,. FLIGHT OF SliD'S KEEPS CLEAR OF THE DMINOUS FLAT-TOPPO> ANVIL OF A .,.HIJNDERHEAI>.

R:£;lRING UP OV~R" GREAT ""ASS OF CUMULUS CLOUDS

Thunderstorms

Le.ading Edge of the "Anvil" o.n Top of the Thundercloud Indicates Djredion the Storm Takes

AFULL Y developed thund rstorm i accompanied by heavy rain, Iightning, and usually hail. Th most conspicuous characteri tic of these storm is the distinctive, heavy 'well- 1.11g cumulus cloud with a cauliflower appearance along the sides. Close observation of tbe cloud will reveal the violent boiling air motion taking place inside the cloud.

Usually th thunderstorm cloud :is crowned by a flat spreading top. This is known as the "Anvil." In almost every ca e the leading dg of the "Anvil" is carried ahead of the main body of the thunderstorm, by the action of the upper winds and gives a good indication of the direction in wruch the storm may be expected to

move. At the leading edge of the base of an approaching thunderstorm a revolving cloud with the appearance of dirty cotton may of ten be seen. This so-called 'Roll Cloud," gives warning o( an area of great turbu-

Contents

Thundentorms . . . 1

Grampaw P'ettibone 6

Shore Stations . 11

Ship Recognition 13

Did You Know? 20

Training. . . . . 24

Fleet AiL . . . , 27

Technically Speaking. 29

Bu~eAU OF "E~ON"UTlC.S

,N AYY DE P ARTM E 1"1-4110, 196

lence, Within the storm there will be found a region which is almost bla k in its appearance. In this region, the heaviest rain is encountered.

Tills is ncces 'al:'ily a very g-eneral de'Scription of a typical thunder torm, Each such storm encountered will be Individual in it, appeara,nce and any one or all of the distinguishing features may be missing or masked bv other clouds or topography,

ERect upon Surface Winds

With the approach of the storm, the wind freshens and blows toward the storm, It hould be noted that this breeze is opposite to the direction of "the storm's approach. As the thundercloud arrives overhead, the wind

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suddenly changes in dire ct ion and blows ui from the storm in an outru 'hlng squall wind. Between these two oppositely moving winds is an. area of violent gust. mist from one direction and then the oth -J. This gustiness is of comparatively mort duration and occurs in the vicinitv of the

"Roll Cloud.'! .

Vertical Currenfs

The thunderstorrn con sis ts of

"chimneys' or rapidly ascending all" surrounded by downdrafts. The most violent updraft is encountered in the center or core of the storm, Between the rising and descending air are regions of violent turbulence. Maximum turbulence mav be expected in the "Roll Cloud.';

The rising currents are always the strongest and while no specific data can be given as to maximum velocities, -it is estimated that they often reach a velocity or lO})OO Icet per minute. Some idea of the ertical Vl"lpcity can be obtained from the fact that a v('!oclty of 116 miles p t hour is 111' '/..ossary to support a hailstone 3 inches in diameter, a size that is by no means rare, II] g;cYlcl'al, the most violent activity orCUN in the lower two-thirds of the thunderstorm area,

WR,ITE BUAER TRAI>!I .. G DIVISION FOR BOOIILET

Types of Thunderstorms

In ger:leraI, there 1;Ht' three kinds of thunderstorms: Air mass, frontal, and orographic.

An air mass thunderstorm ds OJ1£:' which develops a.s a result of interaction within a ,ingle air ilia s. This i~ the simplest type of thunderstorm and is. due to diurnal hrating' in the. lower levels of the- atmosphere with an attendant instability near the ground.

WHEN A COLD FRONT MEETS WAIiM AREA. CUMULO-NIMBUS FORMs. ENCLOSING 1\ FIERCE UPDRAFT

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This instability near- the ground is the «trigger" or "push" that i. responsible for the later instability throughout the storm. Air mass thunderstorms vary considerably in area and in velocity. However, they u ually travel at about IS to 20 miles P r hour and are 8 to 40 miles in diameter. A period of hazardous flying at anyone station is relatively short; an hour is exceptional.

Frontal typt· thunderstorms art' those which OCCUI" as a result of j(J,~tabiJity released by the vertical motions created by a front. Cold frontal thunderstorms occur when cold air moves in under warmer air forcing it to rise to a point where it become' unstable. These storms are usually concentrated in a zone parallel to the leading edge ol tbe cold air mass.

Warm air movine into region occupied by cold air OVeHUI1S the cold air, and a similar rising and instability results. Such warm front thunderstorms may be exp -cted well in advance of the surface warm front.

Orographic thunderstorms 0 c c u r when air is forced up a hill or mOU11- tain slope. These thunderstorms usually occur singly and arc quite often 11101" violent than air rna. s thunderstorms and gent'rally extend to greater heights. In tropical regions development of thunderstorms over land is rapid and causes hazardous conditions over ranges in the later afternoon.

Rain and Hail

As the air ascends within the thunderstorm it expands and cools. At a definite level the moisture begins to condense, thus forming ~atl'r droplets. These droplets remain suspended in the air until they grow to such, a size that thi- upward air currents can no longer sustain tb In, at which point they fall out as rain. A" noted above, the heaviest rainfall will be encnuntered beneath the center of the SlOI·UJ.

Hail forms in the "chimney" of thunderstorms at an altitude above the freezing level. As the raindrops are carried <110ft by the ascending currr-nts into Ireesing temperatures they quiekl congeal and gather a coat of SJJOW and frost. The hailstone thus formed, UPOIl finding a weaker updraft, falls bark through a n:gion of liquid drops. where it gathel·s a layer of water, a portion of which is at OIlCt' Frozer; by the lower temperature of the hailstones. It may again b ('augbl up by a strong updraft and be carried back to freezing' ] wels, This

THUNDERHEADS DEVEI.,OP !'ROIY' TURBULENT TOWERING CUMULUS CLOUPS WITH A CAULIFLOWER APPEARANCE; TliESE Cl;OUDS ARE DANGER SIGNALS

proce' lU~y be repeated many time until the stone gl'O'fIiS t large pmportions. The size of the resulting hailstone will in g-eneral be proportional to the strength of the upward convective currents.

In the tropics, hail is never encountered at low altitudes but is frequcntf found above 10,000 feet.

Lightning and Thunder

The phenomena of ligbtning and thunder have been covered by Tech-nical Note No. 27-35. In general. th . electrical charges are caused by the splitting of rain drops with a Consequent production of a positive charge in 011(' part of the cloud and a -ne~ative charge in the other. These charges when strong enough may discharge within the cloud, from cloud to cloud, or from cloud to ground, in the form of lightning. Thunder is the ound that accompanies the discharge of the lightning. Some id a of the

intensity of a thunderstorm may be obtained by observing; the orientation

of the Lightnil'lg flashes: if only horizontal Ilashea <tIC' observed, the storm ix mild and it: bast' i~ well above the ground. if, the flashes are more vertical than horizontal you are approaching Lilt' storm frOm the front where there IS greater violence aud conversely if more horizontal than vertical you are approaching lrom the rear.

The heights to which a thunderstorm will build naturally depend upon the locality and th topography.

In temperate latitudes the average height f [rom 15,000 to 20,000 feet; while in the tropics, the average height is considerably greater, 30,000 to 40,- 000 feet and in extreme cases to 60,000 feet. There is also srrmc variation with season rnaxiruurn heights being reached in summer.

The fundamental requirements 101' the formarion of a. thunderstorm are:

(3) /I. warm moist convectivelv unstable

air,

(b A resulting appreciable cloud thickness between condcnsatioo Iev I and icing JCY~1.

(c) .A, n ,lg'~n t to set off the a crivi ty,

Ail' when lifted, as along a frontal zone; an the' windward side of '3 mountain range, 01' b. 'heating from below, causes a change in the atrrrospheric lapse l-ate and a redistribution of moisture. This change cause' instability of the ail' and possible thunderstorms, The difference between an ordinal" shower and a thunderstorm is, one of .intensity only. The fundamental requirements are readily fulfilled in the doldrum belts,

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Daily Period: Over land the rnaxrmum frequency occurs durillg the afternoon between ]400 and 1600. Over ocean areas this rnaximum pf'rind fall, between 0000-0400.

Yearly Period: Over land, thunderstorms occur most frequently during: the hottes t months of the year, while over the oceans rnaxinrum numbers are encountered during the winter months.

In tropical reg:i_o:.1s these storms will be round the year- around.

Flight Precautions

t . The violent vertical air currents may result in loss of control or structural failure. Cases have been reported where large air .raft have been Ii terally flipped over on their back, or

forced aloft at a rate of 1,000 feet a minute .

2. Lightning i of Httle consequence in an all-metal, closed-cockpit plane, However, if the ship is open-cockpit or has a plywood r plastic fuselage, structural damage rnay r sult from lightning discharges. In either case, the pilot is advised to turn on the cockpit light and keep his ey(l~ on some object in the .ock pit to avoid being tempor-arily blinded by a lightnin~ flash. On occasions lightning may aid you by lighting your way.

,'1. Large hailstones may causr a great deal of damage to all type.~ of aircraft, In SP1(! cases hail may be encountered outside the cloud where il is Iitcrallv spilling' out of the cloud.

STUP"- YOUR STORM PROBLEM CO IN LOW. FL Y UNPEfI BASE

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FLY AROUHD IT IF YOU (:AH

4-. As in any instability cloud icing may be encountered in a thunderstorm above the [ref'.;z1:ng level. r cing is most C0Tl11hm1 in temperatures o( horn 0" C. to -ID" C.

5. Great turbulence may cause vertigo or t rmporary 10<$ of control.

6. If at all po,sible. thunderstorms should be eircurnnavigated.

7. When ! sea, or if contact. conditions can be maintained, fly under the storm, However, it should be remembered. that possible downdrafts and turbulence create a definite hazard. Flight under a thundersrorm is also dangerous in mourttainous vicinities. In nying under, the higher the flight level th rougher the trip: if possible, By about one-third of the distance from the ground to the base of the cloud.

8. If the above two procedures are impractical it may be' possibl to fiy over the storm. Don't try this unless your plane has sufficient 'ceiling and js equipped with the neel"~sary deicing and oxygen 'q,uipment.

9. Cold front thunderstorms generally stretch too far to I:ly around; the storm front i a series of individual storms backed by intervening clouds. If you have to go through, By between the storm cent rs or over the saddlebacks.

10. Hall othe-r method. of avoiding the srormare impossible, and you must go through, if possible, determine the direction the storm is taking and head in at a right angle. Once you have

tarted in, don't turn around because of turbulence, rain, or bail, as you will have to fly through the same corrditions twice and you wight g t lost.

11, If the front of the storm is entered th 'r!' will be updrafts, so go in low: if the rear is entered there will he downdrafts, sago in high.

1 '2. In flying through the storm the top third offers Jeast vertical currents,

18. Never land at an airport when a thunderstorm is advancing- toward a field, because of the "hi [ting surface winds: wait until the storm has 'passed

14_ lf you expect to try high-level flight, get altitude before approaching the storrn, so that you are on top of (he cloud shelf around the storm and you can detect the storm line be-fore selecting- your roursr-,

THIS IS ,UA.ER·S TECHNICAl- "NOTE NO. H·U

Usually the thunders'torm cloud is crowned by a flat spreading top. This is the picturesque "Anvil."",

automatic mixtures and icillg of aircraft, use of weather maps, student p~ychQlgf\)' and methods of instrucli~n, three- and six-plane [ormations, milita "Y discipline and cnurtcsies, pay allotments, orders l;jInd travel accounts, and startdardizaticn of student marks and write-ups.

The student officer is required to keep a notebook which hI~ - turns 111 upon "Completing the. Instructors:

School syllabus, The notebook C011- tairrs psycholofi!Cal facts and hints as well as correct methods of instructing.

Ferry Accident

Tw"O SBD-4 [en)' pilots filed <l contact tlight plan at j 324. b.\~('d on a 1230 weather report. Departure was not made until 1 hour later. however, during which timeanoth:ct" weather report had been issued, .:;howing weather aiung their route to be below l'l'lptaCt requireHH!nts. Upon :r~aching th_ii; low-eel Ilng area, the pilots Ief; tb~ airways route and attempted to reach thr>ip destination via a mountain pass. TIIf'. weather gal pl"0gr~5'Sivel}" \'1',01";;("and both. pilots crashed.

~ Grampl1w Pettibone says

The initiol flight dearonce In this. ,fQS.e was pro,per, but 'a doser a:nd mo're soiicitous supervlalorrof flight operations 01 the air -station (ORcerned should have prevented this flight from taking ·off after Ihe adverse weather report was received.

, There are two distinct lessons for ferry pilots iii thi5 case; I. the 12.30 weother report, although sali.sf.actory f·or contad cle.aranc!;:, shewed a rather low ceiling, therefore, th'e latest w:eafher report should have been checked prior to departure, and 2. upon reathing tke low-ce'iling area, the pilots .should have turned back and lancleelot the nearest airport in accordance with regulallons, instead of proceeding. into Q mountainous area. Even without .such regulations, good judgmecot sheuld harve dictated this latter eeurse.

