Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Hamdard Institute of Information Technology Hamdard University

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual
Fall 2010
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Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

LAB EXPERIMENT # 1
OBJECTIVE
• • • To study about Electrical variables and electrical symbols To study about Digital Multi meter To study about Resistor Color Coding

APPARATUS
• • • Digital Multi meter Power supply Probes Power supply unit

Theory

Some of Electrical / Electronic Symbols

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Some of Electrical / Electronic Variables

Digital Multimeter
A multimeter , also known as a volt/ohm meter or VOM, is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter may include features such as the ability to measure voltage, current and resistance. Multimeters may use analog or digital circuits analog multimeters and digital multimeters (often abbreviated DMM or DVOM.)

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Connection of DMM Using Multimeter as Ampere meter Using Multimeter as Volt meter Using Multimeter as OHM meter .

Color Code Chart . capacitor.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Color Codes Resistor. capacitor and inductor It is sometimes not obvious whether a color coded component is a resistor. and this may be deduced by knowledge of its circuit function. physical shape or by measurement. or inductor.

and inductors in micro henries (µH). Read the values of color code attentively. capacitors in picofarads (pF). violet. Note: The colors of first bands I & II indicate significant figures in ohms. Step-6: Take another resistor and repeat the procedure from step-1 to step-5. indicates tolerance of value in percent (no color means 20%) For example. while the color of third band indicates the multiplying factor.465 and 4. second digit 7 (violet). red. Precautions • • Observe the colors of the bands carefully. Procedure Step-1: Hold one of the given resistors in such a way that closest bands come in left side. • band A is first significant figure of component value • band B is the second significant figure • band C is the decimal multiplier • band D if present.935 ohms. Step-5: Calculate and record the difference of calculated and measured resistance values in column ‘D’ of tale-1.700 ohms. a resistor with bands of yellow. Gold signifies that the tolerance is ±5%. Incase if band four is not there (that is no color) the tolerance is assumed to be + 20 %. Step-4: Measure the resistance value with the help of Digital Multi Meter (DMM). and record the value in column ‘C’ of table-1. Step-2: Read ad record the value of resistor in column ‘A’ of table-1 by observing colors from left side to right side.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Resistor values are always coded in ohms ( symbol Ω). followed by 2 (red) zeros: 4. Note: The color of fourth band indicates the percentage tolerance. Step-3: Read and record the tolerance value in column ‘B’ of table-1 by observing the fourth band. and gold will have first digit 4 (yellow in table below). so the real resistance could lie anywhere between 4. .

No 1 2 3 4 5 Calculated Resistance Resistance Tolerance % Measured Resistance Difference of Resistance Conclusionary Questions: Q1:____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Remarks : Date:___________________________ Signature:___________________________ End Of Lab # 1 .Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Table – 1 S.

5. Connect the circuit as shown in above figure with R2 = 12kΩ. Mathematically. 2. Repeat the entire experiment with resistor R2 = 27kΩ. . Apply the set of voltages as specified in table on next page. current is inversely proportional to resistance which means if the resistance is decreased. the current increases. Also. observe readings in table and plot the graph between Voltage and Current on graph sheet 2.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 LAB EXPERIMENT # 2 OBJECTIVE • To verify the Characteristics of OHMS LAW APPARATUS • • • • Digital Multi meter Bread Board Power supply Probes 1kΩ. V = I × R or I = V / R. 3. Note the change in current and record observed values in table corresponding to each value of voltage. 4. Voltage Divider Circuit Procedure 1. Plot the graph between Voltage and Current graph sheet 1. 12kΩ and 27kΩ resistors Theory Ohm’s law states that Voltage is directly proportional to Current if the resistance and temperature is kept constant.

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Table – 1 Voltages 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Current with 12kΩ Current with 27kΩ Conclusionary Questions: After Plotting graphs : Q1:____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Remarks : Date:___________________________ Signature:___________________________ End Of Lab # 2 .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Graph Sheet 1 for 12k resistor .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Graph Sheet 2 for 27k resistor .

