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Activity 1.1 Mark’s and Peter’s stories
● ● ● ● To provide an overview of some symptoms and treatments of cardiovascular disease using personal accounts. To identify some risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. To provide an introduction to the topic. To practise extracting relevant information when reading text.
The two passages below are Mark’s and Peter’s own accounts of their experiences with cardiovascular disease. As you read each account, note down relevant information about: a symptoms b diagnostic tests c treatments d any features of each person’s lifestyle that you think might have contributed to their development of the disease. When identifying information in this way, try and be selective and concise in the notes you make.
By Mark Tolley I’m 21 now, but 6 years ago something momentous happened that changed my life. On 28th July 1995, I was sitting in my bedroom playing on my computer when I started to feel dizzy with a slight headache. Standing, I lost all balance and was feeling very poorly. I think I can remember trying to get downstairs and into the kitchen before fainting. People say that unconscious people can still hear. I don’t know if it’s true but I can remember my Dad phoning for a doctor and that was it. It took five minutes from me being an average 15-year-old to being in a coma. I was rushed to Redditch Alexandra Hospital where they did some reaction tests on me. They asked my parents questions about my lifestyle (did I smoke, take drugs, etc.?). Failing to respond to any stimulus, I was transferred in an ambulance to Coventry Walsgrave Neurological Ward. Following CT and MRI scans on my brain it was concluded that I had suffered a bleed on my brain. My parents signed the consent form for me to have an operation lasting many hours. I was given about a 30% chance of survival. They stopped the bleed by clipping the blood vessels that had burst with metal clips, removing the excess blood with a vacuum. I was then transferred to the intensive care unit to see if I would recover. Within a couple of days I was conscious and day by day regained my sight, hearing and movement (although walking and speech was still distorted). They had shaved all my hair off! I had a remarkably quick recovery considering the severity of the operation. I was talking again (although slurred and jumbled) within 5 days. By the end of the week, I was transferred back to Redditch Alexandra Hospital to continue the rest of my recovery. There I received occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and speech and language therapy to improve my co-ordination, speech and strength. Within 7 days I could walk aided and talk better – I was then discharged to complete my recovery at home. I was given a wheelchair and was admitted for therapy as an outpatient. The occupational therapy trained my ability to perform everyday tasks. They made me make tea, do jigsaws, etc. to improve my cognitive skills.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology, Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
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Activity 1.1 Mark’s and Peter’s stories
Another effect that the haemorrhage had on me was that the whole right-hand side of my body was weakened (the haemorrhage happened on the left side of my brain) and things that I took for granted before became a challenge. My left hand compensated for the weakness and gradually I became stronger, albeit on my former weaker side! Three weeks later I returned to Coventry Walsgrave for an angiogram, where an X-ray dye was injected into my veins to show up my blood vessels on a scan. However, this showed that there was still a bleed occurring and so I was prepared for surgery once again. The operation was lengthy, but not an emergency. However, I was still warned of the dangers of such surgery. The operation did not leave me with much disability this time, and I woke up within a day of being transferred back into the intensive care unit again. Speech and movement were regained quickly. I was discharged to outpatients within 3 weeks, after undergoing another angiogram, and MRI and CT scans on my brain. Embarrassingly, they had shaved only half my hair off this time! The following Wednesday I was called back to the Coventry & Warwick Hospital where my neurosurgeon held a clinic. He said that there was still a small bleed that needed to be clipped. So I was transferred to Walsgrave for my third operation. This one not being as severe, I woke up minutes after the operation was completed with my faculties fully intact. I could talk and walk aided. Following more scans, the next week I was discharged again to complete my recovery at home. This was now late October 1995. Things such as stair climbing became easier and I no longer required my wheelchair. I have had no further episodes of brain haemorrhage activity apart from occasional headaches. I am on anticonvulsant tablets (phenytoin) as I am now at a much higher risk from epileptic seizures because of the surgery (although I have not had a fit since the operations). I completed physiotherapy in November 1995, by doing exercises that improved my stamina, motor skills and co-ordination. Although I have never been told a full reason why I suffered my stroke, I am certain that it was due to being born with weak blood vessels in my brain that gave way after years of increasing pressure. I’m glad I was at home when it happened; I could have been swimming or walking in the countryside with nobody around! Returning to school in November, I found reading, writing and walking a challenge. I was treated differently from other students, which I found difficult as I wanted to fit back into my normal routine. I passed my GCSE exams with lots of effort and went on to the 6th Form. I did a 1-year course in Health and Social Care which aided my recovery and gave me the strength and confidence to go to college to further my education. The course also showed me how to express myself in a way that would make everyone look beyond my disabilities. I recovered the most in the first 2 years following the stroke: since then it has been a gradual improvement. I do sport and go dancing and play music like normal people my age. My memory is back to normal, only faltering occasionally. Nobody knows about my stroke unless they question the huge scar on my head, so I must have recovered pretty well! I found online organisations such as ‘Different Strokes’ helpful because I met some people who were in the same boat as me. It really helps to share experiences. Well that’s my story. I go trekking around the world in 10 weeks time. I don’t know what the future has in store for me; I don’t really want to know either. I just look forward to it with hope. Thank you for reading this. Mark xx
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology, Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
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Activity 1.1 Mark’s and Peter’s stories
By Peter Kempson I remember clearly the first time I held a hockey stick at school; football wasn’t on the sports programme, so it became hockey, rugby and cricket in each of the terms. During my time at the school I developed a keen interest in all sports, representing the school in hockey and athletics. It did not distract me from my school work but seemed to make me more attentive and kept my mind more active. After leaving school I still maintained my sporting interest, representing Bedfordshire at hockey and taking part in the athletics team at my place of work. In 1961, aged 23, I got the first indication of cardiovascular problems. I was told that I had high blood pressure. I didn’t really take much notice. Well you don’t think much about that at 23, do you? My father had died at the age of 53 from a heart attack but as he was about 4 stone overweight, had a passion for fatty foods and smoked 60 full strength cigarettes a day, I didn’t compare his condition to mine. Throughout the rest of my working life I continued to play sport, mainly hockey, and was never overweight. I must admit that I probably drank too much at times and didn’t bother too much about calories and cholesterol in food. As I got older I found it more difficult to keep fit during the summer break between the hockey seasons and so reverted to road running. I ran my first marathon in Leeds at the age of 42 and I subsequently did another five, including two in London. All was going well I thought, until having a medical for a new job showed my blood pressure reading to be 240 over 140. The doctor could not believe that I was still walking around, let alone running, and sent me straight to my G.P. Since then I have taken tablets for blood pressure and have also reviewed my dietary intake. I continued running and completed the Great North Run at the age of 63. A few months later, and thinking about doing the Great North Run again, I was running 8 miles a week and playing hockey, when my 8 day holiday in Ireland became 3 days touring and 12 days in hospital. At 2 o’clock in the morning of May 8th I woke up with a terrific pain in my chest. I was sweating profusely and looking very pale. My wife rang the hotel reception and within 10 minutes a doctor had arrived, checked me over, and pronounced that I had had a heart attack. Within an hour I was in intensive care and being closely monitored. At 5 am I had a second attack and a specialist inserted a temporary pacemaker to keep my heart rate up as it was dropping below 40. After 5 days in intensive care I was transferred to the general ward for recuperation. I gradually increased my walks each day and was watched by the Lifestyle Nurse while I climbed stairs. The nurse also discussed my lifestyle. Did I smoke? No. Did I eat fatty foods? Yes. Did I exercise? Yes. Was I overweight? No. Did I have a history of cardiac problems in my family? Yes! This then appeared to be the probable cause. I was told that it was possible that had I not looked after myself I might have had a heart attack much earlier in life. After 10 days I was given a stress test which involved running on a treadmill to determine my ability to cope with normal life. Having passed the test I was brought home by the travel insurance company, escorted by a doctor. On returning to Huddersfield I eventually had an angiogram and was told that I needed a triple bypass operation, but that my heart might not be strong enough to take it. The specialist at Leeds General Infirmary, Mr McGoldrick, gave me a detailed analysis of the situation and the operation, but the final decision was up to me. I found it very difficult to walk more than 100 yards without using my Nitro-spray. This was very difficult to cope with considering that 9 months earlier I had been so active. The decision was easy, I would have the operation.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology, Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
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Activity 1.1 Mark’s and Peter’s stories
I have to say it was not pleasant, but I had decided that it was necessary and I would cope with anything that happened if it would get me back to a decent lifestyle. Well the operation, a quadruple bypass, was a success and after 8 days I was back home. Recuperation involved plenty of walking and visits to cardiac rehabilitation. At that time I was introduced to Heartline, which is a group of people who have suffered cardiac problems, encouraging exercise and recuperation by being able to talk to others with similar experiences. I go swimming once a week and have increased my distance from 2 lengths at first to 40 lengths after 12 weeks. Although I feel fit enough to resume running I think I will put it on hold for a while. I don’t think I will ever play hockey again. There again, at 66 that’s probably not a bad decision! Peter Kempson
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A1. rubber bung litmus paper (red) clamp stand Figure 1 Glass tube with litmus paper. Immediately start a stopclock. • To observe mass flow. Undertake the experiment in a fume cupboard. 1 of 1 . boss and clamp or piece of Blu-tack® • To appreciate speed of diffusion in air. © University of York Science Education Group. 5 Using a large syringe. Explain how each of these factors would affect the rate of diffusion: a higher concentration of ammonium hydroxide b higher temperature c larger molecules replacing ammonium hydroxide. Explain what is happening in the tube without bungs and how the model is similar to mass flow in a transport system such as the mammalian circulatory system. 3 Record how long it takes each piece of litmus paper to change colour. Observe how quickly the litmus paper changes colour when the syringe is used. place the cotton wool with ammonium hydroxide at one end. The litmus paper changes colour from red to blue in the presence of ammonia gas. Seal both ends of the tube with rubber bungs. blow air gently through the tube. 4 Using a second tube without rubber bungs. Ammonia is given off by the solution and diffuses along the tube.02S Student Activity 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Q3 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 2 In a fume cupboard add a few drops (about six) of ammonium hydroxide solution to a small ball of cotton wool and then place it at one end of the glass tube. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Safety Wear eye protection. Procedure 1 Your teacher/lecturer will set up a glass tube with litmus paper as shown in Figure 1.2 Demonstrating mass flow Purpose You need • Dilute ammonium hydroxide • 2 glass tubes • Bungs to fit glass tubes • 16 small pieces of litmus paper • Glass or wooden rod • 2 small pieces of cotton wool • Forceps • Dropping pipette • Stopclock • Clamp stand. Questions Q1 Q2 Explain how the ammonia moves along the tube with sealed ends and comment on the speed of diffusion.
