Invata Engleza Fara Profesor | Perfect (Grammar) | Grammatical Tense

Învaţă şi foloseşte corect limba engleză

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.............................................................................................. TIMP.......................................... 4 PARTEA I.......................................................................................................................FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS ................................................................................................................... 13 VERB – PAST PERFECT SIMPLE ......................... 6 VERB ..................................................................................................... 6 VERB ............................................................................................ 19 VERB.................................... 11 VERB – PRESENT PERFECT ...................18 VERB .............................. 16 PARTEA I........FUTURE CONTINUOUS ........................................................76 TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE ......................................................................................................... 18 MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL ......................................................... 24 VERB ........................................... 67 TEST FINAL ....................................................................................................... 70 Cheia exerciţiilor .......................fişă exemplu ............................................TIMPUL ..........91 Verbul TO WORK -model.......................................................................ASPECTUL .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE .......... 18 VERB .............................................. 93 Bibliografie:................. 6 MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL ...................................FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE .........................................PAST TENSE SIMPLE ..............PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS .. 94 4 .............................................................................................. 22 VERB – PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS ....................................................... 25 PERSOANA ŞI NUMĂRUL ..................................................................................... 9 VERB ................. MOD ................ 29 ARTICOLUL ŞI ALŢI DETERMINANŢI ...................................................................................................PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS ...................................................................................................................................................................Cuprins Prefaţă..................................... 45 COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANŢIALE DE LOC......... 21 VERB – PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS ........

Se continuă cu exemple. Timpul pe care sunteţi dispus să îl alocaţi este bine distribuit pe probleme gramaticale. De asemenea aveţi şi o fişă cu regulile de formare a timpurilor. veţi fi confruntat cu probleme de gramatică şi de vocabular. Atenţie! Nimic nu se pierde! Fiecare aspect gramatical este însoţit de cel puţin un exerciţiu astfel încât punerea în practică să conducă la o finalitate pe termen lung a stăpânirii acelui aspect gramatical. Conştiinciozitatea 5 . Intuiţia dumneavostră va funcţiona foarte bine în stăpânirea corectă a gramaticii. modele şi explicaţii gramaticale menite să conducă la stăpânirea unui aspect gramatical al limbii engleze. probabil din şcoală. negativ şi interogativ.Prefaţă Gramatica de faţă îşi propune să ofere mai mult decât un simplu set de reguli gramaticale ale limbii engleze. Scurte prezentări teoretice şi o serie de exemple însoţesc aceste seturi de exerciţii. informaţiile necesare pentru a putea folosi limba engleză corect din punct de vedere gramatical şi pentru a asigura acurateţea şi nuanţarea atât de necesare în comunicare prin intermediul oricărei limbi. Deoarece va trebui să folosiţi din când în când dicţionarul. Realitatea. la afirmativ. Modelul vă va însoţi la tot pasul. Citind această lucrare. Nu vă ia mai mult de 10 minute să parcurgeţi un aspect gramatical. veţi avea ocazia să vă îmbogăţiti substanţial cunoştinţele de vocabular. iar prin metoda originală de prezentare să ajute în crearea unui sentiment de siguranţă în ceea ce priveşte corectitudinea gramaticală în exprimare. La sfârşitul cărţii aveţi un model de verb conjugat la timpurile modului indicativ. Multitudinea de exerciţii comparative variate sunt menite să sprijine înţelegerea elementelor teoretice prin aplicaţii practice. Rezolvarea testului vă va da cu siguranţă o imagine satisfăcătoare asupra stadiului la care aţi ajuns în însuşirea limbii engleze. Numai în acest fel adulţii pot scăpa de un sentiment de inhibiţie cu care au rămas. Acestea vin să ilustreze tiparele structurale de bază ale limbii engleze. vă va fi răsplătită printr-un rezultat excelent la testul final propus la sfârşitul cărţii care oferă 150 întrebări asupra cunoştinţelor de gramatică şi de vocabular. situaţiile reale de exprimare de la care se porneşte conferă originalitate. vă puteţi exprima corect şi coerent în limba engleză şi veţi afla care sunt aspectele care vă creează dificultăţi. Cel care studiază are de asemenea cheia exerciţiului la sfârşit. Atingerea obiectivului dumneavoastră este scopul principal al acestei cărţi care vă pune la dispoziţie într-o formă concisă şi accesibilă. veţi descoperi în ce măsură puteţi formula idei. Autenticitatea exerciţiilor propuse oferă o structurare a cunoştinţelor în seturi grupate pe probleme gramaticale.

INTRODUCERE Mă numesc Gramatica limbii engleze şi scopul meu principal este să vă informez asupra regulilor referitoare la forma cuvintelor. O să faceţi cunoştinţă mai ales cu prima dintre ele. comparaţia adjectivelor. numeralul. Morfologia cuprinde regulile privitoare la forma cuvintelor şi la modificările formale ale cuvintelor studiate pe părţi de vorbire. 6 . Ea este deosebit de importantă deoarece primul lucru care se învaţă în gramatica unei limbi străine este cum se formează categoriile gramaticale de bază: timpurile verbului. pluralul substantivelor. etc. sintaxa cuprinde regulile privitoare la îmbinarea cuvintelor în propoziţii şi fraze. pronumele. Am două fiice: Morfologia şi Sintaxa.

my brother and my sister live here.TIMPUL VERB . Let’s have a look at some words from the text. She does not go to school in the week end. She goes to school in the afternoon. too.Vineri Saturday . she. Iată pronumele personale ale limbii engleze: I – eu You – tu He – el She – ea It – el/ea (pentru obiecte.Mar ţi Wednesday . Louise. animale) We – noi You – voi They – ei.PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL . every day of the week: on Monday. She teaches English.Luni Tuesday . They are farmers. on Wednesday. I like/enjoy living in nature. My friend. on Tuesday. My father. I am a doctor. ele b. they sunt pronume personale. a.Miercuri Thursday . on Thursday and on Friday. then we will see the verbs. I have many friends in the village. Pronumele: (Pronouns) Cuvintele: I. she is a teacher. I usually go to work in the morning. Zilele săptămânii (Days of the week): Monday .Sâmbătă Sunday – Duminică 7 . apoi vom analiza verbele. my mother.Joi Friday . Haideţi să observăm câteva din cuvintele din text.PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE VERBUL – TIMPUL PREZENT SIMPLU CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT : I live with my husband and my children at the countryside.

mătuşă cousin – verişor. She teaches. She goes to school in the afternoon. she is.bunic grandmother / grandma / granny . on Tuesday.frate sister .Ea nu merge la şcoală în week-end. miercuri. she is a teacher. every day of the week: on Monday. Folosim acest timp verbal pentru a exprima: ♥ O acţiune generală.nepot granddaughter . . on Thursday and on Friday. Membrii familiei (Family members) father /dad / daddy – tată mother / mum / mummy / mom . They are.. I have many friends in the village. I am a doctor. I usually go to work in the morning. părinţi child / children – copil. She does not go. Verbele la Prezent Simplu (Verbs at Present Tense Simple) : I live. fratele meu şi sora mea locuiesc aici. Locuiesc cu soţul şi copiii mei la ţară. . în fiecare zi a săptămânii: luni.Îmi place să trăiesc în natură.mamă parent / parents – părinte.In the evening – seara d. I go. too.Ea merge la şcoală după-amiaza.bunică grandson . She goes.nepot niece . Verbele accentuate sunt la Present Tense Simple. mama mea.fiu daughter. . Louise. Louise.In the afternoon – după-amiaza .Ei sunt fermieri (agricultori). . de asemenea. my brother and my sister live here. ♥Adevăruri general valabile: The Earth spins round. She does not go to school in the week end. I am . my mother. . They are farmers.fiică brother .nepoată e. – Citesc zilnic.Eu merg de obicei la lucru dimineaţa.Prietena mea.soră grandfather / granddad / grandpa . repetabilă: . They live. marţi. Momente ale zilei (Moments of the day) . I like/enjoy living in nature.c. joi şi vineri.Sunt doctor.. on Wednesday. – Pământul se învârte.-Tatăl meu.In the morning – dimineaţa . My friend. verişoară nephew . .unchi aunt . este profesor. copii son . 8 .exemplu: I read daily.Am mulţi prieteni în sat. My father. I have.Ea predă limba engleză. She teaches English. I like I live with my husband and my children at the countryside.nepoată uncle. .

(întotdeauna) Exerciţii – Practice Situation: My friend and I don’t do things in the same way: Example: Affirmative get up early/late I get up early. every day. în perioada prezentă. The plane takes off at 7:35. des) 7. obişnuită. usually. What time do you usually have breakfast? . 4. but my friend gets up late 9 . (adesea.(în fiecare dimineaţă) 2. I usually sleep late on Sunday morning. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. etc. (în fiecare zi) 6.♥ O acţiune regulată. –Sunt elev. often. I go to school every day. She sometimes goes out on Friday night (vineri noaptea).La ce oră iei de obicei micul dejun? ♥ Acţiuni viitoare planificate în prezent ca urmare a unui program oficial.(de obicei) 5. on Saturdays. Examples: 1. Philip gets up at 6 o'clock every morning. rarely. He always forgets his keys. Peter works for 8 hours every day. Conjugarea unui verb la Present Tense Simple: To work = a lucra..Avionul decolează/va decola la ora 7:35. My children often watch TV in the afternoon. a munci Afirmativ I work You work He/she/it works We work You work They work Negativ I do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work? Cu Present Simple Tense folosim adverbe cum ar fi: always. never. (în fiecare zi) 3. seldom. sometimes.

Louise.PAST TENSE SIMPLE TIMPUL TRECUT SIMPLU CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT : Last year I lived with my husband and my children at the countryside. 4. My father. Last year I traveled to England. 10 .a predat They lived . leave home at 12 o’clock/1 o’clock go to work by car/by train speak English well/badly get home at six/seven have two kids/three ACUM LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! VERB .au locuit They were . terminată. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp trecută. My friend. my brother and my sister lived here.au fost/erau I liked – mi-a plăcut ♥ Verbele la Past Tense Simple arată o acţiune trecută. terminată. my mother. . They were farmers. She did not go to school in the week end. I liked /enjoyed living in nature.Ieri am mers la plimbare. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul trecut simplu: I lived . 3. Anul trecut am călătorit în Anglia. She taught English. I used to go to work in the morning. de obicei.am locuit I was – eram/am fost I used to go – obişnuiam să mă duc/mă duceam I had – am avut She was – a fost She went – se ducea/mergea She did not go – ea nu mergea She taught . Ex. Se traduce. Este timpul naraţiunii. too. I was a doctor. cu perfectul compus din limba română. I had many friends in the village. 2. she was a good teacher in the village. Yesterday I went for a walk. She went to school in the afternoon every week day.Interrogative get up early/late Do you get up early? Does he get up late? Negative get up early/late I don’t get up early. My friend doesn’t get up late 1. 5.

they + verb +-ed Atenţie le pronunţie! Pay attention to the pronounciation! {t} a) wash – washed – washed (a se spăla) cook – cooked – cooked (a găti) {d} b) play – played – played (a se juca) listen – listened – listened (a asculta) {id} b) need – needed – needed (a avea nevoie) skate – skated . we. forma III – participiul trecut. Ex.skated (a patina) Verbe neregulate: a) meet leave say read send spend {e} met left said read sent spent {e} met (a întâlni) left (a pleca) said (a spune) read (a citi) sent (a trimite) spent (a petrece) 11 b) have sit {æ} had sat {æ} had (a avea) sat (a sta jos) . Past Tense Simple se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei – ed în cazul verbelor regulate. a munci) la Past Tense Simple Afirmativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked Negativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not work Interogativ Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? Forma prescurtată a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work).Paste Tense. Past Tense trebuie învăţat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indică cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. to work – worked Dacă verbul este neregulat. you.To work (a lucra. it. forma II. he. she. you. Ex. to speak – spoke – spoken Iată o listă cu formele de Past Tense pentru verbe regulate şi neregulate: Verbe regulate: I. Verbele limbii engleze pot fi regulate sau neregulate.

He (spend) three days in the Danube Delta last month.) ago.. on. (two days ago. I traveled to Japan two years ago. Example: Daniel (go) on holiday in July.. last (month. 1. – Am văzut un film ieri. 2. two years ago). a primi) got up (a se trezi) found (a găsi) did went ate forgot done (a face) gone (a merge) eaten (a mânca) forgotten(a uita) Examples: Last year I bought a car and went to Boston. year. Cele mai folosite adverbe pentru Past Tense Simple sunt: yesterday.c) write speak break d) run begin drink sing swim e) be see was/were saw {i:n} been (a fi) seen (a vedea) {æ} ran began drank sang swam {۸} run (a alerga) begun (a începe) drunk (a bea) sung (a cânta) swum (a înota) {ә} wrote spoke broke written (a scrie) spoken (a vorbi) broken (a sparge) f) do go eat forget g) get get up find h) make lay come give {ei} made laid came gave made (a face) laid (a pune) come (a veni) given (a da) got got up found got (a obţine. in. 12 .(on Monday. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation: Daniel went on holiday in July (last month).... in 1987 ) Examples: I saw a movie yesterday. Am călătorit în Japonia acum doi ani. Daniel went on holiday in July.. I spent my holiday there.. He went on holiday in August. 2 months ago. A mers în vacanţă în august. Tell how he spent his holiday (Use Past Tense Simple). – Nu am văzut piesa anul trecut. Daniel (get up) early in the morning and (do) morning exercises. I didn't see the play last year.

She will not go to school in the week end.3. 5. Put the sentences into the negative and interrogative forms. Did Daniel go on holiday in July? VERB . He (come back) home in September to go to school.FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE VERBUL – TIMPUL VIITOR SIMPLU CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS: READ THE TEXT: Next year I will live with my husband and my children at the countryside. The weather (be) fine all the time. 7. Daniel (make) a lot of friends there. He (swim) in the Danube in the evening. She will teach English. I will go to work in the morning. My father. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul viitor simplu: I will live – eu voi locui I will be – eu voi fi I will go – eu voi merge I will have – eu voi avea She will be – ea va fi She will go – ea va merge She will not go – ea nu va merge She will teach – ea va preda They will live – ei vor locui They will be – ei vor fi I will enjoy . They will be farmers. After that he (go fishing) with his friends Irina and Larry. I will enjoy living in nature. she will be a teacher in the village. 6. 8. I will be a doctor. My friend. 4. Then he (wash) and (eat/have) breakfast with his parents. Examples: Negative form: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. I will have many friends in the village. my mother. Daniel did not go on holiday in July. my brother and my sister will live there. too.îmi va face plăcere 13 . Interrogative form: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. Louise. She will go to school in the afternoon every week day.

Nu voi bea vin. a munci) la Future Tense Simple: Afirmativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they will work Negativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they will not work Interogativ Will I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? Adverbele cele mai utilizate pentru a exprima o acţiune viitoare cu Future Tense Simple sunt: tomorrow. You'll spend the holiday in the mountains. Complete his questions and Daniel’s answers.Voi termina acest raport mâine. apropiat de momentul vorbirii.O să-l vizitez mâine. Will you work here? .. Grandpa: Where will you go tomorow? Daniel: To the Physics lab grandpa! Daniel: 1..? What ..Va veni el săptămâna viitoare? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation 1: Grandpa does not hear very well what Daniel is saying. She will not (won't) play football..? .. I will not (won't) drink wine.. I’ll work in the lab tomorrow. 3. I’ll obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson.. În engleza modernă forma shall este foarte puţin utilizată.Ea nu va juca fotbal.... .Vei lucra aici? Will she sing beautifully? .. ... 14 Grandpa: Where. . o acţiune care are loc într-un moment viitor...Va cânta ea frumos? To work ( a lucra. . (Îl voi vizita mâine. . Forma negativă se formează cu will not sau forma won't în faţa verbului principal la prezent. Example: I will visit him tomorrow. I’ll do an interesting experiment tomorrow..... 2. .) We shall overcome.♥ Future Tense Simple (Viitorul simplu) exprimă un eveniment. Forma interogativă se formează prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul will şi subiect. I'll go to the seaside next week. Will he come next week? ....? What. . Cea mai des folosită în Engleza vorbită şi scrisă este forma prescurtată 'll.Săptămâna viitoare voi pleca la mare.. next (month..Vom învinge.Voi veţi petrece vacanţa la munte. year) I'll finish this report tomorrow. Example: Daniel: I’ll go to the Physics lab tomorrow.

. I’ll study hydrogen next week. my brother and my sister have lived there. She has taught English..? What . 7. 2. I have gone to work in the morning. Louise... 4. She has gone to school in the afternoon every week day. . Example: Irina: Larry will go fishing tomorrow Daniel: Larry won’t go fishing tomrrow.. He’ll buy a new car next year.? Situation 2. 15 . Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect: I have lived – eu am locuit I have been – eu am fost I have gone – eu am mers I have had – eu am avut She has been – ea a fost She has gone – ea a mers She has not gone/hasn’t gone – ea nu a mers She has taught – ea a predat They have lived – ei au locuit They have been – ei au fost I have enjoyed – mi-a plăcut ♥ Present Perfect . He’ll help you tomorrow evening. Larry will read his lesson later. Larry will go to the cinema next Sunday. My father. He’ll have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week. I have had many friends in the village. too. I’ll learn interesting things next week. 3. My friend... 8.. I have enjoyed living in nature. VERB – PRESENT PERFECT CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I have lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time.? Who ... When . 5... Daniel contradicts everything Irina says about her friend Larry... She has not gone/hasn’t gone to school in the week end. He’ll take a new project next month. He’ll go shopping tomorrow morning...exprimă o stare care a început în trecut şi care încă se continuă. They have been farmers...4....Suntem prieteni de mult timp. 1. 5.. my mother. I have been a doctor.. He’ll wash the car on Sunday morning. 6.. I’ll ask the teacher a lot of questions. 6. she has been a teacher in the village. We’ve been friends for a long time.

Tom has just spoken on the phone with Mary. he hasn't complained about his wage. To work (a lucra. so far. until now.exprimă o acţiune trecută al cărei rezultat este vizibil în prezent He’s broken his arm. often Exemple: 1. 2. Have you ever read this news? – Ai citit vreodată ştirea aceasta? 3. I haven't had any Math problems up to now. pentru care momentul când a avut loc nu prezintă interes. 2. never. a munci) la Present Perfect Afirmativ I/you/we/they have worked he/she/it has worked Negativ I/you/we/they have not worked (haven’t worked) he/she/it has not worked (hasn’t worked) Interogativ Have I/you/we/they worked? Has he/she/it worked? Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Prezentul Perfect Simplu: already.Nu am mai auzit niciodată un astfel de lucru. – Am avut propria mea maşină timp de patru ani.N-am fost niciodată în China. I have never heard such a thing. yet Exemple: 1. Until now. .exprimă o stare terminată în trecut. accentul este pus pe experienţa în sine trăită prin acţiunea respectivă I’ve never been to China. ♥ . 2. 3.A terminat deja orele. – Am călătorit adesea cu maşina la ţară. . I've had my own car for four years.-Tom tocmai a vorbit la telefon cu Maria. They haven't written the exercise yet.. – Până acum nu am auzit de acest cântăreţ englez.Şi-a rupt braţul. – Până acum nu s-a pl âns de salariul său. I haven't heard about this English singer. .♥ . She has been ill since yesterday. I have often traveled by car to the countryside. ever. So far. Exerciţii – Practice 16 . He has already finished his classes. ever and before Exemplu: Have you ever heard this song before? – Ai mai auzit vreodată cântecul acesta? for and since Exemple: 1. 3. – Nu am mai avut probleme la matematică până acum. – Este bolnavă de ieri. just. Ei nu au scris exerciţiul încă. up to now Exemple: 1. 2.

