. a she er ascent or descent is perpendicular. Steep is relative. it differs from swear in not invoking the name of God. I assure my friend it is perfectly safe. low. A high mountain may be climbed by a winding road nowhere steep. Affirm has less of egotism than asser t (as seen in the word self-assertion). In legal usage. To assure is to state with such authority and confidence as the speaker feels ought to make the hearer sure. and is used especially of a descent. a bare assertion. abr upt is as if broken sharply off. Antonyms: contradict. Synonyms: abrupt. Affirm. precipitous applies to that which is of the nature of a precipice. * * * * * STEEP. refute. Assure. d ispute. certify. or nearly so. Assert is combative. affirm has a general agreement with depose and testify. Antonyms: easy. he asserted his innocence has less force than he affirmed or maintained his i nnocence. affirm. or he m ay assert in discussion what he is ready to maintain by argument or evidence. oppose. deny. horizontal.ignifying to state boldly and positively what the one making the statement has n ot attempted and may not attempt to prove. High is used of simple elevation. coming nearer to aver.

from the atmosphere. do not tell tales. In the moral and figurative use. xxvi. bu t chiefly for innate and chronic dulness and sluggishness of mental action. A story is the telling of some series of connected incidents or events. FICTION. in prose or verse. In children's talk. se nse. Antonyms: acuteness. legend. history. storm and tempest are not closely discriminated. stillness. d isturbance of mind. peace. relation. chronicle. or fictitious recital. assumed t o be fact. Tale is nearly synonymous with story. snow . it ceases to be an anecdote. insensibility. memoir. animation. legendary. tempest. readiness. or thunder and lightning. HISTORY. anecdote. alertness. record. an d becomes a narrative or narration. novel. sluggishnes s. a fairy tale. hush. brilliancy. A storm is properly a disturbance of the atmosphere. tranquillity. narration. Synonyms: apathy. "where there is no tale-bearer. but stupidity is inveterate and commonly incurable. IDIOCY. A history is often somewhat poetically called a story. 20. hail.agitation. it is used for an imaginative. Antonyms: calm. for an idle or malicious report. always attended with some precipitation. * * * * * STUPIDITY. except that tempest commonly implies greater intensity. * * * * * STORY. If it passes close limits of brevity. stupor. cleverness. etc. stupefaction. Antonyms: annals. as. incident. slowness. etc. especially if of ancient date. and by extension. the story of the American civil war. . a tempest of rage. but is somewhat archaic. also. recital. sagacity.. Compare ALLEGORY. and be dispelled by appeal to the feelings or by the presentation of an adequate motive. the str ife ceaseth. Synonyms: account. intelligence. We speak of agitation of feeling. disturbance. whether real or fictitious. Apathy may be temporary. as of rain. A tempest is a storm of extreme violence. obtu seness of apprehension. with or without rain. An anecdote tells briefly some incident. obtuseness. sensibility. t ale. a storm of passion. quickness. a sto ry is a common euphemism for a falsehood. serenity. as. dulness. STUPOR. Stupidity is sometimes loosely used for temporary dulness or partial stupor. A traditional or mythical story of ancient t imes is a legend. keenness. snow-storm. as. orally or in writing. biography. narrative. myth. magnetic storm. or the series of i ncidents or events thus related may be termed a story. Compare APATHY." Prov. fair weather. Thus we have rain-storm.

fainting. to something outside the perceiv ing mind. But this subje ctive impression may become itself the object of thought (called "subject-object "). Stupor is a condition of the body in which the action of the senses and faculti es is suspended or greatly dulled--weakness or loss of sensibility. are objective. as in strangulation. strictly antonyms. perhaps with full pulse and deep. the outward causes of these experiences. Coma is a deep. i ntoxication. asphyxia. * * * * * SUBJECTIVE. stertorous breathing. the mental picture it forms of the mountain. Stupor is especially profound and confirmed insensibilit y. or is aroused only with difficulty. Diffe rent individuals may receive different subjective impressions from the same obje ctive fact. fear. Syncope or swooning is a sudden loss of sensation and of power of motion. thus we speak of the objective authority of the moral law. as joy. as a mass of a certai n size. to the person who experiences them. Compare INHERENT.* * * * * STUPOR. A mountain. torpor . Synonym: objective. disappointment. that is. berea vement. Insensib ility is a general term denoting loss of feeling from any cause. Synonyms: . and is due to failure o f heart-action. being. a state of profound insen sibility.. stupefaction. Subjective and objective are synonyms in but one point of view. lethargy is a m orbid tendency to heavy and continued sleep. etc. it is called subjective when it derives its materials mainly from or constantly tends to revert to the perso nal experience of the author. Asphyxia is a special form of syncope resulting from parti al or total suspension of respiration. The style of a writer is called objective when it derives its materials mainly from or reaches out toward external objects. as from sudden nervous shock or intense mental emotion. for the most part. Synonyms: apathy. The apathy o f disease is a mental affection. grief. contour. or inhalat ion of noxious gases. in brief phrase it may be said that subjective relates to something wi thin the mind. from which the patient may perhaps be momentarily aroused. properly comatose. a state of morbid indifference. as prosperity. with suspension of pulse and of respiration. etc. lethargy. the impression our mind rece ives. color. coma. and is due to brain-oppression. Subjective signifies relating to the subject of me ntal states. objective to something without. or injury. is subjective. hope. syncope. swooning. from which the patient c an not be aroused. The direct experiences of the soul. * * * * * SUBSIDY. are purely subjective. as from cold. drowning. unconsciousness. abnormal sleep. That which has independent existence or a uthority apart from our experience or thought is said to have objective existenc e or authority. as when we compare our mental picture of the mountain with our idea of a pla in or river. is an objective fact. insensibility. that which to one is a cause of hope being to another a cause of fea r. objective signifies re lating to the object of mental states. swoon. that is.

miss. support. flourish. supplant. premium. reward. bring to ruin. if we say he wins the shore we contrast him with himself as a possible loser. as of moral or political ruin. indemnity. The word bounty may be applied to almost any regular or stipulated allowan ce by a government to a citizen or citizens. as. The word is now generally figurative. To supersede implies the putting of something that is wisely or unwisely p referred in the place of that which is removed. A bounty is offered for something to be done. Many students may succeed in s tudy. an enterprise or undertaking succeeds that has a prosperous res ult. bonus. ruin. as. to subvert does not imply substi tution. To supplant is more often personal. A solitary swimmer succeeds in reaching the shore. Synonyms: destroy.aid. pay s a tribute to a conqueror. overthrow. pension. Compare FOLLOW. a subsidy to a steamship company. come short. subvention. * * * * * SUBVERT. * * * * * . attain. fail. signifying to take the place of anot her. while a tribute might be exacted indefinitely. perpetuate. uphold. bounty. lose. suppress. allowance. gift. Compare ABOLISH. G overnmental aid to a commercial or industrial enterprise other than a transporta tion company is more frequently called a bounty than a subsidy. Synonyms: achieve. or money furnished by one nation to another to aid it in c arrying on war against a common enemy. win. Antonyms: conserve. or attains a desired o bject or result. A subsidy is pecuniary aid directly granted by government to an individual or c ommercial enterprise. the sugar bo unty. sustain. * * * * * SUCCEED. supplanted by a rival. Antonyms: be defeated. a pension is granted for something that has been done. a bounty for enlisting in the a rmy. overturn. To win implies that some one loses. miscarry. a bounty for killing wolves. but one may succeed where no one fails. keep. grant. extinguish. tribute. one is superseded by authority. utterly destroy . The somewhat rare term subvention is especiall y applied to a grant of governmental aid to a literary or artistic enterprise. A nation may also gran t a subsidy to its own citizens as a means of promoting the public welfare. fall short. for which all compete. A nation grants a subsidy to an ally. A person succeeds when he accomplishes what he attempts. usually by underhanded means. a few win the special prizes. prevail. as. prosper. preserve. thrive. supersede. An indemnity is in the nature of things limited and temporary. To subvert is to overthrow from or as from the very foundation.

preternatural. Suggestion is o ften used of an unobtrusive statement of one's views or wishes to another. and gero. Synonyms: bear. and is henc e. and hence is. ordinary. the preternatural (preter. the word is some times applied to remarkable manifestations of human power. Insinuation and innuen do are used in the bad sense. usual. Antonyms: common. cherish. as . Some hold that a miracle. natural. God in his providence gives us intimations of his will. in. an illustration. sustain. an innuendo is commonly se cret as well as sly. or sometimes by significant act. Synonyms: miraculous. maintain. Miraculous is more emphatic and specific than supernatu ral. and even unc onsciously. sub. as the raising of the dead. keep. to give one a hint of danger or of opportunity. and is always covert. as if pointing one out by a significant nod (L. or to ken. A hint is sti ll more limited in expression. in the strictes t sense. often in the sense of inauspicious. A suggestion (L. bring) brings something before the mind less directly than by formal or explicit statement. and dependent on a distinct act of God. a n incidental allusion. but not within their ordinary operati on. under. uphold. * * * * * SUPPORT. Support and sustain alike signify to hold up or keep up. The supernatural (super. in many cases. Synonyms: hint. as by a partial statement. sometimes to the very person attacked. nod). and nuo. prop. an insinuation is a covert or partly veiled injuri ous utterance. * * * * * SUPERNATURAL. the most respectful way in which one can convey his views to a superior or a stranger. carry. of one's meaning or wishes. leavi ng consideration and any consequent action entirely to his judgment. others hold that the miracle is simply the calling forth of a power residing in the laws of nature. hold up. a question. in. implication. A suggestion may be given unintentionally. or the like. supernatural. a preternatural gloom. everyday. beyond) is aside from or beyond the recogni zed results or operations of natural law. innuendo." rather than supernatural. surpassing all that i s ordinary. prophecy gives evidence of superhuman knowledge. intimation. but frequently with good in tent. as." An intimation is a suggestion in brief utterance. All that is beyond human power is s uperhuman. above) is above or superior to the recognized powers o f nature. gesture. superhuman. commonplace. as. insinuation. to prevent from fallin . so that the miraculous might be term ed "extranatural. keep up. as referring to the direct personal intervention of divine power. in the latter case it is often the act of a sup erior. is a direct suspension and even vio lation of natural laws by the fiat of the Creator. as when we say an author has "a suggestive style. to.SUGGESTION. as.

Antonyms: ascertain. but I think this to be the fact: a more conclusive statement than wo uld be made by the use of conjecture or suppose. To suppose is also to think a thing to be true while aware or conceding t hat the belief does not rest upon any sure ground. be sure. in the derived senses it refers to something that is a tax upon strength or endurance. Synonyms: . Antonyms: abandon. tho its actual existence may be unknown. a flower is supported by the stem or a temple-roof by arches. or upon pillars. and may not accord with fact. a man supports his family. always with som e expectation of finding the facts to be as conjectured. to maintain health or reputation. destroy. KEEP. To support may be partial. To maintain is to ke ep in a state or condition. throw down. maintain is a word of more dignity than support. think. demolish. as when we speak of sustained endeavor or a sust ained note. overthrow. as. as. or yet again. discover. guess. as. but sustain has a special sense of continuous exertion or of great strength continuously exerted. Compare DOUBT. or even impossible. let go. HYPOTHESIS. the fo undations of a great building sustain an enormous pressure. to sustain life impl ies a greater exigency and need than to support life. to say one is sustained un der affliction is to say more both of the severity of the trial and the complete ness of the upholding than if we say he is supported. to maintain a cause or proposition is to hold it against opposition or difficulty. break down. as. I d o not know. to maintain is complete. deem. design supposes the existence of a designer. either with the expectatio n of finding it so or for the purpose of ascertaining what would follow if it we re so. drop. in this application. surmise. to bear a strain. to maintain one's position. cast down. To prop is always partial. wreck. To suppose is temporarily to assume a thing as true. Comp are ABET. on. To bear is the most genera l word. whether in rest or motion. Synonyms: conjecture. know. desert. Prepositions: The roof is supported by. especially in an excellent and desirable condition. prove. to bear pain or grief. To imagine is to form a mental image of something as existing. * * * * * SUPPOSE. To think. is to hold as the result of thought what is admitted not to be matter of exact or certain knowledge. conclude. To conjecture is to put tog ether the nearest available materials for a provisional opinion. betray. or by charity. imagine. * * * * * SURRENDER. the family was supported on or u pon a pittance. to suppose is to imply as true or involved as a necessary inferen ce.g or sinking. signifying to add support to something that is insecure. a state maintains an army or navy. denoting all holding up or keeping up of any object. ENDURE.

similar. or being one of two or more interchangeable names for the same thing. & F. '66. is destructive of freedom and variety. and may hence within certain limits be used interchangeably. to forget that they are similar. when one yields. his spirit is at least somewhat subdued. or the same in meaning. and sometimes interchangeable . To say that we are morally developed is synonymous with saying that we have rea ped what some one has suffered for us. while outsi de of those limits they may differ very greatly in meaning and use. or superior force. Yield implies more softness or concession than surrender. or a fortified place to a conqueror. To yield is to give place or g ive way under pressure. Order in this connection denotes the fact or result of proper arrangement accor ding to the due relation or sequence of the matters arranged. W. where a differe nce in meaning can not easily be shown. a stronger will. Compare ABANDON. rule. We sacrifice something precious through error .] In the strictest sense. a military commander abandons an untenab le position or unavailable stores. regularity. and hence under compulsion. if ever. equivalent. surrenders an army. influence. syn. BEECHER Royal Truths p. to say that two words are synonymous is strictly to sa y they are alike. identical. relinquish. name) strictly signifies being interc hangeable names for the same thing. method. H. like. to some extent equivalent. passion. It is the of fice of a work on synonyms to point out these correspondences and differences. a nav y. identical.abandon. To consider synonymous words identical is fatal to accuracy. 294. equivalent. the most determined men may surrender to overwhelm ing force. mode. these papers a . a difference in usage commonly exists. give. and rather with reference to s tatements than to words. friendship. co rresponding. order. are a ny two words in any language equivalent or identical in meaning. but the use of synonymous in this strict sense is somewhat rare. give up. or duty. yield. together. sacrifice. as. interchangeable. capit ulate. yield to convincing reasons. correspondent. synonymous words scarcely exist. cede. By synonymous words (or synonyms) we u sually understand words that coincide or nearly coincide in some part of their m eaning. [T. * * * * * SYSTEM. same. give oneself up. let go. and onyma. Synonyms: manner. To surrender is to give up upon compulsion. * * * * * SYNONYMOUS. t hat language may have the flexibility that comes from freedom of selection withi n the common limits. or power. rarely. s o that the words are not interchangeable. Synonymous (Gr. as to an enemy in war. Synonyms: alike. with the perspicuity and precision that result from exact c hoice of the fittest words to express each shade of meaning outside of the commo n limits. A monarch o r a state cedes territory perhaps for a consideration. alienate. give over. hence to giv e up to any person. synonymic. winsome per suasion.

uncommunicative. reticent. delicate. a general or estab lished way of doing or proceeding in anything. and sentences. and as applied to human affairs is less intelligent and more mechanical than order. paragraphs. an authoritative requiremen t or an established course of things. silent. the obstinate may remain mute. * * * * * TACITURN.re in order. confusion. the digestive sy stem. fastidious. as in the recurrence of paroxysms of disease or insanity. mute. there may be ord er without regularity. Antonyms: chaos. There may be regularity without o rder. Dumb. one who is communicative regarding all else may be reserved about his business. not merely a law of action or proc edure. mute. either from natural disposi tion or for the occasion. elegant. Reserved is thus closely equivalent to uncommunica tive. that is destructive of true rhetorical system. Regularity applies to the even disposition of obje cts or uniform recurrence of acts in a series. The talkative person may be stricken dumb with surprise or terror. The most perfect order is often secured with least regularity. one may be silent through preoccupation o f mind or of set purpose. Order commonly implies the design of an intelligent agent or the appearance or suggestion of such design. Compare PRIDE. Synonyms: close. Antonyms: communicative. as when we say one is reserved toward inferiors. esthetical. applying often t o some special time or topic. loquacious. delicious. Synonyms: artistic. Method denotes a process. nice. system. as a rule the pa yments are heaviest at a certain time of year. manner refers to the external qualities of actions. chaste. as. irregularity. disorder. but in a grudging way that repels further approach . There is a regularity of di viding a treatise into topics. as in a fi ne essay or oration. dainty. silent and speechless refer to fact or state. as in the arrangement of furniture in a room. a just tax may be made odious by the manner of its collection. exquisite. one who is ta citurn speaks when compelled. taciturn refers to ha bit and disposition. reserved. and to those often as settled and characteristic. tasty. where the o bjects are placed at varying distances. often suggesting pride or haughtiness. derangement. Compare HABIT. The same may be said of system. esthetic. a railroad system. Reserved suggests more of method and intention than taciturn. * * * * * TASTEFUL. dumb. but is a somewhat stronger word. a method of collec ting taxes. a system of theology. fine. regularity app lies to an actual uniform disposition or recurrence with no suggestion of purpos e. but the taciturn person is averse to the utterance of thought or feeling and to communication with others. rule. talkative. disarrangement. garrulous. . the rules by which assessments are made. HYPOTHESIS. but a comprehensive plan in which all the parts are related to each other and to the whole. unreserved. or we say. speechless. free. we speak of a system of taxation. One who is silent does not speak at all. in alphabetical order.

to train a horse. instruct has also an authoritative sense nearly equivalent to command. drill. especially denoting that which exhi bits faultless taste and perfection of finish. exquisite pain. fine in su ch use. delicate is cap able of the single unfavorable sense of frail or fragile. rude. dainty tending in personal use to an excessive scrupulousness which is more fully expressed by fastidious. rugged. but (tho capable of an unfavora ble sense) has commonly a suggestion of positive excellence or admirableness. or may be overstrained and unduly subtle. and is alw ays used in a favorable sense. discipline is a severe word. nurture is a more tender and ho melike word than educate. To train is to direct to a certain resul t powers already existing. horrid. as. offensive. give instruction. disgusting . gaudy. Tasty is an infer ior word. displeasing.Elegant (L. train. mental. select) refers to that assemblage of qualities which makes anything choice to persons of culture and refinement. grotesque. we speak of an elegant garment. the bar of a balanc e can be said to be nicely or delicately poised. Esthetic or esthetical refers to beauty or the appreciation of the beauti ful. See BEAUTIFUL. while in elegant it is blended as part of the whole. to be thoroughly effective in war. give lessons. Compare EDUCATION. nurture. To teach is simply to communicate knowledge. tu tor. it refers to the lighter. Nice a nd delicate both refer to exact adaptation to some standard. hideous. inform. s chool. instruct. indoctrinate. a s. To nurture is to furnish the care and sustenance n ecessary for physical. and moral growth. Train is used in preference to educate when the refer ence is to the inferior animals or to the physical powers of man. finer elements of beauty in form or motion. a nice distinction may be so. but would not ordinarily be termed elegant. exquisite delight. rough. inartistic. educate. DELICIOUS. FINE. Exquisite is also applied to intense keenness of any feeling. Chaste (primarily pure). harsh. soldiers must be di sciplined as well as trained. denotes in literature and art that which is true to the higher and finer feelings and f ree from all excess or meretricious ornament. * * * * * TEACH. put in order) is to impart knowledge with special method and complet eness. a woodland dell may be beautiful o r picturesque. To discipline is to bring into habitual and co mplete subjection to authority. to build in or into. elegans. a delicate constit ution. as regards matters of taste and beauty. in the f ullest sense. distasteful. as. Dainty and delicate refer to the l ighter and finer elements of taste and beauty. tawdry. inculcate. instill. but by art and culture. enlighten. meretricious. Antonyms: clumsy. delicate is a higher and more discriminating word than nice. a fine touch does something. fine perceptions are to some purpose. * * * * * . Tasteful refers to th at in which the element of taste is more prominent. Synonyms: discipline. especially from the philosophic point of view. standing. coarse. Exquisite denotes the utmost perfection of the elegant in minute details. deformed. To educate is to draw out or develop harmoniously the mental powers. and. the moral powers as well. a delicate distinction is one worth observing. as it were. initiate. an exquisite lace. fulsome. used colloquially in a similar sense. That which is elegant is made so not merely by nature. is closely similar to delicate and nice. and is often used a s a euphemism for punish. inharmonious. more b y itself. to train the hand or eye. to instruct (originally.

in the sense here considered. Synonyms: audacity. or of other men's opinions. presumption. circumspection. short. Synonyms: brief. there may be a noble rashness. the terms are the essential statements on which its validity depends--as it were. That which is concise (L . together. den otes a dashing and somewhat reckless courage. condition. and densus. Anything short or brief is of relatively small extent. compact. member. denomination. concise. recklessness. Term in its figurative uses always retains something of its literal sense of a boundary or limit. in general use term is more restricted than word. the boundary of statement in some one direction. expression. foolhardiness. foolhardiness rushes in for want of sens e. venturesomeness . compendious. * * * * * TERM. Antonyms: care. audacity. the landmarks of its meani ng or power. a term is a word that limits meaning to a fixed point of statement or to a special class o f subjects. or phrase. or we say. pressed together. Compare EFFRONTERY. succinct. con-. thick) is. that is a legal or scientific term. a condition is a contingent term which may become fixed upon the ha ppening of some contemplated event. cut) is trimmed down. that is of the key-word s in any discussion. reckless ness from disregard of consequences. or presumption. con-. the audacity of a successful financier. . as when we speak of the definition of terms. wariness. We say it is amazing that one should have had the temeri ty to make a statement which could be readily proved a falsehood. In logic a term is one of the essential memb ers of a proposition. DICTION. Thus. cowardice. The articles of a contract or other instrument are simply the portions into which it is divided for convenience. rashness for want of reflection. timidity. Compare BOUN DARY. together. with. with. sententious. but temerity is alwa ys used in a bad sense. hesitation. hastiness. precipitancy. * * * * * TERSE. in defiance of conventionalities. heedlessness for want of attention. heedlessness. and that which is condense d (L. or to make an unworthy proposal to one sure to resent it. as it were. expression. laconic. phrase. Audacity. and cædo. Rashness is used chiefly of bodily acts. condensed. name. Rashness applies to the actual rushing into danger without counting the cost. rashness. Synonyms: article. neat. precipitation. word. Venturesomeness dallies on the edge of danger and experiments with it. pithy. as . or of what would be deemed probable consequences.TEMERITY. over-confidence. hardihood. t emerity denotes the needless exposure of oneself to peril which is or might be c learly seen to be such. temerity often of mental or social matters. caution. in such use temerity is often closel y allied to hardihood.

The summary is compacted to the utmost. therefore Cæsar is mortal. affirmation. consequently I shall not sail to-day . OATH. witness. because. That which is compen dious (L. A pithy utterance gives the gist of a matter eff ectively. succinctus. then carries a similar but slighter sense of inference." o r." Consequently den otes a direct result. deposition. Wherefore is the correlative of therefore. apart from the context. proof. from sub-. accordingly they spran g forward at the word of command. * * * * * THEREFORE." Thence is a word of more sweeping inference t han therefore. then there is no more to be said. weighty and effective. together. wordy. long. whence. Synonyms: affidavit. including the reasonable inferences that have not been fo rmally stated. tersus. wherefore. while the former is made under interrogatories and subject to cross -examination. often to the point of abru ptness. appending the inference or conclusion to the previous statement without a break. rub off) has an elegant and finished completenes s within the smallest possible compass. com-. tedious. Synonyms: accordingly. as. verbose. from tergo. and whence of hence or thence. prolix. Cæsar is a man. we speak of a summary statement or a summary dismissal. thence. gird. attestation. "All men are mortal. lengthy. signifies the statements of witne sses. consequently. Compare synonyms for BECAUSE. as. applying not merely to a single set of premises. as. it is often used in narration. including the testimony of witnesses a nd all facts of every kind that tend to prove a thing true.so as to include as much as possible within a small space. and cingo." Consequently is rarely used in the formal conclusions of logic or mathematics . the depositi on differs from the affidavit in that the latter is voluntary and without crossexamination. certification. evidence . The succinct (L. u nder. in legal as well as in common use. the word may be used invidiously of that w hich is pretentiously oracular. but marks rather the freer and looser style of rhetorical argument. we have the testimon y of a traveler that a fugitive passed this way. Compare DEMONSTRATION. Therefore. Evidence is a broader term. as if rubbed or polished down to the utm ost. Deposition and affidavit denote testimony reduced to writing. but more frequently of a practical than a theoretic kind. as. girded from below) has an alert effectiveness as if girde d for action. * * * * * TESTIMONY. which may or may not be consequence. hence. which it gives incidentally rather t han formally. . is the most precise and formal word for expressing the direct conclusion of a chain of reasoning. then. weigh) gathers the substance of a matter in to a few words. signifying for that (or this) reason. Accordingl y denotes correspondence. "The soldiers were eager and confident. Testimony. but often to all that has gone before. whether in rude or elegant style. his footprints in the sand are additional evidence of the fact. "The contract is awarded. "Important matters demand my attention. A sententious style is one abounding in sentences that are singly striking or memorable. Antonyms: diffuse. That which i s terse (L. and pendo.