Bucer Cifcular 14--33 COll1tainsthe latest instru ,fions an the ferr.ying of n.aval aircraft. In the interests of safety, ferry flights. have been lim~ heel to dayHghl flights, under contact conditions only, and over eslablishedcivH f:I,jrways insofar ais practicable. Civil Air Traffic Regula-

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lions are effedive oln all flights over civil airways routes and shculd be thoroughly understood by a.1I p.ilots

concerned, ~

Remember, the main objective of aU ferryflighfs is safe doelivery ef the ttirplane!

.Pilot to Blame fot Stalls

NAS, CORPf'lS CURI'ST1.-Tracingback the. causes ofIatal accidents in the Sl\TV-I, investigation boards at Auxiliary Air Station, Rodd Field, have found that in most ca~h tbt' Iault !.!i pilot error,

Considering that at least one of the .~0urces of error mu~'i II~LVC been lh~dl the student had not been taught eerrect recovery m .. thods during hi" training, 2(1 stalls art' offered in ~ new ~l'LIabus for the J nstructors' S.dl,QoL

The stalls taught ure normal cruising', rlimbirrg, dimhrng turns, rmrm;,\] turns and ~1e~p turns, r-ach uridcr [our cortditions.:' Y. Fl.!'rp:; up, sufficient power (J,HGO-L,g;')!) r. p. m.) ; 2. flaps up, insufficient po,\oer ( l,:tnO- 1,4!iO r. p. m.) : :3. flaps down 20~ sufficient power (L80()""'1,850 f. J; m.}, and 4. fiaps 'down 20r!. insufficient power (1,2.00-1,400 r. p.111). Practically all altitudes and pq~;tioll~ of a stalled airplane are shrrwrr. The slaJJmg speeds for earh of the posi-: tions are stressed especially.

The roIl-Qut method of rceevcrv from inverted spins is taught ratlH,:·r than the old split 6 type. Consequently there is less altitude loss and lower airspeed upon recovery.

Lnd udedTn the svllabus Jor Silldent oA'icerH (instnlc~Or~-Eo'.be) is a seri I"~ of 1 CG hrres 011 na val custom, :,In:d uniforrr: regulations, course rules arrd dual syllabus in the SNV-J aircraft, l~~idit) procedure and radio l'l<lvig"tion On airways, salery ill Q.ight, constant sprt'd and controllable pitch props,

Don't Be a. DILBERT!

BU_R~AutCOMMENT

Stalls were involved in 18, percent of all training cccidents during 1942. This syllabus should lead to a better rec.ogni.ti.on of s.pi.1l characteristics. and recovery methods amOng students.

Machine Guns Acd~'e:ntany Disc:ha,rged

NAB. CORPUS CttlnsTf.-Tw() re· cent fatalities caused bv accidental discharge of rnachinr- g~IIS, recently reported by this Station, demonstrate the ncce>s-i.ty of (11 torcinc rig'idl}r all ljafety precautions.

Ca~'t' 1: A Machinist Mate atrarhcd to a squadron of the NAS, Ce:, was sbot and killed while turning the pro-p of an OS2U-3 seaplane which had been £igged in tho-status of an alert plane. In ~~n.lTing his plane for the night, the plane captain was engag.ed in putting on lbte covers, which necessitated I:LlI""ning the pTOp into a horizontal position. In so doing, the .10 caliber fixt:d gun Went off An.d shot him through the head. :Sub~ ~f'quenl investigation of the ejectioncase revealed that there was Ellle dummy cartridge and two links in the ul~e,a.nd l'Olpty cUl'tl'i,Jge ill Ihe- barrel of the gun.

Leaving convoy duty ready-planes with ammunition in the fixed guns was believed to be a time-saving; iUi.laslltt'. ill case of en'lcrgency. Ins~l.'~etiflm were to have. one dummy ill the. chamber andone tlLlOlD1Y in the feedway, Investigation revealed that the gun had been Ioaded abou t one heu t previous to

the" shooting hy an ordnancernan who t rtified that he had loaded the gun with luly one dummy' however, be explained that he had left- the dummy in the feedway, which would leave the gun in thl' arne condition as if he had used two dummies, In order Jor the gun tel shoot as it did (ar;~umil1g the gun was 'loaded as described) the

harging handle would have had to h<' pulled twice, the prop moved to a low cam position and the trigg(lr pulled. As warning signs were in the cockpit of the plane and the- deceased was cell in the plane prior to the fatal shooting, he should have known that the gun was loaded, It was not determined whether party or parties unknown had tampered with me gun In the one-hour interval when the plane was unattended, or whether the gun was loaded otherwise than as described.

See report of a simil(fr accident in News Leller, Dec. 1,1942.

BUREAU COMMENT

Case '2: The second Iataliry Qecurred a a result of rb accidental firing of an M2 .50 caliber Brav-'luug machine gun "lith a MatI> II adapter, installed on 11 PBY -3 plane which had been ferried h'on! another bas« and delivered to the Naval Air Station. Corpus Christi. The plane was left outside a NAS patrol plane hangar for two davs aftrJ' arrival. On the third day, It was brought into tho hangar, and the .:i0 caliber free gun. , ... -hich had been in a secu red posi tion wi th canvas covel' 0)1, wa~ removed from the plane by two N. A. S, patrol squadron ordnancemen. Tb·y imrnediately thereafter set it lip on a bench in tilt' ordnance shack for the p1.rrr se of cleaning it. An ordnan eman then pTOC ,('ded to remove the weather canv 1\ cover, A strip or durh t1T lashin , \,dli 'h held the cover secure, passed From the right side of the gun, over the trigger mechanism and around the back plate; and was secured in a gl'Ommf't Dr tht" cover on the left sjde of the gtlIl. The ordnanreman, in attempting to gN some slack on this strip of cloth in ordt'l" to untie the knot, exert d hi teral pl'eS,U1T on the trigger 'me hanism, "hus di~charA'ing th gun. cadet who was standing imide the hangar was killed by iii fragment of th bullet which had been defleered in passing through the wired glass bulkhead between him and the ordnance shack, The conclusion ill that sorb one contrary to regulations

had left. Jive cartridge ill the bore of this gun. The plane ferry crew delivered the plane and installed gun in this condition without notifying the N. A, ., O. C. that the gun was ,till loaded. A subsequent board of investigation conducted at the N. A. T. C., c. C. revealed that the ferry crew did not know that the gun was loaded when thty aceepted it Jor fly-away, and that they did not go near the gun or examine it prior to delivery of plane at destination.

Mechanic Trouble

The pilot of an NE 1 taxied his plane to the Iine, cut thr switch and l~ft the aircraft, J ust prior to h is return, :a mechanic }luilC'd the propeller through to start the (-'nginc·. The throttle W:1S well advancod ; there we-re no chocks under the wheels, and no. one was in the aircraft. VVh<-n the c:,ginc callght. the airplane' at once

Identify Bef·ore Approaching

RepQr'h continue to indicate that frequently United States plant's apprnacb United States naval vessels before tht-y have been properly identified, This 1);).); resulted in several unfortunate instances and the destruction Df some of these Tllan('s.

viators must thoroughly -apprceiat the fact that the 1)\1 rden of identifying' themselves lies solely upon their own shoulders. I l is unreasonable to expect the commaniling officer of a surface ship to permit an unidentified plane to approach within firing range without giving the order "rommencc firing.' Naval aviatOTS must ta kr- .'very precaution to ascertain with certainty that thuir plane has been identified dellrl}' before making a dose approach l1lJOU our own vr-ssels.

started to take off. The mechanic seized the starboard wing hut was unable to maintain his grip and the aircraft became airborne. It failed to clear the boundary fence at the end of the. field and was' completely washed out in the following crash.

The T)'I}!/ ble Board said: All pl;anl> captains 011 this station have been warned of the absolute necessity [or having a qualif ed person in the co kpit of every plane from the time- the engine is started until the ig-nition hac been turned off'. Sufficient chocks have been distributed to all outlying field, where it is necessary t(~ park planes for even a short pl']-iod of time.

~ G.rampawPettibonesaY5

This aircraft waslo'st es the direct result of carelessness and disobedience of Q.rders. Article 13-133 Buaer Manual contains the regulatiol1s governing starting of aircraft engines. In this instance, the station concerned hod 0150 issued on order on the subject. Evidenfly a little more indoctrination and pressure is necessary in some cases.

Gogg.les-Up Or Down

Quer has been made as to the COfreetncss of thr recommendation to "push goggles up 011 the forehead" in a forced Ianding' (p. I~ of May J NEWS LETTliR). Although standard goggle 3TC made of so-called shatter-proof glas~, they will break and splinter when struck ~eveT'dy. Accident refords iru:iic-ate that numerous eye and head wounds have been caused by broken gogglf: lenses and even by fracrurcd metal Irarncs, Therefore, the Bureau adhere: to its recommendation 10 push goggles back in a Iorced landLng.

A large number of gQggle~ have been issued having sponge-rubber fnlllle~ and flexible pla .. tic lenses. These goagles- need not he pushed back,

More experience may indicate tha t the US\' ()£ the shoulder narnpss, will reduce head and face Injuries to such. an extent that it will no longer be neeessarv to push gogg'le~ back during for .ed landings.

~ Grampaw PeHibone says

That's another thing I'm mad about! I don't belie¥e shouldet harnesses are always being worn. Alii say is, talk fa someonE! who has worn ene in a crash. And you guys who have used tham-proselyte!

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Landing Crash Due to Fouled Engine

_t' During hili 1<1 riding approach, the pilot of J PB4Y-l came in high. but apparently decid id he could execute a .safe land" ing b)' losing altitude in a power-elf glide. He completely throttled ba '11. the I.'ng:rm;~ until the aircraft was OV('r the edg or the field, at which. time he' realized that he was till dangerously overshooting. He then applied full throttle, but the engines had become fouled during the long' power-off glide, and, upon application of the throttle, they Jailed to respond, A lorced landing was made on the last half of the: field, and th . b mber was completely washed OuT whe-n it ran tIff' the runway.

BUREAU COMMENT

Unfortunately, this is not the only serious crash which has resulted from similar mistreatmelilt of the engines' by u'ninformed pjlots. Numerous take-off crashes have been attributed to fouled en~ gines caused by prolonged taxiing or idling orilt low r. p. m .. Piloh should familiarize them.sel v es with Article 14-217 of Bouer Mnnual, which is quoted in part as follow!>:

"'In a glide on engine must be kept warm; it will not be ollowed to go below normal operoting ternperature and the throttle will be repeatedly opened fo clear out the cylinders. When the engine is allowed to cool, (oniraction of the pistons allo,w5 too muc.h oil to be 'pumped' into the combustion chambers and the plugs will be fouled. Prolonged idling of the engine on the ground will cause overheating as well as fouling of the spark plu_gs."

"ood Failure Plus Pilot Error

ThL" pilot of an FM-I accepted hi> plane for Right, knowing that the forward rolleT of the hood on the port side WaJ> out o] its track. Wbat happened on his. flight i,~ rebll"d i11 his own words ; "I bad thrhood locked open :3 hut 2 J [)ChC5 (in the first notch ) when r 1'( llcd over foran overhead gumlery r'un on the target sleeve, Aft!;:']- diving approxiruatelv 2,000 fe~t and attainina about 3110 k~ots. t11 • enclosure gave ~vav on the 1)0\'1: -sidt'. I was st;uck on'lhe righ t te-m pIt' and mornen fa rily lost con ciousness, U pon regaining my

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~ellSes. l -lltt«mptcd to release the hood, whi 11 was _~trea!Thi11g from the starboard side. The release failed, and r then returned to the field and made a normal Ianding.'

The Trouble Board said: Pilots should he cautioned to fully close and Jock cockpit enclosures before g-oing into bigh-specd dives.

~ Grampaw Pettibone says

KNowing that he was going to eNgage in violen. maneuvers (gunnery runsl, this pilot definitely should 110t have accepted this airplane until the hood operafed properly. Common sense Is as imperlant 10 an aviator as flying technique, but unfortunately harder to teach.

Recent Ground Collisions

Cas« J. During routine night Hying the first student made his final landing-. and while taxiing slowly to the end of

the runway was struck from tile rear by a second student who had been signaled to land by the Night Flying Operations Officer. Before the dmnaged second plane could clear the ar '<1., another _ rodent was signaled to land. Thill third student landed sligh tly long, and \\,bik still ill his landing run, collided with th . second aircraft. In the opinion of the Trouble Board the Operations Oflicr-r was to blame f01" these two accidents i L1 that hr failed to-determine a dear area It {ore .si-gnaling additional airplanes ttl land,

Cas!' 2_ Three students we-re prate· tieing formation flyil'lg. After landing at an QUllyir11'[ field. nile of the students

He Forgot to Lower His Wheels

taxied his airplane through some mud and got stuck, The other two students parked. their trainers close by, got nut, and attempted to push their unhappy companion free. After much Labor on the part of students and engine, the a irpla ne suddenly came laos. I T1 01'der to keep from tnirb1g down again. the pilot added throttle. and while taxiing at gl"t'atl'f than normal speed ran into one of the parked planes.

