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+= cB;<DcnK9c
A
‹ A ‹«‹An=S]a
a « an  a
!A
a !A «c an!AnT,c
&C+c; 9cAn=A‹A‹«‹AÊc
c
c

nK 

< c

c

2c 

=c c; cB +c<B7: c 7:H c 9 c
(A‘B)‹C =(A‹C)‘(B‹C)´
(A2B)‹C =(A‹C)2 (B‹C)´
(AZB)‹C =(A‹C)Z(B‹C)c c ,B,c
$=+cB +cBc cE Dc 9 c
(A‘B)‹C =(A‹C)‘(B‹C)Ê
&<+c B 7<c E7+ c ]  c B 7=H c 7c ; c E  Ac  
> ,c ' 7 c ]  ! (A‘B)‹Cc c !(A‘B)c c ! ɋÊ c Ac ; c 
!(A‘B)c 7 c; c ! A 7 c! B,c %AcB7;+c; c ]  ! (A‹C) 7 c
]  ! (B‹C)Êc  c ]  !(A‹C)‘(B‹C) c ,c ,c 7:c E7+ c c (A‘B)‹ C 

7 c =c E7+ +c += c (A‹C)‘(B‹C)Êc % +c +c
(A‘B)‹Cë(A‹C)‘(B‹C)Ê " c 7:; c < c 7A ;<+c 
+,c
c
š  ¬2-/7&-)*
c
· ɪ    c c 0D3c += Dc c c c < c
B+= cc AcB  c ‹ ,cc
' 7 c c B+= c c += c ‹c ,,c  c
B+= cB;<DcBc ]a b cc0a!Acb!B3c cA +c; cc  
c0+ 3c > c  c cB >+9c
]a b !ccccc 7 cccccabÊ

- 7c;  9cE7+ c cD cc > cc cb,c
" > c c += Dc c c c ,,c B+= c += c ‹c 
< c ɪ     

 c,c

- cA=(-Ö Ö),c +  +c‹c ,,cB7  c c<+9 c 

cPcB+:cBDH:c;c;7c  cBcA7+c ¢¿Jcc c 
cc

c

c

c cPcB7B7  c<>c 
c 
cPcB7B7  c =c 
@c +,c ,c ,1,c
c
c 

c  

c
c
c
c 

,c ,1c

c
"; c ; 9c 
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9cy > x@c cPc > c 9c y < x,c
Ɉɥɶ ɩɪɥ   ɪ     cc< c+= c 
=Sx!9 H  c c y!Bc; cxyT,c
Ɉɥɶ   

ɪ    c c < c += c 

=Sy!B9c H  c c x!Ac; cxyT,c
.Ac  c; c7 c; c > c c0 ë ‹)c B c c
ɩɪ     cc c c c 
B={y!B H  c c x!Ac; c]x y ! c
,,cB = cc7 c; cc B c cB c ccAc
c 

=A={x!Ac H  c c !c; c]x y ! c +,c ,c ,2,c
Ɉɪ ɷɥ c!cB c > c c< c+= c (x)

E7+ cy!Bc  Dc; cxyc ,,c
c

c 

(x)=Sy!B ]x y !T,c

ɉɪɪ ɷɥ c y!Bc B c  > c c < c += c
#(y) E7+ cx!Ac  Dc; cxyc ,,c
c

c

#(y)=Sx!A ]x y !T,c

ȿ     c ȿc 0 7 c 3c < c  c  > c c
+= c9cȿ=S]a a  a!AT,c

c 

c

c
c

B

c
c
c 

c 
c=B
q=B
c
c
c
c
c
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=B 
=A

c

c

A 

,c ,2c
c
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U=S]a b  a!Ac b!BT,c 
B <c c > c9c
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3c B  +cP =S]x y  P(x y)T@c
63c B=:HcB9c=S]x y  x=f y=T@c
J3c  c > ccc;<Dc+= Dcc cc+=c c
n‹c +  c > c c=(mj)c  c nc c c; 7c E7+ cc
+= Dcc cc   c cc 
mj Yc

ɥ  m b j    am  A b j  B 

c 
ɥ  m b j    am  A b j  BÊ
,

c 

c

/3c c > c c c ;<Dc += Dc c c c +=c  c n‹c
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E7+ cc+= Dcc cc   c cc 

lmj Yc

% ɥ  m b j   Ú m  b j  

,$ ɥ  m b j  

Ú  
m

b j  Ê

c

53c  c  > c c c ;+c += c c +=c  c
A?+,c - c A=Sa
a « anT c Ac E7+ <c amc ( 
m  n)c 
+  : cc> <cA?,c' 7 c ]am j ! c c> <c
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B7; +cA?cB 7:H c > c ,c[ c; c c  
> c c c ;<Dc += Dc c c c =c +=c  c
A?+c < c c ; c > c E7+ <c c ‘,c - c E +c 
7 c ]am bj ! c c> <camc C cAcc> cbjc ;cPc camc 
cA ccbj,c
- c B +c c  Yc S c c 6c Jc /c 5Tc c c c ;  ab Ac c 
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c
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Ú

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c

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B7; +9cc
 $ 
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6 $
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 6 J / 5
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š  ¬&3()) -, /2-/7&-)*.)
c
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+=c c c   K+= <cB cB +9 c
3c B ; c  > c (
2 )  c c 7c c B; 7+<Dc
B Dc3KJ3c
 cB 7<c <c >  @c 
3c M  c > c (
‘ )@c
63c  c > c(
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+c Ac+c<cB 9 c
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={]b a  ] b ! Êc
&c 7>+c + c 7c F Ac c 7c AGc 
B <+9@c 

c
c c
cc

c

c 

+ cF H  GcB <+9c @cc

c

c 

+ cF Dc0=A3GcB <+9c ,c

c

53cɩ     ,c- ccPc > cc+= Dc c cc

Sc Pc  > c c += Dc c c ɋ,c %Ac +B  c c c Sc < c  
> c0;+c S3cc+= Dcc cɋc c; 9c

c 

6c

]a  !(S)

b(b!Bc c]a b !c c]b  !S),c

' 7 ccB7cccccSccCcc2ɋ=wc cSccB7,c 

c   

c

c 

 c

$7c

B ; c 

M  c c B7 c  > c B7 <c  c  c  
7<cc0 +,c c 3 K 3cc +c , 3,c +c Ac+=c  
c 7:H c  9 c
3c  
(  )=( 
) cPc    c+B  @ c 
3c ( 
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Y - 

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@c
63c ɋ(-
)=(ɋ)-
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-
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c 
 c c   
c 
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+= cc< 9c
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3c   ɪɮɥ   ( ɪɪɮɥ  ) c 7 c7c ! ]  8´c
63c  ɪ   c 7 c c ]x y !c 7 c; c]y x !@c
J3c    ɪ   c 7 c c]x y !c c]y x ! 7 c; c=@c
/3c ɪ     c 7 c c]x y !c c]y ' !c 7 c; c ]x ' !,c
c 

=c  c c A c  c  <+ c +Ac 7 c 7 c c 
7 c  <c  > c c += c ,c " + +c 7:H,c
4 c  > c  c c 7 c ?7 <c c  7c 
7 c  ?7 <+c 0 ?7 <+3,c 
A c < c  > c  
<c 

c 

7: c  

+ c 

c 

?7  c 

c

c  

?7  ,c - +c B +,c c += c ;c B7  c c
B+cäc+c > c9c] b !c Ac c 7c AcAc ; c  cbc

c 

Jc

++  ;<c  7cB+c äc0 cbc7= cc+cBB 7c 
c äc c c  +c   c  c äc c <Dc + <Dc B7B7  Dc 
B7+<Dc B+c ä3,c $7c 7:c ; c c 7=Hc c äc + c + c
]  !c c 7c ; c c 7=Hc c äc ++9c ]  8Ê % +c +c E c  

> c c 7: c  + c c ?7  c c c  
?7  ,c c E Ac 7 9c  7 c  > c c 7 c 
?7 <+c cE cc; c; cc ?7 , c
-  +c B +c  > c  c c 7 c  + c 
B +c

++  ; c

c 

++  ; ,c

- c 

c 

DE7+ c += c •c Yc S 6Tc c  > c c c +  c  
> 9c 


ˆ
A   ˆ ,c
ˆ 
 
L c > cc7 c ++  ;<+9c c Ac; c ]  ! c 7 c
; c ] !Ê %=c E c  > c c 7 c  ++  ;<+9c c Ac
; c ] 6 ! c ]6 !cc 7 c; c Y6Êc% +c+c=c c  c
3KJ3c=c 7  c 7 ,c 
&/3&.  ,c- ccPc c > cc ,c%A9c

3c c?7 c  Eë@c 
3c c ?7 c  2ȿ=w@c
63c c ++  ;c  =-
@c
J3c c ++  ;c  2-
=E@c
/3c c  c  =,c
ô/'52&812/9c +  +c = c 3,cD + c 7 9c 