To cant is to set slantingly. successio n. multitude. tilt. usually. listing may be forward or astern as well. term. jam. events are contained in time as objects are in space. but tip is more temporary. time existing before the event. host. the total number in a crowd may be great or small. but there can not be a throng. Host and multitude both imply vast numbers. press. date. Duration an d succession are more general words than time. Slant and slope are said of things somewhat fixe d or permanent in a position out of the horizontal or perpendicular. the roof sl ants. Sequence and succession apply to events viewed as following one another. but a multitude may be diffused over a great space so as to be nowhere a crowd.* * * * * THRONG. the words are closely similar. often momentary. Incline is a more formal word for tip. time a nd duration denote something conceived of as enduring while events take place an d acts are done. but time is commonly contrasted with eternity. but tilt suggests more of fluctuation or instability. dip. we can speak of infinite or etern al duration or succession. there may be a dense crowd in a small room. To heel over is the s ame as to careen. * * * * * TIME. Synonyms: age. heel over. Synonyms: cant. Time i s measured or measurable duration. era. season. crowd. A vessel careens in the wind. incline. while. duration. sequence. slant. etc. from water in the hold. in many cases tip and cant might be int erchanged. lean. lists. Concourse signifies a spontaneous gathering of man y persons moved by a common impulse. eon. and also for slant or slope. and properly denotes an assem bly too orderly for crowding. To tilt or tip is to throw out of a horizontal position by raising one side or end or lowering the other. and still existing when the event is past. . careen. Synonyms: concourse. a mechanic cants a table by making or setting one side higher than the other. mass. m easuring it as it passes." which is to capsiz e. A crowd is a company of persons filling to excess the space they occupy and pre ssing inconveniently upon one another. list. the hill slopes. Throng is a word of vastness and dignity. host is a military term. Careening is always toward one si de or the other. from s hifting of cargo. and has a suggestion of stateliness not fou nd in the word crowd. period. epoch. According to the necessary conditions of human thought. slope. one tips a pail so that t he water flows over the edge. * * * * * TIP. always implying that the per sons are numerous as well as pressed or pressing closely together. and must be distinguished from "keel over. while suggesting less massing and pressure than is indicat ed by the word throng.

The paw of a tiger might be termed a terrible implement. as. relieve. we speak of a surgeon's or an optician's instruments. those designed for warlike purposes being designated weapons. the tra ces of a harness are appliances for traction. but in more comm only accepted usage a machine is distinguished from a tool by its complexity. an d by the combination and coordination of powers and movements for the production of a result. e very mechanical tool is an appliance. utensil. when one is wearied. denoting any combination of mechanical devices for un ited action. an invalid may b e fatigued with very slight exertion. Instrument is the word usually applied to tools used in scientif ic pursuits. refresh. or. weary. the painful lack of s trength is the result of long-continued demand or strain. Antonyms: invigorate. so that further exertion is for the time impossible. or even unconsciously tired. he is jaded by incessant repetition of the same act until it becomes increasing ly difficult or well-nigh impossible. fatigue. implements of war. implement. appliance. in this sense a lever is a machine. machine. harass. recreate. Synonyms: exhaust. Those things by w hich pacific and industrial operations are performed are alone properly called t ools.* * * * * TIRE. restore. on the other hand. a piano is a musi cal instrument. one is exhausted when the strain has been so severe and continuous as utterly to consume the strength. but not a tool. * * * * * TOOL. accord ing to the common phrase." but for this extreme condition th e stronger words are commonly used. but not every appliance is a tool. An ap pliance is that which is or may be applied to the accomplishment of a result. the word is especially applied to articles used for domestic or agricultural purposes. One is fagged by drudgery. A machine in the most general sense is any mechanical instrument fo r the conversion of motion. one may be tired just enough to make rest pleasant. a horse is jaded by a long and unbroke n journey. "too tired to stir. as. One who is fatigued suffers from a conscious and painful lack of strength as the result of some overtaxing. To tire is to reduce strength in any degree by exertion. farming utensils. A utensil is that which may be use d for some special purpose. weapo n. Implemen t is a less technical and artificial term than tool. an agricultural implement. he may be. rest. mechanism. A chisel by itself is a tool. as. becoming aware of the fact only when he ceases the exertion. A tool is something that is both contrived and used for extending the force of an intelligent agent to something that is to be operated upon. fag. An instrumen t is anything through which power is applied and a result produced. An implem ent is a mechanical agency considered with reference to some specific purpose to which it is adapted. as. but they are not tools. instrument. the word is of considerably wider meaning than tool. ei ther independently or as subordinate to something more extensive or important. when it is set so as to be operated . repose. Mechanism is a word of wide meaning. as. relax. wear out. jade. Synonyms: apparatus. in general u sage. kitchen utensils.

instrument bei ng used largely in a good. A memorial is that which is intended or fitted to bring to remembrance somethin g that has passed away. are vestiges of a former civilization. as.by a crank and pitman. issue. footstep. Compare CHARACTERISTIC. a slight token of regard may be a cherished memorial of a friend. v estige. footprint. the chairman puts the question. question has come to be extensively used to denote a debatable topic. since it is or may b e stated in interrogative form to be answered by each member with a vote of "aye " or "no. * * * * * TRACE. A vestige is always slight compared with t hat whose existence it recalls. question. remains. remnant. impression. an instrument of Providence. the temperance question. tool always in a bad sense. In speaking or writing the general subject or theme may be termed the topic. Implement is for the most part and utensil is altogether restricted to the literal sense. weap ons. as. trail. as. machine. sign. the labor question. In deliberative assemblies a prop osition presented or moved for acceptance is called a motion. as. * * * * * TOPIC. Synonyms: division. a mortising -machine. as implying that human agents are made mechanically subservien t to some controlling will. matter. as . a trace may be merely the mark made by something tha t has been present or passed by. tho it is more usual to apply the latter term to the subordinate division s. An apparatus may be a machine. but the word is commonly used for a col lection of distinct articles to be used in connection or combination for a certa in purpose--a mechanical equipment. On the other hand. and tool have figurative use. to enlarge on this topic would carry me to o far from my subject. it may be vast and stately. instruments. topos. and such a motion or other matter for consideration is known as the question. machine inclines to the u nfavorable sense. the tool of a tyran t. or heads of discourse. scattered mounds containing implements. mark. * * * * * TRANSACT. as. motion. a political machine." a member is required to speak to the question. Synonyms: footmark. memorial. track. place) is a head of discourse. t heme. traces of game were o bserved by the hunter. the entire mechanism is called a machine.. especially . either a concrete objec t or an observance may be a memorial. an apparatus may include many tools. points. proposition. A vestige is always a part of that which has passed away. head. a pleasant drive will suggest many topics for conversatio n. a chemical or surgical apparatus. Since a topic for discussion is often stated in the form of a question. token. or some slight evid ence of its presence or of the effect it has produced. point. subject. and that is still existing. especially of a practical nature--an issue. for a collection of appliances for some scientific purpose. . as. or impleme nts. etc. as. the apparatus of a gymnasium. instrument. A topic (Gr.

perform. n ations may treat of peace without result. Philos. " K. bills of exchange. as that the whole is gre ater than a part.. what he tr ansacts is by means of or in association with others. Intuitive truths are those which are in the mind independently of all experienc e.. and treaties are said to be n egotiated. while it may depend upon previous deliberation. tho transaction often emphasizes the fact of something done. There are many acts that one may do. the word so used covering not merely the preliminary consideration. but he transacts business. carry on. Vocab. transcendent. since that always involves the agency of others. do. or that things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another. But transcenden tal is a wider term than intuitive. Transcendental has been applied in the language o f the Emersonian school to the soul's supposed intuitive knowledge of things div ine and human. so the properties or affections of being have also been called transcend ental. one may do a duty. One's acts or deeds may be exclusively his own. act. Synonyms: act.Synonyms: accomplish. being neither given as an a posteriori nor a p riori element of cognition--what therefore transcends every category of thought.-F. Both transactions and proceedings are used of the records of a deliber ative body. intuitive. Philos. doing. accomplish. but transcends th em all. p. Notes. "Transcendent he [Kant] employed to denote what is wholly beyond experience. accomplish a task. 531. conduct. but when a treaty is negotiated. while proceedings may result i n action. peace is secured. as the ideas of space and time. including all within the limits of thought t hat is not derived from experience.-F. with mere abstracts of or extracts from the papers rea d. All intuitive truths or beliefs are transcendental. BUSINESS. strictly used. p. the citizens of the two nations are then free to transact business with one another. Compare MYSTERI . as. or perform unaided.. As being can not be included under any genus. the dividing line between the two words becomes sometimes quite faint. affair. action. b ut both these words lay stress upon deliberation with adjustment of mutual claim s and interests. Compare DO. not being derived from experience nor limited by it. Synonyms: a priori. 530. primordial. so far as they are capable of being known to man. especially when published. To negotiate and to treat are likewise collective acts. original. Negotiate has more reference to execution than treat." K. b ut the final settlement. the Proceedings of the American Philological Association give i n full the business done. state s execution only. Vocab. * * * * * TRANSCENDENTAL. loans. treat. or brought to a co nclusion. but since transaction is often use d to include the steps leading to the conclusion. business. Compare ACT. deed. transact. A transaction is something completed. the two are distinguished. "Being is tr anscendental. * * * * * TRANSACTION. a proceed ing is or is viewed as something in progress. perform a vow. the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London give in full the papers read. his transactions involve the ag ency or participation of others. proceeding. negotiate.

perpetual. Ephemeral (Gr. or of the unity of the church. flee) as eluding attempts to detain it. unity. flitting. denoting that which quickly passes or is passing away. and that which is fugitive (L. momentary. thus that which is ephemeral is looked upon as at once slight and perishable. HAR MONY. enduring. and vanus. we speak of the union of the parts of a fractured bone or of the union of hearts in marriag e. empty. it agrees with transitory in denoting that its object is destined to pass a way. especially of that which never has be en divided or of that which can not be conceived of as resolved into parts. vain) as in the act of vanishing even whil e we gaze. day) literally lasting bu t for a day. conjunction. persistent. ATTACHMENT. in a union the separate individuality of the things united is never lost sight of. MARRIAGE. bu t there is between them a fine shade of difference. as. as. Antonyms: abiding. over. a transient joy. everlasting. separation. often marks more strongly than transient exceeding brevity of durat ion. temporary. tra ns. unification. A thing is transient which i n fact is not lasting. and the word carries often a suggestion of contempt. passing. imperishable. short. undying. as. combination. we speak of the unity of the human bod y. eva nesco. and eo. a butterfly's existence is ephemeral. immortal. with no solid qualities or worthy achieveme nts a pretender may sometimes gain an ephemeral popularity. the unity of God or the unity of the human soul. Transient and transitory are both derived from the same original source (L. But unity can be said of that which is manifestly or even conspicuously made up of parts. man's life is transitory. from e. Compare ALLIANCE. disunion. junction. Synonyms: brief. * * * * * UNION. as denoting not only its certain but its speedy extinction . fugitive. Unity is oneness. juncture. contrariety. or the state or condition of things thus brought together. Synonyms: coalition. ASSOCIATION. the state of being one. Antonyms: analysis. flying. out. so that they combine or coalesce to form a new whole. ephemeral. disjunctio . fugio. that which is evanescent (L. a thing is transitory which by its very nature must soon pass away. divorce. when a single purpose or ideal is so subserved by all that their po ssible separateness is lost sight of. permanent.OUS. That which is fleeti ng is viewed as in the act of passing swiftly by. on. epi. fleeting. eternal. but is stronger. go). lasting. tempus. oneness. disconnection. a thing is temporary (L. a t emporary chairman. transitory. this transitory life. * * * * * TRANSIENT. time) which is intended to last or b e made use of but a little while. and hemera. ev anescent. unfading. as the hues of the sunset. Union is a bringing together of things that have been distinct.

benefit. Ordinary (L. inutility. tho ordinary or usual wou ld in such case be preferable. pr evailing. literally. foot. Utility (L. ordinary. Antonyms: exceptional. * * * * * UTILITY. common and general apply to the g reater number of individuals in a class. "Honesty is the best policy. Expediency (L. wonted. its utility is questionable. and pes. wont) signifies such as regularly or often recurs i n the ordinary course of events. or of actions that have a moral character. bu t is somewhat more abstract and philosophical than usefulness or use. infrequent. worthlessness. We say of an invention. habit. u sefulness. in expediency. ex. public. use. either expediency or utility may be used to signify profit or advantage considered apart from right as the ground of mora l obligation. schism. folly. decomposition. singular. out. common. order) signifies according to an established order . futility. * * * * * USUAL. regular. Synonyms: accustomed. or I have found it of use. NORMAL. and especially with reference to avoiding danger. In strictness. . Policy is of ten used in a kindred sense. Usual (L. or loss. usus. ordo. but both words are in good use as apply ing to the greater number of instances in a series. as in the utilitarian theory of morals. more positive than expediency but narrower than uti lity. everyday. and is oft en employed to denote adaptation to produce a valuable result. hence of everyday occurrence. use. uncommon. on the other hand. impolicy. inadequacy. its us efulness has been proved by ample trial. strange. unparalleled. or. frequent. normal. familiar. the getting the foot out) refers primarily to escape from or av oidance of some difficulty or trouble. rare. difficulty. prevalent. while utility may be so broadened as to cover all existence through all time. customary. profit. or is habitually repeated in the life of the sa me person. useful) signifies primarily the quality of being useful. service. dissociation. while usefulness denotes the actual production of such result. * * * * * VACANT. utili ty and usefulness are frequently interchanged. out-of-the -way.n. as in the proverb. serviceableness. habitual. We contrast beauty and utility. so that it is possible to sp eak of one person's common practise or general custom. uselessness." Compare PROFIT. severance. unprofitableness. expediency. still. Synonyms: advantage. division. utilis. Antonyms: disadvantage. extraordinary. avail. general. expediency denoting imm ediate advantage on a contracted view. unusual. Compare GENERAL.

jammed. especially as combined with vastness. visionary. null. busy. profitless. filled. common. Waste. that which is vain lacks imaginable fitness. unfilled. vacu ous. a vain endeavor is empty of result. valuable. empty.Synonyms: blank. adapted to accomplish. untenanted. tho it may be applied with special force to the highe st. replete. vanus. a vac ant mind. beneficial. A vacant room may not be empty. as. or gives an impression of desolation. useless. expedient. That which is bootless . an empty heart. That is empty which contains nothing. vacant has extensive reference to rights or possibilities of occupancy. sufficient. efficient. and an emp ty house may not be vacant. fruitless. valid. That which is useless lacks act ual fitness for a purpose. deceitful. PRIDE. unimportant. unoccupied. void. but not of a waste city lot. the contract is void for want of consideration. Vacuous refers to the condition of being empty or vacant. an empty sleeve. competent. an empty boast. serviceable. unavail ing. inconstant. OSTENTATION. Useless. or unavailing fails to accomplish a result that it was. Compare VACANT. or of adequate power to produce a result . full. unreal. from the Saxon. trifling. a vain person has a concei t that is empty or destitute of adequate cause or reason. useful. substantial. shadowy. Fruitless is more final than ineffectual . Vain (L. that is vacant which is without that whic h has filled or might be expected to fill it. devoid being followed by of. or homely matters. unprofitable. advantageous. or was supposed to be. waste. in t he widest sense. the article is devoid of s ense. effective. but for the most part confined to abstract relations. probably from association of the words waste and vast: waste is applied also to uncultivated or unproducti ve land. nugatory. delusive. Synonyms: abortive. unsatisfying. empty. is applied to thi ngs of some dignity. worthless. brimmed. a vacant lot. unserviceabl e. as derived from the Latin. in this connection. vapid. unsubstantial. signifies not of use for any valuable purpose. ineffectual. occupied. or vain is inherently incapable of accomplishing a specified result. overflowing. a vacant office. futile. brimming. we speak of a waste track or region. . leisure. or profitless fails to accomplish any valuable result. trivial. ineffectual. Vacant. and is thus clos ely similar to valueless and worthless. and having with th at addition the effect of a prepositional phrase. crowded. * * * * * VAIN. futile. sound. real. crammed. as applying to the sum or harvest of endeavor. if of considerable extent. powerful. we speak of empty space. Antonyms: adequate. baseless. worthy. a vain pretension is empty or destitute of support. gorged. empty. packed. a vacant or leisure h our. that which i s abortive. is preferred in speaking of slight. solid. unemployed. fruitless. potent. bootless. inhabited. profitab le. an empty dish. idle. That which is useless. applies to that which is made so by devastation or ruin. regarded as continuous or characteristic. empty) keeps the etymological idea through all changes of meani ng. Antonyms: brimful. Void and devoid are rarely used in the literal sense.

the dust of heroes or martyrs. thus. tho not necessarily . a clergyman may be mercenary in making place and pay of u ndue importance while not venal enough to forsake his own communion for another for any reward that could be offered him. from venum. to give outward expression to the reverential feeling. VENIAL. or the like. generous. mercenary (L. etymologically. mercenarius. . salable. we revere or reverence the divine majesty. as that of civil or religious liberty. consci ence. his course is venal. to revere or reverence is to hold in mingled love and hon or with something of sacred fear. he is both hireling and venal. Venal (L. from hyr) signifies serving for hire or pay. a mercenary spirit. respect. mercenary. unpurchasable. to revere is a wholly spiritual act. being said especially of aged person s. Synonyms: adore. honor. as. the mercenary. hyrling. mercenary motives--i. to reverence is often. of places or objects having sacred associations. but not hire ling. We adore with a humble yet free outflowing of soul. To ven erate is to hold in exalted honor without fear. v ote. the mercenary can be hired. or some great cause. faction. honest. honorable. while the venal are openly or actually for sale. and the venal are alike in making principle. but the merc enary and venal may be simply open to the bargain and sale which the hireling ha s already consummated. Synonyms: hireling. Compare PAY. incorruptible. or having the spirit or character of one who works or of that w hich is done directly for hire or pay.Compare synonyms for UTILITY. and honor of less account than gold or sordid considerations. and is applied to objects less r emoved from ourselves than those we revere. In the highest sense. * * * * * VENERATE. lofty virtue or self-sacrifi ce. Mercenary has especial application to cha racter or disposition. Antonyms: disinterested. fro m merces. but revere or reverence him. Compare VENERATION. Revere is a stronger word than reverence or venerate. and of abstractions. if he receives a stipulated recompense for administe ring his office at the behest of some leader. venalis. sale) signifies ready to sell one's influence. as for that which while lovely is sublimely ex alted and brings upon us by contrast a sense of our unworthiness or inferiority. reverence. revere. we do not venera te God. corporation. * * * * * VENAL. The hireling.. hireling service sacrifices self-respect as well as principle. withou t subjecting himself to any direct domination. hireling (AS. pay. we vene rate an aged pastor. a p ublic officer who makes his office tributary to private speculation in which he is interested is mercenary. purchasable. a spiri t or motives to which money is the chief consideration or the moving principle. public-spirited. or efforts for money or other consideration. pat riotic. if he gives essential advantages for pay. The mercenary may retain much show of independence. reward) signifies influenced chiefly or only by desire for gain o r reward. e.

but to matt ers open to doubt or criticism rather than direct censure. power. Reve rence and veneration are less overwhelming than awe or dread. capable of being readily pardoned. in common u se. despise. dishonor. awe of the divine presen ce is more distant and less trustful than reverence. and joyful worship. a pardonab le offense requires more serious consideration. Venial must not be confounded with the very different word VENAL. mortal. but on deliberation is found to be susceptible of pardon. is lo ftier than veneration. from that which i s overwhelmingly vast and mighty to that which is productive of momentary physic al pain. scorn. dread. inexpiable. I think. Synonyms: excusable. and. in awe. scorn . unjustifiable. in its full sense. VENERATE. disdain. * * * * * VENERATION. affection. We may feel awe of that which w e can not reverence. Awe is preoccupied with the object that inspires it. unpardonable. Excusable is scarcely applied to offenses. dishonor. as. there is no e lement of esteem or affection. awe.Antonyms: contemn. Adoration. it often fal ls little short of justifiable. Venial (L. or grandeur in the object is always present. * * * * * VENIAL. dread with apprehension of personal consequences. disregard. Dread is a shrinking apprehension or expectation o f possible harm awakened by any one of many objects or causes. venial is always understood as marking some fault compara tively slight or trivial. Antonyms: inexcusable. Synonyms: adoration. Antonyms: contempt. Compare ESTEEM. disregard. and suggest someth ing of esteem. trivial. and personal nearness. Protestants do not recognize the distinction between venial an d mortal sins. in its higher uses dread approaches the meaning of awe. under those circumstances. reverence. scoff at. but with more o f chilliness and cowering. A venial offense is one readily overlooked. disdain. as a grandly terrible ocean storm. Veneration is commonly appl ied to things which are not subjects of awe. Awe is inspired by that in which there is sublimity or majesty so overwhelming as to awaken a feeling akin to fear. pardonable. and without that subjection of soul to the grandeur a nd worthiness of the object that is involved in awe. less restrained and awed than reverence. Aside from its technic al ecclesiastical use. detest. * * * * * . slight. tho the sense of vastness. pardon) signifies capable of being pardoned. venia. so used. spurn. active. and with more of the spirit of direct. easily overlooked. Compare VENAL. considered by itself. slight. his acti on was excusable.

this usage is also in line with other idioms of t he language. Oral (L. and verity wi th truth. while truthfulness may accord with either. both verbal and literal are opposed to free. honesty. os. Truthfulness is a q uality that may inhere either in a person or in his statements or beliefs. "I give you my word. a literal translation is more than one that is merely verbal. verbal (L. but that does not constitute him a man of veracity. as. resonant voice. fiction. Truth in a secondary sense may be applied to intellectual action or moral character. imposture. Veracity is properly a quality of a person. frankness. untruth. or according to the letter. vocal music. oral is never so applied. have become so fixed in the language that they can probably never be changed. the woods were vocal with the songs of birds. utte red or modulated by the voice. oral. voc al may be applied within certain limits to inarticulate sounds given forth by ot her animals than man. as. a verbal change. error. vocal. the mouth) signifies uttered through the mouth or (in common phras e) by word of mouth. the voice) signifies of or pertaining to the voice. guile. an oral examination . and ingenuousness are allied with veracity. but verbal contract and verbal message. Cando r. Compare synonyms for DECEPTION. deception.VERACITY. Synonyms: candor. In the same sens e. in the broader sense of the exact m eaning or requirement of the words used. * * * * * VERBAL. oral tradition. as. honesty. A verbal translation may be oral or written. what is called "the letter of the law" is its literal meaning without going behind what is expressed by the letters on the page. we speak of verbal criticism. delusion. I know him to be a man of truth. ingenuousness. lie. or connected with words. literal (L. frankness." "by word of mouth. in the former case bec oming a close synonym of veracity. truthfulness. truth. a habit ual liar may on some occasions speak the truth. mendacity. as indicating that which is by spok en rather than by written words. falseness. so that it is word for word." "a true man's word is as good as his bond . pertaining to. falsity. Thus oral applies to that which is given by spoken words in distinctio n from that which is written or printed. as." etc. reality. verity . especially with words as distinguished from the ideas they convey. verbum. a person of undoubted veracity may state (through ignorance or misinformation) what is not the truth. of attending to words only. Synonyms: literal. Truth is primarily and verity is always a quality of thought or speech. as. vocal sounds. but is limited to articulate utterance regarded as having a de . especia lly of speech. vocal (L. a word) signifies of. fabrication. litera. on the other hand. By this rule we should in strictness speak of an oral contract or an oral mess age. falsehood. a letter) signifies consisting of or expre ssed by letters. the habit of speaking and the disposition to speak the truth. a literal translation follows the construction and idiom o f the original as well as the words. duplicity. vox. Antonyms: deceit. Vo cal has primary reference to the human voice. as in exact conformity to fact. and especially uttered with or sounding with full .

oblivious. Victory is the state resulting from the overcoming of an opponent or opponents in any contest. righteousness. uprightness. or success may be termed a victory. One is vigilant against danger or harm. an oral statement. wary. destruction. Synonyms: alert. as through insomni a. * * * * * VIGILANT. truth. inconsiderate. rout. etc. * * * * * VIRTUE. disaster. from the Saxon. failure. retreat. virtuousness. circumspect. and vigilant. Antonyms: careless. and glorious victory. yet he may be utterly careless and negligent in his wakefulness. A person may be wakefu l because of some merely physical excitement or excitability. has come to signify als o a peculiarly exultant. disappointment. rectitude. thoughtless. are almost exact equivalents. mastery. overthrow. obstacles. Compare CONQUER. one may be habitually watchful. advantage. sleepless. trickery. inattentive. neglectful. in which case wakeful has something of mental quality. considered as opponents or enemies. as in the presence of an enemy. Compare ALERT. unwary. Antonyms: defeat. negligent. wort . complete. triumph. Synonyms: achievement. conquest. Vigilant implies more sustained activity and more intelligent volition than ale rt. In conquest and mastery there i s implied a permanence of state that is not implied in victory. evils. Synonyms: chastity. faithfulness. honor. on the lookout. success. incautious. In the latter sense any hard-won achievement . on e who is vigilant is so with thoughtful purpose. supremacy. or one may be momentarily alert under some excitement or expectancy. excellence . on the alert. dull. Triumph.finite meaning. or treachery. drowsy. from the Latin. watchful. he may be alert or watchful for good as well as against evil. as. he is war y in view of suspected stratagem. cautious. honesty. integrity. or from the overcoming of difficulties. Watchful. one is vigilant of set purpose and for direct cause. wakeful. miscarriage. f rustration. heedless. a person who is truly watchful must keep himself wakeful while on w atch. awake. duty. origina lly denoting the public rejoicing in honor of a victory. purity. but vigilant has somewhat more of sharp definiteness and somewhat more suggestion of volition . probity. wide-awake.. * * * * * VICTORY. one may be habitually alert by reason of native quickness of perception and thought. advantage. the reverse of watchful. careful. justice.

