ON JOB TRAINING FINAL REPORT

PT NIPPON KAIJI KYOKAI INDONESIA (ClassNK Jakarta Office)
Hendra Apriadi NRP. 4107 100 083 Hendriyadi NRP. 4107 100 103

Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology Surabaya 2011

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

CONTENTS
Contents........................................................................................................ .................. List of Figures........................................................................................................... ...... List of Tables................................................................................................................... List of Charts.................................................................................................................... Preface............................................................................................................................. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION.................................................................................. A. Background ...................................................................................................... B. Purpose ............................................................................................................. B.1. General .................................................................................................... B.2. Special ..................................................................................................... C. Activities .......................................................................................................... D. On Job Training Schedule ................................................................................. CHAPTER II COMPANY’S PROFILE .................................................................. A. History ................................................................................................................... B. ClassNK Head Office............................................................................................ B.1. Vision and Mision of ClassNK....................................................................... B.2. Main Activities of ClassNK............................................................................ B.3. Ship Classification Related Services............................................................... B.4. Statutory Services............................................................................................ B.5. International Standards Related Quality System/Environmental Management System Assesment and Registration Services........................... B.6. Technical Services........................................................................................... C. ClassNK Survey Office in Jakarta.......................................................................... CHAPTER III SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION................................................... A. General.................................................................................................................. B. Classification Surveys........................................................................................... B.1. Classification Survey during Construction.................................................. B.1.1. Submission of Plans and Documents for Approval.......................... B.1.2. Presence of the Surveyor................................................................... B.1.3. Plan Approval.................................................................................... B.1.3.1. Technical Requirements of Plan Approval........................ 17 17 18 20 20 20 21 22 23 24 24
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2 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 13 14 14 15 16 16 17 17

Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

B.1.3.2. ClassNK Plan Approval Status Service............................. B.1.4. Hydrostatic Test, Watertight Test, and Relevant Test.................... B.1.5. Finished Plans................................................................................. B.1.6. Sea Trials and Stability Experiments.............................................. B.2. Classification Survey of Ships Not Built under Survey............................. B.2.1. General............................................................................................ B.2.2. Hydrostatic Test, Watertight Test, and Relevant Test.................... B.2.3. Sea Trials and Stability Experiments.............................................. C. Class Maintenance Survey..................................................................................... C.1. Annual Survey............................................................................................... C.1.1. Definition and Intervals................................................................... C.1.2. Parts to be Survey............................................................................ C.1.2.1. Annual Survey for Hull, Equipments, Fire Extinction, And Fittings...................................................................... C.1.2.2. Annual Survey for Machinery........................................... C.1.2.3. Special requirements for LNG and LPG Carriers............. C.1.2.4. Special Requirements for Chemical Tankers..................... C.2. Intermediate Surveys.................................................................................... C.2.1. Definition and Intervals.................................................................... C.2.2. Parts to be Survey............................................................................. C.2.2.1. Intermediate Survey for Hull, Equipments Fire Extinction, and Fittings............................................. C.2.2.2. Intermediate Survey for Machinery................................... C.2.2.3. Special Requirements for LNG and LPG Carriers............. C.2.2.4. Special Requirements for Chemical Tankers...................... C.3. Special Survey............................................................................................... C.3.1. Definition and Intervals..................................................................... C.3.2. Parts to be Survey.............................................................................. C.3.2.1. Special Survey for Hull, Equipments, Fire Extinction, And Fittings....................................................................... B.3.2.2. Special Survey for Machinery............................................ C.4. Docking Survey............................................................................................. C.4.1. Definition and Intervals...................................................................

25 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 30 30 30 31

31 32 32 32 33 33 34

34 35 35 35 36 36 37

37 38 38 38
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Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

C.4.2. Parts to be Survey............................................................................. C.5. Boiler Survey................................................................................................ C.5.1. Definition and Intervals.................................................................... C.6. Propeller Shaft and Stern Tube Shaft Survey............................................... C.6.1. Definition and Intervals.................................................................... C.7. Occasional Survey........................................................................................ C.7.1. Definition and Intervals.................................................................... C.7.2. Parts to be Survey............................................................................. D. Statutory and Installation Survey.......................................................................... D.1. Statutory Survey........................................................................................... D.1.1. Periodic Survey for Statutory........................................................... D.1.2. Non-Periodical Survey for Statutory................................................ D.1.3. Types of Statutory Survey................................................................ D.1.3.1. SOLAS 1974/78/1988, and amendments.......................... D.1.3.2. MARPOL 73/78, and amendments................................... D.1.3.3. International Load Lines 1966/1988................................. D.2. Installation Survey........................................................................................ D.2.1. Cargo Handling Appliances............................................................. D.2.1.1. Kind of Surveys................................................................ D.2.1.2. Timing of Surveys............................................................. D.2.1.3. Periodical Survey carried out in Advance......................... D.2.1.4. Postponements of Periodical Surveys............................... D.2.2. Automation and Remote Control System........................................ D.2.2.1. Kind of Surveys................................................................. D.2.2.2. Survey Intervals................................................................. E. Survey Record and Certification.................................................................. E.1. E.2. Class Survey record and Certification.............................................. Statutory Survey Record and Certification......................................

39 39 39 40 40 42 42 42 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 52 52 54 57 57 57 57 58
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CHAPTER IV. SHIP DAMAGE AND REPAIR........................................................ A. Hull Damage.................................................................................................... A.1. Examples of Hull Damage....................................................................... A.1.1. Damage due to Bow Flare Slamming.......................................... A.1.2. Abnormal Corrosion between Dissimilar Metals........................

Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

A.1.3. Cracks in Side Longitudinals................................................... A.1.4. Cracks in the Joint of Horizontally Corrugated Longitudinal Bulkhead and Access Trunk Wall.......................................... A.1.5. Cracks in the Engine Room Front Bulkhead.............................. A.1.6. Cracks in Bilge Strake from Doubling Plate End of Bilge Keel B. Machinery Damage...................................................................................... B.1. Examples of Machinery Damage......................................................... B.1.1. Damage to Diesel Main Engines................................................ B.1.1.1. Two-stroke Diesel Main Engines (Crosshead Type)..... B.1.1.2. Two-stroke Diesel Main Engines (Trunk Piston Type) B.1.1.3. Four-stroke Diesel Main Engines (Domestic Model).... B.1.1.4. Four-stroke Diesel Main Engines (Licensed Type)....... B.1.2. Damage Shafting System........................................................... B.1.2.1. Shaft Coupling Bolts..................................................... B.1.2.2. Propeller Shafts............................................................. B.1.2.3. Stern Tube Bearings and Stern Tube Seal Assemblies. B.1.2.4. Propeller Damage......................................................... B.1.3. Damage to Boiler...................................................................... B.1.4. Damage to the Engines for Main Generators........................... B.1.5. Damage to Main Generators and Electric Equipment.............. B.1.6. Damage to other Machinery and Equipment........................... C. Procedure for Repair and Its Acceptance Criteria..................................... D. General Review of Ships............................................................................. D.1. Bulk Carrier........................................................................................ D.1.1. Typical of Bulk Carriers............................................................. D.1.2. Bulk Carrier Safety.................................................................... D.2. Tankership.......................................................................................... D.2.1. Special Requirements for Oil Tankers....................................... D.2.2. Special Requirements for Chemical Tankers............................. D.2.3. Special Requirements for Gas Tankers...................................... CHAPTER V. CLOSING......................................................................................... A. Impression................................................................................................... B. Suggestion...................................................................................................

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59 60 60 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 65 65 65 66 66 68 73 73 73 73 74 75 91 99 110 110 110
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Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure II.1.a. Administration Center…….…………………………………………… Figure II.1.b. Research Center……………………………………………………….. Figure II.1.c. Information Center…………………………………………………….. Figure II.2.a. ClassNK Jakarta Office from outside………………………………….. Figure II.2.b. ClassNK’s Meeting Room……………………………………………... Figure III.3. Figure III.4. Figure III.5. Figure III.6. Figure III.7. Figure III.8. Figure III.9. Annual Survey (AS) is to be carried out every year…………………… Intermediate Survey (IS) can be carried out at (x) or (y)…………….... Intermediate Survey (IS) can be commenced any time at (z)…………. Special Survey (SS) can be carried out at or after 4th AS (x)………..... Commencement of Special Survey (SS) before 4 AS…………….…. Example of Docking Survey interval…………………………………. Example of Boiler Survey interval……………………………………. Safe Access to Bow in Oil Tanker…………………………………….. Emergency Towing Arrangement……………………………………... Fire Protection…………………………………………………………. Inert Gas and Ventilation System……………………………………... Inert Gas System…................................................................................ Protection of Pump Room……………………………………………... Foam Fire Extinguishing System……………………………………… Location of SBT……………………………………………………….. Slop Tank……………………………………………………………….
th

15 15 15 18 18 30 33 33 36 36 39 40 44 76 76 77 77 22 78 78 81 86 89 89 94 95 97 103 103 104 105 107
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Figure III.10. Temporary Repair for Propeller………………………………………. Figure IV.1. Figure IV.2. Figure IV.3. Figure IV.4. Figure IV.5. Figure IV.6. Figure IV.7. Figure IV.8. Figure IV.9.

Figure IV.10. Sea Chest………………………………………………………………. Figure IV.11. Crude Oil Washing (COW)……………………………………………. Figure IV.12. Comparasion between b and h in Chemical Tanker…………………… Figure IV.13. Acceptance Piping System…................................................................. Figure IV.14. Types of gauging depends on cargo…………………………………… Figure IV.15. Independent Tank and Secondary barrier……………………………… Figure IV.16. Moss Tank System……………………………………………………... Figure IV.17. General Arrangement of Cargo Tank Vent System……………………. Figure IV.18. Environmental Control Diagram……………………………………….. Figure IV.19. Fuel Gas Use Diagram………………………………………………….

Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

LIST OF TABLES
Table I.1. Table III.1. Table IV.1. Table IV.2. Table IV.3. Table IV.4. Table IV.5. Table IV.6. Table IV.7. Table IV.8. Table IV.9. ClassNK On Job Training Chart........................................................ ..... Statutory Certificates.............................................................................. Corrosion Addition for Bulk Carrier....................................................... Corrosion Addition for ships other than Bulk carrier.............................. Diminution Limits for Principal Structural Hull...................................... The minimum plate thickness of web and brackets of hold frames........ Hull section modulus............................................................................... Requirements of MARPOL Annex I for Cargo Area of Oil Tankers..... Requirements of Double Hull Construction for New Tanker................ Phasing-Out of Single Hull Oil tankers.................................................. Hipothetical Outflow of Oil................................................................... 13 56 68 69 69 70 72 80 82 82 85 85 91 92 93 94 100 101 102 102 105

Table IV.10. Floodable Compartment......................................................................... Table IV.11. Special Requirements Summary of Chemical Tanker in IBC Code...... Table IV.12. Pollution Category in MARPOL Annex II............................................ Table IV.13. Types of Ship.......................................................................................... Table IV.14. Damage Stability.................................................................................... Table IV.15. Product and Type of Gas Tankers.......................................................... Table IV.16. Extent of Damage................................................................................... Table IV.17. Design Restriction of Gas Tank.............................................................. Table IV.18. Categories of Independent Tank........................................................ .... Table IV.19. Mechanical Ventilation of Cargo Area...................................................

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Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

LIST OF CHARTS
Chart III.1. Flow chart relation between ship owner, shipyard, manufacturers, and ship classification in ship newbuilding.................................................. Chart III.2. Flow chart of ClassNK PASS for Plan Approval.............................. ... 25 27

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Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

PREFACE

Alhamdulillahirabbil’aalamin, Thanks to God because of His Mercy and Blessing we could finish our On Job Training in PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia (ClassNK) Jakarta Office and this final report. Field Work or On Job Training (MN 091381) is one of primary study subject to graduate from Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Department – Faculty of Marine Technology – Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember which having purpose to increase and upgrade knowledges about Maritime Technology and to practice the theories which we got from college. Since On Job Training in ClassNK Jakarta Office, we gets many knowledges and experiences whereas we do not found it in college, especially the details about ship classification activities. Together with this report, we say huge thanks and appreciations to ClassNK Head Office, Mr. Hisashi Ikeda as President Director of ClassNK Indonesia, Mr. Masakatsu Tsuru as Manager of ClassNK Indonesia, because had given us chance for increasing our

knowledges especially the ones related with ship classification. During this period, we got a lot of help from our consulting persons, both from ClassNK’s trainers and surveyors, Mr. Kasmadi, Mr. Didik, Mr. Sudarsono, Mr. Arief, Mr. Agus, Mr. Indra, all ClassNK’s administration staffs, and our consulting lecturer, Mr. IGN Sumanta Buana, Mr. I Ketut Suastika, and Mr. Wing Hendroprasetyo A.P. . Not forget, we also say huge thanks to our beloved parents and our friends for giving us support and spirit to finish this report. We understand that this Final Report is not perfect. Therefore, we hope for advices and critics in order to help the perfection of this Final Report. Last but not least, we hope that this report will be useful especially for us and generally for maritime world in Indonesia. Surabaya, April 11th, 2011 Warmest Regards,
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Trainee
Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background Maritime industry in Indonesia is still growing up which reflected in the increasing number of ships that built in this country and the policy from Indonesian Government to stimulate the growing up of maritime related industry beside the maritime industry itself. Along with the condition above, the need of qualified human resources who have good intellectual ability to support the maritime industry is also growing up. So, the coordinations between industrial sector and universities are very important in order to increase the quality of university’s graduation. Policy of link and match which has been decided by Ministry of Education Republic of Indonesia is one of efforts to reduce the gap between universities and industries. Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (also known as ITS) is one of several maritime universities in Indonesia which try to develop human resources, science, and technology to support the development of maritime industry, and also play the role as a research university to help the development of Eastern Indonesia region. The Output from Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, hopefully will be ready to be developed to the suitable sector with their professionality. In accordance with the mission above, On Job Training is one of the facilities which can be applied. Understanding the problems about maritime industry should be able to support the theoretical knowledge which the student had from college so they will be ready to face the industrial world and the globalization era. With minimum requirement of graduation, On Job Training has become one of main purpose for students to understand the condition of field work and to know the relation between science and practical application. We choose Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia (ClassNK) Jakarta Office as our On Job Training field because ClassNK is currently the biggest ship classification in the world, in terms of Ship’s Gross Tonnage, and because ClassNK has huge contribution in the development of ship classification in the world and also the development of maritime industry in Indonesia from the last two decades.
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Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

B. Purpose Purpose of On Job Training, consist of: B.1. General 1. 2. To make a good relationship between universities and industries. To grow participation from industrial sector for giving it’s contribution to national education. 3. To increase the student knowledge so they know and understand science application in industries as user of university’s output. 4. To know and understand the working system in industries so we can learn and apply the problem solving that needed by industries. 5. To make and create the constructive mindset of student.

B.2. Special 1. On Job Training is one of academic requirements especially called Satuan Kredit Mahasiswa (SKS) that must be done in Naval Archiecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Department – Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember. 2. 3. 4. To increase the student knowledge about marine technology and its relation. To study especially about ship classification in Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK). To identify, analyze, and solve the problem in relation with technical matters especially from point 2 and 3 of B.2.

C. Activities The On Job Training was planned in ClassNK Jakarta Office, from January 17th, 2011 until February 11th, 2011. Breakdown of activities are:  General introduction about ClassNK, especially Survey Office in Jakarta.  On Job Surveyor Training including learning about: 1. Class Rules Section, a) Class Surveys, b) Statutory Surveys, c) Ship Damage and Repair Surveys, d) Plan Approval for Ship During Construction, e) Certification and Survey Records of Ships.
Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

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PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

2. Role Playing Simulation and Case Study as Surveyor in charge, 3. Consolidated Business Support System (CBSS) as the computerized management survey for surveyors.  Special Requirement for: 1. Bulk Carriers, 2. Oil, Chemical, and Gas Tankers.  Understanding relationship between shipyard, shipping company, flag

administation, and ship classification societies especially for ClassNK Jakarta Office.     Knowing organization and management of ClassNK’s Head Office and Jakarta Office. Making Daily Report, Arrangement of Final Report, Delivery of Final Report.