7 c c?7 c c 7 a!Ac + c+ c ]a a ! c :c 7 c; c
Eë,c$  ; c 7 9cB c Eëc Ac 7c a!A c ++c ]a a !cc
E c c; c; cc?7 ,c

c 

/c 

+  +c  = c 3,c D + c =+c  c B A,c
- c2ȿfw Ac  ! ; c ]a a !c c ]a a !ȿ cE Acc+= c 
< c c 7c !c ++ ]  8Ê  c 2ȿ=w,c $  ; ,c - c 
2ȿ=w,cL c; c; cc H  c ! ; c ]a a !c c ]a a !ȿÊ %Ac 
7c7:Ac! <B7 c ]  8 ; c c 7 Êc 
7A ;c<: c = c63c Kc/3,c
c 
&/3&.   ,c ' 7 c  c  > c c c += c c 7 c

7:<+c c<Dc  c 3K/3c c c > c -
c7 cE +c
=c  +,c
ô/'52&812/,c 3c ' 7 c E ë c c E-
ë - 
c c ȿ-
=ȿc 7 7c

Eë - 
c ,,c-
c?7 @c 
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ë wc Ac(-
2ȿ)ë w 7 7cc
(-
2ȿ) = w´c
63c; c; c0-
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= ccBc 7 :c =- 
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c ++  ;,c 
7A ;c<: c = cJ3c/3, c
c 
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,c" <c c7c7A<cB+= , c 
,c  c+= ,c
6,c $ c B  c += ,c 

++  c 7 c  c

B  c+= Uc
J,c c AcB  , c
/,c" > cc+= D,c
5,c "7 c B7 c c ; c  <Dc  > ,c "<c c
B<cE7+ cB c+c > , c
2,cB <c c > c0/c B 3, c

c 

5c 

,c"B cc > + , c
,c c  cB cc > + c<c U c
c
c 
&'()* + 

c
š  9-'()*
c
"B7 +c ? :c 7c $  D7,c - c +c B7 c  
= 7 c ? c c c A? +,c H : c A c B7 c 
Ac ? c  +   c c B 7c 07A +3c <; 7 @c  c 
B7 c  c   c c  c + + ; c 7A  c c  c 
7A +,c
4 c > c fcc+= Dc c cc< c ɮ   c 7 c 
c=Ac E7+ c0B c E +c > 3c  c ,,c c ]x y !fc c
]x ' !fc 7 c; cy=',c

- c  > c fc 7 c ? c (fëA‹B),c "7 c B7 c 
fc ? c fc 7 c B+= +c += c  (f ë )c c 7 c 
; c f 7 c B+= +c += c c (f ë B),c ' 7 c fc 
7 c  <+c B+= +c += c c c A c ; c c 
  ɩɪɥ  ɮ   ,c' 7 c7 cB7 c B c c c c
A c; cc ɩɪɥ  ɮ  c 7 cc? ,cc ,c
, c =<c 7 c B7 c c 7 c ; c 7 ;<Dc
? c c; ;cB7C<Dc? , c 
:cfc0 c7 :cB7 c fcc c c7 :c; cfcf
M3c Ac <: c ɪ c += c c c += c @c  7 c =c 

7 c ; c ? c B c c c c f <: c ɪ c
+= ccc+= cÊc

c 

1c

$7c ? c + c ]x y !fc 7 c xfyc B <: c y=f(x)c 7 c f9 AþB,c
' 7 cy=f(x)c cc<: cA+ +cccPc; +c? cf,c
c
c A

B

A

B

c
f

c

f

c
c 
f =A
c 

f M Bcc 7 c 
f =Bc

c
c 

7c? c 

f M A 

f M Bc 7 c 
f =Bc 

7c; ;cB7c? c

c
c 

,c , c

c  
c fc < c    c  7 c 7c x
x c c f(x
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c fc 0f9c AþB3c < c ɪ   c  7 c 7c 7:Ac !c 
H  c !c c ; c y=f(x),c <+ c 7+ c ? c  c
:M c  7 c 7 c ; c ? c f9 AþBc B c c  +c
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c fc 0f9 AþB3c < c     c  7 c fc M c c
:M ,c 7 7c fc   c  7 c c  H 7 c  +c 
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(x)=#xc
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<  cAcE c? c M <c :M <c 7 c  <, c 

=c c 7:H c +<, c

c 

2c 

&/3&.  " c  c fc + c  :c ? :c f -
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AcAccf   ,c
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c

y=x

c
c
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c

c
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c 
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c
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c 
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+B  c   <Dc ? c 7 c ?  c   

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7: c? + ,c
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M cc 
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c 

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c +c c ; c fc  ; c 7c Ac ,c <+ c
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c= cc+c c +c=c+ , c
c
c
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x ¼Ê c 

c c c <c Ac c 7c Ac Ac 7c 

x  x U  ‘ A 0 x 3

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Q ‘ 0 x3R i ‘ 0 x3, c
c

"; c; cD  ; c? c7cB7 c+= c 

c c9c
,c
c

‘ A 0 x3 

ɥ x  A

ɥ x  A
,

- ‘ A 0 x3 c

0 , 3c

-  +c D  ; :c ? :c 7c B ; c c M  c
+= ,c)  ; c ? c7cB ; c7=cB  + c 
; c c7c DcE7+ c c cUc <cB 7= c+= +c c cc 
+c c ; c c c B +c 7;,c .Ac   c ;  c E +c 
:c7  c? 9 c
c

‘ A B 0 x 3

‘ A 0 x3 ‘ B 0 x3, c 

=cB7; c; c7cM  c+= c c c ++9c

0 ,3c

c

6c

c
c 

 0 x3 i ‘

‘

0 ,63c

0 x3 ‘  0 x3 - ‘ 0 x3 ‘  0 x3, c

$7c  c c ++  ; c  c +=c B7; c   

9c
c

‘

Z  0 x3

i ‘ 0 x3 - ‘ 0 x3 ‘  0 x3 c

0 ,J3c

c

‘ 

0 x 3

i ‘ 0 x3

0 ,/3c

c

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B7c D  ;  c ? c +=c <   c <c 7 c 

c c 7 c <c += ,c -=+c E c c B +D,c $=+c  
> 9c
c

0 ,53c

AZ0AZB3cYcAB,c

$7c E Ac +c D  ;  c ? c 7c += c HAc c
7c; c  >  c0 ,53,c- 7 7c ++9 c
‘

Z 0 Z  3 0 x3

i ‘ 0 x3 - ‘ 0 x3 ‘

‘ A 0 x3 - ‘ A 0 x30 ‘ A 0 x 3 - ‘ A 0 x 3 ‘ B 0 x 33

\  0 x3 i

c

‘ A 0 x 3 ‘ B 0 x 3, c

-7; 7 c ; c D  ; c ? c 7c ; c 7c 0 ,53c c
‘ A 0 x 3 ‘ B 0 x3 c c E c D  ; c ? c 7c AB c 7 7c

+= c =c B: , c
- +c  +c B +c  7 c  > c 1c c +<c
, c ,,c=c<  c + c7 c+ c 9c c
c

0 ,13c

A‘(B2C)=(A‘B)2(A‘C),c

&<  +c;+c<c D  ;  c? c7c+= c H Dc c
7c c Bc ; Dc  > c 0 ,13 ,c $7c += c HAc c 7c
; c ++9c
‘ A  0 B  C 3 0 x3 ‘ A 0 x3  ‘ B  C 0 x3 - ‘ A 0 x 3 ‘ B  C 0 x 3

c

‘ A 0 x3  ‘ B 0 x 3 ‘ C (x) - ‘ A 0 x3 ‘ B 0 x 3 ‘C (x) ,c

$7c+= c HAccBc; c 0 ,13cB7; +9c
‘0 A B 3  0 A C 3 0 x 3 ‘ A B 0 x 3 ‘ AC 0 x 3

c

0 ‘ A 0 x 3  ‘ B 0 x 3 - ‘ A 0 x 3 ‘ B (x))0 ‘ A 0 x 3  ‘C 0 x 3 - ‘ A 0 x 3 ‘ C (x)) c
‘ A 0 x 3  ‘ A 0 x 3 ‘ C 0 x3 - ‘ A 0 x 3 ‘ C (x)  ‘ A 0 x3 ‘ B (x)  ‘ B 0 x 3 ‘ C (x) - c

c

6 c 

‘ 0 x 3 ‘  0 x 3 ‘  0 x 3 - ‘ 0 x 3 ‘  0 x 3  ‘ 0 x 3 ‘  0 x 3 ‘ 0 x 3 ‘ 0 x 3 ‘  0 x 3 ‘ 0 x 3 i c
‘ A 0 x3  ‘ B 0 x 3 ‘ C (x) - ‘ A 0 x3 ‘ B 0 x 3 ‘C (x) ,c

% +c+c7<c cB<c; c  > c0 ,13c +: c <c
D  ;  c ? c 7 7c += c H c c 7c c
Bc; Dc0 ,13c<,c
c 
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,c ,c c? c7 c; ;cB7U c 
,c"7 cB7 c c7 c; c? , c
6,cM c? cB +<c  Dc? ,c
J,c:M c? cB +<c  Dc? ,c
/,c4  c? cB +<c  Dc? , c
5,c Ac? c + c :c? :U c
1,c-  Bc$  D7,c
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c
c 
&'()* + "

c
š  ¬2-/7&-)& =')&-2-/12) '2/3>.-/0&12/
c
4 c  > c c c += c c < c   
ɷ ɥ   c 7 cc?7 c ++  ;c c  , c
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+ c BE +c 7 c  > +c E 7  , c " > c
B c A7 c; c7 c > +cE 7  ,c
" > c AAc c ( )cc+= c  7<Dc
; 7c c  c  > +c