The pulmonary vein and vena cava enter the atria on the dorsal (back) side of the heart so are not visible on this diagram. Cut along this line to view inside the right ventricle. They are often damaged on removal of the heart from the animal. Take care with sharp dissecting instruments. This sheet may have been altered from the original. The two thicker-walled vessels are the arteries. right atrium 3 4 Draw a sketch of the heart to show the position of the atria Q1 and ventricles. Procedure 1 Before starting the dissection. Wash your hands carefully after completing the dissection once all the equipment has been put ready to be disinfected. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. ● To relate heart structure to function. © University of York Science Education Group. You need • • • • • • • Heart Dissecting board or tray Dissecting instruments Rubber tube Clamp to seal blood vessel Access to water supply Lab coat or apron to protect your clothes Safety Wear eye protection. use the textbook to help you label the heart diagram on page 3. Looking at the front side of the heart. ● To locate and compare the structure of the main arteries leaving the heart with the main veins entering the heart. ● To observe the coronary arteries. left ventricle right ventricle Q1 Why are the right and left sides apparently on the wrong side? Q2 a Can you distinguish coronary arteries and veins? b What are their functions? c Make a sketch showing how they branch across the surface of the heart.A1.03S Student Activity 1. Cut along this line to view inside the left ventricle. Figure 1 Ventral (front) view of the heart. 1 of 3 . identify the following external features using Figure 1 to help: a right and left atria pulmonary artery aorta b right and left ventricles left atrium c coronary arteries and veins. they leave the heart at the more rounded front (ventral) side. The thinner-walled veins enter the heart at the top of the back (dorsal) side.3 Structure of the heart (Dissection) Purpose ● To revise your knowledge of the structure of the heart. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 2 Locate the four main blood vessels attached to the heart.
03S Activity 1. Q5 Q6 Look carefully inside each ventricle and answer these questions: a Which ventricle has thicker walls? b Estimate their thickness. Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 7 Locate the opening of the coronary vein in the wall of the right atrium. c Suggest why the ventricle walls are of different thicknesses Locate and carefully observe the atrioventricular valves between the atrium and ventricle on each side of the heart. it will emerge from the aorta. a Why is the atrioventricular valve in the right ventricle also called the tricuspid valve? b Why is the atrioventricular valve in the left ventricle also called the bicuspid valve? Locate the semilunar valves at the entrance to the aorta and pulmonary artery.3 Structure of the heart (Dissection) Student 5 If your heart is undamaged you can identify which vessel is the aorta by attaching a rubber tube to a water tap and inserting it into the pulmonary vein. Do these entry points to the heart contain valves? If not. Be careful at this stage only to cut through the ventricle walls.A1. The same procedure can be used with the superior vena cava after clamping the inferior vena cava shut. Cut open the atria and examine their internal structure. 8 Cut open the aorta and locate the opening to the coronary artery just above the semilunar valve. © University of York Science Education Group. why not? Q11 Describe the safety precautions you took during the practical. along the lines shown in Figure 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original. a What is the function of these valves and what is the role of the tendons in their operation? b Work out how you can test your ideas about valves by inverting the heart and using some water. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Explain the relative difference in size between the atria and ventricles. Why are these valves called semilunar? Identify the tendons that stretch between the atrioventricular valves and the ventricle walls. leaving the walls of the atria intact. 2 of 3 . This is best done with a sharp scalpel or a pair of sharp scissors. Allowing water to flow through the heart Q3 (gently!). Q3 In this case from which vessel will the water emerge? Q4 What does this tell us about the internal structure of the heart? 6 To inspect the internal structure of the heart. cut through the ventricle walls. Q10 Examine the openings to the vena cava and pulmonary vein.
Activity 1.3 Structure of the heart (Dissection)
Vertical section of the heart
Label the diagram. Add arrows to show the route of blood flow through the heart
Figure 2 Vertical section of the heart.
This activity is a modification of one in King, T., Reiss, M. with Roberts, M. (2001) Practical Advanced Biology, Cheltenham, Nelson Thornes.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology, Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
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Activity 1.4 Structure of the heart (simulated dissection)
● ● ● ● To revise knowledge of the structure of the heart. To relate heart structure to function. To locate and compare the structure of the main arteries leaving the heart with the main veins entering the heart. To observe the coronary arteries.
Complete the activity by referring to diagrams and photographs in textbooks and the animation that accompanies this activity. There are also some useful websites in the weblinks for this activity.
1 Draw a sketch of the external features of the heart viewed from the front (ventral) side. The two thicker-
walled vessels are the arteries; they leave the heart at the front (ventral) side. The thinner-walled veins enter the heart at the top of the back (dorsal) side. You should draw and label the following features:
Label the vertical section diagram of the heart on page 2. Add arrows to show the route of blood flow through the heart.
Q1 Why are the right and left sides apparently on the wrong side? Q2 What are the functions of the coronary arteries and veins? Q3 If water were poured into the vena cava, through which vessel would it emerge from the heart? Q4 What does this tell us about the internal structure of the heart? Q5 Which ventricle has thicker walls? Q6 Suggest why the walls of the left and right ventricle are of different thicknesses. Q7 Why is the atrioventricular valve in the right ventricle called the tricuspid valve and the atrioventricular valve in the left ventricle called the bicuspid valve? Q8 What is the function of the atrioventricular valves? Q9 Why are the valves at the entrance to the aorta and pulmonary artery called semilunar? Q10 What is the function of the tendons that connect the atrioventricular valves and the ventricle walls?
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Activity 1.4 Structure of the heart (simulated dissection)
Vertical section of the heart
Label the diagram. Add arrows to show the route of blood flow through the heart.
Figure 1 Vertical section of the heart.
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Activity 1.5 An ideal transport medium
• To understand the importance of the dipole nature of water • To relate the solvent properties of water to some of the functions of water in living systems.
Properties and polarity
Water is unusual because it is a liquid at room temperature whereas other small molecules are gases. This is because of the water molecule is polar, the different ends of the molecule have different charges. To help you understand the dipole nature of water and how it affects water’s properties, read the Key Biological Principles box on page 8 of the AS textbook and complete the interactive tutorial which accompanies this activity. Then complete the questions below.
Q1 Complete and annotate the diagram of water molecules in Figure 1 to explain why water is a liquid at room temperature, unlike other small molecules such as carbon dioxide. You should include the following words / ideas in your diagram: hydrogen bonds polar charges on oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
Figure 1 Why water is a liquid at room temperature
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………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………. these hold the water molecules together. Hydrogen bonds form. 2 of 3 . Suggest an explanation for what you observe happening. He says this is because the fat will dissolve out of the meat.………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Role in blood Blood helps to regulate body temperature because water resists changes in temperature. a Predict what will happen if some drops of water-soluble dye were added to a water-oil mixture.………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………. They remain as two separate layers.05S Activity 1.………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………….………………… b A celebrity chef announces on his TV show that it would be better to boil a joint of meat rather than roast it. © University of York Science Education Group.………………… a Vitamin C is water-soluble. b Then try doing it. Vitamin A is fat-insoluble. Property Explanation The positively charged end of a water molecule is attracted to the negative ends of surrounding molecules. Oil is non-polar. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Give a possible explanation for this difference. to check if you were correct. to show why water is ideal as the transport medium in blood.A1.………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………. Is he correct in his explanation of what is happening during the cooking? Explain your answer. Solvent for ionic and polar substances.5 An ideal transport medium Q2 Student Oil and water do not mix. it is hydrophobic (water-repelling). Q3 Q4 Complete the table below. ………………………………………………………………………………………….………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………. making the meal lower in fat and healthier. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………. with the less dense oil floating on top of the oil.
This sheet may have been altered from the original. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.………………… Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. © University of York Science Education Group. 3 of 3 . What would you say to make them realise they do not need to worry? ………………………………………………………………………………………….05S Activity 1.A1.………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….5 An ideal transport medium Q5 Student Your young cousins are worried that the fish in their large garden pond will get too hot on very sunny days in summer.………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….
Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original.S. © University of York Science Education Group. to show capillaries • Microscope • Histology book for microscope images and notes • Drawing paper Suspend a ring of artery from a hook on a clamp stand. presenting data. drawing conclusions and considering safety. 30. Use a metre rule to record the length of the ring once the mass carrier has been attached to the free end of the ring. Remove the mass and record the length of the ring. Attach a 10 g mass (see Figure 1) and record the length of the ring after the mass is added. 5 Calculate % change in length: % change in length = (new length − original length) × 100 original length Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 40 and 50 g masses.S.6 Investigating arteries and veins Purpose • To relate the structures of blood vessels to their functions. • To practise some experimental skills. boss and clamp • Metre rule • Graph paper • Prepared slide of artery and vein T. including identification of variables.Student A1. 1 of 4 . Wash your hands after handling tissue once cleaning up is finished. Procedure Part A: Elastic recoil in arteries and veins 1 You need • Ring of artery and vein • Mass carrier • 5 × 10 g masses • Hook • Clamp stand. Benches should be thoroughly cleaned with 1% Virkon or other suitable disinfectant. Record the length with and without the masses each time. • Prepared slide of lung or thyroid gland T. Safety Wear eye protection while stretching blood vessels. producing valid results. Repeat steps 2 and 3 using 20.06S Activity 1. 2 3 4 clamp stand hook ring of tissue mass carrier metre rule 10 g masses Figure 1 Measuring the length of the ring.
g. one for artery. 51–60 kg. The independent variable normally goes on the x-axis.) (2000) Biological Nomenclature: Standard terms and expressions used in the teaching of biology. (For more detail on presenting data see Alan Cadogan (ed. A histogram is used when the independent variable is numerical and the data are continuous. (You could colourcode the points to show which are adding and which removing masses. Values for adding and removing masses should be plotted on the same graph. In this case the length of the ring depends on how much mass is added. the different stages of mitosis. There are no gaps between the bars of a histogram and the area of the bar represents the frequency.) • informative column headings. histogram or line graph.6 Investigating arteries and veins 6 Student Enter your results into an appropriate table. mass in kg which is divided into classes such as 41–50 kg. not next to the numerical data. etc. Remember to include: • • • • • an informative title sensible scales on each axis. A line graph can be used to show relationships in data which are not immediately obvious from tables. if appropriate labels on both axes units on both axes. bar chart. e. and one for vein.06S Activity 1. pie chart. but classified into groups.g.A1.) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. © University of York Science Education Group. 3rd Edition. Both the dependent and independent variables are continuous. 2 of 4 . Plot two appropriate graphs. if appropriate a key. so ring length is the dependent variable. each column should have a descriptive heading • units in the heading. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. etc. 7 A bar chart is used when the independent variable is non-numerical or discontinuous. in this experiment it is the mass) • the second and subsequent columns containing the dependent variables (The value of the dependent variable depends on the value of the independent variable. Remember that the most appropriate type of graph should be chosen to represent data. Additional columns can be added to include calculations based on raw data such as % change in length. Institute of Biology ISBN 0900490365) In this experiment plot percentage change in length against mass.g. A pie chart can be used to display data that are proportions or percentages. A good table of results should have: • an informative title • the first column containing the independent variable (the factor that is varied by the experimenter. e. This sheet may have been altered from the original. e.