(see) VERB – PAST PERFECT SIMPLE CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I had lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time before I moved in Piteşti... too.............. Father . They had been farmers......... That is the most interesting movie he ..... my car.. (begin) ... This is the biggest mall they .. These are the most attractive souvenirs they . Louise......... She had gone to school in the afternoon every week day...... (read) 3... They . This is the best book she . to cry......... Now everything is over....................... 1.... 3. I had had many friends in the village. Completează următoarele propoziţii ca în exemplul de mai jos..... I have moved in town.. Those are the most wonderful monuments they ... corespondentul timpului mai mult ca perfect din limba română: I had lived – eu locuisem I had been – eu fusesem I had gone – eu mersesem I had had – eu avusesem She had been – ea fusese She had gone – ea mersese She had not gone/hadn’t gone – ea nu mersese 17 ... We ... Pune verbele din paranteză la Prezentul Perfect Simplu... Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect...... He ... folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu: Exemplu: This is the most beautiful girl I . (visit) 4.. Tom has just written his homework... I had gone to work in the morning... home. (leave) ... (buy) 5.... 4.. II...LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! I.. 5.. ca în exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: Tom . to the theatre. (see) This is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen... I had enjoyed living in nature...... She had not gone/hadn’t gone to school in the week end. my mother. 2... (see) .... I had been a doctor. she had been a teacher in the village.. 1...... My friend... my brother and my sister had lived there... (arrive) ..... his homework... I ... She had taught English....... (see) 2... (fix) .. our Math teacher..... (write) . My father......

Irina went there for the first time. Had Susan ever studied Chinese before she moved to China? – Studiase Susan vreodată chineza până să se mute în China? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation: Daniel and Irina spent their last summer holiday at the seaside. – Nu văzusem niciodată o plajă aşa de frumoasă până nu am mers în Creta. Îmi doresc să nu fi pierdut avionul. 18 . never. he had.exprimă o acţiune anterioară unei acţiuni Tom said that he would go to France after he had learned French a little bit.exprimă o dorinţă nerealizată I wish/ wished I hadn't missed the flight. Ask and answer questions about them: Example: be to the beach Had Daniel been to the beach before? Yes. – Studiasei engleza înainte să te muţi în NY.. Daniel had been there before. I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Crete. Had Irina been to the beach before? No. ♥ . – Băieţelul vorbea de parcă văzuse o zână. Verbul to work (a lucra.Tom a spus că se va duce în Franţa după ce va fi învăţat puţină franceză. – Băieţelul a spus că văzuse o zână în grădină.exprimă o acţiune anterioară altei acţiuni din trecut sau anterioară unui moment din trecut The little boy said that he had seen a fairy in the garden.She has taught – ea predase They had lived – ei locuiseră They had been – ei fuseseră I had enjoyed – îmi plăcuse ♥ Past Perfect . ever You had studied English before you moved to New York. a munci ) la Past Perfect: Afirmativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had worked Negativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadn’t worked Interogativ Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they worked? Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Past Perfect Simplu: Before. she hadn’t. The little spoke as if he had seen a fairy. ♥ .

stay at a hotel 7. see the Black Sea swim in the sea sunbathe on the beach go fishing in the sea 5. 3. 2. make the tour of Constanţa 8. 4. visit Eforie Nord 19 . walk down the beach 6.1.

Louise. Example: I am writing now. my brother and my sister are in the field now. She is teaching English. My father.ASPECTUL VERB . Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Continuous I am living – eu locuiesc She is teaching . a munci) la Present Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I am working You/we/you/they are working he/she/it is working Negativ I am not working You/we/you/they are not working he/she/it is not working Interogativ Am I working? Are you/we/you/they working? Is he/she/it working? 20 .in this moment ♥ o acţiune temporară ce are loc în prezent ca o excepţie de la regulă. Example: I usually wake up early but today I am waking up late. I am studying English now. my mother. My friend.ea predă They are woking – ei lucrează ♥ Present Tense Continuous exprimă o acţiune desfăşurată ce are loc în momentul vorbirii. she is at school now. Verbul to work (a lucra. They are woking in this moment.PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL . ♥ o acţiune obişnuită care enervează.PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: In this moment I am living with my husband and my children at the countryside. Example: She is always telling lies.

Suntem în grevă. My friend. 4. I was having many friends in the village. we are on strike. Say what they are doing at the moment. (give information) She is giving information at this moment/now. It is nine o’clock in the morning. my mother. always. Example: Irina is in the director’s office. I was going to work in the morning. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Tense Continuous (echivalentul imperfectului din limba română): I was living – eu locuiam They were living – ei locuiau I was going – eu mergeam I was having – eu aveam 21 . – Ea trimite emailuri acum tuturor prietenilor săi. She is sending emails right now to all her friends. Nu lucrăm în acest moment. 3. Larry is in his office (work) Daniel is in the secretariate (type a letter) Ioana is in the conference room (present a project) Maria is in the hall (speak on the phone) Matei is in the guests room (meet some clients) VERB . Louise was teaching English while my sister was teaching History. 1. 2. All the employees are at work.Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu prezentul continuu: now.PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I was living with my husband and my children at the countryside while my father. my brother and my sister were living in town. We are not working in this moment. in various rooms of the building. in this moment. 5. They were not going to school in the week end. Louise was going to school in the afternoon every week day but my sister was going in the afternoon. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII Situation: Today is Monday. She's always coming in when we talk something important. Întotdeauna trebuie să intre în cameră fix când vorbim noi lucruri importante.

the boss. Examples: At seven o’clock yesterday morning. While she was watching TV yesterday.Louise was going – Louise mergea My sister was going – sora mea mergea They were not going – ei nu mergeau Louise was teaching – Louise preda My sister was teaching – sora mea preda ♥ Past Tense Continuous se foloseşte pentru a exprima o acţiune care se desfăşura într-un moment bine definit în trecut. this time last week. eram în baie. Say what they were doing when Mr Smith. – La ora şapte ieri dimineaţă. I was washing my face. Example: Larry and Irina/discuss about a marketing project Larry and Irina were discussing about a marketing project when Mr Smith came in. came in. I was in the bathroom. 22 . Verbul to work (a lucra. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation: Yesterday afternoon all the employees were at work. îmi spălam faţa. a munci) la Past Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I was working You/we/you/they were working he/she/it was working Negativ I was not working You/we/you/they were not working he/she/it was not working Interogativ was I working? were you/we/you/they working? was he/she/it working? Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu past continuous: At this time yesterday. her friend came to see her. This time last week you were reading the magazine. – Pe vremea asta săptămâna trecută tu citeai revista.

ei nu vor merge Louise will be teaching – Louise va preda My sister will be teaching – sora mea va preda Verbul to work (a lucra. Louise will be teaching English while my sister will be teaching History.1. posterior momentului vorbirii. I will be working in the morning. 6. my brother and my sister will be living in town. 2. my friend.FUTURE CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I will be living with my husband and my children at the countryside at this time next year when my father. 23 . Exemplu: I shall/will be walking at two o’clock tomorrow. 7. 5. my mother. 8. Louise will be going to school in the afternoon every week day but my sister will be going in the evening. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Continuous: I will be living – voi locui They will be living – vor locui I will be working – voi lucra Louise will be going – Louise va merge They will not be going . 3. a munci) la Future Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I /we shall/will be working You he/she/it /they will be working Negativ I /we shall/will not be working You he/she/it /they will not be working Interogativ Shall/will I /we be working? Will you he/she/it /they be working? ♥ Future Tense Continuous exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare într-un moment viitor. They will not be going to school in the week end. at this time next week. 4. Daniel and John / work in the office Matei and Maria / speak on the phone Ioana /write a report Martha / water the flowers Victor / talk to his colleague Angela/open the windows Mark and Chris /look at some pictures Fiona/read the newspapers VERB.

I will be eating. (to come) 10) Tomorrow at nine I ______________a test paper. (to write) VERB – PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I have been living with my husband and my children at the countryside for 5 years. month. year. etc Examples: You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. – Când va veni. probably) 6) Mary ______________ a video when I arrive tonight. (to eat) 8) This time next week he ______________ to Africa. Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu Future Continuous: when. Example: Mark ______________ on the computer when his mother arrives home.Ea se va plimba în timp ce eu voi dormi. 1) She ______________ him next week. ♥ . (to watch) 7) You ______________ spaghetti soon. Exemplu: She will be walking while I am sleeping. while. (to arrive) 3) At 8 o'clock on Tuesday they ______________ the new song. (to sing) 4) He ______________when you call her. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Puneţi verbele din paranteză la Future Continuous. Exemplu: When he comes. She has been teaching English for 5 years at the same village school and she is 24 .exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare în viitor în paralel cu o altă acţiune în desfăşurare. at his time next week. –Când ea va sosi diseară. săptămâna viitoare la ora asta. de asemenea în viitor. eu voi fi la televizor. eu voi fi în mijlocul mesei. (to sleep) 5) It ______________ when I reach Madrid. has been going to school in the afternoon every week day. ♥ . (to rain.exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare întreruptă de o acţiune momentană. Louise.Mă voi plimba mâine la ora două. I have been going to work in the morning but my friend. (to fly) 9) Mary ______________to the party on Sunday. (to play) Answer: Mark will be playing on the computer when his mother arrives home. (to meet) 2) We ______________ in Piteşti just about now. – Tu o vei aştepta când soseşte avionul diseară.. I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.

exprimă o acţiune care s-a desfăşurat până acum şi va continua probabil şi în viitor. there have been arriving 10 passengers from London. To work (a lucra. ♥ . too. – Locuieşti în Paris din 1996. I have been working in the garden all day long. într-o perioadă de timp care se întinde din trecut până în prezent He has been writing poems since he was a child. – Se uită la televizor de 3 ore. my brother and my sister have been living there. for Exemplu: They have been watching TV for 3 hours. care este cauza unui efect simţit în prezent A: Why are your hands dirty? B: I’ve been repairing my bike. a munci) la Present Perfect Continuous Afirmativ I/you/we/they have been working he/she/it has been working Negativ I/you/we/they have not been working (haven’t been working) he/she/it has not been working (hasn’t been working) Interogativ Have I/you/we/they been working? Has he/she/it been working? Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Present Perfect Continuous: since Exemplu: You have been living in Paris since 1996.still enjoying this. my mother. They have been playing tennis for half an hour – Joacă tenis de jumătate de oră. so far Exemplu: So far..Scrie poezii de când era copil. We like living in nature. Până acum au sosit 10 pasageri din Londra.exprimă o acţiune repetată frecvent. încheiată recent. They are farmers. – Am muncit în grădină toată ziua. My father. ♥ . Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect Continuous: I have been living – eu locuiesc I have been going – eu merg Louise has been going – Louise merge She has been teaching – ea predă They have been living – ei locuiesc ♥ Present Perfect Continuous .exprimă o acţiune trecută. 25 .

... last summer.. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completează spaţiile goale cu "FOR"( de) şi "SINCE"(din.. my mother. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect Contionuous: I had been living – eu locuisem I had been going – eu mersesem She had been going – ea mersese She had been teaching – ea predase They had been living – ei locuiseră ♥ Past Perfect Continuous .. de la).... 3. She (cook) a chicken soup ..... too....... Helen has been studying English since last summer. 1. We (talk) about that horrible accident .exprimă o acţiune în curs până la un moment dat trecut când a fost oprit de o altă acţiune a cărei urmări continuă şi azi.. Mary (live) in Manhattan ... Pune verbele din paranteză la Prezentul Perfect Continuu: Exemplu: Helen (study) English .... Now everything is over. She had been teaching English.. My friend..Nu am călătorit în Franţa până acum.. 5. 2.. I had been going to work in the morning...... They (phone) the manager .. 1 hour. morning. My father. half an hour. I have moved in town... Louise. 4.... VERB – PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I had been living with my husband and my children at the countryside before I came in town. too...ever Exemplu: Have you ever been listening to the radio? – Ai ascultat vreodată la radio? never Exemplu: I have never been travelling to France until now... the last five minutes...... June 1998.. she had been going to school in the afternoon every week day before leaving the countryside.. It (rain) .... my brother and my sister had been living there. 26 ..

etc You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect continuous). I (not / walk) for a long time. so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night. Verbul to work (a lucra. VERB . when it suddenly began to rain. "for two weeks". 27 . They were very tired in the evening because they (help) on the farm all day. we will have been staying there for 6 years. too. Louise will have been teaching English in the afternoon for 5 years. Ai aşteptat-o cel mult două ore când în final a sosit.They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it. She (sleep) for 10 hours when he woke us up. They (look for) her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom.FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: When my friends will come to live at the countryside I will have been living with my husband and my children there for 5 years. They (cycle) all day so their legs were sore in the evening. I will have already been working for a couple of years as a doctor. a munci ) la Past Perfect Continuous: Afirmativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had been working Negativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadn’t been working Interogativ Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they been working Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Past Perfect Continuous: For five minutes" . (Ei) lucrau la casa cea nouă înainte să fie distrusă de foc. We (wait) at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived. How long (learn / she) English before she went to London? She (drive) less than an hour when he ran out of gas. I (not / work) all day. Until next year.

Exemplu: By 2010 he will have been working for 40 years. fiind o formă caracteristică limbii scrise şi pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lungă de timp decât Future Continuous Se traduce tot prin "voi fi lucrat". a munci) la Future Perfect Continuous : Afirmativ I / you he/she/it /we /they will have been working Negativ I / you he/she/it /we /they will not have been working Interogativ Will I / you/ he/she/it /we /they have been working? ♥ Future Perfect Continuous . Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party. she will have been selling blouses for eight hours.În 2010 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani Adverbul cel mai des utilizat cu Future Perfect Continuous: for Example: By six o’clock p..acest timp se foloseşte rar în vorbire.. she (finish) everything by then. 28 . Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Puneţi verbele din paranteză la Future Perfect Continuous sau la Future Perfect Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long. Hopefully.Până la ora 18 ea va fi vândut bluze timp de opt ore.Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Perfect Continuous: I will have been living – voi fi locuit I will have been working – eu voi fi lucrat Louise will have been teaching – Louise va fi predat We will have been staying – noi vom fi stat Verbul to work (a lucra. Mike: She (cook) for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner. Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand..m. şi ca toate formele de timpuri continue implică o acţiune în derulare.

29 .

complementul de agent introdus de prepoziţia by exemplu: She was met at the station by my brother. Exemplu: Lucy has written a letter. transformând complementul persoanei în subiect. Diateza pasivă se remarcă prin: . He has been seen I had been seen. II Verbul este la diateza pasivă când subiectul gramatical suferă acţiunea săvârşită de obiect. The school was being cleaned when we wanted to visit it.DIATEZA I DIATEZA ACTIVĂ II DIATEZA PASIVĂ I Verbul este la diateza activă când subiectul gramatical săvârşeşte acţiunea. He will have been seen.PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL . care se răsfrânge asupra subiectului (în cazul verbelor tranzitive). Exemplu: This letter has been written by Lucy.Lucia a scris o scrisoare. 30 . I am seen. We were seen. I shall be seen.utilizarea verbului be sau get .. Conjugarea unui verb la diateza pasivă: Aspectul simplu: Present simple: Past Simple: Present Perfect Past Perfect: Future Future Perfect Aspectul continuu: Present Continuous: Past Continuous: Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. I was seen. We will be seen. We are seen. – Această scrisoare a fost scrisă de Lucia. – Ea a fost aşteptată la gară de fratele meu. He is seen. I shall have been seen. I have been seen. The classrooms are being cleaned now. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă.

PERSOANA ŞI NUMĂRUL Spre deosebire de verbul românesc. you wash. Exemplu: ___ often reads books. you play. Singura desinenţă specifică este –s/es pentru persoana a III-a singular.Exemplu: The guide is showing them the museum. I wash. This matter must be looked into. (Marc) 8) ___is from Bucharest. indicativ prezent. (the flowers) 7) ___is riding his horse. (my mother and I) 6) ___are in the garden. he plays. They will tell you what time the bus leaves. verbul englez are puţini indici formali care să marcheze persoana şi numărul. Tom? 31 . folosind verbe la diateza pasivă: Exemplu: Această problemă trebuie analizată. Câinele a fost călcat de un autobuz. they play. 2. we wash. She has given me a good dictionary. (the posters) 4) ___is running. they wash. Nu s-a dormit în acest pat. Traduceţi următoarele propoziţii în limba engleză. Vor râde de tine dacă vei purta rochia asta. you play. you wash. They have appointed him president. (the blackboard) 3) ___are on the wall. (Diana) 10) Have ___ got a computer. (George) 2) ___is green. (Lisa) She often reads books. we play. (the cat) 5) ___are watching TV. 1) ___is dreaming. He promised them new bicycles. she plays. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Folosiţi pronumele personal corect. (Victoria) 9) ___has got a sister. she washes. They are being shown the museum. he washes. I’ll pay the carpenter for his work. Copiii au fost bine îngrijiţi. I play.

. O va fi citit până atunci.Va înapoia cartea la bibliotecă lunea viitoare.MODUL – THE MOOD I. come in time.Este necesar ca el să fie aici. – Pot să înapoiez cartea la bibliotecă acum. were B. Exemplu: The idea is that sport facilities should be improved. was 32 . când acţiunea trebuia să aibă loc în trecut. be dressed 2. SUBJONCTIVUL ANALITIC ♥ exprimă o acţiune posibilă. Exemplu: It is necessary that he be here.Aş dori să spună adevărul. Exemplu: I wish he/they told the truth. deci nu contrară realităţii. Observaţie: Verbul be are formă unică pentru toate persoanele: were Exemplu: I wish he/they were here. starea. (subjonctiv) The fact is that sport facilities will be improved. Exemplu: . exprimată de verb ca reală . sau ireală.I can return the book now. will be dressed C.m. SUBJONCTIVUL TRECUT ♥ coincide ca formă cu Past Tense Simple. I wish my sister _________ here.. MODUL INDICATIV (The Indicative Mood) I. SUBJONCTIVUL PREZENT ♥ exprimă o acţiune considerată posibilă. (indicativ) Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. are dressed B.. îndeplinită chiar.A înapoiat cartea la bibliotecă după ce a citit-o. . A. I have read it..He returned the book to the library after he had read it.He will return the book to the library next Monday. pentru a sublinia ideea de acţiune şi nu acţiunea propriu-zisă sau îndeplinirea ei.. Am citit-o. presupusă.să vină la timp. etc. A. . It is very important that all employees _______________ in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a. Modul indicativ prezintă acţiunea. He will have read it by then. II MODUL SUBJONCTIV (The Subjunctive Mood) Modul subjonctiv prezintă acţiunea ca posibilă când acţiunea este proiectată în viitor . care sunt redate cu indicativul.

marcat de particula to şi infinitivul scurt (The Short Infinitive) fără particula to. Perfect Gerund He denies having been invited. see. Smith ________ ill that night. feel B.caracteristici substantivale: Exemplu: The sound of a loud knocking at the door interrupted us. were B. watch. I wish I _________ better today.are categoriile gramaticale de timp şi diateză: . a baby’s crying interrupted us. perceive. play 4. was B. notice. was adjourned B. GERUNZIUL . observe. let. A. would that she _______ here with us now! A. adesea cunoscut sub denumirea de formă în –ing reprezintă un substantiv format dintr. even though he's much too short for that position. I can’t remember doing/having done this exercise before. A. make. 33 . If Mrs.THE INFINITIVE to + verb = infinitive Infinitivul are doua forme: infinitivul lung (The Long Infinitive). The coach insisted that Mario _______ the center position. ♥ . – Neagă că a luat cărţile. Acesta se foloseşte de obicei după verbe de percepţie : hear. If only Mark ______ a little more responsible in his choice of courses! A. were 7. My mother would know what to do. Oh. sau după have. Exemplu: I adore reading your books. A. A.Nu suportă să fie întrerupt.un verb la care se adaugă terminaţia –ing. -Diateza pasivă: Gerund: He can’t stand being interrupted. – A greşi este omenesc. were 9. be adjourned 5. felt INFINITIVUL . Mary hoped that the meeting _______________. Perfect Gerund He denies having taken the books.. – Neagă că a fost invitat. was B.. Smith as though she _______ a queen.THE GERUND Gerunziul.3.Îmi place să învăţ engleza. I detest going to supermarkets. was 6. I made her work harder. ♥ . the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema.. – Am făcut-o să muncească mai mult. I quit smoking. A. Exemplu: To err is human. Her employees treated Mrs.Diateza activă: Gerund: I enjoy learning English. had been 8. her coming in interrupted us. were B. plays B.