E 7  c c c 7 c

++  ;<+9c c6 /cc 7 c; c/ 6,c

c

6c

Ʉɥ

ɷ ɥ  

(ɥ 

 ) c B=<+c

E7+ +c c B c +c  > c E 7  c  c < c
B+= c Dc !c  <c D c c  > c c c ,c #<c 
7 cE 7  c; c;c () c 7 7c ++9 c
()=S!A]  !T,c 
+  +c B +,c c += c A7 c  c  > c
B ,c [ c ; c  c   c A7  c BB: c c  c
+=<c 7 c c =<c c  Dc Bc B +c A7 c  c 
<c Ac +: c  ;:c7 , c
c 
&/3&.  ! c - c cKc > c E 7  cc+= c c c

()c +=<c7 c ,,c()=S!A]  !Tc A9c
3c7c7:Ac! () f w c;  c!()´ 
3c7 ;<c +=<c7 <ccB : @ c
63cM  c Dc +=<Dc7 c B c c +c+= +c @c
J3c B c 7 ;<Dc +=<Dc 7   : c   c
+= c,c
ô/'52&812/,c 3c&c 7c?7  c cB7; +c; c7c7:Ac 

! c ++c]a a !c 7 7c!()c c()fw´c 
3c B +c ; c () 2 (b) f w ,,c H  c E7+ c c c c c 
!() 2 (b)Êc%Ac c(a)&(b)cc 7c ++  ; c cB7;+c; c
()&(b) c c   cc ++cbÊ
$7c7:Ac!()c ++9c(a)&(b)c Acc 7c   c c
B7; +c b ,,c !(b) BE +c () ë (b)Êc 7A ;c 7c 7:Ac  
!(b)c ++9c (b)&(b)c c c 7c ++  ; c c B7; +c ; c
(b)&(b)  +cc 7c   c  cB7; +c; c ,,c!()c c
BE +c(b) ë ()Êcc() ë (b) c(b) ë ()cB7;+c() = (b)c ,c,c 7 c
+=<c7 <cB : c c c B: @ c

c

66c

63c7c7:Ac !ccc ++c!()c Ac; c; c 
M  c Dc +=<Dc7 c B c c+= +c ,c
# = cJ3c +<c ,5c 7 c c 3 K63,c%+c,c 

=c c 7:H:c +, c
c 
&/3&.  ,c 7 ;<c  > c E 7   c c += c c

B=: c7 ;<c  c,c
c 
&/3&.   ,c =c   c += c c B= c  > c

E 7  c c += c Ac B ;+c 7 ;<c   c B=: c 
7 ;<c > cE 7  , c
ô/'52&812/,c - c c   c =SBmTc += c A,c

"B7 +c  > c 9c ] b !c Ac c 7c AcAc H  c Bmc 
c ; c  c bc c B 7= c E +c Bm,c "; c ; c c  
> c 7 c ?7 <+c ++  ;<+c c  <+c
7 7c c Pc  > c E 7  ,c 
=c B c ; c  7 c   
c 7 ;<c c c  > c E 7  c + c B=+<c 
=c7 ;<,c 
B c  Dc 7 c += c += c c Bc +c  
> :c E 7  c 

c < c ɮɪ- c c 

; c ;c ,c L7+ + c ? K+= c 7: c 7 <c
+= ,c 7 c += c ()c c  c   c c E7+ c   
<cD c+=c cc > c ,c 
+  +c B +c  > c E 7  c c += c 7<Dc
; 7cz YcS cK6cKcK cc cc6c T,c
$c 7<Dc ; 7c c c bc <: c ɪ  ( ɪɷ   ) ɩ 
ɥcc 7 cc7 7c; 7ca-bc ,c,c 7 c ++9c
a=b c =« K6cKcK cc cc6c ,c

c

6Jc

&cE +c 7;cB <: ca b(F ),c
c 
&/3&.  c$7c7:<Dc; 7cacbcc c>"c ++9c

3ca  a(F )@c 
3c 7 ca  b(F )c cb  a(F )@c
63c 7 ca  b(F )c cb  (F )c ca  (F ),c
ô/'52&812/,c # = c 3c c 3c ; <,c $=+c 63,c -  c

a=b 
cb= c Aca=( 
)c ,,ca  (F ),c%+c,c
% +c +c  > c  + c Bc +7:c c 7 c  
> +c E 7  c c 7 c += c 7<Dc ; 7c c 
B :H  c7 <c; 7, c
-  +c ;c ; :H: c B 7c cc ,c , 6c 
=c B7>c 7  c c  ;c ; :H: c B 7c 
=:c >  Dc 7  ,c - c c 7c    7c
; 7c ,c -  +c c7;c c 7c c  c , 6c 7c 7;c c Yc 2,c & c 
7<c ; 7c 0E7+ <c c += c z3c  B7= +c c ;Dc B ; c
E Dc B 7c cc7;+ c +,c ,c , 6,c
$7c  > c  + c Bc +7:c c 0c ;  c c 7c Y23c 
7 cE 7  c PcE c; 7c7=H cc7;,c"; c; c=c
; 7c BB c c  c c 7c  c 7 ,c 
=c B7; c ; c 7c =2c
++9c
QRYS cK2cc2c 5c T@c
Q RYS cK1c cc 1c T@c
QRYS cK5cc c 2c T@c
c
Q1RYS cKcK c1c /c T,c  
K+= c+= czcBc > :c  cBc+7:c c 
; c c zc 7 c c z,c $7c  +  +Ac 7;c Y2cc
B7; +c; cz8cYcz8 = SQRcQ RcQRc cQ1RT,c

c

6/c

2

c





1 

6
K/ 

K5

K1



J

KJ

K2

K  

2

5

c
K

K
K6
/
6

K 

K
1

K

/

5
J 

,c , 6c
c 
&/3&.  ? c$7c7:<Dc7<Dca b a* b* 9c

3c 7 ca  b(F )c c a  b(F )@c 
3c 7 ca  b(F )c ca*  b*(F )c 9c
cccccc3ca*  bb*(F )@c
cccccc3c* bb*(F ),c
ô/'52&812/c +<c , c B +c 7c 7;c 3,c - c a 

b(F )c ca*  b*(F )c Aca=b*c ca*=b*+c7c <Dc7<Dc*c c
+,c -+= c B7; +9c aa*=bb* b+ b** *+ =bb*(b+ b** *+)Êc 
7 7caa* bb*(F ),c
c

% +c +c  c Bc +7:c +=c B;7c 7< c c 

+= c ,,c B  c ;c =c c c c  + ,c B +c 
; c ++9c  6(F 2) c   (F 2) Ac  /(F 2) c  
5(F 8),c%7c H cHcAc79c ++c; c   (F 2) c 
c  c/  (F 2) ccD c f ,c

c

65c

š  ¬2-/7&-)* /3*,'
c
4 c  > c c c += c c < c    
  ɩɪc  7 c c ?7 c  ++  ;c c  ,c
" > c ; ;Ac Bc ; c ;c ø c ,,c + c xyc
B > cø c c;  c; ccB>  c,c
4 c  > c c c += c c < c    
ɪ ɩɪc 7 cc ?7 c ++  ;c c  ,c
" > c AAcBc; c;c  c ,,c+ c xycB > c 
c c;  c; cc AcB>  c,c 
+  +c B +<,c " > c  c c += c   7<Dc
; 7c  c  > c ; ;Ac Bc c c 7 c  > +c 
AAcB,c
" > cx<ycc(-Ö Ö)c7 c > +c AAcBccc 
7 c  > +c ; ;Ac Bc c c E c  > c c 
?7 ,c 
c += c B+= c Ac += c •c  > c ëc 
7 c > +c; ;AcB, c
' 7 c 7c  !c ++c ø c 7 c ø c c ; +c E7+ <c c c c 
ɪ  ccB +c 7;c ɪ  ,c 

= c c c <+c c +c  > +c ; ;Ac Bc 
< c   ɩɪ    ,c
* ;c B;c += c c  +c 7:<c c E7+ c 
+<c< cɥ   ɩɪ   ,c
L7+ c c ; ;c B;Ac += c c < c 
 ɶ  ɷɥ c  7 c c H  c E7+ c   f c
B> :H Dc+c ,,cc H  c   f  c Ac; cø ,ccL7+ c
bc ; ;c B;Ac += c c < c  ɥɶ 

c

61c

ɷɥ c  7 c 7c 7:Ac c c c E7+ <c bc c c   +<c 7 c bø ,c
" + +c ; c  7 c  +> c E7+ c H  c c c   <c c
+  +7<Dc E7+ c += c < c 7c A,c ' 7 c =c c += c 
H  c 