This sheet may have been altered from the original.6 Investigating arteries and veins Student Part B: Histology of blood vessels 8 Examine slides of artery and vein. tissues in the three regions. and the tissues in these regions: a) external. middle and inner layers of tissue b) elastic and collagen fibres c) smooth muscle. 10 Annotate the sketch with notes on the three regions and other features of the vessel.P. 9 Sketch a plan of a cross-section across both vessels to show the amount and distribution of each type of tissue. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 11 Using H. © University of York Science Education Group. e. e. (high power) examine a capillary in a section of an organ. Identify the three main regions of the vessel wall. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A1.g. 3 of 4 .g. thickness of wall. lung or thyroid.06S Activity 1.
This sheet may have been altered from the original. Any other variables that may affect the dependent variable should be controlled (kept constant) where possible. Ideally. Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Remember that the independent variable is the factor that you vary. a measurement should be close to the true value. A faulty piece of equipment or an incorrectly used piece of apparatus may give very precise readings (repeated values close together) but inaccurate (not valid) results. a large number of replicates (repeat measurements) should be taken. in other words that there is little or no difference between the actual values and the recorded values. 4 of 4 . You may be able to choose the range of values of the independent variable.06S Activity 1. Precise readings are not necessarily accurate. Precision is the closeness of repeated measurements to each other. Reliability means that the same results are recorded if the activity is repeated. A mean or some other average (e. supporting your ideas with evidence from the data and your biological knowledge of the histology of arteries and veins. To be accurate. a median) can be calculated to be representative of the set of results. © University of York Science Education Group. repeatable measurements made with apparatus and experimental procedures that are suitable for the task. and any readings that vary considerably from the others should be repeated or discounted. State two ways in which the structure of a capillary is related to its function. This partly depends on the number of measurements or observations that were taken. Suggest variables that should ideally be controlled in this experiment.A1. Validity means that the experimenter succeeds in measuring what he or she intended to. The pressure of time usually puts a limit on the number of replicates that can be taken. Q9 Suggest modifications to the experimental procedure that would ensure that more reliable and valid results are produced. in order to produce results that are reliable. Explain how the properties of arteries and veins that you have investigated link to the functions of arteries and veins in the body.g. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The dependent variable depends on the value of the independent variable. What is the role of smooth muscle in blood vessel walls? Comment on any safety issues that should be considered when performing this experiment.6 Investigating arteries and veins Questions Q1 How do the results for artery and vein compare when looking at: a % change in length on loading? b return to the original length on unloading? What are the main properties of: a elastic fibres b collagen? Student Q2 Q3 Explain any trends or patterns in the data. Precision involves the choice of apparatus and the skill with which it is used. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Remember that reliable and valid results are produced through precise.
This causes the first heart sound ‘lub’. This increases/decreases the pressure in the ventricles so the atrioventricular valves open/close.A1. the pressure in the atria increases/decreases. . 2 Complete the descriptions and make deletions as appropriate. the ventricles contract. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Atrial systole As the atria fill with blood. the atrioventricular valves are pushed open and blood flows into the relaxing ventricles. The semilunar valves are open/closed. i. helping to draw blood into the heart. As the ventricles begin to relax. Elastic recoil of the atrial walls generates low pressure in the atria. This causes the second heart sound ‘dub’. 3 Add arrows to each diagram to show blood flow. blood tends to fall back from the aorta and pulmonary artery causing the valves to close. 1 of 1 . forcing the remaining blood into the ventricles. the cardiac cycle.7 The cardiac cycle Purpose ● To describe the sequence of events in a single heartbeat. Ventricular systole After a slight delay. Procedure 1 Cut out the pictures from the separate sheet and stick these into the correct boxes on the right to match the order of descriptions below. Use the section on the cardiac cycle in your textbook or the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity to help you complete this worksheet. Blood is forced into the Blood begins to flow into the relaxing and . when you are provided with two alternatives separated by a /.07S Student Activity 1. This sheet may have been altered from the original. ©University of York Science Education Group. Atrial and ventricular diastole Blood flows into the atria. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Initially the atrioventricular valves are open/closed.e. The two atria contract simultaneously.
If the blood supply to the heart muscle cells is stopped they are said to be ischaemic. create a complete description. causing them to narrow. Ultimately atherosclerosis can result in thrombosis – the blockage of an artery by a blood clot. The cells will die if they are starved of oxygen and nutrients for an extended period. Effects of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is the name given to the process that occurs within arteries. a flow chart or an annotated diagram of the processes of atherosclerosis and blood clotting. Procedure Cut up the table below to make a set of cards with key words and phrases written on them. This sheet may have been altered from the original. This can lead to coronary heart disease.8 Atherosclerosis Purpose ● To explain the course of events that lead to atherosclerosis. ● To describe the blood-clotting process. without blood.A1. © University of York Science Education Group. Using the key words. Sort the cards into a sequence that follows the events in the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis.08S Student Activity 1.e. A patient may only be aware that they have coronary heart disease when their blood flow is restricted causing angina – pain associated with a lack of oxygen in the heart muscle. i. 1 of 1 . Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 1 2 3 Fibrin Hard plaque forms Tangled mesh Large white cells enter 4 wall 5 Platelets become sticky 6 Inflammatory response 7 Thrombin 8 Cholesterol accumulates 9 Prothrombin Calcium salts and fibrous 10 tissue accumulate Cascade of chemical 11 changes 12 A blood clot forms Platelets in contact with 13 damaged artery wall 14 Artery narrows 15 Platelet plug forms 16 17 18 19 20 Rising blood pressure Artery wall damaged Wall elasticity reduced Atheroma forms Blood cells trapped 21 Fibrinogen 22 Atherosclerosis Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
2005 Table 1 Causes of death in England and Wales. Of these. estimate the number of deaths occurring in 2000. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.9 Estimating risk Purpose • • • To estimate risks and investigate people’s perceptions of risk. The total number of deaths in England during the year 2005 was 479 678.09S Student Activity 1. Compare your estimates with these figures.) Cause of death in England and Wales Accidental falls Appendicitis Asthma Cancer Diabetes Electrocution Epilepsy Heart disease Influenza Meningitis Motor vehicle accidents Murder Pregnancy Railway accidents Thalassaemia Estimated number of deaths in 2000 Actual number of deaths in 2000 Disease Incidence of disease (new cases) 897 741* 233 621 30 459 36 939 29 406 694 219* 99 230 Number of deaths in 2005 171 021 126 246 26 811 10 297 8 492 67 905 – All diseases of the circulatory system All cancers Lung cancer Breast cancer Prostate cancer Respiratory disease Chlamydia Table 2 Incidence of disease and causes of death in England. © University of York Science Education Group. For each of the causes of death in Table 1. (Note that there are causes of death other than those listed here. To distinguish between correlation and causation. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Q3 It is not unusual for people to overestimate the risk of death from train accidents. 1 of 4 . Suggest reasons for this overestimation. The 2005 population of England was 50 431 700. Study the year 2005 incidence (number of new cases) and cause of death data for England in Table 2 and then answer the questions that follow. Estimating risks and analysing data Q1 In the year 2000 there was a total of 537 877 deaths in England and Wales. To analyse and interpret quantitative data on illness and mortality rates. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Q4 It is not unusual for people to underestimate the risk to their health of smoking. 2000. The figures come from the Office of National Statistics. Suggest reasons for this underestimation. If there are discrepancies between your estimates and the official statistics.A1. 2837 were due to motor-vehicle accidents. Q2 Your teacher/lecturer will provide you with the actual number of deaths that occurred in 2000 due to each of the causes in Table 1. try and explain why you may have overestimated the risks.
For example. b The correlation between noise and increased heart disease is unlikely to be a causal link. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The population of England in 2005 was 50 465 600. is it a positive or negative correlation? It might help to draw a graph using the two sets of data or at least sort it. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. (See section 1. Why is it that the probability for each individual will typically be very different? Correlation and causation A positive correlation between two variables occurs when an increase (or a decrease) in one variable can be linked to an increase (or a decrease) in the other variable. Suggest how noise could increase the risk of heart disease.) Q6 a Use the 2005 data to estimate the probability of an average person in England developing each of the diseases.9 Estimating risk Student Q5 Calculate the percentage of total deaths in England in 2005 that resulted from each of the eight categories of disease in Table 2. Q8 A World Health organisation preliminary investigation suggested that high levels of background noise (e. a Is there any correlation between the two sets of data? If yes.2 in your textbook if you need help in getting started with the calculations. So the % of total deaths in the year 2005 due to all cancers is 126 246 ÷ 479 679 × 100.09S Activity 1. c The probabilities you have calculated are for the population as a whole.) b Use the 2005 data to estimate the probability of an average person dying from each of the diseases in any year. the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream of drivers positively correlates with the likelihood that they will have a car accident.A1. b It is unlikely that sending televisions to countries with a short life expectancy would increase people’s lifespan. a strong correlation between two variables does not necessarily prove a causal link between them. the greater the amount of chemicals in the bloodstream that can cause damage that results in lung cancer and coronary heart disease. Suggest a plausible explanation for the relationship between the variables. the incidences of these diseases also increase. An Excel file of the data is available with this activity. In both of these cases there is likely to be a causal link between the two variables. an increase in the number of cigarettes smoked is positively correlated with the incidences of lung cancer and coronary heart disease. The more alcohol a person consumes. Similarly. a Suggest other factors that may account for the increased incidence of heart disease in areas with high levels of background noise.g. However. Q7 Look at the data in Table 3 on the next page and then attempt the questions. This sheet may have been altered from the original. © University of York Science Education Group. (Hint: The number of deaths due to a particular disease is divided by the total number of deaths for the year 2005 and multiplied by 100 to give a percentage. The more a person smokes. 2 of 4 . This is a positive correlation because as the number of cigarettes smoked increases. the slower their reaction times and the more likely they are to have an accident. Express your answers as 1 in ? values or as decimals. traffic noise) can affect your risk of heart disease.