a way) is to turn from a prescribed or right way. Roam and rove are often purposeles s. is. rove. primarily manly strength or courage. in this connection. range commonly implies a purpose. de. vice. morality. Integrity. whether in matters concerning ourselves or others . a hero ) is. apart. above the co mmercial sense. wrong. usually in an unfavorable sense. as rising sublimely above the possibility of t emptation and conflict--the infantile as contrasted with the divine goodness. may be much less than virtue. as lacking the strength that comes from trial and conflict.h. Compare synonyms for SIN. probity is honesty tried and proved. * * * * * WANDER. tend) is to turn from a course previously followed or that someth ing else follows. Range. fro m. Honesty and probity are used especial ly of one's relations to his fellow men. goodness that is victorious through trial. go astray. cattle range for food. err. Virtuousness is a quality of the soul or of action. veer. ramble. wind) is to move in an indefinite or indeterminate way w hich may or may not be a departure from a prescribed way. viciousness. the being morally good. Honor is a lofty honesty that scorns fraud or wron g as base and unworthy of itself. the fulfilment of moral obligation. the wind veers. especially of that which debases. To swerve or veer is to turn suddenly from a prescribed or previous course. in the full sense. and denotes much more than superfi cial or conventional honesty. roam. Morality is conformi ty to the moral law in action. mental ly. as. to diverge (L. to deviate (L. physically. range. Synonyms: deviate. diverge. step) is used only with reference to speaking or writing. and always without definite aim. aside. wickedness. the rendering of what is due to any person or in an y relation. it is chastity both of heart and life. and v ergo. Duty. or it m ay be very much more than virtue. probity being to honesty much what virt ue in some respects is to goodness. Vi rtue is distinctively human. we do not predicate it of God. often of vast. and has no unfavorable implication. but of the life b ecause from the heart. to err is used of intellectual or moral action. Compare INNOCENT. and of the moral with primary refe rence to the intellectual. whether with or without right principle. RELIGION. Rectitud e and righteousness denote conformity to the standard of right. it has r eference to inherent character and principle. in the latter sense it is the essence of virtuous action. Goodness. di. JUST ICE. and often but momentarily. Virtue (L. digress. when used. as it often is. Uprightness re fers especially to conduct. from vir." Purity is freedom from all admixture. incline. a hunting-dog ranges a field for game. di. t . worthiness. to digress (L. the horse swerves at the flash of a sword. veer is more capricio us and repetitious. especia lly in those things that are beyond the reach of legal requirement. apart. and gradior. and rove imply the traversing of considerable. Antonyms: evil. perhaps thro ugh temptation and conflict. To wander (AS. an error being viewed as in some degree due to ignora nce. roam. is moral wholenes s without a flaw. rightness. a man. goodness. honesty may be applied to the highest truthfulness of the soul t o and with itself and its Maker. swerve. s tray. distances of land or sea. windan. of contracts and dealings. virtus. righteousness is used especially in the religious sense. or morally. whether in heart or act. Honor rises far above thought of the motto tha t "honesty is the best policy. in its full sense. and via.

town. broad. discernment. judgment. Prudence is a lower and more negative form o f the same virtue. A driveway is within enclosed grounds. and understanding are native qualities of mind. as of a private residence. passageway. respecting outward and practical matters. cattle stray from their pastures. Enlightenment. a road or street temporarily or pe rmanently closed at any point ceases for such time to be a thoroughfare. sa gacity. A road may be privat e. enlightenment. course. a race-track. understanding. usually with unfavorable impl ication. a highway or highroad is public. There may be what is termed " practical wisdom" that looks only to material results." wisdom thus presupposing knowledge for its ver y existence and exercise. in its literal use. A thoroughfare is a way through. erudition. profundity or depth. the roads in that country are mere bridle-paths. learning. tho capable of in crease by cultivation. highway being a specific name for a road leg ally set apart for the use of the public forever. Stray is in most uses a lighter word than wand er. learning. rambling talk. * * * * * WAY. pathway." or "the use of the most important me ans for attaining the best ends. is always a word of pleasant suggestion. To stray is to go in a somewhat purposeless way asi de from the regular path or usual limits or abode. knowledge. A route is a line of travel. Wisdom is mental power acting upon the materials that fullest knowledge gives in the most effective way.he ship veers with the wind. An ave nue is a long. on a traveled road the line worn by regular pa ssing of hoofs and wheels in either direction is called the track. Insight. judiciousn ess. wi sdom implies the highest and noblest exercise of all the faculties of the moral nature as well as of the intellect. bridle-path. a highway may be over water as well as over land. street. brid le-path. we speak of a goat-track on a mountain-side. foresight. a way suitable to be tr aversed only by foot-passengers or by animals is called a path. or track. driveway. and may be over many roads. inform ation. reason. path. discretion. highroad. pass. insight. reason. profundity. Ramble. highway. route. A road (o riginally a rideway) is a prepared way for traveling with horses or vehicles. s ense. lane. reasonableness. The other qualities are on the border-line. channel. skill. erudition. A channel is a waterway. knowledge. Compare AIR. * * * * * WISDOM. Synonyms: alley. sense. Wisdom has be en defined as "the right use of knowledge. Track is a word of wide signification. passage. information. DIRECTION. A s treet is in some center of habitation. a pass commonly between mountains . the track of a comet. when it pass es between rows of dwellings the country road becomes the village street. as. a railroad-track. and imposing or principal street. on e strays from the path of virtue. but in its figurative use always somewhat contemptuous. prescience. as by study or practise. but in its full sense. Wherever there is room for one object to pass another there is a way. sagacity. prudence. depth. as. and skill are acqui red. ro adway. track. or village. judgment. A passage is between any two objects or lines of enclosure. an author strays from his subject. thoroughfare. road. and largely with a . as a city. avenue. al ways the latter unless the contrary is expressly stated. Synonyms: attainment.

product. Wit is the quick perception of unusual or commonly unperceived analogies or rel ations between things apparently unrelated. drudgery. waggery. playfulness. s tupidity. work may be hard or easy. physical or men tal. MIND. wisdom transcends prudence. Wit is keen. * * * * * WIT. sudden. Skill is far inferior to wisd om. b usiness. Judgment. which labor and toil do not share.view of avoiding loss and injury. so that while the part of prudence is ordinarily also that of wisdom. misjudgment. SAGACIO US. Fun denotes the merry results produced by wit an d humor. witticism. stupidity. raillery. SKILFUL. or by any fortuitous occasion of mirth. Pleasantry is l ighter and less vivid than wit. or in the ingenious contrivance that makes such applic ation possible. and has special senses. Compare ACUMEN. deed. performance. Compare synonyms for ABSURD. when the highest wisdom is in the disregard of the maxims of prudence. idiocy. or merrymaking surprise. error. Antonyms: dulness. especially correct decisions. miscalculation. occupation. but no wisdom. production. gravity. Antonyms: absurdity. is broader and more positive than prudence. silliness. to say of one that he displayed good judgment i s much less than to say that he manifested wisdom. fatuity. The analogies with which wit plays are often superficial or artificial. imprudence. action. Synonyms: achievement. consisting largely in the practical application of acquired knowledge. Work is also used for any result of working. it depends certainly on the production of a diver ting. folly. KNOWLEDGE. and always kindly. IDIOCY. doing. thoughtful. foolishness . toil. imbecility. and sometimes severe. nonsense. as in the exige ncies of business or of war. indiscretion. labor. senselessness. the power of forming decisions. pleasantry. seriousness. jocularity. PRUDENCE. burlesque. stolidity. sobriety. sustained. and is pronounced and often hil arious. facetiousness. or with traits of character that are seen to have a com ical side as soon as brought to view. humor is deep. but judgment is more limited in range and less e xalted in character than wisdom. as re adily as to refrain from doing. ASTUTE. In the making of something perfectly useless there may be great skill. solemnity. employment. as in mechanics. cases arise. humor. Synonyms: banter. toil is straining a nd exhausting work. Work is the generic term for any continuous application of energy toward an end . droller y. and has been said to depend upon a u nion of surprise and pleasure. jest. and habitual processes. brief. humor deals with real analogies of an amusi ng or entertaining kind. waggishness. power . fun. leading one to do. joke. exertion. * * * * * WORK. entertaining. Labor is hard and wearying work. .

thus far. Synonyms: adolescent. * * * * * YOUTHFUL.Drudgery is plodding. still. intended." or "he is still feeble. In such study nothing can . Yet with a negative applies to completed action." Yet. as when we say the old man still retains his youthful ardor. irksome. a re often interchangeable. especially when joined with as. "we may be successful yet" implies that success may begin at some future time. or desired that the questions should be an swered or the blanks in the examples supplied offhand. It is not expected. hitherto. leisure. and often menial work. "we may be successful still" implies that we may continue to enjoy in the future such success as we are winning now. Juvenile and youthful are co mmonly used in a favorable and kindly sense in their application to those still young. relaxation. like still." Yet has a reference to the future which still does not share. recreation. vigorous. idleness. with verbs of past time. juvenile in such use would belittle the statement. childish eagerness or glee is pleasing in a child. but in a bad sense of those from whom more maturity is to be expe cted. Boyish. childish. buoyant. The following exercises have been prepared expressly and solely to accompany th e preceding text in which the distinctions of synonyms have been carefully point ed out. vacation. Synonyms: besides. childlike. Antonyms: Compare synonyms for OLD. light-hearted. puerile in modern use is distinctly contemptuous. we can say "he is feeble as yet. callow. young. or ho pefulness. ju venile. Compare ACT. "he is not gone yet" is nearly the sa me as "he is here still. we may say "while he was yet a child. girlish. now. childish. and. Com pare NEW. * * * * * YET. often applies to past action or state extendi ng to and including the present time. repose. immature. vigor." with scarcely appreciable diffe rence of meaning. hence fresh . Young is distincti vely applied to those in the early stage of life or not arrived at maturity. SUGGESTIONS TO THE TEACHER. boyish. except that the former statement implies somewhat more of expe ctation than the latter. further. Antonyms: ease. BUSINESS. and girlish are used in a good sense of those to whom they pr operly belong. Yet and still have many closely related senses. puerile. may have a favorable import as applied to an y age. often replacing a positive statement with still." or "while he wa s still a child. rest. youthful in the sense of having the characteristics of youth. but unbecoming in a man .

but th e resulting difference of meaning should be clearly pointed out. periodicals. and considered. has frequently been departed from or reversed i n Part II. The examples have been in great part selected from the best literature. such quotations being held authoritative. w ith words underlined for criticism. The teacher should so st udy out the subject as to be distinctly in advance of the class and able to spea k authoritatively. . To secure the study of Part I. such quotations being held open to revision upon consultation of authorities. unless on rare occasions to settle doubtful or disputed points. a s the difficulties will simply represent an inferior usage which the dictionary will brush aside.be worse than guesswork. but the class should not be allowed to become a debating society. etc. QUESTIONS. Reasonable questions should be encouraged. like the Hoyt. whereby that may be corre ct to-day which would not have been so at an earlier period.. QUESTIONS AND EXAMPLES. either of two words would appropriately fill a blank an d yield a good sense. In a few instances. One great advantage of synonym study is to exterminate colloqu ialisms. and no books brought into class. will be found very helpful. and the or der of synonyms given in Part I. PART II. also quotations from the best newspapers. unless the pupil can give in his own words what is manifestly as good. The very best method will be found to be to have the exampl es included in the lesson. speeches. The meaning of English words is not a matter of co njecture. an appropriate word to fill eac h blank can always be found by careful study of the corresponding group of synon yms. and all others carefully prepared for this work. not only mastering wha t is given in Part I. at th e next recitation. a nd can be made delightful and even fascinating to any intelligent class.. before coming into class. The change of usage. either should be accepted as correct. Such independent study will be found intensely interesting. though not infa llible. and consulting the ultimate authorities--the best dictionaries and the wor ks of the best speakers and writers. but always upon the authority of an approved dictionary. The class should be encouraged to bring quotations from first-class authors wit h blanks to be filled. with any others that may be added. but going beyond the necessarily brief statements there g iven. should be carefully noted. In such case. if need be. pupils should not be a llowed to open it during recitation. In answer to questions calling for definitive statement. and all disputed points should be promptly referred to the dictionary-usually to be looked up after the recitation. Definition by synonym should be absolutely forbidden. For the latter purpose a good cyclopedia of quotations. This will often be found not easy to do. the teacher should ins ist upon the very words of the text. copied on the blac kboard before recitation. Hence. Hence. leading questions have been avoided. * * * * * ABANDON (page 1). The teacher should make a thorough study of the subject. The majority of them will not need to be referred to again.

Alsace and Lorraine to Germany.1. To the surprise of his friends. 1.himself by cowardice was ---. How does abase differ from debase? humble from humiliate? degrade from disgr ace? EXAMPLES. the defenders agreed to ---. the men instantly ---. At the stroke of the bell. Only the base in spirit will ---. . The speaker was ---. * * * * * ABASH (page 3). haughty and defiant. Can one be daunted who is not abashed? 6. Is emba rrass or mortify the stronger word? Give instances. The messenger was so ---.that no heed was paid to his message. Finding resistance vain. Why could not the words be interchanged? 5. EXAMPLES. The peasant stood ---.his standard in such numbers that the commander found it nece ssary to ---. Give an instan ce of the use of mortified where abashed could not be substituted. The soldiers ---.for a moment. France was compelled to ---.themselves before wealth. How does confuse differ from aba sh? 3. Is abandon used in the favorable or unfavorable sense? desert favorable or unfavorable? forsake? 3. The officer who had ---. the king resolved to ---. 1. What do we mean when we say that a person is mortified? 4.the coinage.the enterprise.to the ranks. * * * * * ABASE (page 2). What has the effect to make one abashed? 2.the throne. In the height of his power Charles V. To what objects or classes of objects does abandon apply? abdicate? cede? qu it? resign? surrender? 2.the fortress. QUESTIONS. rank.but not ----.the witness. and power. QUESTIONS. ---.his office. but quickly recovered himself. What does abandon commonly denote of previous relationship? forsake? EXAMPLES.in the royal presence. Senator Conkling suddenly ---. To provide funds. ---.work. He came from the scene of his disgrace. The numerous questions ---.

Is an abbreviation always a contraction? 2. EXAMPLES." * * * * * ABET (page 4). F. abhor or despise? 2. How does abet differ from incite and instigate as to the time of the action? 3. Give illustrations of the appropriate uses of the above word s. He had sunk to such degradation as to be utterly ---. Can we have an abbreviation of a book. I was utterly ----. S. paragraph. instigate. 1. And you that do ---. The ---. QUESTIONS. and are rebels all.by envy and revenge. QUESTIONS.of the title "Fellow of the Royal Society.by all good men. the visitor was deeply ----. * * * * * ABBREVIATION (page 4). The prosecution was evidently malicious.a crime may be worse than to originate it. incite. instigate: which of these words are used in a good and which i n a bad sense? 2. 1.the viceroy to rebel against the king. * * * * * ABHOR (page 5). What does loathe imply? Is it physical or moral in its application? 6.Dr. as arguing less excitement a nd more calculation and cowardice. What does detest express? 5. he ---. . QUESTIONS. When sensible of his error. ---. is used both for Doctor and Debtor. To ---. R. 1. 3. Is a contraction always an abbre viation? Give instances. Which of the three words apply to persons and which to actions ? Give instances of the use of abet. EXAMPLES. or sentence? What can be abbreviated? and what abridged? EXAMPLES.him in this kind Cherish rebellion. What does abhor denote? 3. Abet. To further his own schemes. is an ---. Which is the stronger word. incite. The treatise was already so brief that it did not admit of ----. How does Archbishop Trench illustrate the difference between abhor and shun? 4.At the revelation of such depravity.

cleave to that which is good. was at last ---. What limit of time is expressed by abide? by lodge? by live.by later enactments. as in a strange country. * * * * * ABOLISH (page 6).by the revolutionists. How does prohibit d iffer from abolish? 7.at the Albemarle. QUESTIONS. suppress. dwell.f orever. reside? 2. but the earth ---. QUESTIONS.in the neig hboring villages. Modern science seems to show conclusively that matter is never ----. By faith he ---. Give examples of the extended. 1. What is the meaning of sojourn? 3. and subvert? especially between the last two of those words? 6. What does annihilate signify? Is it stronger or weaker than abolish ? 4. And there were in the same country shepherds ---. What other words of this class are especially referred to? 9. which had long been ---. Should we say one is stopping or staying a t a hotel? and why? 4. Talebearers and backbiters are everywhere ----. EXAMPLES. Is abolish used of persons or material objects? 2. So great was the crowd of visitors that many were compelled to ---. * * * * * ABIDE (page 5). 1.sorrow. Give som e antonyms of abolish. What are the differences between overthrow.Such weakness can only be ----. He has ---. 3. and how do those terms diffe r among themselves? 5.for forty years in the same house.by th e legislature.that which is evil.in the land of promise. Of what is it used? Give examples. keeping watch o ver their flock by night. One generation passeth away and another generation cometh. What terms do we use for doing away with laws. The law. The ancient statute was found to have been ---. EXAMPLES.in the field. He is ---. and of the limited use of abide. The one great endeavor of Buddhism is to ---. What word do we especially use of putting an end to a nui sance? 8. ---. though nev .

* * * * * ABRIDGMENT (page 7). From the original settlement of Vineland.should be abated. sedition should be promptly ----. for United States should be rarely used. 1. The Supreme Court ---. It is time that such a ---. An ---. New Jersey.were p revalent among the Greeks and Romans of classic antiquity. Such ---.of English literature. the sale of intoxicating liquor has been ----.of their dictionary.of free institutions. QUESTIONS. sis? 3. * * * * * abridgment differ from an outline or a synopsis? from an abstrac How does an abstract or digest differ from an outline or a synop analysis of a treatise deal with what is expressed.of the decision of the court was published in all the leading papers. The publishers determined to issue an ---. To what was abomination originally applied? 2. The New Testament may be regarded as an ---. QUESTIONS. How does an abomination differ from an offense? from crime in general? EXAMPLES. Capital punishment was formerly inflicted in England for trivial ----. whether derived EXAMPLES. 1. or it may result in the --. S. unless in hasty wri ting or technical works. There are several excellent ---.the adverse decision of the inferior tribunal. How does an t or digest? 2. Even in a republic. After the ship began to pitch and roll. How does abomination differ fr om aversion or disgust? 4. or with what What words may we use to express a condensed view of a subject.er formally ----. we could not look upon food without ---.as U. Does it refer to a state of m ind or to some act or other object of thought? 3. In spite of their high attainments in learning and art. from a previous publication or not? .of religion. Does an is implied? 4. the foulest ---. * * * * * ABOMINATION (page 7).

intellect have given him dominion over all other creat ures on the earth. 5. Is arbitrary ever used in a good sense? What is the chief use? Give examples . so that they are either subjugated or exterminated. Tho the fuel was rapidly ---. What is its special sense when used with reference to sins? 4. swallow. The Czar of Russia is an ---. How does it differ from a cquit? forgive? justify? pardon? 5. How does autocratic differ from arbitrary? both these words from despotic? despotic from tyrannical? 6.fro m the outer surface. he was ---. To what are these words in such sense properly applied? 3. 1.demand for ap ology and indemnity. Is the substance of the absorbing bo dy changed by that which it absorbs? Give instances. ---.in its exercise. QUESTIONS. . Give instances of the distinctive uses of engross. QUESTIONS.and ----. On all questions of law in the United States the decision of the ---. How does consume differ from absorb? 4. * * * * * ABSORB (page 9). What are the chief antonyms of absolve? EXAMPLES.a man from his personal responsibility. 1.will and ---.within the furnace. What is the difference between absorb and emit? absorb and radiate? EXAMPLES. Man's ---. When the facts were known.of all blame. very little heat was ---. 1. 3. When is a fluid said to be absorbed? 2. * * * * * ABSOLVE (page 9).and final. Is irresponsible good or bad in its implication? ar bitrary? imperative? imperious? peremptory? positive? authoritative? EXAMPLES. What does absolute in the strict sense denote? supreme? 2. 5. God alone is ---. What is the original sense of absolve? 2.power tends always to be ---. To what does it apply? 3. QUESTIONS. No power under heaven can ---.ABSOLUTE (page 8). imbi be. Learning of the attack on our seamen. the government sent an ---.ruler.Court is ---. How are they used in a modified sense? 4. and absorb in the figurative sense.

11).of his surround ings. QUESTIONS. to look up and read over the synonyms referred to by the words in small capitals at the end of the paragraph in Part I. The pupil should be instructed. How do abstracted. absorbed. and preoccupied differ from a bsent-minded? 4. 1. when said of the mind. Can one who is preoccupied be said to be listless or thoughtles s? one who is absent-minded? EXAMPLES. How does abstinence differ from abstemiousness? from self-denial? 2. differ from dive rt? from distract? 3.one idea from all its associations and view it alone is the --. ABSTRACTED (page 10. QUESTIONS. * * * * * ABSURD (page 11). v.mark of a philosophical mind. He was so moderate in his desires that his ---.occupations had made him almost ---. * * * * * ABSTRACT. He was so ---. Jip stood on the table and barked at Traddles so persistently that he may be sa id to have ---.from all intoxicant s is little more than a century old. The power to ---. What is the more exact term for the proper course regarding evil indu lgences? EXAMPLES. What is the difference between abstract and separate? between discriminate a nd distinguish?[C] 2. How does abstract.In setting steel rails special provision must be made for their expansion under the influence of the heat that they ----. Among the Anglo-Saxons the idea of universal and total ---. * * * * * ABSTINENCE (page 10).or ---.. in the merely ---. What is temperance regarding things lawful and worthy? regarding things vicious and inj urious? 3. 1. [C] NOTE. . The busy student may be excused if ----.it is intol erable.seemed to cost him no ----.the conversation.with these perplexities as to be completely ---. in all cases. See these words under DISCERN as referred to at the end of the paragr aph on ABSTRACT in Part I. Numerous interruptions in the midst of ---.

Wha t is the legal distinction between abettor and accessory? 8. and retainer used? partner? 7.and ---. QUESTIONS. A statement may be disproved by deducing logically from it a conclusion that is ----. Carlyle delighted in ---. 1. What words of this group are used in a bad sense? 5.all who had formerly been his friends. 1. What is the especial element common to the ludicrous. Is ass istant or attendant the higher word? How do both these words compare with associ ate? 6. and the nonsensical? 6.plan. What is the especial implicat ion in unreasonable? 4.his fellow man more cruelly than by ---. The tenant shall not ---. Is reproach good or bad? 6.intellectual gifts make the dangerous villain. In no way has man ---.hatred of the Jews in the Middle Ages led the populace to believe the most ---. e. and which in a bad sense? 2. Which words of this group are used in a good.slanders concerning them. n. many of his arguments were so ---.him for his rel igious belief. How does abuse differ from damage (as in the ca se of rented property.utterances.QUESTIONS. How does an associate compare in rank with a principal? 5. and silly? 3. * * * * * ABUSE (page 12). g. What is the difference between absurd and paradoxical? 2. QUESTIONS.as to be positively ----. In his rage he began to ---. W hich are indifferently either good or bad? 3. (page 13). How does abuse differ from harm? 4. 1. * * * * * ACCESSORY. henchman. What are the disti nctions between irrational. How do monstrous and preposterous compare with absurd? 5 . the ridiculous. To be ---.for doing right can never really ---. misuse. Do misemploy. How do pe rsecute and oppress differ? 7.a true man. In what sense are follower. I attempted to dissuade him from the ---. ---. To what is accompli ce nearly equivalent? Which is the preferred legal term? . The ---. foolish. but found him altogether ----. To what does abuse apply? 2.the property beyond reasonable wear. To what does ally generally apply? colleague? 4. What are some chief antonyms of absurd? EXAMPLES.)? 3. and pervert apply to person s or things? To which does abuse apply? EXAMPLES.

too far. A public speaker becomes known to many persons whom he does not know. All persons. and mishap disting uished? EXAMPLES. * * * * * ACCIDENT (page 14). As he was not present at the actual commission of the crime.of daily life. 1.of the cavalry service.for a fresh bandage. Great thoughts and high purposes keep one from being greatly disturbed by the l ittle ---.in this matter. but especially the young. should take the greatest care in the cho ice of their ----.with many who can not be admitted with in the inner circle of ----. QUESTIONS. How does incident dif fer from both? 3. The prudent man is careful not to tempt ---. France and Russia seem to have become firm ----. Gambling clings almost inseparably to games of ----. * * * * * ACQUAINTANCE (page 15). How does acquaintance diffe r from companionship? acquaintance from friendship? from intimacy? 3. How are accident. The ---. What is the difference between accident and chance? 2. misadventure. What is the special significance of fortune? 4. Bruises and contusions are regarded as ordinary ---. but who a re ready promptly to claim ---. .and not an ----. QUESTIONS.called to the ---. The ---. The Senator differed with his ---. The misplacement of the switch caused a terrible ----. 1. How does it di ffer in usage from chance? 5.with him. The ---. What does acquaintance between persons imply? 2. The baron rode into town with a great array of armed ----. he was held to be only an ---.EXAMPLES.of life must bring us into ---.of school and college life often develop into the most beautiful and e nduring ----. How does f ellowship differ from friendship? EXAMPLES.

she became ---. How does acerbity differ from asperity? asperity from acrimony? 2. 1.as a hornet. Being of an ---. A constant sense of injustice may deepen into a settled ----. He had his ---. but could never be properly said to be ----. How is ac rimony distinguished from malignity? malignity from virulence? 3.disposition and without settled purpose or definite occupation .Between those most widely separated by distance of place and time.of speech had become habitual with him. station. and creed. by language. he answered with sudden ----. Which of the words in th is group necessarily imply an external effect? Which may be wholly mental? EXAMPLES.is the truth of thought. What are some chief antonyms of active? EXAMPLES. A certain ---. there may yet be true ---. QUESTIONS. . ---.will be patiently borne if the sufferer is convinced of its essentia l justice.is done. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. How does active differ from busy? from industrious? 3. * * * * * ACTIVE (page 17). * * * * * ACT (page 16). With what two sets of words is active allied? 2. The ---. * * * * * ACRIMONY (page 15). He who does the truth will need no instruction as to individual ----s. occupation. What is implie d in the use of the word severity? EXAMPLES. This smooth and pleasing address veiled a deep ----. How is act distinguished from action? from deed? 2. How do active and restless compare? 4.days and hours. To what sort of activity does officious refer? 6. 1. To this ill-timed request.of soul. Great ---. 1.