Cast 3. While approaching for a touch-and-gc landing, a student saw another airplane moving down the runway and assumed that this plane was takine ofl, HI' proceeded with his landing and immediatelv upon contacting the runway applied throttle for a rake-off, After lifting hi tail, he -a", the other airorafr directly ahead of rum. An attempt to bounce over the other aircraft was rrnsu ccesaful aud resulted, .in a disastrous collision.

~ Grampaw Pettibone says ",,~~

Out of this mess of collisions, the Navy lost three primory trainers ond hod 10 reploce major parts on four others. In the first two cases,lhe corredive measures are self-evident, but in the last case, which is 0 very common type of ground eellision, there is a psychological factor involved which needs more attention-and that is this business of "assuming" things.

Avtators hove 110 business to "as_ sume" anything. Don't be a "wishful thinker"; don't toke anything for granted-check., re-check and double-check. Anyone in avicltion who does otherWise just proves the old odage that there are more of "them" than there are horses.

-1;.' ~', ~

I Wuz Robbed

When God pa''''d out bruin>, 1 thought He said trains _ ••

And T missed mine.

W4~Jj God passed 0 •• 1 looks, J thought He said books _ . _

And T did.,.tt warn f.lTlY,

WhFn God passed out IIQse , I thought, J-I(! sai d roses . . _

And I asked fo1' a big r e d Due.

Wh~ll God passed our ears, I th-o~lght H· ;;ai d Iwcr. , . .

And I asked for two short on s,

Wil"n God passed out legs, I thought He said keg. __ ,

Aud I asked lor ('>.\10 fat ODes.

WheLl God passed out hip" 1 thought He said lips. , •

And I asked for two large ones. Boy, AM 1 A Mxs s I

-s--Erom NAS~ S'I.rI Pedro, Calif.

9

Superior-The Navy's Corsaie, one of the fasrest fig-liters in the air today, has proved itself superior t<J all types of Japanese Zeros in actual combat, according to an announcement from Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander in Cbief, Pacific Fleet, based on battle records,

Navy and Marine pilots at GuadaJeanal ~my the Navy's new gull-winged fighter plane has the Japanese Zero outclassed ill interception. J,"l1ancuv.crahility, climb, speed, firepower, and armor. In recent aerial oornbats with J apane&e figlilten, CO'I·saits have tung up dazzl ing scores.

pound dummy Is placed in the cockpit. Once the plane is ignited, men arc sent into the flames in asbestos suits to sec how fast they can rescue

the dumm '. .

Boom Speeds Rescue

Foam Swivel Apparatus Is Operated From Trll,ck 0' Cab

N S EW ORLEANS- foam

swivel boom which will speed up the r cue of men caught in burning aircraft has beeu perfected by Gerald J. 'haw AMM2!c, with the assistance of Frances J. Robinson si,«, at this station,

The boorn, a pipe which extends 20 [ et in Iront of the crash trnck to which it is attached, is operated from tbe truck's cab by one man. A small wheel controls the boom's side-to-side mov m nts while a crank handle with a locking mechanism raises and 10wt'r~ the apparatus.

A ventura nozzle is slipped into the truckend af the boom and is detachable. A small tank affixed to the front of the truck holds the chemical , ... ,hich is sucked dlrough a, rubber hose into the ventura, where it is mi red with the water and pours out of the pip as a blanket of foam

whkh sufl'ocatts the £lames it strikes,

Before the foam swivel bOOTTl was devised, it wasne\:es aty for three men to handle the foam fire-fighting equipment alone. Much tim' was lost in preparing the paraphernalia and it was often too difficult f r th men to get dose enough to the fire to be of service,

With the new device, the truck driver can start spraying the cockpit area of the burning plane before his vehicle has stopped moving. He can get closer to the fire since he is pm· tectcd by his cab, and he can be fa r more effective becau e hi boom can b aimed exa tly at the . pot where it .i,s most necessar to pat out the flames Dod protect the pilot.

The foam swivel boom is belng used in weekly fire-fighting work. All members of the station's fire department and crash truck crews participate at one time or another in drills. An obsolete airplane. fu elage is covered with old material and over this is poured \' • st oil and gasoline to

irnulate all airplane on fire. A gOD-

BUREAU COMMENT

This i. on exceUent suggestion for use on the C02 type of !lre and' fescue truck with tile 1 SO-gallon waler tank.

Want "Knots" Plainly Marked

NATTC, JACr,::;OJ\·'VILLE-Duc to the interchange of Army and Navy type", of aircraft, it has been suggested that the alibration u n j t ( whether knot or miles per hour) be mark d distinctly on the face of all airspeed meters, By minute crutiny this fact may be determined, but for the convenience' of pilots, such as those ill delivery units who shUt rapidly from one type to another, the additional notation could be accomplished with a small amount of work on new instrument and with paint on the faces of .installed instruments.

BUR£AU COMMENT

The 8l1rea'l i~ taking eelion to "ove the wofd ".n"h" marked in whit e Or na'u,o' alum,ln u ", fini.h on the dial. of in.t'1Jm ents undar curren' Navy <onl,a<1'o. For jn'trument~ now In uae or under overhaul, marking. "knots" or 10M. P • .H.", 0> th .. ,O.e may be, in while paint on 11> .. cenler of lhi. <oVer glas5 i. recommended.

Need for Horse Sense

.\~~~. AS, P.ENSAGOLA.-

.5,: r ,A yuung cadet, while

~ r l at Ellyson Field, re-

i]) " cently indicated that

he must have studied the Bureau's pamphlet on Paraoh.u;« S~nse. After his plane collided headon with another, the embryo pilot bailed out and carne to earth ncar a farmhouse off the beaten path. The, farmer saddled a hor e, and the cadet galloped some 4 miles to the nearest town, wb rc he met the medical oflicer proceeding toward the era h, When th doctor asked how he felt, the cadet replied:

"WelJ, sir, 1 m going to be mighty sore tOl110rl'OW. This is only the second 'OAM 5WI\lU B(l 0 M ATTACHED TO TRUCRSPEEDS R.ESCU£ DfNAVAI. AV. ATORS CAU~HT IN WREC KAGE time I've been 011 a horse."

10

Forecasts a,t Corpus Complicated

Wind and Lond and Sea Breezes Are Faclors

l'1I"AS" CORPlTS CHl{lSTI-Wt.'~lthitr Iorecastlng at Corpus Christi i& quite different f rom tbal with the fleet, since !.he semi-maritime exposure of thi~ station makes local conditions one of the dominant (actors in predicting the weather,

TIle wind. for instance, docs not al ways shi ft in a cl ockwise n tanner wi th a cold front passage ~ it will just as [requenrly ~hjft in a, counterclockwise manner, OT even shift [rom due South to due North in a few minutes, The land- and sea-breeze effect also CPTIlplicates the picture, sirice "t night the land breeze may carry fog out onto the water where it will not dlssipate but will return over the land when the sea brceeestarts, This land-sea-breeze effect also materially affed!l the strength and direction of the wind .

Another ,complicating factor is that cold fronts moving Iroru the nnrrh frequently lose ;their impetus in this region, making computations of their movements VeT}' difficult, 'Often a cold front will Slop a short distancesouth of Corpus Christi and then move northward all a warm Iront, Illilkiilg complex situations.

Even Experts Go Wrong

NAS, BJ!:Rl\H'D>\.- The ever-present Dllbert was recently featured in a cartoon in N'EWS LETT~R conducting himse If in a manner tha 1 struck home with the navigation officer oI a PBY ~'<]uadron at this base. This D.ffie!']" Wkb~ overdue, but it never occurred to anyone to worry abo[,!t. him, HI:" haa p:rovl2d many times that he knew hi" Nav·iga- lion; he had lectured Oil the subject, Problems of naviga,litm were always brought to bin] to 50Ivt;.

Bu t this time semethirrg wen t wrong, The :fil'st wdication that an was not w~ll came when he radioed £01' the radio range. From then all, it was

Don't Be a DILBERT!

Geo,gra.phit Square Search

A plane Irorn VS 30'1' is rr-turning to th-e ship <lIt~r partie ipating in a ction j n the Stl1'g:asscJ SC2L The VB equipment has been rendered useless, The cl.":ilirig and visibility arc lowering so that visibility is t'~ght (B) miles due to slight precipitation.

At 0940 (which is estimated rime 0'[ intcrccption) the pilot docs. nor see the ship so he emu" rnenees a g·(·og.raphic 1(quar~ search at True Air Speed [TAS) 13Q knots ..

Flying at 800 Ieet he estirnatns the wind to be r1'O)11 06.')", force 18 knots. Variatien is 9" W. Fly th.e search in clockwise direction.

What are-Ihe magnetic heiCIding5, coursE's! andminules on each leg?

Mognelit H" .. di~g. (MI'IL

COUf-5'!!t5 . .... _

Minute. on Le·9 •

I

2d

4th

6th

(Answe" on page 29)

q~titF. dear that lhe uavigarion officer was in a quandary. It was a certainty when he En a lly sa id 1 ha t he was si tting down because his g::c; was low, after havirlg jettisoned most of his eargo,

'EtL, ANYHOW, DILBERT UNOE.RSTOOO THE THEORV OF NAVIGATIONI IF,<>m Nt 3/(5143)

By rhc(lki~lg his position report, he learned that he W<1~ well over a hundred miles feorn the island. and until his gas ran out, was moving. farther n;war-11earer Eurcpe-c-all the time,

He made an excellent fal:rdirJ.g, however, puttmg his plant' dow-n On a sea runni ngi heavy swells. It was approximately 2300 0.0 -a particularly dark night, but, aided by Hates, he was able to ~it do\\'n with /JO damage to h~ plan!'. It, was not until late the next day that ;'I, ship rt:fuol!tp him. Witnesses claim that his take-'Qfl in a heavy sea, wilh il tricky wind blowing, was as pl'etty a one as they haveever ~eer~.

Still, a!! the skill he showed in landing and taking, ~B· was not ~ufI:ir;iCl)t to courrreract the laughs his outfit had when the tar'tuon of Dilbert appeared.

Sorrv" No ~Prints

From time /0 timu requests (1),(J receiued JVT outs or jlri11t.i of ph%l!,raj,liJ ajJlu'(l:rmg ill uatious number; of NR\V"S Le.·l"l'ER, U-njortl.lJloUI')" il t s not jlrarti({oble II!! jmJVide eil her. Cutsare lor:4rd II/I ill forms [rom whil'h 1110 fnag'fl;;ille IS prilliel}. Photol!.raphs INI/:l! NE.WS l:,ltTTERJrom 12 grlYll mali}' SOI/H'N, a:lld there t/.,/)/wflmil)' is 110 arro.n{!:erne'ilt by u'hil'h 11 ,ryl.rt(m oj .gdti11f!, print:r ran Ill' G'11lfzJllidl'uliJl w01'tretl out.

11

,SHIP RECOGNITION

Attack From Above Demands an I,ns.tinct for Quick, Accurate Recognition of Surfal:e (raft of AU Types Quonset's Air Combat Information School Spurs Inlerestin Fleets ofAxi:s and United Nations

TH,£, pel"Sistency with which ac-

CQ1111tS apppnr in the daily papers of the b0mbj_l1g or 'shelling ofi,:llcmy ships by ather enemy planes and 6],;P$, together with the sobering conjecture that SO)l1f" of our own ships may be victims of the same mistaken judgment has resulted in ever-iucreasing attentioe being paid to the subject of f'llwgnition.

The formation of air' spotters' out" posts and the flood (lI airplane silhouette manuals have had much to do with making the '!'lation alr-conscious, OJ equal importance, though far less publieised. is the rieed Ior rapid and accurate identillcatior1 of surface craft.

This pha.:;!! of the recognitien probICJn. it is true, is at last ho!'g1uning- to get the attention it deservcs : hut as yr't a g~neral familiarity witu ships tagx behind OUl' .1lT!)wiedge of planes. loan a ttem pt to stirrrula te greater interest in the fl€et~ of the Axis and United Natian«, this article demonstrates how the problem is handled at the Air' CO!l'Jh;1t Informatioa Offic~'rs' School, NAS, Quonset POint.

Tile method of instruction u~ed in. training Air Combat I rlffJ(rnation Officers (,0 identify friendly and t'nl'IlIY warships stresses, during the early stages. close-up views of the ships to br- studied. In the first prcsentation of a new class of ship, attention is called only to the mlnimum essentials which an observer must know in order to make the correct identification. The student officers are dircctcd not to tale notes (nec€'ssary i nlerma tion is .su pplieel to them on prin ted sheds), Ill! t to con I:; entra te upon pictures, flasbed on the screen, of the ship under consideration, rt is pointed out to the student officers, for instance, that United States battle- ' ships of tJJC Soutlt Dakota class have flush decks, two three-gun turrets for" ward and one aft, and

oil ,i11g1e, widl:'sct,atk, [aired in to a high. smnoth-stded and tapering tower-bridge structure. Particular em-

phasis is plilacd on the fact milt the superstructure on battleships 0f thi~ classis bunched closely together, forming a ~harply pointed pyramidal mass amidship, as contrasted with t11<" less regular, flatter, and more open pyra-

tween the masts, Innv;arcl and aft of the stack, III Ek" ITI',UlTlf't, it is chiefly of importance to note (hat the catapill rs on the British 1ight cruiser T{ 1!'1lj!O arc placed between the stacks, whereas on the British heavy cruiser LOlldon the catapults a~e located between the second stack and mainmast, because this difference in catapult position affords one of the few deDn.ite means of distipguishing' between tv.·o quite similar-appearing ships. Since the London's C<Hilpults are not located between the stacks, the stacks atc:. natural Iy closer together than ate the J{"I!"4'.i~· and the space between the Kerr~I(J'.1 sf'Cflnd stack and mainmast is cOl'Y{,\"pondingly less than on lhe Londen, Thus the comparative .relationship of high, prominent masses to those spaces where the profile-line 01'0].10 do WU 11.1"}) rly to the deck level ddi nitel y determines \"hich ship is which, even at great distances.