5 78.0 61.5 64.6 15.5 65. Models can be used to support decisions involving interventions e.0 70.0 75.0 People per television 4.5 78.0 68.0 24.A1.8 96.5 74.5 79. changes to lifestyle and dietary changes.09S Activity 1.0 23.0 90.9 Estimating risk Country Argentina Bangladesh Brazil Canada China Colombia Egypt Ethiopia France Germany India Indonesia Iran Italy Japan Kenya Korea. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.0 2.5 65.0 5.0 14. drug prescriptions.5 76.6 29. Full details of how to create your own risk predictor using an Excel spreadsheet are provided in the ICT support section of the website. The data used to develop the risk calculator model were taken from the Framingham Heart Study.5 61.0 3.0 1. The models can predict the interaction of biological factors. North Korea.0 78.0 3.0 71.0 315. For more details about this study see the textbook page 22.5 73.0 70.0 70.0 60.5 64. © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.0 3.5 53.6 23.0 4. There are many examples of risk calculators to be found on the Internet.5 54.0 503.0 1.0 75.0 4.6 44. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.5 70.0 Risk calculator Risk calculator models provide scientists and other medical professionals with a useful tool to analyse information based on research data.0 5.0 72. You can create your own CHD risk calculator or use the one provided with this activity to compare risk factors for a certain patient with “normal range” of risk.0 57.6 2.g.9 6.0 72. It will also show how CHD is influenced by the complex interaction of different factors.0 8. started in 1948 in the USA.2 11.5 53. 3 of 4 .0 76. and the impact of these factors on a range of disorders.5 70.0 3.0 73.0 76.0 64.7 8.3 5.5 56.0 64.5 51.9 6.8 3.2 11.0 592.0 3.0 2.8 1.0 Student People per television 21.6 Country Morocco Myanmar (Burma) Pakistan Peru Philippines Poland Romania Russia South Africa Spain Sudan Taiwan Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States Venezuela Vietnam Life expectancy 64. South Mexico Life expectancy 70.0 69.
diastolic = 90 Diabetic Smoker Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 What is the risk of patient A developing CHD over the next 10 years? Use Table 1 to describe patient A’s risk compared to that of a low risk and average risk man of the same age. Suggest lifestyle changes that might help patient A to reduce his risk of developing CHD.9 Estimating risk Student Using the risk calculator model Use the information below and the risk calculator model to answer the questions.A1. © University of York Science Education Group. non-smoker. This sheet may have been altered from the original.09S Activity 1. HDL = 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.2 mmol/l Blood pressure reading: systolic = 145. Patient A A 46 year old male Cholesterol levels: LDL = 4. normal blood pressure. no diabetes Table 1 Risk values for an average man and a low risk man of the same age. LDL cholesterol 100–129 mg/dL. What are the two most significant risk factors for patient A? Age (years) 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59 60–64 65–69 70–74 Comparative risk Average 10 Yr CHD risk (%) 3 5 7 11 14 16 21 25 30 Low* 10 Yr CHD risk (%) 2 3 4 4 6 7 9 11 14 *Low risk was calculated for a man the same age.95 mmol/l. 4 of 4 . HDL cholesterol 45 mg/dL.
mostly when they are about two years old.A1. measles and rubella) vaccination is a risk factor for the development of autism or other developmental disorders. bloating and food intolerance) and development disorder.10 Identifying health risks Purpose • To evaluate the design of studies used to identify health risk factors. Any children who had adverse reactions to the vaccine were reported to the Institute. Any study must be carefully designed to ensure that the results identify true correlations. displaying repetitive and rigid behaviour. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. abdominal pain. Read the section in the textbook on the design of epidemiological studies. Neurological and psychiatric assessments were completed. Cohort studies and case-control studies are two commonly used designs. Some of these studies are outlined below. They noted that in most cases (eight). at age 14–18 months and 6 years. Autism is a developmental disorder. The results were published in the Lancet in 1999. In most cases signs of abnormal development can be recognised by the time a child is two years old. none went on to develop signs of autism. The researchers suggested that the chronic bowel symptoms might be linked with autism. Clinical and laboratory investigations were completed. the results of a long-term vaccination project to eliminate MMR diseases from Finland were published. People with autism have difficulties with communications and social interactions. The project launched in 1982 saw all children vaccinated twice. 1998. pages 12–24. In 1998 a link between the MMR vaccination and autism was suggested by Dr Andrew Wakefield and his co-workers from the results of an uncontrolled case study of 12 children that had been referred to the hospital’s gastroenterology group with intestinal symptoms (diarrhoea. before completing this activity sheet. Medical and developmental histories were obtained for each child. 1 of 3 . including endoscope investigations of the bowels with tissue samples taken for analysis. They had been developing normally but then lost some of their acquired skills. including details of immunisations and exposure to infectious diseases. Read the summaries and then answer the questions that follow. onset of symptoms was after MMR immunisation and further investigations were needed to examine this syndrome and its possible relation to the MMR vaccine. © University of York Science Education Group. MMR vaccination and autism A large number of studies have investigated whether the MMR (mumps. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Epidemiological studies There are several different study designs used to look for correlations between a disease and specific risk factors. This sheet may have been altered from the original. In the same year. By the end of 1996 about three million vaccinations had been given to children and some adults. The MMR vaccination is given to about 600 000 UK children each year. A study in the North Thames health district of 293 children with confirmed autism in vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups concluded that there was no evidence to support an association between autism and MMR. 31 children developed gastrointestinal symptoms after vaccination.10S Student Activity 1.
This database contains detailed information about every consultation by over 280 medical practices serving over 2 million people selected to be representative of the whole UK population. 1010 cases had MMR vaccination recorded before diagnosis.10S Activity 1. education of parents and medical history.A1. © University of York Science Education Group. Some children with medical disorders that are thought to have a causal association with autism such as fragile X disorder. phenylketonuria or congenital rubella. socioeconomic status. For each of these affected children up to five matched controls were also identified from the database. The parents of all children included had sought legal advice about possible damage as a result of vaccination. The study and its conclusions were widely criticised. How might this method of selecting participants affect the results of the study? Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. children with no record of developmental disorders matched on age. 3671 controls had MMR vaccination before the age at which their matched case was diagnosed. Explain how the Finnish study provided more reliable results than those of the Wakefield study. Suggest some of the weaknesses that the critics identified in this epidemiological study. were excluded. 2 of 3 . The following dates were recorded for each affected child: • • • • • First attendance to the GP with symptoms First concerns or symptoms recorded in hospital letters Definitive diagnosis from hospital letters Parents’ first concern about symptoms of autism collected retrospectively MMR vaccination from GP records 1294 cases and 4469 controls were included in the study. A questionnaire to parents of all cases and controls included questions about the family size. Questions Q1 Wakefield suggested a causal association between the MMR vaccine and a new syndrome of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and autism. What type of study was undertaken in the North Thames health district? Why were children with conditions such as fragile X syndrome excluded from the GPRD study? Explain why the GPRD questionnaire was sent to all participants? In the GPRD study which of the dates recorded for each affected child are more reliable for investigating the relationship between the timing of the MMR vaccination and development of autism? A working party of the UK Committee on Safety of Medicines undertook a study to assess reports of children who had developed autism or similar disorders following MMR vaccination. Two child psychiatrists using 10 diagnostic criteria for autistic disorders reviewed the medical information for each child. sex and medical practice. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.10 Identifying health risks Student Results of a matched case-control study conducted using data from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) were published in the Lancet in 2004. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 1294 children affected by autism or other developmental disorders were identified from the database. The study concluded that MMR vaccination was not associated with an increased risk of autism or other developmental disorders.
661 700 male and 125 742 female public servants were included in the study. They had a health check by the Korean Medical Insurance Company.10S Activity 1. Read the description below of an epidemiological study undertaken to investigate whether blood cholesterol concentrations can be used to predict stroke. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Information about exposure to risk factors came from the medical examination and a self-administered questionnaire. Decide whether you would publish the paper based on this study in the medical journal for which you referee papers. with a mean age of about 42. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.10 Identifying health risks Student Cholesterol and risk of stroke All papers submitted to academic journals are referred. Study outline A prospective cohort study by the Korean National Health Service to determine risk factors for stroke and heart attack was completed. 3 of 3 . The study found that high concentrations of blood cholesterol were associated with ischaemic stroke (associated with atherosclerosis). that is. They are all between 30-64 years of age. © University of York Science Education Group. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Write a letter of response to the epidemiologists who undertook the study explaining the reasons for your decision. one of the main national health insurance providers who provide medical insurance services for all public servants and their unemployed family members. You may decide that a decision cannot be made unless additional information is provided and in that case you must tell the epidemiologists what information they need to supply. the papers are sent to experts who decide if they are suitable for publication.A1. Low blood cholesterol was associated with haemorrhagic stroke (not associated with atherosclerosis).
Age 0–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 20–24 Male 6 6 7 8 19 5 6 10 Female 7 Table 1 No. ● To consider the effect of age and gender on the risk of cardiovascular disease. ©University of York Science Education Group. In this type of stroke a blood vessel in the brain bursts. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 1 of 2 . Q2 What was the chance of a 15-year-old female in the UK dying from a haemorrhagic stroke during 1995? Express your answer as a probability. Analysis of risk: haemorrhagic stroke Mark had his haemorrhagic stroke in 1995 at the age of 15. Gender Females Age group 15–19 1 682 000 Males 1 780 000 Table 2 Population of the UK in 1995 separated by gender and age group. Q1 What was the chance of a 15-year-old male in the UK dying from a haemorrhagic stroke during 1995? Express your answer as a probability.A1. With the correct data it is possible to calculate his risk. and to see how risk is affected by age and gender. This data is for the year that Mark had his stroke at age 15. Of UK deaths from haemorrhagic stroke in 1995. This sheet may have been altered from the original.11 Analysis of cardiovascular disease data Purpose ● To analyse quantitative data on cardiovascular disease.11S Student Activity 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.