Care to our coffin ---. ---. 1. And every grin. The pale snowdrop is springing To ---. What does accost always signify? greet? hail? 2. What is sagacity? Is it attributed to men or brutes? 4. ---. QUESTIONS. what thou hast done by day. What do es augment signify? Of what is it ordinarily used? 3.An ---. To what does amplify apply ? 4. 1.up at night. 1. In what ways may a discourse or treatise be amplified? EXAMPLES. (page 19). What is it to apostrophize? EXAMPLES. so merry. * * * * * ADDRESS.from the mere love of learning.that enabled them to follow a trail by scarcely perceptible signs almost as unerringly as the hound by scent. and insight compare with acumen? 2 . QUESTIONS. His faithful dog ---. Give illustratio ns of the uses of the above words as regards the possessors of the corresponding qualities. And in the morning what thou hast to do. v. independently of its r ewards.attendant instantly seized upon my baggage. The treatise displays great critical ----. What is shrewdness? Is it ordinarily good or evil? 6. penetration. EXAMPLES. draws one ou t. What is perspic acity? 5. How does salute differ from accost or greet? address? 3. * * * * * ACUMEN (page 18). What is the special characteristic of acumen? To what order of mind does it be long? 3.to the Chief who in triumph advances. How is add related to increase? How does it differ from multiply? 2.the glowing sun.a nail no doubt.the smiling guest. The true student is ---. acuteness. The Indians had developed a practical ---. * * * * * ADD (page 18). . How do sharpness. QUESTIONS.

QUESTIONS. commensurate. How do both the above words differ from ally? 4. . n. What is address in the sense here considered? 2. QUESTIONS. And the tear that is wiped with a little ---. and sufficient alike signify? How does comme nsurate specifically differ from the other two words? Give examples. in disc ourse.would inven t some other custom of entertainment. * * * * * ADHERENT (page 21).of doing doth expresse No other but the doer's willingnesse. QUESTIONS.ye heroes! heaven-born band! Who fought and died in freedom's cause. 1. The ---. To what do adapted. Indeed. I have very poor and unhappy brains for drinking. What is an adherent? 2. Self-defense compelled the European nations to be ----s against Napoleon. Also of your own selves shall men arise speaking perverse things to draw away ---s after them. fit. Is satisfactory a very high r ecommendation of any work? Why? 4. Is it well to speak of a supporter as a backer? EXAMPLES. suitable.May be follow'd perhaps by a smil e. EXAMPLES. Has partisan a go od or a bad sense. Woman is woman's natural ----. How does an adherent differ from a supporter? from a disciple? 3. slightly handled. and qualified refer? 3.till the trial comes. * * * * * ADEQUATE (page 21). I could wish ---. What quali ties are included in address? EXAMPLES. 2. We know not of what we are ---.for your purpose untouched. left nothing ---. 1. (page 20). What do adequate.---. 1. What is tact? 3. and why? 5. * * * * * ADDRESS. Is able or capable the higher word? Illustrat e.

near. It gives ten thousand motives to ----: Be it religious. As they draw ---. To ---.the venerable place. and you have nothing else to fear . Henceforth the majesty of God ----. and gathered flowers. 1. with meek and unaffected grace. The heart it humbles. 1. What is the difference between adjacent and adjoining? contiguous? contermin ous? 2. * * * * * AFFRONT (page 24). wiser men become.the ground where thou art laid. I value Science--none can prize it more. EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. The beautiful are sure to be ----. * * * * * ADJACENT (page 22). What is it to affront? 2. How does affront compare with insult? with tease? . Shall kindly lend his little aid. Fear him. as it ought to be. In what sense was admire formerly used? What does it now express? 2. QUESTIONS. What distance is implied in near? neighboring? 3. Stronger by weakness. QUESTIONS. The red breast oft. QUESTIONS. What does next always imply? 4. 1.to their eternal home . At church. 1. Give antonyms of adjacent. * * * * * ADMIRE (page 23). His looks ---. and it bows the knee.The deposed monarch was found to have a strong body of ----s. EXAMPLES. at evening hours. With ho ary moss. * * * * * ADORN (page 23). How doe s admire compare with revere? venerate? adore? Give instances of the use of thes e words. How does adorn differ from ornament? from garnish? from deck or bedeck? from decorate? EXAMPLES.

1.some people than to oblige them. The petty desire to ---. man must be held to be a free ----. Wha t different sense has it in business usage? EXAMPLES. My poverty. the worse they will speak of him.is simply a perversion of the human love of power. The ---. rather give me commentators plain. A field becomes exhausted by constant ----.foe. Which is the most general word of this group? EXAMPLES. How does agent in the philosophical sense compare with mover or doer? 2. That morality may mean anything.the bra in. And borrowing dulls the edge of ----. but not my will. * * * * * AGRICULTURE (page 25). What does agriculture include? How does it differ from farming? 2. * * * * * AGENT (page 24). Who with no deep researches ---.annoy? EXAMPLES. What is g ardening? floriculture? horticulture? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. Oh. Loan oft loses both itself and friend. How do concur and coincide differ in range of meaning? How with reference to expression in action? 2. QUESTIONS. for the better a man deser ves. QUESTIONS.declined to take the responsibility in the absence of the owner. ----. It is safer to ---. How does accede compare with consent? 3. They rushed to meet the ---. A woman's lot is made for her by the love she ----. * * * * * AGREE (page 25). 1. 1. .

and purge off the baser fire. It is not ----.hopes my children. Society became my glittering bride. How does mien differ from air? 6.mold Incapable of stain. In deeds of daring rectitude. What is design? EXAMPLES. or purpose? 4. 1. in scorn For miserable ---. How does airy agree with and differ from aerial? Give instances of the uses of the two words. walks up and down with me. I never.* * * * * AIM (page 26). * * * * * AIRY (page 27). To what does aspiration apply? How does it differ in general f rom design. would soon expel Her mischief. but ambition that is the mother of misery in man. QUESTIONS.that end with self. to be hated.of ill. 1. 1. How quickly nature falls into revolt. What is the difference between expression and look? 4. O yet we trust that somehow good Will be the final ---. ---. needs but to be seen. . Grief fills the room up of my absent child. endeavor. In conversation overbear.tongues that syllable men's names. Vice is a monster of so frightful ----. When gold becomes her ----. How do end and o bject compare? 3. Puts on his pretty ----. QUESTIONS. Are lively and an imated used in the favorable or unfavorable sense? EXAMPLES. What does ethereal signify? sprightly? 3. The ---. What is the sens e of bearing? carriage? 5. How does purpose compare with intention? 5. As. on sands and shores and desert wilderne sses. And ---. How does air differ from appear ance? 3. Victorious. repeats his words. What is air in the sense here considered? 2. with important ----. * * * * * AIR (page 27). What does demeanor include? EXAMPLES. 2. Lies in his bed. What is an aim? How does it differ from mark? from goal? 2. QUESTIONS.

and ready refer? 2.inhabitant. QUESTIONS. What are consternation. . * * * * * ALARM (page 28).from the commonwealth of Israel and ---. To be ---. dread. & n. How do foreign and alien dif fer in their figurative use? EXAMPLES. Is a foreigner by birth necessarily a n alien? 3. How does alien differ from foreign? 2. and misgiving related to the danger that excites them? 4. How does ready differ from alert? from prepared? 3. What is religion? Not a ---. To what do alert. Are the people of one country while residing in their own land forei gners or aliens to the people of other lands? 4. . QUESTIONS. By ---.to our nature. 1. nor something ---. By ---. 1. QUESTIONS. He who is not ---.whispers breathe. What is the secondary mea ning of alert? EXAMPLES. 1. whic h comes and takes up its abode in the soul. dismay. and how are they related t o the danger? 5.from the covenants of promise. 3.for war is one of the most effectual ways of preserving peace. wide-awake. * * * * * ALIEN. and terror.to-day will be less so to-morrow. How can one residing in a forei gn country cease to be an alien in that country? 5.he stood. ---. That seemed but zephyrs to the tra in beneath. What is timidity? * * * * * ALERT (page 28). ---. What do affright and fright express? Give an illustration of the contrasted terms.hands thy dying eyes were closed .hands thy humble grave a dorned By strangers honored and by strangers mourned. What is the derivation and distinctive meaning of alarm? 2. How are ap prehension. (page 29). . as he would o'erleap His destiny. What does prompt signify? 4. disquietude. * * * * * ALIKE (page 30). a.Soft o'er the shrouds ---. Thus ending loudly.

* * * * * ALLAY (page 31). or an actual lightening of the burden? 2.The restless pulse of care. Fashioned for himself. In many ---. How much of certainty is implied in allege? 3. Such songs have power to ---. 1. or the like? EXAMPLES. and th e like? 3.or wound a heart that's broken! * * * * * ALLEGE (page 31). In what sense is homogeneous used? EXAMPLES. signature. What is the sense of analogous? (Compare synonyms for ANALOGY. document. allege or adduce? Why? 2. sometimes capricious.) EXAMPLES. What are the distinctions between allegory. What is the distinction between allay and alleviate? Which word implies a pa rtial removal of the cause of suffering. soothe. at random spoken May ---. Many a word. QUESTIONS. An ----. QUESTIONS.for two moments together. And come like the ben ediction That follows after prayer. 1. the spirits have not ventured to face an armed man who has passed the night there. With what words is alleviate especially to be grouped? (See synonyms for ALLEVIATE. fable. How does allegory compare with simile? Simile with metaphor? 2. Sometimes gentle. and parable? 3. If I can't pray I will not make beli eve! * * * * * ALLEGORY (page 33). How does alike compare with similar? with identical? 2. sometimes awful. QUESTIONS.QUESTIONS.one thing and mean another. To what is fiction now most commonly applied? . pacify. Which is the primary and which the secondary word. What is the distinct ion often made between equal and equivalent? 3. never the ---. 1. 1. I can not ---. taken from his side.) 4. Under what general term a re all these included? 4. How much does one admit when he speaks of an alleged fact. With which of the above words are we to class appease.cases of haunted houses. a bride.

) EXAMPLES.it is Godlike. Does allot refer to time. they nothing prove . and assign? EXAMPLES. and the battle-flags were furled. The two nations formed an offensive and defensive ---.are the warrant for the existence of trade ----. Man hath his daily work of body or mind ----. O! what mighty magician can ---. * * * * * ALLEVIATE (page 33). * * * * * ALLOT (page 34).. Behold a sower went forth t o sow. To pity distress is but human. Who may not wander from the ---. What is an alliance? how does it differ from partnership? from coalition? fr om league? 2. To what does appoint refer? a ssign? 3. appoint.EXAMPLES. He ----eth the moon for seasons. How does award differ from al lot. What are the special significations of abate? assuage? mitigate? mo derate? 4. In argument ---. How does alleviate differ from relieve? from remove? 2. Till the war-drum throbbed no longer. 1.. How does alleviate compare with allay? (Compare synonyms for ALLAY.field Before h . 1. And He spake many things unto them in ----. QUESTIONS. The king is but as the hind . But. QUESTIONS. the ---. saying.of the world. How does destine differ from appoint? 4.against the common enemy .are like songs in love: They much describe. Business ---.A woman's envy? * * * * * ALLIANCE (page 34). or person? 2. In the Parliament of man. the sun knoweth his going down. How does a confederacy or federation differ from a union? EXAMPLES. Is alleviate used of persons? 3. 1. QUESTIONS. to ---. place.

What does yield imply? EXAMPLES. who Have all for sook me.the love of women. QUESTIONS. What is it to cajole? to decoy? to inveigle? 5. as the beacon blaze ---. What instances can you give of the use of these words. What is the distinctive sense of allude? of advert? of refer? 2. State churches have ever been unwilling to ---. Late in the eighteenth century Cowper did not venture to do more than ---. QUESTIONS. saying: "I name thee not. What is it to allure? 2. The cruelty and envy of the people ---.dissent. and of ---.The bi rd of passage. But Satan now is wiser than of yore." * * * * * ALLURE (page 37). How do the above words compare with mention as to explicitness? 3.him. .friends. * * * * * ALLUDE (page 36).by our dastard nobles.by making rich. How does allure differ from attract? from lure? 3. Frederick ---. * * * * * ALLOW (page 35). What does coax express? 4. 1. How d oes seduce differ from tempt? 6. not making poor. lest so despised a name Should move a sneer at thy deserved f ame. And ---. The ruddy square of comfortable light ---.to t he great allegorist [Bunyan].is work be done. How do hint and insinuat e differ? EXAMPLES. 1. What is the difference between allow and permit? between a permit and permis sion? 2. QUESTIONS. He had a strange gift of ---. Is win used in the favorable or unfavorable sen se? EXAMPLES. also of tolerate and submit? 3.the Austrians to cross the mountains that he might attack them o n a field of his own choosing. hath devoured the rest. 1.

Letting heaven's warm sunshine in. * * * * * ALTERNATIVE (page 38). The sum was the ---. Plucking up the weeds of sin. Is in terest amassed or accumulated? 4.thy words.a prodigious fortune. How does hoard differ from store? EXAMPLES." * * * * * AMASS (page 38). Thine to work ---. to what purpose dost thou ---. Which word carries a natural implication of superficialness? 3. 1. and preference imply regarding one's wishes? alt ernative? resources? EXAMPLES. What is it to amass? 2. O. election. Which w ords simply add a fact or thought? 3. QUESTIONS. What is the difference between choice and alternative in the strict use of l anguage? 2. . Clearing thorny wrongs away. Is alternative always so severely restricted by leading writers? 3. What is the difference between amateur and connoisseur? between connoisseur and critic? 2. Into what two groups are the synonyms for also naturally divided? 2.savings of an industrious and frugal life. How is amass distinguished from accumulate? 3. That thou return'st no greeting to thy friends? * * * * * AMATEUR (page 39).* * * * * ALSO (page 37). QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. 1. H ow do novice and tyro differ from amateur? EXAMPLES. Homer delights to call Ulysses "the man of many ----. pick. he ---. Which distinctly imply that what is added is like that to which it is added? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. 1.to pray. By daring and successful speculation. 1. What do choice.

Is ---.By that sin. fling away ---. And with the rein to raise the steed. and whose business is only to judge and enj oy. How do advance. What are the characteristics of wonder ? EXAMPLES. What is it to amend? 2. Cromwell. He could distingui sh. The greatest works in poetry. 'Twas while he toiled him to be freed. * * * * * AMBITION (page 40). QUESTIONS. Has e mulation a good side? How does it compare with aspiration? EXAMPLES.who produces nothing. All Wycklif's soldiers waked at once.in the learn'd or brave. Th at. How does ambition differ from aspiration? W hich is the higher word? 3. and divide A hair 'twixt south and south-west side. but only Vaulting ----. * * * * * AMEND (page 41). What is the distinctive sense of emulation? 4. What i s the difference between amend and emend? EXAMPLES. I charge thee. QUESTIONS. What two senses has ambition? 2. fell the angels. The mere ---.Profoundly skill'd in Analytic. painting. Can such things be. QUESTIONS. better. Are these words applied to matters decidedly bad. * * * * * AMAZEMENT (page 39). 1. Without our special ----? The fool of nature stood with stupid eyes And gaping mouth that testified ----.He was in Logic a great ---. to which th' ignoble mind's a slave. 1. How do the two wo rds differ? 3. from ----'s iron trance. I have no spur To prick the sides of my intent. Envy. . And overcome us like a summer's cloud. and improve differ from amen d? 3. What do amazement and astonishment agree in expressing? 2. foul. 1. and sculpture have not been done by ---. How does surprise d iffer from astonishment and amazement? 5. What is the meaning of awe? of admiration? 4. or evil? 4.

1.a s the presence of woman is. QUESTIONS. What is the specific meaning of analogy? 2. that Nature might stand up And say to all the world. Ho w do agreeable. How do resemblance and similarity di ffer from analogy? EXAMPLES. soft as a kiss. This was a man! The east is blossoming! Yea a rose. I was overcome by a sudden feeling of ----. What are the especial characteristics of anger? How does it differ from indi gnation? exasperation? rage? wrath? ire? EXAMPLES. What is a similitude? 6. * * * * * AMIABLE (page 42). What is affinity? coincidence? 3 . Is a good-natured person necessarily agreeable? an amiable person? EXAMPLES. His life was ----. 1. * * * * * ANALOGY (page 43). Human characters and conditions never reach such perfection that they can not b e ----. The two boys bore a close ---. It is not difficult to trace the ---. To what does amiable always apply? 3. What is parit y of reasoning? 5. and ---. QUESTIONS. Vast as the heavens. and the text at this point has been various ly ----. The construction here is difficult.at the hypocrisy of the Jews.of the home to the state. * * * * * ANGER (page 44). attractive. 4.your doings.Return ye now every man from his evil way. QUESTIONS. Does coincidence necessarily involve resemblance or likeness? 4. Christ was filled with ---. ---. and charming differ from amiable? Give examples. To what does lovely often apply? 2. 1. My enemy has long borne me a feeling of ----. . and the elements So mixed in him.to each other.

Theirs but to do and die. What is a retort? How does it differ from repartee? EXAMPLES. The Sphinx ---. Is man an animal? 3.the coming of spr ing. and you find him wholly deprived of understand ing. differ from a reply or rejoinder? 5. To be a lawless. What forms of existence does the word creature include? 5. transform ourselves into ---! Take a ---. . What is a reply? a rejoinder? 4. sensual ----. What is it to announce? 2. 1. an argument.out of his instinct. Does it apply chiefly to the past or the future? 3. In what wider sense is answer used? 3. lazy. The songs of birds and the wild flowers in the woodlands ---. It is only within the last half century that societies have been organized for the prevention of cruelty to ----.make. What is an animal? a brute? a beast? 2. * * * * * ANNOUNCE (page 46). To what is advertise chiefly applied? propound? promulgate? publish? EXAMPLES.Theirs not to reason why. O that men should put an enemy in their mouths to steal away their brains! that we should with joy. 1.what you please. Through the rare felicity of the times you are permitted to think what you plea se and to ---. What is the special quality of a response ? 6. I can no other ---. QUESTIONS. * * * * * ANSWER (page 46). Theirs not to make ---.its riddles with life and death depending on the answer. but thanks. revel. pleasance. What is implied if we speak of any particular man as an animal? a brute? a beast? 4. What are the animals of a count ry or region collectively called? EXAMPLES. and applause. Spurning manhood and its joys to loot. How does an answer to a charge. QUESTIONS. 1. or the like . What is a verbal answer? 2.* * * * * ANIMAL (page 45). QUESTIONS.

* * * * * ANTIQUE (page 48). He could not be content without finding a ---. but yet I ----. The happy ---. How does anticipation differ from presentiment? from apprehension? from forebodi ng? 5. * * * * * ANTICIPATE. object of my impl acable ----. I hope.of abuse and sarcasm. Is the difference between them a .their grave. QUESTIONS. What special element is involved in foretaste? How do foresight and foret hought go beyond the meaning of anticipation? EXAMPLES. How does anticipate differ from expect? from hope? from apprehend? 4. QUESTIONS.in Nature to every mood of his m ind. but it is a p altry and unprofitable contest.of thy just demand. 1. I ---. What is uncongeniality? How does it differ from antipathy? Which is po sitive? and which negative? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. and he does find it. 1. A man renowned for ---. From my soul I loathe All affectation. To what does antique refer? antiquated? 2. Then some leaped overboard with fearful yell. Nothing is so easy and inviting as the ---. These are portents. How is antipathy to be distinguished from dislike? from antagonism? from ave rsion? 2. If I know your sect. They do not point on me.of a renewed existence in company with the spirits of the just. Which is now the more c ommon? 3. * * * * * ANTIPATHY (page 48).Will seldom scruple to make free With friendship's hone st feeling. England ---. As eager to ---. 1.Upon thy princely warrant I descend. To give thee ---. What are the two contrasted senses of anticipate? 2. 'tis my perfect scorn.every man to do his duty. ANTICIPATION (page 47).your argument. Christianity is the solvent of all race ----.

let stoics boast Their virtue fixed: 'tis fixed as in a frost.from which it was impossible to arouse him. fear. in this regard ? 5.. How does stoicism differ from apathy? EXAMPLES. What is the significance of quaint? EXAMPLES. How does anxiety differ from anguish? 3. He sank into a ---.only account for that which they do not alter. * * * * * APATHY (page 50). Does perplexity involve anxiety? EXAMPLES. What is anxiety in the primary sense? Is it mental or physical? 2. QUESTIONS. 1. What is apathy? 2. Superstition invested the slightest incidents of life with needless ----. Can a modern building be antiquated? Can it be antique? 4. In lazy ---. 3. I do love these ---. QUESTIONS. weep not for the past.is harder than work. At length the morn and cold ---. I bought. * * * * * ANXIETY (page 49). Which of these word s may refer to the future? 5. ---. 1. QUESTIONS.ruins. My copper lamps. What kind of possibility does anxiety always sug gest? 4. How does an apology differ from an excuse? 4. What does an apology now al ways imply? 3. .matter of time? Give examples. ---. and far less profitable. For being true ----.came. We never tread upon them but we set Our foot upon s ome reverend history. What change of meaning has apology undergone? 2. What is worry? fretfulness? 6. How does it differ from apprehension.the future. etc. at any rate. How does it differ from the Saxon word unfeelingness? fro m indifference? from insensibility? from unconcern? 3. * * * * * APOLOGY (page 51). 1. How does confession differ from apology? EXAMPLES. Yield not to ---. dread.

QUESTIONS. It is not yet ---.Beauty is its own ---. Representatives are ---.but suicide. assign. and suicide is ----. * * * * * APPORTION (page 54).sway Thy judgment to do aught which else free will Would no t admit. What is implied by passions and a ppetites when used as contrasted terms? EXAMPLES.for being. What implication is conveyed in seeming? What do we suggest when we speak of "seeming innocence"? EXAMPLES. lest sin Surprise thee. QUESTIONS. The treasure was ---.and their shares duly ---. What is the special significance of apportion by which it is distinguished f rom allot. What two contrasted senses arise from the root meaning of apparent? 2. There is no refuge from ---. Govern well thy ----. and her black attendant Death. distribute. 1. Take heed lest ---. * * * * * APPETITE (page 54). * * * * * . It is ---. Of what kind of demands or impulses is appetite ordinarily used? 2. What dem ands or tendencies are included in passion? 3.what his motive could have been in committing such an offens e. What is it to appropriate? EXAMPLES.that something has been omitted which was essential to complete the construction.among the several states according to the population.among the captors. What is implied when we speak of apparent kindness or apparent neglect? 3. How do pre sumable and probable differ? 4. What is the significance of dispens e in the transitive use? 3. 1. * * * * * APPARENT (page 52). It is not ---. QUESTIONS. 1.that the students will attempt to break the rules again. or divide? 2.

and the generous.to a solution.to God. as regards the class of objects to which it is applied. miserly soldiers are like monsters. QUESTIONS. 1. Without faith. neighborhood. Wit consists in knowing the ---.clashing brayed Horrible discord. What is the difference between arms and armor? 2. prodigal. What te rm would be applied to a multitude of armed men without order or organization? 4 . 1. To what kind of proceedings do indict and arraign apply? 2. How does approximation differ from resemblance and similarity? from approach? 4. How is one indic . How close an approach to exactness and certainty does approximation imply? 3. QUESTIONS.APPROXIMATION (page 55). QUESTIONS. How does approximation . ---. Is an army large or small? 3. QUESTIONS.on ---. We have to be content with ---. For the ---.is a school in which the miser becomes generous. and the difference of things which are alike. * * * * * ARMS (page 55). or propinquity? EXAMPLES. In what connection is armo r used in modern warfare? EXAMPLES. What is an approximation in the mathematical sense? 2. There is constant rivalry between irresistible projectiles and impenetrable ---. * * * * * ARRAIGN (page 56).of things which differ. In what sense is host used? legion? EXAMPLES. 1. there is no real ---. * * * * * ARMY (page 56). 1. but very rarely seen. The still-discordant wavering ----. differ from nearness. What are the essentials of an army? 2.

or exclude unnumbered pleasures. In what sense is trick commonly used? 4. harmlessly pursued. QUESTIONS. Infuse into the purpose with which you follow the various employments and profe ssions of life the sense of beauty.ted? How arraigned? 3. Religion does not ---. 1. The enemy were decoyed from their defenses by a skilful ----. How do entr eat and beseech compare with ask? 3. QUESTIONS. maneuver . For what class of objects does one ask? For what does he beg? 2. QUESTIONS. * * * * * ARTIST (page 58). In what sense are cheat. ruse. Quips and cranks and wanton ----. contrivance. How do these words differ from charge? accuse? censure? EXAMPLES. * * * * * ARTIFICE (page 58). What is an artificer? How related to artis t and artisan? EXAMPLES. even if he speaks the trut h. the whole natural quantity of that business divided among them all may afford too small a share for each. Is wile used in a good or a bad sense? 6. Does the good or the bad sense commonly attach to the words artifice. 1. What is a fraud? 5. device.turn shopkeepers. Nods and becks and wreathed smiles. gains no belief. and imposture always used? 3. What is the special sense of implore? of su . and you are transformed at once from an ---into an ----. a nd finesse? EXAMPLES. What is an artist? an artisan? 2. The criminal was ---. 1. Those who can not gain their ends by force naturally resort to ----.for trial for his offenses. blind. If too many ---. What is an artifice? a device? finesse? 2. * * * * * ASK (page 59). Whoever has even once become notorious by base ----. The power depends on the depth of the ----'s insight of that object he contempl ates.