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Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

D. On Job Training Schedule The On Job Training was held for 4 weeks. And, On Job Training matters, consist of:

Week No I II III IV Post On Training (maximum Subject months 3 Job

after

the completion day) 1 On Job Traing in

ClassNK Office 4

Jakarta

Consulting to Trainer of ClassNK On Job Training

5

Consulting to Lecturer in ITS

6

Drafting The On Job Training Final Report

Table I.1. ClassNK On Job Training Chart

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Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

CHAPTER II THE COMPANY PROFILE
A. History The origins of Nippon Kaiji Kyokai date from the foundation in November 1899 of the Teikoku Kaiji Kyokai (the Imperial Marine Association) in Tokyo, which was established in order to promote the regulation and development of the shipping and shipbuilding industries in Japan. The early years of the Society were spent promoting a wide range of shipping-related activities, very different from the focused technical role that ClassNK plays today. The first ship to receive a class certificate from the then TKK was the Kwanan Maru in 1920. In 1926, the Society's class notation, NS*, was formally registered in the classification clause of the Institute of London Underwriters, amounting to recognition of TKK's existence as an internationally active classification society. In the inter-war years, TKK recieved support from, and co-operated with, the British Corporation Register of Shipping (later to merge with Lloyd's Register) and other societies. By 1929, the Society had reached 1 million gross tons of ships under class. The Society was relaunched under its current name, Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (The Japan Marine Association), in 1946 in the aftermath of World War Two. From a state of near complete destruction, the Japanese Shipping and Shipbuilding industries recovered gradually and then grew rapidly in strength, with the Society called upon to survey a large number and wide range of different vessel types over the years. By the end of April 2007, the Society had 6,658 ships totaling 146.7 million GT under class. This figure represents approximately 21 percent of the world merchant fleet currently under class. Although based in Japan, where it has 21 service sites, ClassNK has worldwide representation through a extensive global network of 78 exclusive surveyor service sites. ClassNK's surveyors work in shipbuilding and repair yards and at ports across the world, wherever they may be called upon to examine the condition of a ship, so that all of the Society's services are available worldwide. On 15 November 1999, Nippon Kaiji Kyokai celebrated the centenary of its foundation. Reflecting the internationalization of both the shipping industry and the Society itself, a significant percentage of today's NK-classed ships are controlled by non-Japanese companies and shipowners, supported by a growing network of exclusive survey offices
Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

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PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

across the world and a system of national and technical committees. Following the establishment of offices in London and New York in 1962, the Society spread rapidly and now has exclusive survey offices in more than 70 locations, and representation in all major ports. Nippon Kaiji Kyokai was a founding member of IACS, the International Association of Classification Societies, which was established in 1968 to represent the major national class societies and promote international initiatives and cooperation on ship safety. The Society has thrice held the Chairmanship of IACS, and is going to hold the fourth Chairmanship from July 2010. As it was in its earliest days, Nippon Kaiji Kyokai today remains a third party, notfor-profit foundation, committed to the safety of life and property at sea, and the prevention of marine pollution.

B. ClassNK Head Office Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, also known by the brand name ClassNK or "NK" is a ship classification society. The principal work of ClassNK is to undertake surveys, to ensure that the rules which it has developed are applied to both newbuildings and to existing ships to ensure the safety of the vessels. The rules cover not only hull structures, but also safety equipment, cargo handling gear, engines, machinery, and electrical and electronic systems among others.

(a)

(b)

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(c) Figure II.1. a. Administration Center, b. Research Center, and c. Information Center
Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

ClassNK Head Office is located 4-7 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8567, Japan. It offers a broad range of services such as ship classification surveys, statutory surveys and certification on behalf of Flag States based on both international conventions, codes, national statutes, as well as ClassNK’s own rules and regulations. They also include assessment and certification services of safety management systems of ship management companies as well as the quality systems of ship builders and related manufacturers as an independent third party. ClassNK also offers appraisal, consulting and supervisory services on both marine and non-marine related projects.

B.1.

Vision and Mision of ClassNK

ClassNK is dedicated to ensure the safety of life and property at sea, and the prevention of pollution of the marine enviroment. To achieve this mission ClassNK will:    Focus on delivering the highest quality classification services by the highest quality personnel while maintaining its totally independent third party, non-profit status, Focus on the development of relevant Rules, guidance and procedures, maintain, develop its commitment to scientific and technological research and development, Maintain and develop its global operations in line with the needs of those using its services.

B.2.

Main Activities of ClassNK

ClassNK offers a broad range of services such as ship classification surveys, statutory surveys and certification on behalf of Flag States based on both international conventions, codes, national statutes, as well as ClassNK’s own rules and regulations. They also include assessment and certification services of safety management systems of ship management companies as well as the quality systems of ship builders and related manufacturers as an independent third party. ClassNK also offers appraisal, consulting and supervisory services on both marine and non-marine related projects.

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Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

B.3.      

Ship Classification Related Services

Approval of service providers, manufacturers and manufacturing methods, Inspection of materials, equipment and similar products, Survey and registration of ship installations, machinery and appliances of new ships, Survey and registration of ships and offshore structures during construction, Survey and inspection of ships, offshore structures and related installations in service, Testing and inspection of material and other types of testing machines.

B.4.      

Statutory Services

Activities concerned with the certification of freight containers, Appraisal of grain loading, Assignment of freeboard, Assignment of load limits for cargo handling appliances, Audit and certification of safety management systems based on the ISM Code, Statutory survey and certification services based on SOLAS, ILLC, MARPOL and other international conventions and codes on behalf of flag state administrations.

B.5.  

International

Standards

Related

Quality

System/Enviromental

Management System Assessment and Registration Services Assessment and registration of environmental management systems based on the ISO14001 standards, Assessment and registration of quality systems based on the ISO9000 series of quality standards.

B.6.     

Technical Services

Appraisal and certification of ships and offshore structures, Commissioned testing, research and computer analysis services, Inspection and certification of non-marine machinery and equipment, Technical consulting regarding ships and offshore structures, Tonnage measurement and certification services.
Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

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On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

C. ClassNK Survey Office in Jakarta

(a) Figure II.2.b. ClassNK’s Meeting Room

(b) Figure II.2.a. ClassNK Jakarta Office from outside

ClassNK has many committee representative offices spread wideworld. One of them is ClassNK Indonesia Committee. ClassNK Indonesia Committee also called PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia which has 4 survey office branches located in Balikpapan, Batam, Jakarta, and Surabaya. ClassNK Jakarta Office is placed Menara Cakrawala, 17th Floor, Jalan M H Thamrin No. 9, Jakarta. ClassNK Jakarta Office is the head office of ClassNK Indonesian Committee General Manager Managers : H Ikeda : Kasmadi M Tsuru S Henmi Surveyors : Agus Triyono Indra Gunawan Kesuma Sudarsono Didik Wiratama M Arief L D Main activities of ClassNK Jakarta Office is to held surveys of ships within region of Indonesia, such as :   Classification Surveys Including Classification Surveys for Ships During
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Construction and for Ships Not Built Under Survey, Class Maintenance Surveys including Statutory Surveys (in Indonesia, consist of Safety Construction, Safety Equipment, Safety Radio, IBC and IGC, also DG)

Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

ISM (International Safety Management) and ISPS (International of Port and Ship Security) Audit When recruiting the surveyors, ClassNK has 3 standard training activities:

  

On Job Training in Office to understand basic knowledge of ClassNK’s Rules, On Job Training to Head Office in Japan, On Job Training as Surveyor Assistant on site. In ClassNK Jakarta Office we learnt how to be a surveyor by doing an On Job

Training in Office.

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Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering Faculty of Marine Technology Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

On Job Training

PT Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia – Jakarta Office
Skyline Building 17th Floor M.H. Thamrin Street No. 9, Jakarta 10340

CHAPTER III SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION
A. General The main duty of the ship classification societies is to certify the ship that registered to them meet the requirements of safety for human life, environtment, and property during the operational life of the ship. In order to fulfill the requirements, the classification societies held some inspection activities to the detail parts and systems of the ship, this activity is generally known as a Survey. The requirements above are discussed and agreed in the international forums such as conferentions and conventions which held by International Maritime Organization (IMO) and attended by classifiation societies representatives, governments representatives, and some organizations representatives which related to maritime world. ClassNK as one of the biggest ship classification in the world is also take a part and give contribution in the forums based on their long experiences in maritime industry to develop those requirements. The requirements then agreed and published by IMO as the international rules, standards, and codes to protect human life, environtments, and properties which related to the activites in the maritime world. These rules and standards are one of the main references taken by each of the classification societies to compile their own regulation, besides the regulation which issued by every governments in the world, and then applied in their main field activities. According to the explanation above, Survey activity is very important and must be held by high quality and standard, because it is the frontliner of the field in order to achieve the main purpose. As the proof that the ship is fulfilled the standard, the

classification societies will issue the certificate to the ship which can be used for guarantee to the insurance company and to the maritime related bussiness.

B. Classification Surveys Classification Surveys are surveys for the ships in order to be classed in ClassNK (in this report ClassNK is also referred as “the Society”), it is also called The Initial Survey or Class Registration Survey. Classification Surveys for all ships including steel barges, submersibles, mobile offshore drilling unit are to be regulated in Rules for the Survey and Construction of Steel Ships: Part B. Chapter 2 of the Rules is mainly consist of
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requirements to be fulfilled for all ships except for steel barges, submersibles, mobile offshore drilling units, and work boats. Meanwhile for exception above to be regulated in Chapter 10, 11, 12, and 13 respectively. Classification Surveys are composed of the following surveys. (1) Classification Survey during Construction (for new construction of ships). (2) Classification Ships of Ships Not Built under Survey (for existing ships).

B.1.

Classification Survey during Construction Classification Survey during Construction held in order to make sure all

construction of newbuildings meet the minimum requirements of the Society. Basically, when ship owners plan to build any ships and they want to use service from ClassNK to check the quality of ship during the building process, they must fulfill this general procedure below : 1. First of all the ship owner or ship manager must apply an application to ClassNK Head Office or Branch Office, the application form is Application for Classification and Statutory Services During Construction Form 1A, 2. Then, ClassNK Head Office evaluate the application request from ship owner or ship manager, 3. If they meet the procedure, Head Office will accept the application request and command Survey Office in the region of the built place of ship to watch over the construction process, 4. Survey Office will prepare and command the surveyor in charge, 5. Surveyor in charge will prepare the documents needed to do the survey activities and then make reports during the construction process. During this phase, There will be evaluations and submission of plans and documents which will be approved by Head Office or Branch Office, then Survey Office will apply the documents and command the surveyor in charge to watch over every update of the documents needed together with ship owner representatives, and also shipyard, 6. When the construction process in finished, Head Office will issue the classification certificate for the ship to the ship owner or ship manager. For example, in Indonesia curently there are 2 oil tanker constructions, owned by Pertamina, which built by PT Daya Radar Utama (Shipyard and Engineering) and
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classed in ClassNK. In this condition, ClassNK Head Office commands ClassNK Jakarta Office to handle The Classification Survey During Construction procedure. Below are the steps that must accomplished by ship owner and the shipyard during the phase of building process (during construction) unti the classificatio certificate is issued by ClassNK.

B.1.1. Submission of Plans and Documents for Approval The first step is to submit the documents, plans, and drawing of the ship which is going to built by shipyard to ClassNK. The plans and documents required to be submitted for approval by ClassNK before the shipyard and ship owner can start the building process are consist of: 1) Hull documents and drawing ( The class notation for ship’s hull which built under provision of ClassNK is NS* ) Consist of measuremets of plans and drawing from general characteristic of the ship, such as General Arrangement, midship section, deck plans, etc., until the very detail ones such as construction profiles, stem, sternframe, propeller post and rudder, shaft tunnels, etc. Indication of detail quality of material used, scantling and arrangements of structural members, and all detail measuremets of all the part of the ship and systems are also to be submitted. All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Rules for The Survey and Contruction of Steel Ships Part B Chapter 2 2.1.2 -1(1). 2) Machinery documents and drawing ( The class notation for ship’s machinery which installed under provision of ClassNK is MNS* ) Consist of plans and drawing of machinery arrangement and piping systems, transmission gear, shafting system, propeller, steering gear, automatic and remote control, electrical installation, boilers, until the spare parts of the machinery arrangements systems. All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Rules for The Survey and Contruction of Steel Ships Part B Chapter 2 2.1.2 -1(2). 3) Submissions of other plans and documents
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All the detail requirements of additional plans and documents needed can be seen in Rules for The Survey and Contruction of Steel Ships Part B Chapter 2 2.1.3. 4) Special documents and drawing for ships carrying liquified gases in bulk Basically this kind of ship must fulfill point 1) until 3) above, but with some additional plans and documents whic related to the cargo which this ship is intended to carry, such as spesification of cargo tanks, insulations, secondary barriers, details of cargo tanks constructions, arrangements of sensor for gas detectors, temperature indicators, inetr gas lines systems, etc. All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Rules for The Survey and Contruction of Steel Ships Part B Chapter 2 2.1.2 -1(3). These documents above are needed because of the carried cargo characteristic is very special and it makes treatment for the cargo become very special too. This is implied in special design for the ship in order to make sure the safety is accomplished. 5) Special documents and drawing for ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk Not so much different procedure from point 4) above, this kind of ship is also need special design, but with less requirements needed because of the characteristic of the carried cargo also need less treatment compared with point 4) above. However, chemical tanker is alwalys special compared with ordinary oil tanker, that is why additional documents and plans are needed for this kind of ship. All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Rules for The Survey and Contruction of Steel Ships Part B Chapter 2 2.1.2 -1(4).

B.1.2. Presence of the Surveyor Presence of the Surveyor is very important to make sure correlation between drawing that have been approved and the real construction in shipyard fulfill the standard of ClassNK. Surveyors come to do their duty according to the invitation by shipyard. Presence of the Surveyor in the ship survey when :
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1) Material Test, such as Destructive Test (DT) and NDT (Non-Destructive Test), 2) Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), WPS is also examined by ship classification which just its sample inspected, 3) Machinery, both of main machinery and auxiliary machinery are examined when performance test, 4) Test Plan, surveyors must have test plan as guideline in order to easy especially the listing task, 5) Hydrostatic Test, this test is to be usually carried out in tanks. It purpose to know leakage around of tanks, 6) Watertight Test, this test is to be carried out as Hidrostatic Test, Leak Test, and Hose Test. Watertight Test is applied in ship repairs. 7) Document Onboard, consist of Damage Control Plans and Loading Manual.

B.1.3. Plan Approval B.1.3.1 . Technical Requiements of Plan Approval Classification Survey during Construction is related with Plan Approval for Ship Newbuilding. Plan Approval for Ship Nwbuilding in ClassNK refers to Rules for The Survey and Construction of Steel Ship: Guidance for The Survey and Construction of Steel Ships Part B Chapter 2. Plan Approval for New Shipbuilding is a part of very important in deal contract between shipyard as shipbuilder, ship owner as end user, and ship classification as third party which have been determined in kick off meeting. Practically, the drawing process may be handled by the shipyard or ship design consultant.

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Owner

Shipyard Ship Design Consultant Equipment Machinery Material

Ship Classification

Chart III.1. Flow chart relation between ship owner, shipyard, manufacturers, and ship classification in ship newbuilding When the ship is going to be built, ship owner must determine shipyard for building the ship and ship classification society for inspecting and registering. Shipyard has responsibility during construction for the drawing process, the needed material, equipment, and machinery, and shipyard may be help by the other manufacturers undercontrol from the shipyard.

B.1.3.2. ClassNK Plan Approval Status Service ClassNK Plan Approval Status Service or ClassNK PASS helps reduce the employees and costs associated with submission of drawings approval and also improves quality control effectively. NK PASS is a system for accessing information such as drawing examination progress, comments on the drawings (if any), and so on. Drawings were submitted in hardcopy form, ClassNK records management information and comments at each stage the approval process from Receipt, Examination, Approval to Return. Records for each set of submitted drawings can be accessed in real time using PASS, to increase transparency, and to realize the higher quality control standars. Drawings can be submitted in electronic form.
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Drawings in electronic form can be uploaded (transmitted) as PDF files. PASS enables paperless processing, eliminates the printing, and postal costs associated with submitting hard copies of the drawings. Drawings may also be submitted partly in electronic and hard copy form. There are many advantages of ClassNK PASS following below :  ClassNK PASS is the best management system for submitted drawings. With ClassNK PASS, users can confirm the drawing examination progress and submission status at a glance. ClassNK PASS can manage submitted drawings on a project by project basis. Shipbuilders or shipyards can use the system to manage drawings for each ship under construction, whereas machinery manufacturers and design firms cn manage drawings under user-defined project names.  ClassNK PASS can manage comments and their responses. With ClassNK PASS, users can easily determine if there are comments on their drawings and responses can be managed with ease and in real time. Not only can individual comments be read fully, but also a comment table including all of the comments can be downloaded by the user.  ClassNK PASS’s configuration is simple and its operation is intuitive. With ClassNK PASS, PASS achieves an optimum balance between ease of usability, simplicity of information retrieval, and simple screen configuration. Operation is intuitive and there is not need to install apllications or adjust settings beforehand.  ClassNK PASS has diverse user settings. ClassNK PASS offers different menus for shipbuilders, machinery manufacturers, and design firms, enabling project management to be penformed according to the actual task at hand.  The security system of ClassNK PASS is very good. ClassNK PASS has SSL encryption which used to safeguard communications between the user’s PC and ClassNK PASS.
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Submit the printed plans

Shipbuilder Manufacturer Ship Designer

Send ePlans

Examine ePlans

Download approved e Plans Refer to comments

PASS
Examine plans and input comments

CLassNK

Notify completion of examination by e-mail

Chart III.2. Flow chart of ClassNK PASS for Plan Approval

B.1.4. Hydrostatic test, watertight test, and relevant test Part of the survey activities in Classification Survey during construction is Hydrostatic, watertight, leakage, or airtight test. These kind of tests are carried out in order to make sure that all the parts or systems of thes hip which are intended not allowed to leak during the operational life of the ship (it depends on the function of each part that is going to be tested). Generally there are 3 main part of the ship that need to be tested: 1) Hull and equipments  Hydrostatic or watertight test are to be carried out in all connetion which specified to be watertight. The test are carried out after all work in that part is completed just before painting activities. All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 2, Table B2.1   All part of the hose test Watertight test can be replaced by airtigth test

2) Machinery Hydrostatic, leakage, or airtight test are to be carried out. All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part D 3) Special requirements of hydrostatic, leakage, or airtight test for ships carrying liquified gases in bulk and ships carrying dangerous chemicals in
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bulk. All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part N.