4) The man asked me how (get) to the railway station. Exemplu: They go on _______ (read) the book. They go on reading the book.Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Pune verbul din paranteze la gerunziu sau la infinitivul lung (to-). He is a learned man – Este un om învăţat. şi forma a III-a în cazul verbelor neregulate. 1) I can't imagine Peter (go) by bike. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. 8) The teacher expected Sarah (study) hard. 6) Are you thinking of (visit) Paris? 7) We decided (run) through the dark forest. Exemple: He is an aged man. the (lose) son an (interest) audience a (break) leg an (empty) bottle a (close) door a (decorate) room two (pack) bags the (write) letters the (sell) car the (buy) apples - 34 . 2) He agreed (buy) a new washing machine. – Este un om în vârstă. Completaţi corect formele de participiu trecut. Se formează de la infinitiv la care se adaugă terminaţia – ed (în cazul verbelor regulate). 9) She doesn't mind (work) the night shift. PARTICIPIUL TRECUT . 3) The question is easy (answer). A drunken man is unpleasant to look at. 5) I look forward to (see) you at the weekend.PAST PARTICIPLE Este forma nepersonală a verbului care denumeşte acţiunea ca rezultat. 10) I learned (ride) the bike at the age of 3. – Un om beat este neplăcut la vedere.

have/had/had 3.S-au grăbit ca să ajungem la timp. I do. ♥ înlociuesc verbele noţionale în răspunsuri scurte şi întrebări disjunctive: Do you like this book? Yes. let 7...He has come He’s here.He is here. shall/should 4. Let me think! – Lasă-mă să mă gândesc.. so that we may arrive in time.. I haven’t got a book. Verbele auxiliare: 1. Infinitive: be reading Present: He is reading Past: He was reading Future: He will be reading Conditional: He would be reading Infinitive Perfect: have been reading Present Perfect: He has been reading Past Perfect: He had been reading Future Perfect: He will have been reading Conditional Perfect: He would have been reading 2. Future: I will give Future Perfect: I will have given Conditional: I would give Conditional Perfect: I would have given 5. hasn’t he? ♥ apar adesea sub forme reduse: I’ve got a book. be/was/were/been 2.Voi pleca după ce vine el. 6.I have got a book.. He has written a good composition. – I have not got a book. 7. will/would 5. Perfect Infinitive: have read Perfect Gerund: having read Present Perfect: He has read Past Perfect: He had read Future Perfect: He will have read Conditional Perfect: He would have read 3. He’s come.AUXILIARY VERBS Au următoarele caracteristici: ♥ sunt golite de sens lexical: I shall leave after he comes.Grăbeşte-te ca să ajungem la timp.VERBELE AUXILIARE . Future: I shall give Future Perfect:I shall have given Conditional: I should give Conditional Perfect: I should have given 4.. do/does Exemple: 1.Locuieşti în acest oraş? 35 . Do you live in this town?. They hurried so that we might arrive in time. may/might 6. Hurry up.

(înseamnă şi „testament” şi „voinţă”). de exemplu poate fi tradus prin 'fie' . particula 'voi' din româneşte. must .a trebui.este o întărire a unui ordin dacă este spus apăsat. My friend ________sent me some photos. The train ________ just arrived. ________ you heard that? My uncle ________ not eat fish. ________anybody rung up for me? She ________ not play the piano. I ________ not live here. must. cu înţelesul de a avea nevoie dare . shall. will . They ________ not want to play outside.ar trebui. – Nu-mi place. (înseamnă şi luna mai).MODAL VERBS ♥ Verbele: can. ________you drink milk? Who ________ eaten my biscuits? It ________ not matter. can . will şi parţial need şi dare formează grupul de verbe modale.a putea.a trebui.formează viitorul. poate fi tradus uneori şi prin probabil (sau 'trebuie ca') ought to. a provoca pe cineva 36 . ar fi cazul shall . I will come = Voi veni. Altfel formează viitorul persoanei întâi. În plus se foloseşte în urări. ought to. ________ you understand? They ________been learning English for two years. a fi necesar (înseamnă şi must. need . Se foloseşte şi la formarea viitorului. Aceste verbe nu formează infinitivul cu particula 'to'. We ________ not seen you for a long time.a îndrazni. În vorbirea curentă mai ales în întrebări se foloseşte în locul lui 'may' (înseamnă şi conservă şi 'to can' = a face conservă) may . În acest ultim caz de obicei se înlocuieşte cu 'will'. ________ she know that you are here? The lesson ________not started yet. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Alegeţi auxiliarul potrivit: What ________ you done? I ________ not like this song.a putea.suc de struguri). cu întelesul de a avea voie.Does he work here? – Lucrează aici? Did he attend this school? – A urmat această şcoală? I don’t like it. may. cu înţelesul de a fi în stare. How ________ we get there? Where ________ he live? VERBELE MODALE .

Nu pot să mănânc carne. Do you eat meat? . I eat meat . won't he? . You ought to stop smoking.Cum îndrăzneşti să vorbeşti aşa! ♥ Caracteristicile generale ale verbelor modale ♥ Nu acceptă particula to pentru infinitiv.Pot să mă duc. mustn't = must not. Din exemplele de mai sus vedem că această regulă a verbelor modale e respectată: I know I can (fără 'to'). You shall not kill = Nu vei omorî (să nu omori). nu-i aşa? sau He will go. If you must. he/she can etc. În limba engleză se spune: I must eat.Ştiu că pot.Poţi să mănânci carne? Must you eat meat? . I can go.Trebuie că visez (probabil că visez). Viitor: I’ll be able to skate next year. you must .Dacă trebuie.Trebuie să mănânci carne? ♥ Aceste verbe nu se schimbă după persoană: I can. can't = can not. Irina could run faster than you last year. Atenţie: I need to eat . Irina putea să alerge mai repede decât tine anul trecut. Adică în cazul celorlalte verbe se pune un do not sau does not pentru negaţie.Mănânci carne? Can you eat meat? .Îmi acordaţi acest dans? May the force be with you! . Adică persoana a treia singular nu primeşte 's'.Va merge.Nu mănânc carne. I will survive = Voi supravieţui. won't = will not sunt verbele modale care folosesc cel mai mult această regulă.E nevoie să continui? How dare you talk like this! . în limba română se spune: Trebuie să mănânc. Forma 'nu-i aşa' depinde de verbul modal folosit în prima parte a întrebării. adică să ai noroc. ♥ Forma negativă nu cere do. Condiţional: Would you be able to manage by yourself if it was necessary ? Could you manage by yourself if it was necessary ? Te-ai putea descurca singur dacă ar fi nevoie ? Observaţie ! Diferenţa de sens între could şi was/were able to se pierde la negativ sau cu verbe de percepţie: I couldn’t swim yesterday as the weather was very bad. you can. Adică. ♥ Aceste verbe se pot contracta cu particula not din propoziţii negative. nu au participiu şi nici forma cu -ing.need aici nu e verb modal). I can not eat meat . May I have this dance? (fără 'to') etc.Exemple: I know I can. Din această cauză multe timpuri lipsesc acestor verbe. Need I go on? . May I have this dance? (Pot să am acest dans) .. nu-i aşa? CAN/COULD exprimă ♥ capacitatea fizică sau intelectuală Daniel can speak three foreign languages. I do not eat meat . trebuie. ♥ Pentru formarea celebrului 'nu-i aşa' din engleză e necesar folosirea acestor verbe. (particula do cade) ♥ Forma interogativă nu cere do. 37 .Mănânc carne.Fie ca forţa să te însoţească! din filmul StarWars. – Ar fi cazul/ar trebui/îţi recomand să nu mai fumezi. Daniel ştie trei limbi străine. Foarte important: Verbul care urmează unui verb modal nu are to în faţă. can't I? . I must be dreaming .

be permitted to: On Sundays we were allowed to stay in bed until ten o’clock. I begin work at seven. se adaugă got la have to. deducţia logică: She must be at home. HAVE TO. MAY/MIGHT ♥ folosit pentru a cere (a) sau a acorda (b) permisiunea (mai oficial decât can): a) May I go ? Pot să plec ? b) You may go. (It’s my decision). Poţi să pleci. I wasn’t able to see him in the dark. She left two hours ago. Prezent: You must stay home for a few days. HAVE GOT TO În vorbirea familiară. repetată (habitual obligation): I have to be at the hospital at seven o’clock every morning. We have to go. urgentă: I must be at the hospital at two. ♥ might este folosit în cereri insistente sau atunci când vorbitorul este iritat de neîndeplinirea unei acţiuni You might give me an answer. Viitor: You must stay home tomorrow if you don’t feel better. iar have se contrage obţinându-se I’ve got/I haven’t got to phone her. 38 . b) Must exprimă o obligaţie importantă.Se poate să vină azi. (Please. ♥ exprimă o cerere. Must exprimând obligaţia poate fi înlocuit de have to sau ‘ve got to. Have to exprimă o obligaţie obişnuită.Duminică aveam voie să stăm în pat până la ora 10.I wasn’t able to swim yesterday as the weather was very bad. În acest sens. can/could poate fi înlocuit de be allowed to. I couldn’t see him in the dark. pe când have to exprimă o obligaţie impusă din exterior: I must go. It’s most important. ♥ permisiunea A: Can I borrow your pen ? B: Of course you can. Past Tense: He had to stay home last week. (The shop is closing). He was quite ill. NEED/NEEDN’T ♥ folosit pentru a exprima lipsa obligativităţii You needn’t come early to work= You don’t have to come early. 2. You have to stay home when you have flu. ♥ permisiunea în trecut On Sundays we could stay in bed until ten o’clock. Între must şi have to există următoarele diferenţe de sens: a) Must exprimă o obligaţie impusă de către vorbitor.. (nu era nevoie) SHALL/SHOULD. You’ve got flu. o rugăminte politicoasă (may este mai politicos şi oficial decât can/could): May I use your phone ? Îmi daţi voie să dau telefon ? ♥ exprimă o posibilitate prezentă sau viitoare He may come today. give me an answer) MUST / HAVE TO / NEED MUST Must se foloseşte pentru a exprima: 1) obligaţia: They must stop because the traffic light is red now. You’ll have to stay home when you feel feverish again.

Ar trebui să fi ajuns acolo deja. o rugăminte: Will you sign the papers. ♥ o acţiune repetată. un obicei trecut care încă mai este repetat în prezent: They used to go there every year and it is likely to find them there. Ar trebui să-l citeşti. OUGHT TO ♥ La fel ca şi should.. Trebuie/va sta /urmează să stea în clădire pînă la miezul nopţii. un ordin: Where shall we put the flowers ? Unde să punem florile ? Shall we go to the cinema tonight ? (Ce spui). BE TO folosit pentru a exprima ♥ o comandă sau instrucţiuni într-un mod impersonal: He is to stay in the building till midnight. too. ♥ o acţiune planificată: The meeting is to start at 7:30. ♥ probabilitatea: That would be his pen. Obişnuiau să se ducă acolo în fiecare an şi e posibil să îi găseşti acolo. nu mai fac asta acum. a avea curajul. He shouldn’t tell lies. ought to exprimă obligaţia sau datoria. un obicei trecut care nu mai este repetat în prezent: I used to call him when I was a student.Probabil că acela este stiloul lui. hotărârea de a efectua ceva în trecut: He would continue writing for hours. Obişnuiam să îl sun când erma student. WILL/WOULD ♥ exprimă o comandă:You will do that immediately! ♥ exprimă insistenţa: He will work as a doctor no matter what! ♥ o invitaţie:Will you have another slice of pizza? ♥ o cerere.♥ Shall este folosit: pentru a exprima obligaţie. necesitatea logică de înfăptuire a unei acţiuni. b) o presupunere: He should be there by now. USED TO exprimă ♥ o acţiune repetată. mai ales în propoziţii interogative: How dare you say that? – Cum îndrăzneşti să spui asta? Exerciţii – Practice 39 .pentru a cere un sfat. ♥ Shall este folosit în propoziţii interogative. Angajatorul va furniza documentele necesare în timp util. la persoana a II-a şi a III-a) The employer shall supply the necessary documents in due time. N-ar trebui să mintă. o sugestie. de obicei sub forma unui sfat dat de către vorbitor: You ought to start packing before 12 o’clock to make the check out. regulamente. etc.cu would: Would you do me a favor? ♥ insistenţa. DARE ♥ este folosit cu sensul de a îndrăzni. la persoana I singular sau plural: a). mergem la cinema diseară ? What shall we do ? Ce trebuie să facem ? b). please? ♥ o rugăminte foarte politicoasă. de obicei sub formă de sfat de către vorbitor: The novel is very interesting..Întâlnirea urmează să înceapă la 7:30. Romanul este foarte interesant. I don’t do this anymore.pentru a face o ofertă: Shall I help you ? Să te ajut ? ♥ Should este folosit pentru a exprima: a) obligaţia. You should read it. no matter what I said. în stil oficial (acte.

The refrigerator isn't working. 5. You _______submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. A won't be able to B will can't C couldn't D want be able to 2. EX 3. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time. They ____________ go. 1. you know. If the form is not complete. He's the only one who would send you flowers. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a penny. Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time. 3. You _________be rich to be famous.2. The weather was too bad. Teacher. 3. A wasn't able to B couldn't C haven't been able to EX. _________.they're beautiful! But. You _______be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. Daniel _________ hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly. He __________ pass the exam if he studied harder. 40 . I ____________ do it yet. you will be rejected and you _______reapply at a later date. Alegeţi varianta corectă de răspuns. 4. My teacher said we _________ read them if we needed extra credit. Mike: _________you hold your breath for more than a minute? Jack: No. there's no card. 1. 2. A 'm not able to B can't C fish 4. 6. A can B will be able to C would be able to 3. I _______be at the meeting by 10:00. Who could have sent them? Stephanie: It _______David.We ______________ go to the party. Alegeţi verbul modal potrivit situaţiilor de mai jos: 1. A weren't able to B can't C couldn't 5. The books are optional. Alegeţi între must şi have to: 1. Tina: Look at these flowers . He _________ quite exhausted after such a long flight. I __________ remember his name. 4. But we _________read them if we don't want to.LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours. 5. 2. We're going to a wedding. It _________damaged during the move. You _______forget to pay the rent. Sorry.

Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something. I _________stand these people . 15. 11. If you don't. but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head. 10. the answer in the book _________wrong! 8. You _________ leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused yourself. You _________ no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours! 19.I don ’t understand their priciples. 20. _________ you think once in a while before you open your mouth? 17. _________we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there. You _________worry so much. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work. If I had gone to an University in England. 12. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It _________cost a fortune. So. You _________do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently. so they _________be here by 5:00. The machine _________start moving by pressing the left button. just apply for another job. You had better take along some cash.7. It doesn't do you any good. The lamp _________be broken. 14. I've redone this math problem at least ten times. 41 . 18. 9. I _________participated in their English immersion program. so you get rid of them! 16. The shop _________accept credit cards. or you don't. 13. Either you get the promotion.

PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA - SUBSTANTIVUL
Definiţie: Substantivul: a) denumeşte obiecte în sens foarte larg, adică fiinţe, lucruri, fenomene (woman, desk, rain, go, happiness); b) are categorii gramaticale de gen, număr şi caz; c) poate îndeplini în propoziţie funcţiile de subiect, nume predicativ, atribut, apoziţie, complement, element predicativ suplimentar, sau poate fi echivalentul unei propoziţii sau fraze. Clasificare: a) substantive simple: boy, meal, day; b) substantive formate din derivare cu sufixe sau prefixe: childhood, disgust, unhappiness; c) substantive formate prin compunere (substantivele compuse): schoolboy d) substantive formate prin conversiune, din alte părţi de vorbire: - adjective: the good, the evil, the rich, the poor; - verbe la infinitiv: cook, fall; - verbe la Gerund: reading, boxing; - verbe la participiul trecut: the injured; e) substantive formate prin contragere: ad (advertisement), fridge (refrigerator), gym (gymnasium), lab (laboratory), liv (livingroom), poly (polytechnic), pub (public house); f) abrevieri: MP (Member of Parliament), Dr (doctor), Mr Brown (Dl. Brown), Mrs Brown (dna Brown), Miss Brown (dra Brown), Ms Brown (apelativ pentru femei, căsătorite sau necăsătorite) g) substantive comune şi substantive proprii - Substantivele comune pot fi: - substantive colective, care denumesc obiecte constând din mai multe elemente de acelaşi fel: family, people; - substantive concrete, care denumesc obiecte sau substanţa constitutivă a unor obiecte: table, wood, steel; - substantive abstracte, care denumesc abstracţiuni: difficulty, worry, peace Substantivele (numele) proprii au capacitatea de a individualiza un obiect dintr-o categorie de obiecte de acelaşi fel, denumind în principiu un singur element dintr-o categorie. În limba engleză, substantivele proprii denumesc: - nume de persoane: John, Larry, Daniel; - denumiri geografice - nume de localităţi: London, Paris - nume de ţări şi continente: Romania, France, Europe - nume de ape şi munţi: London River, Carpathians - diviziuni temporale - lunile anului: January, February, March, April, June, July, August, September, October, November, December - zilele săptămânii: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday - sărbători: Halloween d) nume de cărţi, ziare, reviste: The English Magazine, Nine o ’Clock e) nume de instituţii 42