Supersrrucfure hasa Profile

If .it j~ possible to secure a good beam viewof ;f "warship, at long range, the classification of that vessel may often be determined by ohserying the sharpness with which. the forward supcrstrucrure profile-line asechds [rom the bow to the top of the bridge,11'lICturC,. or the increasing angle which this line makes with the hori-

nuda! li[]{~~, ,el Iursher aft, on battleships of the North Carolina class.

Structural Masses Note's

The u~ft of large photographs a.nd silhouettes, affording detailed views CI[ a ship, is t:inl~" a Frimary step, Student C).ffiters at the Air-Combat Information Sehoul are never penuirted to forger the irnportauce of l"e('D~qnizjng sh: ps as quickly as possible, and Irom distances at wbich tew detail, can be deady discernible, 1"1'0In the opening day ef the course, emphasis .:i.~ reserved .pri~ madly [or the Iargcr .gr('.llljJing~ of

'JOupe.rstnrctural masses .. COmpI:)Sl'Cl of bridge-strur.turc, stacks and masts, and for the C)'PE', degree of {.1tke, ·a.ud COilJparative heights of masts, stacks, and bridge-structures. The secondary rea" lures of a ship (from the standpoint of 101"1g-cli5tance recognition}, such as the number ;1r1d pos.itiull of turrets and catapults, and whether or not (h!' decks are flush ro' broken, are noted" not ~8 IJllld"l as fltct& in themselves, btu :tor the effent which these features will have in determining the ship's characteristie silhouette as ~ whole,

SOciI details, for example, as the fact that on the .ralJ:m(\~e, battleships FUJO and Yamashiro the stack come" hetween the number three and .numhcr four turrets is of secondary importance to the resulting larger gl'olljJing of masses which such an arrangement necessitates, giying these ships two equal, relatively uncluttered areas, be-

zontul, Because of the: rcln.tivdy Iittle amount of deck ~pace forward of a destroyer's gun houses, the supers!Tuct\u'c profilc-Iine on vessels of this type, when far distant, seems to aseend in )1 pronounced, even slope, On

13

!YIOliELSOF'SHIPS I\ND PL"'N'ES ARE IJISED AT eORPUS CHRISTI MOD AT OTHER' AIR 5TAT:IONS TO' INSTRUCT TRAINEES IN SCI!1NCEOF R:ECOGNITIO,N

cruisers, because of their greater deck space forward €If the turrets, the line of ascent will be much more gradual, to a point just forward of the bridge" where the profile-line rises abruptly, and at a lTIl1Ch sharper angle than 011 a destroyer. On battleships, the' foredeck profile-line is similar to that of a cruiser, except that the line of gradual .ascent will be longer and less clearly marked and the abrupt ascent wilJ rise at a sharper angle.

Angle of Vision a factor

Care shoufd always be -taken, when selecting distinguishing details ora ship [or emphasis, that those details be chosen which can be recognised Irom as many different angles and 'Positions as possible. A lull broadside

14

view of the British Light cruiser .r~enya shows her hangar-bridge ,~tI'UCtUI(' extending beyond the after edge of her number one stack, whereas on the British heavy cruiser Loiulon the hangar-bridge structure does not extend quite so far aft, permitting a dean, unobstructed silhouette of the after edge of her number one stack. AIt hough this di[f,erena.~ woul d he SU ffi-

TURlOtT'S· ON JAP' 51-UPS D!1SeRIBEli ON P"-GE 15

dent to permit distinguishing between the two vessels when the observer is afforded a fuU, broadside VlCW, only a 1>ljght cbange in the position of either ship would make this one point of differentiation inadequate. Of greater serviceability is the point that, because 0f the diffcr:ence ill catapult positions on these two ships, the f{,,;;rvya' $ stacks an; further :lpal't than the L'P.1,d(HJ"~, while the space between the number two stack and mainmast is of greater width on the London than the spa,ce between the stacks, It is nearly always this comparative differentiation between .high masses and relatively clear, low spaces which determines a ship's characteristic profile and makes identification possible, when the ship is at grea t distances from -th c observer.

Aids in Individualizing Ships

In like manner, when commencing a rudy f German warships, it helps to individualize the various ships in the. fleer, above the classification of destroyers, if the following points are kept in mind:

1. Ships with uuo turrets forward and two turrets aft have twin-gun tUIrets ; turrets arranged. in any other order' (i. e. one forward and two aft, two forward and one aft: etc.) have three guns. Thus, if one sees a quarler-bow view of a G rman capital ship showing two three-gun turrets forward, one can eliminate at once the battleship T-irpi1t and the heavy cruisers Eugen~ Seydlits, and Hip per, for all these ships have avo Moret.' forward and aft. and therefore their turrets are twin-gunned. The heavy cruisers Lutsoiu and Scheer and all the light cruisers, have only one turret

l Continued OT! p. 18) TO THE EYE TRAI"'E.P IN RECOG·NITION Tl-IERE C,AN BE UTTLI' POUBT THAT THIS SHfP '5 FRIEHDLY

When first learning to distinguish between the individual units which go to make up a type of combat vessel, it has been found that [he task becomes considerably easier if rome pertinent aid to memory can b tablishecL The one-stack J apanes battleships, for example, lend themselves readily to such an approach, and a grasp of at least one of their characteristic and identifying" features will be facilitated by making this simple application: tUJ;TctS OIl battleships of the Fuso class (a. four letter word) ace arranged in [our different positions-a group of t1'''O being placed forward of the bridg > one tun t between the bridge and stack, another between the stack and mainmast, and a fourth group, of two turrets, abaft the mainmast. On ships of the 1St: class (a I h tee letter word) the turrets are found in grOLlps of three-s-iwo forward of the bridge, two more between the stack and mainrna st, and two other aft. The remaining one- tack J apane e battleships are of the Nagato class, and have rio turrets amidships-as the name Nagato may (or ma;y not!) suggest "No-got-any", or simply a denial, The only other type of Japanese battleship about which anything definite is known is the two-stack Konge class, not readily confusable with aD)' of the one-stackers. The problem' of learning to differentiate between J apanese battleships is not, therefore, especially difEcult.

15

BB BATTlESHIP

PB PATROL BOMBER

COMBATANT TYPES

DD DESTROYER

7

,t

,

S5 SUBMARINE

PG GUNBOAT

dnJ.. 7

AM

MINESWEEPER

PG CO RVETTE

"

Ships of The Fleet

THE student of ship identification

should first of all familiarize himself with the types of ship that .make up a .modern fleet. On these pages arc shown the major combatant units that Iorm the Battle Fleet or make up the rask forces that have assumed such an important role in the Pacific area, Each of these ships has b en de igned to play an aggressive role in combat. Each has its place and function in the disposition of the fleet when at ea.

Not all ship are intended solely for operation with others. A cruiser or Iighter vessel may execute an inde-

For Every Ship That Fights, a Dozen Perform Vital, Prosaic Tasks of Maintenan(e, Supply, Repair

16

7

pendent .ornhat rnis ion, preying UPO!l commerce or clearing the sea of raiders and other enemy naval units

Generally speaking, the number of 'hip;; of each type in a well-balanced navy will vary inversely with size. Thus, for every battleship, approximately two heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, and five de troyers will b built. The relative proportion of our existing carriers or of carriers building or contemplated cannot be expressed in similar terms and is therefor omitted. It will suffice to say that the proportion of ships of this type in our

""f-

PT MOTOR TORPEDO BOAT

PC SUB CHASER

PY YACHT

AO OILE.R

AK CARGO SHIP

AH HOS.PITAL SHIP

Navy wi11 be greatly increased O"'C1" the pte-wal' level.

F6r every ship that is built to meet an opponent in battle, a dozen are built to perform prosaic but necesswry jobs Ior maintenance, supply, and proteetion of the fleet and its shore establishments, Many types of repair, supply, and transport vessels are constantly engaged in supplying and maintaining our two-ocean fleet. Extended naval operations would often be impossible without these ships. In waters where' adequate docking, repair, and fuel facilities do notuxist, the crip-

L ri

LC LANDING CRAFT

pling of an enemy repair ship or oiler illiilY require modification or abandonment pf au. important operation. The destruction of a 1'1 enemy's a uxiliaries must, therefore, be regarded as all objective 01 major importance.

Identification of these units is irnportant, An observer must be able to

CA ...... ~

C! ....... ~

CL .........

uv _

R[.LATIV~ PROPOR'TlDN OF ~OMa"'TsHIP TYPES

ACIJ AUXILIARY AIRCRAFT CARRIER

REPAIR, SUPPLY ANO TRANSPORT

AV SEAPLANE TENDER

distinguish enemy ships of these types from corresponding vessels of his own navy and of his allies. Accurate repotting of minor enemy ship types pn.'Sent in an oper'ating area is an 'important factor in anticipating an opponent's plans and in fanning stratcgic as well as tactical decisions, It is not enough, therefore, simply ·to know YbUl' own and the enemy's m~jor combatant ships, Fliers espet;ially should become familiar with minor vessels in order to report accurately the types of the many ships that 'will be absented in theaters of war,

17

.... tlAIR.T,RIGGER RECOGNITION OF PLANES ,AND SHIPS ,5 IMrORTI'NT ATTIUBl.l:n: OF GODO GUNNERS

i Continued from p, 15)

forward. So, by the Pi' res of elirnination, the ship in question must be one of rh two remaining capital ships-either the battleship SehornhOTS! or U1e Gurisenau.

2. IE the picture of this same ship, with two three-gun turrets forward, permitted more of a beam view, a further distinction could be made by recalling that the Sc/!aI'irl!Of'st (containing the Jetter "H" in her name) [ias a hangar structure between the stack and mainmast, whereas her sister ship, the Gneiseiun: (,,,hose name does not contain the letter "H") has no hangar structure, and therefore presents a more open appearance amidships,

3. The only one-stack German capital hips to have catapults between the bridge and stack ate the heavy cruiser Lut zoto and the light cruiser Leipzigthe only two big German ships whose names begin with Ole letter "L".

Discernment is Essential

Obviou Iy, mechanical aids, similar to the ones just suggested, can be carried to the point of absurdity, and carl': must be taken to "keep this type QJ approach within reasonable bound" When it is possible, however, to devi e

orne means of associating the name of a ship with some peculiarity of that ship's app~arancc, the effort of sheer memorization is definitely lightened.

The Air Combat .Iuforrnation School officers at Quonset are req uired

18

to learn all the various grQups of ships within a type-classification. It i not considered satisfactory merely to be able to recognize a ship as a German destroyer or a British battleship. Thouzh in mort cases it might be sufficient to r 'cqgnize a strange vessel as an enemy cruiser, the ability to form such. a judgment, with certainty and rapidity, can be gruncd only from a well-founded, practiced knowledge of all the various units which go to make up a type or class, Experience has shown that if one is able to IDS riminate consistently bet-ween the various classes of Japane e cruisers, he lias a much. more positive and reliable knowledge of what the Japanese. crui er Iooks like, and is not so liable to become confused by minor alterations and disguises.

General Distinguishing Features

From time 10 time it is helpful to review national characteristi s or the general distinguishing features of clas es of hips a a whole. At the Air' Combat Information School parts of certain periods are regularly set a ide for reemphasizing such details as the differences .in construction and longrange a:pJ)~arance between the inordinately high, lop-heavy, cluttered appearance of the tow rr-bridge structures on Japanese batrleships=-frequcntly twi 'C the height f the stackas contrasted with the massive, Ul1- tapered, smooth- ided appeara.nc of the bridge structures on British battlcshi ps, or the more slend r, tapering. "lighthouse" type of smooth-sided tcwer-bridge on some of our more 1 • cent ships of the same classification .

Or again, it may b a comparison between Japanese and United States types of tripod masts and bows that are brought up for discussion, Such points of consideration are always dealt with upon a comparative basis and illustrated, m~ofar as possible, with pictures of ships appearing so small or so indistinct against the horizon that the untrained eye would be abJe to gather little or no evidence from them.

But the. Air Combat Information School Officers are used to dealing with material of this description. The rapidity and accuracy with which they are able to make their identifications, ill addition to the general overaU picture of fleets, which they acquin.:, would seem to indicate thai in the past not 1"110U.e:h emphasis had been placed upon this instructuve and impcrtant phase of recognition training.