B.1.5. Finished Plans When Classification Survey during contruction is about to finish,

shipyard, ship owner, or ship manager have to prepare the finished plans according to the actual condition of ship and submit them to the Society. Those documents are: 1. General arrangement, 2. Midship section, scantling plans (construction profile), deck plans, shell expansion, transverse bulkheads, plans for rudder and rudder stock, plans for cargo hatch covers, 3. Bilge, ballast and cargo piping diagrams, 4. Fire protection plans, 5. Fire extinguishing appliances arrangement, and 6. Plans and data showing the navigation bridge visibilities. B.1.6. Sea Trials and Stability Experiments Before the delivery, the ship must have done sea trials and stability experiments in order to make sure all the function of the ship, machinery, equipments, and all the systems onboard the ship is meet the specification listed in the contract between shipyard, ship owner and manufacturer. And to make sure that the ship is safety to operate during all condition which simulated the operational life of the ship. All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Rules for The Survey and Contruction of Steel Ships Part B Chapter 2 2.3 . This test is also witnessed by surveyor in charge.

B.2.

Classification Survey of Ships Not Built under Survey For existing ship which will be registered in ClassNK, they must be surveyed

first. This kind of initial survey is called Classification Survey of Ships Not Built under Survey. There are some type of cases for existing ships that can be registered in ClassNK such as :  class transfer of ship from other ship classification,
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 dual class system, like in Indonesia. Other ship classification survey the construction phase (the building process) and then when the building process is finished the ship is also registered in ClassNK (there are 2 ship classification in charge which are ClassNK and an other ship classification). For example in Indonesia : Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia (BKI) and ClassNK.  The other ship classification survey the building process of the ship but only until the building process finish, then as soon as the process is finished, ship owner registered the ship in ClassNK. This kind of survey basically have the same procedure as the Classification Survey During Construction, but the survey process is relatively shorter. Below are the step that ship owner must fulfill so that the ship can be classed in ClassNK. B.2.1. General Before the ship can be registered in ClassNK, the Society will survey the actual condition of the ship after ship owner or ship manager apply the form to ClassNK’s head office or branch office. Items to be surveyed:   Measurement of actual scantling of main parts of the ship Examination of hull and equipments, machinery, fire protection and detection, means of escape, fire fighting system, electrical installation, stability and load lines, ( The class notation for ship’s hull which not built under provision of ClassNK is NS and MNS for the ship’s machinery )   Submission of plans and documents needed for registration, the same procedure as point B.1.1 above, Hydrostatic test, watertight test, and other relevant test, All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Rules for The Survey and Contruction of Steel Ships Part B Chapter 2 2.2.1 to 2.2.3. B.2.2. Hydrostatic Test, Watertight Test, and Relevant Test Hydrostatic test and watertight test is carried out in order to make sure there are leakage in any part of the ship which to be subject to point below:   Double bottom, both peaks, tanks, cofferdams and chain lockers, watertight bulkheads, and shaft tunnels Hydrostatic test and airtight test for machinery and its parts at pressures spcified
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Special requirements of hydrostatic, leakage, or airtight test for ships carrying liquified gases in bulk and ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk.

B.2.3. Sea Trials and Stability Experiments Before entering the registration, the ship must have done sea trials and stability experiments in order to make sure all the function of the ship, machinery, equipments, and all the systems onboard the ship is meet the specification listed in the contract between shipyard, ship owner and manufacturer. And to make sure that the ship is safety to operate during all condition which simulated the operational life of the ship. All the detail requirements of the rules can be seen in Rules for The Survey and Contruction of Steel Ships Part B Chapter 2 2.3 . C. Class Maintenance Surveys Class Maintenance Surveys are surveys for maintaining the ship registration in the Society, which means that these surveys are held in order to maintain the condition of the ship to meet minimum standard. Class maintenance surveys consist of Periodical

Surveys, Planned Machinery Surveys, and Occasional Surveys that are explained in the following above : C.1 Annual Survey (AS) C.1.1 Definition and Intervals Annual Survey is survey annually for ships under registration of ClassNK in order to maintain their classification in ClassNK. This survey is held to check the peformance of parts of the ship. Annual survey is to be perform every years within 3 months before or after each anniversary date of the ship. Annyversary date is a day before the issuance of Classification Certificate. Example of the interval scheme is in the Figure III.3. below : AS 1st AS 2nd

2/4 2011

2/1 2011

2/4 2011

2/7 2011

2/1 2012

2/4 2012

2/7 2012

30

Figure III.3. Annual Survey (AS) is to be carried out every year
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C.1.2 Parts to be Survey Lists below are parts of the ship that must be survey. Generally, the surveyor should perform them.

C.1.2.1 Annual Survey for Hull, Equipments, Fire Extinction, and Fittings A. Documents Onboard The Ship All the documents that are needed to operate the ship or for safety of the ship and everything which related to it (Based on ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 3, Table B3.1) must be checked. Such as Loading manual, Stability information Booklet, Damage Control Plan and Booklet, Fire Control Plan, Operating Manual for the door and inner door, Towing and Mooring fitting arrangement, etc. B. General Examination Examination of Hull, equipments, fire-extinction, which listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 3, Table B3.2 are to be performed. C. Performance Test All the performance test listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 3, Table B3.3 are to be performed. D. Internal Examinations of Tanks and Spaces It must be sure that the internal structure of tanks and spaces listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 3, Table B3.4 and The Suspect Area, the area in which corrosion is happened massively and it is to be aware whether the structural member is still in the margin of tolerance. E. Close up Survey Close up Survey means the surveyors must perform the inspection, which listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 3, Table B3.5, in range of their hands.
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F.

Thickness Measurements Based on ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and

Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 3, Table B3.6, Thickness Measurement is to be carried out for ship which is relatively old and for ship in which The Suspect Area is found. G. Pressure Test (for Oil Tankers and Ships carrying dangerous chemical in bulk) on the piping system.

C.1.2.2 Annual Survey for Machinery A. General Examination The surveyor must make sure that Machinery, Equipments, and Electrical Installation are placed in good order. Also they have to make sure that The Engine Room, Spaces and Means of Escape are placed in good order and safe for operation. ClassNK also offered a program for the ship owner in order to safe time during the surveys of machinery which is called Preventive Maintenance System. B. Performance Test According to ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 3, Table B3.7 and B3.8, The surveyor must perform a Performance Test.

C.1.2.3 Special Requirements for LNG and LPG Carriers According to ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 3, Table B3.9, there are some addition for LNG and LPG Carriers besides B.1.2.1 and B.1.2.2.

C.1.2.4 Special Requirements for Chemical Tankers According to ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 3, Table B3.10, there are some addition for Chemical Tankers besides B.1.2.1 and B.1.2.2.
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C.2.

Intermediate Survey (IS) C.2.1 Definition and Intervals Basically, Intermediate Survey is the Annual Survey which carried out in the middle of Special Surveys (SS) with the addition of survey requirements which listed in parts to be survey. But ClassNK has 2 definition for interval of Intermediate Survey: a) Intermediate Survey (IS) is carried out concurrently with the second or third Annual Survey after the Classification Survey (initial survey) or Special Survey (Figure III.4.), b) Special for bulk carriers, oil tankers, and ships carrying dangerous chemical in bulk which over 10 years old and also for 500 GT (and above) general dry cargo ship which over 15 years old, IS can be commenced at any time between the second and the third Annual Survey (Figure III.4.). This programme can safe the implementation time of IS and will not disturb ship operational schedule.
AS 2nd / IS AS 1st AS 3rd / IS

SS or Classification Survey

(X)

(Y)

AS 4th

SS

2/1 2012

2/7 2012

2/1 2013

2/7 2013

2/1 2014

2/7 2014

2/1 2015

2/7 2015

2/4 2011

2/4 2012

2/4 2013

2/4 2014

2/4 2015

2/4 2016

Figure III.4. Intermediate Survey (IS) can be carried out at (x) or (y)
IS at (Z)
AS 1
st

SS or Classification Survey

AS 2nd

AS 3rd

AS 4th

SS

2/1 2012

2/7 2012

2/1 2013

2/7 2013

2/1 2014

2/7 2014

2/1 2015

2/7 2015

2/4 2011

2/4 2012

2/4 2013

2/4 2014

2/4 2015

2/4 2016 33

Figure III.5. Intermediate Survey (IS) can be commenced any time at (z)
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C.2.2 Parts to be Survey C.2.2.1 Intermediate Survey for Hull, Equipments, Fire Extinction, and Fittings A. Documents Onboard The Ship All the documents that are needed to operate the ship or for safety of the ship and everything which related to it (Based on ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.1) must be checked. B. General Examination Examination of Hull, equipments, fire-extinction, which listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.2 are to be performed. In addition for Intermediate Survey, the surveyor must examine the condition of spare parts for fire-extinguishing systems generally. C. Performance Test All the performance test listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.3 are to be performed. D. Internal Examinations of Tanks and Spaces It must be sure that the internal structure of tanks and spaces listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.4 and The Suspect Area are still meet the criteria which based on the regulation. In addition for Intermediate Survey, the coating condition of ballast tanks for oil tankers and chemical tankers must also be measured. E. Close up Survey Close up Survey means the surveyors must perform the inspection, which listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B, Table B3.5, in range of their hands. F. Thickness Measurements Based on ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.6, Thickness Measurement is to be
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carried out for ship which is relatively old and for ship in which The Suspect Area is found. In addition for Intermediate Survey, the inspection of gauging equipments and the report of it must be carried out, also additional thickness measurements in areas where close-up surveys are required and preparation plus submission of the thickness measurements record. G. Pressure Test (for Oil Tankers and Ships carrying dangerous chemical in bulk) on the piping system.

C.2.2.2 Intermediate Survey for Machinery A. General Examination The procedure is same as the one in Annual Survey, with an addition that is specified in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B4.5. Also addition for ships which adopting The Preventive Maintenance Systems (PMS) for shafting system, general examination of the safting systems and the monitoring condition data for them are also to be perform. B. Performance Test According to ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.7 and B3.8.

C.2.2.3 Special Requirements for LNG and LPG Carriers Besides B.2.2.1 and B.2.2.2, addition from ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B4.6 are to be carried out, also the surveyor may ask to include performance test, operation test, open-up examination etc.

C.2.2.4 Special Requirements for Chemical Tankers According to ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B, Table B4.7, there are some addition for Chemical Tankers besides B.2.2.1 and B.2.2.2. including performance test, open-up examinations, operation test, ect.
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C.3

Special Survey (SS) C.3.1 Definition and Intervals Special Survey (SS) is a survey that has a function to renew the Classification Certificate and to maintain the registration of ship in ClassNK. Basically, Special Survey consist of examination which also perform in Annual Survey and Intermediate Survey but there are some addition of examination that should perform. According to ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Chapter 1, the interval of Special Survey is mentioned below: a) Special Survey (SS) is carried out within 3 months before the date of expiry of Classification Certificate, b) Special Survey may be commenced start from 4th annual survey until 3
Expiry date Of Classification c) Special Survey may be commenced before the 4th Annual Survey and Certificate

months before The Classification Certificate is expired (Figure III.6.).

must be finished 15 months from the start of the commencement day (Figure III.5.).
Issuance Of Classification Certificate AS 2nd / IS
2/7 2013

AS 1

st

AS 3rd / IS

SS AS 4
th

(x)

2/1 2012

2/7 2012

2/1 2013

2/1 2014

2/7 2014

2/1 2015

2/7 2015

1/1 2016

2/4 2011

2/4 2012

2/4 2013

2/4 2014

2/4 2015

1/4 2016

Figure III.6. Special Survey (SS) can be carried out at or after 4th AS (x)

Issuance Of Classification Certificate
2/1 2012

Comencement of SS AS 1st
2/7 2012

AS 2 / IS
2/7 2013

nd

AS 3 / IS

rd

AS 4th
2/1 2015 2/7 2015

Expiry date Of Classification Certificate

2/1 2013

2/1 2014

2/7 2014

1/1 2016

2/4 2011

2/4 2012

2/4 2013

2/4 2014

3/7 2014

2/4 2015
Must be completed within 15 Months

3/10 2015

1/4 2016

36

Figure III.7. Example of Commencement of Special Survey (SS) before 4 th AS
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C.3.2 Parts to be Survey C.3.2.1 Special Survey for Hull, Equipments, Fire Extinction and Fittings A. Documents Onboard The Ship The Procedure is same as in the Annual Survey. B. General Examination Examination of Hull, equipments, fire-extinction, which listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.2 are to be performed. In addition for Special Survey, the surveyor must also check the condition of piping system. C. Performance Test All the performance test listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.3 are to be performed. D. Internal Examinations of Tanks and Spaces It must be sure that the internal structure of tanks and spaces listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.4 and The Suspect Area are still meet the criteria which based on the regulation. In addition for Intermediate Survey, the coating condition of ballast tanks for oil tankers and chemical tankers must also be measured. E. Close up Survey Close up Survey means the surveyors must perform the inspection, which listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B, Table B3.5, in range of their hands. F. Thickness Measurements Based on ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.6, Thickness Measurement is to be carried out for ship which is relatively old and for ship in which The Suspect Area is found. In addition for Intermediate Survey, the inspection of gauging equipments and the report of it must be
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carried out, also additional thickness measurements in areas where close-up surveys are required and preparation plus submission of the thickness measurements record. G. Pressure Test (for Oil Tankers and Ships carrying dangerous chemical in bulk) on the piping system.

C.3.2.2 Special Survey for Machinery A. General Examination The procedure is same as the one in Annual Survey, with an addition that is specified in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B4.5. Also addition for ships which adopting The Preventive Maintenance Systems (PMS) for shafting system, general examination of the safting systems and the monitoring condition data for them are also to be perform. B. Performance Test According to ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B3.7 and B3.8.

C.4

Docking Survey (DS) C.4.1 Definition and Intervals Docking Survey (DS) is a survey for ship when it is completely removed from water and placed in a dry dock or a slipway. The interval for DS is described below: a) DS is carried out concurently with Special Survey b) Within 36 months from the date of completion of the Classification Survey or previous DS. From poin a) and b) above, it can be concluded that every 5 years (valid period of Classification Cerfiticate) a ship must have minimum two Docking Surveys. The example for illustration of Docking Surveys can be seen at Figure below :
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Issuance Of Classification Certificate / SS

AS 1

st

AS 2nd / IS
2/7 2013

AS 3rd / DS 1st

AS 4

th

SS / DS 2nd
2/7 2015

2/1 2012

2/7 2012

2/1 2013

2/1 2014

2/7 2014

2/1 2015

1/1 2016

2/4 2011

2/4 2012

2/4 2013

2/4 2014

2/4 2015 Still inside the 36 months limit

1/4 2016

Must be carried out within 36 months

In 5 years, minimum 2 Docking Surveys

Figure III.8. Example of Docking Survey interval

C.4.2

Parts to be Survey Requirements and examinations for Docking Survey are listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B6.1.

C.5

Boiler Survey (BS) C.5.1 Definition and Intervals Boiler Survey (BS) is a survey for boiler and its system in a ship. The interval for BS is described below: a) BS is carried out concurently with Special Survey b) Within 36 months from the date of completion of the Classification Survey or previous BS. From poin a) and b) above, it can be concluded that every 5 years (valid period of Classification Cerfiticate) a ship must have minimum two Boiler Surveys. The example for illustration of Boiler Surveys can be seen at Figure below :

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Issuance Of Classification Certificate / SS

AS 1

st

AS 2nd / IS
2/7 2013

AS 3 / BS 1st

rd

AS 4th

SS / BS 2nd
2/7 2015 1/1 2016

2/1 2012

2/7 2012

2/1 2013

2/1 2014

2/7 2014

2/1 2015

2/4 2011

2/4 2/4 2012 2013 Must be carried out within 36 months

2/4 2014

2/4 Still inside the 2015 36 months limit

1/4 2016

In 5 years, minimum 2 Boiler Surveys

Figure III.9. Example of Boiler Survey interval

Exceptional for ships where over eight years have elapsed since construction and that have only one main boiler, Boiler Surveys are to be carried out at Annual Surveys, Intermediate Surveys, and Special Surveys.

C.6

Propeller Shaft and Sterntube Shaft Survey C.6.1 Definition and Intervals Propeller Shaft and Sterntube Shaft Survey (PS) is a survey to the propeller shafting and sterntube shafting systems onboard a ship to make sure the systems are still meet the requirements of the Society. Based on the protection aganist corrosion method, the Society divided the systems into 2 main categories, Propeller shaft kind 1 and kind 2. The differentiation of those system affected in the difference period of PS. Below are the breakdowns of Propeller Shafting and Sterntube Shafting systems : 1) Propeller Shaft Kind 1. This kind of system is effectively protected against corrosion. Propeller Shaft Kind 1 is still divided to 3 categories based on the lubrication method:  Kind 1A : using sea water as the lubricant. Maximum Propeller Shaft and Stern Tube Shaft Survey (PS) period for this type is 5 years from the including pospenement afloat (for Occasional Survey) is 5,5 years.  Kind 1B : using lubrication oil as the lubricant. Maximum PS period for this type, including Occasional Survey and or Partial Survey is 8 years.
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 Kind 1C : using oil as the lubricant, but there are some additional advance monitoring systems, such as oil monitoring system, heat monitoring system, leak monitoring system, etc., that integrated to the warning sytem. Maximum PS period for this type, including Occasional Survey and or Partial Survey is 10 years.