+> c

E7+ c 

c 

c 

7 c   

<+c

+  +7<+cE7+ +,c
- +,c  +  +c += c ;c B7  c c c
B+A7c  c +c   , c 

=c ;c  c 

B;cBc0 3c  7<Dc; 7,c" > cBc ø cc
+= c ;cB7 +c 7:H +c+c 0a b3cø c0 F3c 7 c c 7c 
7 cac\cbc cc\cF,c +  +c+= c ;c A7 c " c +,c ,c
, Jc 3,c %;c c   + c 03c 7 c c E +c A7 c 
+> +c E7+ +,c %Bc  +  +c += c ;c A7 c 
ɋc +,c  ,c , Jc 3,c $7c E Ac A7 c =c ;c <c c 
c+  +7c ;, c
c
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc   

c
c
c
c
c
c    

cccccccccccccccc3cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc3 c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ,c , Jcc

. c 

B;c

+= c 

c 

ɋc 

< c 

ɩɥ  

ɩɪ c  7 c  c B c B+= c c += c c + c 
+> cE7+ ,c 

= c• YcSc cc Tc7 cB7cB;<+,c 

= c 0-Ö Ö3cc7 cB7cB;<+c cB +c 
=c cB+= c0-Ö Rc c0 Rcc +: c +>AcE7+ , c
c

c

62c 

/3/14 ) 2&.4 ,* 1./3/&3')

,c" > cE 7  ,cc c  +c+= , c 
,c -= c 7 c   c += c  > c E 7  c c E +c
+= Uc
6,c* c c7 cE 7  cB=<c<+cE7+ +U c
J,c* c c? c+= U c
/,c - +c  > c E 7  c c += c 7<Dc ; 7c K  
> c  + cBc+ 7:c,c
1,c" > c; ;AcB,c
2,c" > c AAcB,c 
,c 7 ;: c 7 c B7 c +  +7Ac E7+ c c  +>Ac
E7+ Uc 
,c. cB;<c cB7cB;<c+= , c
c
c 
&'()* + $

c
š ? -/./@-4& .-/0&12
c
c 

= c c c c ; : c ɪ   c  7 c H  c   

c  = c fc += c c c += c ,c 

c  c   

c  = c 0  3c  H 7 c  +c ;c    
c+=cE7+ + c+= c c c,cc
"; c; c = c = c+= c ccc7 c   
<+,c 
c H  c  c fc+= cccc 7 c; cfcK c7 c   
cccc0 +,cš 53,c

c

6c

' 7 c H  c  c+= c ccc c  c+= c cc
ɋc c c +<c ,/c 7 c ; c H  c   c += c c c
+= cɋ,cc
% +c +c  > c +H c += c 7 c  
+ c ?7  c ++  ; c c   c BE +c 
7 c > +cE 7  c 7 7cB= c  c
+= c c 7 <c +H<Dc += ,c ' 7 c += c c c c 
+H<c c ;  c ; c += c c c c +: c   
ɶc cB < 9ccÕc,c 

= c c =Hc ;c ; 7c E7+ c B7= +c nc
E7+ c ;  c   ,c %Ac c Õc S  
7:H c ;<+c ;  c 

nc T,c 
= c c 

 ,c .:c += c 

+Hc+= c Dc 7<Dc; 7c< c  ,cc 
+: c+ c 7:H c   <c c=<c7  <, c 
&/3&.   c .:c  ;c += c = c ; c

+= ,c 
&/3&.   c 7:c B+= c ; Ac += c ;c 7 c

; ,c 
&/3&.   c "M  c 7:Ac c 7c ;+c ; Ac + c

; <Dc+= c ; ,c
c
- c+= cc cc <c; cc = c c+= c ɋc 
+Hc c c c c c  c B+= c +HAc c Ac
;  c; c+H c+= c c7>c+H c+= c ,cc
c 
&/3&.  " c- ccPc ;c+= cc cPcAcc7c;+c

; c B+= ,c ' 7 c AZBc  ;c += c c c 
+Hc+= c,c

c

Jc 

&/3&.  " c - c c  c += c c B c  c Pc += c

E7+ + c  Ac 7: c  +=<c B+= c += c ,c
%Acc + c+H c7>:c;+c+H c DAc+= , c
c
- c c <;c !c Pc += c  c 7<Dc ; 7,c 
H c
+= c c <: c +H :c   c c 7:c += c 
+Hc += c  c <: c += +c +H c  +c
7 c  ɥɶ   ,c 
&/3&.  $ c 
= c  Dc  7<Dc ; 7c ; c c

+= c c  7<Dc; 7c7 c  7<+c+= +,c
c
c 
     

c  
<c 7  <c Bc 7A ; c + c >7 c c  c c 
7 B <Dc  DcAc& 7cB +c  H D cc+ c
B7 c  c)++B c0 2K 5AA,cc,cE,3cc Dc+< 7 7c 
Ac'A B c! c c c c Ac& , c
&c  c 7K)+ c F c +D  c 7K=c K7K+7Gc 
7Ac B<c  +   c c +  7<c 7c + +  ,c  
c B c F7K=Gc  Hc c B c ;7c c c 
<c  c c A:c c + +c c B 7  c 7c  
+c7c+ +  c07A<3, c
c
c
š  ¬&3()) ) 3&,)'24
c

c

J c 

c<7ccB c? c f AþBcAc+= c c+= c 
< c 7:<+c B +c += c < c  <+c B  +c  D K c
n
+= cB7= +c=ɋ‹ɋc 7 c=ɋ‹ɋ‹ɋc 7 c=  
TT ÊÊÊ
T T = ɋ ,c

n ° 

' 7 c+= cc7 c <+cB  +c nc+= c c 
A+ +c ? c f AþBc 7 c B;c nKc B +c
(x
x « xn) xm! C
, m , n,c % +c +c nKA+ c n •
c ? c 
=f(x
x « xn)c = cɋ ncc03cBÊc 
:c  ɋ nþ ɋc<: cnKɪ  (n-  ) ɩɪ  ccɋc 7 c 
B c cncA+ + ,c 
B +c ? c f(x y)=xyc  c c Kc + c B c Pc B c
7= c c ? c (x y)=x·yc Pc c Kc + c B c += c c
+= c  7<Dc; 7, c
-  c<7cB7ccc c7A ; c = c  
Hc  c ,c %Bc c ; c c ? c B  c +=c  c
B7cB c? ,c
ɉɪ   c nc A+ c 0nc Kc + <+c B  +3 < c
? c c 7 :c B7 c  
TT ÊÊÊ
T
T c n 

c c c 7 :c ; c
n  ɪɚɡ 

c += c {ɂ Ʌ ´c  c ɂc Pc c Ʌc Pc 7=,c  c nKc + <c
B  cɊc = c ɋ n c03c+=  {ɂ Ʌ ,c 
+  +c B +<,c - c ={« - -
"
« c c B7= +c ; c
Ɋ()c ; 9c ]c Pc; c ; 7],c %Ac B c = c B7; +c ; c Ɋ( )=ɂc c
B c= Ɋ( )=Ʌc c ,,c
- c ɋ=(-Ö Ö) c =ɋ×ɋc c Ɋ( )c ; c  # ,c %Ac Ɋ(
)=ɂc
Ɋ( 5)=Ʌc c ,,c
c
š  A&63);&1'* 1)12&. A&63
/,&8
c

c

Jc 

ɥɪ  

 c <: c B c += c c c 

<+ c c E +c += c B + c c B  + c ,,c 
7A ; c +cE cB;c 9 c
Y=]A´ P 
Ac
c 

cPcB c+= @c 
c Pc += c B @c =c B c m (m!) + c mc 

A+ c m
Ê - c m >  B  mc  = c += c 
ÊÊÊ 
TT 
T
T

= Amcc03cÊc- cmcYccPcmc0? c  3cB7 c 

m  ° 

?  <+cE7+ +c c ,c"B c mc(m!)c<: c ɥ  
ɩɪ  c +<@c 
PcPc+= cB  c c; c=<cB  c Pj cPc + c

nj (nj
) A+ c c,c-  cPj  = c+= c  TT  ÊÊÊ
T
T cY
nj° 

Anj c c 03c += c {ɂ Ʌ ´c B  <c Ɋjc (Ɋj!P)c <: c ɥ 
ɩɪ  c +<,c
% +c+c+=cB  c0B cm > 39 
m
A ‹TTA
‹ ÊÊÊ 


T A  A 

ÊÊÊ 
TT 
T
T

Pj
þ {ɂ Ʌ Ê

nj°  

m Ó ° 

c 

= cc< c  ɥc 7 c    ccAc
E7+ <c Kc ɷɥ   ,c 7A ; c +c < c 
  c 7 c;c+= c ,c 
7A ; c +c ]A´ P c < c ɥɪ c  7 c P=wc c 
f wc c ɥɶc 0ɪɥ   

 3c  7 c  = wc c P f w,c 

7 7c7Ac+=c c 7:H +c+, c 
ɥɪc Pc B c += c  c c  +c c B c 
B cBH DcE7+ <c c cc,c

c

J6c

- +,c - c  = ( Ö)c c +c B c ^c _c c

,c &c 7  c

++c7AcB7= 7<DcH <Dc; 7, c
4+c +   c7A<c c;<+c; 7+cB , c
- c ++c 7Ac c nc B + c 
 « nc c B c mc ; 7c 
A+ cB c m (  m n),c%Ac c V = (
 « n)c<: c 
ɩ ɥɪ,c%c + <cB +c7A<c + c Bc V = 0 3,c
- c  Yc S c Kc K c c c c