Modern French Design

Recent developments in civil and military types Indicate new French fighters will be equipped with counterrotating propellers and attain speeds up to 435 m. p. h., according to Technical Data Digest. The Bloch 157 Fighter; a low-wing all-metal sing] . s at monoplane has been d veloped from the Bloch. L 5 and Bloch 151. Powered with a Gneme-Rhone 14R it has two retractable underc31'riag ana samber-changing' Ilap". The l'l,-cyl. twin-row air-cooled. radial engine produces t 590 !J p. fOJ" take of[' and drives ::I Ratier three-blade '. p. propeller.

Vdng area: 206.7 square feet (compared with 187.3 sq. ft. in BIQl:h 151). Gross weight less armament: 68351h. Wmg 10 ding without armament: 32 lb.lsq. ft. Power loading: 4.30 lb./hp, Maximum speed; 435 nr, p. h.

nl2S:,LlOO It. Rate of climb: 28,000 It. in el ven rninu tes. Range: 620 miles at 90 p~' cent of maximum perrQrmallcc~ or three hours cruising at 25 280 m. p. h. Armament is reIJOI'tecl to be tw 20-mm. Cannons and four 0.3 (7.5 rnrn.] rifle calibre machine g1..J.r1s.

Tandem 1500.hp. Hispano Suiza 12Z engines equipped with counterrotating propellers are featured in the pew vo 50. Engines are rnounted 0I1C in front of, and one to the rear and b 'low the- pilot's cockpit. Extension shaft of rear engine and p-res ure oil lines [or operating c. p. propeller pass between the 1· of pilot. Gr 51' wt.: 16500 Jb. ~"Ving area: 365 to 1187 sq. ft. Wing loading! 4:1 lb.zsq, Lt. ].oth the conventional and tricycl undercarriage type are under construe lion ~

Mention is made of an experimental high- altitude lowwing rnonoplan still und t developn lent. Two Hispano

oulza 12Z liqu id -cooled 12- cylinder engines; housed side-by-sjde in fuselage nose and driving counter-rotatinz propeller ~ are enclosed in a

"T. A. C. A. cowling which also accommodates the coolant radiators, The fuselage, which accommodate a crew of live, is completely streamlined with a transparent dome forpilei's head slightly projecting. It "is equipped with pre' ure .abin 10 flights up to 49,000 ft.: Undercarriage retracts into thick winz,

B, ric f descriptions are g i veil of the Dewoitine D-520 single-seat fighter, the Loire-Nieuport L- 10 (the only French-built divebomber) 1 and the Bloch 162, a four-engine bomber with

maximum speed of 32.3 m, p. h." £> range 01 1500 miles and carrying a useful bomb load of 7800 lb. as. well as severa I types of civil aircraft.

AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND

fF) ;~;~ :~~;~ ~.,,~ .",~.cr "~.'~CI ~

~E!lnE" W

(0. 5h."m", toop) It,,, I .. i,,,,,.)

WING!! BAR

vl.bo.",Ld, Il,."" P~I':kel) (Ou Should., Loop,) IShirt ." T .... .;, Coal)

#s

ER\'1S0RY OP.fIf.ER (Chlee .PH,,')

#

CAPTA 1 1'1 (PIl,,')

,

FIRST OFflCEIl (Co.PlI.,)

/

F!,IGRT NAVIGATOR

/

FLICHT RADIO OPEI:!.,\10n

/

FLIGHT MECHANIC

STUIPES

(Ob L(I'I"u Slec:\'~) t Blouse ~

20

....IR TRANSPORT COMM.AND AUTHORIZES INSle:;NIA FOR ITS ,",[RSONNE"

Hotel Barber Becomes Jap Colonel

Hong Ko.ng Experience Gives Codef New Ambition

CAOET SELECTrON BOA It D. CHI.

GAGO. A determined 17-year-old boy [TOm Waupa 'a, Wis., turned up at the Board it few days .ago with about as good a reason for enlisting in the Navy air ro.r·ce as any youngster.

Young Raymond Larson is the son of an il company representativ and for 16 of his 17 vears has resided in Hong: KOQg, Chi~a. In December of 1941) then only 16, Rav watched the J npancse push the defend "I'S of Hong KOlJg back, back, until only the island fortress held. Then came the incessant air raid: and finall the inevitable capitulation to vastly superior forces,

Ray, his brother and his mother and father were interned along

with other civilians at the

Hong Kens prison. 1t011- ically, the .J apanese whu Lad .b en the meek hotel barbel' turned up in a colonel's uniform after the invasion and was placed in charge of the Intorment camp.

'Weary months of waiting, followed in their one-room prison. A diet of a handful of rice and v ge1!ables daily took 65 pounds orr Ray's father and 40 pounds off his ruotber, .he internee kept lip faith with hopeful rumors of release. Then the big day- the internees were herded 011 a Jap ship and hauled to a meeting place with the .intermetional exJUll1geship Gl'ipshoim. And

finally, back home. Ray'S

pig ambition after COl1lpU-

ing high school is to getin a

avy plane back over Japan, arid repay his former captors with a few choicely placed bombs far the treatment

they gave him during his internment in Hong Kong.

Aerial Gunner's Mark

Soon Available af Small Stores

The A e r i a 1 Cunner's distin,.,'uisbJ 1Ig' In a .r k nov.' is being manufnctured at the N fl II a l Clothing Depot in Brooklyn and soon will be available to RUJ,J'ply officers of small stores who make dernand [or them there. The sleeve marking will bt' made' in two colors, 'white 011 blue and blue 011 white,

The ail' !$J.mntJl"s badge is authorized for wear by enlisted men who have successfully cOIl\plett:d the prescribed course in air g'UilllEt'\' or who have been qualified in 'a('I'twd~J1Le with approved standards rNL "1/1."I/t3l

J

~I.F

..

D.im Light Aids Vision

NATGj PgNSAGOLn-During leelures and between night fiights, pilots at Ellyson Field OCc.upy .a ready room lighted OItJy with a dim red light. This particular lighti-ng facilities night vision to a higJl degree.

S .: /J f' r al I'fcdtnmeuda/·jfll/S have come in th.a« NE.wS I,ETTER. be print (Hi on 111:!rjI tight stork, T'h» question of paper stock: tvas Uwrougld.'), inuesiigatl:rl hy NEWS LETrnR when it, format Lila.\ C'/wl!.f!,cd (i~nlc of AjJlil ]5, {.1:)43). At I hat time Ihe conclusion /t'Cl.\ teactied that, nil factors bclir~g l'onsidll1'cd, Jmntin g OIl a stock l1!,(htel' tluu:

I he presC1~t light glt/.rig (4Sc jJ(J'!Ind text, 60-/Jo'4nd aoue?') W(?u{d give iUMr teprtrdu ction ;,1 iilustretions. T /1.(. ~wlJinJ: -ill tceigkt to be gainr:d did not: cornjll?l1.tat(1 to)' t/Jis disadnantag«,

Sea Water Safe to Drink

A lJr::tnital method of llIaking sea water safe to drink has been perfected by a j unior gra.d13 lieutena ut in rhe Nowy'!> Medical Research In~li,lute.

Using four small plastic bags and two chemical rompounds compressed into soap-cake size, a man in u lifeboat can produce a quart of d,.inkab.le water without assistance. Ti-n T)al'k~ ets of the chemical. carried on an aircraft rubber raft, would be enough to provide a 20-day supply qf water for OTIC man, This is how the process works:

Sea W 11 tc:r is put into -.or\(> of the plastic bags 'with nne of the chemical compounds, The compound precipitates the sodium salts out or the solulion, and the water .is poured into another- of the sacks, equipped with a filter, This remove . s the salt, but the water is Ntill too alkaline to be drunk safely. :It is then poured into a third ~ad" and the process is repeated with another rhemical compound making the water palatable .

ADU's Doing ,Fine Job

Set Record Despite Handicaps

Aircraf] D ·ljwt'y Units, \-1,hOSB job it is to give last-minute check-ups to Navy planes bound for tl-u~ war Ironts, have more than doubled their work output in 4 months, aceording to a statement by thl" Chief ~r the Bureau . of Aeronautics commending them.

Disney Runs Cartoon Contest for News letter

Dick Shaw Wins War .Sond

The bony d8W of ratloniug has touched most of llfe's ncccssitiC;; but, as far as NEWS I.ETTER is concr-rned, there'll be ]10 shortage of cartoons. A 2-Ioo[ pile of fri.'shly drawn samples, using all recbniqucs and gags that rangr' (rom the ridiculous to the sublime, has arriwd in thp NRW:, LE1''I'ITiR office fi'OJ'11 the V\·alt Disnev Studios on the Pacific r-oast,

Thesesamples 0 r dra wn 1:<11 11l10T 'tepresent entrees .in a contest rouducted among Disney artists cspcciallv for NEWS ~£TTfiR-q briHil,mt scheme originated by Disney', Carl Nater ;).11d a naval lieutenant ~ ol'King on. tl'ainillg' Iircratureat Disn.e}~s.

The artists who submitted cartoons are fcHniliaJ' "\v:ith every aspect of the general subjeet of humor, but their progress on this Ms,ignrneot WM pep· pered by the knowledge that in Nuws

u:

LETTER the cartoons would uJtim.a.te1y reach naval aviation personnel at every fighting front,

Wi.nncl' of the contest was Dick S hs w who:'\c ribboned r-onrrtbu rion,

"They always start off with such a hell of a jerk," appears in this issue (pag,~ 25) . in later issues there Will be more ca noons f rorn the lJ isney artists, NEWS LETTER welcomes ideas [OJ' gags.

WALT DrSNEY CONGRIITULATES ,Olta .. SHAW, WIINNER O~CARTOOll,CON.TEST PUT ON' FO~ NEWS U:TTEII

21

T1IJS CHIEF aviation machinist' malt! is lnstalling n dehydrating bag of chemicals in a new Wright Cyc/one l-I-cylinder airplane engine to keep the moiaturc (Content of the air in it. in-

ternal parts a" low as possible to prevcnr rust. Skill and patience an' by-words in advance maintenance, It is upou these men that Navy depends to teach Ten-uit. how 10 repair today', machines.

AIRPLANE DOCTORS

Experts at Aviation Maintenence School Diag.nose Plane Engine 1115

22

THE all-important "man behind the

guns" of th Navy' Corsairs and W£ldcats, tS th aviation machinist' mate=-t'airplane doctor '''-wbo ca n diagnose an engine cough and tell in a split second whether to operate or change the liquid diet.

In Chicago stands the Nation's largest advanced aviation maintenance school, in which 3,500 rated men take post-graduate work and spe •. :'ia1izi;' in

one of 10 highly skilled aircraft maintenance curses.

Many of the students and instructon have jus t T' ently returned from Pearl Harbor, Midway, Coral Sea where their jobs a.s.l101'E., or on th Lexington, Tll/asjJ, or Hornet were "temporarily suspended." Knowing VI hat 'war means and what machines mean. to modern warfare, these men an' really $tudying with a vengeance.

SYNCHRONIZED TIM'TNG of an airplarre engine's tWQ m~gDe!0S is necessary il its cylinders arc to fire correctly, Using a ti:r;Qi;n.g light device in the synchronizaticu "process greatly sirnplifies the delicate operation for this aviation machinist's mate.

CH£CKI.!'ilG the. 'magncte on a test bench to sec if its speed, output, and sparking gap are adjusted for maximum pqw .. r output required by an airplane's engine,

AN AVIATION ordnanccman installing a .50 caliber .machiue gun in a power-operated deck turret (In one or the Navy's figbting planes. Without its b'Uns operating JrI tiptop shape rhe plane can bl" expected to do very little more than run,

A VIATION MACHINISTS MAT E S learning the intricacies of sparkplug leads and the, igllitioo manifolds on 1J.. standard 14-cylioder Wright Cyc!on~ airplane engine.

WATCHM '\KERS, like thjll DOC, find a. -place Ior their talents polisb ing up e I c ctrod e ti p son sp ark pl ugs> using jeweler's lathe ill well as magnifier.

V1SlJ AL A IDS prove effective in the teaching of complicated aviation instruments to 'Student machinists. The maintenance problem ~, a full-time job for several men and specialists are the order of the day-me talsmi ths, .machi nists experts 1n carburetion, instrurnen ts, ~let";triQal appliances, hydraulics and propellers in addition to general ov .. rhaul a-nd ordnance. This class is studying sev!" r al types of instrum nts which are found on a plane dushboard, ineluding a suction sage which lets the aviator know when other of his instrurnen til operating by suction will function properly, Students ar .. given plenty of actual aerjal instrum .. nts to study along with such blackboard sketches and drawings. An aviator's dependence on his instruments is too well known to require -any comment,

23

Excels in Recognition

DEL MONTE PRE-FLIGHT-One

mistnke in mere than 1,000 rccognitirm tests of airplanes and ships was the re - ord hung up at this school by L_ W. Moffit, pre-flight student. Moffit's lone recognition errur carne when he jdentifird .\ slide of a BD-l as a B-26. School authorities credited his record to an amazing visual memory and to hi complete relaxation at tho: time he took the tests.