2) Propeller Shaft Kind 2: The system uses sea water as the lubricant, and because it is not protected against corrosion by sea water, the interval of surveys is shorten. Maximum PS period for this type is only 3 years (36 months) from the date of completion day of the Classification Survey or the previous PS Survey.

C.6.2 Parts to be Survey Requirements and examinations for Boiler Survey are listed in ClassNK’s Regulations For The Classification and Registry of Ships, Part B Table B8.1.

C.7

Occasional Survey C.7.1 Definition and Intervals When something major happening in a ship such as damage, repair work, and modification, ship owner must apply an Occasional Survey to the Society. Then the Society will arrange an Occasional Survey based on the invitation of ship owner. From the information above, it can be concluded that an Occasional Survey is held in order to make sure that every change which made to the ship is still in the range of safety for human, environtment, and property at sea during the operational life of the ship. Because of the condition above, periodic intervals for occasional survey is not define . But it can be held concurrently with other periodic surveys when the maximum allowable time for the condition above, which have been agreed by surveyor in charge and ship owner or ship manager, is in the same date of the other periodic surveys.
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C.7.2 Parts to be Survey Parts of the ship that must be survey in Occasional Survey are the ones which have to be repaired or modified. Below are examples for occasional survey:

Example 1: On January 21st 2011, MV “SATU-SATU” had a collision with other ship called MV “DUA-DUA” which classed to ClassNK. The ship owner of MV “DUA-DUA” has applied to ClassNK Office to verify the damage part caused by the accident. According to the ship’s Master of Protest (Statement of Fact) that MV DUA-DUA has damage parts as described below:  The side shell plate found dent with 45mm of depth and 100cm of width between Frame no. 34 to Frame no. 45 at sheer strake,  Some of the construction members such as side shell frame found detached and bent,  No crack found and no leakage. Additional information of the condition:  Location of the collision was in the remote area which does not have any proper facilities for permanent repair,  The ship was still fully loaded with cargos. Action taken for example 1: Following up the ship owner of MV “DUA-DUA” request to verify the damage part caused by accident with MV “SATU-SATU” on January 21 st 2011. ClassNK, as stated in “Rules for The Survey and Construction of Steel Ship” Part B 1.1.2 -2(3) and 1.1.3.3, will carried out:
An Occasional Survey on 24th January 2011 based on the invitation from

ship owner.
After Surveyor in charge carried out the Occasional Survey, the result of the survey which had been agreed by surveyor in charge, ship’s master, and ship owner are: 1. The detached frames and bent skin must be permanent repaired to the approved original design immediately within 3 months from the date of completion of the first occasional survey. 2. Then it will be checked again in the next occasional survey, when permanent repair has been done, or in the next periodical survey which ever comes first.
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3. When permanent repair has not been carried out yet, the ship is still allowed to sail by fulfilling the requirements below: Not sail under heavy weather. - For temporary repair, the bent frames should be tacked welding in the next destination port.

Example 2: On April 1st 2011, MV “KWIK-KWIK” which classed to ClassNK had an accident in Mahakam River, the ship hit a loose log caused by a high current. The ship owner of MV KWIK-KWIK has applied to ClassNK office to verify the damaged part caused by the accident. According to the ship’s Master of Protest (Statement of Fact) that MV KWIK-KWIK has damage parts as described below:  One of the propeller blade found missing in 0,6R of the propeller radius,  Minor dent found at the tip of the other three blades,  No damage found in the rudder or any part of the ship. Additional information of the condition:  Location of the collision was in the remote area which does not have any proper facilities for permanent repair,  The ship was in journey to the destination port and still fully loaded with cargos.  The ship owner stated that the ship is still in contract to carry cargos in this route for the next 6 months.
1

0,6 R
4 3 2

0,55 R
4

1 2 3

Figure III.10. Temporary Repair for Propeller Action taken for example 2: Following up the ship owner request to verify the damage part caused by accident with MV “QIUCK-QUICK” on April 1st 2011. ClassNK, as stated
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in “Rules for The Survey and Construction of Steel Ship” Part B 1.1.2 -2(3) and 1.1.3.3, will carried out:
An Occasional Survey on April 2
nd

2011 based on the invitation from ship

owner.
After Surveyor in charge carried out the Occasional Survey, the result of the survey which had been agreed by surveyor in charge, ship’s master, and ship owner are: 1. The damaged propeller must be replaced by a new one which based to the approved original design of the propeller within 1 year from the date of completion of the occasional survey. 2. No welding repair is permitted for blade no.1 3. For temporary repair only, the ship owner had submit the modification below to the Society to be reviewed immediately:  For blade no.1 must be round grinded at 0,55R  For blade no.2 and 4 is allowed to be builded up the defect to the original design by welding.  For balance reason, blade no.3 must be cut and grinded precisely like blade no.1 4. Temporary repair is must be carried out as soon as possible destination port after the society approved the modification, 5. When permanent repair has not been carried out yet, the ship is still allowed to sail by fulfilling the requirements below: - The propeller rotation per minute is limited to maximum 40% from its service rpm, before temporary modification of the propeller is carried out. - The propeller rotation per minute is limited to maximum 60% from its service rpm, after temporary modification of the propeller is carried out. - Not sail under heavy weather. in the next

D. Statutory and Installation Survey D.1. Statutory Survey Statutory surveys are surveys for statutory which become mandatory depend on flag states, including all mandatory surveys by IMO Instruments such as conventions about SOLAS, MARPOL, ILL, Tonnage, and ILO Instruments. For every conventions, there are always two types of survey which are periodic surveys and non-periodic surveys.
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D.1.1. Periodic surveys for statutory 1. Annual Surveys Are surveys carried out annually for ships which have fulfilled the related requirements of convention, or for ships which have the statutory certificate (generally valid for 5 years or more than 1 years). The purpose of these surveys are to confirm that ship owners are taking care of the ship and the equipments onboard it. And to make sure that those equipments are well function according to related conventions. If the requirements are fulfilled, to confirm that annual surveys has been done, the certificate can be endorsed by surveyor in charge. The interval for these survey generally concurrent wit annual survey for classification certificate. 2. Intermediate Surveys the definition and interval are the same as the one for classification survey, but the purpose is for statutory equipments. 3. Renewal Surveys These surveys ar eto confirm that the ship condition and equipments are still able to operate and well function for the next 5 years. The related statutory certificates are able to reissued for the next 5 years if all the requirements for the related conventions are fulfilled and the results of survey are satisfying the surveyor in charge. It is suggested to ship owner that they arrange the renewal survey as early as possible so that it will have been finished by the time that related statutory certificates are invalid anymore.

D.1.2. Non-periodic surveys for statutory 1. Initial Survey Is a survey which done first onboard the ship, usually start from the building process until test and trial before the delivery date to ship owner (for ship which survey during contruction). Or survey for the first time befor the ship is classed to the society. This survey is to confirm that all the rules in the convention adopted to the ship are function well according to the purpose. Related
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statutory certificate will be issued and handed to the shipyard than will be given to the ship owner if the survey results are satisfying the surveyor in charge. 1. Occasional surveys Are non-periodic surveys which carried out such as to confirm main changes (conversion) to the ship and equipments onboard or to review the repair for damage condition for the equipments or systems related to statutory conventions. 2. CAS Surveys To reduce the risk of oil pollution to the sea, tankers with single hull which cannot fulfill the requirements of MARPOL Annex 1 Reg. 1(26) must be converted to double hull, that include “Category 2 Oil Tankers” and “Category 3 Oil Tankers”, MARPOL Annex 1 reg.13 G obliges those tankers to arrange survey for general condition of the hull conscientously, which also known as “Condition Assesment Scheme” Surveys. Only for single hull tankers which have fulfilled the requirements of CAS that allowed to operate for the next 5 years start from the completion day of survey.

D.1.2. Types of Statutory Survey D.1.2.1. SOLAS 1974/1978/1988, and amendments, a. Cargo Ship Safety Construction Survey SCA – SAFCON Annual Survey, every 1 year SCA – SAFCON Intermediate Survey, 2,5 years SCR – SAFCON Renewal Survey, every 5 years SAFM – SAFCON Miscellaneous Survey, non-periodic b. Cargo Ship Safety Equipment SEA – Safety Equipment Annual Survey, 1 year SEI – Safety Equipment Intermediate Survey, 1 year (just for Tankers, > 10 years of age) SEIL – Safety Equipemnt Initial Survey, non-periodic SER – Safety Equipment Renewal Survey, every 2 and 5 years
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SEM – Safety Equipment Miscellaneous, non-periodic c. Cargo Ship Safety Radio Survey RTR – Radio Telephony Renewal, every 1 year RTM – Radio Telephony Miscellaneous, non-periodic RTR/H – for ships where her flag had followed HSSC. Update of Certificate every 5 years, but Annual Survey is to be carried out.

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D.1.2.2.

MARPOL 73/78, and amendments, a. MARPOL 73/78 Annex I      MARPOL Oil Annual, every 1 year MARPOL Oil Intermediate, every 2,5 years MARPOL Oil Initial, non-periodic survey, is to be carried out at the 1st Survey MARPOL Oil Renewal, every 5 years Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) Survey, for Single Hull Tankers which not accomplish of MARPOL Annex I Reg. 1 (26) requirement about Double Hull, which included Category 2 and Category 3, after April 5th, 2005 or the date of after aged of 15 years. (MARPOL Annex I Reg. 13 G) b. MARPOL 73/78 Annex II     MARPOL Noxious Substances Annual, every 1 year MARPOL Noxious Substances Intermediate, every 2,5 years MARPOL Noxious Substances Initial, non-periodic survey, is to be carried out at the 1st Survey MARPOL Noxious Substances Renewal, every 5 years c. MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI     MARPOL Air Pollution Annual, every 1 year MARPOL Air Pollution Intermediate, every 2,5 years MARPOL Air Pollution Initial, non-periodic survey, is to be carried out at the 1st Survey MARPOL Air Pollution Renewal, every 5 years
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D.1.2.3.

International Load Lines 1966/1988 a. Periodical Load Lines Inspection (PLI), every 1 year b. Periodical Load Lines Renewal (PLR), every 5 years c. Load Lines Maiscellaneous (LLM), non periodic
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d. Initial Load Lines (ILL), non periodic, is to be carried out 1st Survey. D.2. Installation Survey D.2.1. Cargo Handling Appliances Survey The structural members of the Cargo Handling Appliances are permanently fitted to the hull structure. The tests and surveys are to comply with the requirements in Rules for Cargo Handling Appliances.

D.2.1.1.

Kind of Surveys The kinds of Survey for Cargo Handling Appliances are as follows : 1. Survey for registration, hereinafter referred to as Registration Survey, is divided 2 parts : a. Registration Survey during Construction b. Registration Survey of Cargo Handling Appliances not built under Survey 2. Periodical Surveys for maintaining registration a. Annual Thorough Surveys b. Load Tests 3. Occasional Surveys

D.2.1.2.

Timing of Surveys The timing of the Survey of Cargo Handling Appliances are to be in accordance with the followings : 1. Registration Survey is to be carried out when the safety working load, etc. Are assigned for the first time. 2. Annual Thorough Survey are to be carried out at the dates not exceeding 12 months from the date of completion of the Registration Survey or the previous Annual Thorough Survey. 3. Load Tests are to carried out at the Registration Survey and at the dates not exceeding 5 years from the date of
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completion of the Registration Survey or the previous Load Test. 4. Occasional Survey is to be carried out when Cargo Handling Appliances fall under any of the following conditions at the time other than Periodical Survey. Many cases of Occasional Survey on Cargo Handling Appliances, such as below : a. When serious damage is caused on the structural members and the repair or conversion is made, b. When major conversion is made the cargo handling procedures, rigging arrangements, operation, and control methods, c. When the assignment and marking of safe working load, etc. is altered, and d. Other cases when considered necessary by the Society.

D.2.2.3.

Periodical Survey carried out in Advance Periodical Survey may be carried out in advance of the due date of each survey upon application by the owner.

D.2.2.4.

Postponements of Periodical Surveys Periodical Survey may be postponed subject to approval by the Society. The period of such postponements is not to exceed 3 months from the date specified in C.1.2.2.

D.2.2. Automation and Remote Control System The Rules for Automatic and Remote Control System apply to the survey and construction of centalized monitoring and control system for machinery, monitoring and control systems for periodically unattended machinery spaces, and specific automation equipment, also referred to as Automation and Remote Control Systems.
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D.2.2.1.

Kind of Surveys Automatic and remote control system registered or intended

to be registered are to be subjected to the following surveys: 1. Surveys for registeration of automatic and remote control system, also referred to as Registration Surveys. 2. Surveys for maintaining registration of automatic and remote control system, also referred to as Registration Maintenance Survey, which are : a. Annual Surveys b. Special Surveys c. Occasional Surveys

D.2.2.2.

Survey Intervals Surveys are to be carried out in accordance with the

following requirements given as follows : 1. Registration Surveys are to be carried out at the time of application for registration 2. Registration Maintenance Surveys are to be carried out at those intervals specified as follows : a. Special Surveys are to be carried out at those intervals specified in 1.1.3-1(3), Part B of the Rules for the Survey and Construction of Steel Ships. b. Annual Surveys are to be carried out at those intervals specified in 1.1.3-1(1), Part B of the Rules for the Survey and Construction of Steel Ships. c. Occasional Surveys: at a time falling on any of mentioned below, independently of Special Surveys and Annual Surveys : o In cases where any main parts of systems have been damaged, repaired, renewed, o In cases where any systems ar modified or altered, and o In cases where considered necessary by the Society, ClassNK.
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E. Survey Record and Certification Survey Record and Ship Certification is divided into 2 parts, Class Survey Record and Certification and Statutory Survey Record and Certification E.1. Class Survey Record and Certification E.1.1. Class Survey Record and Certification for Hull 1) Form H is used to describe hull survey on periodical surveys. 2) Form HI is used to describe survey activity and results on each hull compartment such as internal inspection, pressure test, and coating condition of ballast tanks and cargo/ballast holds as well as naming suspect areas. 3) Form H-CLS is used to describe close up surveys. 4) Form H-CTG is the form for the ship except Oil Carrier and Chemical Carrier. The form is used to describe coating condition of ballast tanks including cargo/ballast holds. 5) Form H-CTG (-TC1, -TC2, -TC3, - TC4) are the form for Oil Carrier and Chemical Carrier. The forms are used to describe coating condition of ballast tanks. With regard to coating condition and survey record forms. 6) Form H-THC (-1B, -1C, -1D, -1T, -2B, -2C, -2D, -2T, -3B, -3C, 3D, -3T, -4B, -4C, -4D, -4T, -AC, -AD, -AT, -IB, -IC, -ID, -IT, -G) are used for description regarding thickness measurement. Suffixed letters following “Form H-THC” show kind of ship and kind of survey. 7) Form H-LST is the form would describe evaluation on longitudinal strength of oil tankers of oil tankers of 130 meter in length and upwards and of over 10 years of age. 8) Form H/BCS (S-26, 27), H/BCS (S-19), H/BCS (S-30), and H/BCS (S-31) are to describe the ship’s compliance to Bulk Carrier Safety requirements. The IACS UR number which corresponds to the requirements described that indicated suffixed to the record form code.
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E.1.2. Class Survey Record and Certificate for Machinery 1) Form M is the form substitutes previous M-1-1. It is to used in reporting general test and examination on machinery during periodical surveys. 2) Form M-M2 (CMS) (M2 button on CBSS) is the form replaces previous M-2 and M-3 to be used in reporting continuous machinery survey. 3) Form M-PMS (M2 button on CBSS) is to be used in reporting surveys in planned machinery maintenance scheme. 4) Form M-RMS is to be used in reporting in refrigerated machinery survey. E.1.3. Class Survey Record and Certificate for Docking Surveys Form DS is to be used in reporting docking surveys. E.1.4. Class Survey Record and Certificate for Boiler Surveys Form BS is to be used in reporting boiler surveys. E.1.5. Class Survey Record and Certificate for Propeller Shaft Surveys 1) Form PS is to be used in reporting propeller shaft surveys. 2) Form M-PRF is the form replaces previous M-6. This form is aimed to be used to confirm appropriate conduct of propeller fitting recording pushing force and boss travel. This form is also to be made without fail in case of keyless propeller fitting and is to be sent to Classification Department of ClassNK. E.1.6. Survey Record for Cargo Handling Gear Surveys Form CHG is to be used in reporting cargo handling gear surveys. All the survey activity and their results are to be indicated in the form in accordance with the instruction in the form or that given through the support system. E.1.7. Survey Record for Automatic and Remote Control Systems Form M0 is to be used in reporting surveys on automatic and remote control systems.
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E.2.