This sheet may have been altered from the original. the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys and the Department of Health (1995) Morbidity Statistics from General Practice. Year 1991/92 Sex Men Age group 45–64 65–74 75–84 85+ Women 45–64 65–74 75–84 85+ Men 45–54 55–64 Women 65–74 45–54 55–64 65–74 Incidence /100 000 1080 2250 2730 2020 660 1760 2240 2150 830 1353 930 643 1257 827 Study 4th National Study of Morbidity Statistics from General Practice Royal College of General Practitioners. b Suggest reasons for this trend. ©University of York Science Education Group. Q6 Use the data to produce an appropriate graph to show clearly the gender differences for a particular year. Q3 Comment on what happens to the average risk of death due to coronary heart disease as you get older.11S Activity 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Age/years Men 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 56 43 37 26 19 19 35–44 Women 9 7 6 5 5 4 Men 270 221 159 117 92 73 45–54 Women 50 43 33 24 20 16 Men 733 687 536 408 291 204 55–64 Women 215 213 179 124 84 54 Men 1621 1601 1352 1133 823 558 65–74 Women 688 702 594 498 347 225 Table 3 Death rates per 100 000 of population of the United Kingdom due to coronary heart disease. Q5 a Compare the incidence of CHD deaths in men and women. Q7 a Has this gender difference changed over the time period shown? b Suggest reasons for any changes observed. Fourth National Study 1991–1992. 2 of 2 . Use the data on the incidence of angina in adults in Table 4 to answer the questions that follow. 1999) 1989/91 Q6 Table 4 Incidence of angina per 100 000 adults determined in two UK studies. b Suggest reasons for any differences described.11 Analysis of cardiovascular disease data Analysis of coronary heart disease data Student Use the data on age-specific death rates from coronary heart disease over a number of years in Table 3 to answer the questions that follow.A1. Q4 a Describe the trend in the number of deaths from coronary heart disease between 1980 and 2005. HMSO: London One general practice in Oxford (Gill et al. Q8 Comment on the risk for men and women of suffering angina as they get old and on any conflicting evidence in the two studies.
or you already suffer from severe atherosclerosis – unlikely unless you are a mature student – or you have a cardiac pacemaker. which is difficult to use. Do not worry if your blood pressure seems too high or too low. you will know that an inflatable cuff is generally put around your upper arm and held loosely in place with Velcro. • To develop experimental and investigative skills. drinking alcohol and sports can all affect your blood pressure. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. ‘Normal’ blood pressure is often quoted in books as 120/80 mmHg.A1. © University of York Science Education Group. Eating. Any high or low measurements made in the classroom should not be regarded as indicative of a blood-pressure problem. but how many people actually have this blood pressure? Find out by using a sphygmomanometer or digital blood pressure monitor to determine the blood pressure of several members of your group. unusual measurements should be checked by a qualified health professional. 1 of 3 . It can be used as an alternative to measuring blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer. • To explain the significance of high blood pressure in cardiovascular disease. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. or a blood pressure monitor Blood pressure Blood pressure is one of the easiest and quickest measures used by the medical profession to check the health of your heart and circulation system. Air is pumped into the cuff inflating it and measurements are taken as the cuff is deflated. If you have ever had your blood pressure taken or seen it done on one of the many TV hospital dramas. smoking. just an estimate. You should not use one of these monitors if: You know you suffer from heart rhythm disorders.12S Student Activity 1.12 Measuring blood pressure Purpose • To measure blood pressure. Are they all the same? Are there any patterns within the values obtained? The interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity can help you understand exactly what is happening when blood pressure is measured. You need ● A sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. But remember that taking pressure measurements can cause anxiety which may affect the measurement. Even with the blood-pressure monitors that are widely available on the high street. Safety Never use a sphygmomanometer or blood pressure monitor unsupervised. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Do not over-inflate the cuff or leave it inflated for longer than necessary. This is not a definitive medical measurement of blood pressure.
inflating it until the pulse sound disappears. The cuff must be closed firmly so that the artery is well covered. This gives diastolic pressure. © University of York Science Education Group. 11 Press the start button to automatically inflate the cuff to the pre-selected pressure. Most models continue to inflate past the pre-set value if you have set it too low.A1. 12 When the monitor reaches the target inflation value. make sure that it doesn’t become so tight that it impedes blood flow.12 Measuring blood pressure Student Procedure 1 Make yourself comfortable and try to relax before having your blood pressure taken. 120/70 mmHg. The overall blood pressure is given in mmHg. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. The animation lets you see what should happen. This first reading gives systolic pressure. 6 Pump air into the cuff. This means that when you start to inflate the cuff. As the sound disappears take a second reading. Using a sphygmomanometer With traditional sphygmomanometers use a stethoscope to listen for the sound of blood flow in Figure 1 Using a sphygmomanometer and the brachial artery. if you are young and healthy. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.g. you should set this switch at a value slightly higher than your expected systolic pressure (the upper value). 4 Try to lay your arm on a surface such as your lab bench. If you have doubts. If you push up your sleeve. a measure of the pressure in the artery when the heart is relaxed. 2 of 3 . 7 Deflate the cuff until the sound of blood can be heard as it starts to push through the artery. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 9 Further deflate the cuff. it is often difficult to recognise the change in sound of blood flow. the inside forearm below the elbow as shown in Figure 1. (Think why!) The palm of your hand should be facing upwards. your teacher or lecturer will be able to advise you. For instance. you will probably need to set the switch at 140. The stethoscope is positioned on stethoscope to measure blood pressure. 8 Take a reading at this point. as shown in Figure 1. ensuring that the cuff is at approximately the same height as your heart. It is usually expressed as systolic over diastolic e. the air is automatically released and the value in the digital display begins to count downwards. 5 Using a digital blood-pressure monitor (alternative method) 10 Digital blood-pressure monitors have a pre-set switch. 2 Remove any clothing with tight sleeves: it is important that blood flow is not constricted. 3 Most sphygmomanometers or digital meters have a cuff that must cover the brachial artery in the upper arm. Unless you are an experienced nurse or paramedic.12S Activity 1.
This sheet may have been altered from the original. the majority of monitors will begin to ‘beep’ and a symbol will start to flash. the monitor will display both your systolic and your diastolic blood pressures. Can you think what has happened to your brachial artery at this point? 15 When all the air has been released. so that you can monitor changes in your blood pressure. This gives the lower value for your blood pressure.A1.12 Measuring blood pressure Student 13 When the monitor first detects your pulse. the diastolic blood pressure.12S Activity 1. the monitor is determining the upper value for your blood pressure. Pressures below these values are considered to be low pressure. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Here. above about 160/95 mmHg is classed as high blood pressure. © University of York Science Education Group. What do you think the ‘beeps’ show? 14 As the pressure in the cuff continues to drop. A person has a blood-pressure reading of about 170/95 mmHg. Notice that the ‘beeping’ is fairly regular. What effect might posture and relaxation have on blood pressure? Plan an experiment that would let you check out your idea. 3 of 3 . Most machines will also show your pulse rate at the same time. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. the systolic blood pressure. perhaps in accordance with exercise or possibly over a period of time. Questions Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 What do you think the beeps made by a digital pressure monitor at step 8 of the procedure represent? What is happening to blood flow in the brachial artery at the final step of both procedures? Comment on your results if you have taken several readings from different people within the group. Unusual measurements should be checked by a qualified health professional. 16 You may wish to store these measurements using the monitor’s memory facility. Most people’s blood pressure falls within the range of 100–140 mmHg for systolic pressure and 60–90 mmHg for diastolic pressure. there comes a point when the monitor can no longer detect your pulse. Would this be classed as high blood pressure? Why can elevated blood pressure increase the risk of cardiovascular disease? Extension question Q6 Blood pressure can vary between individuals and can change through the day.
© University of York Science Education Group. Procedure The concept map is one method of producing a summary of what you think you know about a particular subject area.13S Student Activity 1.13 Blood pressure summary Purpose ● To draw together all the blood pressure ideas. Starting with the idea of blood pressure. You might include what blood pressure is and what it is the result of. The construction of the map allows you to think through the ideas covered and clarify your understanding. This sheet may have been altered from the original. It can provide a useful tool in learning. then expand out from these ideas. ● To introduce the use of concept maps. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. If you have never constructed a concept map you may need to read the Exam/coursework support before getting started. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.A1. 1 of 1 . construct your own concept map. A map will often highlight errors or omissions. in this case blood pressure. is Blood pressure is the result of cardiac output aga inst is the result of of blood vessel walls heart rate stroke volume blood vessels is is that can vary in whose elastic fibres allow amount of blood pumped by left ventricle changed by so that obese people have stretching during longer blood vessels during which we feel as a during is controlled by may may to raise contract arteriole walls maintaining to reduce to raise thus maintaining Figure 1 Blood pressure concept map.
Procedure Complete the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity or read the section on carbohydrates in your textbook and then use what you have learned to complete this worksheet. ● To distinguish between monosaccharides. 1 of 3 . disaccharides and polysaccharides.14 Carbohydrate structure Purpose ● To describe condensation and hydrolysis reactions.A1. © University of York Science Education Group. Joining sugar units Splitting sugar units Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original. and relate their structure to their roles in providing and storing energy.14S Student Activity 1.
4 On the diagram below. 5 On the diagram below. Branching glucose chains are possible when 1. label the carbons 1 to 6. draw in 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.4 and 1. start with 1 on the carbon to the right of the oxygen in the ring. On that molecule. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 2 of 3 .6 glycosidic bonds. draw in a hydroxyl group and side group in the correct position.6 glycosidic links are present. add the 1.4 and 1. Joining glucose molecules to form starch and glycogen 3 Structural formula of starch Starch is a polymer made up of glucose monomers.14 Carbohydrate structure 1 Student Complete the table below. Label one glucose monomer.4 glycosidic link and one 1. © University of York Science Education Group.4 glycosidic links.6 glycosidic link.14S Activity 1. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Sugar monosaccharides making up disaccharide Name of disaccharide Building complex carbohydrates 2 Fill in descriptions of the molecules below.A1. Label one 1. On the monosaccharide diagram above.