Numărul substantivelor : I. Substantive numărabile (Count nouns) II. Substantive nenumărabile (Mass nouns). I. Substantivele numărabile denumesc noţiunile ca unităţi separate, care pot fi numărate: a boy, two boys, a few boys, etc. Au următoarele caracteristici: a) sunt variabile ca formă, având atât numărul singular, cât şi numărul plural: museum - museums, child - children; b) pot fi precedate de numerale cardinale sau cuantificatori: one book, three books, several apples, a lot of brushes; c) la numărul singular se acordă cu verbe la singular: The book is on the table. /The apples are in the basket. Formarea pluralului substantivelor numărabile: Formele de plural sunt de două feluri: A. regulate, când pluralul se formează prin adăugarea desinenţei -s la forma de singular: book - books. B. Neregulate, când pluralul se formează în alte moduri: - Substantivele terminate în -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh adaugă es: bus - buses; glass - glasses; buzz buzzes; box - boxes; watch - watches; brush – brushes - când -o e precedat de o vocală: cuckoos; kangaroos; radios; scenarios; studios, zoos; - adaugă -es la substantive ca: echoes, heroes, mosquitoes, Negroes, potatoes, tomatoes - Substantivele terminate în -y precedat de o consoană transformă pe y în i şi adaugă -es: city cities; factory - factories. Transformarea nu are loc după vocale: boy - boys, play - plays; 1) -th→ ths: bath - baths; mouth - mouths; path - paths; 2) -f(e) [f]→ ves [vz]: calf - calves; elf - elves; half - halves; knife - knives; leaf - leaves; life lives; loaf - loaves; self - selves; shelf - shelves; 3) -se [s]→ ses [ziz]: house - houses II. Substantivele nenumărabile - denumesc noţiuni văzute ca un întreg. - pot fi concrete: sugar, coal, steel sau abstracte: beauty, kindness. Substantivele nenumărabile au următoarele caracteristici: a) sunt invariabile ca formă: tea, information, cattle. b) neavând contrastul singular - plural, ele nu pot fi numărate cu ajutorul numeralelor sau al altor cuantificatori: I need (some) tea. I need (some) information. I need (some) scissors. c) Se acordă cu verbul singular: Chinese tea is very good. Ceaiul chinezesc este foarte bun, sau la plural: The scissors are on the table. Foarfeca este pe masă. d) Unele substantive englezeşti fac parte atât din clasa substantivelor numărabile, cât şi din a celor nenumărabile, cu diferenţe de sens: She is a beauty. (Ea) este o frumuseţe. Beauty is to be admired. Frumuseţea trebuie admirată. She has got a new iron. Are un nou fier de călcat. This tool is made of iron. Această unealtă este din fier. În limba engleză fac parte din clasa substantivelor invariabile la singular unele substantive care sunt numărabile sau invariabile la plural în limba română: - advice, business, furniture, homework, income, information, knowledge, luggage, merchandise, money etc He always gives me good advice. Totdeauna îmi dă sfaturi bune. You must do your homework carefully. Trebuie să-ţi faci cu atenţie lecţiile. 43

I need further information. Am nevoie de informaţii suplimentare. His knowledge of English is poor. Cunoştinţele lui de engleză sunt slabe. Numărul substantivelor invariabile Substantivele invariabile nu au opoziţia singular - plural. Ele au numai singular: gold, sau numai plural the police, cattle etc. Cuantificarea substantivelor invariabile la singular se poate realiza cu ajutorul unor cuvinte ca: a piece of, an item of, a bar of, a bag of etc. Substantive concrete: a piece of bacon a slice of cake a piece of bread a loaf of bread a piece of land a strip of land a piece of furniture an article of furniture a bit of grass a blade of grass a piece of paper a sheet of paper Substantive abstracte: a piece of advice a word of advice a piece of information an item of news an item of business a bit of business a piece of work a bit of work a word of abuse a fit of passion an attack of fever

Genul substantivelor (Gender of Nouns) - genul este marcat formal: boy - girl, lion - lioness, - se poate identifica de obicei cu ajutorul pronumelor care se referă la substantive şi care au forme diferite după gen: The librarian is at his desk. He is writing something. (el) The librarian is at her desk. She is writing something. (ea) Clasificare: A. substantive nume de persoane B. substantive nume de animale C. substantive nume de obiecte A. brother/sister earl/countess father/mother king/queen lord/lady man/woman uncle/aunt - ess: actor/actress count/countess god/goddess master/mistress waiter/waitress -ine: hero/heroine; -er: widow/widower -groom: bride/bridegroom 44

Am mâncat o pizza acum o oră. jealousy.Fata îşi aşteaptă prietenul. Cazul dativ (The Dative Case) În limba engleză.. foreigner.. B: horse: stallion/mare ox: bull/cow sheep: ram/ewe pig: boar/sow deer: stag/hind lion/lioness tiger/tigress cock/hen dog/bitch drake/duck cock sparrow/hen sparrow he goat/she goat Tom cat/she cat C: Sunt masculine substantivele care denumesc: a) pasiuni intense şi acţiuni violente: anger.. 45 ..Am cumpărat-o pentru Mary. revenge.topică: The man (N) opened the window (Ac). chairman. I bought a present for my mother.prepoziţii: I bought it for Mary. justice.- alte substantive nume de persoane au o singură formă atât pentru masculin cât şi pentru feminin. for convenience’ sake – pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. ..Am cumpărat un cadou pentru fratele meu. parent. afectuos. science Cazul substantivelor: În limba engleză.Maşina lui Marc este nouă. d) nume de munţi: the Carpathians. Ele aparţin genului comun: artist.cartea copilului . cazul dativ este marcat de prepoziţia to sau for sau prin topică: She gave some sweets to the children. musician. c) substantive abstracte ca: fortune. the Cheviot. un caracter blând. de dragul comodităţii Observaţie: Apostroful nu este obligatoriu în acest caz. întrebarea elevului for goodness’ sake. I lent her (D) a book (Ac). Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case). Substantivul în cazul genitiv exprimă în principal ideea de posesiune: Marc’s car is new. Sunt feminine: a) substantivele care sugerează o caracteristică feminină. nature. peace. cele care indică fertilitatea: affection. murder. folly. vanity. liberty. the pupil’s question – rochia fetei. sun. Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case) The girl is waiting for her friend.Bărbatul a deschis fereastra. friend. mercy. quest. the Thames. teacher.. categoria gramaticală a cazului este marcată prin: . faith. c) nume de fluvii: the Danube. river. writer. Cazul acuzativ (The Acusative Case) I ate a pizza an hour ago. – Le-a dat nişte dulciuri copiilor. hope.desinenţă: the child’s book. devotion. fear. doctor.I-am împrumutat o carte.. Apartenenţa la genul masculin sau feminin se precizează în context. b) fenomene naturale puternice: ocean. cousin. the girl’s dress. cook. b) substantivele care denumesc trăsături negative de caracter: ambition.

3. the drivers’ attention (atenţia şoferilor) . Obs: 1. Charles’ books (cărţile lui Charles).2) kilo -3) woman . chocolate. oil.7) penny .cars 1) half . (boys) EX 2. (Mary) Answer: I met Mary's sister yesterday. Exemplu: ira = air aet ikn ilo fgo eber einw doow acek 46 aclo ahir . (boy) 10) These are the _______ pencils. Scrie forma de genitiv în spaţiile libere: Example: I met _______ sister yesterday. tennis Example: a cube of _____ Answer: a cube of sugar 1) a piece of _____2) a packet of _____3) a bar of _____4) a glass of _____ 5) a cup of _____6) a bottle of _____7) a slice of _____8) a barrel of _____ 9) a game of _____10) a jar of _____ EX 4. (Smiths) 3) The room is upstairs.9) day . (Peter) 2) Let's go to the _______. milk. rice.6) sheep .la forma de plural a substantivelor regulate: the boys’ bicycles (bicicletele băieţilor). meat. Completaţi spaţiile cu următoarele cuvinte: advice.4) mouth . (Susan . 1) This is _______ book.___ Answer: car . tea.Steve) 6) _______ shoes are on the second floor. lemonade. jam.10) fish – EX. La numele proprii terminate în -s se poate întâlni şi genitivul cu ‘s: Dickens’s novels Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX 1. (John) 5) _______and _______ bags have blue stickers. (children) 4) _______sister is twelve years old. (men) 7) My _______ car was not expensive. Puneţi forma de plural corespunzătoare substantivelor: Put in the correct form of the plural of the given nouns. Creaţi substantive nenumărabile din literele de mai jos. Example: car .8) bus .Apostroful singur. (parents) 8) _______CD player is new.la substantivele nume de persoane terminate în -s: Dickens’ life (viaţa lui Dickens).5) foot . (Charles) 9) This is the _______ bike. fără desinenţa -s se adaugă: .

. substantivele nenumărabile. a water-melon. There is an orange on the table. that tree. schools Adjectivul demonstrativ this tree. Articolul hotărât (The Definite Article) Articolul hotărât are forma unică the Ex:the door. Îmi place mierea. Acesta este de obicei numit articolul zero. books. În astfel de cazuri. The Sahara. an honest man Articolul zero (The Zero Article) În unele cazuri. Articolul este redat prin articolul hotărât the. the window. her. some notebooks. your. A cow gives us milk. an orange. (articolul zero = funcţia generică) I like the honey they sell here. articolul nehotărât a sau an sau prin articolul zero. an hour. 2) Where are the books I gave you? – Unde sunt cărţile pe care ţi le-am dat? There is a pen on the table. an egg. the Art Gallery. neither student Articolul nu poate fi o parte de vorbire independentă. b) articolul zero pentru substantivele nenumărabile: Milk is good for our health. its tail Adjectivul interogativ what/which/whose car do you want? Adjectivul nehotărât each. etc The United Kingdom. Omisiunea articolului (The Elypsis of the Article) Ex: a) I like honey. no idea. the United States.ARTICOLUL ŞI ALŢI DETERMINANŢI Determinanţii propriu-zişi ai substantivului Articolul hotărât the child Articolul nehotărât a child. Articolul nehotărât (The Indefinite Article) Articolul nehotărât are două forme: a şi an Ex: a story. el contribuind doar la determinarea unică sau individuală a substantivului pe care îl însoţeşte. a year an architect. the table. our. those trees Adjectivul posesiv my. Clothes do not make the man. your. a magazine. an elephant Articolul zero men. absenţa articolului echivalează ca funcţie cu prezenţa unui articol. There are (some) books on the table Observaţie: a) articolul hotărât the. Îmi place mierea care se vinde aici. any idea . person every. person. (articolul hotărât the) 47 . either side.Fata alerga foarte repede. articolul nehotărât a( n) sau articolul zero pentru substantivele numărabile: The cow gives us milk. an heir. substantivele numărabile la plural şi numele proprii par neînsoţite de articol: She drinks tea every day. Cows give us milk. Aceste articole se folosesc pentru a realiza: 1) referinţa unică (unique reference) şi 2) referinţa individuală (individual reference) 1) The girl was running very fast. etc. his. these trees. their car.

. His bike is excellent . the sau articolul zero. 7. 9. He is one of ___ smartest people I know. Would you like to see ___ movie? ___ apple a day keeps ___ doctor away. _______people come from that hotel over there.cartea ei. acestea ♥ Those – aceia. Adjectivul posesiv se acordă în gen şi număr cu numele obiectului posedat: Her book . – Această casă este mai scumpă decât aceea. _______exhibition will be open until the end of May. Pune răspunsul corect: This coat was designed by ___ famous New York artist. _______is my cousin. What does_______ notice say? 5. I can't believe I failed ___ yesterday's test! Do you have ___ dictionary that I can borrow? ALŢI DETERMINANŢI : Adjectivul demonstrativ (The Demonstrative Adjective) ♥ This – acesta. Do you see _______birds at the top of the tree? 8. 6. aceasta ♥ That – acela. Wasn't _______ a horrible thing to say? Adjectivul posesiv (The Posesive Adjective) ♥ înlocuieşte posesorul şi determină numele obiectului posedat: Peter’s bike is excellent for him to keep fit. _______ night the factory went on fire. 10.Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! A. an. acelea This house is more expensive than that one. 3. _______exhibition closed a month ago. _______are the old classrooms. aceea ♥ These – aceştia. ___ milk is good for you. 2. Those are the new ones. 48 . 4. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi cu this/that/ these/ those 1.. _______beach was quite empty last year. Can you tell me how to get to ___ bank from here? ___ city museum is closed today. I recommend you eat ___ apple pie at this restaurant. He was dismissed on the 13th. Jessica.

2 They're married. That food is hers/his. ____ name's Peter. Their toys . That is her/his/its food.. That book is yours. to (vorbire curentă) what which Acuzativ whom (formă literară) who (vorbire curentă) what which Exemplu: What film did you see last night ?.His bike . That is your book. ____ books are in the classroom. _________________ subject do you like ? 5. This is our classroom.jucăriile lor. That is their classroom. 3 We're brothers. 4 She's eight. 49 . That classroom is theirs.bicicleta lui. ____ brother's nine. 1. Caz Pronume who what which Nominativ who what which Genitiv whose what which Dativ to whom (formă literară) who . 6 You're students.Ce film ai văzut aseară? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi spaţiile cu adjectivul interogativpotrivit. ____ children's names are Lauren and Daniel. _________________ girl has a red bag ? 3. Comparaţi: Adjectiv posesiv This is my book. _________________ books are these ? Pronume posesiv This book is mine. This classroom is ours. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi propoziţiile cu adjective posesive: 1 He's from Spain. _________________ time is the flight ? 2. ____ parents are French. Adjectivul interogativ (The Interrogative Adjective) ♥ determină numele obiectului asupra căruia se cer informaţii: who are forme flexionare pentru caz. which şi what sunt invariabile. ____name's Alberto. _________________ mother is a nurse ? 4. 5 I'm British..

vreun. Every = fiecare (se referă la membrii unui grup fără a-i individualiza) Every woman in the room has the right to speak. "some". nici o. orice: Any student in your class could answer the question.în propoziţii interogative şi negative: There isn’t any milk in the cup. is there ______ hot water? I'm sorry. She hasn't ______ clothes to wear to the party. there aren't any. Are there ______ good movies this weekend? No. 4. We had better get ______. No problem. Mary. there is ______ gas in the car. There are some books on his desk. vreo. a unei cantităţi restrânse. unele. 3. there are ______. nişte. Do ______ black people work in your company? Yes. câţiva.în propoziţii afirmative cu sensul: oricare. 2. câteva. nici un(ul).Adjectivul nehotărât (The Indefinite Adjective) ♥ determină substantivul într-un mod global (all the pens. se întrebuinţează: . 5. Are there any onions? No. se întrebuinţează în propoziţii afirmative şi indică existenţa unui număr restrâns de lucruri. Any = vreun. Oh. there are ______. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi cu "any". fiinţe. there is ______ hot water. Each = fiecare (se referă la membrii unui grup luaţi individual) Each pupil must bring some plants to school. "no" or "none": Exemplu: 1. either side) Some = ceva. unii. no. I want to take a shower. I can give her ______. every child) sau parţial (each pupil. 50 . nici una. puţină. . vreo.

a. Numeralul fracţionar (The Fractional Numeral) ♥ sunt redate sub forma unor fracţii. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral) ♥ arată că obiectele sunt considerate în grup şi nu izolat Numeralele colective sunt: couple. pair. o doime. Numeralul cardinal: 0 zero (nought) 1 one 11 eleven 2 two 12 twelve 3 three 13 thirteen 4 four 14 fourteen 5 five 15 fifteen 6 six 16 sixteen 7 seven 17 seventeen 8 eight 18 eighteen 9 nine 19 nineteen 100 200 … 900 1. several pair(s) of shoes 51 . Numeralul cardinal: one. dozen. b. Numeralul ordinal: 0th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th zeroth or noughth first 11th eleventh second 12th twelfth third 13th thirteenth fourth 14th fourteenth fifth 15th fifteenth sixth 16th sixteenth seventh17th seventeenth eighth 18th eighteenth ninth 19th nineteenth 10th 20th 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th tenth twentieth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth c.000 one hundred two hundred … nine hundred one thousand 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ten twenty thirty forty (no "u") fifty (note "f". team. not "v") sixty seventy eighty (only one "t") ninety (note the "e") b. 1/3/ = a/one third = o treime 1.NUMERALUL –THE NUMERAL ♥ este partea de vorbire care exprimă un număr. Numărul fracţiei este exprimat printr-un numeral cardinal. determinarea numerică a obiectelor (numeralul cardinal) sau ordinea obiectelor prin numărare (numeralul ordinal) a. the second etc. two. Numeralul ordinal: the first.5 = one point nought five d. three etc. yoke Ex: two dozen of eggs. score. iar numitorul printr-un numeral ordinal: 1/2 = a/one half = o jumătate.

? a third ? third ? the third ? the third of the 9. three times . g. etc.de două ori. each). once again.odată. ♥ are categoriile gramaticale de persoană. ? Hundred ? Hundreds ? Five hundreds ? Five hundred ? 2. They have French twice a week. ten times. four times. He wrote a __________ report. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) f. număr şi caz. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. we are going to study __________. by twos. two by two. Eggs are cheap. exemplu: two at a time. "C" is _______ letter of the English alphabet. The scientist is in his _________. five times. ? two dozens ? two dozen ? two a dozen ? two dozens of them? 3. twice . ? thirties ? thirtys ? thirty's ? thirtieths 8. ? third-fifths ? three-fifth ? three-fifths ? third-fifth 6. ? one year and a half ? one year and half ? one year and an half ? one and half years 10. in tows (in pairs): The pupils left the classroom two by two/in twos. you) sau desemnează global sau parţial obiecte sau fenomene (all. Today is __________ day. I bought __________. two and two. Au franceza de două ori pe săptămână. Next week. ? the one hundred fourty-ninth ? the one hundred forty-nineth ? one hundred forty ninth ? the one hundred forty-ninth PRONUMELE -THE PRONOUN ♥ poate înlocui substantive: The man is here. He is here ♥ desemnează direct vorbitorul şi ascultătorul (I. Elevii au părăsit clasa câte doi. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) ♥ exprimă gruparea numerică a obiectelor. ? Lesson Nine ? Lesson Ninth ? Lesson Nineth ? the nineth lesson 5. Numeralul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral) ♥ arată: de câte ori are loc o acţiune: once. three times (thrice). gen. ________ of people sat quietly in the hall. ? two thousand of ? two thousand ? two thousands ? two thousands of 7. twice. About ________ of the workers are young people. a hundred times.de trei ori. About ___________ old people died of the flu last winter.e. ? five-thousand-words ? five-thousands-word ? five-thousands-words ? five-thousand-word 4. Clasificarea pronumelor: 52 . He's been in the United States for __________.Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numeral) once . once more. twice as fast etc. The experiment will last for one hundred fifty days.