Tc c c E +c += c <c c 

B 9c Å cB,c[ c; c BcE c7A<c9c V Yc03,c
c
c
š  %/,A&634
c
- c ++c 7Ac ]A´  c  c c Pc += c nc B c c 
B +c+= c,c-7= +c; c Bc7A<c c(
 « n),c
-+= c c += c c < c     ɥɶ  
ɩɪ mc 7 cm cB cE7+ <c c ccE c=cc ,,c7x
x « 
xm!Bc + c+ c; cm(x
x « xm) ! B,c

' 7 c B+= c  ( ë )c + c   7c  Dc B c 
7A<c cV=]B´  c<: cɩɥɪ c7A<c]A´  ,cAc+ c
Vc A c ; c c Kc B7Ac B+c ; c c c B7<c c =c 
B c; c c7c c7A<, c
- c =Q Ö3c c +c B c 7= c 0^3c c += c 0_3,c 

= c  7<Dc ; 7c ! Yc Sc c c

Tc = c c c c + c   

7c B c ^c c _,c -E +c !c B= c B7Ac c 7Ac
]Q Ö3´ × ,c 
&/3&.   c - ; c 7:c B c B7Ac c 

7A<c7 cB c7 c7 cB7Acc7A<, c

c

JJc

ô/'52&812/ c - c ++c  c += c B7Ac SB Tc 

c7A<c ]A´  ,c +  +cB ; cE DcB7Ac cB cE c
B ; ccc(B=2B ),c' 7 c=wc c = c +<c,c
- c fw,c &<+c B 7:c B :c mc c c c B 7<c
E7+ <c x
x « xmc c ,c %c c c Kc B ; c  Dc B+= c B c c
E7+ <c x
x « xmc B 7= c =+c B c c c c B c Kc B7Ac c 
m(x
x « xm)!B ,c &c 7  c B7;+c ; c m(x
x « xm)!Bc ,,c c
B7A,c%+c, c 
+  +c 7Ac Y 
YS65

=]S 6 T^ ,c - c 
YSJ5

Tc c

T,c"; c; c 
c c cB=: cB7A<cc7A<c

c B ; c E Dc B7Ac =c 7 c B7A,c "M  c
+= c
c c c9c 

‘  YS6J52 T,
-7;c += c 
‘  

c + c   7c B c

7= c c B +c ^6Y/c c / 8 (
‘  )Êc % +c +c 
M  cB7Acc Ac7 cB7Acc7A<, c
c
c
š 
/3<)5.4 A&63
c
4+c +   c B<c7A< c
Y =]A´  c cVcY]B G c
Ac 
= (
 « n) V =( 
« n) mcPc; 7cA+ ccm@c 
G = (G
G « Gn) V =( 
« n) mcPc; 7cA+ ccGm,c

% +c +c  +  +c 7A<c c =c c  <Dc <c  
<c ; 7c 0n3c B c c 7c =A m  m  n c ; 7c A+ c 
B cm cGmc <,

c

J/c

& c  = c c  Ac += c c 03c  c
+= cc<+cɪ  ɥɪcYc03c7AcV,c
ɂɪɮ  ɥɪ Yc Y]A´ 
 « n 

03c  B:c 

7AcV =]B´ G
G « Gn < c +c;c0  3c  
= c c += c c 03c  c D:Hc A7<c B c 
7A<c ,,c7c Ac<B7: c  > 9 c
0, 3c 

(m(x
x « xm))=Gm((x
) « (xm))c 

7c Dcm , m , n c c7c7:<Dcx
x « xm!A,c 
+? +c7A<cc c< c ɪɮ ,c
-ɪɮ  ɥɪ Yc Y]A´ 
 « n 03c  B:c 
7Ac V =]B´ G
G « Gn < c  
= c
+= c 

c 

c

+= c 
D:Hc 

c

y=ln x 

03c

A7<c 

B c 7A<c ,,c 7c  Ac

x 

<B7: c 7 c0, 3c7c Dc m , m ,
n c c7c7:<Dcx
x « xm!A,c 

,c, c

- c Y=] ( Ö)´ × V=] (-Ö Ö)´ ,c

"c 7A<c +: c Bc V =c 03,c  +  +c  = c () = ln(x)c
+= c(" Ö)cc+= c(-Ö Ö),c!? c? cln(x)cB Ccc ,c 
, ,c L c  = c 7 c  +c ;<+c  = +c
+= c ( Ö)c c += c (-Ö Ö),c &<  +c D c 7 c B c
,,c c7 cB  cBD cc ++,c++9 c 
(a×b)=ln(a×b)=ln aln b=(a)(b)Êc

c
c
% +c 

+c 

c

B  c 

c 

++c 

c 

+= 7,c 7 7c  = c ()=ln(x)c c +c 7;c 
7 c +? ++cYccV,c

c

J5c

- c Yc Y] ( Ö)´  c VY] (-Ö Ö)´
× ,c &+c  = c ()=,c !? c

y=#x 

? c  c B Cc c  ,c ,,c %Ac
++9c () =  =  = ()(),c

x

% +c +c c ++<c c
B  :c ,c 7 7c 

,c,c

E c = c7 c +? ++c
Y cc Vc cc c = c +c;c += c ( Ö)cc; c
+= c(-Ö Ö)c c > cÊc
- c• Kc+= c <Dc n×nc+  c  7<Dc; 7c c 
c•ccB c+= c+  c ,,c ++c7A cY Y]´ × c Bc
V =c03,c-7= +c; cVcY] (-Ö Ö)´  c>Uc; c<;c+= c

; 7,c &+c  = c (ɋ)=F#+(ɋ)c Ac +  c ɋc  c c    
ccB7 7c (F#+(ɋ)),c"; c ++c 
(ɋ×)= F#+(C×)= F#+ɋ F#+= (C) (),c

c
c
% +c +c  = c  Y þ V D c B :,c c E c  
= c c 7 c +?<+c c c 7 ;<c +  <c +A c
+ c <cB7 7,c c cPcA++? +cYccV,c
" > c +? +c c 7Ac   c 7 c  + c 
?7  c ++  ; c c   c 7 7c7 c  
> +c E 7  c c += c  B<Dc 7A,c L c  
> c B= c   c  B<Dc 7Ac c B :H  c 
7 <,c&c=<c7 cBB: c +?<c+=c  c7A<,c

/3/14 ) 2&.4 ,* 1./3/&3')

,c  c+= c+H<U c 
,c c+= c7 c ; <+U c

c

J1c

6,c4 c7 c+= c Dc; <Dc; 7c ; <+U c
J,c* c c 7c+= U c
/,c"B c cB  <,c
5,c7A ;  c +<,c 
7,c7A,c% Bc7A<,c
1,c-7A,c- ; cB7A,c" c7 cB7AcM  c
B7AUcc
2,c!++? +c0 B<D3c7A,c- +<,c 
,c+? +c0 B<D3c7A,c- +<,c
,c[7 c7 c +? +cA++? ++Uc
c
c 
&'()* + !

c
š  A&63 1 /,-/C /&3()&C
c 
+  +c B c += c Gc c c + c 0 3c 
B c ,,c7c7:<Dc a b! GcB7c7  cB c ab! G,c 

= c cc+ cB c<: c ɪɩɩ Êc
ɉɥɪɩɩcPcE c+= cGcc +ccc   c 
+ c0 3cB c ,,c7c a b ! G a(b)= (ab),c% +c 
+ccB7ABBcE cABB cc +cB c   , c 
+  +cB +<,c ,c- c cKc7? ,c 
= c +=<Dc
7cc7? c; +c;c ,c' 7 cPc c cKc 7cc7? c c c Dc 
Bc 0  3c P c =c 7c c 7? c ,c [ c ; c += c
7cc cB7ABBc  7cB c  , c 
,c- c 9cPc+= cB7 +c c " 
 «nxncAcamcPc
7:<c   7<c ; 7c 0, m , nc n • 3,c %Ac += c 9c 7 c
B7ABBc   

7c 

B +c   

7c+= cB7 +, c

7= c

B7 +c

7 c

c

J2c

•  cPcE cB7ABBc c  9c
c 

(! G)c; c7c c cG #a=a#=a,c 

+  +c B +<,c ,c - c c += c 7c c 7? c ,c
&+c B c 7c 0 7c c 3c  c c B7= +c *=‘ ST,c %Ac *c c 
B c  c 7c c+ ,c7c  <c A cB c
7,c 
,c - c Ɍc Pc += c  <Dc B+<D,c - c 7 c 
+cB+<Dc< c+= cB c
G=S+

+  « +   T,c 
7  +c B + c B  c c B+c  m 

c 

<= cB7;c+c  m c+ m , m , ,c +B  cB c
G
c c G c < c B 7 7c B + c ;7c G 
c  +c G ,c 