soluble.4 and 1. 3 of 3 . 7 Use information from the interactive tutorial and textbook to complete the table below: Name of molecule Structure and chemical properties Biological role Sweet. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.6 glycosidic links and helical amylose with 1. soluble. © University of York Science Education Group.14S Activity 1. crystalline Monosaccharide Monomer of polysaccharides Substrate for cell respiration in all living organisms releasing energy Insoluble polysaccharide formed from two glucose polymers: branched amylopectin with 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. crystalline Disaccharide formed by condensation reaction between glucose and fructose Glycogen In the ICT support there is a data logging sheet on testing for sugars using a colorimeter. This sheet may have been altered from the original. describe how the structure of glycogen is similar to that of starch.14 Carbohydrate structure Starch is made up of amylose and amylopectin.A1. 5 Student Fill in the table with information about these two molecules: Name of molecule Type of glycosidic links present 6 In the box below.4 glycosidic bonds only Maltose Sweet.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. flavoured and condensed milks. Chinese and Afro-Caribbean populations. and fines can be imposed on the industry for this pollution. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. How can enzymes help? Hydrolysis of lactose yields the monosaccharides glucose and galactose which are much sweeter sugars. Lactose has low solubility. 90% and 73%. Is there a use for lactose? Lactose is the disaccharide found in milk. The toffee can be poured into chocolate cups at relatively low temperatures. and tends to produce crystals at concentrations above 11%. In industry this process is carried out using immobilised enzymes. © University of York Science Education Group. Figure 1 Enzyme immobilisation. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Milk treated with lactase is suitable for lactose-intolerant people to drink. respectively.15S Student Activity 1. 97%.15 Biotechnology to the rescue Purpose • To reinforce the idea that disaccharides can be converted into monosaccharides by hydrolysis. In the experiment that follows. the large quantities of liquid whey produced contain lactose and protein. If it were to be used in foods. and this process is now used in the production of ice cream and sweetened. lactase is used to make lactose-free milk. often resulting in severe digestive problems. Lactose is only 20% as sweet as sucrose. the crystals can produce an unpleasant sandy texture. The enzyme lactase can be used to hydrolyse lactose. If lactose is used in food products. and because it is hygroscopic it can be used to coat biscuits without making them become soggy. Syrup made from the products of hydrolysis of the lactose-rich whey from the cheese industry can be made into a useful product: a hygroscopic (water-retaining) toffee that has a low melting point. 1 of 3 . its high nutrient content encourages growth of microorganisms.5% calcium chloride solution • 20–50 cm3 distilled water • Glass rod • 10 cm3 syringe barrel • Clamp stand. the large amount needed to achieve sweetness would substantially increase the calorie content of the food. are reported to be lactose-intolerant. When cheese is made. If whey is disposed of into the sewage system. Of the Thai. boss and clamp • Tea strainer • 2 small beakers • 10 cm3 measuring cylinder • • • It can’t be used in food products because many people are intolerant to lactose. It is not actually a very useful sugar: • You need • 2 cm3 lactase • 8 cm3 sodium alginate solution (2%) • 20 cm3 1.A1.
2 of 3 . 5 The gel beads must be left in the calcium chloride solution for 10 minutes to harden. 8 Pour the beads into the syringe barrel – you can use a small spoon or spatula for this. Procedure 1 Mix 2 cm3 lactase with 8 cm3 alginate gel solution. 4 Pour the alginate gel into the syringe. It is best to add about 2 cm3 of gel to the syringe at a time. then strained in a tea strainer. The Hoffman clip can be used to control the flow of liquid from the syringe. Lactase is a relatively safe enzyme. and place a small piece of nylon gauze in the bottom of the syringe (see Figure 2 below). Stir gently with glass rod. Making a column of beads 6 Clamp a syringe barrel above a small beaker. This sheet may have been altered from the original.15S Activity 1. allowing the gel to drip slowly into the calcium chloride solution. © University of York Science Education Group. Figure 2 Making a column of immobilised lactase. 3 Clamp a 10 cm3 plastic syringe barrel above the beaker of calcium chloride solution.A1. but contact with or inhalation of any enzyme should be protected against to avoid allergic reaction or sensitisation. 7 Attach a short length of rubber tubing to the syringe outlet. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. and rinsed with distilled water. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 2 Pour 20 cm3 calcium chloride solution into a clean beaker. and screw a Hoffman clip onto this to seal the end of the syringe. Position the syringe close to the top of the beaker.15 Biotechnology to the rescue Safety Student The products from the column should not be tasted unless the experiment has been conducted in a food preparation area with equipment for food use only using food grade reagents (including food grade enzyme) and observing strict hygiene rules.
The advantage of this method over some chemical methods is that it is specific for glucose. A colour reference card gives an indication of the concentration of glucose present in the solution. The test strip is dipped into the solution to be tested. Two reactions take place: 1 catalysed by glucose oxidase glucose + oxygen + water → hydrogen peroxide + gluconic acid 2 catalysed by peroxidase hydrogen peroxide + colourless chromagen dye → coloured. 10 Use a glucose test strip to test for glucose in the liquid collected from the column.A1. Adjust the clip so that the milk slowly drips into a beaker. This sheet may have been altered from the original.15S Activity 1. you can get a reading of glucose concentration by comparing the colour produced with a colour scale. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. oxidised chromagen dye + water The amount of coloured chromagen produced is a measure of the amount of glucose which has reacted. Figure 3 Glucose test strip. Q1 Explain what happened to the milk as it passed through the column of beads. Use biochemical detail and diagrams in your answer as appropriate. Glucose test strips are semi-quantitative. © University of York Science Education Group. The enzymes glucose oxidase and peroxidase are immobilised onto a cellulose fibre pad with chromagen dye. How glucose test strips work The detection of glucose using test strips (Figure 3) provides a quick and easy way for diabetics to monitor their own blood and urine glucose levels.15 Biotechnology to the rescue Hydrolysing the lactose Student 9 Pour the milk into the column. glucose can be distinguished from the presence of other sugars. 3 of 3 . Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. If you have time. investigate the effect of the rate of flow of the milk over the beads on the production of glucose.
Questions Q1 Label Figure 1 with the following: Name of reaction. © University of York Science Education Group. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Procedure Complete the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity or read the section on lipids in your textbook and then use what you have learned to complete this worksheet. but do dissolve in non-polar solvents. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.15. ester bond. number of H2O molecules removed in total.16 Lipids Purpose ● To describe the synthesis of a triglyceride. ● To describe the formation of ester bonds in condensation reactions between glycerol and fatty acids. name of product. glycerol. circle and label the atoms removed during the formation of an ester bond between one fatty acid and glycerol.16S Student Activity 1. ● To recognise differences between saturated and unsaturated lipids.A1. Fats and oils belong to a group of molecules called lipids. Figure 1 Formation of a triglyceride. name the reaction that would split an ester bond to release a fatty acid. fatty acids. Q2 In Figure 1. Lipids do not dissolve in water. 1 of 2 . Q3 Using the information about joining and splitting sugar units in the section on carbohydrates in the textbook and Activity 1. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
Table 1 Fatty acid information.16S Activity 1. of carbons 12 16 18 18 18 20 20 No.5 76.16 Lipids Q4 What do you think are the products of lipid digestion? Student Q5 Draw a simple diagram in the space below to show a monounsaturated fatty acid. what effect does an increase in the number of double bonds have on the melting point of a fatty acid? Q7 What effect does an increase in the number of carbon atoms have on the melting point? Q8 Explain why most polyunsaturated oils are liquid at room temperature.1 69. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group.2 63.0 – 49.5 Q6 Referring to the data in Table 1. Name Lauric acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid Oleic acid Linoleic acid Arachnidonic acid Arachidic acid Formula C12H24COOH C16H32COOH C18H36COOH C18H34COOH C18H32COOH C20H32COOH C20H40COOH No.4 – 5. of double bonds in hydrocarbon chain 0 0 0 1 2 4 0 Melting point/ °C 44. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A1. 2 of 2 . This sheet may have been altered from the original.6 13.
mass and age into account. M = mass/kg. A = age/years My height in cm My mass in kg My age in years My BMR Although scientists normally use kilojoules (kJ) as the unit of energy.75 x M) + (5.5 + (13.17 Your energy budget Purpose ● ● To analyse data on energy budgets and diet. energy intake energy requirement Energy budget The calories that you need each day depend on: ● the amount of energy your body uses when completely at rest (basal metabolic rate) ● the energy used as a result of eating (specific dynamic action) ● the amount of physical activity (PA) you take part in. 1 kcal = 4. Calories (kcal) are very widely used by the food industry for energy content of food. you will lose or gain weight.563 x M) + (1. E = energy expenditure/kcal per kg per min.676 x A) 66.003 x H) – (6. Calculate your BMR: Formula gives calorific requirements in kcal per day Adult females Adult males 655. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Procedure Calculating energy requirements Calculating your basal metabolic rate (BMR) There are various formulae for calculating basal metabolic rate (BMR).850 x H) – (4.1 + (9. The formula used here is the HarrisBenedict formula which takes height. Calculating physical activity (PA) Calculate your total daily calorific expenditure using the formula: Daily energy expenditure during exercise = (M x E x T) M = mass/kg. ©University of York Science Education Group. . or by working through the sections on this worksheet.17S Student Activity 1. A Calorie is the same as a kilocalorie. To analyse your energy budget you need to calculate energy expenditure and energy intake from food.A1. The calculations can be completed on the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity.775 x A) H = height/cm. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. T = time/min Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.18 kJ. weight gain energy requirement energy intake weight loss energy requirement no change in weight energy intake Figure 1 If the balance between energy consumed and energy used is not equal. To calculate obesity indicators and explain their significance.
014 0. transport and metabolise your food can be assumed to be 10% of your BMR and PA. is not shown.12 Time spent on activity /min Energy used* /kcal per kg 2 3 Running 12 min per mile Running 9 min per mile Running 8 min per mile Running 7 min per mile Running 6 min per mile Walking 20 min per mile Walking 15 min per mile Walking 11 min per mile Sitting (watching TV) Showering 0. This sheet may have been altered from the original. The values are energy used per kg of your mass.18 0. If an activity you participate in.22 0. 1 of of 4 24 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.24 Time spent on activity /min Energy Activity used* /kcal per kg Cycling 5 mph Cycling 10 mph Cycling 15 mph Swimming crawl 25 m per min Swimming crawl 50 m per min Standing Driving Writing/ deskwork Sleeping Energy expenditure /kcal per kg per min 0. e.07 0. My daily energy expenditure in exercise (PA) = total energy expenditure per kg x mass = Calculate specific dynamic action (SDA) The amount of energy needed to digest.17 0. ©University of York Science Education Group.06 0. select an activity that you think would use about the same amount of energy per minute.03 0.A1.17 Your energy budget To do this you need to: 1 Student Work out roughly how long you spend in minutes each day on the equivalent of the activities below.14 0.09 0. **Sum of energy used in one day for all activities.g.014 0.014 0. Multiply the energy used by your mass to give your total energy expenditure during physical activity per day.17S Activity 1. absorb.029 0.28 0.14 0.19 0.1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Work out the energy used for each activity each day and then sum these values to give the total for each day. This factor is included in the formula below by multiplying PA + BMR by 1.014 0. .06 My total energy expenditure per kg** /kcal per kg *Energy used = energy expenditure/kcal per kg per min x time/min. football. Activity Energy expenditure /kcal per kg per min 0.