Is it yours.Ţie îţi place de mine şi mie îmi place de tine. Irina? Adjective posesive It's my food It's your food It's his food It's her food It's its food Pronume posesive It's mine It's yours It's his It's hers -Pronume personal It belongs to me It belongs to you It belongs to him It belongs to her It belongs to it 53 . every afirmativ: many. several. seria some neafirmativ: seria any. little.) herself (fem. enough. one. Pronumele posesiv ♥ înlocuieşte atât numele obiectului posedat cât şi al posesorului Formele pronumelui posesiv sunt: Persoana I singular mine I plural ours a II-a singular/plural yours a III-a masculin singular his plural theirs feminin singular hers plural theirs Exemplu: Is this his pen? No. Pronumele reflexiv ♥ are terminaţia -self la singular şi -selves la plural Persoana Singular Plural I myself ourselves a II-a yourself yourselves a III-a himself (masc. Ask Irina if is hers.Pronumele personal Pronumele reflexiv Pronumele posesiv Pronumele relativ Pronumele interogativ Pronumele demonstrativ Pronumele nehotărât pozitiv universal :each. all. it’s not ours. neither Pronumele personal: Nominativ Dativ/Acuzativ I me you you he him she her it it we us they them Exemple: You like me and I like you.. negativ: seria no.) themselves itself (neutru) Exemple: He looked at himself in the mirror. few. either. much.

nişte.Nu ştiu a cui este maşina aceasta. Whoever speaks must translate. niciun(ul).It's our food It's ours It belongs to us It's your food It's yours It belongs to you It's their food It's theirs It belongs to them Pronumele interogativ who este folosit pentru fiinţe what pentru lucruri which pentru fiinţe şi lucruri how much pentru cantităţi how many pentru număr what kind of pentru calităţi. vreo. I saw nobody in your room. Whichever. Pronumele relative sunt: who. puţin. se întrebuinţează în propoziţii afirmative. I know people that don’t like this kind of food. whoever -oricine..anything . which şi that Nominativ Dativ/Acuzativ Genitiv Who Who(m) Whose Exemplu: I don’t know whose car is this one. Each = fiecare: Each of them . Oricine vorbeşte trebuie să traducă. etc Exemple: Who are they waiting for?. puţină. I saw something in your room. vreo. I saw nothing in your room. etc) Did you visit some of the museums the tourist guide recommended ? Any = vreun.Fiecare (dintre ei) Either (forma negativă neither) = fiecare: Have you seen either of them ? L-ai văzut pe vreunul dintre ei (doi) ? 54 . (vegetables. Pronumele nehotărât ♥ desemnează global (all) sau parţial (each.oricare.Pe cine aşteaptă ei? What did he tell you? – Ce ţi-a spus? What time is it? – Cât este ceasul? Which of these books do you prefer ? – Pe care din aceste cărţi o preferi? From what country does he come from? – Din ce ţară vine? Pronumele relativ ♥ se referă la un substantiv sau înlocuitor al acestuia menţionat anterior şi face legătura între propoziţia în care se află şi cea pe care o însoţeşte: I know people who don’t like this kind of food. câteva. orice: Any of you could answer this question.nothing Exemple: I saw somebody in your room. interogative (ptr a pune accentul pe ceva) Exemplu: She bought some. vreun. niciuna se întrebuinţează: în propoziţii afirmative cu sensul: oricare. either) obiecte sau fenomene Some = ceva. în propoziţii interogative şi negative: Have you got any ? I haven’t got any.nobody/no one none something . O/Îl va lua pe oricare este a/al lui. nicio. unii. unele. câţiva. ♥ Compuşii lui some. items.anybody/anyone . any şi no: somebody/someone . He will take whichever is his.

Alegeţi pronumele relativ corect: who. (the blackboard) ___are on the wall. nothing (nimic): Exemple: Neither of them is right. toate: I’ve seen them all. ___ name is John.yourself . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) ___is dreaming. unul. All = tot. 6) He cut ___ with the knife while he was doing the dishes. ____ father is a professor. ____ is a taxi driver. This is ___ friend Jason. 2) Lisa did the homework ___ 3) We helped ___ to some cola at the party. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX1. 7) The man..herself . 4) This is the boy ____ comes from France. 7) The lion can defend ___ . did you take the photo all by ___ ? 5) I wrote this poem ___ .I have got a pet. ___ sister is 34 and ___ workplace is very near.yourselves . 55 . none (nici unul). One = un.She often reads books. (George) ___is green.4. What have you bought ? Nothing. 6) Thank you very much for your e-mail____ was very interesting.Alegeţi pronumele posesiv corect Example: I have got a pet. toată. Pronumele negativ nobody. He's 32.2. if you want more milk. EX. una cineva:There were two children in the room: one was good and one was bad. There are 150 employees in ___ company. Hi Daniel.Every =fiecare: Every pupil must do his homework. lives in the neighbourhood. help ___ . Its name is Cookie. the girl ____ has just arrived at the airport. Alegeţi pronumele reflexiv corect din lista de mai jos: myself . (Lisa). (the dog) ___are watching TV. 4) Emma. 9) Tim and Gerry. EX. 8) My mother often talks to ___ . 2) Mr John. neither (nici unul din doi). (the posters) ___is running.himself .itself . Le-am văzut pe toate.Atenţie la cuvintele din paranteză. toţi. Example: ___ often reads books. Folosiţi pronumele personale potrivite. no one (nimeni).3. (my mother and I) EX.ourselves . 5) That's Irina. 3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest ____ is in the south of Romania. Jason and I work in the same office. forgot his umbrella. which or whose: 1) I talked to the boy ____ car had broken down in front of the building. Nici unul dintre ei (doi) nu are dreptate. ___ name is Cookie. 10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers ___ .themselves 1) Robert made this T-shirt ___ . Ce-ai cumpărat ? Nimic.

Alegeţi pronumele corecte din lista de mai jos: myself. yourself. is from England.more careful .cel mai dificil) 3.mai nervos. Answer: Daniel and Irina have known each other since 2000.bigger . 10) She only thinks of ____.fatter .more intelligent-looking . . Adjectivele monosilabice primesc -(e)r la comparativ şi the -(e)st la superlativ: small .THE ADJECTIVE ♥ este partea de vorbire care: a) exprimă o calitate a unui obiect (an interesting class.mai scurt-cel mai scurt) Observaţie: La ortografiere pot apărea unele modificări: big . 9) They often write e-mails to ____ because they're best friends.smaller . She's a little bit selfish. herself. yourselves. itself.the most intelligent-looking (privire inteligentă) 56 . ____ driver is a young man. are not from our school.mai dificil. 4) We helped ____ with our written task.mai fierbinte-cel mai fierbinte) fat .more difficult .the thinnest (subţire-mai subţire-cel mai subţire) happy .shorter .the hottest (fierbinte. Adjectvele compuse formează gradele de comparaţie în felul următor: a) când primul element este un adjectiv care îşi păstrează sensul.the happiest (fericit-mai fericit.cel mai nervos) 2. himself.cel mai grijuliu) difficult .mai grijuliu.8) The children. ourselves.the biggest (mare-mai mare. 10) What did you do with the money ____ your parents lent you? EX 5. 5) People often give ____ presents at Christmas. ____ shouted in the street. Comparaţia adjectivelor (The Comparison of Adjectives) 1.the angriest (nervos. Adjectivele formate din două sau mai multe silabe formează comparativul şi superlativul cu ajutorul lui more şi the most: careful . 1) John and Angela haven't met ____ for a very long time. acesta se schimbă la comparativ şi superlativ: well-known – better-known .the most difficult (dificil. themselves or each other.angrier .happier .thinner .the smallest ( mic-mai mic-cel mai mic) short .worse-paid .the most careful (grijuliu.hotter .the fattest (gras-mai gras-cel mai gras) thin . did you do the homework ____? 8) They looked at ____ and smiled. Example: Daniel and Irina have known __________ since 2007.the shortest (scurt. 9) The car.the best-known (binecunoscut) ill-paid . a young man) b) are categoria gramaticală a comparaţiei: He is taller than his sister.cel mai mare) hot .cel mai fericit) angry . 3) Daniel repaired computer car ____. 2) My friends enjoyed ____ at the party.the worst-paid (prost plătit) intelligent-looking. 6) I bought ____ a new record player. 7) Katie. ADJECTIVUL.

vechi. This film is less interesting than the previous one.truly. Adverbele de mod sau timp se formează prin adăugarea sufixului -ly la forma adjectivului: slow.cel mai depărtat) sau further .cel mai bătrân. Ele mai pot fi adverbe: .the oldest (bătrân. This red flower is ____ than that yellow one. c) îndeplineşte funcţia sintactică de complement circumstanţial Exemplu: Is this idea really good? Locuţiuni adverbiale: as a rule = de obicei.cel mai rău) much. Which is ____ insect in the world? A holiday by the sea is ____ than a holiday in the mountains.mai bun. quickly. highly.cel mai în vârstă) little -less . at once = imediat. extremely.de întărire: actually. Adverbele de mod indică modalitatea propriu-zisă: well. certainly.the least (puţin.more heart-broken .duly. Who is ____ man on earth? The weather is even ____ than last summer. due .the best ( bun. vechi.mai bătrân. to-and fro = încoace şi încolo.mai în vârstă. once in while. It is strange but often a coke is ____ than a beer. ADVERBUL – THE ADVERB ♥ a)arată o caracteristică a unei acţiuni. by the way = apropo. as a matter-of-fact = de fapt. mai puţin.Adjective neregulate good .more. a unei stări sau a unei calităţi. He was ____ student of all. b) poate avea categoria gramaticală a comparaţiei.slowly. beautifully.worse .older.the furthest Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative). now and then = din când în când. obviously. My house is ____ than yours.. (mai puţin interesant decât) ♥ superlativul absolut se construieşte cu ajutorul adverbelor very. too. This is ____ magazine I have ever read. badly. Non-smokers usually live ____ than smokers. whole – wholly. etc.cel mai mult) old.the most (mult. 4.cel mai bun) bad .farther .weekly Excepţii: true .mai mult. 57 . really. utterly: The film was very amusing.the farthest (depărtat – mai depărtat. Adverbele de mod (Adverbs of manner).the eldest (în vârstă.. It is extremelly difficult to make such a film. slowly etc.mai rău.cel mai puţin) far .the most heart-broken (inima frântă) ♥ comparativului de egalitate şi inferioritate: My room is as large as hers (la fel de mare ca) My homework is not as easy as yours. vechi) old – elder.better . week.the worst (rău.b) când cele două elemente formează un tot din punct de vedere al sensului comparaţia se realizează cu ajutorul lui more şi the most: heart-broken .

more carefully Comparativul de egalitate: She dances on ice as quickly as her brother. He drives____ . He paints____ . Majoritatea adverbelor de loc pot fi folosite pentru a exprima atât locul cât şi direcţia: Loc: He doesn’t live far (Nu locuieşte departe). Gradul superlativ (the) best (cel mai bine) (the) worst (cel mai rău) (the) most (cel mai mult) 58 . This girl is very quiet. yet.. nedefinită: often. today. You ____ have to put one word in each space. She speaks English ____. formerly.de probabilitate: maybe. before.de amplificare: absolutely. Superlativul absolut: se formează cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very.de afirmaţie sau negaţie: yes. Adverbele de loc (Adverbs of Place) Unele adverbe de loc indică locul propriu-zis: here. She spoke to____ us . three times a day. no.frecvenţa: definită: weekly. previosly. most care preced adverbul respectiv. Jim is a wonderful piano player. She dances really ____. She often sneaks out of the house ____. righ. Our mum was angry. The boy is loud. She is a good dancer. (the) least + adverb Comparaţia neregulată a adverbelor: Gradul pozitiv Gradul comparativ well (bine) better (mai bine) badly (rău) worse (mai rău) much (mult) more (mai mult) Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Găsiţi adjectivul din prima propoziţie şi completaţi spaţiile libere cu adverbul corespunzător: Joanne is happy. completely. Comparaţia adverbelor: Comparativ: fast . backward(s).momentul acţiunii: now. foward(s).succesiunea în timp: afterwards. since. early – earlier quickly . quite. Adverbele de timp (Adverbs of Time). barely. . still. She smiles____ . then. probally. once in a while. Her English is fluent. Comparativul de inferioritate: She dances on ice less carefully than her brother. Superlativul relativ: (the) most intelligently (of all). hardly. eventually.more quickly.faster. left. perhaps. somewhere. The painter is awful. He plays the piano____ . nowadays. . carefully . Adverbele de timp indică: . This exercise is simple. of course. usually. Altele indică direcţia: aside. . My neighbour is a careless driver. Direcţie: He didn’t go far (Nu s-a dus departe). . recently. not at all.durata: lately. soon. there. . greatly. seldom. He shouts ____.

rude. satisfied. deprive. proud. satisfaction + in. successful + in. Unele cuvinte sunt urmate în mod obligatoriu de anumite prepoziţii: a) Substantive: .accuse. fit. c) Verbe: .bound.interest. belong.aim. glance. ashamed. believe. indifferent.angry.exception. a present from Jane a page of the book. link. at a concert. consent. delighted. at 45 on the table. opportunity + of. tremble + with. contrary. full. appropiate. threaten. cure. over 16 years of age. ask.afraid. sell. comment. glow. cruel. amazed. sure. at the table. adjective. polite. die. apply. on the left. . turn + to. . concentrate. . hide. I can see a woman who is sitting at a table.disappointed. care. on the first floor. protect + from. gaze. attentive.PREPOZIŢIA . report. in the book. thankful + to. pale. wet + with.abound. blame. on the bus. stiff. go to London . adjust. Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car. the bag is under the table the fish are below the surface put a jacket over your shirt. subscribe. . in London. kindness + to. leave long + for. fire. refer.agree. astonished. arrive. . beside Under Below Over Above Across Through To Into Towards Onto From Of Example in the kitchen. originate.account. mediate + on.adapt. attribute. .affectionate.anxious. . boast. prevent. . side. conform. subscribe. good + at. . parallel. . a path above the lake walk across the bridge. next to.go to bed go into the kitchen / the house go 5 steps towards the house jump onto the table a flower from the garden. succeed (+-ing). busy.alarmed. prefer. sorry + for. look + at. characteristic. end. dizzy. . fond. cling. .in the car. worthy + of. tired. aware.PREPOSITION ♥ leagă părţi de vorbire diferite: substantive. kind. congratulate.complete. . clever. chance. remind take care + of.cause. verbe sau adverbe de substantive sau substitute ale acestora: In the picture. . reduce. eager. charmed. invitation. faint. b) Adjective: . differ. enthusiastic + about. typical. swim across the lake drive through the tunnel go to the cinema. There is another chair next to the woman. fail. in a taxi at the door. flush. famous. She is sitting on a chair. progress. identical. shiver. consistent. at the station. supply. rich.conceal. die. Prepositions In At On by. sail. + in. listen. jealous. escape. the picture of a palace 59 . . shake. deaf.

across. close to.That's right. out of. I was ____ the cinema yesterday. over. It lasts ____ two hours and forty-five minutes. for. concerning (formal). Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. through. up. towards. We could go there together ____ the afternoon. That would be great.2. after¸ from. in front of. cu toată / toate. without (fără). after. with all (familiar) ( în ciuda. ____ my wall. thanks. in. from Prepositions of reference: as to. about.. off.By Off Out of By About a book by Mark Twain get off the train get out of the taxi by car. along.. 9. onto. below. That's okay. against. 10. The film starts ____ eight o'clock. out of. Who is the person ____ this picture? Come ____ the sitting room. 6. during.. on (despre): Prepositions of cause: because of. on. behind. About. for. 4. among Prepositions of time at. regarding. ____eight ____ a quarter to eleven. 3. under. to. 7. What are you doing ____ the weekend? 2. I can pick you up ____ half ____ seven. there are many picture postcards. I have to be home ____ eleven o'clock. as for. I am visiting my grandma ____Saturday. around. on. The town lies 530 meters ____sea level. till/until. manner/way Prepositions of direction: to. by bus talking about you Prepositions of place: at. past.. above. 60 . top of. (all) through/throughout.1. before. EX. for all. That's interesting. beside. down. from. next to. by. in. How long does the film last? 8. we want to watch TV. But I must hurry home ____ the film. on account of (formal). despite (formal). over Prepositions of manner With (cu). in. near. in regard to. I haven't been to the cinema ____ so many years. We are going ____ holiday next week. But I would prefer to go there ____ the evening. 5. before. between. within. beneath. underneath.. Alege prepoziţia de timp corectă: 1. Maybe I'll go to the cinema ____ Saturday. by. Alege prepoziţia de loc corectă: We live ____ London. Would you like to go ____ the cinema tonight? No.. There is a bridge ____ the river. by. over. into. through (din cauză de) Prepositions of concession: in spite. The flight ____Bucharest ____ Lecce was ____ Berlin. I don't know yet.

cu toate că..când.2 Alegeţi conjuncţia subordonatoare potrivită: Daniel couldn't buy any presents ________ he didn't have any money. but also . I went to buy my favorite CD. ori. as if/as though .afară dacă. ci. încât. although (mai formal). even though b because I don't drink coffee ________ it makes me nervous. so 1. even if. c) de mod: (exactly) as.nici. _____ maybe it's just coincidence. Maria tried to translate the text. if.atât. Alegeţi conjuncţia coordonatoare potrivită din următoarele: and.încât.că. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new family who has just moved in . 8. exemple: I see a boy and a girl. c) adversative: but .(pentru) ca.. Although b. I wasn’t cold. as b. neither.mai (mult). numai dacă nu. g) consecutive: so that . although ________ it was snowing...dacă.deoarece. 4. Conjuncţiile subordonatoare . _____he put on a coat.. EX.. The concert was cancelled.though . Irina needed some money. _____ we went to a disco instead. Julie has a guitar. i) comparative: as. Daniel was cold. whether – dacă . 3. e) de scop: so that. 9.oriunde.deşi. He speaks English as well as German. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. whereas (formal). after .dar.CONJUNCTIA .sau.1. 10. _____ she plays it really well.: conjunctio. b) disjunctive: or . 61 .nor .as . de parcă.. not only. a. f) condiţionale: if . junctio = legatura) Conjuncţiile coordonatoare : a) copulative: and . d) de cauză: as. I bought a bottle of wine. but.şi. (that) . 6. 2. and . _____ we drank it together. so (familiar) . either. before înainte ca. you can take a bus. because .ca şi cum.universale: that . sau. h) concesive: though. _____ it was too difficult. wherever . while/as . fiindcă...nici. she can't translate that text...THE CONJUNCTION (lat. _____ the mark was good. = El vorbeşte engleza precum şi germana. Because ________ She doesn't speak English. while. = Văd un băiat şi o fată.după ce. con = impreuna.unde. since . both. (just) as .sau. since. in order that/so (that) (mai formal) .. The teacher was not very nice.specializate: de loc: where . chiar dacă.. cât şi. as well as .precum. 7.cu condiţia.încât. b) de timp: when .de când.. a. so/such.. decât.(aşa) cum. unless . _____the shop didn't have it. cu scopul ca.....aşa/astfel...dar şi..nu numai.. or. To get from Piteşti to Bucharest. _____ you can go by car. (exact) cum. 5. provided (that) / on condition (that) as long as/so longs as . till/until .până când. _____ she took a part-time job.în timp ce. a..or .

uh-huh.wow ! Miaow! Baa! Buzz! (Ham . Dear me ! What are you doing over there ? d) admiraţie: Whew !(ah. Since Daniel passed the exam first time ________ his brother had to retake it four times. Peter ! You’ve passed all your exams brilliantly. ah. 1. ouch. as I will be late today ________ my car has broken down. Ssh! Hush! Silence! (Sst. don’t be afraid! You’ll be fine. etc. Puteţi folosi interjecţii ca: ah. eh. " ____. hmm. aoleu!): ouch. aha!): Aha. oh!). linişte!): Hush! The baby’s sleeping! b) o încurajare: Cheer up! Come on! (Curaj! Haide!): Come on. b) surpriză: Oh ! Wow ! (a. while Paula got the job she wanted ________ she had no experience. a. I can’t find my purse. Since INTERJECŢIA. dear. even though b. k) durere: Ouch! Ow! (vai. ura!). that feels good" 2. I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations. Whereas b. un îndemn: Oh! Help! (oh! Ajutor!). i) dezaprobare: Nonsense! What a nuisance! (Prostii ! Ce pacoste!): What a nuisance! Now I’ll have to do it all over again! j) regret: Ah! Oh! What a pity! (a!.ham ! Miau! Beh! Bzzz!): Bang! Click! Crash! Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Alegeţi interjecţia potrivită situaţiilor de mai jos. g) dezgust: Ugh! (îh!): Ugh. oh. a. Oh. how beautiful she is ! e) înţelegere: Aha ! (a. how dirty your hands are ! h) aprobare: Well done ! Congratulations ! (Foarte bine! Felicitări!) Well done. er. c) o avertizare: Look Out! Fire! (Atenţie! Foc!): Fire ! The house is on fire! 3) se reproduc sunete şi zgomote din mediul înconjurător: Bow . dear. doamne): Whew. dear ! Dear me ! Indeed ! (vai dragă. she's dead now" 3.INTERJECTION Clasificare: Cu ajutorul interjecţiilor se exteriorizează: 1) senzaţii şi sentimente: a) bucurie: Ah ! Ooh ! Jippee ! Hurray ! (a. oh! ce păcat!): What a pity you couldn’t come! It was a good play. because b. a. vai de mine. hello. a. pah. ce ruşine!): Fie upon you ! You ought to be ashamed at what you have done. f) dispreţ: Fie ! Pshaw ! What a shame! (Ptiu. " Oh ____ ! Does it hurt ?" 62 . ah. " ____. într-adevăr) Oh. what a nice dress ! c) mirare: Oh. though ________ my wife likes to travel abroad. allas. it hurts! 2) manifestări de voinţă: a) o rugăminte. well. Whereas b. as b. ah.a. these gloves are exactly what I was looking for.