= c B c c B c +B  c B c  c
+ c   c  Ac 7 c = c B c c  c 
+ c+ mcB 7 c+ m ( , m , ),c
c 
&/3&.  ,c'  c+ c  ,c
ô/'52&812/,c $B +c H : c c   <9c #
# !G,c  

c; c7c !G # a=a #=a,c%Ac# 
# =# = # 
# =#
 #
= # ,c
c   

c   

c

c 
&/3&.   c &  c + c c += +c •c +?c  

+c+ cB cc •,c
ô/'52&812/,c - c ++c + c c •9 •=]´ ,c -  +c 

c += c Gc E7+ + c  Ac 7: c  = c
0B 3cfgc+= c•ccc•c
fg(x)=x g

c

Jc  

cx g!,c
&C+c B :c F Gc c B +c += 9c fgfq = fgqÊc L c 
B c     c c 7c     c B c ,c 7c   <c   
7cB c c A cf#cAcc  cc•,c
-  +c Bc  = c c += c •c c G9c c (g)=fg,c c L c  
= c; c7 c +c;<+,c +c Ac ++9 c
c 

(g q)=fg q=fgfq=(g)(q)c

,,cc D cB :, c
% +c +c + c Y=]´ c +?c + c V=]G c  ,c * c c 
7 c , c
c
c
š  394
c
-ɪɩɩc Pc E c + c c  +c 7c 7:Ac E7+ c H  c  
<cE7+ c ,,c
c 

a a- 
aa-
=a- 
a=#c  

ca-
c ;  c <+ccE7+ c  ca-
ccB 7= cE +c+ ,c  
c  c  +<c 0 7 3c B7; +c 7:Hc B7 c
ABB<,c 

= cGc cc cB cF Gc<+cABBc 7 9c
3c B c   c ,,c7c a b  cG a(b)= (ab)´ 
3c H  c   c c G c ,,c c E7+ c #!Gc ; c 7c a!G
a#=#a=a´
63c 7c7:AcE7+ c a! Gc H  c <cE7+ c ,,c c
E7+ ca-
! Gc; c -
=- 
=,
" + +c; c H : cA cE 7 <cB7 cABB<, c

c

/c

' 7 cB ccABBc< c+= +c cABBc< c 
ɥɶ ɩɥ    c  7 c ABBc B c < c 7= +c c
ABBc< c    ,c 
+  +c B +<,c ,c 
= c <=<Dc  <Dc
Bc n×nc +  c   7<Dc ; 7c  c ABBc   7c 
B c+= c+  ,c'  cABB<c7 c  ;c+  c 
c  <+c E7+ +c Pc  c +  ,c L c ABBc 7 c
+7 B7  cABB,c 
,c & c 7<c ; 7c : c  :c ABBc   7c 
B c 7= c; 7,c'  cABB<c ccc <+cE7+ +c 
7c; 7cc7 c; 7c(-),c
6,c - c •c Pc B c += c c G=c Pc += c  Dc
B+= c += c •,c c Gc +c B :c c ++  ; :c  
9c
c 

= ,c 

=c   c ; c E c B c    ,c - c += c 
c  c c
c

c 

w=w=c cw=w=,c

" <+ccc c +cE7+ cc ccc=w,c
% +c +c Gc c c B c ++  ; c  c 
7 cABB,c
c 
&/3&.  ",c" <cE7+ ccABBc  ,c
ô/'52&812/,c $B +c ; c 7c c H  c c  <Dc

E7+ c
-
c c - 
c Ac
c

# = a
- 
a= a - 
a=#,c

#+= cE7+ <cE Ac c Bcc a
-
cB7; +c
a
-
cY(a
- 
a)a
-
= (a - 
a)a
-
= a
-
cc a
-
cY a - 
(aa
-
)= a

- 

a
-
= a -
,c

c

/ c

c
c 

&/3&.  $ c&cABBc<B7: c 7:H c  > 9 c

3c(a b) -
=b -
  -
´ 
3c 7 ca b =   cb=´
63c 7 cb a =  a cb=´
J3c(a -
) -
=aÊ

ô/'52&812/,c 3c (ab)b- 
a-
=a(bb-
)a-
=a#a-
=aa-
=#@c b- 
a-
c
-

-

-
- 

(ab)c Yc b c 0a c a)b= Êc 7 7c b a c 7 c  <+c

E7+ +c7c(a b)@c 
3cab=a  a- 
(ab)=a- 
(a)(a- 
a)b=(a- 
a)  #b=#  b=,c 
7A ;c7c 7<Dc = , c
c 
&/3&.  !,c&cABBc+=c;c> c  cax=b,c
ô/'52&812/ cax=b  a- 
(ax)=a- 
b  (a- 
a)cx=a- 
b  #x =

a- 
b   = a- 
bÊc
!BBc < c    c 7 c ɥ c  7 c 7c a b!G
ab=ba,c
-7= +c; c 7 c =  b = ´  7 c > cb =bb«b´  7 c=cc
<  cb =b- 
b- 
«b-
Êc
(- )cc
c

cc

c
- c c Kc  c B+= c ABB<c G,c ' 7 c 7:c E7+ c c
+7 B7  c 0 3c ABB<c Gc +=c B  c c  c
B  c 0 ++<3c E7+ c c c c Dc  <Dc B c E +c 

c

/c

+  +7c c E7+ <c c c <: c ɪ  ,c %c  7 c =Sb

b « bnTc c7ca!Gc ++9c
c

a=b 

b >bn nc

c B c E +c  c  c E7+ c c c 7c  c c E7+ <c += c c 
7: c:H + cABB<, c
!BBc cc:Hc< c  ɥ  ,c
% +c+cc 7 ; cABBc c:Hc  c7:cE7+ c
bcABB<cB  +cc cb=acAccPc c7c; 7, c
O 7 ; c ABBc   c c Bc Ac E7+ ,c $7c E c
ABB<c H  c c += ,c . c  c B c a c 7 ;<c Ac  
7 ; cABBc
c

« a- a-
a"=# a
a «c  

;,c. c< c; c H : c cc  c; 9c
c

c

a =a >>"c

c

a -=# ( ->"),c 

Ac
c

- ccE +c 7;c nK +> cB7= 7<cB 7cB c +c
an=#,c%Ac B c
c

c

a" a
a « an-
c 

7 ;<c ;c 7 cah=a (" < h n)c cB7; +c; c
c

c

ah- =# ("<h- <n)c

; cB ; c<c; 7c n,c 
+>c7cB7= 7c nc c; c
an=# 
< cɩɪ ɷɥ c,c' 7 c Acncc H  c cE7+ c c 
< cɷɥ     ɩɪ,c 
&/3&.  c0+7c +c+3,c' 7 c a!Gc cG ;cABBc c

aG=#,c
%+cB ++cc 7 , c

c

/6c 

B+ +c ; c =c ABBc ]G  c 7 c 7Ac c c  
c B c 7c  c <B7: c  c  7 c ,,c <c  
+<cABB<,c
-+= c G
+=  Gc c c =c B c ; c c c ABBc 
< cɩɪɩɩ c 7 c ]G
c 7 cABB,c 

=c c; cB cB+= c G
+=  Gc7 c
BABBcABB<c ]G  c Ac c 7c AcAc+= cG
c+ c c
7:<+ cE7+ + cc cbc = cE7+ cb-
Êc 

=c c 7:H:c +, c
c 
&/3&.  ,c-ABBc 7 ; cABB<c7 c 7 ; , c

c
c
š  394 /,12-//'
c
c

- c •c Pc ;c += c B7= +c •c Yc S >nT,c 4  c  

= c f += c •cc •c < c ɩ  ,c- c f9c
S >nTc þc S >nTc c  c 7 c c Dc ,c &c Bc 
c B <: c A+ <c ? c fc c c  c   :H c 
; cf,cB +c 7 c•cYcS 6J/Tc cf0 3cYc6cf03cYc cf063cYcJcf0J3cYc/c
f0/3cYcc cB <+9c
fcYc
-  +c

B c

fc

6J/
6 J / 

c

gc

,c 
< c

0B 7 7cB + 3,cB +c 7 c
fcYc 
c

6J/
6 J /  

cccgcYc

6J/
/6J  

c

Dc 

+B  c

c

/Jc

fgcYc

6J/
J/ 6

,c  

c ; c +B  c  <Dc  > c 7 c  +c    
c 0 +,c š /3,c %c c ? c 7 c ; <+c 7;+c  
Ac  > c c B  c B c 7 c  +c    
,c
Ɍ  ɩ  c c? c#0x3cYcxc ,,c 
cYc

 6 ,,, n
 6 ,,, n

,c

Ɉɪ  ɩ c7cB  c fcPcE c c? c f - 
c  
c  Ac H  c c c B c 7 c   c
? ,c B +c 7c  + c <>c B  c fc Yc
B7; +9cfcK cYc

6J/ 
/ 6 J

,c%Acf fcK cYc

6J/
6 J / 

c

6J/ 
/ 6 J

cYc

6J/
6 J / 

 6 J /
 6 J / 

c

cYc,c

% +c +c += c B c c c ;+c nc
E7+ +c

+= c 

c

ABBc   

7c 

B c

B  c0+B  3,cL cABBc< c  ɪ  ɪɩɩ c 
B cn,cc
* 7c +=<DcB c7c ncE7+ Ac+= cc
n`cBE +c ++  ; cABBc B c nc + ccn`cE7+ ,c
c 
/3/14 ) 2&.4 ,* 1./3/&3')