and As Resistances are placed in Parallel Combination. Repeat the above procedure for both Parallel and Test Schematic. RT = R1 + R2 + Rn .Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 LAB EXPERIMENT # 3 OBJECTIVE • To observe the change in RT (Total Resistance) .1 place the values on the mentioned cells. Calculate the RT via formula and place it in its dedicated cell.as resistance placed in Series and Parallel configuration APPARATUS • • • • Digital Multi meter Bread Board Required resistances as mentioned in Schematics Plain Paper Theory As resistances are placed in series combination. Calculate the tolerance and Place it in last cell. In other words total resistance is reciprocal of all the resistances connected. Parallel Combination Parallel and Series Connection Series Combination Procedure • • • • • • Draw the schematic in respective area as provided in the lab Using Table . Measure the RT and place it in its dedicated cell. In other words total resistance is sum of all resistances connected. . 1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/Rn .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Schematic of a Series circuit Schematic of Parallel Circuit .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Schematic of Test Circuit Table – 1 Combination Series Parallel Test Circuit Remarks : Values of RT Tolerance Range Obtained R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 Calculated Measured Color Date:___________________________ Signature:___________________________ End Of Lab # 3 .

DC Power Supply Probes Theory Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law states that Algebraic sum of all the voltages around any closed path is zero. APPARATUS • • • • Digital Multi meter Bread Board Required resistances as mentioned for Groups.(KVL). Schematic for – KVL .or we can say that sum of all voltage drops equal to to the source voltages. For KVL equation is VS – V 1 – V 2 – V 3 – V n = 0 or can be expressed by VS = V1 + V2 + V3 + Vn To verify this law and to have multiple voltage drops we will use a series circuit.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 LAB EXPERIMENT # 4 OBJECTIVE • To verify Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law.

and verify through Equation. Use Rough work area for Calculations. Consider V4 as VS Now using DMM find out voltages across each resistance and place it in measured Section of Table – 1. Repeat the above steps by adjusting Power Supply at 14 volts and Using Table – 2. Calculate the percentage of any possible instrumentation Error.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Procedure • • • • • • • Arrange your circuit on Bread board and Set Power supply at 10 volts. and verify through Equation. Using Ohm's law find out the voltages drops across each resistor and place in calculated section of Table – 1. Table – 1 VS = V4 = 10 volts Calculated Measured Use Rough work area for any Calculations R1 a–b R2 b–c R3 c–d Placing in Equation Percentage of any Error ------------- VS – V1 – V2 – V3 = 0 Table – 2 VS = V4 = 14 volts Calculated Measured R1 a–b R2 b–c R3 c–d Placing in Equation Percentage of any Error ------------- VS – V1 – V2 – V3 = 0 Use Rough work area for any Calculations Explain Error in tis Experiment: . a dedicated page next to this page.

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Rough Work Area Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________ .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Conclusionary Questions: Q1:____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Remarks : Date:___________________________ Signature:___________________________ End Of Lab # 4 .

(KCL). Schematic for – KCL . For KCL equation is IIN = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 + IRn or can be expressed by IT – IR1 + IR2 + IR3 + IRn = 0 To verify this law and to have multiple values of current we will use a parallel circuit. DC Power Supply Probes Theory Kirchhoff’s Current Law states that The sum of current(s) in to a junction is equal to the sum of current(s) out of that junction. or we can say that Algebraic sum of all the current(s)entering and leaving a junction is equal to zero.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 LAB EXPERIMENT # 5 OBJECTIVE • To verify Kirchhoff’s Current Law. APPARATUS • • • • Digital Multi meter Bread Board Required resistances as mentioned for Groups.

A Combination . Adjust meter probes and sector for Current measuring. Set Power supply at 12 Volts. Repeat the same for combination B.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Resistances Combination .1. Adjust circuity on Bread board according to Combination A. Table – 1 Combination A Calculated Measured Use Rough work area for any Calculations IR1 2-7 IR2 3-6 IR3 4-5 Placing in Equation Percentage of any Error ------------- IR1 + IR2 + IR3 = IT Table – 2 Combination B Calculated Measured IR1 2-7 IR2 3-6 IR3 4-5 Placing in Equation Percentage of any Error ------------- IR1 + IR2 + IR3 = IT Use Rough work area for any Calculations Explain Error in tis Experiment: . Calculate the Error percentage if any.B R1 R2 R3 Assigned values for Resistances Procedure • • • • • • • Calculate the Current of both combinations. Measure the current through each resistance and place it in its Table .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Rough Work Area Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________ .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Conclusionary Questions: Q1:____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Remarks : Date:___________________________ Signature:___________________________ End Of Lab # 5 .