. what did he say " 10. " ____ . ____ ?" 5..4..Peru" 6. I'm not so sure" 8.. " ____.. ____. "Lima is the capital of.. "What do you think of that. How are you today ?" 7.. " 85 divided by 5 is. " ____ John.. " ____ ! That hurts !" 63 . " ____. "Shall we go ? " " ____" 12.17" 11. ____. please say 'yes' !" 9..

Numele predicativ este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia: My nephew has become a doctor. c. Predicatul nominal este alcătuit din: un verb copulativ + un nume predicativ. stay. o stare sau o însuşire.) şi atributul. look. verbe ale aparenţei: appear. Subiectul simplu: man Subiectul complex: the man who had followed us inside Subiectul compus: The man and the woman walked over to the telephone. verbul be: He is clever. Verbe copulative: a. d. David plays the piano The police interviewed all the witnesses. The man who had followed us inside walked over to the telephone. get. remain. She was eager to come. SUBIECTUL – THE SUBJECT ♥ Subiectul este partea principală de propoziţie despre care se spune ceva cu ajutorul predicatului. grow. 2) părţi secundare de propoziţie: complementul direct. Îmbătrâneşte. A încărunţit. verbe ale devenirii: become. 64 . loc.THE PREDICATE ♥ Predicatul este partea principală de propoziţie care atribuie subiectului o acţiune. keep. He kept silent. hold. c) printr-un participiu trecut: The village seemed deserted. PREDICATUL . Verbe ale continuării în aceeaşi stare : continue. Exemple:He is a really nice guy. prepoziţional. mod. complemente circumstanţiale (de timp. b) printr-un adjectiv. turn: Her hair has turned grey. He looks pale. seem: She seemed ill. Este palid. singur sau cu o complinire: She was happy. Tăcea. elementul predicativ suplimentar. Părea bolnavă. El este deştept b. She is getting old.PARTEA A II-A PĂRŢILE DE PROPOZIŢIE (The Parts of the Sentence) ♥ Părţile de propoziţie se clasifică în: 1) părţi principale de propoziţie: subiectul şi predicatul. indirect. cauză etc. My dog attacked the burglar.

" a rock star " nu este complement direct şi deci nu poate deveni subiectul propoziţiei la diateza pasivă. The elephants. Răspund la una din întrebările pe cine?. The yellow race car with red stripes finished the first in the race. We enjoyed ourselves at the cinema. 1. apoi traduceţi propoziţiile. EX. Complementul direct va trebui sa devină subiectul propoziţiei la diateza pasivă. We sing a song every day. We suddenly realized that someone was listening. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Identificaţi complementul direct. 2. 2. sold used cars. Ross and Monica took their children to the zoo.2. Potriviţi subiectul cu predicatul. and all of the other animals were outside. The computer programmer is testing his new software. Ashley became a rock star. Exemplu: 1.1. waited patiently for his victim. lived in the attic last winter. were late yesterday. 1. Beau lapte în fiecare zi. 4. Ne-am distrat la cinematograf. I drink milk every day. prowled through the dark alley. Did she ask you any questions ? Ţi-a pus vreo întrebare ? Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente directe. was from the Middle East. 3. baked delicious apple pies. The president of the bank looked everywhere for the papers. Mai multe variante sunt posibile. 2. After his speech. Todd sang a song. the lions. They listened quietly. Yesterday.Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. the president of the meeting shook hands with all members of the crowd. Un exemplu este făcut pentru a vă ajuta: Subjects The dirty yellow cat We Tom and his brother The taxi driver Anna's elderly mother The green tree snake The detective in the gray raincoat Seven rats Predicates stood outside the hotel all night. COMPLEMENTUL DIRECT -THE DIRECT OBJECT I haven’t seen him for a long tim.Încercuiţi subiectele şi subliniaţi predicatele din propoziţiile de mai jos. => Passive: A song was sung by Todd.Interpretăm un cântec în fiecare zi.. ce? O altă metodă pentru a afla dacă un cuvânt este sau nu complement direct. 6. este aceea de a transforma fraza respectivă la diateza pasivă. Nu l-am văzut de mult. 65 . 5.

Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Identificaţi atât complementele directe cât şi indirecte din propoziţiile de mai jos: 1. We offered flowers to her. Smith gave us a long speech about science. John gave his son the keys to his car. Şi-a vândut maşina celui mai bun prieten. COMPLEMENTUL PREPOZIŢIONAL . 11. send an email to me. Traffic controllers in the towers at the airport control air traffic. He sold his car to his best friend. I ran after her. Jones gave the students a difficult homework. Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente indirecte. ♥ Complementul prepoziţional este întrebuinţat după: 66 . 4. Răspund la întrebarea cui? sau pentru cine? Acestea pot fi precedate sau nu de prepoziţii: Exemplu: Tom sold us his old house. Who taught them about the Civil War? 8. The principal excused the boys early last Wednesday. 6. Îşi caută costumul. b) o construcţie infinitivală sau gerundială. Complementul indirect este exprimat de regulă printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia. She bought her brother a new shirt. Te rog trimite-mi un email. Am fugit după ea. This exercise involves clicking on the screen.THE INDIRECT OBJECT Please.THE PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT ♥ Complementul prepoziţional este exprimat prin: a) un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia precedat de o prepoziţie: He is looking for his suit. Se laudă că este cel mai bun jucător de fotbal din şcoală. Will you give Mary the candy? (Hint: change it to a statement) 5. COMPLEMENTUL INDIRECT. I like rain. Have you written many letters this summer? 10. 4. precedată de o prepoziţie: Would they agree to leave at once? Ar fi de acord să plecăm imediat? He boasts of being the best football player in the school. 12. She bought a new shirt for her husband. Mrs. precedat de prepoziţia to sau for: We offered presents to our teacher. They can't read what you've just written. 7. I owe you some money. Amy has decided to go to university. She bought books for her children. Mr. The students read English writers in their literature class. 5. Tell them the news now. 3. c) o propoziţie subordonată: He boasts that he is the best football player in the school. 9. Mr. A cumpărat o cămaşă nouă soţul ei.3. 2.

pleased.participiu trecut Nominativ cu .participiu prezent . annoyed. scared + of. (in)compatible. (un)successful + in. The team manager wouldn't allow the press _____ interview his players. amused. complain of.a) verbe intranzitive cu prepoziţie obligatorie: care for. depend on. mad. The salesman failed to interest me _____ any of his products. in: He is interested in astronomy. hint at.dependent. obsessed. certain. overcome. uneasy. disaplointed. He agreed with me about the plan. bother smb. annoyed. entrust smb with smth. mistake smb. blame smb for smth. at: She is good at chemistry. horrified. The judge banned him _____ driving for six months. worry about : The success of the meeting will depend on the speaker ’s inspiration. delighted. advise smb. fortunate. annoyed. . pass for. I don't want to encourage the children _____ smoke. The „must not” message is designed to prevent people _____entering. persistent. Alte adjective şi participii urmate de aceste prepoziţii sunt: .angry.infinitiv . content. fond. assure smb of smth. (un)comfortable. insist on. long for. with: He is angry with your behaviour. upset + with. clever. glad. lucky. alarmed.efficient. satisfied.to 67 . .participiu prezent Infinitiv cu for . insistent. pleased worried + about. warn of. for smth. You have similar temperaments. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi spaţiile libere cu prepoziţia potrivită: He reminds me _____ your brother in some ways. occupied.afraid. furious. look at. . b) verbe intranzitive cu două prepoziţii: agree with smb about smth. terrible. pleased + at. I don't smoke at home.busy. urmate de o prepoziţie obligatorie: about: He was reasonable about her decision. warn smb about smth: I convinced him about the plan. This new software enables the user _____ get lots of reports for the management. d) adjective sau participii care îndeplinesc funcţia de nume predicativ într-un predicat nominal. . CONSTRUCŢIILE COMPLEXE . concerned. conscious. with smth. sick. excited. exhausted.COMPLEX CONSTRUCTIONS Acuzativ cu . set + on. lent. about smth. argue with smb about smth. glad. delighted. bored. c) verbe tranzitive cu prepoziţie obligatorie: acquaint smb with smth.angry. wonder at. keen. of smth. hopeless. convince smb.infinitiv . happy. convinced. of: Romania’s foreign trade is based on co-operation and equal rights. The police wouldn't provide the press _____ any details about the crime. impatient. (un)happy. .

They told us not to worry. EX. prez He was seen smoking in the living. acţiunea este văzută în desfăşurare: We saw him dancing (= that he was dancing). They saw him steal the money.participiu prezent . faptul petrecut. Ac + part. we didn’t go out. The two women.2. he left to the post office. She was known to be a good teacher. nominativul absolut N + infinitiv He sent the tests first. 5. retired to the bar. The letter being written. Am văzut că a adormit. I heard him walk slowly in the dark. You consider his thoughts to be very weird.participiu trecut a) În construcţiile infinitivale ne interesează acţiunea în sine.Recunoaşteţi construcţiile folosite în exemplele de mai jos: 1. Acuzativ cu participiu trecut: I want this homework done immediately. the comments to come later. The Prime Minister happened to be in Greece at the time. 4. We expected the manager to speak first.Nominativul absolut cu Construcţiile gerundiale -infinitivul . c) în construcţiile cu participiul trecut. their business concluded. The manager asked him to explain the semester report. 3. 4. 2.trecut: The game finished. We advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible 5. prez. acţiunea este privită ca un rezultat: We found the dog dead. Am găsit căţelul mort. 3. cu acuzativul Ac + infinitiv I saw him cross the street. 68 . The day being rainy. 2. 8. prezent The investigation being done. 1. She could hear her friend laughing. L-am văzut dansând. N absolut + part. the policemen headed to the station. I would like him to come. the players left the football ground. Exemplu: They knew her to be a good teacher. N absolut + part.1. N+ part. b) în construcţiile cu participiul în -ing. care este văzut ca încheiat: We saw him sleep (= that he fell asleep). They thought him to be gifted in singing. 7. 6. Transferaţi construcţiile Acuzativ cu infinitiv în construcţii Nominativ cu infinitiv. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. cu nominativul N+ infinitiv Daniel seems to speak English fluently.

♥ Complementul circumstanţial de timp indică: a) momentul acţiunii: now.întărire: actually. .probabilitate: maybe. usually. slowly. possibly.cantitatea: enough. Complementul circumstanţial de timp (The Adverbial of Time) este exprimat prin: a) un adverb de timp: My parents arrived yesterday./ They went home. ♥ Complementul circumstanţial de mod indică modul în care se îndeplineşte o acţiune sau apare o însuşire. He was walking to and fro. MOD – ADVERBIALS ♥ Complementul circumstanţial de loc indică locul. Complementul circumstanţial de mod (The Adverbial of Manner) . then. once in a while. a little. yet. of course. c) durata: lately. previously. nowadays. three times a day. precedat de o conjuncţie temporală: He doesn’t feel quite well when sailing by their ship. certainly. soon. as though: She cried as if in a terrible danger. formerly. 3) o propoziţie circumstanţială de timp: He is always air sick when he travels by plane. scarcely. much. badly. highly. . greatly.COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANŢIALE DE LOC. modalitatea în care decurge acţiunea sau starea: well.de afirmaţie sau negaţie: yes. completely. Exemplu: The merchandise was slowly moved into the warehouse. seldom. Ele mai pot reda şi alte sensuri: . d) frecvenţa: weekly.. b) printr-un substantiv cu prepoziţie. c) un substantiv în cazul genitiv precedat de o prepoziţie: We buy vegetables at the greengrocer's . punctul de plecare.indică felul. since. d) nominativul absolut cu participiul trecut: His homework written the boy went out to play. barely. direcţia sau limita unei acţiuni sau stări. still. no. b) un substantiv cu sau fără prepoziţie: Helen is in town for the moment. . g) un substantiv introdus într-o conjuncţie temporală: While in Romania he learned to manage by himself.amplificare: absolutely. 69 . b) succesiunea de timp: afterwards. often. Complementul circumstanţial de loc (The Adverbial of Place) este exprimat prin: a) un adverb sau o perifrază advebială de loc: He is here. before. recently. c) o construcţie adverbială: Tom was born in 1965. e) un participiu prezent sau trecut. quikly. b) o perifrază adverbială de timp: They visit their relatives from time to time. today. d) o propoziţie circumstanţială de loc: We do our shopping where everybody else does. f) un gerund precedat de o prepoziţie: On leaving the house.. not at all. un adjectiv. eventually. she asked me to make certain the lights were off. perhaps. un verb la infinitiv sau participiu prezent/trecut introduse prin as if. Complementul circumstanţial de mod comparativ (The Adverbial of Comparison) este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau pronume precedat de prepoziţia like: I slept like a baby. . TIMP. really.

a comfortable. but. 2) o parte secundară de prepoziţie: a) complement direct sau indirect: They made an extraordinary attempt. pronume sau numeral. (fluently) → I have seen that film.etc Atributul postpus: Did you find anything new ? Ai găsit ceva nou ? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. Dacia used to be _______ car. 70 . (there) → The girl speaks English. b) complement circumstanţial (de loc. (last week) → He walks his dog. an old sweet/a sweet. They were raised in _______ house in Bucharest. Fanciest/ fanciest/ most fanciest 2. German 4. Four weddings and a funeral is the _______ movie I've ever seen.): They often go out quiet evenings. (never) / (before) → ATRIBUTUL .THE ATRIBUTE Atributul modifică sau determină un substntiv sau pronume care îndeplineşte în propoziţie funcţia de: 1) subiect: The tall girl is my sister-in-law. comfortable/ a comfortable little 6. my youngest brother. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Rewrite the sentences and put the adverbs in correctly. Those are probably _______ boys in the school. We were in London. d) o propoziţie circumstanţială de mod comparativă: She smiled as if she were extremely happy. (in summer) → Cats can hear. a fine German / a German. than: She is as smart as her parents. old/ a sweet old 3. What could make for _______ Christmas? a merrier/ the merriest/ a merrier 5. Atributul prepus: this exercise.. Rescrieţi propoziţiile şi puneţi adverbul la locul potrivit. o construcţie infinitivală sau gerundială introduse prin conjuncţiile as.. fine/ a fine. Menţionaţi felul adverbelor. little/ a little. (patiently) → My father goes fishing. She wanted to take a course with _______professor.c) un substantiv. (upstairs) → We don't go skiing. most excited/most exciting/most exciteable 7. (always) → Your bedroom is. timp etc. All the family was home for the holidays. Uncle Daniel is really _______ man.. not so/as. (rarely) → She waited. (well) → I saw him. un adjectiv.

foggy/more foggier/foggier 10. the less competent/ the least competent/ the competentest. worse/ worst/worser 71 . new economics that interesting.new. Of all the mechanics in the shop.that interesting new Japanese economics / that Japanese interesting. economics 8. the valleys tend to be _______than the hilltops. he is surely _______ . 9. In the fall. Japanese. My cold is definitely _______ this morning.

goed has gone went 7. Q: What ____________ they ____________ (do)? They're studying. is having having has 5. Q: ____________ he always ____________ (have) breakfast at 7 o'clock? Is he always having Does he always has Does he always have 19. isn't being isn't doesn't be 8. got) any brothers or sisters? Has you got Do you have got Have you got 14. Q: Mary likes visiting relatives. Q: At the moment he ____________ (have) dinner. is loving love loves 6. Q: ____________ you always ____________ (get up) at 6 o'clock? Do you always get up Are you always getting up Do always you get up 3. Q: Next Sunday John ____________ (come) to visit his family. will be is is going to be 17. Q: Peter ____________ (be) on holiday now. Q: ____________ you ____________ (have. got) a motorbike? Does John have got Has John got Have John got 4. Q: ____________ Daniel ____________ (have. Q: ____________ you ____________ (have. isn't won't be isn't being 72 . is they doing are they doing do they do 12.Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm working. loves doesn't love is loving 15. but he ____________ (love) playing tennis. Q: What time ____________ he ____________ (arrive) home last Thursday? did he arrives did he arrive does he arrive 11. Q: Last winter he ____________ (go) by train from Rome to London. doesn't like likes isn't liking 23. Q: Mary ____________ (not. Q: She ____________ (watch) a documentay at the moment. do you do are you doing did you do 2. drove drived did drive 20. comes is coming will come 16. Q: He ____________ (take) his friend to the theater last week. Q: John doesn't like playing basketball. went goes is going 9. Q: Next Wednesday my sister ____________ (go) to Paris. but he ____________ (love) going to the mountains. watched watches is watching 24. did take took taked 10. Q: Mary ____________ (not. did teach teached taught 18. She's at home. He isn't at home. Q: They ____________ (take) their children to Italy last year.TEST FINAL 1. She's at home. but she ____________ (like) talking on the telephone. Q: When ____________ you ____________ (go) to France last year? you went did you go did you went 13. be) on holiday now. be) at work at the moment. Q: John doesn't like going to the beach. Q: Where ____________ she ____________ (study) french last year? did she study did she studied has she studied 22. tooked has taken took 25. got) a good summer job? Do you got Have you got Has you got 21. Q: She ____________ (teach) her husband cooking last summer. Q: Last winter she ____________ (drive) to Bulgaria.