,c!BB cB7ABBc+ ,c'  c7 c  c+ U c 
,c- +<cB7ABB,c
6,c!BB,c"B7 cB +<,c'  c7 c <cE7+ U c
J,c* c c cABBUc- +<c <DcABB, c
/,c* c c+7 B7  cABBUc- +<c+7 B7  cABB, c
5,c> + c ccABB, c

c

//c

1,c":H cE7+ <cABB<,cO 7 ; cABB, c
2,c!BBcB , c
c
c 
&'()* + 

c
š  A&63 1 ,9.* /&3()*.) /8(/


+  +c7A<c c+c <+ cB + ,c
Ʉɥɶ < c B c += c c c  +c <c c  
<cB c^c c c<+<c 7= +c c+= +c  c; 9 c
3c ]´  c7 c7cABB@ c 
3c += c   c ,,c7c a b ! (ab)=a(b)@c
63c += c    c   7c 7= c ,,c 7c 
a b ! a0b)=(ab)()c c(b)= (a)(b),c 

7c< c  c 7 c7c a b! ab=ba,c 
7cB <+cc ´  Êc
%c c c 7 c 7c 0++  3c ABBc   7c
7= c c c + c  :c   c  :c ;: c ;c c
7 c ¼c c<: c7+,c  :c  :c7c a!c;: c;cccc
K,c- cE +cc7:+c7cc ++9c 
x=x =x x(-x)=(-x)x= -(-x)=xÊ
%AcB7;+c; cc
c

xy=x(y )=xy x  x= 7c!´

c

xy=( )y=xy y  y= 7cy!,c  

c+<cB7 c; c7c ! x =  = Ê "c c c
xy="cc 7 c; c=c 7 c=,c-=+cE ccB +, c

c

/5c

- +,c  +  +c += c B<<Dc c   c Qa bRc
? ,c &+c 7c E Dc ? c <;<c B c 7= c c 
+= 9c f(x)(x)c cf(x)·(x),c c7Ac  cB7; +c7c c 
; c CQa bR,c +  +c ? :c f(x)c c (x)c =<cc ,c 
,6,c%AcB7; +c; cf(x)  c c(x)  ccf(x)·(x),c

<c7 c; cB  cc7:c 7 cc7:c c c
+= 79c a= 7c a!c c c B +c B7 c ; c += c < c ; c
ab=c7caf c cbf ,c
' 7 cc7c c ++c; cab=c cc< c ɥccbcɩɪ 
ɥ ɥ c ɥ,cL7+ cc ; +cɪ  ɥɶ  ɥ ɥ ɥ,c
c
c
f(x)

f(x)·(x) 
c

a

F

b

a

F

b 

(x)

a

F

c

b

c 
,c,6c
c 
++  c7cc7 7c7c 7 ;<Dc c   7Ac 
7 7c7c<: cɥ  ɥɶ 7 ɥɶ ɥ  ,c
.Ac  c; c
c 

=x(y(-y))=xyx(-y) 
=(x(-x))y=xy(-x)y

c

/1c

cBE +cx(-y)=(-x)yc7 c <+cE7+ +c7cE7+ c c ,,c
c

c 

(-) = (-) = -(),c 

7A ;c+=cB c; c(-)(-) = ,c
c
c
š  /8(/ 1 &,)-)(&C
c
' 7 cc7c c H  c  c  7c+= c c E c
+7 B7  :c  c;: c;c , c
.Ac  c ; c +7 B7  c   c 0c c  3c   
,c 
7 B7  :c  :c 7c a!c 0 :c Bc 
+= :3c+c; c;c -
,c
c 
&/3&.  ,c L7+ <c c c c 7: c 7 ;<+ c E7+ + c 

7Ac7c,c
ô/'52&812/,c- cc = cc 7c,c%Ac7ca  c ++c 

=c c  =  c  c 7 c ; c   c c  7 c <c = c c c Dc
B  ccc B7 c<,c
c 
&/3&.  

?,c  

c   

c

,,c 

c 

c

+ c

+7 B7  Ac A, c
ô/'52&812/,c ==  c 7c !,c % +c +c 7c 

7c Acc cABBc  7c+= , c
èɪɪ   ɥɶcc<: c +>c 7c; 7c c 
c ; c aTTa  
ÊÊÊ 
a
TT

" c 7c  Dc a!,c )  c 7c

Ó ɪ 

B < c =ha ,c' 7 cAc; 7c cc H  c cB7A+c 
ha =,cc

c

/2c

- czcPc+= c Dc7<Dc; 7@ c
c cPc+= c Dc 7<Dc; 7@c
c cPc+= c Dc  7<Dc; 7@ c
c ɋcPc+= c Dc+B7 <Dc; 7, c 
=c c += c z

 Cc c <;<+ c B + c 7= c c 

+= c 7 c 7+,c L c 7c 7: c ++  <+ c c
+7 B7  c   c c ; 7c ,c L c 7c c +: c 
7 7c 

7c

7 7c 

7: c 

7 + c 

7  ,c

)  c=Ac cE Dc7cc7:, c 
7c B<<Dc c Qa bRc ? c 07c CQa bR3c =c 7 c 
7+c c +7 B7  c   c  c B c c ? c 
= c c   c c Q a bR,c L c 7c + c 7 7 c 7c
BE +cc7 c7 :c7  c c ha CQa bR=,cc 
+  +cHCc cB +,c- c •cKcB c+= c c =cKc
+= c  Dc B+= c += c •,c c c +c c B 9c
++  ; :c  c = 0 :c C+c 7= +3c c
B ; c0 cC+c+= +3,c 
=c  c; cB7; 7 c 
7c c   @c  c   c E Ac 7c  c w c
+7 B7  c   c 7c  c += c •,c $7c E Ac 7c
B c7:+c !c ++9c ==w,c7 7cha = Êc
c
c
š ? %/&
c
ɉɥc < c ++  c 7c c  Ac 7<c
E7+ <c: c++  :cABBc  7c+= , c
- +cB+cB7 cB7cB; 7c c +<, c
-7c Pc E c += c Pc c +c  <+ c B + c F Gc c FGc 
<+<+ c 7= +c c+= +c  + c; 9 c

c

/c

3c

7= c   9c7c a b ! (ab)=a(b)@c 

3c 

H  c  c    9c 

!Pc ; c 7c a!P

a=a=a@c
63c 

H  c <cE7+ cBc 7= :9c7c a!P (-a)!Pc

(-a)a=a(-a)=@c
J3c

7= c++  9c7c a b!P ab=ba@c

0 +<c cPcJc;: c; cB7c7 c7cABBcBc 7= :3@ c
/3c 

+= c   9c7c a b !P a(b)=(ab)@c

53c 

H  c +7 B7  c   9

!Pc ; c 7c a!P

a=a =a@c
13c 

7c 7:Ac 7Ac E7+ c (a  ") H  c  <c

E7+ cBc+= : 7ca!P a  
23c

a-
!P a- 
a = aa-
= @c 

+= c++  9c7c a b!P ab=ba@c

0 +<c/cPc2c;: c; cB7cc7AcE7+ c c 
++  :cABBcBc+= :3@ c 
3c 

+= c    c   7c 7= 9c 7c a b 

!P a(b)=(ab)(a) (b)  a=(ba)(a),c
- +<cB79cc
3c]´ ‹ cKcB7cH <Dc; 7@ c 
3 ] ´ ‹ cKcB7c 7<Dc; 7@ c
63c]C´ ‹ cKcB7c+B7 <Dc; 7@ c
J3cB cɊ YS T,c"B7 +c; c c^cYc^c Y 
c ^c Yc c ^c Yc c ‹Y‹ Y‹Yc c ‹ Y , %Ac  =]P ´ ‹ c 7 c
B7+c c< c   ɪ ɮ  ,c
c 

&/3&.  ,c' 7 c  c ccB7c  <+c+c> +c  

c=b,c
c

ô/'52&812/Ê ax=b  a- 
(ax)=a- 
b  (a- 
a)x=a- 
b

c

5c 

x=a- 
b x=a- 
bÊc

š  &7&2')
c
c 

>  c Ac <: c  + ,c &c > Dc c c c 7Dc

+: c c B c  <c +=c ; c ;c c c ‹c c c c 
+c c => Dc B +c > c 7: c += c  Dc
B+= c c B + c M  c c B ; c c 7c B c c 
> DcB +: c; c c c,c
c

Ɋc Pc E c += c •c c +c  <+ c B + c c c c 

+ c ; c 7c a b !c <B7<c 7:H c  7 c 0 +<c 
>  39c
3c +B   9 aa=a

aa=a´ 

3c ++   9cab=ba

ab=ba´

63c     9c(ab)=a(b)