Statutory Survey Record and Certification Statutory Certificate means the certificate which issued the following

conditions as below : 1. The flag state ratifies the related convention or code, 2. The ship meets the requirements of the related convention or code (Length, Gross Tonnage, Navigation Area, etc.). Certificate is issued on the basis of compliance with International Conventions or Codes including Documents of Compliance, Non-Conventional Certificate, and Attachment to Certificates (Record of Equipment (Form E/R/P/C) and Suplement (OPP/APP Suplement). Non-Coventional Certificate means Document of Compliance which issued for the vessels of the non - party of the convention or code which meets the requirement of convention or code. (Length, Gross, Tonnage, Navigation Area, etc.). Beside, non-conventional Certificate means as Local Certificate which issued on the basis of the domestic law or regulations. Final Certificate, is a certificate issued upon satisfactory completion of an initial, renewal, or occasional survey. Interim Certificate is a certificate issued by the attending surveyor upon satisfactory completion of a survey in order to permitr the ship to trade while the final certificate. Conditional Certifcate, is a certificate that issued by the attending surveyor when minor deficiencies exist which cannot be corrected in the port of survey. Minor deficiency is a deficiency which does not prevent the ship to proceed to sea without danger to the ship or person on board. HSCC ( Harmonization of Statutory Certificate), can be meant as any certificate issued in accordance with : a. Protocol of 1988 relating to International Convention on Load Lines, 1966. International Load Lines Certficate 1966. b. Protocol of 1988 relating to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, include : 1. Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate, 2. Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate, and 3. Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate.
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c. MARPOL 73/78 and 97: Annex I, II, III, IV, V, and VI,    Annex I : International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate, Annex II : International Pollution Prevention Certificate for Noxious Liquid Substances (NLS) Certificate), Annex III : Document of Compliance with Special Requirement for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods at SOLAS Chapter II-2/54 and IMDG Code,    Annex IV : International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate, Annex V : Gerbage Record Book, and Annex VI : International Air Pollution Prevention (IAPP) Certificate.

d. Chemical Code (IBC Code and BCH Code), Certificate of fitness of the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk. e. IGC Code, as amended by resolution MSC. 17 (58) and GC Code, as amended by resolution MSC. 25 (60). Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gas in Bulk.

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Table III.1. Statutory Certificates
Convention / Code Applied Certificate ILLC 66/ILLC PROT 88/IMO Res. A. 883 (21) 66 LL-66 LL 88 LL-P 883 LL-A883 66 LX-66 LX 88 LX-88P SOLAS 74/SOLAS PROT 78/SOLAS PROT 88/IMO Res. A. 883 (21) 74 78 [78] 88 A883 74 78 [78] 88 A883 74, 78, [78] 88 A883 74 88 A883 74 88 A883 88 A883 88 A883 74 88 A883 74 88 A883 74, 78, A883 88 SC-74 SC-78P SC-78N SC-88P SC-A883 SE-74 SE-78P SE-78N SE-88P SE-A883 SER-74 SER-88P SER-A883 SR-74 SR-88 SR-A883 SRR-74 SRR-88P SRR-A883 SF-88P SF-A883 SFR-88P SFR-A883 SPA-74 SPA-88P SPA-A883 PAR-74 PAR-88P PAR-A883 SX-74 SX-88P Convention / Code Applied MARPOL Annex II NLS 73/78 MARPOL Annex IV SPP 73/78 MARPOL Annex VI APP 97 Certificate

NLS-78P ISPP-78P IAAP-97P

SC

SE

APP Supl. IAPPsupl EIAPP EIAPP AFS AFS IAFSC IBC Code/BCH Code IBC 83A IBC-83A BCH 83A BCH-83A IGC Code/GC Code/Existing Gas Code IGC 83A IGC-83A 4A GAS-4A GC 83A GC-83A Existing GC GAS-EX

Form E

SR

Form R SF Form C SPA

Form P SX

Dangerous Goods (SOLAS Chap. II-1 Reg. 54/19) DG MARPOL Annex I OPP 73/78 Form A OPP Supl. Form B DG

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CHAPTER IV SHIP DAMAGE AND REPAIR
A. Hull Damage Damage does not only include uniform wastage due to deteoritation with ageing, but also damage due to mishandling and damage due to sea casualties. The number of instances of damage occuring simultaneously in the same period to the same type of ship is to be taken as one so as to focus on understanding the damage location and the damage nature. For example, if cracks have been found at five locations in a bulwark stay and at four locations in a hatch side coaming end stay during a survey, the number of instances of damage is considered as two. The number of instances is not the number of locations where crack occured. The damage occured at two locations namely the bulwark stay and the hatch side coaming stay, so the number of instances is taken as two.

A.1.

Examples of Hull Damage According to ClassNK’s database in 2007, below are some examples of hull

damages which happened in ships registered to ClassNK:

A.1.1. Damage due to Bow Flare Slamming Damage due to flare slamming has been reported by ClassNK in container carriers and vehicle carriers. Damage due to bow falre slamming refers to damage such as buckling deformation that occurs in structural members of the shell plate above the load water line at bow having a large flare angle, called rake angle, when the side plate receives large impact pressure during heavy weather. The flare angle at the bow of container carriers and vehicle carriers is large, and the operating speed is high. Therefore, these ships are likely to sustain damage due to slamming more frequently than other kind of ships. According to damage due to slamming reported through ClassNK about 80% of this kind of damage occured to the flare parts of container carriers and vehicle carriers. The damage nature was mainly buckling deformation of various structural members such as shell plates, primary structural members, and stiffeners.
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A.1.2. Abnormal Corrosion between Dissimilar Metals Abnormal corrosion on the surface of bow thruster duct in two container ships of age usually about 10 years. Stainless steel was used around the propeller in the duct while mild steel was used at other parts. This damage has occured in the mild steel meanwhile excessive corrosion has especially occurred in the mild steel close to the stainless steel boundary. Moreover, damage such as erosion was not found in the stainless steel around the propeller. This is attributed to the formation of galvanic cells due to the potential difference between dissimilar metals. When two dissimilar metals are electrically connected and are immersed in the sea water, the metal that forms the anode becomes cationized. Corrosion of the metal on the anode side is facilitated more than usual so that the electrons move on the metal that becomes the cathode. The probability of damage by corrosion between dissimilar metals when mild steel becomes the anode is considered to be high. When damage due to corrosion between dissimilar metals as above is discovered, measures are neccessary to prevent the formation of galvanic cells between structural members. A detailed example of such as a measure is included below :  Install sacrificial anode and perform periodic maintenance,  Apply coating not only on the cathode metal, and ensure that the metals do not come in contact with the electrolyte (sea water),  Create an electrically-insulated state such as by inserting an insulating body between dissimilar metals,  If there is not need to use two or more kinds of metallic materials, stop using dissimilar metals and use metal made of the same material.

A.1.3. Cracks in Side Longitudinals In a container ship of age 15 years, there is crack in side longitudinals in the side ballast tank and heeling tank. Some of the cracks propagated to the side shell plate. Cause of cracks is acting loads, considered by include below :   Static water pressure within ballast tanks, Additional heat due to hull motion,
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  

Variable wave pressure, Horizontal bending of hull, Moment due to water pressure on bottom,

However, fatigue crack probably occured at the joints of the stiffeners attached to transverse rings and side longitudinal probably propagated to the web plate and reached to side shell plate. The damage nature is similar to fatigue cracks that occured in side longitudinals of VLCC’s single hull, but compared to oil tankers, the load water line in container is relative lower, so the crack in side longitudinals in container ship tends to form downward in the ballast tank. When a crack propagates up to the side shell plate as in this ship, immediate repairs that include appropriate reinforcement is neccessary. Reinforcements around the side longitudinals are strongly reccomended. The repair method by which bracket is fitted in front of and behind a joint is extremely effective. This method can reduce stress concentration and good effects can be anticipated. The shape of welding bed during repairs. Welds bead should be faired by grinding after adequate reinforcement. Avoiding stress concentration by any means is important.

A.1.4. Cracks in the Joint of Horizontally Corrugated Longitudinal Bulkhead and Access Trunk Wall This damage hull type was usually happened in Oil Tanker and Chemical Tanker of age 7-10 years. Access Trunk is provided adjacent to the longitudinal bulkhead and transverse bulkhead as a compartment to access the double bottom. A diaphargm in the access trunk and web plate of corrugated longitudinal bulkhead. The combination of out-of-plane load (lateral load) acting on the access trunk wall due to cargo tank internal liquid pressure, and axial load acting on the web plate of corrugated longitudinal bulkhead due to longitudinal hull bending acted as large load, and caused crack in the stress concentration location of the intersection. Stress concentration needs to be reduced for this damage. Additionally fitting carlings or stiffeners in the access trunk along the web plate of corrugated longitudinal bulkhead is an effective measure.
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A.1.5. Cracks in the Engine Room Front Bulkhead This damage hull type was usually happened in Bulk Carrier of age still 1 year. The event of crack at the intersection of slant plate of the last topside tank and the longituinal bulkhead of fuel oil tank in the engine room at the engine room from bulkhead had been happened on the list surveys of ClassNK. The structure at the intersection is a structurally discontinous and the stiffeness changes abruply, so the problem solve for this damage hull type are neccessary during the design stage. During construction, brackets or stiffeners are generally fitted on Bulk Carrier. The reinforcement was carried out that additional bracket was fitted to the topside tank slant plate in the cargo hold along the longitudinal bulkhead of the fuel oil tank in the engine room. As mentioned above, the cause of this kind of damage is considered to be stress concentration at the intersection of members due to structural discontinuity at the intersection. The methods below may be considered as reinforcement measures in case such damage occurs :    Fit bracket to the topside tank slant plate in the cargo hold along the longitudinal bulkhead of the fuel oil tank in the engine room, Fit bracket in the topside tank along the longitudinal bulkhead of the fuel oil tank in the engine room, Fit bracket or stiffener in the engine room along the slant plate of the topside tank.

A.1.6. Cracks in Bilge Strake from Doubling Plate End of Bilge Keel This damage hull type was usually happened in Bulk Carrier of age 13 year. The crack had occured on the outer face of bilge strake from the ends of doubling plate used for fitting bilge keel arranged intermittently, and it penetrated to the internal part of the ballast tank. Crack usually occured at 2 locations on the bilge strake positioned amidships. Bilge keel is not treated as a longitudinal strength member in the Rules. Practically, the bilge keelis subjected to repetitive loading after receiving the effect of longitudinal bending of the hull due to ship motions.
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Sometimes fatigue cracks ocur at stress concentration locations such as the ends of the bilge keel. In case of Bulk Carrier especially, the bilge keel was fitted intermittently, and the ends of the keel were positioned amidship, it could be one of the crack occurrence causes. High stresses are anticipated to occur at the ends of the bilge keel amidship. Generally, the ends are positioned on transverse in the bilge tank within the hull, or are arranged to land at the position of brackets or bilge stiffeneres installed between bottom longitudinal. However, a doubling plate is frequently installed for fitting bilge keel between the keel and the bilge strake. If the distances from the end of this doubling plate to the position of tranverse web or bilge stiffener or bracket in bilge tank is too large, then stress concentration occurs at the end of the bilge keel, end of doubling plate for fitting bilge keel, resulting in crack. When a through crack occurs as in the case of this ship, it is advisable to renew the bilge strake in which crack occured to a thicker palte as a part of the maintenances and repairs. In addition, considerations to dress the welds of doubling plate and bilge strake are also effective measures. During bottom surveys in dry dock or during in-water surveys, it is important to pay attention to the ends of the bilge keel amidship.

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B. Machinery Damage Machinery damage that seriously caused to navigation has been categorized into 2 aspects, are :  Ship machinery damage that results is being unable to navigate by her own propulsion and to be towed to a epair port (hereinafter referred to as ”damage with towage”), and  Ship machinery damage that forces is to reduce her navigation speed restricting her main engine output to a repair ort (hereinafter referred to ”damage with speed reduction”). Navigation speed means the speed at which the ship can maintain ship’s operation using a rudder even during maneuvering in rivers and when entering/leaving a port. It is also the speed taht can last a long voyage. Generally, the minimum navigation speed is 7 knots and a half of the planned speed during maximum continous output of the ship under a full-load condition. Machinery damage refers to the damage found in machinery and equipment inspected during ship surveys. Although most of the damage incidents found during surveys by ClassNK are minor such as light wear or corrosion of components of parts of the machinery and equipment, some of them are serious and could develop into major damage or could lead to a serious casualty. Incidents of damage estimated to have occured during casualties such as damage to propeller from contact with floating objects are not included in general damage and have been excluded.

B.1.

Examples of Machinery Damage Incidents of damage to the main engine and equipment are described below.

Since damage in diesel main engines generally occurs cylinder units, the damage rate was calculated using the damage rate in terms of individual units. Where the number of diesel main engines and other equipments for certain models was too small and expressing the damage rate for such machinery and equipment was inappropriate, the number of incidents of damage was used. When damage occurs to a part thereof and if the damage extends to other secondary parts, then the incidents of damage to each unit or part are added up when estimating the damage rate in term of individuals units. For instances, this trend frequently appears in the units around the cylinder combustion chamber, and the
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damage condition needs to be judged viewing both initial damage and subsequent damage.

B.1.1. Damage to Diesel Main Engines The incidents of damage to diesel main engines were tabulated by broadly categorizing them first into two-stroke main engines and four-stroke main engines. Two-stroke main engines were classified by engines built under license, and further sub-divided into crosshead and trunk-piston engines. Fourstroke main engines were sub-divided into domestic models designed by domestic manufacturers and models built under license after importing the design.

B.1.1.1. Two-stroke Diesel Main Engines (Crosshead Type) The main kinds of damage were usually happened such as :           Wear of the contact surface of the cylinder liner, Burn-out (high temperature corrosion) of the top part of the fire-exposed surface of the piston crown, Wear of the piston ring groove, Peel-off the crankpin bearing metal and main bearing metal, Crack on column, Cracks and erosion near the valve opening of the fire-exposed surface of the cylinder cover, Damage to turbocharger and air inter cooler, Crack or erosion near the starting valve mounting hole on the fire-exposed urface of the cylinder cover, Peel-off and scratches on crosshead pin bearing metal (mainly on the underside), Peel-off of main bearing metal and wear of luel cam. There are types of Diesel Main Engine beside Twostroke Diesel Main Engines (Crosshead Type) such as Twostroke Diesel Main Engines (Trunk Piston Type), Four-stroke Diesel main Engines (Domestic Model), and Four-stroke
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Diesel Main Engines (Licensed Type) which have the same damage problem with Two-stroke Diesel Main Engines (Crosshead Type).

B.1.2. Damage to Shafting System Damage to Shafting System were happened in Thrust Shafts and Intermediate Shafts. There are several instances of corrosion and scatches of thrust pad and wear of bearing metal have been usually happened in thrust shafts. Meanwhile, the main kind of damage to intermediate shafts were wear, peel-off and burn-out of the bearing metal, and scratches and crack in the intermediate shafts because of abnormal bearing temperature.

B.1.2.1. Shafts Coupling Bolts The main kinds of damage to shaft coupling bolts were sticking of bolts and scratches on the bolts. Some cases of new ships that at 1st Propeller Shaft Survey, shaft coupling bolts stuck in bolts stuck in bolt holes, could not be withdrawn, cut by gas, and forced to be replaced.

B.1.2.2. Propeller Shafts Instances of crack in the tapered part of the propeller shaft in the annual reports in the past including the part near the keyway and near the aft end of the propeller shaft sleeve. Damage to Propeller Shafts were also happened in stern tube lubrication system and propeller-fitting system.

B.1.2.3. Stern Tube Bearings and Stern Tube Seal Assemblies The main kind of damage to water-lubricated stern tube bearing was wear of lignum vitae and rubber. In oil-lubricated stern tubes, wear and peel-off of white metal. The main damage to stern tube seal assembly was wear of contact parts in both water-lubricated stern tube assembly (gland
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packing and mechanical seal assembly) and oil-lubricated stern tube seal assembly (lip seal assembly).

B.1.2.4. Propellers Most incidents of damage to propellers were bending or breakage of blade edges because of contact with floating objects. These incidents of damage have not been taken into the account for calculating the damage rate, but an appreciable number of such incidents of damage are being happened in ship which registered by ClassNK. Most of these incidents of damage have occured in propellers that have been repaired by building up the metal by welding or by directly bending the blade and restoring it to original condition. In addition, many cases that the thickness of the blades had been reduced by erosion due to cavitation and this thickness had been built up by welding.

B.1.3. Damage to Boilers The main kinds of damage common to all type of boilers were corrosion and burn-out damage of water tubes and smoke tubes, corrosion, and wear of attached valves. In addition, there are a few cases of cracks in the welds of lue tubes of smoke tube boilers and cracks in the edges of flue outlets of water tube boilers. The main instances of damage to exhaust gas economizer include corrosion of evaporating tube and attached valve. In addition, accumulated soot in the exhaust gas economizer ignites and causes soot fire due to abnormal combustion in the economizer in some cases.

B.1.4. Damage to the Engines for Main Generators Damage to diesel engine for main generator is mainly wear in the contact and rotating parts. Other incidents are especially those accompained by major repairs include breakage of cylinder block or crankshaft by connecting rod nd balance weights and fly-out of the same.
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B.1.5. Damage to Main Generators and Electric Equipment The main incidents of damage to main generators include burn-out of coil and short-circuit of coil. Considerable time is generally required when a coil is burnt-out. Until the repairs are completed, portable generators may be loaded on board as back up generators. Incidents of damage to electric equipment other than generators were mainly short circuit of switchboard and burn-out or deterioritation of electric motor coil.