Q: What shall we do tonight? How about ___________ a film? to see see seeing going 73 . I've _______ eaten breakfast. Q: ____________ she often ____________ (telephone) in the evening? Does she often telephone Is she often telephoning Will she often telephones 32. isn't going to be won't been isn't 39. Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do) this evening? I'm doing my English homework. and she ____________ (like) going to the swimming pool. is going to have will have has 37. Q: Would you like ___________ chicken? any a some one 49. Q: ____________ Daniel ____________ (have. are going to read reads are reading 34. Q: Alice loves walking in the countryside. Q: She ____________ (fly) to the USA last summer. Q: ____________ you always ____________ (finish) work at 8 o'clock? Do you always finish Are you always finishing Did you always finished 29. taughted taught have taught 35. will you do do you do are you doing 31. He's on holiday. loves doesn't love isn't loving 36. Q: Where ____________ they ____________ (go) on holiday last winter? did they went have they gone did they go 42. Q: Irina ____________ (not. flied has flown flew 38. is you doing do you do are you doing 27. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. listens is listening has listened 44. but she ____________ (love) working at home. Q: They ____________ (ride) the train to England last spring. Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm playing the guitar. Q: She _________________ dinner by the time we arrived. Q: ____________ they ____________ (have. Q: Next Saturday my brother ____________ (visit) the new museum. Q: I ____________ (teach) my students about the mammals yesterday. Few few of a lot much 50. doesn't like like likes 43. Q: He has _______ friends in London. Q: At the moment they ____________ (read) a magazine. had finished finished have finished finishing 51. Q: My father let me ____________ late when I was a child. Q: I __________________ TV when the telephone rang. got) a television? Have Daniel got Has Daniel got Does Daniel has got 41. be) at the office tomorrow. to stay out stayed out stay out staying out 48. Q: What ____________ she ____________ (do) yesterday evening? did she do does she do is she doing 40. watched was watching are watching have watched 46. did ride rode have ridden 30. Q: Maria doesn't like working in the office. Q: Next Tuesday my sister ____________ (have) dinner at that new restaurant. Q: At the moment she ____________ (listen) to some music. Q: ____________ he always ____________ (play) tennis on Sundays? Do he always play Does he always plays Does he always play 45. will visit visits is going to visit 28.26. got) a van? Have they got Do they have got Has they got 33. Yet still already ever 47.

Q: What's that book _____? 74 . so I _________ take the next one.. I'm so excited. especially Japanese history. as .52. Q: He's _____________ politics.I don't know... 57. in front ahead in front of behind of 64.. told said me said told to me 61. Q: How is he? . In among between through 58. Q: He will meet you _________ the station at 9 o'clock sharp. go Have . Q: If you want to be healthy. Q: He _________ he wanted to come. than so .... 's fine s tall with blond hair 's quite a shy person actually 's twenty three 63.... Q: Yes. Q: Would you like me to ______________ the kids next week? look to look at look after look into 69. as so . are photographed were photoed photographed were photographed 56. will arrive arrives is arriving is going to arrive. than as .Well. Q: I missed the bus. interested interesting interested to interested in 66. that is the woman _________ horse almost trampled her! which whose who that 68. as 60. Q: Jack is really ______________ geography.. to say you say you explain me explain 73. Q: Have you finished your work ______? Yet already still just 54. musted must had to had 70.. Q: Fiestas ______________ in an old city in Germany for many years now. have worked worked am working have been working 71. I just couldn't help myself.Daniel? He __________. go 53. gone Shall . will go won't go shall be going are going 74. interested at interesting in interested in interested for 55. Q: He found his watch ___________ the papers on the table. have been making have made have been made are made 72. Q: He'll give you a call as soon as he __________. Q: Let me ___________! I didn't really want to eat all the cakes. Q: Yes.. we have bought the tickets to the concert and we _______________ next Saturday. Q: Why are your hands so dirty? . Q: Most people like rugby. Q: Have you read the article _____ Time magazine ____ Google? on – on to – on in – on from – on 77. needn't couldn't shouldn't mustn't to 65. Q: Where was Dany yesterday? . might has been might have been couldn't have been mustn't have been 67.. Q: Would you mind ______________ me a hand? to give give giving given 59.. Q: Are you travelling to Prague ____ business or ____ holiday? For on to in 76. Q: These images ______________ by an artist named John Smith. I __________________ in the garden for the last two hours. Q: What ______________ at work? do you have to do must you do have you to do do you 62.. Q: _______ you ever ________ to Paris? Did . Of from in with 75. you _______ smoke or drink alcohol.. go Have . but ____ my opinion it's too chaotic.. Q: I think Piteşti is ____ exciting ____ Bucharest. He ________________ seeing the doctor.

Q: Be careful! You're going to set the paper ___ fire! to on in with 93. Q: Are you ___ or ___ the prime minister? pro – con for – against with – against proto – contra 85. Q: She was born ____ Spain ___ March 16. Q: She'll be finished ____ the end of the week. in – to to – while at – while at – during 79. next beneath to against 87.30.about to from of 78.m. 1992. Q: That is _____ interesting book. in – in in – to in – on to – in 91. We're almost completely ____ it. Q: You must take the medicine _____ the next five minutes. but I still don't understand its meaning. For when since at 98. Q: It is years ____ I last played tennis. For until still just 84. Works worked has worked 101. Q: I need to learn these verbs ___ heart ___ tomorrow. in – to on – in in – in in – at 92. At in to on 75 . By from to in 95. out out of over through 81. The a an 103. To at _ in 88. has lived lives lived 100. Q: Luckily. Q: I went ______ church last Sunday. with to by from 90. in – on at – in in – at at – on 83. Since until within at 96. Q: He was born ___ Germany ___ April. Q: Jane ____ (work) for H&M before she came to work for us. in for at to 82. Q: You can start the computer ___ pressing that button. Q: Throw the ball ___ Daniel. Q: I stayed ____ the Ritz Hotel ________ my stay in New York. Q: Please talk __ the manager and don't shout __ me! to – to at – to to – at with – to 89. Q: I looked this word ____ in the dictionary. Since at from until 99. Q: Daniel _____ (live) in New York for the past 15 years. from on up over 80. Q: I haven't seen Larry ___ ages! At in since until 97. Q: Jack will be out _____ 3. please. Q: Were you ____ time for your appointment? Or were you late? to on at of 86. I made it to the station ___ time to catch the last train. Q: Are there ______ peaches in the kitchen? Much any some a 102. Q: The post office doesn't open _____ 9 a. by – on by – to from – by by – by 94. Q: I got ____ home late last night. Q: My house is ___ the end of the street ___ the left. Q: We need some sugar.

a one some any 123. Q: When Daniel was at school. Q: : Do you like ______ Chinese food? an some the 127. didn't eat already have already eaten haven't already eaten 129.have begun have worked – began 128. Q: Would you like _______ coffee? Any an some to 114. near of next to next close 121. Q: I would like _____ rice.He is very friendly. In on at to 110. has learned . Q: I drove my car _____ the garage. Q: What __________ in your free time? you do do you do are you doing does you do 112. Q: I _____ drive a car. at to in 108. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. Q: He likes watching TV ______ evening. italy Italy Italian italian 119. last ago time past yet 124. In at into onto 117. Q: I live in ______. I _____ (eat/already). any an some a 122. in the at during in 116. Works work is working is worked 113. Q: What _____ he like? . Q: My father _______ in a software company. Q: I like __________ music.has played learned . He _____ (play) it ever since. Unfortunately. and I like _____.104. Q: _________. he _____ (learn) to play the piano. Q: Daniel _____ (play) tennis for five years when he _____ (be) at school. Q: The bank is _______ the post office. have never been was never will never be 125. Q: How ________ money do you have in your wallet? many few much some 107. Q: The bank is at the end of this street _____ the left.has been 126. has played – was played – was has played . Does did is has 105. Q: I get up ______ eight o'clock every day.has played learned – played 76 . work – began have worked . I ____ (be/never) there. I ____ (begin) work as soon as I arrived. him his it 109. Listen listen to listening to to listening to 111. Q: She came ______ home late last night. Q: Daniel is a nice boy. at in on over 120. Is there a bank near here? Please Excuse me Pardon Hey 118. Q: I would love to visit Prague sometime. bought have bought buyed did bought 106. Q: I ________ a new car last month. Q: I went to London three years _____. can't to can want have 115. Q: There are ______ magazines on the table. Q: I _____ (work) in Spain for 5 years.

Q: Could you give me some advice? I _____ (buy) this sweater yesterday. Q: Irina _____ (believe) that for ages! believes has believed was believed 135. That means that he ____ (be) to Paris 3 times! went . I _____ (not get) much sleep last night. Q: Hurry up! The concert _____ (begin) and we are late. Q: Where ____ (you/find) that book? . Q: George lives in New York.have found 145. Q: _____ (you/see) today's paper? Do you see Have you seen Are you seeing 150. moved .Have you been 149.were .has lived moved – lived has moved – lived 132. Q: She _____ (write) the email but doesn't know how to send it. Q: He _____ (leave) the shop a few minutes ago.Have you been didn't know . Q: Just a moment! I _____ (not think) of a good idea yet! haven't thought didn't think don't think 134. Q: ____ (newspaper/arrive)? Yes. she ____ (live) in Seattle for 3 years.has been went – was has gone – was 133. Q: ____ (you/smoke) a lot before becoming a non-smoker? Have you smoked Did you smoked Did you smoke 146. Begins has begun began 139. records has recorded recorded 141. haven't got didn't get wasn't get 77 .were . Q: How long _____ (you/live) there before coming here? have you lived did you live do you live 136. Q: Peter ____ (go) to Paris last year. Do you like it? have just had just have had just have 138. Q: Andra _____ (record) many albums and will probably make many more.have been . Q: I'm tired. Q: She ____ (not leave) the house yet. was left left has left 147. Q: How many magazines ____ (read) this year? did you read do you read have you read 142. Daniel is reading it at the moment. have you found . Q: I _____ (not know) you ____ (be) here! _____ (you/be) here long? haven't known . Q: Nat King Cole _____ (record) many albums during his great career. has left hasn't left didn't leave 148.have found did you find – found did you find . Do you think I should take it back? Bought have bought buyed 131. Before she _____ (move) here. Q: I ____ (just/have) something done to my hair.I _____(find) it in the library. Q: How many books ____ (read) last year? do you read have you read did you read 143. Did the newspaper arrived Does the newspaper arrive Has the newspaper arrived 144. has written writes written 137.130.Have you been didn't know . records has recorded recorded 140.

He came back home in September to go to school. Interogativ 1. 3. I speak English well but my friend speaks English badly. My friend doesn’t have three kids. I don’t go to work by car. 7. Did he spend three days in the Danube Delta last month? Did Daniel get up early in the morning and do morning exercises? Did he wash and eat/have breakfast with his parents? After that did he go fishing with his friends Irina and Larry? Did he swim in the Danube in the evening? Was the weather fine all the time? Did Daniel make a lot of friends there? Did he come back home in September to go to school? 78 . 4. I don’t get home at six. 3. Interogativ: Do you leave home at 12 o’clock? Does he leave home at 1 o’clock? Do you go to work by car? Does he go to work by train? Do you speak English well? Does he speak English badly? Do you get home at six? Does he get home at seven? Do you have two kids? Does he have three kids? Negativ: I don’t leave home at 12 o’clock. I don’t have two kids. Daniel made a lot of friends there. I don’t speak English. My friend doesn’t get home at seven. I go to work by car but my friend goes to work by train. He swam in the Danube in the evening. 6. Then he washed and ate/had breakfast with his parents. 7. 5.Cheia exerciţiilor Present Tense Simple Afirmativ: I leave home at 12 o’clock but my friend leaves home at 1 o’clock. My friend doesn’t go to work by train. 2. After that he went fishing with his friends Irina and Larry. 4. I get home at six but my friend gets home at seven. I have two kids but my friend has three. 1. 2. The weather was fine all the time. 5. Daniel got up early in the morning and (do) morning exercises. Past Tense Simple Afirmativ He spent three days in the Danube Delta last month. My friend doesn’t speak English badly. 6. My friend doesn’t leave home at 1 o’clock. 8.

5. he had. 4. I’ll ask the teacher a lot of questions. 8. Had Irina seen the Black Sea before? No. That is the most interesting movie he has ever seen. she hadn’t. 4. He will not /won’t help you tomorrow evening. I have just fixed my car. Grandpa: Where will you work? What will you do? What will you obtain? When will you learn? What will you study? Who will you ask ? Present Perfect I. He will not /won’t take a new project next month. 79 . 5. 3. They have just arrived to the theatre. Father has just left home. He will not /won’t wash the car on Sunday morning. I’ll do an interesting experiment tomorrow. 2. he had. We have just seen our Math teacher. 3. Had Daniel seen the Black Sea before? Yes. 2. 5. I’ll study hydrogen next week. 4. Past Perfect 1. 6. Situation 2 1. He will not /won’t have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week. This is the best book she has ever read. Larry will not /won’t go to the cinema next Sunday. 3. 2. Larry will not /won’t read his lesson later. Had Irina swum in the sea before? No. Pune verbele din paranteză la Prezentul Perfect Simplu: 1. she hadn’t. I’ll work in the lab tomorrow. These are the most attractive souvenirs they have ever bought. I’ll learn interesting things next week. 7. Completează urmatoarele propoziţii folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu: 1. He will not /won’t go shopping tomorrow morning. 3. 5. II. He has just begun to cry. This is the biggest mall they have ever visited. 6. 2. Those are the most wonderful monuments they have ever seen. 4.Future Tense Simple Situation 1 Daniel: 1. Had Daniel swum in the sea before? Yes. 2. He will not /won’t buy a new car next year. I’ll obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson.

he had. Had Daniel stayed at a hotel before? Yes. Future Continuous 1) She will be meeting him next week. 3. Had Daniel made the tour of Constanţa before? Yes. 4. 7. Past Tense Continuous 1. Had Daniel gone fishing in the sea before? Yes. Angela was opening the windows when Mr Smith came in. (to arrive) 80 . 7. he had. Victor was talking to his coleague when Mr Smith came in. he had. Had Irina walked down the beach before? No.3. she hadn’t. 8. Had Irina stayed at a hotel before? No. Mark and Chris were looking at some pictures when Mr Smith came in. Larry is working in his office now. she hadn’t. he had. 2. Had Daniel walked down the beach before? Yes. Maria is speaking on the phone in the hall now. she hadn’t. she hadn’t. Had Daniel sunbathed on the beach before? Yes. Fiona was reading the newspapers when Mr Smith came in. 6. 5. she hadn’t. Daniel and John were working in the office when Mr Smith came in. Ioana is presenting a project in the conference room. Daniel is typing a letter in the secretariate 3. he had. he had. 6. Matei and Maria were speaking on the phone when Mr Smith came in. Had Irina sunbathed on the beach before? No. Matei is meeting some clients in the guests room. 2. Had Irina gone fishing in the sea before? No. Had Daniel visited Eforie Nord before? Yes. Had Irina made the tour of Constanţa before? No. (to meet) 2) We will be arriving in Pitesti just about now. 8. 5. Had Irina visited Eforie Nord before? No. Ioana was writing a report when Mr Smith came in. 5. Martha was watering the flowers when Mr Smith came in. 4. Present Continuous 1. 4. she hadn’t.

You will be told what time the bus leaves. 5. so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night. Diateza: 1. Past Perfect Continuous She had been sleeping for 10 hours when he woke us up. Future Perfect Continuous Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long. Mary has been living in Manhattan since June 1998. I had not been working all day. It has been raining since morning. They were very tired in the evening because they had been helping on the farm all day. 2. The children were well looked after. She has been cooking a chicken soup for 1 hour. (to write) Present Perfect Continuous 1. We had been waiting at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived. He has been appointed president. This bed has not been slept in.3) At 7 o'clock on Monday they will be singing the new song. Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party. The dog was run over by a bus. (to sing) 4) He will be sleeping when you call her. They had been looking her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom. Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand. (to watch) 7) You will be eating spaghetti soon. she will have finished everything by then. I have been given a good dictionary. (to fly) 9) Peggy will be coming to the party on Sunday. You will be laughed at if you wear this dress. The carpender will be paid for his work. (to come) 10) Tomorrow at nine I will be writing a test paper.Hopefully. They had been cycling all day so their legs were sore in the evening. 3. They were promised new bicycles. Mike: She will have been cooking for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner. How long had she been learning English before she went to London? She had been driving less than an hour when he ran out of gas. when it suddenly began to rain. (to sleep) 5) It will probably be raining when I reach Madrid. I had not been walking for a long time. (to eat) 8) This time next week he will be flying to Africa. We have been talking about that horrible accident for half an hour. They have been phoning the manager for the last five minutes. 4. 2. 81 . (to rain) 6) Mary will be watching a video when I arrive tonight.

9) She has got a brother.Persoana şi numărul 1) He is dreaming. 5. It is very important that all employees be dressed in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a. 3) The question is easy to answer. If only Mark were a little more responsible in his choice of courses! 7. Mary hoped that the meeting be adjourned. the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema. Participiul trecut: the lost son an interested audience a broken leg an emptied bottle a closed door a decorated room two packed bags the written letters the sold car the bought apples 82 . even though he's much too short for that position. Her employees treated Mrs. 7) He is riding his bike. 6) Are you thinking of visiting London? 7) We decided to run through the forest. 8) The teacher expected Sarah to study hard. I wish my sister were here. 3) They are on the wall. 8) She is from Bristol.. 2) It is green. 4) The man asked me how to get to the airport. 3. 4. 6) They are in the garden. would that she were here with us now! 6. 10) I learned to ride the bike at the age of 5. Smith had been ill that night. I wish I felt better today. Oh. 4) It is running. 2) He agreed to buy a new car. 10) Have you got a computer. If Mrs. 5) We are watching TV. Smith as though she were a queen. 2. Mandy? Subjonctivul 1. My mother would know what to do. 9.m. 8. The coach insisted that Mario play the center position. 9) She doesn't mind working the night shift. Infinitivul şi gerunziul 1) I can't imagine Peter going by bike. 5) I look forward to seeing you at the weekend.

Do you understand? They have been learning English for two years. They do not want to play outside. 2. Who could have sent them? Stephanie: It must have been David. 4. The train has just arrived. Mike: Can you hold your breath for more than a minute? Jack: No. 2. you know. Ex.1. you will be rejected and you will have to reapply at a later date. My friend has sent me some photos. 5. I must be at the meeting by 10:00. We're going to a wedding. If the form is not complete. How do we get there? Where does he live? Verbele modale Ex. You mustn't submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. Daniel couldn't hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly. 2. 3. My teacher said we could read them if we needed extra credit. I can't. Has anybody rung up for me? She does not play the piano. 83 .We couldn't go to the party.Verbele auxiliare What have you done? I do not like this song.they're beautiful! But. They weren't able to go. Does she know that you are here? The lesson has not started yet. 1. Have you heard that? My uncle does not eat fish. 5. Do you drink milk? Who has eaten my biscuits? It does not matter. He's the only one who would send you flowers. 2 1. Tina: Look at these flowers . Sorry. I do not live here. there's no card. The books are optional. 5. The weather was too bad. Ex 3. We have not seen you for a long time. You don't have to be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. 1. He would be able to pass the exam if he studied harder. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time. Teacher. You mustn't forget to pay the rent. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours. I can't remember his name. 4. The refrigerator isn't working. 3. I haven't been able to do it yet. Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time. It must have been damaged during the move. 4. He must be quite exhausted after such a long flight. But we don't have to read them if we don't want to. 3.