(ab)c=a(b)´

J3c BA7H 9ccccccccc(ab)a=a

(ab)a=a´

/3c > c< c   c 7 9 c
a(b)=(ab)(a)

a(b)=(ab)(a)Ê

c 
 c   
c ' 7 c c > c 

!•c ; c 7c  =c 

cc< c7+c 7 c =cA:c >  ,c' 7 cc> c

!•c

; c7c  = c c c< c  c 7 cDcA:c>  ,c 
> c cDc c =cA+ c< cA ;, c
c
c 

&/3&.   ,c ' 7 c  =c 0D3c Ac H  c c c   

,c
c

ô/'52&812/ c- cc cWcKc7 c>  ,c%Ac cWYWc c*c 

Y,c7 7cYW,c7A ;c7c ,c
c

c

5 c

c 

&/3&.   ,cab=b  ab=a,c

c

ô/'52&812/

()9c

- c

ab=b,c

ab=a(ab)=

%Ac

=(aa)(ab)=a(ab)=aÊ
c

( )c- cab=a,c%A9cab=(ab)b=b,c

c 

&,12)&  ,ca=a=a a=  a=aÊc

9  
c c    c &c A ;c > c E7+ c .c 
< cB7 +cE7+ c c 7 c. Yc c. Y ,c
c
c 

&/3&.  " ,c&cA ;c   c> c cB7 +c 

<B7 9c

c

3c 

B7 c.c  @c 

3c 

B7 c 7: 9c.. = @c

63c

A cB7: cAcA9c a = cacYc @c

J3c 

<B7: c<cc 
A9c(ab)acYca.2b. cc(ab). = a. b.Êc

ô/'52&812/,c 3,c- cccPcB7 c,c%A9cc 

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x i 

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A, c

ÿ 
c c c   
&c 7:c > c +=c   
<+c +c  c 0 A 3c ; ;<c B9c a “ bc cc

c

5c

ab=a,c -=+c; c E cB7 c  c ,,cc > c 
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> +c; ;AcB, c
c

ô/'52&812/,cc

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c(a=ab=b)cc(aYb),c

6,c %  9c(a “cb)c c(b “c)cc(ab=a)c c(b=b)ccc
cccccc(a=ab)c c(ab=ab)cc(a=ab=ab)cc
cccccc(a=ab)cc(a=a)cca “c,c
- +<c > ,c ,c - c c Pc B c += c •=,c c •c 
+c B c M  c c B ; c += ,c -7; +c > c 
@c c ,c  =c A:c  c wc Dc A:c Pc •c c B7 +c

E7+ cAcPcE7+ c A ,c; +c; cA “ Bc 7 c=,c"; c; cc  
c E7+ <c  c B;<c +=c ,c %c c  ,c ,Jc 3c E7+ c
0B+= 3ccB>  cccc ,,Jc3cc ccB;<,cc 
,c - c
Qa bRc += c  Dc H ;<Dc ? c 
B7<Dcc cQa bR,c"B7 +cB c 
(x)f(x)=mn{f(x) (x) ´c 
(x)f(x)=ax{f(x) (x) Êc

c
c
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c

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56c

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c
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c  

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c>  @ c
53c a
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13c a"=a a
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23c a..=a -cBc +cc  DcB7 @ c 
3c (ab).=a.b. (ab).=a.b. -ccBc +cc  DcB7 @ c
3caa.=
aa.=" -c ccB7 c H  @ c
c
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•  w ] c c ±  c = =w  “c  ë Êc
c

c

5/c

š  
23/),4
c
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c +<9c
c

9cw!è@c

c 

9c 7 c!èc cë c c!è@c

c

69c 7 c !èc cˆcˆYˆcˆ^ c c  !Zc c; c‘ S#T!è,c

c

L7+ <c += c èc <: c  +<+ c c  7<c

E7+ <c c ȿcPc +<+ c+= + ,c
c 

+  +cB +<c+  , c
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•=]ȿ´è c  c +  +c c c 7Ac   c <B7: c  
c  +<c 0 7 3c +  ,c %c +  c < c 
 ɪ ,c -7= +c ; c ȿ=Sa bT c Ac è = Sw SaT
SbT Sa bTTÊc 7 7c • =c ]Sa bT´ Sw SaT SbT Sa bTT c 
7 c <+c+  + ,c 
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%Acc7Ac  c•=]ȿ´è c c+  +,c
6,c - c ++c A?c G = (
X),c -7= +c ȿ = èc c c   c c  
7 ;  Dc BA?c A?c GÊc - c SGc ; c += c  
Dc 7 ;  DcBA?cA?cGÊc 
=cB c; c7c •
=]è´SG c  

c 

7 c

0 +<c

K
63c 

<B7: ,c 

7 7c• =]è´SG c7 c+  +, c
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B <c += c ,c,9c E E>E cYc E@ Em c Ejc Yc wc 7c  Dc
mëj@cEm ëc wc7c Dcm c\cm \c ,c-7= +c; c/c9YcSAc ëcEc9c $A Emc

c

55c

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-=+c ; c •c Yc ]ȿ´ / c 7 c +  +,c " + +c ; c
Bc 

B7 :c

+= c

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= c  

+=<c

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9c $AEmc$c\c ,cc  
+c
c ; c <B7 c c c /c = c
B c+= ,c
' 7 c! /c c ë c cB ; c  c7:<+c cEmc c\cm \c c 
c += c = c 7>c  Ac E7+ c 7 7c  
+c 
c =c<B7 , c
%Bc <  +c <B7 c  +<c
6,c - c  ! /c c
ˆˆYˆˆ^ ,c

-7= +c

; c

+= c 

YSa a>aTc 

YSb b>bb^ T,c =<cE7+ camc cc c\cm \ccB 7= c 
7c+c c+= cEmc c\cm \c cBcB  :c+= c
/c07A ;c c7c+= c 3Êc* 7ccc+= c< c7>c
; 7c - c c 7=c < c ˆˆYˆˆ^ c c c c c += c < c
E7+ c7>c;+c ,c- ca cEj cac cEj> ac cEj,c%cc 
c += c c 7>c E7+ c ;+c c c c  c c +A c
B 7= c 7c B+= +c Ej cEj> Ejc 7 7c 
H  c bmc  <c +c c B 7= c c B 7= c 
B +c Ejqc jqc Sj j>jT,c %Ac  Ejqc Yc wc c ˆEjqˆc Yc ,c
-7= +c Yc Ejqc Ac AS#T / 7 7c  +c
6c 
=c<B7 ,c
c

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c cB  +c+= c /c cJKAcB +c7c+  ,c- c E c
YcS TcEcYcS6JTcE6cYcS/T,c%AcB7; +c; c /cYcSwcS TcSTcS6TcSJTc
S/Tc S 6Tc S JTc S /Tc S6Tc SJTc S/Tc S6/Tc SJ/Tc S 6/Tc S J/Tc
S6/TcSJ/TT,c% +c+c+= c ȿc c/cB=: c+  ,c

c

51c

c
&<  +c +c+c+  <c <c c7A+ , c
- c c ? c ; c  c c ; c c A+  c
B 7= c+= c,c
!? c A+ c ? c =f(x)c (! !)c 7 c
B+= +c AcB  c ‹c ,c,9c
fM ‹Ê
$7c DA+ c ? c =f(x 
)c (x
!  ! !)c B7; +c
; c  > c 0? 3c fc 7 c B+= +c  Ac
B  c‹‹c ,c,9c
fM ‹‹Êc
"; c ; c 7c nc A+ c ? c =f(x 
« n)c (x
! 
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c

c

c

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c

c

(n )cc

c

$7c? c  <cfc0; 7cA+ cc7:3c; c ++9 c
c

c

c

c

fM ,c

0,3c

-c B7 :c ? c =f(x
 « n)c c =Ac c ;  c
(x
 « n)c   ,c -E +c c  > c 0,3c B7A c ; c fc 
7 c E7+ <+c += +,c ' 7 c fc 7 c +AE7+ <+c
+= +c cfc+=c +   cc+A;c = ,c
c 

c 7=Ac 7 c ; c +  c +=c  +   c c 

;c+= c ȿ cc +cc;c+= c7+ <Dc
+A;<Dc B c 0B+= c += c ȿ3c 7 :H c  
++c
K
6,c% +c+c+  c7 c <+c >  +c
B c7A<,c
c 

H : c c A c B7 c +  c E 7 <c

B +c B7 :,c ' 7 c c +  c  7 c c ;c

c

52c

+= c ȿc c + c  <Dc Ac B+= c <+<Dc 
+<+ c += + c c c 7:H+c B7 c E7+ <c 
+ cB+= c<: c 7+ , c
c   

+c < c ;c += c

ȿc c + c

={C
C C « C c B <Dc B+= c += c ȿc <+<Dc  
7+ c <c7 : c 7:H +c ++9 c
c

W9c cc  cB+= c 7cc c 7@ c

c 

W9c 7 c!(ɋ
2ɋ )c c(ɋ
‘ɋ )Z{x c = c 7,c
" + +c HCc c ; c B 7c B7 c +  c E 7 c 

B7 :cB C+cc;7cE AcBA?, c 
/3/14 ) 2&.4 ,* 1./3/&3')

,c47<c7A<,c 
,c ++  <c7 cB cc7c7AU c
6,c- +<c7c7A<,c
J,c[7 c7 c  <+cB7 cE7+ cc7c7AU c
/,c   
cAcB7 , c
5,c  cE7+ <c ; : c +<+ U c
1,c- +<c+  ,c
2,cc+  c c7A+ ,c

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