B.1.6. Damage to other Machinery and Equipment Damage to other Machinery and Equipment consist of in steering gears, pumps, heat exchaners, compressors, and tank, deck machinery, and sea valves and piping. The main kinds of damage to pumps handling water are corrosion and erosion of cassing, corrosion of impeller, wear of shaft and shaft sleeve. Incidents of such damage have been plentiful particularly in sea water systems. In pumps handling oil and cargo pumps, the main kind of damage is wear of shaft and bearing. The main kinds of damage to heat exchanger were corrosion and clogging of cooler or condensor tubes. Damage to compressors included wear of contact and rotating parts. Damage to gas tanks included cracks in the support fittings. Main damage to deck machinery is usually wear of contact parts and rotating parts. In machinery installed on deck, such as windlass and mooring winch, incidents of damage due to defective maintenance such as corrosion of the foundation and material defects in castlings. The main kinds of damage to sea valves were corrosion and erosion of sea water valves for cooling of main or auxiliary engine and sea water service valves. In addition, corrosion and erosion of overboard discharge valves used at high temperature, such as boiler flow valves and distance pieces. It is particularly important to perform periodic inspection of distance pieces of boiler blow valves. Finally, hull damage and macinery damage have a negative affective in ships. They must be anticipated as fast as possible. However, from technical
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and eonomical aspects, hull damage and machinery damage are one of the extremely difficult ship damage. So, the damage information required by organization should be fed back to many the related organizations of shipping and maritime industry, and efforts to reduce damage rationally by the entire shipping and maritime industry are very essential. For information, ClassNK will effectively utilize the damage information required from classed shpis of more than 150,000,000 tons, and will actively play its role at a ship classification society for reducing both of hull damage and machinery damage in ships.

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C. Procedure for Repair and Its Acceptance Criteria C.1. Diminution Limits and Judgement of Steel in Hull Structure The diminution limits prescribed in these rules correspond to requirements during construction of members and dimensions given in the drawings, except where specifically stated. Therefore, if members with scantlings that significantly exceed the requirements and have a wide safety margin for strength are used during construction, the diminution limits of these members may be modified appropriately. The Diminution limit for transverse bulkhead plates in cargo holds, tnet, is given by following formula. The values of the diminution limit indicate limit values in case of uniform wear of members. trenewal (diminution limit) tas built = tas built – 3 (mm) = as built thickness

The diminution limit for hatch cover and hatch coaming of Bulk Carrier, tnet, is given by following formula. The values of diminution limit indicate limit values in case of uniform wear of members. trenewal (diminution limit) tas built tc = tas built - tc + 0.5 (mm) = as built thickness = corrosion addition specified in Table IV.1 following as below : Structural Member Type of Structure Steel Cover Hatch Single plating type Double plating type Corrosion Addition tc (mm) For the top, side, and bottom plating For the internal structures 2

Hatch Coaming

2 1.5 1.5 Table IV.1. Corrosion addition for Bulk Carrier

The diminution limit for hatch cover and hatch coaming of ships other than Bulk Carriers, tnet, is given by following formula. The values of diminution limit indicate limit values in case of uniform wear of members. trenewal (diminution limit) tas built tc = tas built - tc + 0.5 (mm) = as built thickness = corrosion addition specified in Table IV.2 following as below :
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Structural Member Type of Structure Steel Cover Hatch Single plating type Double plating type

Corrosion Addition tc (mm) For the top, side, and bottom plating For the internal structures 2 (1.0 for Container Carrier)

Hatch Coaming

1.5 (1.0 for Container Ship) 1.0 1.5 Table IV.2. Corrosion addition for ships other than Bulk Carrier

There are also diminution limits for principal structural hull members specified in Table IV.3. following as below : Structural Member Permissible diminution level * Shell plates * Strength deck plates * Longitudinal beam (flat bar) on shear strake and strength 20 % of original thickness + 1 deck mm 1 * Tight bulkheads in deep tanks * * Inner bottom plates * Floors and girders in double bottom * Primary members (web and face) (Example) deck girder, hatch side girder, horizontal girder, web frame, web beam, strong beam, deck tansverse, side transverse, 25 % of original thickness bottom transverse, vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead, side stringer, cross tie, strut, pillar * Web, face, and bracket of hold frames * Watertight bulkhead plates * Frames (excluding hold frames) * Beams * Stiffeners * Brackets (web and face) (Example) 30 % of original thickness bottom longitudinal, inner bottom longitudinal, side longitudinal, deck longitudinal, deck beam * Effective deck plates * Hatch cover and hatch beam *1 The deep tank is a tank used for carriage of water, oil, and other liquids, forming a part of the hull in holds or tween decks Table IV.3. Diminution Limits for Principal Structural Hull
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The minimum plate thickness of web and brackets of hold frames is to confirm to Table IV.4. Length of ship (m) L < 150 Minimum thickness (mm) 6 150 ≤ x < 200 L ≥ 200 7 7.5

Table IV.4. The minimum plate thickness of web and brackets of hold frames For minimum thickness for high tensile steel members, if high tensile is used in bottom longitudinal of tankers with a single bottom construction, the wear and tear limit of the web is taken as 25% of the original thickness. Uniform corrosion of steel plates, the status of corrosion mentioned below is to be treated as uniform corrosion :   Corrosion extending throughout the length of a frame space, Corrosion extending through the width of the plate (including linear corrosion in frames, floors, beams, and linear corrosion in the area between floors, frames, and beams),  Pitting and local corrosion extending for more than 70% of the area of the plate (refer to the figure below). During thickness gauging, surveyor’s daily confirmation of the result is indispensable. When remarkable corrosion is found the results of thickness measurement, the Surveyor should examine the pattern and extent of the corrosion through intensive inspection or thickness measurement and take a necessary measure. And, Surveyor shall inform the owner’s representative of his finding and necessary measures to be taken without delay. For corrosion exceeding acceptable limit, the Surveyor should require repair such as renewal of the corroded palte exceeding acceptable limit. However, special consideration may be given for structural members whose actual scantling surpasses much the Rules requirements. For substantial corrosion, the Surveyor should give necessary instruction for further inspection of corrosion which does not exceed acceptable limit, but where continous monitoring is deemed necessary. Subtantial corrosion in excess oof 75% of allowable margin is to be nominated as suspect area and thickness measurement and
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necessary inspection of the area is to be carried out at subsequent Periodical Surveys except for the cargo tanks in Oil Tankers and Chemical Tankers at Annual Survey.

C.1.1. Diminution Limits on Longitudinal Strength According to the Rules, transverse sections are to be gauged during the 3rd Special Survey and subsequent Special Survey (during 2 nd Special Survey for Oil and Chemical Tanker). The results are to be entered in Survey Record. Thickness measurements are mainly carried out to evaluate uniform corrosion in Longitudinal Strength. The diminution limit (section modulus of hull calculated from measured values of dimensions or members) is given in Table IV.5. During measurement of longitudinal members at the cross section in the 0.5 L amidship required by the Rules, if the diminution of transverse sectional areas of deck flange (deck plating and deck longitudinal). For Oil and Chemical Tanker, all deck platings, longitudinals, and girders within 0.1 D (where D is the ship’s depth) and bottom flange (bottom shell plating and bottom longitudinals. For Oil and Chemical Tanker, all bottom shell platings, longitudinals and girders within 0.1 D) exceeds 10 % of the as built area. Evaluation of longitudinal strength of the hull girder of Oil Tankers of 130 m in length and upward and of over 10 years of age is follows :  Longitudinal strength should be evaluated by using the results of thickness measurements of the ship’s transverse sectional areas within 0.4 L amidship for the extent of the hull girder length that contains ballast tanks and cargo tanks therein and between 0.4 L and 0.5 L amidship for adjacent ballast tanks and cargo tanks which may extend beyond 0.4 L amidship.  The final result of evaluation of the ship’s longitudinal strength for Oil tankers of 130 m in length and upward and of over 10 years of age are to be reported in the condition evaluation report.
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Hull section modulus Ship's length Applied rule for freeboard 1964 version to 1972 version Lf (m) Oil Tanker Other ship

1973 version to others 1986 version 80% of rule requirement (77% for Oil Tankers and Chemical Tankers) To be determined by interpolation

Lf ≤ 60 Rule requirement

80% of rule requirement

60 < Lf < 130

To be determined by interpolation

Lf ≥ 130

Rule requirement or Rule 0.9 Wmin x k, requirement whichever is 90% of rule greater, where requirement Wmin: hull section (87% for Oil 90% of rule modulus (see in Tankers and requirement 15.2.1-2, Part C of Chemical the Rules) and k: Tankers) material factor (see in 1.1.7-2, Part C of the Rules) Table IV.5. Hull section modulus For shear stress, is to be calculated at the Head Office in case the following :   Average corrosion of any strake in side shell or longitudinal bulkhead of Oil Tankers or Chemical Tankers exceed 3.00 mm, or Average corrosion of any strake in side or longitudinal bulkhead of Ore Carriers or Bulk Carriers intended for alternate loading exceeds 2.5 mm.

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D. General Review of Ships D.1. Bulk Carriers D.1.1. Typical of Bulk Carriers According to SOLAS IX 1.6: “Bulk Carrier means a ship which is constructed generally with a single deck, top-side tanks, and hopper-side tanks in cargo spaces, and is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk.” According to SOLAS XII 1.1 (MSC.79) : “Bulk Carrier means a ship which is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk.” (This has been entry into force on 1st July 2006). Bulk carriers is the biggest type of ship fleet (in case of number and gross tonnage) which registered in ClassNK. Bulk carriers were developed in the 1950s to carry large quantities of non-packed commodities such as grains, coal and iron ore. Some 5,000 bulk carriers trade around the world, providing a crucial service to world commodities' transportation.

D.1.2. Bulk Carrier Safety Bulk carrier operators must be aware of the specific safety concerns related to this type of ship. Loading of cargo must be done carefully, to ensure cargo cannot shift during a voyage leading to stability problems. Large hatch covers must be watertight and secure. Bulk carrier losses in the early 1990s were dramatic: ships sank rapidly, often with the loss of all lives. Many were old and had suffered structural damage. A study by IACS (International Association of Classification Societies) found that after flooding in the foremost hold, the bulkhead between this hold and the adjacent hold can collapse from the pressure of cargo and water, leading to progressive flooding and sinking. In November 1997 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a new Chapter XII on bulk carrier to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) 1974. The new rules cover survivability and structural requirements for bulk carriers of 150 metres and upwards to prevent them from sinking if water enters the ship for any reason. IMO also
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adopted revised guidelines on enhanced surveys of bulk carriers and a code of practice for safer loading and unloading. In General, there are some action taken to make bulk carriers safer: 1. Stronger new ships, Increase the strength of bulkheads and the double bottom to withstand hold-flooded conditions, 2. Action For Existing ships, The bulkhead between holds 1 and 2 and the double bottom of hold 1 must be strengthened to withstand flooding in hold 1 unless loading restrictions are imposed, 3. Improving cargo handling practices, Conveyor belts (several kilometres long) often overload ships. Huge grabs (up to 36 tons), bulldozers and hydraulic hammers used for unloading can cause structural damage, 4. Restrictions on carriage of cargoes, Existing bulk carriers which meet the new structural requirements by means of loading restrictions must be marked with a solid equilateral triangle on the hull at midships below the deck line, 5. Loading instrument, Equipment to be fitted to monitor the stresses during loading and unloading operations 6. Enhanced surveys, Enhanced programme of inspections to detect potential structural weakness and areas of corrosion. This action also known as ESP (Enhanced Survey Program) which mainly related to The Classification Societies including ClassNK.

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D.2.

Tankership ClassNK also gives additional education training about Special Requirements

of Oil, Chemical, and Gas Tankers to the trainees for increasing their knowledge. This matter is given by ClassNK from their internal document. It is very important to surveyors before they will inspect in field directly. International Maritime Organization (IMO) makes international code for Chemical Tanker and Gas Tanker. For Chemical Tankers, the regulation is arranged in International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemical in Bulk (IBC Code). Meanwhile for Gas Tankers, the regulation is arranged in International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code). There are many definitions about tankership. In generally definition, tanker is a cargo ship intended to carry liquid cargo in bulk, or an oil carrier. Meanwhile, ClassNK’s Rules and Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) have the difference opinion about tankership. According to ClassNK’s Rules, tanker is a cargo ship constructed or adapted for the carriage in bulk of liquid cargoes of a flammable nature, except gas carriers and chemical carriers. SOLAS also has its opinion for tankership definition. According to SOLAS, tanker is a cargo ship constructed or adapted for the carriage in bulk of liquid cargoes of an inflammable nature.

D.2.1. Special Requirements for Oil Tankers Requirements of SOLAS and MARPOL Annex I about Oil Tanker. (i) Requirements of in SOLAS Chapter II-1 and II-2, arrange about:       (ii)  Fire protection, Foam fire extinguishing system for cargo area, Protection of cargo pump room, Inert gas system and ventilation system of cargo tank, Emergency Towing Arrangement (ETA), Safe access to bow.
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Safe Access to Bow in SOLAS Chapter II-1, 3-3, arrange about, Catwalk, fire resistant and non-slippery material and guadrail on both sides,
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Shelter, place for covering the crews from green water when bad weather happen, Lshelter not exceed 45 meter if Lc exceeds 70 meter.

Technical requirements are set forth in 2003. Ammendments to 88 Protocol of International Load Lines Convention.

Figure IV.1. Safe Access to Bow in Oil Tanker (iii) Emergency Towing Arrangement in SOLAS Chapter II-1, 3-4,

Figure IV.2. Emergency Towing Arrangement (iv) Fire Protection in SOLAS Chapter II-2, 4.5.1, and .2, etc., arrange about,     Method IC only, Accomodation, E/R to be segregated by pump room, cofferdam, or fuel oil tank, Front wall and side wall (3 meter) of accomodation to be protected by A-60 fire insulation, Doors, openings not to be fitted within certain length from front wall.
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Figure IV.3. Fire Protection (v) Inert Gas and Tank Ventilation System in SOLAS Chapter II-2, 4.5.2, and .5,

Figure IV.4. Inert Gas and Ventilation System

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Inert Gas System,

Figure IV.5. Inert Gas System (vi) Protection of Pump Room in SOLAS Chapter II-2, 4.5.10, 10.9, arrange about :         Fixed fire extinguishing system (CO2, high-expansion foam, or pressure water-spraying), Ventilation, Gas detection system, Bilge alarm, Temperature alarm of pumps, Interlock between ventilation and lighting fixture, Double bottom is required by MARPOL, Alarm system (bilge and temperature of pump casing and bearing).

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Figure IV.6. Protection of Pump Room
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(vii)

Foam Fire Extingushing System in SOLAS Chapter II-2, 10.8,

Figure IV.7. Foam Fire Extinguishing System (viii) Requirements of MARPOL Annex I for Cargo Area of Oil Tankers,

Status RO B (Date delivery) NN-NG (1/Aug/10-) NN-NT (1/Jan/1031/Jul/10) NN-NE (1/Jan/0731/Dec/09) NN-ND (1/Jan/0531/Dec/06) NN-NC (1/Feb/0231/Dec/04) NN-NB (6/Jul/9631/Jan/02) NN-NA (2/Dec/865/Jul/96) NN-E of Size 13,4. 1,6. 1,6. 4,7 Pipi ng Tan k Inta ct

Do Dam ubl age e

S B T

S B TP L CBT

Sta bilit y

Stab ility

Hu ll

C O W (c ru de (pro oi duct) l)

P/R

Oil Rec ord

SO PEP

Prot ecti Boo on k

23 22 28 (Incl ude 28.6 ) 37.4

27 29, 31, 32, 3.4, 3.5

19, 21 18

1 9 NA

1-3, 4.1, 4.2, 6.1, 6.4

24, 25, 26

3 3, 3 5 NA

36

37

79

NA

28 (Exc lude 28.6

20, 21

1 8. 1 2

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(2/Jun/821/Oct/86)

) 37.4

to 1 8. 1 5 18 .6, 18 .8, 18 .1 1 18 .6, 18 .8

EN (1/Jan/801/Jun/82)

13,4. 2,5, 6.1, 6.3, 6.4 1,2, 5,6. 16.5

N A

18.8

EE-N (2/Jun/7731/Dec/79) EE-E (~1/Jan/77)

1 8. 7, 3 5

37.4 NA

Table IV.6. Requirements of MARPOL Annex I for Cargo Area of Oil Tankers Numbers in Table III.1 are Regulation Number which adopted from MARPOL. For the information, ROB is abbreviation from Retention of Oil Onboard. (ix) Segregated Ballast Tank (SBT) in MARPOL Regulation 18, SBT is a tank which completely separated from the cargo oil and fuel oil system and which permanently allocated to the carriage of ballast or cargoes other than oil or noxious liquid substances. SBT is used in ship with DWT >= 20,000 (crude oil tanker) or 30,000 (product carrier). Total capacity of SBT’ shall be at least such that the following conditions are satisfied with requirements consist of:    Minimum draught: dm = 2.0 + 0.02L (m) Maximum trim: 0.015L (by the stern) Full immersion for propeller Additional ballast where the particular character of the operation needs ballast in cargo tanks in excess of the quantity required above, such as additional ballast may be carried, in exception cases, in Cargo Oil Tank only if such tanks have been crude oil washed. An entry is to be made in the Oil Record Book Part 11.
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(x)

Clean Ballast Tank (CBT) in MARPOL Regulation 18.8, CBT means the ballast in a tank which since oil was last carried therein, has been cleaned with there are conditions for the cleanness). CBT must be used in ship with DWT >= 40.000. The dedicated capacity CBT’s may be taken into calculation for SBT’s.