These royalties. QUESTIONS. What kind of asking is implied in demand? in require? How do these two words differ from one another? EXAMPLES. And his best riches. Do we speak of associates in crime or wrong? What words are preferred in such connection? (See synonyms for ACCESSORY. which the wise powers Deny us for our good: so we find profit. His best ----. * * * * * ASSOCIATE (page 60). open the door. innocence and health. but ev er ----.pplicate? 4. What does associate imply. By losing of our prayers.in the darkness. and not refuse to reign. * * * * * . if thou canst.a virtue if you have it not. The ---.often our own harms. The harvest truly is great.accepted Napoleon's abdication. ignorant of ourselves. ---.that never begg'd before. ignorance of wealth. 1. Wherefore do I ---. ---. to ---. 1. with hope. * * * * * ASSUME (page 61). Unless he do profane. Does assume apply to that which is rightfully or wrongfully taken? 2.) 3.is right. QUESTIONS. A beggar ---. We. if t here be no light. pity me. In wha t use does assume correspond with arrogate and usurp? 3. Is companion used in a good or bad sense? 4. ---.ye therefore the Lo rd of the harvest that he would send forth labourers into his harvest. Though hope be weak or sick with long delay. ----. For well we know no hand of blood and bone Can gripe the sacred handle of our s cepter. How are crave and request distinguished? pray and petition? 5. The leader in the plot was betrayed by his ----. How does it differ in use from associate? 5. What is the signi ficance of peer? comrade? consort? EXAMPLES. steal. but the labourers are few: ---. How do arrogate and usu rp differ from each other? How does assume differ from postulate as regards deba te or reasoning of any kind? EXAMPLES. or ----. Be not afraid to ----. as used officially? What when used in popular lan guage? 2. Speak with me.

With brazen ---.in forming schemes! He taketh the wise in their own ----ness. (pages 63.reasoner may be deluded. QUESTIONS. What is assurance in the good sense? 2. 64). What does astute imply regarding the ulterior purpose or object of the person who is credited with it? EXAMPLES. Some wicked wits have libel'd all the fair. * * * * * ASTUTE (page 62). and lawful plague of life. when he practises sophistry upon himself .never was wasted. & n. QUESTIONS. You do not weaken your ---. 1. You statesmen are so ---. From what l anguage is astute derived. Talk not of wasted ----. From what language is acute derived? What is its distinctive sense? 2. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. ---. and what was its original meaning? 4. 1.for your family by cultivating ----s beyond its pal e.of faith. 1. How do assail . What is assurance in the bad sense? 3.ASSURANCE (page 61). 1. Let us draw near with a true heart in full ---. With matchless ---. How does assurance compare with impudence? with effrontery? EXAMPLES. * * * * * ATTACK. v. The most ---. but deepen and intensify it. In present use what does astute add to the meaning of acute or keen? 5. From what language is keen derived? What does it distinctively denote? 3. What is attachment? How does it differ from adherence or adhesion? from affe ction? from inclination? from regard? EXAMPLES.they style a wi fe The dear-bought curse. What special element is involved in the meaning of attack? 2. * * * * * ATTACHMENT (page 63).he denied the most indisputable facts.

Were toiling upward in the night. 1. v. QUESTIONS. and never his persecutors. How does obtain differ from procure? EXAMPLES. * * * * * ATTITUDE (page 65).and assault differ? 3.By fearing to attempt.was graceful and pleasing. and how does it agree with attitude and posture? EXAMPLES. The ---. What is the distinctive sense of attitude? Is it conscious or unconscious? 4. . But they . How does posture differ from attitude? 5.assumed indicated great indignation because of the insult implied.the spirit of intolerance. * * * * * ATTAIN (page 64).by sudden flight. posture. The ---. QUESTIONS. And make us lose the good we oft might ---. How does position as regards the human body differ from attitude. and to what does it point? 2. What suggestion is often involved in attribute? 2. How does attribute differ from refer and ascribe? 3. 1. And death intrench'd. Is charge (in this connection) used in the favorable or unfavorable sense? EXAMPLES. * * * * * ATTRIBUTE. What is the distinctive sense of pose? How does it differ from. Do the three latter words apply to the living or the dead? 3. We see time's furrows on another's brow. What is it to encounter? how does this word compare with attack? How does attack differ from aggression? EXAMPLES. How does attain differ from obtain? from achieve? 3. while their companions slept. the doctrine of persecution. What kind of a word is attain.and kept Were not ---. The heights by great men ---. o r pose? 2. How few themselves in that just mirror see! Who ever knew Truth put to the worse in a free and open ----? Roger Williams ---. (page 65). QUESTIONS. Our doubts are traitors. 1. preparing his ---.

How do avaricious and covetous differ from miserly.unworthy motives which proved a groundless charge. I am not ---. . Nor care I who doth feed upon my cost. QUESTIONS. O. parsimonious. What is an at tribute? 3. In what usage do property and quality become exact synonyms.ye greatness unto our God. How does avenge differ from revenge? 3.it. Of what matters are greedy and stingy used? How do they diffe r from each other? EXAMPLES. and how are properties then distinguished? EXAMPLES. I lost mine eye laying the prize aboard. What is the derivation and the inherent meaning of quality? 2. 1. It is better to be content with such things as ye have than to become ---. And therefore to ---. which must chastise Crimes done. The ---. and penurious? 2. His scepter shows the force of temporal power. Which of the above words expresses what necessarily belongs to the s ubject of which it is said to be an attribute or quality? 4. How does property ordinarily differ fr om quality? 6. It yearns me not if men my garments wear.and ---. Is retaliate used in the sense of avenge or o f revenge? EXAMPLES. had but as loud a vo ice to warn As its keen sting is mortal to ----. 1. Whe rein doth sit the dread and fear of kings. QUESTIONS. What is it to avenge? 2.for gold.---. shalt thou d ie.to awe and majesty. that the vain remorse. * * * * * AVENGE (page 69). n. 1. * * * * * AVARICIOUS (page 68). Which word would be used of an act of God? 4. QUESTIONS. * * * * * ATTRIBUTE. (page 66).in accumulating. niggardly. Nothing endures but personal ----s. He ---. What is the derivat ion and distinctive sense of property? 5.

Though he was ----.thing to die. What is the derivation and original meaning of awkward? of clumsy? 2. Then must it be an ---. Which words of this group refer exclusively to one's own knowledge or action ? 2. 1. * * * * * AXIOM (page 71). looking in at the showy shop-windows. therefore. To wha t. does awkward primarily refer? and to what clumsy? 3. 1. QUESTIONS. 1. To what matters should awful properly be restricted? 2. Is a draft-ho rse distinctively awkward or clumsy? 4. he was kindly. 1. and had to be taught over and over again the same methods. Is awful always inte rchangeable with alarming or terrible? with disagreeable or annoying? EXAMPLES. but ----.things in nature. The apprentice was not only ----.his fault and was pardoned by his parent. The young girl stood in a ---.* * * * * AVOW (page 69).no parallel. How do avouch and avow differ from aver in construction? 4. * * * * * AWFUL (page 70). QUESTIONS. but herself. How does avow compare with confess? EXAMPLES. The child ---. Give some metaphorical uses of awkward. How do they compare in interest and utility? . What is the distinctive sense of aver? of avouch? of avow? 3. QUESTIONS. The silent falling of the snow is to me one of the most ---. ---. In what do they differ? 3. EXAMPLES. In what do axiom and truism agree? 2.way. And. QUESTIONS. * * * * * AWKWARD (page 70). Is avow used in a good or a bad s ense? What does it imply of others' probable feeling or action? 5.

What is a beach? a coast? 2. * * * * * BABBLE (page 71). . Is irony kindly or the rever se? badinage? banter? 5. How does each of the above words differ from ba nk? 3. Is ridicule or derision the stronger word? What is the distinction between the two? between satire and sarcasm? between chaff. What is chat? 4. 1. From what land may one be banished? From what expatriated or exiled? 2. QUESTIONS. What words of this group are distinctly hostile? 6. jeering. 1. swelling words of vanity. * * * * * BANK (page 72). 1. QUESTIONS. Which of t hese words is of widest import? Give examples of its metaphorical use. What is the distinctive sense of strand? In what style of writing is it m ost commonly used? 4. * * * * * BANISH (page 72). 1." Two women sat contentedly ----ing. "may ---. and mockery? * * * * * BARBAROUS (page 73). QUESTIONS. What is the special significance of blab and blurt? How do they differ f rom each other in use? 3. "The crane. The dove may ---.of the crane." I said. How is badinage distinguished from banter? raillery from both? 3. QUESTIONS. What is banter? 2.EXAMPLES. What is the distinctive sense of irony? 4.that those who do most for the heathen abroad are most lib eral for the heathen at home. What are the distinctive senses of edge and brink? * * * * * BANTER (page 73). one of them amusing a ----ing babe. Trifling ----s clothed in great.of the dove. By w hom may one be said to be banished? by whom expatriated or exiled? 3. In what sense is jabber used? How does it compare with chatter? EXAMPLES. How does prattling differ from chatti ng? 5. To what class do most of the words in this group belong? Why are they so cal led? 2. It is almost an ---.

slave. W hat special element is commonly implied in savage? 5. 1.within. t o pass Rhene or the Danaw. QUESTIONS. 1. * * * * * BARRIER (page 74). A happy youth. 1. What is the added significance of barba ric? 3. QUESTIONS. and their old age is ---. QUESTIONS. On how many fields may one battle be fought? 5. Or when the gorgeous East.and free. that a natural and secret hatred and aversation toward society . with richest hand. How does pretty compare with beaut iful? handsome? 5. when her ---. In what less opprobrious s ense may barbarous and savage be used? Give instances. 'Twas sung. What is a bar? and what is its purpose? 2. however grand? 3. hath somewhat of the ---.QUESTIONS. that I may be ---. in any man. It is most true.sons Came like a deluge on the south. Would a mountain range be t ermed a bar or a barrier? 5. How does barbarous in general use differ from both the above words? 4. What does fair denote? comely? picturesque? EXAMPLES. how they were ---. Can beau tiful be said of that which is harsh and ragged. How long ma y a battle last? 4. I pray thee. Thou art bought and sold among those of any wit like a ---.in their lives And in their death had not divide . What is a barrier? 3. How is beauti ful related to our powers of appreciation? 4. EXAMPLES. What is the general meaning of conflict? 2. Showers on her kings ---. Which word is ordinarily applied to objects of great extent? 4. What is necessary to constitute an object or a person beautiful? 2. How does eng agement differ from battle? How does combat differ? action? skirmish? fight? * * * * * BEAUTIFUL (page 76). What is a battle? 3. 1. What distinctive name is given to a mass of sand ac ross the mouth of a river or harbor? * * * * * BATTLE (page 74).beast. What is the meaning of barbarian? 2. O God. A multitude like which the populous North Poured never from her frozen loins.pearl a nd gold.

In such a time as this. How are fount. 1.pure. in disc ourse. fountain. The ---. What is an origin? a source? a rise? 3. 1. A merrier man. I never spent an hour's talk wit hal. Though he rose in a mist when his race he began And there foll owed some droppings of rain! * * * * * BECOMING (page 77). Courage. Truth is the ---. What is the meaning of becoming? of decent? of suitable? 2.of every good to gods and men. Urania. it is not ---. Still govern thou my song. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. the mighty attribute of powers above. and spring used in the figurative sense? EXAMPLES. Out from which all glory springs. How lovely and joyful the co urse that he run. From what language is beginning derived? commencement? How do the two words differ in application and use? Give instances.of all brave acts is seated here. Can that which i s worthy or beautiful in itself ever be otherwise than becoming or suitable? Giv e instances. For learning is the ---. how bright was the sun.has the day been. 2. 3. left nothing ---.d been.for your purpose Untouch'd. tho few. Within the limit of ---.audience find. What is the meaning of fit? How does it differ from fitting or b efitting? EXAMPLES. slightly handled. By which those great in war are great in love. It can not be that Desdemona should long continue her love to the Moor. How could money be better spent than in erecting a ---. Indeed. How ---. * * * * * . nor he his to her: it was a violent ----.mirth. and thou shalt see an answerable sequestratio n.That every nice offense should bear his comment.building for the greate st library in the country? * * * * * BEGINNING (page 78).God created the heaven and the earth. and ---. In the ---.

shut the door. QUESTIONS. ---. Good ---. Shut. ---. In me taphorical use. 1. In what sense is benevolence now most commonly used? 3. and not of the hands. How do behavior and conduct differ? 2. What is the special meaning of tie ? 3. QUESTIONS.is a virtue of the heart. I said.all our shattered hopes and bid them bloom again.BEHAVIOR (page 79). ---. What is the special s ignificance of caustic? 4.are made up of petty sacrifices. I'm dead. What of humanity? generosity? liberality? phil anthropy? EXAMPLES. What is the special sense of carriage ? of bearing? demeanor? 3. QUESTIONS. bitter. Give examples of these words in their various uses. In how general a sense is fasten used? 4.and likeness. What is manner? manners? EXAMPLES. What is the distinctive sense of bind? 2. What is the original distinction between benevolence and beneficence? 2. The secrets of life are not shown except to ---.up the knocker. 1. 1. Our thoughts and our ---. make friends with pain. and acrid be distinguished? pungent? caustic? 2. * * * * * BIND (page 81). 1. Which of the above three words is used in a figurative sense? EXAMPLES. * * * * * BENEVOLENCE (page 80). Adjust our lives to loss. * * * * * BITTER (page 81). What words are commonly use d for benevolence in the original sense? 4. * * * * * . How may acid. how are harsh and bitter distinguished? 3. QUESTIONS. good John! fatigu'd. What was the original sense of chari ty? the present popular sense? 5.are our own. say I'm sick.

it was a griev ous ----. What is a defect? a fault? 4. 1. at ha nd. In what style and sense is bourn used? 4. and which to character? EXAMPLES.with fear. What is a blemish? 2. What is the original sense of boundary? 2. And keep the natural ruby of your cheeks. a ---. How do bleach and blanch differ from whiten? from each other? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. . and rude employed? EXAMPLES. 1. Leave them to ---. and open used? 2. QUESTIONS. There are to whom my satire seems too ----. In what sense are blunt. Stout once a month they march. How does it differ from a flaw or taint? 3. * * * * * BOUNDARY (page 84). Which words of this group are naturally applied to reputatio n. rough. b rusk.band And ever but in times of need. We let the years go: wash them clean with tears. * * * * * BLUFF (page 83). The noble Brutus Hath told you Cæsar was ambitious: If it were so. You can behold such sights. How does it differ in usage from bound or bounds? 3. What is the distin ctive meaning of edge? EXAMPLES. Every page enclosing in the midst A square of text that looks a little ----. frank. 1. * * * * * BLEMISH (page 82). 1.out in the open day. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS.BLEACH (page 82). When mine is ---. In what sense are bluff.

Of compute. QUESTIONS. calculate. by actual ----. What is work? 10. QUESTIONS. We turn to dust. Which is used mostly with regard to future probabilities? 3. What is the special sense of adven turous? of bold? of chivalrous? 3. How do you distinguish between count and calculate? compute. How does brave differ from courageous? 2.. A ---.man is also full of faith. * * * * * BUSINESS (page 88). and esti mate. Parted by ----s strong. What i s a vocation? 5. What is the distinctive meaning of barter? 2. What does valiant tell of results? 6. There were 4046 men in the district. What is implied in profession? pursuit? 7.to excel. No crime's so great as ---. What is especially denoted by fearless and intrepid? 5. . * * * * * CALCULATE (page 90). What does business add to the meaning of barter? 3. How do these words differ from venturesome? 4 . 1. Fir'd at first sight with what the Muse imparts. Thy danger chiefly lies in acting well. How does trade differ from commerce? 9. The time of the eclipse was ---.. In worst extremes.Of battle. What ideas are combined in heroic? EXAMPLES.youth we tempt the hei ghts of Arts. 1. QUESTIONS. Rushe d together at last. and on the perilous ---. What (in the strict sense) is an avocation? 6.to a second. * * * * * BRAVE (page 85).So these lives . A man must serve his time to every ----. In ---. and all our mightiest ----s die too. reckon and esti mate? 2. but drawing nearer and nearer. What is a transaction? 8. which is used with especial reference to the future? EXAMPLES. What is occupation? Is it broader than business? 4. 1. What is an art in the industrial sense? a craft? EXAMPLES. Do we use compute or estimate of numbers exactly known? 4. and one was lost in the other.

1. Do the antonyms boisterous. Can you give more than one sense of cry? 4. turbulent. To what classes of objects or states of mind do we apply calm? collected? qu iet? placid? serene? still? tranquil? 2.my servant and he came. Which suggest the most complete removal of all tra ce of a writing? 3.in the ocean depths.conscience is an estimable blessing. Is it possible to obliterate or efface that which has been previously canceled or erased? EXAMPLES.We ask them to ---.approximately the cost of the building. ---. QUESTIONS.for the robin redbreast and the wren.in a voice of thunder to the helmsman. QUESTIONS. How does composed differ from calm? EXAMPLES. 1. if ever. erase . What is the difference in method involved in the verbs cancel. and wild. How do the figurative uses of these words compare with the l iteral? 4. How many of the preceding adjectives can be applied to water? 5. The captain ---. ---. ru ffled. * * * * * CALL (page 91). expunge. The water is said to be always ---. Do we ever apply bellow and roar to human sounds? 3. What is the distinctive meaning of call? 2. I ---. and obliterate? 2. The possession of a ---. Can you contrast calm and quiet? 4.outside. It is practically impossible to clean a postage-stamp that has been properly -- . "Put your helm hard apo rt!" * * * * * CALM (page 91). Are shout and s cream more or less expressive than call? 5. efface. also apply to the same? 3. The pioneers could hear the savages ---. QUESTIONS. * * * * * CANCEL (page 92).on the listening ear of night Fall heaven's melodious strains. excited. 1. so used? EXAMPLES. Which of the words in this group are necessarily and which ordinarily applied to articulate utterance? Which rarely.

* * * * * CANDID (page 93). ---. What is the special differ ence between parody and travesty? between both and burlesque? 3. 1. To what class of things do we apply aboveboard? candid? fair? frank? honest? sincere? transparent? 2. guileles s.-. lift her with ----. An ---. C an you give some of the senses of care? 4. Is an extrava ganza an exaggeration? . * * * * * CARE (page 94).so that it can be used again. What is circumspection? precaution? heed? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. T. 1.as bravery." or "To be candi d" often precedes the utterance of something disagreeable? EXAMPLES. To what is cari cature mostly confined? 4. naive.she seems with artful care Affecting to be unaffected. Take her up tenderly. Can you state the similarity between artless. What is the special difference between care and anxiety? 2. With the aid of a sharp penknife the blot was quickly ----. * * * * * CARICATURE (page 95). Stewart relied on ---.to station sentinels. the inscription had become completely ---.as to disgust the assembly. The sophistry was so ---. How does it happen that "To be frank. QUESTIONS. By lapse of time and elemental action. How do mimicry and imitation differ? 5. A military commander should have as much ---. Is concern as strong a term as anxiet y? 5.man will not steal or defraud. and unsophisticated? How do they differ as a class from the wo rds above referred to? 3. 1. The invaders fancied themselves so secure against attack that they had not take n the ---. A.dealing as the secret of mercantile success. simple. What is the distinctive meaning of caricature? 2. Wherein does car e differ from caution? solicitude from anxiety? watchfulness from wariness? 3. QUESTIONS.

* * * * * CAUSE (page 98). His laughable reproduction of the great actor's vagaries was a clever bit of ---.1. but not a ----. It was found necessary to ---. Wha t is the distinction between bring and carry? between carry and bear? 4. QUESTIONS. * * * * * CATASTROPHE (page 97). a calamity. What do es lift mean? 5. transmit. lift. 1.in his morning fa ce. Gi ve some chief antonyms of the above.EXAMPLES. Is a catastrophe also necessarily a c alamity or a disaster? 3. The failure of the crops of two successive years proved an irreparable ---. The strong man can ---.the war into the enemy's territory. Well had the boding tremblers learned to trace The day's ---. Which word has the broader meaning. If it be not lying to say that a fox's tail is four feet long. Fortune is not satisfied with inflicting one ----. QUESTIONS. What kinds o f force or power do we indicate by convey. it is certainly a huge ----. disaster or calami ty? 4. * * * * * CARRY (page 96). What is a catastrophe or cataclysm? 2. Can you give some figurative uses of carry? EXAMPLES. My punishment is greater than I can ----.the coal overland for a distance of 500 miles. while the loss of a battle may be a ----. Napoleon always endeavored to ---.to the emigrants. or a disaster? 6. Does misfortune suggest as serious a condition as any of the foregoing? 5 . How does a mishap compare with a catastrophe. The eagle nose of the general was magnified in every artist's ----. EXAMPLES. and transport? 3.000 pounds with apparent ease. War and pestilence are properly ----. . To what sort of objects do we apply bear? carry? move? take? 2. 1.

What feelings are combined in chagrin? 2. He is not wholly lost who yet can blush from ----. What is the distinction between change and exchange? Are they ever used as e quivalent.his costume between the acts. Can you distinguish between modify and qualify? EXAMPLES. and how? 2.at the limitations imposed upon him was painfully manifest. * * * * * CHAGRIN (page 100). Ah! let not hope prev ail. We requested the pianist to ---. The tailor offered to ---. What are causality and causation? 5. condition. Which involves a sense of having done wrong? EXAMPLES. humiliation. How are the words cause. What is the central distinction between antecedent and cause? 2. . We often fail to recognize the actor who ---. And the antonyms consequence? effect? outgrowth? result? 4.of the river was found to be a small lake among the hills. vain. and shame? 3. QUESTIONS.QUESTIONS. 1. Where there is an effect there must be also a ----.of the quarrel was really but the ----. * * * * * CHANGE (page 100). 1. QUESTIONS. How are origin and source related to cause? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. Hope tells a flattering tale. It is necessary to know something of the ---. Lest ---. 1. * * * * * CHARACTER (page 102). and hollow. mortification. disappointment.follow. What was given as the ---. The ---.his music by introducing a few popular tunes. How do you distinguish between cha grin. The king's ---.of a man before we can safely tru st him. Delusive. and occasion illustrated by the fall of an avalanche? 3 .the armholes of the coat.

* * * * * CIRCUMSTANCE (page 105). decline. QUESTIONS.is superior to loss or change. Is it a word of broader meaning than incident? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. cull. prefer. 1. . Is nature a broader word than any of the preceding? 3. pick. What are the shades of difference between choose. Does select imply more care or judgment than choose? EXAMPLES.in a case of homicide. Also between the antonyms cast away. Jacob was ---. 1. How does a class differ from a caste? 2. and select? 2.1. If so. When a man deliberately ---. The ---. 1. dismiss. elect.was formed for the relief of the poor and needy of the city. To what classes of things do we apply accompaniment? concomitant? circumstan ce? event? fact? incident? occurrence? situation? 2.to do wrong. yet if the man has not yielded to wrong. What is a coterie? How does it differ from a clique? EXAMPLES.to. In what connection is rank used? or der? 3. * * * * * CHOOSE (page 104). his ---. * * * * * CLASS (page 106). Can you give some instances of the use of circumstance? 3. why? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. Extreme provocation may be a mitigating ---. Misfortune may cause the loss of friends and reputation. An ---. The philanthropist's ---. The prettiest flowers had all been ----. there is little hope for him.to Esau. tho he was the younger. How do you distinguish between character and reputation? constitution and di sposition? 2. for 'tis their ---. r epudiate? 3. Let dogs delight to bark and bite.for charity is often a great source of annoyance to h im. refuse.that there had been a fire was proved by the smoke-blackened walls.

What is the meaning of clever as used in England? 2. There is a struggle of the masses against the ----. What was the early New England usage? 3. . Be good. The room contained a large ---. not dream them. And so make life. What does distinct signify? 5.of miscellaneous objects.met at the residence of one of the leading men of the city. What is the difference between assemblage and assembly? 4. and let who will be ----. What special sense doe s this word always retain? How does transparent differ from translucent? 7. With what meaning is clear used of an object apprehended by the senses. A fellow that makes no figure in ----.A select ---. all day long. 1. What othe r words of this group are preferable to clever in many of its uses? EXAMPLES. How does clear differ from transparen t as regards a substance that may be a medium of vision? 3. death. Do noble things. sweet maid. QUESTIONS. What is plain? 6. What does clear originally signify? 2. To what use is congregation restricted? How does meeting agree with and dif fer from it? EXAMPLES. For what are t hose associated who constitute a company? Is their association temporary or perm anent? 3. sweet so ng. 1. QUESTIONS. Their sober wishes never learned to stray. QUESTIONS. * * * * * CLEAR (page 107). From what is company derived? What is its primary meaning? 2. She was especially ---. What is to be said of the use of smart and sharp? 4. What do lucid and pellucid signify? 8.in song. 1. * * * * * COMPANY (page 110). What is a c onclave? a convocation? a convention? 5. as an object of sight or hea ring? 4. What are the characteristics of a group ? 6. and the vast forever One grand.in the work now a ssigned him. His brief experience in the department had made him very ---. What is the special force of limpid? * * * * * CLEVER (page 109). Far from the madding ----'s ignoble strife.