Q5 Use the information above to suggest how the BMR of a baby per kilogram of its body mass will compare with that of an adult. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. which is greater and by what percentage? Questions Q1 Suggest how age. the larger their surface area compared with their volume. Compare the total energy input from food with the value that you calculated above. ©University of York Science Education Group. A baby will lose body heat more easily than an adult will. which is your total daily energy requirement. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.A1.17 Your energy budget Total daily energy expenditure Use this formula to calculate your calorific needs for one day: 1. A mouse loses a larger proportion of body heat through its surface than an elephant. after a couple of weeks your BMR will slow down as your body attempts to conserve energy. Q2 Suggest how environmental temperature may affect BMR. gender and body size may all affect BMR. Use this to explain why exercise may be a more effective way of losing weight than dieting. Extension questions Q4 Assume that an 80 kg person loses 1 kg of body fat for every 7700 kcal that their energy expenditure is above intake. Do your daily energy requirements and daily energy input from food balance? If not.17S Activity 1. 3 of 4 .1 x (BMR + PA) = Student Calorific input from food Use tables of nutritional values to analyse your diet for a typical day. How long in minutes would they need to run at 6 min per mile in order to lose 1 kg of body fat? The smaller an animal. Q3 When you diet.
BMI < 20 20–24. The hip measurement is taken at the widest point around the buttocks wearing light clothing. BMI is calculated using the formula: BMI = body mass/kg height2/m2 Calculate your BMI and decide your category of bodyweight using the table below. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The two friends are the same height. 170 cm. A non-stretchable tape measure is used attached to a spring scale with a tension of 750g. and has a daily energy intake of about 3500 kcal. The waist is measured unclothed at the narrowest point between the top of the hip bone and the rib margin. What advice would you give him regarding his weight? Q8 Explain why doctors would advise patients with BMIs above 30 to reduce their weight.90.17 Your energy budget Calculate your BMI Student Body mass index (BMI) is used to classify a person’s body mass relative to their height. It gives an indication of whether a person is underweight. _______________________________________ Calculate waist-to-hip ratio Waist-to-hip ratio has been identified as a better measure of obesity. Work out his body mass index. Q11 Suggest why waist-to-hip ratios are better than BMI as an indicator of obesity and heart disease risk. Would your advice remain the same as that given in response to question 7? Q10 Suggest why waist-to-hip ratios are better than BMI as an indicator of obesity and heart disease risk. men’s should not exceed 0.85.9 30–40 > 40 Classification of bodyweight underweight normal overweight obese severely obese Questions Q6 A fully grown adult man has a daily energy requirement of approximately 3052 kcal. normal weight. ©University of York Science Education Group. Calculate their waist-to-hip ratio and decide if either should be concerned. Edgar has a hip measurement of 85 cm and waist of 90 cm. Waist-to-hip ratio is calculated by dividing waist circumference by hip circumference. Women’s waist-to-hip ratio should not be greater than 0. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. The higher the value above these figures.9 25–29. the other has a waist circumference of 110 cm and hips of 138 cm. the greater the risk. 4 of 4 . overweight or obese. There is a positive correlation between waist-to-hip ratio and risk of heart attack. This sheet may have been altered from the original. What will be the consequences for his body mass index if he maintains this energy budget? Q7 Edgar is 165 cm tall and weighs 65 kg. Q9 Two female friends measure their waist and hip circumferences.A1. One has a waist measurement of 76 cm and hips of 102 cm.17S Activity 1.
Time since lowering of cholesterol/years 1 2 3–5 >5 Reduction in risk/% 11 24 33 36 Table 1 The effect of lowering blood cholesterol levels by 1mmol/l on CHD risk. Table 2 below shows the total cholesterol. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. and some of the components of bile. 1 of 3 . © University of York Science Education Group. But this is not entirely true. cholesterol is essential for the body in small amounts.18 Cholesterol and CVD Purpose To look at evidence for a correlation and a causal link between cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD). and in particular the development of coronary vascular disease (CVD). Cholesterol is also needed in the manufacture of steroid hormones. and triglyceride levels. health. There are major concerns about the high levels of fat in many people’s diet. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A1. Correlation or cause? Most people have heard that cholesterol is ‘bad for you’. and the impact this can have on blood cholesterol levels. and our liver makes the other 75%. 725 CHD events occurred. It is needed for maintaining the correct level of fluidity in cell membranes. In a 10 year follow-up of this US study involving 12 339 participants. Q1 What conclusions can be drawn from the results in Table 1 about the relationship between blood cholesterol and heart disease? Q2 Many studies have looked in more detail at the relationship between cholesterol and CHD. LDL cholesterol. including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. We normally obtain around 25% of our blood cholesterol from our food. in the blood of the participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.18S Student Activity 1. HDL cholesterol. Table 1 shows summary results of a review of 49 trials looking at the effect of lowering blood cholesterol on CHD risk.
The passage below concerns the development of atherosclerotic plaques in experimental animals.18 1. LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk? Figure 1 The interaction between LDL cholesterol.91 1. © University of York Science Education Group.89 1.07 1. Q3 From the data shown in Figure 2. what conclusions can be made about the interaction between HDL cholesterol.63 Men No CHD 4923 5.68 No CHD 6691 5.44 Table 2 The mean values for lipids in ARIC women and men with and without CHD.18 Cholesterol and CVD Student Using the data in Table 2. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A1. HDL cholesterol and CVD risk.48 1. This sheet may have been altered from the original. suggest the possible significance to health of different types of blood cholesterol. The difference between the CHD and non-CHD participants was shown to be statistically significant.51 1.72 3.30 1.40 3.30 CHD 509 5.59 3. This is a modified extract from an article published in Nature on atherosclerosis.56 1. 2 of 3 . Women CHD number of participants total cholesterol/ mmol l–1 LDL cholesterol/ mmol l–1 HDL cholesterol/ mmol l–1 Triglycerides/ mmol l–1 216 5.96 3. data from the Framingham study.18S Activity 1.
after which they begin to expand outwards and encroach on the lumen. Lusis 2000 Nature 407:233-241 Q4 List the evidence presented on this activity sheet which supports: a correlation between blood lipid levels and CVD risk. monocytes can be observed adhering to the surface of the endothelium. The monocytes then move across the endothelial monolayer into the intima. Q5 The extract above only refers to high cholesterol diet and accumulation of lipoproteins. With the secretion of fibrous elements by the smooth muscle cells. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Suggest what additional evidence would be required to make a causal link between high LDL cholesterol levels with the development of atherosclerosis lesions. fibrous plaques develop and increase in size. Initially. With time. differentiate into macrophages and take up the lipoproteins.18 Cholesterol and CVD Student The first observable change in the artery wall following the feeding of a high-fat. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. the foam cells die. forming foam cells. 2 and 3. high-cholesterol diet is the accumulation of lipoprotein particles and their aggregates in the intima. and evidence from histology and animal studies. Q6 Explain why both the data from studies such as those shown in Table 1 and Figures 1. Modified from Aldons J. contributing their lipid-filled contents to the necrotic core of the lesion. Within days or weeks. and b a causal link between blood lipid levels and CVD risk. Some fatty streaks subsequently accumulate SMCs [smooth muscle cells]. where they proliferate. the lesions grow towards the adventitia [inner layer] until a critical point is reached. is needed to construct a convincing theory linking blood lipid levels and CVD.18S Activity 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. which migrate from the medial layer. 3 of 3 . © University of York Science Education Group.A1.
then those identified as carrying it may be able to adjust their lifestyles to reduce the risk of cardiovascular problems. Barry Maron. Procedure The article describes how possession of one gene can increase the risk of developing the disease without the presence of other risk factors. See the weblinks for this activity. called the platelet antigen gene. This form of the gene causes platelets to be overly active in forming blood clots and may cause cholesterol to bind to endothelial cells lining blood vessels. Grinkov had such severe cardiovascular disease that his coronary arteries looked like those of a 70-year-old. 1995.19 Sudden death in athletes Purpose • To illustrate how the predisposition for cardiovascular disease can be inherited. Researchers at Johns Hopkins University read about Grinkov’s death in the newspapers and wondered if it had any relationship to a genetic flaw they had just described. © 1996 Peregrine Publishers. Several genes can affect the risk of developing the multifactorial disease. Sudden Death in Athletes by Warren Dolphin. Iowa State. Analysis of the DNA indicated that Grinkov had inherited a form of a gene. Read the article and then answer the questions that follow. NY. Q4 Describe what is meant by multifactorial disease. Q3 Outline how inheritance of different forms of the APOE gene can affect the chance of inheriting CVD. If researchers can devise a simple test for the presence of this gene.A1. evidence indicated that he had a heart attack about 6 hours before his death. Although Grinkov had never complained of any chest pain.19S Student Activity 1. In a large study of athletic death. The Johns Hopkins researchers speculate that Grinkov’s coronary arteries were narrowed by accumulation of fatty substances and that a blood clot formed and completely blocked a coronary artery. resulting in his death. his family medical history was significant: his father had died suddenly at age 52. a cardiologist at the Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation. The presence of this gene will not necessarily cause a heart attack. An abbreviated necropsy report appears in the June 29 issue of the medical journal Lancet. This sheet may have been altered from the original. and his colleagues collected information on 158 deaths in young athletes from 1985 to 1995. Sergei Grinkov. 1 of 1 . The effect of these mutated genes is to produce an abnormally thick wall in the left ventricle. but it does increase the probability of attack. In most cases cardiovascular disease is not the result of inheriting a single faulty gene. Q1 Explain in detail how possession of this form of the platelet antigen gene affects the process of atherosclerosis and can result in sudden death. indicating that sudden cardiac failure may be due to a number of factors. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. All Rights Reserved In November. collapsed and died of sudden cardiac arrest while training at Lake Placid. did not have high blood pressure or diabetes mellitus. However. nor did he have high cholesterol levels. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. What is puzzling about this sudden death is that Grinkov was an athlete in good physical condition. which greatly increased his chances of heart attack. His group’s report in the Journal of the American Medical Association indicated that the most common cause of death among young athletes was a condition known as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) caused by mutations in any one of several genes. Only about 2% of those in his study were thought to carry the gene for the abnormal platelet antigen. Further information about the gene can be obtained from an article in the April 25 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine. • To apply knowledge of atherosclerosis and blood clotting. It is estimated that about 20% of individuals in the US population carry the harmful form of the platelet antigen gene. Samples of Grinkov’s blood were obtained and DNA was extracted from the white blood cells. © University of York Science Education Group. an Olympic gold medalist in pairs figure skating. did not smoke or use drugs. Q2 Why might having an abnormally thick left ventricle wall create a problem? To find out more information about cardiomyopathy you can visit the Cardiomyopathy Association website.