Notes on Training films

History of Naval Aviation Among Subjects

Birth and growth of the Navy's ail' arm are reali tically portrayed in a new film, The f:Jistm")I of Neual Aviation, produced for the Bureau by the March If Time. Th picture tell, the tory of naval aviation E(om the time H. Navy observer viewed the first Wright plane ill Ilight, The Navy's early air heroes arc revived in old pictures of test flight. and carrier landings.

The film has been designated fer s llabus use in preflight scho Is and .is being distributed to the following activities fat' general interest and indoctrination;

ComAirPQc, ComAirSoPac, ComAi,SoW~>!pqC, Cern Fa irWin '3s; NAC PerlSOC:OICl, (orpo~ Chrfsii, Joehol'lville, Seattle, Son Dieso; NAS Norfolk, Alq. meda, Pearl Harbor, Sunnvvcle, Lok,,~urs!, Ouonset, NOLlm'liO, E.piriJ"O, T erO1il'lol lslond, Willow GFOV"f Bermudo. Trrnidodr Son Joan, Guonlonomo, Antisuo, Kodiak, Sitko; Sot. Annopolis A- V(S) schools, Pre-FI f'3hf, NACSB, 1 sf, 2d, 3d, 5th Morine Aircra~ Wing;, c«, and ACV. Film desig; MN-1253.

The; Aircraft Mamteu<lTIce Series

isn't just a series of slide films 10r A & R shop. It does include '"<1,1- uable films for these shops, hut they arc only parr of more than ] ,000 individual slide film~ which have been produced on ] ') operating plane type~ under the technical supervision of

aval Air Tech ni cal Training C01l11U.

2.4

IDirector' of Training, Fright;. Maintenance, and Material have assigned training film reviewing committees. All available naval aviation training films are being reviewed by officers on these committees. Filrns approved wiil be listed in tl:\e Tl"!lining Film Bulletins.

To expedite delivery of films, all activities, including Marine Corps and Coast Guard" should direct art official request to: The Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. Units of the Functiorial Training Cornmands should route requests via the Training Gom~ manti. Operafing units sh uld rout requests via Air Force Administrative Commands, and other aviation activities should write direct to the Chi .. { uf til Bureau.

Officers Studying Supply

class of officers is attending the new Aviation Supply Officers' School at NAS, jacksonville, All graduate" of the Navy Supply Corps. chool, the officers are receiving all intensive l-month course in special aviation supply problems, After 'instruction they "will hr: assigned to duty at Naval Aviation tati ns.

GunnersT rained on Ground

NE-l Is "Targe'"

MCAS, EL TORO, CALIF.-Tl1rret gunners are being- trained OIl the ground hero by th use of an NE-I as the "ta1'g' t," Regular TBF and Martin pOwel" turrets an" mounted on trucks or trailers and provided with power from tho truck engine.

The Cubs TOTtle in very close to the turret, and the gutlltl'I'Ji ha,vi!; a target which requires approximately the same

speed in aiming that a fa tel' plane would require at the normal distance likely to be encountered in comha t.

Don't Be a DILBERT!

Longs to Be Navy Pilot

Under-Age Boy Offers 10 Help Navy Department

A fine example of the high regard that the YOLlnge!" generation has for Naval Aviation is t.bis letter Irom a l-l-year-old CaliforniCl youth:

DEAn IRS: I arn. a 1:'I'-ycar-old boy who lives in Garver, Calif. All my life [ haw wanted 16 Qt· -a Navy Pilot and fly one of those super SBD dive bombers, 1 have been wondering about my future !I!; it Na"v), pilor, but my parents [ill rue to lotget about it but 1 can't, because [ love jlyjng.

Now what I W.1Ill you to do for me is (0 send me all the things that I would need to gel past a N;wy tf'~t so that I ollay prepare for what I will n-ed to study over during my high school years, and also if it isn't too ~]H1("h trouble, a complete test or form that I will' have to filJ alIt when I graduate from high school and jeiu the Navy Air Ccrps

Sincerely ours,

WALTER SCOTT.

P. S. If there is anything' I can do to help the Navy Dept. please let me know,

35 Mil. Gunnery Sight Recommended

Excels as Reticule in SNJ's

It has come to the attention of the Gunnery Training Section that many operating and training units aTC still using the N2A and N3Ail1IJm1natcd sight in SNJ airplanes with the old Army Air Fore reticule (sometimes called the "Christmas Tree Sight' ).

The Bureau has long been committed to. the policy of using onty 50 and 100 mJ1. fixed gunnery sights for trainIng and operating aircraft wh rever possible. However, the SNJ ,optical installation is uch that a 50 mil. ring will riot be visible on the reflector because of its distance Irom the pr()" jer,to1". Consequently, a 3.5 mil, reticule has been developed (Av:iatjorl Ordnance Stock O. 2-4 .. -605) which should be used.

- BuOrd circular letter V28-42 CODtains all the nee . :ary information on th 35 mil. sight and it is urgently recommended that units procure and in tall this rt:!ti ule. The reticules may

b obtained through the usual scpply channels.

lluOrd has requested that all units having SNJ airplanes 'equipped with illuminated sights, whose planes are used mainly for general utility and transport and 110t for gunnery [raining, be turned into Supply for distribution among' the units which urgently need this sight, Cooperarion of all squadron and unit commanders i urgently requested.

T raining in Gasoline, Systems

Courses for Officers and En/;s~ed Personnel

With the object of familiarizing operators with the complicated gasoline sy-tellls noll' being installed in CV's < nd ACV' s, initial arrangements have been completed for training both offierr and enlisted per .onnel in. this branch of technical learning.

The schools will be Iocatod on the East Coast at NOB orfolk, and on the We.t Coast at NYD, Puget Sound. Fir t classes are expected to begin in about two months, and working modl'L of l be ga;;olint' systems are being con: tructed at the present time.

Drills Pa!y Divi'dends

Dunked Pilot Acclaims Value

NAS, BANANA RWER. FLA,-Those pte-breakfast ell. Iisthenics. drills, and daily exercises at traini!)g stations may not always be appealing, but they pay off big ill idends. Take the case of a youug naval pilot whose plane crashed into the Arlantic shortlv after a takeoIL The pilot was dm;ked in the icy water jn heavy Right gear. Later he wrote a lett ',1' to t1']1' athletic off . rs at NAS, B a nana River.

"Thanks for getting me in pretty good shape, fo-r I doubt very seriously if I'd rome out of the crash if I had not been in fail' condition. Swimruing about 15 to 20 ruin utes ill icy water with heavy flight boob and ja ker on is no f'a~y task. I found out" The pilot is back in .his flyin.~ tog~

"gain,

A German is credited with the dcvelopment at United States l\T~v;.' blimps which are now sinking GerI11aD submarines, Count. Zeppelin conceived the idea white an observer in a balloon here in the nited States,

USS "Sable" Active

Tra;ner Carrier Once Steamer

The Navy's second inland training aircraft carrier, the USS ;Sl1ble~ comrnissioned early in May, is . someWhI'T(' on the Orear Lakes" training Navy []jer .

The Soble was converted Irom the luxurious lake steamer CreateI' Buf[aio and similar to the S8 J1.'olv/!!l'ine, a tonner steamer converted last August and ill usa on Lake Michigan. Although th· Scbl« has a 5l)O-fo()t flight deck and an island supers TU{,ture exactly like that of a combat carrier, she has no hangar deck since the planes used for training' will be based ashore.

The Kid from Y'avapai

Tearful Verse Describes Plight

Whiltt an duty at Pres ott, Ariz., an aviation cadet recently fell victim to German measles and wa confined to the Yavapai (t'hyrlle.~ with "have a pie"] Hospital. At that time, the COl] tagious cases w re confined in th~> mat rnity ward, which circum ranee had a devastating eH ct all the cadet's dignity. His comment follows:

_\ 8_\ 1I,OH'f\ ~_A f'TIl1"H1E

Oh, grasfl Ih~1 linen kerrhie], PO?' it 1(>(1.1' !.I'ill {Ill ,'our l!JI'I As )101/ lis/en to th» story

Of th» kid [ram l'auapai.

(Win. 1',1.0-," p. 211

I

Alas, our /earle,I's birdman Hes /oldrd in his ttJZ'IIgs, And from his solemn bedside WI' heat the Jon!!, h e .I'£ngs.

No more hanga« jargo/I"

j'!J.JI a doctor's persiflage A.lid a million I ill)' red th i1.g..f Fpon m)1 fuselage.

They snatched awtry my gO{!f!.llis.

Sf1~'t)Ped me of m~J sword, An d then t1u,), hail to pu: me

li1 the damn maternit,), ward.

So here's you)· toughened sailor, Wdh [ruit juice [or {J drink, All Wl'tl/J/)(Jd up nu:e and comfy III a baby blanke! t,illk.

FIat I lie in bed, (I dream1HgShoo ling J aps info the sea .

Bu! my nigger jin'r',e.I"s ,)(Jralching Those ltchillg spots all m¢.

Cosh, tohen t hi war is ouer Aud my children ask I:a aWe To h etu abou! the battles And oduentures thut J SaW.

H QU,) ctnt I bnJ.r to tell. "ern.

That the ant;' ioounds I patched Resulted from t he measles

A 'lid lite places where I scratched.

P/dase (eel JO'l"lj' for this eagle Who jo£nM /.i'ilh Unde Sarli; I started with a parachute

And finished untl; (.1 bedpan.

1"./0< I heave a sigh 'Of Jonou'

il ltd dab )l'OUT tearful rye,

For you'vr heard the woeful siory Of the kid [rom Yavapai.

-J ,\.\lll~ :\f ALl.IS11ill,

"They always start these things with such a hell of a jerk!"

25

BEST ANSWERS

Can You Nome Them?

2, Effect of prolonged e-xposure to extreme cold (-40 J C, or celderl is to

Pic]. the best choice 10 comph'lv tho' siut ')I1t'nts bulotu, then rlierk you,. ansu-er Oil /lr:f/!,f' .12.

1. When a pilot -is suffering from severe cold, flying involving frequent shi,ft'S in altitude

o II ;is beneficral for the pilot's health

D b dCcrN1SC, .tf'ndc,ney to black-out or I

fainting-

D t: should be avoided [or a few days o d has no effe-ct On g~mTul hi-alth De; s likely to be La tal

o II srimufa re the pilot by making him un<'ornfoTtahle. and .hdght1":oing awan·TICSS to his e-nvrronmr-nt

D b stimulate ,the cardio-vascular <111d respiratory 'j"]Ill"UH so lh,,1 oxy!!"~n d~ffci~n<:>' is partly overcome

o I' nO! Importarrt If the' pilot wears an elccrr.ically hca red suit. d"spite t 1)1' t~nl~'" ra turr- of the Ci i r hrca rhed

o r1 slow brea ~i,n_g a nd circulation, thus increasing tb.e effects of oxylien lack

o I' reduce the effects of oxyge-n lack b('c!Hrst" cold O><),,S'rn is de-nser, wi th 11AP r<,sl,I)t that we get more of it when we breathe

3. Sensation which arises when rot dry movements are stopped is

o (I LnL'Y('I'lSccl wt-jght of the bod,

D b rotation about the anti' aN1~ 1&, the same direction

o e rotation about tlw same 3".-:iS if I che opposi tc direction

D d rotation about diflcreru axis o linear acceleration

4. In flying the most important dnd reliable of the senses is

o a auditory Cl II visual

o c tactile

o Ii kinaesthetic

o e gusta torj

5. A pilot's inner ear informs him of

o (J continued 1I.IiifoI'JTl Iirtear motion

o b continued uniform rotary motion

o c lirjf'aor ",ccrl~rfldorlS only

o d rotary "ccelcPl1.tiollS OTl1)-

o ,e both luteal" and ,rota)")' ~ccl'lera!ion."

26

Cadet Svllabus Expands

Corpus Curriculum Emphasizes Ground Training

NAS, CORPUS Crrmsrr-i-Ced ets in advanced VPB squadrons at this stadon soon will be rC("("lVll'lg a more omplete syllabus of trainjng than heretcforc.

.8asiJlg revisions on reccrmmcndations of graduates who have gone to operating- squadrons, a well as of returning Heet pilots, cadets, ~,llld officers from other stations, instructors have formulated a new syllabus pIG cing as much emphasis on grnund training as on flight training.

The new course includes lectures in organization and operation, engineering: and maintenance, aerology, gunIlt'l'y and bombing synthetic training devices, naviga ion, communications, self-pres .rvacion, and talks by pilots who 11;]\'1:: s en action o.:J various l rents,

SBD Tows Targets

Has Advantages Over SNJ's

UbC' of a model SHU-3P plane to tow antiaircraft targets is outlined in. a letter [rorn Utility Stj1ladroll Seven Commander to the Commander of Fleet Air, Wes; Coast.

The 1 'tier describes toe installation and reports test data on a tow installuri on designed to accomruoda te ei ther a Navy Mark 5 or an Army Type G-fj Tow R['cl

The Mark .'j reel will l'arry lQ,ClO(} feet of %::-in(·h cable and the Army Typo C-:'i will carr 7,000 fe{'t of Ysinch or 10,000 [cet of :~1:1-im:h cable. B th reels have been adapted to lise the Vickers MF2-713- G.-BCF or MF2-71:'l-23-BCF rewind motor in connection with the Pe co No. 2.03 pI! lllp which is standard equipment. on this airplane.