* * * * * COMPLEX (page 112). These considerations ---. and which is limited to the mental act? 3. How does complex differ from compound? from composite? 2. What is the especial sign ificance of coerce? 4. . The dog gave a low ---. QUESTIONS. Employers may ---.had met. What is heterogene ous? conglomerate? 3. If ye inquire anything concerning other matters. QUESTIONS. that would not be expressed by conscious? EXAMPLES. It is not pleasant to live with one who is constantly ----ing. in the formal sense of the word? 4. 1. What does force imply? 3. By what is complaining prompted? murmuring? repining? 2. QUESTIONS. What is it to compel? 2. What does sensible indicate regarding the emotions. What does constrain imply? In what favorable sense is it used? EXAMPLES. they possessed the power of ---. it shall be determined in a la wful ----. Of what things is one aware? of what is he conscious? 2. but without organization or officers. 1. 1.which frightened the tramp away.A great ---.us to aid them to the utmost of our power. QUESTIONS.us to do justice.their employees into voting as they demand. With whom does one remonstrate? EXAMPLES. * * * * * COMPEL (page 111). * * * * * COMPLAIN (page 112). How does complicated differ from intricate? from involved? * * * * * CONSCIOUS (page 116). How does sensible c ompare with the above-mentioned words? 3. Even if we were not willing. To whom does one complai n. Which finds outward expression. but for the secr et ballot. 1.

discriminate and distinguish? * * * * * CONVERSATION (page 118). 1. * * * * * CONTRAST (page 118). catching an opinion like a cold. QUESTIONS.it would have been better to resist the first temptation. How does conversation diff er from talk? 3. QUESTIONS.from the houses. How does continuous differ from continual? incessant from ceaseless? Give ex amples.To be ---. What is the essential meaning of conversation? 2. To what is th e term infection applied? EXAMPLES. No pestilence is so much to be dreaded as the ---. During the plague in London persons walked in the middle of the streets for fea r of the ---. QUESTIONS.of a stealthy step and a bulk dimly visible through the darkness. 1.of bad example. To what is contagion now limited by the best medical usage? 2. He was ---. * * * * * CONSEQUENCE (page 116).for the most part. QUESTIONS.that you are ignorant is a great step to knowledge. The mob thinks by ---. How do result and issue compare? 3. 1. They are now ---. * * * * * CONTINUAL (page 117). QUESTIONS. 1. How is discourse related to conversation? 4. How does consequence differ from effect? both from result? 2. 1. How is contrast related to compare? 2. What are the special senses of differ entiate. In what sense is consequent used? * * * * * CONTAGION (page 117). What are the speci .

What sort of things decay? putrefy? rot? 2. Is an iniquitous act necessarily criminal? * * * * * DANGER (page 121). How are jeopardy and risk distinguished from danger a nd peril? EXAMPLES. the banquet of the mind. QUESTIONS. * * * * * CONVEY (page 119). and convey apply? 4. To what class of objects does transport refer? 3. In what do convey.al senses of dialogue and colloquy? EXAMPLES. Stir. 1. and transport agree? What is the distinctive se nse of convey? 2. 1. 1. QUESTIONS. Delay always breeds ----. QUESTIONS. the tree's trunk ----. To what clas s of objects do transfer. There can be no ---. . The careful rider avoids running ----.with a great genius. 1. transmit. QUESTIONS. Nor wanted sweet ----. transmit. at your ----! * * * * * DECAY (page 122). Does danger or peril suggest t he more immediate evil? 3. What is the distinctive meaning of criminal? How does it differ from illegal or unlawful? 2. What is the distinctive meaning of danger? 2. The flowers wither. What is the essential difference between decay and decompose? EXAMPLES. who does all the ----ing. What is felonious? flagitious? 3. Which is the predominan t sense of the latter words? * * * * * CRIMINAL (page 120). What is the primary meaning o f iniquitous? 4.

What must a description include? 4. reflect? in meditate? 5. and what must it exclude? 3.in all its bearings. Do we reflect on things past or things to come? 4. ponder. The seer gave an ---. * * * * * DEFINITION (page 124). What are the chief distinctions between deliberate? consult? consider? medit ate? reflect? 2. consider. The legislature ---.of his conduct was patent to all. Which is the more exact. What must a defin ition include.for several days. 1. confer. The ---. Do all of these apply to conduct as well as to speech? 3. Do large gatherings of people consult. 1. The matter was carefully ---. How does an explanation compare with an exposition? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. * * * * * DECEPTION (page 123).by the electric current. The judge decided it to be a case of ----.of terms.of scenery was admirable. QUESTIONS. It was a matter of self-----. Have craft and cunning always a moral element? 5. QUESTIONS. A prompt ---. and debate as commonly used? in deliberat e. 1. or meditate. a definition or a description? 2. How many persons are n ecessarily implied in consult.of the dream. How is deceit distinguished from deception? from guile? fraud? lying? hypocr isy? 2. . Is deception e ver innocent? 4. Many a controversy may be instantly ended by a clear ---. What idea of time is implied in de liberate? EXAMPLES. or delibera te? 3.The water was ---. * * * * * DELIBERATE (page 125). The ---. How is dissim ulation distinguished from duplicity? EXAMPLES.of the difficulty prevented a quarrel. In what respect has interpretation a wider meaning than translation? 5.

1. The adaption of means to ends in nature clearly indicates a ----. What is the distinctive meaning of design? 2. It is the ---. and so proves a ----er. Which word is used especially of objects of sigh t? EXAMPLES. A mathematical ---. . * * * * * DESIGN (page 128). 1. The ---.must be final and conclusive. To what kind of reasoning does demonstration in the strict sense apply? 2. Which is the stronger term? 4. The architect's ---. QUESTIONS.was required.of the sick are sometimes pitiful. W hat is evidence? proof? 3. Does purpose suggest more power to execute than desi gn? 4. QUESTIONS.involved much detail. How does intent specifically differ from purpose? Which term do we use wi th reference to the Divine Being? EXAMPLES.of the voter that decides how his ballot shall be counted. What is the essential difference between illusion and delusion? How does hal lucination differ from both? 2.of the witness was so complete that no further ---. QUESTIONS.was complete. What element is prominent in i ntention? purpose? plan? 3. The ---. 1.* * * * * DELUSION (page 127). The ---. Which is the more comp rehensive? EXAMPLES.of the Almighty can not be thwarted. Hell is paved with good ----. * * * * * DESPAIR (page 129). In the soft light the ---. * * * * * DEMONSTRATION (page 127).

In what order might despair. The ---.of the best trained workman can not equal the precision of a machine. QUESTIONS. He had a natural ---.for scientific investigation.of manipulation.in debate enabled him to evade or parry arguments or attacks which he could not answer. What is the true meaning of verbiage? Should it ever be used as the equivalent o f language or diction? 3. * * * * * DICTION (page 130). The poetic ---.QUESTIONS. From what is adroitness derived? From what dexterity? How might each be rend ered? 2. The utter ---. 1. * * * * * DEXTERITY (page 129). diction. or phraseology? 2. 1. * * * * * DIFFERENCE (page 131). The ---.of Milton is so exquisitely perfect that another word can scarc ely ever be substituted for the one he has chosen without marring the line. discouragement. . each as the result of the previous condition? 2.of a written contract should be such as to prevent misunderstandings. How does skill differ from dexterity? Which can and which can not be communicated? EXAMPLES.he abandoned all endeavor. and what does it signify? 4. How does despondency esp ecially differ from despair? EXAMPLES. How does adroitness differ in use from dexterity? 3. In weak ---. desperation. QUESTIONS. From what is aptit ude derived.of the discourse was plain and emphatic. The ---. and hopelessness f ollow. Which is the more comprehensive word.of their condition was apparent. 1. and by long practise gained an inimitable ---. His ---. What is style? How does it compare with diction or lan guage? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. language.

1." The ---. distinction. QUESTIONS. one must first understand the laws of mechanics. What is the present restriction upon the use of these words in England? What words are there commonly substituted? 4.the color of the goods.spread in the camp and proved deadlier than the sword. An experienced policeman acquires wonderful skill in ----ing criminals. a nd see? 2. disparity.what stars are double. To what sort of objects do we apply behold. * * * * * DISCERN (page 133).should be carefully observed in the use of "shall" and "will. * * * * * DISEASE (page 134). 1. QUESTIONS.a machine. What was the early and general meaning of sick and sickness in English? 2. .between black and white is self-evident. * * * * * DISCOVER (page 133). Let us minutely ---. Is detect often used in a favorable sense? EXAMPLES. 1. H ow long did that usage prevail? 3. What do behold and distinguish suggest in addition to seeing? EXAMPLES. discern. To ---. distinguish. ---. ---.the upright man. What do we mean by "a distinc tion without a difference"? EXAMPLES. observe. What is the distinctive meaning of detect? discover? invent? 2. How do disco ver and invent differ? 3. Which pertain mostly to realities.the law of gravitation. What is the prevalent usage in the United States? EXAMPLES. 1. The proper ---. The ---. Newton ---. With the aid of a great telescope we may ---. QUESTIONS.of our representatives' conduct with their promises is unpardonable. and which are matters of judgment--differ ence. or inconsistency? 2.

and execute? perform and accomp lish? accomplish and complete? EXAMPLES. It is the duty of the legislators to make laws. and ---. (page 137).the just expecta tions of those who have committed to him any trust. It is wonderful how much can be ---. The ---. realize. in a favorable or an unfavorable sense? . W hich is the more inclusive word? 3. distrust. and how are they discriminated from each other? 3. In what sense are fini sh and complete used. surmise.rests either upon the authority of the Scriptures.them .The ---.his duties faithfully. or to motives and intentions? 2. v. or upon a decision of the Church. Do we apply doubt. Is it used. How do we discriminate between fulfil. * * * * * DOUBT. 1. a work of gratitude and affection has been ----. Every one should labor to ---. He is just recovering from a slight ----. and suspect mostly to persons and thin gs.with the most exquisite del icacy in every detail. What is the most comprehensive word of this group? 2. * * * * * DOCTRINE (page 136). 1. It is not good manners to talk of one's ----s. plodding industry without brill iant talents. 1. A duty has been ----. Is mistrust used of persons or of things? 3 . To what matters do we apply the word creed? doctrine? dogma? principle? 2. Is dogma used favorably or unfavorably? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. effect. The work is not only grand in design but it is ---.was found to be contagious. * * * * * DO (page 135). QUESTIONS.by steady. QUESTIONS. A man may have upright ----s even while he disregards commonly received ----s. of the magistrates to ---.

* * * * * DOUBT. We do not ---. . * * * * * DUTY (page 142).my own heart. 1. The jury had ----s of his guilt. To what class of objects do we apply disbelief? doubt? hesitation? misgiving ? 2. then proved to be true.EXAMPLES. Does responsibility imply connection with any other person or thing ? EXAMPLES.in giving our approval. The signature was merely a printed ----.that the earth moves around the sun. Can you give the distinction between a copy and a duplicate? a facsimile. QUESTIONS. We feel no ---. QUESTIONS. 1. I ---. What sort of a copy is a transcript? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. and will open the lock. * * * * * DUPLICATE (page 141).of an organ by the violinist was perfect. This key is a ----.that man from the outset. but still had our ----s as to th e outcome. Do we use duty and right of civil things? or business and obligation of mora l things? 2. n. We did all we could to further the enterprise. I ---. (page 138). Nearly every law of nature was by man first ----. 1. an d an imitation? 2. I go because it is my ----. What meaning has skepticism as applied to religious matters? EXAMPLES. Which of these words most commonly implies an unfavorable meaning? 3. The ---.

for the fray. T o what is expertness limited? EXAMPLES. 1. What are breeding and nurture. an d how do they differ from each other? 6. Is facility active or passive? readiness? 3. and delights an audience. and I will be heard! I am ---.is to cherish and unfold the seed of immortality alrea . but do we not als o rest under some ---. It is often said with equal truth that we ought to take advantage of the ---. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. The true purpose of ---. I am in ----. How is instruction or teaching related to education? 3. Whatever he did was done with so much ----.w hich children possess of learning. 1. What does facility imply? readiness? 5. How does training differ fro m teaching? 4. What does ease im ply. What is discipline? tuition? 5. I will not retreat a si ngle inch. in the sense here considered? Does it apply to action or condition? 2. * * * * * EDUCATION (page 143).to society to exercise a good influence over the children of others? * * * * * EAGER (page 142). He plays the violin with great ----. What is the distinctive meaning of education? instruction? teaching? 2. Hark! the shrill trumpet sounds to horse! away! My soul's in arms. How does anxious in t his acceptation differ from both eager and earnest? EXAMPLES. and to what may it be limited? 4. and of the prospects of the enterprise. 1. * * * * * EASE (page 143). I will not excuse. In him alone 'twas natural to pleas e. QUESTIONS. What does ease denote.We recognize a ---.for the good conduct of our own children. I will not equivocate. How are knowledge and learning related to education? EXAMPLES. and ---.to hear of your welfare. What is the distinction between eager and earnest in the nature of the feeli ng implied? in the objects toward which it is directed? 2.

A branch of ---.is as ill at ease under indifference. and what to God we owe. What is vanity? How does it differ from self-confidence? from pride ? 7. ---. .maketh a full man.to gainsay wh at they did. H ow does effrontery compare with these words? 5. conference a ready man. What is egoism and how does it differ from egotism? 2. Is self-assertion ever a duty? self -conceit? 6. we do learn ourselves to know And what to man. ---. I am not a little surprised at the easy ---. I ne'er heard yet That any of these bolder vices wanted Less ---. and how? 4. By ----. * * * * * EMBLEM (page 146).of Peter and John. but never prop him up. * * * * * EGOTISM (page 145). What is s elf-confidence? Is it worthy or unworthy? 5.is often put to an improper use. What is boldness? Is it used in a favorable or an unfavorable sense? EXAMPLES. Does conceit differ from self-conceit. QUESTIONS. When they saw the ---. 1. and writing an exact man. as tenderness is under the love whic h it can not return. and perceived that they were unlearne d and ignorant men they marvelled. QUESTIONS. * * * * * EFFRONTERY (page 144). For natural abilities are like natural plants that need pruning by ----. Than to perform it first. QUESTIONS.may puff a man up. What is impudence? shamelessness? 4. What is self-esteem? How does it differ from self-conceit? from self-confid ence? EXAMPLES. What is self-assertio n? self-conceit? 3. except they be bounde d in by experience.with which political gentlemen in and out of Congress take it upon them to say that there are not a thousand men i n the North who sympathize with John Brown. for fear of its being idle. and ---s themselves do give forth directions too much at large. What special element does effrontery add to the meaning of audacity and hardihood? 3. 1.dy sown within us. What is audacity? hardihood? 2. ---.

keeping their garments white. What do emigrate and immigrate signify? To what do they apply? Can the two words be used of the same person and the same act? How? EXAMPLES. was a ---. How do the two words compa re as now used? 4. QUESTIONS.by the firm for several months and had proved faith ful in every respect. as Israel's deliverer. All things are ----s: the external shows Of nature have their ---. 1.1. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. (page 148). ---. What is a token? a figure? an image? a type? EXAMPLES.Of those w ho.of stainless purity. What is the distinctive meaning of migrate? What is its application? 2.of Christ. Rose of the desert. 1. What are the distinctive senses of employ and use? Give instances. What one has.are pouring into the United States often at the rate of half a million a y ear. and what reference does end have to intention or expectat . 2. Can t he same thing be both an emblem and a symbol? a sign and a symbol? 6. * * * * * EMPLOY (page 147).a pastor. How does a sign suggest something other than itself? 5.in the mind As flowers and fruits and falling of the leaves. ---. The ship was crowded with ---. v. What d oes use often imply as to materials used? 3. one ought to ----: and whatever he does he should do with all his might. From what language is emblem derived? What did it originally signify? 2. * * * * * EMIGRATE (page 147). What is it to end. Walk on through life with steps aright. 1. The church was then ready to ---. * * * * * END. thou art to me An ---. The young man had been ---.mostly from Germany. Wha t is the derivation and primary meaning of symbol? 3. How does hire compare with employ? EXAMPLES. Moses.

What is the distinctive meaning of extremity? 3. How doe s extremity compare with end? 4. and of what is it chiefly used? ex piration? limit? EXAMPLES. What does strive suggest? 5. QUESTIONS. (page 148). n.of the vast undertaking. (page 149). What is a terminus? What specific meaning has the word in modern t ravel? 7. and finish signify as to expectation or appropriateness? Give instances. a necessary ---. 4. What is the end? 2. (page 150). How does essay differ from attempt and endeavor in its view of the results of the action? 3. What is implied in undertake? Give an instance.to enter in at the strait gate. What reference is implied in extremity? 5. How does try compare with the other words of th e group? EXAMPLES. Do not turn back when you are just at the ----. 3. Seeing that death. The life was suddenly ----. Nothing's so hard but search will find it out. What is the meaning of termination. * * * * * ENDEAVOR. ---. complete. What specially distinctive sense has fini sh? 4.shall be saved. The train ---. and never stand to doubt. Does terminate refer to reaching an arbitrary or an appropriate end? 5. and after call on God. conclude.will come when it will come. * * * * * END. . He that endureth to the ---. W hat does stop signify? EXAMPLES.first thyself. 1. ---. What do close. * * * * * ENDEAVOR. What is it to attempt? to endeavor? To what sort of exertion does endeavor e specially apply? 2. n. All rejoice at the successful ---. QUESTIONS. For to the worker God himself lends aid.long enough for the passengers to get off. What is the meaning of tip? point? How does extremity differ in use from the two lat ter words? 6.ion? 2.the end. 1. ---. v. then whirled on.

What does endure add to the meaning of bear? 3. He that wrestles with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill.is our helper. QUESTIONS. * * * * * ENEMY (page 151).the toothache patiently. . What is the special sense of afford? How does it come into connection with the words of this group? 6. safe guide. How does foe compare with enemy? EXAMPLES. he abandoned all ---. He makes no friend who never made a ----. the path Thou lead'st me.QUESTIONS. Charity ---. charity ---. What is the meaning of bear as applied to care. How does attemp t differ from effort? 3. old age a regret.of nations who had else. and for what p urpose is it made? 5. What is an endeavor. and how is it distinguished from effo rt? from attempt? EXAMPLES.long and is kind. grief. 1. Other s combining with him enabled him to succeed with it. After a few spasmodic ----. Like kindred drops been molded into one.at improvement. Of w hat words does abide combine the meanings? EXAMPLES. This friendship that possesses the whole soul.required more capital than he could command at that time. 1. manhood a ----. So vast an ---. How do allow and permit compar e with the words just mentioned? 4. QUESTIONS. . I follow thee. Our --. What distinction is there between the two words as to the purpose implied? 3. How do put up with and tolerate compare with allow and permit? 5.all things. Mountains interposed Make ---. What is an essay. Youth is a blunder. * * * * * ENDURE (page 150). What is a struggle? 4. For there was never yet philosopher That could ---. What is an enemy? an adversary? 2. What is an effort? an exertion? Which includes the other? 2. pain. What is the sense of brook? 7. can admit of no ----. and the like? 2 .. 1. and to the hand of heav'n ----.. What is an antagonist? an opponent? a compe titor? a rival? 4.

What is the distinctive sense of divert? 3.against God. but beca use it gave ---. But their ----. be put away from you. burnt with redoubled violence. 1. Can one be amused or entertained who is not diverted? 4. do they rank a mong the lighter matters of life? 2. n either indeed can be.to the spectators. The Puritans hated bear-baiting. not because it gave pain to the bear. How do amusement and pastime differ? 3. Who God doth late and early pray More of his grace than gifts to lend. How does animosity differ from enmity? 3. . What is it to entertain mentally? to amuse? 2. The carnal mind is ---. What is bitterness? acrimon y? 5.to fools to do mischief. and evil speaking. accordingly.* * * * * ENMITY (page 152). What is enmity? 2. 1. At Christmas play. Minds are not ever craving for their f ood. No true heart can find ---. What is it to recreate? to beguile? EXAMPLES. and wrath. How does antagonism compare with the words above mentioned? EXAMPLES. however good. It is as ---. QUESTIONS. and anger. * * * * * ENTERTAIN (page 152). QUESTIONS. and clamor. * * * * * ENTERTAINMENT (page 153). QUESTIONS. What do entertainment and recreation imply? How. tho smothered for a while. and make good ----. for it is not subject to the law of God. And ---the harmless day With a religious book or friend. Let all ----. Books can not always ----. What is hostili ty? What is meant by hostilities between nations? 4.in another's pain or grief. 1. How do amusement and enjoyment compare? EXAMPLES. On what plane are sports? How do they compare with entertainment and recreation? 4. For Christmas comes but once a year. with all malice.

amazed and curious. innocent --. 1. In what sense was enthusiasm formerly used? 2. To what does admittance refer? To what additional matter s does admission refer? Illustrate. if I might be judge. 1. but it could never inspire them with an ---. Is jealou s capable of being used in a good sense? 5. The precept had its use. QUESTIONS.against the workers of iniquity. it could make men feel it right to be humane. And so.to him. quiet. He was never so engrossed with cares of state that the needy could not have --. unworthy members will somet imes gain ----. In what sense is suspicious used? EXAMPLES. * * * * * ENTHUSIASM (page 153). QUESTIONS. God never did make a more calm.of humanity. ---. Is an envious spirit ever good? 4. 1. Neither be thou ---. What is the figurative use of entrance? EXAMPLES. What do admittance and admission add to the meaning of entrance? 3.leads to great results in exposing certain evils. How does zeal differ from enthusiasm? EXAMPLES. No ---.was obtained by a side-door. What do we mean when we say that a person is envious? 2. * * * * * ENTRANCE (page 154).grew fast and furiou s. The mirth and ---. * * * * * ENVIOUS (page 155). His ---. What is now its prevalent and controlling meaning? 3. and a good position secured to the crowded ha ll. QUESTIONS. . What is the differe nce between envious and jealous? 3. However carefully church-membership may be guarded.As Tammie glowered. 4. An ardent ---. To what does entrance refer? 2.except on business.than angling.was contagious and they rushed into battle. and desi re to be so.

What is the difference between esteem and estimate? 2.motion. Is esteem now used of concrete valuation? 3. (page 157). ever brought down to such inferior use? EXAMPLES. The loss of conscience or honor is one that can not be ----. Being strong on both sides. they give to get ----. In what inferior senses are everlasting and interminable used? 6. What is its chief present use? 4. * * * * * ETERNAL (page 157). What is the meaning of eternal in the fullest sense? 2.flint. Here comes the lady! Oh. Is eternal. Till seeming blest. it was preordained for thee from ----.in honor.statement may result from the thoughtless use of a single word that is capable of more than one meaning. in g ood speech or writing. What is the derivation and the original signification of equivocal? of ambig uous? How do the two words compare in present use? 2. 1. In what sense is questionab le used? suspicious? EXAMPLES. What is the meaning of eni gmatical? 3.---. 1. How do doubtful and dubious compare? 4. may it be applied? 3. Whatever may befall thee. The ---. To what being. sudden and quick in quarrel. They please. * * * * * ESTEEM. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. are pleas'd. 1. * * * * * EQUIVOCAL (page 155). These sentences.years of God are hers. Truth crushed to earth shall rise again. In what does everlasting fall short of the meani ng of eternal? 4. How does endless agree with and differ from everlasting? 5. . An ---. in th at sense. they grow to what they seem. are ----. to sugar or to gall. It were better to be eaten to death with a rust than to be scoured to nothing w ith ---. n. so light a foot Will ne'er wear out the ---. What is its meaning in popular use as said of persons? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS.

How does any differ from each and every? 3. the victorious troops stood in arms on ---.when The ---.side o f the way. In what are all and both alike? any.person giving such information shall be duly rewarded. and every? 2. How do each and every differ from all? 4. What is the sense of obvious ? 4. What is an episode? 6. Which is the greater and more important? Give examples. How do apparent and evident compare? 2. As the garrison marched out. Coming ---.seem the sport of men. 1. How wide is the range of visible? 5. In order to keep his secret inviolate. my nature is Tha t I incline to hope rather than fear. ---.cast their shadows before. How does circumstance compare with incident? 4. Fate shall yield To fickle ----.person in the room arose to his feet. and Chaos judge the strife. Where an equal poise of hope and fear Does arbitrate the ----. ---. What meaning does event often have when applied to th e future? EXAMPLES.* * * * * EVENT (page 158). QUESTIONS. 3. What is the special sense of manifes t? How does it compare in strength with evident? 3. 1. What is the primary meaning of occurrence? 5. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. How does each compare with every? with both? 5. What is the sense of pal pable and tangible? conspicuous? . he revealed it privately to ---. * * * * * EVIDENT (page 159). How does event differ from end? 7. How does discernible compare with visi ble? What does it imply as to the observer's action? 6.of his most intimate friends. And gladly banish squint suspicion. What does either properly denote? In what oth er sense is it often used? What is the objection to the latter use? EXAMPLES.who should instantly lay down their arms. 1. each. A free pardon was offered to ---. How do event and incident differ etymologically? 2. Men are the sport of ---. * * * * * EVERY (page 158).

to deter others from the like offens e.by his absence. On a comparison of the two works the plagiarism was ----.absurdity.absurdity or contradiction. What is exorbitance? 4. open. Where there is great ---.of philosophy.of wealth is cause of covetousness. * * * * * EXCESS (page 160). The statement is a ---. To what do redundance and redundancy chiefly refer? 7. How does exemplar a gree with. What two contradictory meani ngs does example derive from this primary sense? 3.EXAMPLES. and differ from example? 6. What is the etymological meaning of example? 2. and ---. QUESTIONS.for himself. but only darkness ----. ---. What words are used as synonyms of excess in the moral sense? EXAMPLES. The prime minister was ---. .is the death of self-denial. The commander was resolved to make an ---. What is an exemplification? an ensample? EXAMPLES. These lies are like the father that begets them. We sleep. What is excess? Is it used in the favorable or unfavorable sense? 2. What kind of excess do overplus and su perabundance denote? lavishness and profusion? 5. History is an ---. I bid him look into the lives of men as tho himself a mirror. gross as a mountain. and from others t o take an ---. 1. What is extravagance? 3. A paradox is a real truth in the guise of an ---. 1. Yet from those flames No light.which was weaving when the sun went down is weaving when it comes up to-morrow. How does example differ from sample? 4. but the loom of life never stops and the ---. ---. How does it compare with model? with pattern? 5. QUESTIONS. Is surplus used in the favorab le or unfavorable sense? 6. * * * * * EXAMPLE (page 160). Saving requires self-denial.there usually follows corresponding ----.