(xi)

Protective Location of SBT (SBT-PL) in MARPOL Regulation 18.12,

Figure IV.8. Location of SBT (xii) Double Hull Construction for New Tanker in MARPOL Regulation 19,

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DWT DWT < 600

600 ≤ DWT < 5.000

Double Hull Construction Not applicable Double bottom of B/15 height (minimal 0.76 m) Double side of "0.4+2.4*DWT/20000" width (mini. 076). If max. capacity of each COT is less than 700 m3, double side is not required. (i) Double side of "0.5+DW/20.000" or 2 m width whichever is the lesser (minimal 1 m) Double bottom of "B/15" or 2 m height whichever is the lesser (minimal 1 meter)

5.000 ≤ DWT any one among (i) to (iii) (ii) Double side of (i) above Mid-deck of height which enables to prevent oil spill when bottom shell is broken during navigation at the lowest draught. The height is "B/6" or 6 m whichever in the lesser (maximal 0.6 D) (iii) Equivalent construction as (i) Table IV.7. Requirements of Double Hull Construction for New Tanker (xxiii) Phasing-out of Single Hull Oil Tankers in MARPOL Regulation 20.4, Category Delivery on or before 5 April 1982 1 on or after 6 April 1982 on or before 5 April 1977 from 6 April to 31 December 1977 in 1978 and 1979 2&3 in 1980 and 1981 in 1982 in 1983 after 1984 Time Limit 5-Apr-05 AD in 2005 5-Apr-05 AD in 2005 AD in 2006 AD in 2007 AD in 2008 AD in 2009 AD in 2010

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Table IV.8. Phasing-Out of Single-Hull Oil Tankers
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Category 1, “Pre-MARPOL” oil tanker (~EN) of 20,000 DWT and above carrying crude oil, fuel oil, heavy diesel oil, or lubricating oil as cargo, and 30,000 DWT and above carrying oil other than the above. Category 2, “Post-MARPOL” oil tanker (NN~E and NN-NA) capacity and cargoes are the same as Category 1. Category 3, Oil Tanker of 5,000 DWT and above but less than that specified above. (xiii) Applicable Regulations after Convension Principle, Exception, and Practice, According to general interpretation of convention that current regulations according to the date of building contract or major conversion is applicable. The ships are regarded as a new ship after a major conversion. Major convention means a conversion of ship which substantially alters the dimensions, carrying capacity, etc. However, a conversion to meet the requirements of regulating regarding Segregated Ballast Tank (SBT) and double hull construction shall not be deemed to constitute a major conversion for the purpose of the Annex I. It is possible that a conversion for double hull construction is not deemed as “major” by MARPOL, but so regarded and new requirements are imposed. No consensus is attained in IMO regarding this point, and SVD is asking flag governments for their instruction. According to HLD, a conversion for double hull construction is regarded as follow for plan approval. MARPOL SOLAS II-1 is not a arranging major a conversion. Menwhile SOLAS II-2 is arranging a major conversion (reexamination to convert parts only). (xiv) Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) Oil Tanker of Category 2 or 3, Oil Tanker already gets age 15 years and over after the date of its delivery shall comply with Condition Assesment Scheme (CAS). It is regulated in Regulation 20.6 as Mandatory CAS.
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Flag administration may allow continued operation of an oil tanker fitted with only double bottom or double side (not used for carriage of oil), beyond the specified date until the date when the ship reaches 25 years after the date of its delivery. It is regulated in Regulation 20.5 with some conditions. Port administration is entitled to deny entry into the port of such ships being accepted by the flag administration under (2) or (3) above. It is regulated in Regulation 20.8.2. In addition, single-hull tankers of 5,000 DWT and above, regardless of the age, is not more allowed to carry heavy grade oil as cargo in principle, on and after 5 April 2005. It is regulated in Regulation 21.4. (xv) Accidental Oil Outflow Performance: Probabilistic Approach in MARPOL Regulation 23, Collision and stranding are assumed. It is not for ship’s damage stability but for adequate protection of environment against oil pollution by limiting outflow. This is applicable to NN-NF~ For oil tankers of 5.000 DWT and above, the mean oil outflow parameter OM shall be equaled or less than the diagram. If DWT is less than 5, the length of each tank is restricted. OM = (0.4 OMS + 0.^ OMB)/C OMB = 0.7 OMB(0) + 0.3 OMB(2.5) OMS: mean outflow for side damage OMB: mean outflow for bottom damage OMB(0), OMB(2.5): mean outflow for bottom damage at 0 m and 2.5 m tide conditions C: total volume of cargo oil Each parameter is calculated by summing up outflow of each tank. Damage probability of each tank is given. (xvi) Hyphothetical Outflow of Oil: Deterministic Approach in MARPOL Regulation 24-26, This approach is applicable to EE-N ~ NN-NE. Damage assumption (not for ship’s damage staility). Cargo tanks shall be of such size and arrangement that hypothetical outflow at side damage
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and bottom damage does not exceed 30,000 m3 or 400 (DW)1/3, whichever is the greater, but subject to a maximum of 40,000 m3. There are additional limitations regarding maximum outflow from one wing COT, as well as length of each tank. Direction Side Damage Bottom Damage Bottom Damage For 0.3L from FP Any other part Min (L/10, 5 m)

Longitudinal Transverse Vertical

Min. (1/3 L^2/3, 14.5 L/10 m) Min. (B/5, 11.5 m)

Max (Min (B/6, 10 5m m), 5 m)

From the baseline Min (B/15, 6 m) upwards without limit Table IV.9. Hypothetical Outflow of Oil

(xvii) Intact Stability in MARPOL Regulation 27, This requirement is the same as the general stability requirements in Part U of ClassNK’s Rules. Application for ship with DWT ≥ 5,000 and NN-NC~ (See Point x). Intact stability criteria (design basis), if in port GoM ≥ 0.15 m and if at sea has 6 criteria including below : (1) A1 ≥ 0.055 m-rad (2) A2 ≥ 0.03 m-rad (3) (A1+A2) ≥ 0.09 m-rad (4) GZ ≥ 0.20 m where αmax ≥ 300 (5) αmax ≥ 250 (6) GoM ≥ 0.15 m (xviii) Damage Stability: Extent of Damage in MARPOL Regulation 28.2, (xix) Damage Stability: Floodable Compartment and Survival Requirements in MARPOL Regulation 28.3, L ≤ 150 m E/R located No damage aft assumed 1 compartment Elsewhere 1 compartment 2 compartments Table IV.10. Floodable Compartment
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(xx)

Slop Tank in MARPOL Regulation 29, Slop tank is a tank to retain slop after tank cleaning and residue of oily ballast. Capacity shall not be less than 3 % of total oil carrying capacity. This value may be reduced according to ship’s structure and arrangement. Discharge to the sea must be done through Oil Discharge Monitoring and Controlling system. The system conist of oil content, flow meter, ship’s speed indicator and control section and recording device.

Figure IV.9. Slop Tank (xxi) Water from Cargo Tank Area: Discharge above Water Line in MARPOL Regulation 30.1-30.3, In every Oil Tanker, a discharge manifold for connecting to reception facilities for the discharge of dirty ballas water or oilcontaminated water from cargo tank area, according to the specified method, shall be led to the open deck or to the ship’s side above the waterline in the deepest ballast condition (GT >= 150). Means shall be provided for stopping the discharge into the sea, from a position on the upper deck or above located so that the discharge may be visually observed (GT >= 150). (xxii) Water from Cargo Tank Area: Discharge below Water Line in MARPOL Regulation 30.6, On every Oil Tanker the discharge of ballast water or oil containminated water from cargo tank area shall take place above the waterline.
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Exception 1: Segregated Ballas and Clean Ballast    All tankrs in ports or at sea (by gravity, at sea), immediately after examination of surface either visually or by other means, Segregated ballast of ~EE-N tankers without outlet above waterline: After visual examination of surface, Clean Ballast of ~EN tankers without outlet above waterline: Supervision by oil content meter throughout the discharge, Exception 2: Dirty ballast water or oil contaminated water (other than slop)   All tankers: by gravity, after sufficient time for setting and immediately after examination by oil/water interface detector. ~EE-N tankers: Examination by oil/water interface detector and/or supervision by part flow system throughout the discharge. (xxiii) Monitoring of Dirty Ballast Discharge: Part-Flow System, The part flow concept is bsed on the principle that the observation of representative part flow of the overboard effluent is equivalent to observe the entire effluent stream. (xxiv) Drainage of Cargo Pumps and Lines in MARPOL Regulation 30.4, Oil piping shall be so designed and installed that oil retention in the lines its minimized (NN-E~).  Means shall be provided to drain all cargo pumps and oil lines at the completion of cargo discharge, where necessary by connection to a stripping device,   This drainage shall be capable of being discharged both ashore and to a cargo tank or a slop tank, For discharge ashore, a special small diameter line shall be provided and shall be connected outboard of the ship’s manifold valves. (xxv) Isolation of Sea Chest in MARPOL Regulation 30.7,  If a sea chest is permanently connected to the cargo pipeline system, an inboard isolation valve shall be arranged in addition to the sea chest valve,
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 

The sea chest shall be capable of isolation from the cargo piping system during cargo operation by use of a positive means, Such a positive means is a facility that is installed in the pipeline system in order to prevent, under all circumstance, the section of pipeline between the sea chest valve an the inboard valve being filled the cargo.

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Figure IV.10. Sea Chest (xxvi) ODM System in MARPOL Regulation 31,  A recording device is to provide a continuous record of discharge in litres per nautical mile and total quantity discharged, or the oil content and rate of discharge,  This record shall be identifiable as to time and date. It shall be kept for at least 3 years. (xxvii) Oil/Water Interface Detector in MARPOL Regulation 32 (GT ≥ 150),  For a rapid and accurate determination of the oil/water interface in slop tanks. To use in other tanks where the separation of oil and water are effected which intended to discharge effluent direct to the sea. (xxviii)Crude Oil Washing (COW) in MARPOL Regulation 33,   Applicable to NN-E~ Crude Oil Tanker, DWT >= 20.000 Effectiveness shall be confirmed within one year after the tanker was first enganged in the trade of carrying crude oil, or by the end of the third voyage carrying crude oil suitable for COW whichever occurs later.

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Figure IV.11. Crude Oil Washing (COW)
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(xxix) Oil Record Book Part II in MARPOL Regulation 36 (GT ≥ 150), The oil record book shall be completed on each occasion without delay whenever any of the following cargo/ballast operations take place in the ship :          Loading of oil cargo, Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage, Unloading of oil cargo, Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated Clean Ballast Tank, Cleaning of cargo tanks including COW, Discharge of ballast except from SBT’s Discharge of water from slop tanks, Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations, Disposal of residues. Each completed operation shall be signed by the officers in charge of the operations concerned and each completed page shall be signed by the master. The oil record book shall be preserved for a period about 3 years after the last entry has been made.

(xxx) Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) in Regulation 37, Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) shall consist at least of:    The procedure to be followed by the master or the other persons having charge in ships to report an oil pollution incident, The list of authorities or person to be contactedin the event of an oil pollution incident, A detail the description of the action to be taken immediately by persons on board to reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incident,  The procedures and point of contact on the ship for coordinating shipboard action with national and local authorities in combating the pollution.
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A similar plan is required for NLS tankers, and the plans may be combined. In case, the title of such lan shall be “Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan”. All of tankers of 5,000 DWT or over shall have prompt the computerized access, shore-base damage stability and residual structural strength calculation program. (xxxi) Emegency Technical Assistance Service (ETAS). Emegency Technical Assistance Service is 24 hours service to assist shipowners or their representatives in the event of a serious casualty to a ship such as stranding, collision, explosion or fire. With ETAS, computer analyses of damage stability and damage to longitudinal strength are immediately performed and technical advice is provided for concerning any necessary transfer/offloading of cargo/fuel/ballast as well as any temporary rapair in order to ensure the ship’s safety and to prevent or minimize marine pollution as efficiently as possible. ETAS satisfies the new shore-based service requirement of the amended Annex I of MARPOL 73/78.

D.2.2. Special Requirements for Chemical Tankers Requirements of IBC Code and MARPOL Annex II about Chemical Tankers. (i) Summary of Minimum Requirements in IBC Code Chapter 17, A B C D E F G H I J K L M Product name Pollution category: X, Y, Z, or OS Hazard safety Ship type: 1, 2, or 3 Tank type: Combination of 1, 2, G, and P Tank vents: Controlled or Open Tank environment control: Inert Pad, Dry, vent, or No Vent Electrical equipment Gauging open, restricted, or closed Vapour detection: flammable, toxic, both, or no Fire protection: Alcohol-resistant foam, regular foam, water spray, dry chemical, combination, or no Emergency equipment: Yes or NO Special requirement, if any
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Table IV.11. Special Requirements Summary of Chemical Tanker in IBC Code

(ii)

Products to which the Code does not apply in Code Chapter 18, Several products listed in Chapter 18 fall outside the scope of the Code. However, some liquid substances are identified as falling into pollution category Z, and therefore, subject to certain requirements of MARPOL Annex II. The products such as acetone, glycerin, ethyl alcohol, and alcoholic beverages. For your information only, following products are categorized as “OS” standing for “Other Substances”. The products were evaluated and found to fall outside categories X, Y, or Z because they are, at present, considered to present no harm. Therefore, MARPOL Annex II does not apply to them, either. The products such as apple juice, coal slurry, kaolin slurry, water, clay slurry, glucose solution, and molasses.

(iii)

Pollution Category: Definition in MARPOL Annex II,

X Hazard to either marine Major hazard resources or human health Discharge into the Prohibited marine environment Coal tar, Example of phosphorous (yellow Product or white), liquid chemical wastes

Y

Z

Hazard

Minor hazard

Restricted less Limited on the quality stringently on the and quantity quality and quantity Chloroform, coconut Lacticd acid, sulfur oil, methyl alcohol (molten), and waxes

Table IV.12. Pollution Category in MARPOL Annex II (iv) Hazards of Product: Definition in IBC Code, There are 2 primary product hazard: safety hazard and pollution hazard. Safety hazard is divided to be 3 parts: fire hazard, health hazard, and reactivity hazard. Meanwhile, for pollution hazard is to mean as marine pollution hazard.
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Fire hazard is flashpoint, explosive/flammability limits/range and auto-ignition temperature. Health hazard is corrosive effect on the skin in the liquid state, acute toxic effect or other health effects such as carcinogenicity and sensitization. Ractivity hazard is reactivity with water, air, and other products or itself product. Marine pollution hazard is bioaccumulation, lack of ready biodegradability, acute or chronic toxicity to aquatic organism, long term human health effects, and physical properties resulting in the product floating or sinking and so adversely affecting marine life. (v) Types of Ship in IBC Code 2.1, According to cargo tank, there are 3 types of ship, type I, II, and III. Type I, transport product with very severe hazards which require maximum preventive measures to preclude an escape of such cargo. Type II, transport product with appreciably severe hazards which require significant preventive measures to preclude an escape of such cargo. Type III, transport product with sufficiently severe hazards which require a moderate degree of containment to increase survival capability in a damaged condition. I min (B/5,11.5) min (B/15,6.0) 1,250 II III

b (m) h (m) v (m3)

0.76 min (B/15, 6.0) 3,000 -

Table IV.13. Types of Ship

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Figure IV.12. Comparasion between b and h in Chemical Tanker (vi) Damage Stability in IBC Code 2.8, Damage assumption (extent) and survival requirements are the same as oil tanker, except bottom raking damage. Floodable compartment depends on the type of ship. “2 flooding compartments” is required in principle. However, treatment of E/R located aft is different as follows. 125 m ≤ L ≤ 150 m ≤ L ≤ 225 m L < 125 m 150 m 225 m <L 2 compartments, everywhere 1 compartment for E/R located

Type I Type II Type aft (2 compartments,elsewhere) III NB Table IV.14. Damage Stability (vii) Types of Tank in IBC Code Chapter 4,

IBC Code Chapter 4 has arranged types of tank consist of independent tank, integral tank, gravity tank, and pressure tank. Independent tank is cargo containment to envelope which is not contiguous with, or part of, hull structure. Integral tank is cargo containment to envelope forms part of ship’s hull. Tank has a design pressure not greater tahn 0.07 MPa gauge at the top of tank (G) called as gravity tank. Tank has a design pressure greater than 0.07 Mpa gauge at the top tank called as pressure tank. (viii) Separation of Piping System, Separation of piping system, such as cargo system, vent system, and the others may be achieved by the use of design or operational
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method. Operational method are not to be used within a cargo tank and are to be consist of the following types :   Removing spool piece or valves and blanking the pipe end, or Rrangement of 2 spectacle flanges in series with provisions for detecting leakage into the pipe between the spectacle flanges.

Figure IV.13. Acceptance Piping System

(x)

Tank Venting System in IBC Code 8.2, No restriction to the free flow of cargo vapours from the cargo tanks during normal operations. On the controlled vent (with P/V valve), there are restrictions on the position of vent outlet.  There is distance about 10 meter from the nearest air intake or opening to accommodation, service and machinery space, and ignition sources.   There is distance about 6 meter above weather deck or above raised walk way if fitted within 4 meter of the raised walkway. If a high-velocity venting valve, which is capable of directing the vapour air/mixture upwards in an unimpeded jet with an exit velocity of at least 30 m/s, is fitted to a controlled vent, the hight of the outlet may be reduced to 3 meter.