With such an Installation Model SBD planes have the following advantages over Model B,NJ planes fOT antiaircraft target towing: 1. Approximately 25 percent more !light endurance. 1. 15' to '20 knots gl'f;(lter speed, 8. Capability to tow the Mark 14 target sleeve which is required for lligh altitude antiaircraftfiriug by surfacecraft. 4. Better diving qualities. 5. Higher service ceiling, 6, Carrie s slrfficiel1t length of tow cable tp perform any typt' of antiaircraf'r towing,

Activities desiring detail d information on installation may requisition complet set of blueprrnt drawing from the Commanding Officer, NA, > San Diego. Inquiries. concerning operational experience should be directed to the Commander, Utility Squadron Seven, c/o fk~~ Post OAlce. San Francisco,

Oxygen School for A-V(S)'s

Aviation Physiology a Course

NAS, JACKSON\'lLLE, l"LA..-A r{'· cent noteworthy development is the oxygen school for A-V(S) officers at this station. The first cbs. was graduated in May and another clasx started irnlncdiatrly.

The original Bureau plan was to train 12 A-V(S} officers every 6 weeks until L08 had been graduated. This number will be increased, it is believed. ft 'is planned ultimately to station an oXy<Tcn officer with every squadron and rm every carrier i.n. the tleet.

Student fficers receive training not only in the mechanics of .o"),g'CI"1 equip. t11{;,T1t-clm~tr]J{'ljOn, maintenance, repair, and tl",~ting- but also in aviation physiolojry, which includes physiology of respiration blood vascular system. acceleration, equilibration and balan c. The clnss attends lecturr-s each day, work, with the equipment and get~ in rtruction in the operation of th pressure chamber.

It i, believed that the Pl' senre of these officers with the squadrons and on carriers wilt eliminate many of the accidents due to careless Of inexpert use of oxygen.

American Youth a Threat

S'T, MARY'S PRE-ji·LJGH"f, MORA(;AHi tier J ugend who follow the sea will meet 11101"· than their match when today's classes of Naval Aviation Cadets swing 'iutu action against them. PreHight figures shew that cadets undergo no m~~agrc physical transformation in a mort time.

At St. Mary's, for example, when starling upon his :l months preflight training, the- avel'age cadet l~ 5 Ieet 9% inches tall, weighs 1541h pounds, measures ~61lf inches around the che t and has a \ aisr lim' of 29V.t inches.

When he grudua tes and moves OJl to flight training. hi~ height has in-

rea ed a quarter of an inch, his weight 5% pounds, and his chest 1% inches. The only decrease is shown in the waist, which drops a half inch,

Advice: Water landings

Valuable Tips Gleaned .From Pilots1.Experiences

Torpedo bomber pil'ot~ who have made crash landings in water pass on tb other Hi[TS the rol1owing advice, lHarned by them through hard experience :

It is jrnpcrativc that pilots ill putting down their fb]J~ for crash water landing'S be certain that their 'wheels art: nut It'L down. If the whf'Cls are down it is probable that the plane will turn on its back when it hits the water. The pilots reporting state that the TBF -1 sinks in about gO seconds, and pl'ompt action lor C'\C:J.ylt' rnust be taken,

It is suggested that pJ'lor tf, landing on the \V;:JtI"r, ~.lll loose gt'ai' be thrown out that miglu impede escape o[ the occupants, The pilot's cockpit-cover would be opened and locked opm. The turret batch ('f(('J.pe should be ready for immediate opening upon the first contact with the water,

It seems advisable for tb.e tunnel gunner to escape from til('_' second seal hatch, since if nl.' opt~n$ the side hatch the plane sinks faster, The tail hook. should be lowered <l~ the plane nears the water, since- when dragging through the water it can be used <IS· <1 gage to determine when the motor should be cui.

Lost pilots shouldnor wait UIl til they run (Jut of gas as it is important to land with power and with it planned procedure. All additional combat report (Tom a fighter squadron Contains the following pertinent note:

"1 didn't get out my rubber boat because it seerned to be close to land, but was sorry a ftcl\.vard, [ t was actuallv further than it uppeared to be. and th~ '1'1'1l;~ w;-Z'c Iarge, almost drowning me at tnnes. '

Don't Be a DIl,BERT!

Seaplane Haven Asked

P,'l.TiWL SQUAQRQN 42. P;\OTFIC.On Frequen t occasions p<l! 1'01 pia nes ha ve been un a b lc ro ret urn ttl the ir bases because of weather Of other COIlditions, For a long time it has been' the practice to have buoys and Iuel caches at ol.Ltlying bays and lakes, but l.1olh.ilig has been done Ior provisioning

dispersed facilities in~tead of coneentrating rhern m a barge-type piece of equipment, since only- one plane at a time could be serviced by a barge or "Seaplane Haven" and 'the barge is limi It'd in the quantity of fuel, amrrrunition, etc., carried <j.board, thus necessitating the use of supply boars to service the barge. Then' rate, 100-ton ammunition Ii.ghters with crane, 24'

a nd quarteri oK p,'J'~pn oel, f 01' maki ng minor repairs, or fDI' adequate servicing, As a remedy to this situation, Patrol S"Iuadl'on 4·2 has submitted sketches Ior a seaplane haven. This haven is essentially a quonset hut on a barge w.ith a plane slip which. could be towed to the selected spot, by tugs, The suggeskd havens WOUld provide housing, bedding, Iond, gasoline, and spaIe parts for ~IO\ll:dard crews, 'Tlwy would be comparatively cheap to build, requiring no large quantities of essential materials. No maintenance crew would be necessary, One 01' two combilla cion tare take r-\~eath.crob')en·e rs would be bandy, but not mandatory. The "Seaplane Ha.ven" idea has been proposed several times in the past ill various Iorrns.

The decision was made to provide

BUREAUjCOMMENl

Personnel Utility Boats, .33' Rearming SCOW"" 25' Pneumatic Barges, and collapsible 500-gallon refueling cells I¥ith 35-gii!Ion-per-1l11TIutc pump for use in the rearming barge 'or SLOW outlined above' were developed and are nQW being delivered to the field,

In addition aeoll!.lp~ibl~, portable, iightweight, a J I - w e a r h e r shelter equipped with all creature cornlorts is under ccnsiderotiorr and design which would house personnel ashore under more faYorable conditions than aboard a barge and when associated with thespecial boa.t facilities, willprovirle utility values it) excess or that provided by a "Seaplane Haven."

In order to develop the Haven idea, there was started in Sea ttle, about two YOOTS ago, an exper-iment on this idea. There are now _~i.'( of these catamarans

27

uno!'}' construction at NAS Seattle which will house 12 men. and will carry 30,DOQ gallons of flle-]. fuel oil, and va rious types f bombs and torpedoes for about six planes, Th sc

atarnarans ar to be service-tested under oper,ating' conditions before (lny quantity is placed under order.

This is a typical "inventor's dream."

Huts. equipment, moorings are scarce, and -if Fleet Air vVing' commanders want them, they have not said so.

Shoulder Holsters Recommended

Pilots in combat in the South Pacific recommend use or shoulder holsters for pistols, stating that in about ~O PC1'Cent of forced landing' at sea or parachute jumps, a web belt come unfastened and the pistol is. Iost.

They also re omrncnd that every pilot be furnished with a macbcre-typc knife, lmving at leasta I(J-inc.h blade heavy t'nough to be used a an ax to crack cocoanuts, One pilot was freed down and bad with him a medical kit mad€' up by Iiis squadron. Refound that quinine, sulfanilamide, and chocolate aided him considerably when h· re-ached land

He did not have a canteen of wate-r with rum, however, or any sunburn lotion. Both would have been useful.

ACTION NAVAL

COMMUNICAT10N NAVY DEPARTMENT

SERVICE

II Fa;J ~tO -AT ·~OOM ~w M:1~XT~JiI!

FROM CQMSOPACFOR

ACT USS UITEAPRISE

IT rs \'11TH A DHP fEELlN~ OF PRinE AND GRATIFICATION TIiAT I l[~RN OF T~E PAE51DENTIAL CITATION FOR THE ENTERPRISE X TI1IS EI.II NENlLY \'lESERVEO AWARD EXP~ESSES THE APPREC I HI ON OF .A CI\ATEFUL PEOPlE FOR VOllR OUTSIANDI NO ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN Tii I 5 W~A X KEEP FIGHT I NG EVE!1 MINDFUL OF THE OlORIl}US TRADITIONS YOU HAVE ~ST~BL! SHED :':Mv HEART IS WIT!! YOU ALI'IAYS BT ,¢2-1!'422

FOR PRESIDENTIAl. CITI'TION ··ENTERPRISE" "ECE!VE$. SPLRITl111 COMMENDATION FROII'I HALS! ...

The Army-type shoulder harness with knife, holster, and medical su pplies, is considered good [NL 5!15/4~J_

Waterproof ijasolip;ht, malted milk tablets, lemon cand y, COJl1p~ S~ wi rh matches and heat tabs, machete, salt tablets, ],,-,Stelor, mosquito h':mlm:t, cotton Jim.", water, fishiol; kit, lirrst aid kit, poncho, magnifying kns. sunburn ointment,' Very's projector and shells, ~ahty pins and adhesive tafx, canvas 1510""&, kleenex:, hammock, whistle, and IDstru(:tion book. Further details and piC:Lure~ will b~' published in the

IItWS L:r:;-rTER whnn available,

BUREAU',COMMENT

BuOrd ill at present furnishing each pilot with a houldertype pistol holster and a hunting knife. The parachute hack-pad kit is bcing- revised to make a more compa ·t and complete kit". and [uturu procureIn nt will be mad> of the modified kit.

ontents of the kir will b as follow:

. Sec NL p. 10, .5/t5/4.3, on jJnFrovis~d aunburn lorion : also p. !n, same issue, on parachute b" k-pad kits.

Cartoons: Local Style

Be thev ever w humble, cartocns call always be counted on to say something. Undoubtedly that is wh carloons attract more readers [.IeI' squar inch than all other fnnm of reading,

arteons don't mince word .. As fa

b -jog polite- -wcll, some are, sorn ain't, If they e,'\:prcss a point, general scritiment is, they're O. K. Though taken lightly, cartoons often surge into u tt rranc ' from the hidden recesses of the soul, That explain why the fcciings expre 'sed ill cartoons run the whole Kalllut of .hurnan emotions from

joy, sorrow, 9i~gust. plea urc, pam,

The cartoons here iome fr m a squadron in the Caribbean area. NE.WS LETTER publishes them as. typical of hundreds of others like them drawn, or being drawn, n)' gifted hands in Heet aircra ft an d 11 t .<; t:a Lion..; III' herever the!'!" are aeronautical a .tivities.

'la

Preserva;tion of Engine Parts

Occasionally it becomes lleces~a.ry> as a .result of an unpredictable overloading of facilities or difficulties in ~upp-lylng parts. to dday the completion of engine overhauls. When such occurs, there is a possibility that the disassembled parts will corrode.

This technical note is issued to illsure that activities concerned are -aleri to such a condition and will take preventive measures as prescribed below whenever it is deemed that sufficient time will elapse to allow damage to parts removed fT011) engines undergo~ng overhaul,

{J. Afte» cleaning and inspection, covet all steel parts with a light coat of one part of aircraft t'llginc: corrosion preven ti ve com pound, S pecifica tion AN-VV-C-.Jf6, to three pal't~ of air('raft engine lubricating nil, Grade 1065,

h. Before assembling the engine Of subassemblies, dean parts coated, as mentioned above, of all traces of the mixtures and accumulated foreign matter, <'ind while assembling the engIne 01.' subassemblies, heavily coat these parts with a mixture of one part of tile above Specification, AN-VVC-576" to three parts Qf aircraft engine lubricating oil, Grade 1120. Usethis mixture, during assembly, on aU internal parts on which corrosion may occur. which includes all bearing surfaces, cylinder bores, and piston rings.

(fe.</'"i",.J Nole No. ilS--431

New Navigational Aid Developed

Delermi.nes Air Distances Without Calculation

The Operations Department at NAS" Norfolk, has suggested a device which, when affixed to the standard dock dial, permits the navigatcr to determine, without calculation. air distance traveled inany given period of time for different cruiiilfig speeds.

The device ronsistx Q[ several dial, cut out in the center and so mounted that th.ey are concentric with the fact' of the c:J,ICk. Each dial b calibrated f~r a particular cruising speed and appropriate distances are marked on till' dials at intervals of 5 minutes. When eorrected air speed is applied, air distance along any leg of a flight tuay be read off the appropriate dial when elapsed time i& read in minutes,

e"OCK IIIAI. S'HOWS illR DISTANCE TR~VELE.II

The scales shown on the accompanying f~Ul"'e run from 120 knots up to 360 knots, However, only such ranges a.' are applicable to the airplane concerned would be required.

Many sug-gcgti().fls concerning devices to aid navigation arc submitted to the Bureau by the service, Tt is r,~cQgnI7.ed thajea ch pilot ",,"cl each navigator has bi~ own methods for simpliTyifl$ .touline navigatiun, "bu I the Bureau hesitates 10 recommend any of (hest' methods unconditionally and has confined itself to th~ standardization of the navigational equipment employed.