APPARATUS • • • • Digital Multi meter x 1.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 LAB EXPERIMENT # 6 OBJECTIVE • To find out Current through R2 . Replacing all other independent current sources with an open circuit (thereby eliminating current. internal impedance of ideal voltage source is ZERO (short circuit)). Bread Board x 1. all of the other sources first must be "turned off" (set to zero) by: 1.e. I=0. 2. Replacing all other independent voltage sources with a short circuit (thereby eliminating difference of potential. i. i. V=0. Schematic for – Superposition Theorem . using Super Position Theorem. internal impedance of ideal current source is infinite (open circuit). To ascertain the contribution of each individual source. DC Power Supply Probes x 2 Theory The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that the response (Voltage or Current) in any branch of a bilateral linear circuit having more than one independent source equals the algebraic sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone.e. while all other independent sources are replaced by their internal impedances. Required resistances ______ Ω x3.

along all possible Diagrams. Measure IR2 when both sources are connected and ON. Table – 1 V1 V2 IR2 ___________A Table – 2 Table for Measured Values With Source : R1 V1 = _______ v V2 = _______v IR1A = IR1B = R2 IR2A = IR2B = R3 IR3A = IR3B = IR2 = IR2A + IR2B When R1 = R2 = R3 = ______________ Ω Table – 3 Table for Calculated Values With Source : R1 V1 = _______ v V2 = _______v IR1A = IR1B = R2 IR2A = IR2B = R3 IR3A = IR3B = IR2 = IR2A + IR2B When R1 = R2 = R3 = ______________ Ω Percentage of Error between Measured and Calculated IR2 = _______________________ % Explain how Superposition Theorem is helpful in this Experiment? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ . Set and connect V1 = ___________ volts. Compare and both calculate and measured values and find out Percentage of error. Use Fixed 5 volts section for V2.IR1A and IR3A and place it in Table – 2. And place in Table – 1. Now measure the IR2A . Repeat the above procedure with V2 and use jumper instead of V1.Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Procedure • • • • • • • • • • • Assemble the circuit on bread board with assigned resistances. Place the values in Table – 2. Answer the given Question in own words. Now remove V2 and replace it with a jumper so it will act as short part for current. Now using Rough work area calculate the values for Table – 3 .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Rough Work Area With V1 = ___________ volts Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________ .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Rough Work Area With V2 = ___________ volts Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________ .

Completed and Checked :_________________________________. (only by Instructor) End Of Lab # 6 .Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Conclusionary Questions: Q1:____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Remarks : Date:___________________________ Signature:___________________________ Assigned Project Name : _________________________________.

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 LAB EXPERIMENT # 7 OBJECTIVE • Using Δ – Y conversion prove VR3C = VR3M and IR3C = IR3M. the node is eliminated by transforming the impedances. For equivalence. Bread Board x 1. The equations given here are valid for complex as well as real impedances. Required resistances ( to be assigned in lab). Delta .Wye Circuits . Where three elements terminate at a common node and none are sources. DC Power Supply Probes x 1 Theory The basic Delta – Wye transformation is used to establish equivalence for networks with three terminals. APPARATUS • • • • Digital Multi meter x 1. the impedance between any pair of terminals must be the same for both networks.

Any Manual work should be clean.Assigned Values V = ______ Procedure • • • • • • • • • • R1 = _____ R2 = _____ R3 = _____ R4 = _____ R5 = _____ Assemble the circuit following the schematic above on bread board with respective values. Table – 2 Comparative Table VR3M = ___________ V IR3M = ___________ A VR3C = ___________ V IR3C = ___________ A _________ % _________ % Explain how Δ – Y conversion is helpful in this Experiment? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ . Select amperes on DMM and measure IR3M. Use dedicated are for calculation and represent each value on Simplified Diagram. Select voltages on DMM and measure VR3M . Place both measured values in Table -2. Adjust the required voltages and connect with circuit. Now draw Simplified Diagram in diagram block .Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Schematic for Δ – Y conversion Table -1 . Calculate error percentage if any. As now Circuit is simplified calculate VR3C and IR3C and place in Table – 2.

instead of Y – Δ ? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ .Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Diagram Block – Simplified Explain why do we select Δ – Y conversion .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Calculation Area Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________ .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Calculation Area Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________ .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Rough Work Area Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________ .

Basic Electrical Engineering Lab Manual F10 Conclusionary Questions: Q1: • • • Convert Wye – Delta: R1 = _______ R2 = _______ R3 = _______ Remarks : Date:___________________________ Signature:___________________________ End Of Lab # 7 .