3) The children's room is upstairs. You don't have to be rich to be famous. 20. or you don't. 1) half – halves 2) kilo – kilos 3) woman – women 4) mouth – mouths 5) foot – feet 6) sheep – sheep 7) penny – pence 8) bus – buses 9) day – days10) fish – fish Ex 3. I could have participated in their English immersion program. You couldn't do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a penny. The machine can start moving by pressing the left button. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It must have cost a fortune. So.4. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head. 6) Men's shoes are on the second floor. Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something. You shouldn't worry so much. 2. 18. 11. 5) Susan and Steve's bags have blue stickers. You shall no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours! 19. Substantivul: Ex 1. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work. ira = air eber = beer 2) a packet of rice 5) a cup of tea 8) a barrel of oil 3) a bar of chocolate 6) a bottle of lemonade 9) a game of tennis aet = tea einw = wine ikn = ink ilo = oil doow = wood acek = cake fgo = fog aclo = coal ahir = hair 84 . 10) These are the boys' pencils. 10. Either you get the promotion. 2) Let's go to the Smiths'. It doesn't do you any good.I don’t understand their priciples. 1) This is Peter's book. You had better take along some cash. 9. Ex. 4) John's sister is twelve years old. The shop may not accept credit cards. 15. If I had gone to an University in England. 9) This is the boy's bike. Can't you think once in a while before you open your mouth? 17. If you don't.6. 13. just apply for another job. You may leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused yourself. 8) Charles's CD player is new. the answer in the book must be wrong! 8. but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. 14. so they should be here by 5:00. 12. Shall we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there. I can't stand these people . 7) My parents' car was not expensive. I've redone this math problem at least ten times. 7. so you get rid of them! 16. 1) a piece of advice 4) a glass of milk 7) a slice of meat 10) a jar of jam Ex. The lamp might not be broken.

He was dismissed on the 13th. Would you like to see the/a movie? An apple a day keeps the doctor away. no. 4. No problem.Those are the new ones. What does thatnotice say? 5. What subject do you like ? 5. Her brother's nine. THESE are the old classrooms. THIS is my cousin. Whose books are these ? Adjectivul nehotărât 1. there are some. Do you see THOSE birds at the top of the tree? 8. 4 She's eight. 7. I can give her some. Whose mother is a nurse ? 4. 85 . THAT night the factory went on fire. What time is the flight ? 2. Jessica. He is one of the smartest people I know. there is no gas in the car. 6. 4. 2. Wasn't THAT a horrible thing to say? Adjectivul posesiv 1 He's from Spain. His name's Alberto. 10. THIS exhibition will be open until the end of May.Articolul This coat was designed by a famous New York artist. She hasn't any clothes to wear to the party. I recommend you eat the apple pie at this restaurant. Your books are in the classroom. Their children's names are Lauren and Daniel. 3. 3 We're brothers. Mary. Adjectivul interogativ 1. 9. My name's Peter. 3. Oh. there are none. Do any black people work in your company? Yes. Which girl has a red bag ? 3. THESE people come from that hotel over there. THAT exhibition closed a month ago. We had better get some. Can you tell me how to get to a bank from here? The city museum is closed today. ___ milk is good for you. 2 They're married. THIS beach was quite empty last year. 5 I'm British. I can't believe I failed the yesterday's test! Do you have a dictionary that I can borrow? Adjectivul demonstrativ 1. 6 You're students. Are there any good movies this weekend? No. Our parents are French. 2.

1) Robert made this T-shirt himself. are not from our school.2. 9) The car. the girl who has just arrived at the airport. 3) They are on the wall. I want to take a shower. three-fifths Pronumele EX. 7) The man. who shouted in the street. who is a taxi driver. 1. did you take the photo all by yourself? 5) I wrote this poem myself. 7) The lion can defend itself. two dozen 3. 1) He is dreaming. My name is John. forgot his umbrella. There are 150 employees in our company. help yourselves. 2) Mr John.5. EX. is from England. five-thousand-word 4. two thousand 7. EX. 6) He cut himself with the knife while he was doing the dishes. 6) Thank you very much for your e-mail which was very interesting. 2) Lisa did the homework herself 3) We helped ourselves to some cola at the party.5. one year and a half 10 the one hundred forty-ninth . Jason and I work in the same office. 4) This is the boy who comes from France. 10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers themselves. 10) What did you do with the money which your parents lent you? EX. 8) The children. is there any hot water? I'm sorry. 5) That's Irina. lives in the neighbourhood. 4) It is running. This is my friend Jason. 4) We helped each other with our written task. hundreds 2. 9) Tim and Gerry. 2) It is green. 4) Emma. the third 9. 8) My mother often talks to herself. 3) Daniel repaired computer car himself. 3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest which is in the south of Romania. 2) My friends enjoyed themselves at the party. whose driver is a young man. Numeralul 1. if you want more milk. thirties 8. 1) John and Angela haven't met each other for a very long time. His sister is 34 and her workplace is very near. 1) I talked to the boy whose car had broken down in front of the building. 5) We are watching TV. EX. there is no hot water.3. whose father is a professor. 4. 86 6. He's 32. Lesson Nine 5.

I was at the cinema yesterday. He paints awfully. I don't know yet. Who is the person in this picture? Come into the sitting room. What are you doing at the weekend? 2. 87 . Non-smokers usually live longer than smokers. She smiles happily . 3. Adverbul Joanne is happy. did you do the homework yourself? 8) They looked at each other and smiled. This red flower is more beautiful than that yellow one. Who is the richest man on earth? The weather is even worse than last summer. I haven't been to the cinema for so many years. He drives carelessly. 1. The town lies 530 meters above sea level. She is a good dancer. Maybe I'll go to the cinema on Saturday. He shouts loudly. Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? No. She's a little bit selfish. 9) They often write e-mails to each other because they're best friends.5) People often give each other presents at Christmas. This girl is very quiet. EX. This is the most interesting magazine I have ever read. My neighbour is a careless driver. We could go there together in the afternoon. There is a bridge across the river. Jim is a wonderful piano player. 10) She only thinks of herself. We are going on holiday next week. He plays the piano wonderfully. The boy is loud. Our mum was angry. 1. She spoke to us angrily . Adjectivul My house is bigger than yours. thanks. We live in London. The painter is awful. Her English is fluent. He was the cleverest student of all.2. She dances really well. Which is the most dangerous insect in the world? A holiday by the sea is better than a holiday in the mountains. That's interesting. She often sneaks out of the house quietly. there are many picture postcards. The flight from Bucharest to Lecce was via Berlin. 6) I bought myself a new record player. You simply have to put one word in each space. 7) Katie. On my wall. Prepoziţia EX. It is strange but often a coke is more expensive than a beer. we want to watch TV. This exercise is simple. She speaks English fluently. 4.

5. That would be great. But I would prefer to go there in the evening. I am visiting my grandma on Saturday. 6. That's okay. The film starts at eight o'clock. 7. I can pick you up at half past seven. How long does the film last? 8. It lasts for two hours and forty-five minutes. 9. From eight till a quarter to eleven. 10.That's right. But I must hurry home after the film. I have to be home by eleven o'clock. Conjuncţia EX.1. 1. Daniel was cold, so he put on a coat. 2. Maria tried to translate the text, but it was too difficult. 3. To get from Piteşti to Bucharest, you can take a bus, or you can go by car. 4. I bought a bottle of wine, and we drank it together. 5. The teacher was not very nice, but the mark was good. 6. I went to buy my favorite CD, but the shop didn't have it. 7. Irina needed some money, so she took a part-time job. 8. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new familz who has just moved in ,or maybe it's just coincidence. 9. Julie has a guitar, and she plays it really well. 10. The concert was cancelled, so we went to a disco instead. EX.2. Daniel couldn't buy any presents because he didn't have any money. I don't drink coffee as it makes me nervous. Although it was snowing, I wasn’t cold. Since she doesn't speak English, she can't translate that text. Daniel passed the exam first time while his brother had to retake it four times. Paula got the job she wanted even though she had no experience. I will be late today because my car has broken down. Whereas my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations. Interjecţia 1. " AH , that feels good" 2. " ALAS, she's dead now" 3. " Oh DEAR ! Does it hurt ?" 4. "What do you think of that, EH ?" 5. "Lima is the capital of.... ER....Peru" 6. " HELLO John, How are you today ?" 7. " HMM, I'm not so sure" 8. " OH , please say 'yes' !" 9. " WELL, what did he say " 10. " 85 divided by 5 is... UM...17" 11. "Shall we go ? " " UH-HUH " 12. " OUCH ! That hurts !" Subiectul şi predicatul EX.1. 1. Yesterday, (Ross and Monica )took their children to the zoo. 2. (The elephants, the lions, and all of the other animals) were outside. 88

3. (The president of the bank )looked everywhere for the papers . 4. (They) listened quietly. 5. (The yellow race car with red stripes) finished the first in the race. 6. After his speech,( the president of the meeting) shook hands with all members of the crowd . EX.2. 1. The dirty yellow cat prowled through the dark alley/ lived in the attic last winter. 2. We stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late yesterday. 3. Tom and his brother stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late yesterday./ sold used cars. 4. The taxi driver stood outside the hotel all night./ was from the Middle East. 5. Anna's elderly mother baked delicious apple pies./ was from the Middle East. 6. The green tree snake was from the Middle East. 7. The detective in the gray raincoat stood outside the hotel all night./ waited patiently for his victim. 8. Seven rats lived in the attic last winter. Complementul direct 1. The computer programmer is testing his new software. Programatorul îşi testează noul soft. 2. We suddenly realized that someone was listening. Deodată ne-am dat seama că cineva asculta. 3. Amy has decided to go to university. Amy s-a hotărât să meargă la facultate. 4. They can't read what you've just written. Ei nu pot citi ceea ce tocmai ai scris. 5.This exercise involves clicking on the screen. Acest exerciţiu implică a da click pe ecran. Complementul indirect 1. Indirect object: you. Direct object: some money 2. Direct object: English writers (no indirect object) 3. Indirect object: them. Direct object: news 4. Indirect object: Mary. Direct object: candy 5. Indirect object: students. Direct object: homework 6. Direct object: boys (no indirect object) 7. Direct object: them (no indirect object) 8. Indirect object: us. Direct object: speech 9. Direct object: letters (no indirect object) 10. Indirect object: son. Direct object: keys 11. Direct object: rain (no indirect object) 12. Direct object: traffic (or air traffic)

89

Complementul prepoziţional He reminds me of your brother in some ways. You have similar temperaments. The „must not” message is designed to prevent people from entering. The judge banned him from driving for six months. This new software enables the user to get lots of reports for the management. I don't smoke at home; I don't want to encourage the children to smoke. The team manager wouldn't allow the press to interview his players. The police wouldn't provide the press with any details about the crime. The salesman failed to interest me in any of his products. Construcţii complexe: EX.1. a. nominativul absolut b. nominativul absolut 3- N+ infinitiv 4- Ac + infinitive 5- N absolut + part. prezent EX.2. 1. The manager was expected to speak first. 2. He was thought to be gifted in singing. 3. He was heard walking slowly in the dark. 4. He was advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible 5. We were told not to worry. 6. He was asked him by the manager to explain the semester report. 7. He was seen stealing the money. 8. His thoughts are considered to be very weird. Complementul circumstanţial de loc,timp, mod They were in Paris. (last week) → They were in Paris last week.- adverbial of time She walks his dog. (rarely) → She rarely walks his dog. - adverbial of manner She waited. (patiently) → She waited patiently. - adverbial of manner My father goes fishing. (always) → My father always goes fishing. - adverbial of time Your bedroom is. (upstairs) → Your bedroom is upstairs. - adverbial of place We don't go skiing. (in summer) → We don't go skiing in summer. - adverbial of time Cats can hear. (well) → Cats can hear well. - adverbial of manner I saw him. (there) → I saw him there.- adverbial of place The boy speaks English. (fluently) → The boy speaks English fluently. - adverbial of manner I have seen that movie. (never) / (before) → I have never seen that movie before. - adverbial of time Atributul 1. Those are probably the fanciest boys in the school. 2. Uncle Daniel is really a sweet old man. 3. Dacia used to be a fine Romanian car. 4. All the family was home for the holidays. What could make for a merrier Christmas? 5. They were raised in a comfortable little house in Bucharest. 6. Four weddings and a funeral is the most exciting movie I've ever seen. 7. She wanted to take a course with that interesting new Japanese economics professor. 8. Of all the mechanics in the shop, he is surely the least competent . 9. In the fall, the valleys tend to be foggier than the hilltops. 10. My cold is definitely worse this morning. 90

did she study 22. isn't 8. is 17. isn't going to be 39. interested in 55. Does he always play 45. had finished 51. did he arrive 11. might have been 67. drove 20. was watching 46. is going to have 37. as . stay out 48. on 76. took 10. Have you got 21.. already 47. are they doing 12. did you go 13. loves 6. taught 18. among 58. are you doing 2. loves 15. Few 50. interested in 66. is going to visit 28. taught 35. Have you got 14. Does he always have 19. isn't 26. did she do 40. rode 30. said 61. look after 69. some 49. in front of 64.TEST FINAL 1. is coming 16. loves 36. had to 70. are going 74. out of 91 .. do you have to do 62. have been made 72. in – on 77. in 75. Do you always get up 3. up 80. as 60.. giving 59. is watching 24. Has Thomas got 41. did they go 42. about 78. is listening 44. is having 5. were photographed 56. have been working 71. Has John got 4. are you doing 27. explain 73. at – during 79. Have they got 33. 's fine 63. are you doing 31. Yet 54. whose 68.. shouldn't 65. is going 9. doesn't like 23. Have . seeing 52. gone 53. likes 43. flew 38. Does she often telephone 32. arrives 57. took 25. Do you always finish 29. went 7. are reading 34.

have just had 138. much 107. played – was 126. next to 121. Did you smoke 146. him 109. in – on 91. some 114. some 122. by – by 94. some 123. do you do 112.81. haven't thought 134. has worked 101. bought 131. _ 88. recorded 141. left 147.were . to 104. on 93. within 96. have you read 142. in the 116. until 99. until 84. hasn't left 148. Italy 119. since 98. Excuse me 118. to 87. 127.Have you been 149. has believed 135. have never been 125. in 82. at – on 83. did you read 143. any 102. can 115. have worked – began 128. an 103. by 90. on 86. bought 106.has played 130. 108. is 105. listening to 111. at 110. Have you seen 150. works 113. by 95. has begun 139. has lived 100. have already eaten 129. on 120. went .has been 133.have found 145. has recorded 140. in 97. in – in 92. Has the newspaper arrived 144. moved – lived 132. did you live 136. for – against 85. to – at 89. learned . ago 124. has written 137.didn't know . didn't get 92 . into 117. have you found .

PAST TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + V2 You went to your friend yesterday. (neprecizat timpul): I have eaten. She hasn’t left already.fişă exemplu PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + V (s/es for IIIrd person sg): He goes to school everyday. Interrogative: Have/Has + S + V3 Have you met my girlfriend? Has he met his cousin? Negative: S + Have/Has + Not + V3 I haven’t read his last novel. Interrogative: Have you been waiting here for two hours? Negative: S + Have/Has + not + Been + Ving You have not been waiting here for two hours.Acţiune începută în trecut care se continuă şi în prezent: I have met her. . Brown. . (am mâncat) .Acţiune viitoare planificată în prezent (neoficial): We are spending the week end in the country.Acţiune care se petrece în momentul vorbirii: I am reading.Acţiune începută în trecut care se continuă şi în prezent: DIFERENŢA DINTRE PRESENT CONTINUOUS ŞI PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: 1. . I am doing the homework.Acţiune temporară: This week. . . Interrogative: Do/Does + S +V Do I go to school everyday? Does she go to school everyday? Negative: S + Do/Does + Not + V I do not go to school everyday.Adevăruri general valabile: The Earth spins round.Acţiune terminată în perioada de timp neterminată : I have already read the newspaper today. . Plouă= It is raining 2.Acţiuni viitoare planificate în prezent ca urmare a unui program oficial PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative: S + Have/Has (IIIrd person sg) + V3 I have met Mr. He doesn’t read this novel everyday. Interrogative: Be (present) + S + V ing: Am I eating now? Negative: S + Be (present) + Not + V ing: I am not eating now . Interrogative: Be (past) + S + V ing 93 . . She drinks milk everyday. She has met Mrs. . She has been waiting here for two hours. repetabilă: I read daily.TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE . PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Have/Has + Been + Ving You have been waiting here for two hours. terminată în trecut.Acţiune generală. Interrogative: Did + S + V PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Be (present) + V ing: I am eating now. you are doing the cleaning and he is going shopping.Acţiune începută în trecut. Plouă de mult / de…= It has been rainig for… PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS (imperfect) Affirmative: S + Be (past) + V ing I was watching TV when she came. Brown.

Did you go to work yesterday? Negative: S + Did + Not + V They didn’t go to work yesterday? Acţiune trecută terminată în moment precizat: (ago. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + shall/will + have been + Ving They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas. Interrogative shall/will + S + have been + Ving Will they have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas? Negative: S + shall/will + not + have been + V-ing They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas. Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + V Shall we go to the mountains next week? Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not + V They will not read this novel tomorrow. in 2004): I met her in 1981. last. Interrogative: Shall/will + S + have + V3 Will you have gone by now? Negative: S + shall/will+ Not + have + V3 They will not have gone by now. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Had + Been + V ing She had been living in that house since 1993. Exprimă faptul că o acţiune se va afla înca în desfăşurare la un anumit moment în viitor. Interrogative: Had + S + V3 Had they watched TV for half an hour? Negative: S + Had + Not + V3 They hadn’t watched TV for half an hour. Acţiune trecută în desfăşurare în prezent: When you entered my room. Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + Be + V ing Shall we be reading this novel tomorrow? Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not + Be + V ing You will not be reading this poem. Acţiune trecută terminată înaintea altei acţiuni trecute:ex: I had already eaten for long when you came. FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + V They will go to the seaside tomorrow. Were you reading when I entered the room? Negative: S + Be (past) + Not + V ing He wasn’t eating when she phoned.m. 94 . FUTURE CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + Be + V ing They will be going to the mountains.p. Interrogative: Had + S + Been + V ing Had she been living in that house since 1993? Negative: S + Had + Not + Been + V ing She had not been living in that house since 1993. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative: S + shall/will + have + V3 They will have gone by now. I was watching TV. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE (m.) Affirmative: S + Had + V3 They had watched TV for half an hour. Acţiune trecută începută înaintea altei acţiuni trecute şi continuându-se şi în momentul începerii celei de-a doua: I had been watching TV for 2 hours when you came. yesterday.c.

Verbul TO WORK -model Indicative Present I work you work he/she/it works we work you work they work Present continuous I am working you are working he/she/it is working we are working you are working they are working Past perfect continuous I had been working you had been working he/she/it had been working we had been working you had been working they had been working Past perfect I had worked you had worked he/she/it had worked we had worked you had worked they had worked Future perfect I will have worked you will have worked he/she/it will have worked we will have worked you will have worked they will have worked Future perfect continuous I will have been working you will have been working he/she/it will have been working we will have been working you will have been working they will have been working Infinitive to work Past Tense I worked you worked he/she/it worked we worked you worked they worked Past continuous I was working you were working he/she/it was working we were working you were working they were working Present perfect I have worked you have worked he/she/it has worked we have worked you have worked they have worked Future I will work you will work he/she/it will work we will work you will work they will work Future continuous I will be working you will be working he/she/it will be working we will be working you will be working they will be working Present perfect continuous I have been working you have been working he/she/it has been working we have been working you have been working they have been working Participle Present Past working worked 95 .

. Ed. din Buc. Ecaterina Comişel.Lectures in English Morphology. Ed.Ştiinţifică. Ioana Ştefănescu . Universitatea din Bucureşti . 96 . 1963.Bibliografie: Leon Leviţchi.Gramatica limbii engleze. Editura didactică şi pedagogică – Bucureşti.1982 Catedra de limbă şi literatură engleză. Univ. 1962. Ştiinţifică 1967.Gramatica limbii engleze. Ioan Preda . 1978. Georgiana Gălăţeanu.Gramatica limbii engleze. .Gramatica limbii engleze. pentru uz şcolar. Ed. Ştiinţifică. Alice Bădescu .

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