However, ~OIJle- oI the ideas deserve drculation throughout the service so tha t (bose who are interested may adopt them f01" their own use,

Fire Hose Reel Developed

NAS, BE.RMUfiA.-A new type of fire-hose red, rcce.mly drvelope-d by one Qf th~ enlisted personnel, h in me .here, Of unusually simple construction, th(' hose assembly tan be made of easily obtainable materials,

Its chid -advaatage j" tbe speed with which the hose can lie brought into play, It will unwind semiautomatic<lll},-by u~ing the prcSSUtf· of the water as it flows into the host. This is because of the unbalanced drurn upon which the h05(, is wound. It is. also possible. to rewind the hose quickly by making use of the removable crank which is. par! of the assembly. The rewind process iii' -further speeded because oJ the unusual \vay the bose is folded on the drutn-it is divided at the center, folded back, making it balf its extended length, and then wound as- a single hose would be.

Heretofore, if the fire wert': a shorter distance from Hw water outlet than the length of the hose, the entire hose had tel heextended before the pressure of water could be permitted to' pass through. it. Wi th this new deve 1_ oprnent, the hose will automatically continue to unwind after' the stream of water has been directed. The hosing does not deteriorate as fast with this new type of reel.

If there are- stations Intere .. sted iu manufacturing similar apparatus, the blueprint shop here is prepared tea make up plans for dis t rihution,

It is believed that the 'idea is sound, and perhaps other stations may be interested in the hose noel. 1 t is suggnsted that photog:ra ph and drawing of this hose reel be sent to the Bureau.

BUREAU COM MENT

ANSWERS TO GEOGRAPHIC SO-UARESEARCH

(See pag .. )11

lSt

2d

3d

6'h

4th

5'h

McgM,lic Headl'l95 [MtI) ____ 07'4 156 254
COUf:5135 ________ ~ ___ ~ 065 155 _245
M!nutelon l,eg, ______ ~ _____ 9 7 1S I

I 352 074 156

I 335 ~i-l-~5

------1-1-,5-1-;6 :2.2

'19

The proper method of attaching and using the QAB (,quick attachable back) parach lite is described in this technical note prepared by the Bureau for Ilying personnel, ground crews and ~crvic('a:ctiYities. The parachute :is used wishcertain models of naval aircraft; suchas th~' CK GH, .lRB, and JRF.

The. standard Q.AC (quid attacha ble chest j harness is used with the QAB parachute. The harness should be donned and properly adjusted to the wearer before boarding the aircraft.

1. To don liarncss: Sli;f)g the har[less over the shou lders and fasten the leg straps first, Make sure that the sling fits snugly under the buttocks, Next secure the chest strap,

2. To adju$t harness; AU adjustments can h.; made hy hand-no tools are required. It ""i.il be noted that tile webbing is secured to one outer bar of the; adapter. To adjust, work the webbing through the adapter to Iorrn a small Icop over the center bar, ,ef [he free end of the adapter to the desired position, and pull the webbing taut in the adapter. Shortening is accornpli'shed by sliding the webbing into the adapter; lengthening, by sliding 111« webbing out of the adapter. The following procedure should be followed in jidjusting the h"ITl!CM to the wearer:

Don the harness and secure it- a.'i directed above. To 'fit properly, the Dring should be located approximately midway between the shoulders and hips, the sling should be snug under the b\.ltt,ock~) the back strap 5110U!cl give support to the smal) of the back, and the Jeg straps sbeuld be just snug enough to slide the fingers between the strap and the leg.

If adjustments are necessary, remevethe hamess and move the body strap adapters to the desired position, Secondly, adjust the hack strap adapters, Finally, after the body adjustrncnts are satisfactory, don the harness and adjust the leg straps to the de~ired length.

The QAB parachute .is designed as part of the scat of the plane, forming th e haCK cushion of the sea t. It is of standard size, 24-fClitit diameter c-anQPY· The ripcord is enclosed in 'lAB PllfiACHl)li,E: fOfl!\ll'; " .... CI( CI)SHIO~ OF SEATo R,I'SER$ AND PELT READY fOR EASV ATTACHMENT a housing which comes over the left

30

Quick Attachab1e Back Parachute

shoulder, tbr ripcord handle fitting' in ,1 peeker on the left rise!'. A waist. belt is provided to secure the pack to the back oE the wearer during descent.

1. To attach the pl¥Taclu.j.le: Board the aircraft wearing the completely adjusted harness. Fold back the waist belt and safety belt clear of the seat, III the sitting position, bring the left and right risers over the shoulders and attach to the corre~ponding D rirlg~ 011 the harness .. Secure tlre waist bell around the waist and then secure the safety belt.

2. () pe~rati(m fo r emergl!llC)1 j'1l I'll. J!:

Rdea~e the >;afety belt. Lean fot'ward to free the back cushion and parachute from the- seat. 1 t should be 'natl'd the retainerjsdesigned with a hungcc curd around the Forward edge which will ~tret(h when the wearer leans forward, fht'rehy per" mitting th!' back c-ushion to ,) ide free [rom under the retainer. Do nat 'release the waist belt.

All personnel are cautioned to see that the waist belt .is never made fast around the hatkof the sea-t. This dangerous condition has existed in tbe past and serious mishap will result should the parachute user fail to secure the waist belt around his waist in the propel' manner, Users are cautioned to bring the risers over the shoulders before artaching to correspending 0 rings.

(r,e.flnl~·al Nofe No. 12~4J)

Note on Bomb :Racks,

Scotch Tape Suggesfedas Remedy Against Spray

There have been a few isolated re}lorts received from PBY-5 squadrons that idng- of boinb racks=-caused by .pray, ete., through bomb-rack. access doors and other openings in upper and

scorca TAPE SO!:-II(5 BOMllrRA(l.K PIiOErI.,[M lower surfaces of the wing near bomb racks-m-ay have been the cause of bomhs hanging up when rele a sc was attempted.

Sealing all these openings with watertight doors i, not practicable and is Virtually irnpo~sihlp. where bomb Jugs

hook on to bomb-rack suspension hoeks. However, applicatien of scotch acetate tape ever all these openings is a quick and fairly ea.~y means of avoid" ing this possibility. Care should br taken to apply tape so that it will not foul bomb-rack suspension hooks find bomb Jugs, thllS causing interference with bomb-rack release action.

PortabfeEn,gine Cleaning S,land Serves Need

Conserves Cleaning Solven', Prevenfs Soiling

NAS, A'ft.!\NTA.-A portable ,engine: cleaning stand. which has proved VQT) sa t..i8 factory. has been desiglwd by the

'1IIl'E(lHANICS "ES!GN' ENGINE CI.EANI,.!;: ~TIINQ

Engi_[[eerin~ Department or this statism.

The stand mounted on casters ton-

isrs of a sheet metal bin, the dimensions .of which arc 4· feet x 4 feet x. 6 f(·et. The sides of the bin arc cut away in a U shape to' allow the bin to he wheeled under the radial engine. A U-~h""ped sheet metal lip was added on one side of the bin ttl catch the cleaning. solvent lB.at' drips frnul the reat of the engine,

A furmel-shaped drsrin Was cut in the bottom of the bin roallew the drippings ,to drain back into the solvent supply tank. which is located directly under the bin. The drippings are strained througf a screen over the drain.

The dea.nir)g solvent is drawn {Tom a 10-:g:allon ~upp1y tank thl'Uugh a standpipe that extends Irom the tank

Don't Be a DltBERT!

Llp through a hole in the bottom of the bin. .A rubber hose connected to;a sway gun extends from the .gun down through the standpipe into the tank. The cleaning solvent is sprayed under a pressure of 80 pounds per square inch. Nearly 75 percen t of fhe solvent used is. r'eeovered from the drip .. pings, The same solvent Cart be used several times before it l;re,eo) nes grimy.

EnginE~ can be cleaned safely and efficiently at any place in the hangar without the mess that this job usually entails" the Station reports.

This engine - cleaning stand .is an excellent idea with a practical design. 1t is .recnmmended th" t other activi tiesuse similar devices to conserve cleaning sol vent and prevent wiling of hangar decks and runway aprons (see inside front Gtwer).

BUREAU COMMENT

IIDope" Re,duces Breakage

NAS, NORMAN,-A solution to the problem 01' constant breakage of POwers ceTlu lotI' air navigation plotters was reached by the-GrQund Training Department. EX)Jerimcnts revealed that the plotters lose.their brittle quality and adopt some dezree of flexibility wherl sprayed with "dope" used on aircraft wings, :Breakage has been reduced taa rmnirnunr,

Gun·Cam~ra FUm

Gun-C1U1Jel"a :film fllf'ni~htld by the Bureau of Ordnance is of a Weston daylight exposure index of 32. Howpver, Ea!ltman Rodak gun-Iztllnem film, furrushed under Contract NXs- 8180 prior to May 1, 1~t4:i, has an expo~uT'[' jndex of 10.

Containers of this film are marked "Eastman Kodak Cornpany, Exposure Index 10, Emulsion 5206'-16-0l." When this film 'is used, the aperture of the gun-camera lens shall be .increased by a factor of fourtwo stops, i. e., [rorri "B" to "D" to prevent underexposure,

31

1. Oar. 9. Smoke-Grengd. Hold- lb. Emergency Water.
2. Fish Spear. ing CI<imp. 17. H-C S"moke Grenades.
3. Soil. 10, Cation lin". 18. Sea Mork"r.
4. Topping.OfFP"mp. 11. Repai, K". 19. First·AId 'Kit.
5. Fishing I(lt. 12. Relle.tor. 20. Hand Pyrolethl1i( Pro·
b. Navigation Chorh. 13. Compass. jector t6 Red Very
7. Whistle. 14. Buliet-Hole.Leak plug,. Shells nol shown),
8. I(nife. 15. Em~rgen<y Ralions, Essential Raft Equipment

Buaer Illustrates Items in Technical Note 6-43

The Bureau has rnade out a list uf equipment for eV(~l)' life raft, based on the experiences of life raft survivor .

I t is urged I ha t all squadrons review the equipment installed in their planes and make ('very effort to- insure that each airplane IS provided with the requisi te lire raft emergency eq uipmont as detailed in Technical etc 6-43, issued February L5. 1943. This not", outij nes the various type.'! of life rafts [or all types of naval aircraft, except VF -class airplanes. Rafts for VF-c1ass airplanes are outlined in Technical Note 1-43, dated Janu-ary 6, J 943. An equipment is available from supply l)vin!:s.

__ THANKS TO:

Life, drawing V. 2-0Nl's Idertrification & Characteristics Section, silhouettes, pp, .l6-17 & cartoon p. 18-rr;;mk Beaven cartoun p. 32

Tow Reel Installed

Station Reports Satisfactory Results with SN8's

MCAS, CUERRY POINT. . C.-In

an effort to relieve the hard-pressed. towing equipment situation here. an aircraft engine ring squadron has instal led the C-5 type tow red in two SNB's.

To date this installation has proven very atisfactory. No unusual flight characteristics have been reported. The new type equipment enables the squadron to give far greater service to antiaircraft units than ever' before. since it is now pOl>Sible to tow a leeve with 5 000 feet of lint' up to an elevation of 10,000 feet.

Unfortunately there an.' only two SNB's available, 'and the Maintenance Department is putting in many night hours to kc p them in operation.

BlIREAU~,tOMMENT

The 5horlage "., 5a·li5l00· tory lowing. ,plane' is fflcoghized in the Bureau. It ha~ been requested that MCAS. Cherry Poil1t, send Ih. Bureau additional detaU. with .ketche .. or photog,Qph", of I~ e C-5 ;n.lollal;on in the SNB for fUrlher study and possible di.<elni",alio.n to the Fleet.

BEST ANSWERS

to Questions on page 26

1. t 2. d 3. c 4. d S. e

32

Anti-fogging Goggles

Comments Desired on Experimental Device

WEARr;:R'5 NosE HELPs fiLEAI! OFF GOGGLE FOG

An experimental quantity of [I W aotj-fogging goggles) known as th ... · "XvVent" type, is being sent to Naval Air Stations at San Diego, Pearl Harbor, and Norfolk. Fiv:e hundred goggles will go to NAS, Sail Diego, and 250 each to NAS, Pearl Harbor, and NAS, Norfolk.

These goggles are the result or furtiler development of the single apeI"-

ture, dark-adaptor type to provide in. creased ventilation and freedom from fogging at the lenses.

The nosepiece which has been added to the goggles contains two rubber valves so arranged that, as the w mrer inhales, fresh air is drawn through ventilating holes (equipped with a cloth filter) in the upper rim of the goggles. This fresh air pa5scS 'over the inside surface of the Iens and then to the wearer through the nosepiece, On exhalation, the air passes directly to the outside through the valve in the bottom of the nosepiece. By this arrangement fresh ventilating air is drawn over the inside of the lens at frequent intervals to prevent fogging.

The Bureau will apprecia.te rereiving comments on the eft ctiveness of this goggle design in eliminating Iflg. all well as em its general characteristics, such as vision and wearing comfort.

"Best propaganda I. ever tast.ed."