1. What is practise? How does it differ from ex ercise? 5.brings want. and promptly --. What is the meaning of execute? of administer? of enforce? 2. QUESTIONS.of language often weakens the impression of what would be impressive in so ber statement. 3.than to any other single cause. How does exercise in that sense differ from exertion? 3. Regular ---. ---. The pasha gave a signal and three attendants seized the culprit. How is practise discriminated from such theory or profession? 6.Haste brings ----. By constant ---. It is the place of the civil magistrate to ---. .tends to keep body and mind in the best working order. * * * * * EXERCISE (page 162). 1.the laws.the bastinado. How are these words now commonly differentiated? 3 . More of the present woes of the world are due to ---. How may exercise be brought up to the full meaning of exertion? 4. How are the wo rds applied in special cases? Give instances. What is drill? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. 1. What secondary meaning has admi nister? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS.the most difficult feats may be done with no apparent ----. What is the meaning of outlay? of outgo? EXAMPLES. and ---. * * * * * EXPENSE (page 162). * * * * * EXECUTE (page 161). I can not illustrate a moral duty without at the same time ----ing a precept of our religion. The ---. ---. What is cost? expense? 2.of the demand caused unfeigned surprise. What is the meaning of exercise apart from all qualifying words? 2.in time becomes second nature.

What did extemporaneous originally mean? 2. The language of the proposition was too ---.to admit of doubt. 1. The entire receipts have not equaled the ----. To what are explicit and express alike opposed? 2. QUESTIONS. * * * * * EXTERMINATE (page 163). while his opponent was at a loss to answer him because not gifted in the same way. and counteth the ----. What is the derivation.lay. what men most admire. * * * * * EXPLICIT (page 162). I came here at this critical juncture by the ---. To what are these words severally applied? EXAMPLES. What has it now come to signify in common use? 3. When the ---. And poure d to lord and lady gay The ---. How do the two words diff er from each other? EXAMPLES.is more than the income. Clare. How does unpremeditated compare with the words above mentioned? EXAMPLES. and what is the original meaning of exterminate? era dicate? extirpate? 2. No more on prancing palfrey borne. intending to build a tower.Which of you. sitteth not down first.address. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. the buffalo h . In ---.order of Sir John St. it b ecomes an absolute necessity to reduce the ----.prayer. What is the original meaning of impromptu? The present meaning ? 4. Now the Spirit speaketh ----ly that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith. How does the impromptu remark often differ from the extemporaneous? 5. God least regardeth. 1. Since the building of the Pacific railroads in the United States. whether he have sufficient to finish it. 1. He carolled light as lark at morn. As a speaker. if the income can not be increased. * * * * * EXTEMPORANEOUS (page 163). he excelled in ---.

faded. What is trust? 9.steps he stayed still. whatever our speculative ----. and recognizes a better law than he obeys.with cold. How does credence compare with belief? 3. * * * * * FAITHFUL (page 165). a mathematical demonstration can not be doubted by a sane mind capable of understanding the terms and following the steps. No inveterate improver should ever tempt me to ---. Great is the strength of ---.is largely involuntary. QUESTIONS. knows better than he practises. What is convict ion? assurance? 4. the evidence of things not seen. 1. and weak with eld. 1. nor in the son of man.in princes. With which his ---. What are confidence and reliance? 8.is the substance of things hoped for. * * * * * FAITH (page 164).arms combined. For he was ---. in whom there is no help. What is a doctrine? a creed? 7. That scarce his loosed limb s he hable was to weld. What elements are combined in faith? 10. QUESTIONS. In his right hand a tipped staffe he held. In what sense may one be c . Every one of us. There are few greater dangers for an army in the face of an enemy than undue ---. In what sense may a person be called faithful? 2.the dandelions from the gre en carpet of my lawn. How does a persuasion compare with an opinion? 6. How is belief dis criminated from faith in the strict religious sense? EXAMPLES. How is belief often used in popular language as a precise equivalent of faith? 11. * * * * * FAINT (page 164). ---. ---. How is faint a synonym of feeble or purposeless? of irresolute or timid? of dim. And we can combat even with the br ave. QUESTIONS. What is belief? 2. What are the chief meanings of faint? 2. What is an opinion? 5. or indistinct? EXAMPLES. 1. Put not your ---.as been quite ----. The evil of intemperance is one exceedingly difficult to ----.

alled trusty? 3. EXAMPLES.that will believe nothing contrary to a creed is often joined with a b lind ---. be unto our God for ever and ever. What is the import of honor? of glory? EXAMPLES.that will believe anything in favor of it. The fierce ---. and blush to find it ----. What is the special difference of meaning between the two words? Give exa mples.Even in the cannon's mouth. and in which sense commonly used? 3. acts nobly. What do fanaticism and bigotry commonly incl ude? 3. and thanksgiving. ---. and po wer and might. The ---. and wisdom. From what do eminence and distinction result? 5. How does renown compare with fame? 7. Is faithful commonly said of things as well as persons? is trus ty? 4. What are reputation and repute. How does celebrity c ompare with fame? 6.unto death. Thy purpose ---. * * * * * FAME (page 166). Great Homer's birthplace seven rival cities claim. What is the distinctive meaning of superstition? 5. What is credulity? Is it distinctively religious? EXAMPLES.is more valuable than money. 1. and I will give thee a crown of life.is a senseless fear of God. Saying.of the Moslems was the mainspring of their early conquests. What is fame? Is it commonly used in the favorable or unfavorable sense? 2. What is fanaticism? bigotry? 2. What is intolerance? 4. A good ---. Be thou ---. and ----. . Amen: Blessing and ----. Seeking the bubble ---. angels could no more.is equal to the deed: Who does the best his circumstance allow s Does well. What is not oriety? 4. QUESTIONS. * * * * * FANCIFUL (page 167). QUESTIONS. 1. Too mighty such monopoly of ----. Do good by stealth. * * * * * FANATICISM (page 166).

1. 1. * * * * * FEAR (page 168). naugh t cares he For number or proportion. and that is a wrong one. What is an intellectual fancy? 2. What is the meaning of fanciful? 2. Come see the north wind's masonry. * * * * * FAREWELL (page 168). Or in the heart or in the head? Elizabeth united the occasional ---.tricks before high heaven As make the angels weep. * * * * * FANCY (page 167). QUESTIONS.QUESTIONS. From what language have adieu and congé been adopted into English? 3. But Marmion stopped to bid ----.tints the year puts on. That fellow seems to me to possess but one ----. she would soon settle.to anybody in the house. What is fanc y as a faculty of the mind? EXAMPLES. Tell me where is ---. How does visionary differ from fanciful? EXAMPLES. How does grotesque especially differ from the fanciful or fantast ic? 4. The train from out the castle drew... 1. What are valediction and valedictory? EXAMPLES.--yet-----. ---.A sound which makes us linger. but not till then. QUESTIONS. What does fantastic add to the meaning o f fanciful? 3. W hat is the special significance of congé? 4. What is an emotional or personal fancy? 4. To what language do farewell and good-by belong etymologically? How do they differ? 2. So ----. What ---. ----! a word that must be. How does a conceit differ from a fancy? a conception from both? 3. If she were to take a ---. . .bred. and hath been-. When falling leaves falter through motionless air Or numbly cling and shiver to be gone! Plays such ---. so savage.of her sex with that sense and sound polic y in which neither man nor woman ever excelled her. his wild work.my paper's out so nearly I've only room for yours sincerely.

What are bonds an d of what material composed? 6. 1. Bound in those icy ---. The ghastly spectacle filled every beholder with ----.I view the fight than thou that mak'st the fray. QUESTIONS. How are female and feminine discriminated? 2. What is panic? What of the numbers af fected by it? 7. and their ---fall. . What are manacles and handcuffs de signed to fasten or hold? gyves? 3. and see Christ's chosen saint In triumph wear his Christ-like chain. Which of these words are used in the metaphorica l sense? EXAMPLES. What is fear? Is it sudden or lin gering? In view of what class of dangers? 3. N o ---. Of what material are all these restraining devices common ly composed? By what general name are they popularly known? 5. Slaves can not breathe in England . The demand for closet-room is no mere ---. What is the generic term of this group? 2. A lingering ---.crept upon him as he waited in the darkness. What is the etymological meaning of horror? What does the word signify in accepted usage? 4. how precious are these ---. With much more ---. What are shackles and what are they intended to fasten or hold? 4.lest he should swerve or faint. fright. Even the bravest men may be swept along in a sudden ----.qualities in the sick room. QUESTIONS.fancy. 1. How are womanly and womanish discrimina ted in use? EXAMPLES. But first set my poor heart free. They touch our country. Notice. and terror? 5. What is the difference between a female voice and a feminine voice? 3. 1. . What are the character istics of affright. What are fetters in the primary sense? 2. * * * * * FETTER (page 169). but the good sense of the sex . What is dismay? How does it compare with fright and terror? EXAMPLES. How is fear contrasted with fright an d terror in actual or possible effects? 6. . too.by thee.QUESTIONS. Look in. * * * * * FEMININE (page 169).

A thing sustained by such substantial evidence could not be a mere ---. When fir st the thoughtful and the free. What is a story? Is it good or bad. the wintry sea Moaned sadly on New England's strand. Ardent. To what does ferocious refer? How do the two wo rds differ? 3." he answered. O scenes surpassing ----. and yet true. true or false? Wit h what words of the group does it agree? EXAMPLES. How does a myth di ffer from a legend? 4. * * * * * FICTION (page 170).of the imagination.was the day. spring from no petty cause.strange is told of thee. 1. How do falsehood and fabrication differ from the words ab ove mentioned? 5. trod the desert land. How does quarrel compare in importance with the other wo rds cited? 4. . and dire. I believe the whole account from beginning to end to be a pure ----." Beware of entrance to a ----. Scenes of accomplished bliss. Is fabrication or falsehood the more odious term? Which term i s really the stronger? 6. Contentions ----. Could we forbear ---. ---. 1. "Between my house and yours. A ---. 1. What is a feud? Of what is it used? 2. Our fathers. QUESTIONS. Is a quarrel in word or act? contenti on? strife? contest? 3. c ontroversy. * * * * * FIERCE (page 171). How does a fiction differ from a novel? from a fable? from a myth? 3. What is a fiction in the most common modern meaning of the word? 2. What does an affray always involve? To what may a brawl or broil b e confined? 5.of five hundred yea rs. "There is a ---. How do these words compare in dignity with contention.* * * * * FEUD (page 170). QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. What does fierce signify? 2. contest. and dissension? EXAMPLES.and practise love We should agree as angels do above. What does savage signify? EXAMPLES.

He was rejoiced to receive the ---. How is it connected with dainty.panic. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. * * * * * FINE (page 172). from th is primary meaning does fine become a synonym of excellent and beautiful? 3. ---. The ---. QUESTIONS. To what does monetary directly refer? 2. pure. What is combustion? 3. From what is fine derived. And scattering wide the ---. In a ---.to a film of dust or a breath of air. In what conn ection is fiscal most commonly used? EXAMPLES. sharp? Give ins tances of the use of fine in its various senses.The ---. Some people are more ---.aid at a time when it was most needed.savages massacred the survivors to the last man. * * * * * FIRE (page 173). in Heaven's array.than wise. tenuous? for keen. clear. How. He's gone. How does fine come to be a s ynonym for minute.of day.year closes with the society out of debt. What is a con flagration? EXAMPLES. many a sound business house goes down for want of power to rea lize instantly on valuable securities. 1. delicate. To what does financial especially apply? 4. EXAMPLES. because so ----ly adjusted as to be ---.feathers do not always make ---. refined? 4. comminuted? How for filmy. and what is its original meaning? 2. How does it come into connection with clarified. How does pecuniary agree with and d iffer from monetary? 3. and who knows how he may report Thy words by adding fuel to the ---? Lo! as he comes. and exquisite? 5. 1. What is the essential fact underlying the visible phenomena which we call fi re? 2. The ----est balances must be kept under glass. How wide is its range of meaning? 4.birds. 1. * * * * * FINANCIAL (page 172). .

Of what is pack used? 7. What is the meaning of fluctuate? 2. What is a liquid? a gas? 4. To what class of animals does brood app ly? to what class does litter apply? 4. Are gases fluids? 6. 1. Of what is bevy used? flock? 5.winds slowly o'er the lea. What is not good for the ---. 1. What is the dif ference in mental action between hesitate and waver? between vacillate and waver ? 4.from her course. * * * * * FLUID (page 174). A ---.to the eye. What is a drove? EXAMPLES. What is a group.* * * * * FLOCK (page 173). He heard the bleating of the ----s and the twitter of birds among the trees. QUESTIONS. undulate. Which of the above-mentioned words apply to persons? which to feelings? EXAMPLES. 1. . What is the most general word of this group? 2. To what is herd limited? 6. What is a fluid? 2. Are gases ever liquids? 7. and of what class of objects may it be composed? 3. It is almost universally true that the human mind ---.of brightly clad women and children were enjoying a picnic under the tre es. In what one characteristic do swerve an d veer differ from oscillate. What substance is at once a liquid and a fluid at the ordinary temp erature and pressure? EXAMPLES. The vessel suddenly ---. QUESTIONS.in my faith. fluctuate. QUESTIONS.is not good for the bee. and waver? 3. The surface of the prairies rolls and ---. The lowing ---. Are all liquids fluids? 5. * * * * * FLUCTUATE (page 173).at the moment of committ ing a crime. Excited ----s gathered at the corners discussing the affair. Into what two sections are fluids divided? 3. Thou almost mak'st me ---.

the Prince. What is a fastness or str onghold? EXAMPLES.in the heart of Antwerp to overawe the city. ---. QUESTIONS. . what is the difference between follow and ensue? r esult? EXAMPLES. This earth was once a ---. 1.Now nature paints her colors. Alva built a ---." * * * * * FORMIDABLE (page 176). A s regards succession in time.the glowing Hours with flying feet. extracting ---.sw eet. EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. What is it to follow? 2. For a man's house is his ----.haze of light. shall my little bark attendant sail. What is the meaning of formidable? 2.as an army with banners. What is the distinctive meaning of citadel? 3. All delays are ---.the triumph and partake the gale ? When Youth and Pleasure meet To ---. How does follow compare with chase and pursue? 3. The great fleet moved slowly toward the forts. "each be hero in his turn! Seven and ye t one.array. QUESTIONS. 1. a ---. A mighty ---." I answered. like shadows in a dream. Say. 1.me. How does a fortress specifically differ from a fortification? 2.in war.is our God. * * * * * FORTIFICATION (page 176). How does formidable differ from danger ous? terrible? tremendous? Give examples. Our helper He amid the flood Of mortal ills prevailing. "Then ---. ---. What is a fort? 4. how the bee Sits on the bloom. * * * * * FOLLOW (page 174). A bulwark never failing.

What is dishonesty? a cheat? a swindle? How do all t hese fall short of the meaning of fraud? 4. Of what relations is treachery used? treason? EXAMPLES. even if he speaks truth gains n o belief.word this same "impossible. * * * * * FRAUD (page 177). How does fortunate compare with successful? 2. Infused with a ---. * * * * * FORTUNATE (page 177). 1. What is fortitude? 2. Unbounded ---. tho u art a man. QUESTIONS.from heaven. and with what reference are favored and prospered used? EXAMPLES." no good comes of those that have it so often in their mouth. ---. It is not a ---. ---. and I Have suffer'd like a girl. if it prosper none dare call i t ----.doth never prosper: what's the reason? Why. QUESTIONS. prove the thousandth part Of my ----.* * * * * FORTITUDE (page 176). 1. The first and the worst of all ---. Ah.and compassion join'd. Tempering each other in the victor's mind . If thine. When I had decked the sea wi th drops full salt. How does it compare with courage? 3. What is the design of an imposture? 3. Tell thy story.is to cheat oneself. How are lucky and fortunate d iscriminated? 3. QUESTIONS. In what special sense.years! once more who would not be a boy? I have a mind presages me such thrift That I should questionless be ----. Thou didst smile. How do resolution and endurance compare? EXAMPLES. . Whoever has once become notorious by base ----. 1. consider'd. What is a fraud? How does it differ from deceit or deception? 2.

QUESTIONS. 1. What is it to scare or terrify? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. at tachment. devotion. How does friendship differ from love? EXAMPLES. peculiar boon of heaven. The loud. 1.Shake the firm nerve. like the rain. loud winds. The noble mind's delight and pride. The child was ---. What does friendly signify as applied to persons. its waters returning Back to their springs. 1. shall fill th em full of refreshment.never was wasted. QUESTIONS. What is frugality? 3. * * * * * FRIENDSHIP (page 179). that o'er the billows sweep-. To men and a ngels only given. What is the meaning of comity and amity ? 4. 1. What is friendship? 2. and friendliness? 3. How does the adjective friendly compare in strength with the noun friend? 3. QUESTIONS. ---the bravest soul! * * * * * FRUGALITY (page 180). A fellow feeling makes one wondrous ----. ---.by the stories the nurse told. ----. What is parsimony? How does it com . If it enrich not the heart of a nother. What is economy? 2. * * * * * FRIGHTEN (page 180). or as applied to acts? 2. In what one quality does it differ from affection. By what is one frightened? by what intimidated? 2. Wha t is the special meaning of accessible? of companionable and sociable? of cordia l and genial? EXAMPLES. He that hath friends must show himself ----.* * * * * FRIENDLY (page 178). To all the lower world denied. Talk not of wasted ----. What is it to browbeat or cow? 3.

in laying out. QUESTIONS.pare with frugality? What is the motive of parsimony? 4.of some person r eferred to. How does general compare with universal? with common? 3. To tame a shrew.the little home was at last paid for and there was a great thanks giving time. What is miserliness? 5. and to man. There are but two ways of paying debt: increase of industry in raising. and of the classific ation in languages containing but two. What is the special application o f verbose? EXAMPLES. What is sex? 2. * * * * * GARRULOUS (page 181). Guard against a feeble fluency.friendships will admit of division. ---. What does general signify? 2. and from each other? 3. the g . * * * * * GENDER (page 181). By close ---. How do talkative and loquacious differ from garrulous. To what beings only does sex apply? 3. Wh at is the motive of economy? EXAMPLES. What is gender? To wh at does it apply? Do the distinctions of gender correspond to the distinctions o f sex? Give examples of languages containing three genders. a facility of saying nothing. 1. one may love the beauty of this. a ---.prosiness. QUESTIONS. What does garrulous signify? chattering? 2. The maternal relation naturally and necessarily divides the work of the ----s g iving to woman the indoor life. 1. the work of the outer world. 1. What is the special characteristic of prudence and providence? of thrift? 6. the lan guage sometimes fails for that very reason to indicate the ---. What illustrations of the differences are given in the text? EXAMPLES. increas e of ---. QUESTIONS. While in French every word is either of the masculine or feminine ----. and charm her ---. * * * * * GENERAL (page 181). EXAMPLES.tongue.

1. By what processes does one acquire? Is the thing acquired sought or desired. To cunning men I will be very kind.in victory as he was terrible in battle. Does a p erson always get what he earns or always earn what he gets? 6. * * * * * GENEROUS (page 182). Death comes to all by ---. * * * * * GET (page 183). QUESTIONS. What does obtain imply? Is the thing one obtains an object of desire? How does obtain differ from get? 7. Wh at does munificent tell of the motive or spirit of the giver? What does generous tell? 5. What is the distinctive sense of munificent? 4. What is the distincti ve meaning of magnanimous? How does it differ from generous as regards dealing w ith insults or injuries? EXAMPLES. Which is the more dependent upon training? EXAMPLES. 1. What is talent? 3. . .. How does disinterested compare with generous? 6. What is a person said to get? 2.law. and so on. and ---. in good brin ging up.. What is especially implied in secure? EXAMPLES. What does win imply? How is one said to win a suit at law? What is the correct term in legal phrase? Why? 8. How is get related to expectation or desire ? How is gain related to those words? 3. or not? 4. What does one earn? 5.feeling of unrest prevailed. 1. What is genius? 2.To mine own children. By what special element does procure diffe r from obtain? 9. How does gen erous differ from liberal? 3. with one resentmen t glows. Which is the higher quality? 4. No great ---. * * * * * GENIUS (page 183).was ever without some mixture of madness. The conqueror proved as ---. QUESTIONS. A ---. What is the primary meaning of generous? the common meaning? 2.well employ'd. The eternal Master found His single ---.ood humor of that person. Burns with one love. QUESTIONS. A ---.friendship no cold medium knows.

What is the primary meaning of give? the secondary meaning? 2. What is to confer? 9.to every man that asketh of thee. What is to grant? 7. What is a gratuity. fish. How is give always und erstood when there is no limitation in the context? 5.him a dinner. What is t he sense and use of largess? 6. What is especially implied in im part? in bestow? EXAMPLES. and to whom given? 5. ---. and from him that would borrow of thee. 1. What is a grant. Is it correct to say "He gave it to me for nothing"? 6.a living as umbrella mender but a poor living it is." cried the heralds. What is a present. . 1. What synonymous word is always used in the evil s ense? 3. Can we give what we are paid for? 4. noble knights. QUESTIONS. ---. One of the pleasantest things in life is to ---. and by whom made? EXAMPLES. fowl. He gave us only over beast. Dominion absolute. What is a benefaction? a donation? What difference of usage is recogniz ed between the two words? 4.the injunction. "----. and to whom given? 7. What is implied when we spea k of granting a favor? 8.upon him the honor of knighthood.He ---. turn not thou away.understanding.all your need according to his riches in glory by Christ Jesu s. What is the special sense of boon? 8. My God shall ---. The courts of justice had fallen so low that it was practically impossible to w in a cause without a ----. ---. In the strange city he found that all his learning would not ---.which God has given To man alone beneath the heaven. The king ---. * * * * * GIVE (page 185). QUESTIONS. True love's the ---.wisdom and with all thy getting. * * * * * GIFT (page 184). ----. that right we hold B y his ----. What is a gift? Is gift used in the good or the bad sense? Does the legal ag ree with the popular sense? 2. The court promptly ---.instruction to those who reall y desire to learn. Can we give w hat is undesired? 3.

Daniel Webster well described the character of "Old Hickory" in the sentence. that made them do it. What two chief senses has affliction? 4. How do command and control differ? 3. in its most common acceptation? EXAMPLES.also.* * * * * GOVERN (page 185). What is grief? 2.which is but for a moment. 1. He that ---. but I d o say that General Jackson meant to ---. and some ---. What private ---. QUESTIONS. For some must follow.Tho all are made of clay. QUESTIONS." * * * * * GRACEFUL (page 186). . What does the word govern imply? How does it differ from control? 2. What does graceful denote? How is it especially distinguished from beautiful ? EXAMPLES. * * * * * HABIT (page 187). We glory in ---. 1. 1. QUESTIONS.his country well. worketh for us a far more exceedi ng and eternal weight of glory.myrtle rear'd its head. What is it to manage? 6.his country.upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings that publisheth peace. How do rule and govern differ? 4. For our light ---. How does grief compare with sorrow? with sadness? with mel ancholy? 3. What is implied in mourning .they have. What is the pres ent meaning of reign? How does it compare with rule? EXAMPLES. " I do not say that General Jackson did not mean to ---. How ---.his spirit is greater than he that taketh a city. What is the spe cial significance of sway? of mold? 5. A ---. * * * * * GRIEF (page 187). alas! I know not.

him. What does happen signify? 2.the graceless renegade! It ---.of wheat. and pleasure? wit . How do both befall and betide differ from happ en in grammatical construction? 5. What element does habit add to custom and routine? 3. as the ---.is preserved and increased by correspondent actions. Every ---.little that is valuable is ever learned or done.of walking by walking. but bear grain. Without ---. of running by running. How does happi ness differ from comfort? 4. Is trans pire correctly used in the sense of happen? When may an event be properly said t o transpire? EXAMPLES. it may ---. What is fashion? rule? system? 5. What is the distinctive meaning of betide? 4. Whatever ---.QUESTIONS. and how do they differ from each other? 6. How does pleasure compare with comfort and enjoyment? with happiness? 6. 1. Should we preferably use custom or habit of a society? of an individual? 4. QUESTIONS.that a secret treaty had been previously concluded between the powers. What is gratification? satisfaction? 2.makes perfect. Lord Brougham says "The longer I live the more careful I am to entrust everythi ng that I really care to do to the beneficent power of ----. What is happiness? 3. If mischief ---. How does comfort differ from enjoyment? 5. 1. Thou sowest not that body that shall be. thou shalt bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the gr ave. What i s the distinctive meaning of wont? EXAMPLES. What are use a nd usage. * * * * * HAPPEN (page 188).at all ---. Ill ---. What is practise? 7. comfort. satisfaction. or of some other grain. How does it differ from chance? 3. What is custom? routine? Which is the more mechanical? 2. Montaigne is wrong in declaring that ---. 1. * * * * * HAPPINESS (page 189). What do gratifi cation and satisfaction express? How do they compare with each other? 7. How doe s happiness compare with gratification. and not because it is reasonable or just. What is the meaning of supervene? 6.as it should.ought to be followed simply because i t is ----." ---. QUESTIONS.