(xi)

Environmental Control in IBC Code Chapter 9, Inerting, by filling the cargo tank and associated piping systems and, where specified in the rule, the space surrounding the cargo tanks, with a gas or vapour which not support combustion and which not
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reach with the cargo, and maintaining that condition. But, if the quality of cargo is important, N2 gas is used in place of boiler exhaust gas. Padding, by filling the cargo tank associated piping systems with a liquid, gas or vapour which separated the cargo from the air, and maintaining that condition. Drying, by filling the cargo tank and associated piping systems with moisture-free gas or vapour with a dew point of -400c or below at atmospheric pressure, and maintaining that condition. (xii) Bonding of Independent Cargo Tanks in IBC Code 10.2, Independent cargo tanks shall be electrically bonded to the hull. All gasketed cargo-pipe joints and hose connections shall be electrically bonded. (xiii) Fire Protection and Extinction in IBC Code Chapter 11, Requirements for tankers in SOLAS Chapter II-2 shall apply to chemical tankers, irrespective of tonnage, including ships less than 500 GT, in principle. Fixed deck foam system for cargo area. The system is similar to one of oil tanker but more supply rate of foam solution is required. Fire-extinguishing media, such as alcohol-resistant foam, regular foam, water spray, and dry chemical depend on the cargo. Especially for dry chemical when used, an additional water supply system may be required for boundary cooling. (xiv) Mechanical Vent in the Cargo Area in IBC Code Chapter 12, The air change is required according to:    30 times/hour, normally spaces during cargo operation, such as pump room, 20 times/hour, enclosed spaces normally entered during cargo operation, such as ballast pump room, 8 (fixed type) or 16 (portable type) times/hour: not normally manned spaces, such as double bottom, cofferdam, duct keel, etc.
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(xv)

Instrumentation Level Gauge in IBC Code 13.1,

Figure IV.14. Types of gauging depends on cargo (xvi) Instrumentation Vapor Detection in IBC Code 13.2, The instruments may be portable or fixed. If a fixed system installed, at least one portable instrument shall be provided. There are 2 sets required to detect toxic and flammble gas. (xvii) Protective Equipment in IBC Code 14.1, For crew members who are enganged in loading and disharging operations, the ship should have on board suitable protective equipment, consisting of:      Large aprons, Special gloves with long sleeves, Suitable footwear, Coverall of chemical-resistant material, Tight-fifting goggles or face shields or both. They should be kept in easily accessible places and in special lockers and not kept within accomodation spaces if they are not new or just cleaned. (xviii) Safety Equipment in IBC Code 14.2, IBC Code 14.2 regulates safety equipment in Chemical Tanker such as protective clothing, boots, spare air bottle, gloves, and explosion-proof lamp. (xix) Operation Manual Class Requirement in Chapter 16 of IBC Code,
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Operation manual is a class requirement being based on IBC Code Chapter 16. Operation manual is to include following items :   Maximum allowable quantity of cargo per tank, Cargo information, such as correct technical name, full description of physical and chemical protection, action to be taken in the event of spill or leak, counter measures againts accidental personal contact, fire fighting procedures and media, procedure for cargo transfer, tank cleaning, gas freeing and blasting.      (xx) Personal training in STCW Convention, Open and entry into cargo tank, Stowage of cargo samples, Cargoes is not to be exposed to excessive heat, Additional operation requirements, if any.

Underwater Discharge in MARPOL Regulation 12.8, Underwater discharge outlet(s) shall be located within the cargo area in the vicinity of the turn of bilge and shall be so arranged as to avoid the re-intake of residue/water mixtures by the ship’s seawater intakes. The arrangements of underwater discharge outlet shall be such that the residue or water mixture disharge in to the sea will not pass through the ship’s boundary layer. If the discharge stays within the boundary layer, it will be easily stirred and dispersed into the sea water.

(xxii) Cleaning and Disposal Procedure in MARPOL Regulation 13.6, (xxiii) Documents Required for NLS in MARPOL Annex II. P & A Manual in Regulation 14, procedures and arrangement for discharging noxious liquid substances following above :   Procedures include area restrictions, conditions, usage of equipment, etc.). Arrangements include pre-wash, stripping, underwater discharge outlet, discharge equipment to reception facility, water dilution, ventilating cleaning, etc.).
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Cargo Record Book is regulated in Regulation 15. the following operations shall be promptly recorded after completion :         Loading and unloading of cargo and internal transfer of cargo, Mandatory pre-washing in accordance with P & A Manual,\ Cleaning of cargo tanks except mandatory pre-washing, Discharge into the sea of tank washings, Ballasting of cargo tanks and discharge thereof, Accidental or other exceptional discharge, Control by authorized surveyors, Additional operations procedures and remarks. Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan for NLS in Regulation 17 refer to SOPEP where oil is to be read as NLS. D.2.3. Special Requirements for Gas Tankers In this part, number with Code means number of requirement in IGC Code. Some or similar items in Part 1 and 2 are omitted. Requirements of IGC Code about Gas Tanker following above : (i) Summary of Minimum Requirements in IGC Code Chapter 19, Summary of minimum requirements is managed in IGC Code Chapter 19. For your information, minimum requirements is divided following above : a. Product name, b. UN Number. Intended for information only, c. Ship type: IG, 2G, 2 PG, or 3G, d. The necessary of Independent Tank type C, e. Control of vapour space within cargo tanks, f. Vapour detection : flammable vapour and toxic vapour, g. Gauging : indirect, closed, or restricted, h. Medical First Aid Guide (MFGA) table. For information on the emergency procedures to be applied in the event of an incident with the product, i. And other special requirements, if any.
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(ii)

Types of Gas Tanker in IGC Code 2.1, IGC Code 2.1 manage types of gas tanker.   Degree of preventive measure to preclude the escape of cargo maximum, Degree of preventive measure to preclude the escape of cargo where type of 2G and 2PG is significant and type of 3G is moderate. Type of 2PG ship is a gas carrier (L ≤ 150 meter) whose cargoes are carried in independent type C tanks designed for Maximum Allowable Relief Valve Setting (MARVS) ≥ 7 bar gauge and for temperature ≥ -550C. If L > 150 meter, the ship is to be considered a type 2G type.

(iii)

Products and Type of Ship,

Products Type of Ship Chlorine Ethylene oxide Type 1G Methyl bromide Ethane Ethylene oxide Type 2G Methane (LNG) Nitrogen Refrigerant gases Type 3G Other 24 Either Type 2G or Type products 2PG Table IV.15. Product and Type of Gas Tankers There is a note that 1G, 2G, 3G, or 2PG stand for types of tnk in case of chemical tanker, but they stand for types of ship in case of gas tanker. And, 3 products above requiring the type 1G require also an independent tank type C.

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(v)

Damage Stability: a. Assumption of Damage in IGC Code 2.5, Side Damage

Bottom damage For 0.3L from FP Any Other Part Min. (1/3L^2/3, Min. (1/3L^2/3, 14.5 Min (1/3L^2/3, 5 Longitudinal 14.5 m) m) m) Transverse Min. (B/5, 11.5 m) Min (B/6, 10 m) Min (B/6, 5 m) From the base line Vertical upwards without Min. (B/15, 2 m) limit Table IV.16. Extent of Damage Direction The contents are the same as oil tanker and chemical tanker, except vertical extent of bottom damage. b. c. (vi) Survival Requirement in IGC Code 2.8 and 2.9, Requirement according to Kind of Ships,

Access to Spaces in the Cargo Area for Visual Inspection of Insulation in IGC Code 3.5,

(ix)

Types of Gas Tank in IGC Code 4.2, Integral Tank is a tank forms a structural part of ship’s hull and influenced in the same manner and by the same load which stresses the adjacent hull structure. Membrane Tank is a non-supporting tank which consist of a thin layer (membrane) supported through insulation by the adjacent hull structure. The membrane is designed in such a way that termal and other expansion or contraction is compensated without undue stressing of the membrane. Semi-membrane Tank is non-sel-supporting tank in the loaded condition and consist of a layer, parts of which are supported throught insulation by and adjacent hull structure, whereas the rounded parts of this layer connecting the above mentioned supported parts are also designed to accommodate the termal and other expansion or contraction. Independent Tank is a self-supporting tank; it does not form part of the ship’s hull and is not essential to the hull strength. Thre are 3 categories of independent tanks.
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Table IV.17. Design Restriction of Gas Tank Categories of Independent Tank can be known following below in Table IV.17. : Design Vapour Pressure Boiling (Po) Point ≥ -10 degree C Po ≤ 0.025 Mpa

Type Integral Tank Membrane Tank Semi-Membrane Tank Independent Tank A

Independent Tank B Po ≤ 0.025 Mpa Independent Tank C See below Minimum Po for Independent Tank type C Po = 0.2 + A C (ρr)^1.5 MPa dimana, A = 0.00185 (σm/ΔσA)^2

No restriction

σm = design primary membrane stress C = a characteristic tank dimension ρr = the relative density of the cargo at the design temperature ΔσA = allowable dynamic membrane stress Secondary Type Design Barrier Example Prismatic tank Designed as "deep tank" for cargo load, in Type A by design method of usual hull structure. Full barrier clearly days Stress distribution is not so clear Spherical Designed though statistical analysis of tank, recent wave load, FEM analysis and fracture prismatic Type B mechanism analysis, for plastic deformation, Partial barrier tank buckling, fatigue, proparagation of crack. High stress zones are localized Small Designed are pressure vessel for required pressure 102 internal pressure. Risk of leakage is low Type C because Not necessary vessel of low allowable stress Table IV.18. Categories of Independent Tank
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(x)

Independent Tank and Secondary Barrier,

Figure IV.15. Independent Tank and Secondary Barrier (x) Moss Tank System,

Figure IV.16. Moss Tank System (xi) Moss System, Many advantages using Moss System in Gas Tankers include below :    Precise analysis for Type B, being sphere without internal member, Efficient insulation being minimum surface area per volume, Small sloshing with small free surface and no corner. Meanwhile, Gas Transport No. 96 System has advantage because there is small expansion/contraction rate of membrane by temperature (special material). Technigaz Mark III System was made by stainless steel.
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(xii)

Pressure Relief System in IGC Code 8.2,  All cargo tanks should be provided with a pressure relief system appropriate to the design of the cargo containment system nd the cargo being carried.  The pressure relief system should be connected to a vent piping system so designed as to minimize the possibility of cargo vapour accumulating on the decks, or entering accommodation spaces, service spaces, control stations, and machinery spaces, or other spaces where it may create a dangerous condition.    Each cargo tank with a volume exceeding 20 m3 should be fitted with at least two pressure relief (one, if the volume ≤ 20 m3). Pressure relief valves shoul be connected to the highest part of the cargo tank above deck level. Interbarrier spaces should be provided with pressure relief devices such as relief valve, rupture disk, etc. This is for an emergency that the pressure increase after a failure of primary barrier. At least two devices shoul be arranged to each compartment.

(xiii)

Cargo Tank Vent System: General Arrangement,

Figure IV.17. General Arrangement of Cargo Tank Vent System (xiv) Cargo Tank Vent System: Equipment, Equipment in Cargo tank Vent System including below : (1) P/V Valve, (2) Pressure relief valve, (3) Drainage arrangement on ventilation pipe, (4) Emergency release hatch.
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(xv)

Enviromental Control in IGC Code Chapter 9,

Figure IV.18. Environmental Control Diagram (xvi) Fire Protection and Extinction in IGC Code 11.1, In place of deck foam fire-fighting system for tanker carrying flammable liquid following system are required.   Water spray system is flammable and /or toxic products (for cooling, fire prevention, and crew protection). Dry chemical powder system is flammable products (for being fighting). (xvii) Requirements of SOLAS II-2: Application according to Kind of Ship, (xviii) Mechanical Ventilation of Cargo Area in IGC Code Chapter 12, Area Type of Fan Frequency 30

Cargo Fixed type pum/compressor Exhaust type room Double pipe/hood for feed of gas (LNG Carrier) Air-locked space Electric cargo Fixed type motor room Filling type Ditto (outside cargo area) Cargo control room

Explosion proof 30 type 8 (suitable number) 30 8 Normal type 8
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Cofferdam, hold Explosion proof Portable type 8 space, etc type Table IV.19. Mechanical Ventilation of Cargo Area
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(xxi)

Gauging and Gas Detection in IGC Code Chapter 13, Level gauging has many characteristics including below :    Closed devices normally adopted, High level alarm (to be independent from level gauge), Overfill switch (to be independent from high level alarm) to close shut-off valve. Pressure gauging has many characteristics including below :    Pressure indication at cargo control room, High pressure alarm at wheel house, Low pressure alarm when no other vacuum protection provided. Temperature gauging has many characteristics including below :   At least sensors required, When design temperature < - 550C, temperature monitoring of tank wall to avoid adverse temperature gradient at cool down Gas detection has many characteristics including below :  Gas sampling (at least 2 each) to be provided for: compressor room, motor room, cargo control room of non-safe space, hold space of type A tank, and airlock,     Sampling intervals within 30 minutes, Alarm given at 30% of lower flammable limit, Toxic gas detection (may be by portable device) 2 sets of portable gas detection devices and oxygen content meter.

(xxii) Personnel Protection in IGC Code Chapter 14,  Suitable protective equipment including eye protection should be provided for crew members enganged in loading and discharging operation taking into account the character of the products,  A stretcher which is suitable for hoisting an injured person, oxygen resuscitation equipment, medical first equipment, etc. should also be provided onboard,
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Other protective means such as respiratory and eye protection for emergency escape, decontamination showers and eyewash, etc. may be additionally required depending on the character of the products,

There are 2 sets of safety equipment for personnel to enter a gasfilled compartment and perform wor there. And, there are 2 sets further in addition for specific cargoes, if cargo capacity ≥ 2,000 m3,

There are 4 or 5 sets (cargo capacity > 5,000 m3) of fir-fighter’s outfit for flammable products.

(xxiii) Use of Gas as Fuel in IGC Code Chapter 16, Methane or LNG is the only cargo whose vapour or boil-off gas may be utilized only in boilers, inert gas generators, combustion engines, and gas turbines in machinery spaces of Type A. Spaces in which gas fuel is utilized should be fitted with a mechanical ventilation system independent of vent system of other compartments. Gas fuel piping is not to pass through accommodation spaces, service spaces, or control stations. Gas detectors should be fitted in these spaces particularly in the zones where air circulation is reduced. A master gas fuel valve that can be closed from within the machinery spaces should be provided within the cargo area.

Figure IV.19. Fuel Gas Use Diagram
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(xxiv) Arrangement of Valves for Gas Fuel in IGC Code 16.3, Each gas utilization unit should be provided with a set of three automatic valves. Two of them should be in series in the gas fuel pipe to the consuming equipment. The third (B) should be in a pipe between 2 valves in series, leading to vent mast. These valves should be arranged so that failure of the necessary forced draught, loss of flame on boiler burners, abnormal pressure in the gas fuel supply, line, or failure of the valve control actuating medium will cause the two gas fuel valves in series to closed automatically, and the vent valve to open automatically. (xxv) Operation Manual: Class Requirement. Operation manual approved by the Society is to be provided on board. This manual operation is to include the information as follows :  Cargo information in Code 18.1 Full description of physical and chemical properties, action to be taken in the event spill, etc.  Compatibility in Code 18.2 The shipmaster is to ascertain that quantify and characteristics of each product to be loaded re within the limits indicated in Gas Fitness Certificate, Loading, and Stability Information booklet.     Personnel training in Code 18.3 The reference is made to SCTW 1978. Entry into spaces in Code 18.4 There are necessary precaution and procedures. Carriage of cargo at low temperature in Code 18.5 There are necessary precaution and procedures. Protective equipment in Code 18.6 Hazard associated with the cargo being handled, use of appropriate protective equipment.  Systems and controls in Code 18.7 Essential cargo handling controls are to be tested and checked before operations begin.  Cargo transfer operations in Code 18.8
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Discussion between responsible personnel on ship and shore facility prior to commencement, and communications maintained throughout the transfer operation.

Additional operating requirements in Code 18.9

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CHAPTER V CLOSING
A. Impression Finally, Final Report has been competed in accordance with experiences were taken by trainee since On Job Training up to 1 month in ClassNK Jakarta Office. Trainee could take many experiences in the biggest ship classification in the world, Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK), where it is not taught yet in college. Of course, the matter which had been taken from ClassNK’s On Job Training is useful to increase knowledge related with marine technology especially the role of ship classification, ClassNK, to build and to repair ships. This report need advice and critic from the readers. There are 4 important points to do Field Work or On Job Training. It can be seen as below : 1. Field Work or On Job Training must be carried out by student to complete the requirements of final project examination, 2. Field Work or On Job Training is to be done for increasing knowledge and work experience before entering the real work directly, 3. Field Work or On Job Training can build the good relationship between company (ClassNK) and the higher education institution (ITS) 4. Trainee gets many of description about business scope of marine technology, include shipyard, shipping, ship classification, oil-gas, etc.

B. Suggestion Field Work or On Job Training is one of the most important part to students in higher education. Before students will graduate from college, On Job Training must be carried out in order to know scope of work. In Academic’s Rules of ITS including in our department and faculty, Department of Naval Architecture and Shipbuilding Engineering – Faculty of Marine Technology, The field experience and training is very important to students who doing On Job Training in everywhere companies. According to statement in above, We hope that Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia may give survey experience and training in field to trainee included our junior or colleague who want to be Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Indonesia as the choice company for On Job Training.
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