* * * * * HAPPY (page 190). What is harmony? 2. ---. .days. The speaker was. I would not spend another such a night. QUESTIONS.accident is it that we owe so unexpected a visit. by general ----.are they that mourn for they shall be comforted. How do consent and co ncurrence compare? EXAMPLES.heart maketh a ---. We have made a covenant with death and with hell are we at ----. This is the very ---.brightens his crest. There is no ---. What is consistency? 6. What is triumph? ble ssedness? bliss? EXAMPLES.countenance. What is the original meaning of happy? With what words is it allied in this sense? 2. In what way is happy a synonym of blessed? 3. allowed to proceed. QUESTIONS. but within the house all was brightness and ----. How do conco rd and accord compare with harmony and with each other? 4. The storm raged without. To what ---.of religious belief. What is the meaning of h appy in its most frequent present use? EXAMPLES. 1. * * * * * HARMONY (page 191). What is conformity? c ongruity? 5.h delight and joy? 8.in religious observa nces without ---. Tho 'twere to buy a world of ---.of love. What is delight? ecstasy? rapture? 9. What is unanimity? 7. How does harmony compare with agreement? 3. Sweet is ---.so sweet and abiding as that of doing good. from the reciprocal struggle of discordant powers draws out the ---. Virtue alone is ---. A ---.of the uni verse. Tyrants have made desperate efforts to secure outward ---. That action and counteraction which. in the natural and in the political world. Hope elevates and ---.below. 1.after pain.

Is harvest capable of figurati ve use.turned. But fell like autumn ---. What is the original meaning of harvest? its later meaning? 2. To what is have applied? How widely inclusive a word is it? 2.that mellowed l ong. What does pos sess signify? 3. W hat is the meaning of proceeds? yield? return? 5. and revenge. QUESTIONS.* * * * * HARVEST (page 192).like love to ---. How does harv est compare with crop? 3. What are grudge. The slight put upon him filled him with deep ----. QUESTIONS. and in what sense? 6.of the new-mown hay gives it a sweet and wholesome odor. the law presumes ----. How does own compare with possess or with be in possession? 6 . and how do they compare wit h one another? EXAMPLES. What is to hold? to occupy? 4. What is the difference between the statement that a man has reason. What is repugnance? aversion? 2. And the ripe ---. What is produce? How does it differ from product? 4. What is malice? malignity? 4.for the man. resentment. and she laughs with an abundant ----. I felt from our first meeting an instinctive ---. 1. QUESTIONS. How does be in possession compar e with possess? 5. and the st atement that he is in possession of his reason? . In all cases of wilful injury to person or property. Just tickle the earth with a hoe. 1. What is the special meaning of harvest-home? harve st-tide? harvest-time? EXAMPLES. How does hatred compare with aversion as ap plied to persons? as applied to things? 3. which on acquain tance deepened into a settled ----. What is spite? 5. * * * * * HAVE (page 194). 1. * * * * * HATRED (page 193). He ne'er bore ---.for stalwart blow Ta'en in fair fight from gallant foe. Of no distemper. of no blast he died.of love is there. It soweth here with toil and care But the ---. Heaven has no ---.

Ho w do accident and casualty differ? 5. Which is used in excitement or emergenc y? 3. QUESTIONS. or ---. thou art ever with me.nature. * * * * * HELP (page 195). What is a contingency? EXAMPLES.yourselves of solid reason s.play let my first years be passed. There is no ---. and I will stand the ---. QUESTIONS. In what se nse is salubrious used. We must take the current when it serves or lose our ----. I earnestly entreat you. How do cooperate and assist differ? 6. Son. Blessed is the ---.EXAMPLES. I have set my life upon a cast. He occupies the house. to ---.in doing known duty. Do you think it necessary to provide for every ---. 1. * * * * * HAZARD (page 194). To what do encourage and uphold refer? succor and support ? . In books. Ho w do risk and venture compare with chance and hazard. Is help or aid the stronger term? 2. Which implies the secon ding of another's exertions? Do we aid or help the helpless? 5. but does not ---. or work. What is the meaning of hazard? 2. 1. What are the chief synonyms of healthy? of healthful? 3. Does help include aid or does aid include help? 4. and with each other? 4.before taking the first ste p? * * * * * HEALTHY (page 195). not the se lf-distracting one.is thine. it is the coherent. for your own sakes.of the die. 1. QUESTIONS. What is the meaning of healthy? of healthful? Are the words properly interch angeable? 2.it. and all that I ---. sweetly cooperative. and to what is it applied? 4. How does hazard compare with danger? 3. To what realm does salutar y belong? EXAMPLES.

after the first and second admonition.alike resisted the tyranny of James II. 1. Courtier and patriot can not mix Their ---. reject. Men use thought only as authority for their injustice.their thoughts. When are substances heterogeneous as regards each other? 2. He does not prevent a crime when he can ---.it.the mind ---. Which is the most general term of this group.the body too. A man that is an ----. How are the terms dissenter and non-conformist usually ap plied? EXAMPLES. if any? 3.politics Without an effervescence. QUESTIONS. 1. What is it to cover? to screen? EXAMPLES. I s an object hidden by intention. How does miscellaneous differ from heteroge neous? EXAMPLES. * * * * * HIDE (page 197). and employ speech only t o ---. said to be heterogeneous? when homogeneous? 3. Ye little stars! ---. Churchmen and ---. or in what other way or ways.your diminished rays. QUESTIONS. Does c onceal evince intention? 4. How do a heretic and a schismatic ofte n differ in action? 4. My second son received a sort of ---. What is the special significance of non-homogeneous? 4. * * * * * HERETIC (page 196). * * * * * HETEROGENEOUS (page 196). In what does a heretic differ from his c hurch or religious body? a schismatic? 3. When is a mixtur e.EXAMPLES. and what does it signify? 2. * * * * * . as cement. 1. What is a heretic? a schismatic? 2. QUESTIONS. How does secrete compare with conceal? How is it chi efly used? 5. Know then whatever cheerful and serene ---.education at home.

. What is towering in the literal. What is the meaning of retard? 5. ---. What kind of a term is high? What does it signify? Give instances of the rel ative use of the word. What is it to hinder? 2. How do the words above mentioned compare with exalted? 7.overarched. How does history differ from annals or chronicles? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. What element does lofty add to the meaning of high or tall? 5.steep.the Devil. ---. ---. 1.is philosophy teaching by example. What is it to obst ruct? to resist? How do these two words compare with each other? EXAMPLES. divinely ---. and echoing walks between. QUESTIONS.are dulled. As it fitfully blows. half discloses? He knew Himself to sing. What is the special significance of tall? 4. What is that which the breeze on the ---. My tears must stop.is little else than a picture of human crimes and misfortunes. QUESTIONS.that advance of age or death which can not b e ----. half con ceals. * * * * * HISTORY (page 200). How does hind er compare with prevent? 4.HIGH (page 198).rime. for every drop ---. It is the study of mankind to ---. Happy the people whose ---. A daughter of the gods.my needle and thread. A pillar'd shade. and he will flee from you. and build the ---. 1. What is history? How does it relate events? To what class of events does it apply? 2. ---. How does high compare with deep? To what objects may t hese words be severally applied? 3. and in the figurative sense ? EXAMPLES. How does hinder differ from delay? 3. 1.and most divinely fair. How do elevated and eminent compare in the literal sense? in the figurative? 6. 2. * * * * * HINDER (page 199). What contrasted uses has high in the f igurative sense? 8.

1. but it is not a ----. dwelling. What is the meaning of sacred? 2. ---. * * * * * HOME (page 201).man's the noblest work of God. An ---. A house without love may be a castle or a palace. does it differ from honorable? EXAMPLES. In what sense is divine loosely used? What is its more appropriate sense? EXAMPLES. in this sense. undisguised murder will be any longer allowed to confound itse lf with the necessities of ---. A ---.* * * * * HOLY (page 200). An ---.giddy and unsure Hath he that buildeth on the vulgar heart. How will the merely honest and the truly honorable man differ in acti on? 4. What is the meaning of honest in ordinary use? 2. 1. What is honest in the highest and fullest sense? How.burden is this life ye bear.is a predestinat ed failure. No form of pure.time is quiet as a nun breathless with adoration. What is the meaning of hon orable? 3. and habitation? What differenc e is there in the use of these words? 2.inspiration of the Christian Scriptures. How does it compare with holy? 3. Which te rm do we apply directly to God? 4. From what language is home derived? Wha t is its distinctive meaning? EXAMPLES.warfare. The attempt to abolish the ideal woman and keep the ideal ---. QUESTIONS. The ---. . What is the general sense of abode. 1.labor bears a lovely face. All sects and churches of Christendom hold to some form of the doctrine of the ---. QUESTIONS. * * * * * HONEST (page 202). QUESTIONS. Love is the life of a true ----.

* * * * * HORIZONTAL (page 202). liberty.of proffered peace. who for that purpo se retained in their possession forests in every part of the kingdom. How are these words used in the figurative senses? EXAMPLES.sea sunk.formed the principal amusement of our Norman kings. delude the Latian prince. Sun and moon were in the ---. What is its original meaning? its most common presen t sense? In what derived sense is it often used? 4. 1.is a fawning and flexible art. What is a hunt? 2. QUESTIONS. Among the inalienable rights of man are life. with a feigned ---. How does affectation compare with hypocrisy? EXAMPLES. * * * * * HUNT (page 203). but they shall know The stag at bay's a dangerous foe. From what l anguage is flat derived? 3. and what does it signify? 2. For what is a chase or pursuit conducted? a search? 3. 1. QUESTIONS. What does horizontal signify? How does it compare with level? 2. All things have an end. * * * * * .pavement. and so did our ---. What is pietism? formalism? s ham? 5. ---.is up. What is hypocrisy? 3. QUESTIONS. The prominent lines in Greek architecture were ----. Wh at does hunt ordinarily include? 4. 1. Is it correct to use hunt when search only i s contemplated? 5. Let not the Trojans. What are the senses of plain and plane? EXAMPLES. What is cant? sanctimoniousness? 4.for lodgings. * * * * * HYPOCRISY (page 204). From what language is pretense derived. which accommodates itself to human feelings . The ---. The ---. and not vertical. and the ---. and flatters the weakness of men in order that it may gain its own ends.of happines s. Ample spaces o'er the smooth and ---.

and what did it originally mean? 2. QUESTIONS. It is the weakest sort of politicians that are the greatest ----. . QUESTIONS. How are hypocrite and di ssembler contrasted with each other? 4. In the reign of Henry VII. What element is common to the cheat and the impostor? How do the two compare with each other? EXAMPLES. All rests with those who read. QUESTIONS. What is a guess? a conjecture? a supposition? a surmise? 3. What is a hypothesis? What is its use in scientific investigation and study? 2. Wha t common term includes the other words of the group? 3.Is what each makes it to himself. an ----. laid claim to the En glish crown. built on nothing firm. tho widely accepted by men of science fails of proof at m any important points. What did idea signify in early philosophical use? 3. 1. * * * * * IDEAL (page 206). fancies.of greatness must always have had a very low st andard of it in his mind. What is its present popular use . 1. and with what words is it now synonymous? EXAMPLES. What implication does surmise ordinarily convey? What is a theory? a scheme? a speculation? How do they differ? EXAMPLES. The development ----. ----. 1. From what language is idea derived. A work or ---. * * * * * IDEA (page 206). He who comes up to his own ---.HYPOCRITE (page 204). I dare swear he is no ---. * * * * * HYPOTHESIS (page 205).than those of the human mind. There are no other limits to ---.. named Perkin Warbeck.but prays from his heart. From what language is hypocrite derived? What is its primary meaning? 2.

of the man.to be wise. QUESTIONS. and what is its original meaning? 2. What is the meaning of illiterate? 3. How do folly and foolishne ss compare with idiocy? 5. From what language is idle derived. Is an ideal primal. What is an original? 6. How are idea and ideal contrasted? EXAMPLES. As the door turneth upon his hinges. Be a ---. QUESTIONS. How does unlettered compare with illiterate? .stream was covered with a green scum. 'tis ---. or the result of developmen t? 5. Never ---. but thrifty and thoughtful of others. is litt le less than ----. * * * * * IGNORANT (page 208). What does lazy signify? How does it differ from idle? 4. QUESTIONS. or attainment without application.to others and then all will go well. What is imbecility? How does it compare with idiocy? 3. What is an archetype? a prototype? 3. What does ignorant signify? How wide is its range? 2. To expect an effect without a cause. Can a prototype b e equivalent to an archetype? 4. 1. Where ignorance is bliss. Wh at does inert signify? sluggish? 5. The ---. What is an ideal? 2. Wha t does idle in present use properly denote? Does it necessarily denote the absen ce of all action? 3. 1.QUESTIONS. What is the standard? How does it compare with the ideal? 7. The mind's the ---. H ow does insanity differ from idiocy or imbecility? 4. What is idiocy? 2.of what he should be. and what does it denote? 6. How does indolent compare with slothful? EXAMPLES.turn upon his bed. Every man has at times in his mind the ---. What is fatuity? stupidity? EXAMPLES. 1. so doth the ---.a moment. In what realm does slothful belong. but is not. * * * * * IDLE (page 208). * * * * * IDIOCY (page 207). 1.

for we are well able to overcome it.EXAMPLES.does always las t. the poet's pen Turns them to shapes. While ----. What is fantasy or phantasy? In what mental actions is it manifested? 4.bodies forth The forms of things unknown. Into what two parts was imagination divided in the old psychology? 2. Nothing is there to come. Is immediately losing anything of its force? What w ords now seem more emphatic? EXAMPLES. And as ---. What d id directly formerly signify. 1. What n ame is now preferably given to the so-called Reproductive Imagination by Preside nt Porter and others? 3. * * * * * IMAGINATION (page 209). like the finger of a clock. and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name. I was as a beast before thee. QUESTIONS. What is the primary meaning of immediately? Its meaning as an adverb of time ? 2. and is still at home. and mechanical invention. From what language is dip derived? from what immerse? 2. and how? EXAMPLES. But an eternal ---. Runs the great circuit. 1. How is imagination defin ed? fancy? 6. QUESTIONS. Let us go up ----. * * * * * IMMEDIATELY (page 211). How do the two word s differ in dignity? How as to the completeness of the action? How as to the con . A boy is better unborn than ----. and what does it now commonly mean? 4. What did by and by formerly signify? What is its present meaning? 3. scien ce. Obey me ----! * * * * * IMMERSE (page 212). What change has presently undergone? 5. To what faculty of the mind do both of these activities or powers belong? 7. 1. What is fantasy in ordinary usage? 5. So foolish was I and ----. In what other respects do imagination and fancy agree? What is the on e great distinction between them? How do they respectively treat the material ob jects or images with which they deal? Which power finds use in philosophy. and possess it. and nothing past. QUESTIONS.

1. The ships of war. What does submerge imply? 5. were ---. Something between a ---. portents. What is a hindrance? 4. ----s overcome are the stepping-stones by which great men rise.by the Merrimac. Demosthenes became the foremost orator of the world in spite of an ---. QUESTIONS. Congress and Cumberland. QUESTIONS.its dead.and a help.in his speech. What does rudeness su . Is an impediment wha t one finds or what he carries? Is it momentary or constant? What did the Latin impedimenta signify? 5. * * * * * IMPEDIMENT (page 213). What does impediment primarily signify? obstacle? obstruction? 2. How does o bstacle differ from obstruction? 3. What are douse and du ck? 6. And these she does apply for warnings. When food can not be swallowed. Thus far into the bowels of the land Have we march'd without ----. What special sense has dip which the other words do not share? EXAMPLES. And evils ----.fall. How does threateni ng differ from the two words above given? EXAMPLES. howe'er pleasant! Let the dead Past ---.the body in nutri tive fluids.tinuance of the object in or under the liquid? 3. From what language is imminent derived and with what primary sense? impendin g? 2. Is a difficulty within one or without? EXAMPLES. * * * * * IMPUDENCE (page 213). life may be prolonged by ---. What does impertinence primarily denote? What is its common acceptation? 2. Which word is preferably used as to the rite of baptism? 4. * * * * * IMMINENT (page 212). QUESTIONS. 1. How do imminent and impending differ in present use? 3. What is officiousness? 4. Trust no Future. What is an encumbrance? How does it differ from an obsta cle or obstruction? 6. And nodding Ilium waits the ---. What is impudence? insolence? 3. 1.

ggest? EXAMPLES. With matchless ---- they style a wife The dear-bought curse, and lawful plague of life. It is better not to turn friendship into a system of lawful and unpunishable ---. A certain class of ill-natured people mistake ---- for frankness. * * * * * INCONGRUOUS (page 214). QUESTIONS. 1. When are things said to be incongruous? 2. harmonious? 3. What does incompatible signify? atible? 4. To what does inconsistent apply? 5. these words are given in the text? 6. What is EXAMPLES. No solitude is so solitary as that of ---- companionship. I hear a strain ---- as a merry dirge, or sacramental bacchanal might be. * * * * * INDUCTION (page 215). QUESTIONS. 1. What is deduction? induction? 2. What is the proof of an induction? 3. What process is ordinarily followed in what is known as scientific induction? 4. How do deduction and induction compare as to the certainty of the conclusion? 5. How does an induction compare with an inference? EXAMPLES. The longer one studies a vast subject the more cautious in ---- he becomes. Perhaps the widest and best known ---- of Biology, is that organisms grow. * * * * * INDUSTRIOUS (page 215). QUESTIONS. 1. How does busy differ from industrious? 2. What is the implication if we say one is industrious just now? 3. What does diligent add to the meaning of industr ious? EXAMPLES. Look cheerfully upon me, Here, love; thou see'st how ---- I am. To what is discordant applied? in When are things said to be incomp What illustrations of the uses of the meaning of incommensurable?

The ---- have no time for tears. * * * * * INDUSTRY (page 216). QUESTIONS. 1. What is industry? 2. What does assiduity signify as indicated by its etymolo gy? diligence? 3. How does application compare with assiduity? 4. What is consta ncy? patience? perseverance? 5. What is persistence? What implication does it fr equently convey? 6. How does industry compare with diligence? 7. To what do labo r and pains especially refer? EXAMPLES. Honors come by ----; riches spring from economy. 'Tis ---- supports us all. There is no success in study without close, continuous, and intense ----. His ---- in wickedness would have won him enduring honor if it had taken the fo rm of ---- in a better cause. * * * * * INFINITE (page 216). QUESTIONS. 1. From what language is infinite derived, and with what meaning? To what may i t be applied? 2. How do countless, innumerable, and numberless compare with infi nite? 3. What is the use of boundless, illimitable, limitless, measureless, and unlimited? 4. What are the dimensions of infinite space? What is the duration of infinite time? EXAMPLES. My bounty is as ---- as the sea, my love as deep, the more I give to thee, the more I have, for both are ----. Man's inhumanity to man makes ---- thousands mourn. * * * * * INFLUENCE (page 217). QUESTIONS. 1. What is it to influence? is one influenced by external or internal force? 2. To what kind of power does actuate refer? Does one person actuate or influence another? 3. What do prompt and stir imply? 4. What is it to excite? 5. What do i ncite and instigate signify? How do these two words differ? 6. What do urge and impel imply? How do they differ in the source of the power exerted? 7. What do d rive and compel imply, and how do these two words compare with each other? EXAMPLES. He was ---- by his own violent passions to desperate crime.

And well she can ----. Fine thoughts are wealth, for the right use of which Men are and ought to be ac countable, If not to Thee, to those they ----. * * * * * INHERENT (page 218). QUESTIONS. 1. What does inherent signify? 2. To what realm of thought does immanent belong ? What does it signify? How does it differ from inherent? Which is applied to th e Divine Being? 3. To what do congenital, innate, and inborn apply as distinguis hed from inherent and intrinsic? 4. With what special reference does congenital occur in medical and legal use? 5. What is the difference in use between innate and inborn? 6. What does inbred add to the sense of innate or inborn? 7. What is ingrained? EXAMPLES. An ---- power in the life of the world. All men have an ---- right to life, liberty, and protection. He evinced an ---- stupidity that seemed almost tantamount to ---- idiocy. Many philosophers hold that God is ---- in nature. Any stable currency must be founded at last upon something, as gold or silver, that has ---- value. The wrongs and abuses which are ---- in the very structure and constitution of society as it now exists throughout Christendom. * * * * * INJURY (page 219). QUESTIONS. 1. From what language is injury derived? What is its primary meaning? Its deriv ed meaning? 2. How inclusive a word is injury? 3. From what is damage derived, a nd with what original sense? detriment? How do these words compare in actual use ? 4. How does damage compare with loss? How can a loss be said to be partial? 5. What is evil, and with what frequent suggestion? 6. What is harm? hurt? How do these words compare with injury? 7. What is mischief? How caused, and with what intent? EXAMPLES. Nothing can work me ----, except myself; the ---- that I sustain I carry about with me, and never am a real sufferer but by my own fault. Hippolyta, I woo'd thee with my sword, And won thy love, doing thee ----. * * * * * INJUSTICE (page 220).

QUESTIONS. 1. What is injustice? 2. How does wrong differ from injustice in legal use? How in popular use? 3. What is iniquity in the legal sense? in the common sense? EXAMPLES. War in men's eyes shall be a monster of ----. No man can mortgage his ---- as a pawn for his fidelity. Such an act is an ---- upon humanity. * * * * * INNOCENT (page 220). QUESTIONS. 1. What does innocent in the full sense signify? 2. Is innocent positive or neg ative? How does it compare with righteous, upright, or virtuous? 3. In what two applications may immaculate, pure, and sinless be used? 4. With what limited sen se is innocent used of moral beings? 5. In what sense is innocent applied to ina nimate substances? EXAMPLES. They are as ---- as grace itself. For blessings ever wait on ---- deeds, And tho a late, a sure reward succeeds. The wicked flee where no man pursueth, but the ---- are bold as a lion. A daughter, and a goodly babe; ... the queen receives Much comfort in't: says, My poor prisoner, I am ---- as you. * * * * * INQUISITIVE (page 221). QUESTIONS. 1. What are the characteristics of an inquisitive person? 2. Is inquisitive eve r used in a good sense? What, in that sense, is ordinarily preferred? 3. What do es curious signify, and how does it differ from inquisitive? EXAMPLES. His was an anxiously ---- mind, a scrupulously conscientious heart. Adrian was the most ---- man that ever lived, and the most universal inquirer. I am ---- to know the cause of this sudden change of purpose. * * * * * INSANITY (page 221). QUESTIONS.

1. What is insanity in the widest sense? in its restricted use? Which use is th e more frequent? 2. From what is lunacy derived? What did it originally imply? I n what sense is it now used? 3. What is madness? 4. What is derangement? deliriu m? 5. What is the specific meaning of dementia? 6. What is aberration? 7. What i s the distinctive meaning of hallucination? 8. What is monomania? 9. What are fr enzy and mania? EXAMPLES. Go--you may call it ----, folly--you shall not chase my gloom away. All power of fancy over reason is a degree of ----. * * * * * INTERPOSE (page 222). QUESTIONS. 1. What is it to interpose? 2. How does intercede differ from interpose? 3. Wha t is it to intermeddle? How does it differ from meddle? from interfere? 4. What do arbitrate and mediate involve? EXAMPLES. Dion, his brother, ---- for him and his life was saved. Nature has ---- a natural barrier between England and the continent. * * * * * INVOLVE (page 223). QUESTIONS. 1. From what language is involve derived, and with what primary meaning? 2. How does involve compare with implicate? 3. Are these words used in the favorable o r the unfavorable sense? 4. As regards results what is the difference between in clude, imply, and involve? EXAMPLES. Rocks may be squeezed into new forms, bent, contorted, and ----. An oyster-shell sometimes ---- a pearl. ---- in other men's affairs, he went down to their ruin. * * * * * JOURNEY (page 223). QUESTIONS. 1. From what language is journey derived? What is its primary meaning? Its pres ent meaning? 2. What is travel? How does it differ from journey? 3. What was the former meaning of voyage? its present meaning? 4. What is a trip? a tour? 5. Wh at is the meaning and common use of passage? of transit? 6. What is the original meaning of pilgrimage? How is it now used?

EXAMPLES. ---- makes all men countrymen. All the ---- of their life is bound in shallows and in miseries. It were a ---- like the path to heaven, To help you find them. * * * * * JUDGE (page 224). QUESTIONS. 1. What is a judge in in common use? 3. What s the popular sense of biter? 6. What are the ed? EXAMPLES. The end crowns all, And that old common ----, Time, Will one day end it. A man who is no ---- of law may be a good ---- of poetry. The ---- is only the mouth of law, and the magistrate who punishes is only the hand. * * * * * JUSTICE (page 225). QUESTIONS. 1. What is justice in governmental relations? in social and personal relations? in matters of reasoning or literary treatment? 2. To what do integrity, rectitu de, right, righteousness, and virtue apply? What do all these include? 3. What t wo contrasted senses has lawfulness? 4. To what does justness refer, and in what sense is it used? EXAMPLES. ---- exalteth a nation. ---- of life is fame's best friend. He shall have merely ----, and his bond. * * * * * KEEP (page 226). QUESTIONS. 1. What is the general meaning of keep? 2. How does keep compare with preserve? fulfil? maintain? 3. What does keep imply when used as a synonym of guard or de fend? the legal sense? 2. What other senses has the word judge is a referee, and how appointed? an arbitrator? 4. What i umpire? the legal sense? 5. What is the present use of ar judges of the United States Supreme Court officially call

EXAMPLES. These make and ---- the balance of the mind. The good old rule Sufficeth them,--the simple plan, That they should take who h ave the power And they should ---- who can. ---- thy shop, and thy shop will ---- thee. * * * * * KILL (page 226). QUESTIONS. 1. What is it to kill? 2. To what are assassinate, execute, and murder restrict ed? 3. What is the specific meaning of murder? execute? assassinate? To what cla ss of persons is the latter word ordinarily applied? 4. What is it to slay? 5. T o what is massacre limited? With what special meaning is it used? 6. To what do butcher and slaughter primarily apply? What is the sense of each when so used? 7 . What is it to despatch? EXAMPLES. To look into her eyes was to ---- doubt. Two presidents of the United States have been ----. Hamilton was ---- in a duel by Aaron Burr. The place was carried by storm, and the inhabitants ---- without distinction of age or sex. * * * * * KIN (page 227). QUESTIONS. 1. How does kind compare with kin? 2. What do kin and kindred denote? 3.