Antioxidants Antioxidants are chemicals that help prevent damage within cells by unstable radicals. oxidised DNA is repaired by enzymes. Other researchers suggest that it is not radicals involved in this process but enzymes. vitamin E and beta-carotene (used by the body to make vitamin A). The breakdown of this molecule is normally catalysed by the enzyme catalase within the peroxisomes. the damage accumulates over time and has been linked to the changes that occur with ageing and with diseases such as coronary heart disease and cancer. These are atoms or molecules with one or more unpaired electrons. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in cigarette smoke and other pollutants cause oxidation of molecules in cells. Antioxidants in the diet. These reactions cause damage to DNA. proteins. lipids and other molecules in the cell.20 Are you getting enough antioxidants? Purpose ● To highlight the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Although cells have a number of antioxidants that help to minimize the effect of the radicals. However. such as vitamin C. which reduce oxygen to water. 1 of 3 . This sheet may have been altered from the original. Radicals are oxidising agents – they accept electrons from other molecules that become oxidised (oxidation is loss of electrons). Oxidised. occasionally some of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is not broken down and leaks into the cytoplasm. © University of York Science Education Group. respiration reactions. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. For example.A1. low-density lipoproteins are thought to be more readily taken up by the white blood cells involved in atherosclerosis. produce by-products with unpaired electrons. This avoids them having a toxic effect but some of the breakdown products are radicals. Some sources of radicals Radicals are produced in many reactions within cells. Reaction involving hydrogen peroxide in the cytoplasm gives rise to hydroxyl radicals. Although this prevents infection it also releases radicals. To help reduce radical damage it is recommended that a healthy balanced diet contains three portions of vegetables and two portions of fruit a day. Some of these radicals leak in to the cell’s cytoplasm.20S Student Activity 1. and oxidised proteins are destroyed by proteases. This is 2 x 1010 in a day. namely superoxide (O2–) and hydroxyl radical ( OH). It is thought that some white blood cells destroy bacteria and virus-infected cells by bombarding them with a mixture of oxidants including hydrogen peroxide. Within mitochondria. Toxic chemicals in our diet are broken down by enzymes within the cytoplasm. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The unpaired electron in the radical is restored to a pair by pulling a hydrogen atom with its single unpaired electron from another molecule. Chemical reactions within cells produce radicals. The breakdown of fatty acids and other molecules within peroxisomes (membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm that contain enzymes) produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. also help prevent the damage caused by radicals in the cell by providing hydrogen atoms whose electrons pair up with the unpaired electrons in the radicals. In a rat cell about 1012 oxygen molecules per day are converted in this way and about 2% of these molecules leak into the cell partially reduced. The cell has antioxidant defences against radical damage.
A1. Vol. May 2000) Q4 Do the data support a causal link between Vitamin C and coronary heart disease? Give a reason for your answer. Kathryn F Carruthers.20S Activity 1. 5. Explain how the Department of Health recommendation that everyone should eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day should protect against: a coronary heart disease b cancer. 2 of 3 . Q5 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. a Explain how the results shown in Figure 1 support a negative correlation between these two factors b What other conclusion can be drawn from the data in Figure 1? Figure 1 Plasma vitamin C concentrations in patients with acute heart attack (n = 179) and apparently healthy control subjects (n = 172). Robert A Elton and Keith AA Fox American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. by smoking status. (Source: Vitamin C and the risk of acute myocardial infarction Rudolph A Riemersma. No.20 Are you getting enough antioxidants? Questions Q1 a What are radicals? b How are they formed within cells? Q2 Q3 Student Will large numbers of radicals in the body increase the risk of developing CHD? Explain your answer Low plasma concentrations of the antioxidant Vitamin C are associated with increased risk of heart disease. © University of York Science Education Group. 1181-1186. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 71. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
red or chilli peppers 5 Broccoli. almonds or sunflower seeds 14 Oil. oils. West Publishing Company Scoring: Several responses in the last two columns indicate adequate antioxidant vitamin consumption. © University of York Science Education Group. (1995) Nutrition Now. Never Seldom 1–2 times per week 3–5 times per week Daily How often do you eat these? Vitamin C-rich foods: 1 Grapefruits. shrimps or fish 13 Peanuts. butter. pumpkins 8 Spinach. Although nuts. St Paul. If you need to boost your intake. How a valid (giving true results) and b useful do you think they are and why? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. vegetable and whole grains in your diet. oranges or pineapples 2 Strawberries. they are high fat and should only be consumed in moderation. seeds. Chinese cabbage or cauliflower 6 Asparagus. spring greens or chard 9 Cantaloupe melons. cereals or wheatgerm 12 Crabs. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. sweet potatoes.20 Are you getting enough antioxidants? Student Q6 Check below to find out how frequently you consume foods containing these important health-promoting vitamins and decide if you are getting enough antioxidants.A1. cranberry or tomato juices 4 Green. J. This sheet may have been altered from the original. peaches or apricots Vitamin E-rich foods: 11 Wholegrain breads. lemons. 3 of 3 . kiwi fruits or honeydew melons 3 Orange. tomatoes or potatoes Beta-carotene-rich foods: 7 Carrots. Q7 These sorts of tests are extremely popular and often found in food and other magazines. papayas or mangoes 10 Nectarines.E. margarine. mayonnaise and salad dressing all contribute vitamin E. increase the overall amount of fruit. mayonnaise or salad dressing Source: Brown.20S Activity 1.
) The quantity of vitamin C in food and drink can be determined using a simple colour test.21 Is high C all it claims to be? Purpose • To investigate the vitamin C content of fruit juice. In 2004.500. syringe or burette to measure volumes accurately • Standard laboratory glassware and apparatus Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Schoolgirls expose false vitamin C claims Fruit juice is recommended as a good source of the antioxidant vitamin C and large volumes are sold every day in bottles and cartons.21S CORE Activity 1. DCPIP changes from blue to colourless (or slightly pink) as it becomes reduced. The manufacturer dismissed the concerns. 15 charges were brought under the Fair Trading Act. The manufacturer maintains that the issue affected only Australia and New Zealand. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and reduces the DCPIP. Design an experiment to test one of the questions posed above. Which juice contains the most vitamin C? Planning • Which type of fruit juice provides the most vitamin C? • Is drinking fruit juice from a carton just as good as eating fresh fruit to maintain high levels of antioxidant vitamin C in your diet? (Remember that fruit juice sold in cartons is ‘long life’ and does not require refrigeration because it has been heat treated.Student A1. and that the juice drink sold in other markets such as the United Kingdom contains the levels of vitamin C stated on the product label. the case was taken up by a television consumer affairs show and after further testing. You will be provided with the following equipment: • Range of fruit and/or fruit juices • Standard 1% vitamin C solution • DCPIP 0. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.1% • Pipette. In March 2007 the manufacturer pleaded guilty to all 15 charges and was fined NZ$217. saying the claim related only to the blackcurrant fruit and not the product. 1 of 2 . However. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Vitamin C decolourises the blue dye DCPIP (dichlorophenolindolphenol). two high school students in New Zealand conducting an experiment to determine the Vitamin C levels of their favourite fruit drinks found that the levels in one well-known blackcurrant juice drink were much lower than those claimed by the manufacturer. © University of York Science Education Group. it was found that statements about the levels of vitamin C had been misleading.
and. 2 of 2 .21S CORE Make sure your plan: • includes a question or problem that you are testing • includes a procedure which uses suitable apparatus to test your question or problem • identifies the independent and dependent variables • identifies any other variables which may affect the outcome of the experiment. © University of York Science Education Group. how they will be made. controls or allows for them • has a control. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. and an explanation of why this is necessary • says what measurements you will make. and this control is fully explained • includes replicates.21 Is high C all it claims to be? Student A1. if appropriate. This sheet may have been altered from the original. where possible. and the level of accuracy that you can expect in your measurements • says how you will make sure the results are reliable and valid • includes a risk assessment.Activity 1. Have your plan checked by your teacher/lecturer before you start the experiment. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
causing increased amounts of stimulatory neurotransmitters to be released. Explain why the apparatus is suitable and how the results will let you test the hypothesis. In humans. coffee in Africa and tea in Asia have all been used for hundreds of years to produce ‘pick me up’ drinks containing caffeine.23S CORE Activity 1. Cocoa in South America. etc. by placing the flea in a few drops of water in a cavity slide. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Safety If a stroboscope is used to show the Daphnia’s heart rate and you know you suffer from photosensitive epilepsy tell your teacher and take appropriate precautions. Caffeine Plants produce caffeine as an insecticide. 1 of 2 . causing raised stress and blood pressure. The following equipment will be available: ● Standard glassware (beakers. In your plan. caffeine is also used as a flavour enhancer in a wide range of cola and other soft drinks. make sure you include the following: ● Select suitable apparatus that will give you measurements which will validly test your hypothesis. You now have an idea (hypothesis) to test. In addition. A cover slip helps stop the water evaporating. insomnia and anxiety.Student A1. it has medicinal uses in aspirin preparations and is found in weight-loss drugs and as a stimulant in students’ exam-time favourites like Pro-plus and Red Bull. This can lead to heart and circulation problems. Planning The beating heart of a water flea can be seen through its translucent body. At high levels of consumption caffeine has been linked to restlessness. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.23 Does caffeine affect heart rate? Purpose ● To investigate the effect of caffeine on the heart rate of Daphnia (water fleas). © University of York Science Education Group. These days. caffeine acts as a stimulant drug. This sheet may have been altered from the original. measuring ● Culture of Daphnia (water fleas) cylinders.) ● Cavity slides ● Stopclock ● Dropping pipettes ● Paper towels or filter paper ● Distilled water ● Microscope ● Caffeine tablets ● Cotton wool Produce a detailed plan for an experiment that allows you to test your hypothesis about the effect of caffeine on the heart rate of water fleas. Procedure Making a hypothesis What do you think will be the effect of caffeine on the heart rate of water fleas? Write down your ideas and support your prediction by presenting biological knowledge which supports the idea.
You should use evidence from the data when identifying patterns and trends. 2 of 2 . See the features of a good table and graph in the Maths/stats support. It allows other researchers to make informed decisions about the methods they will use in the future and it may allow them to suggest alternative ideas. You may be able to suggest an alternative explanation for the results you have obtained. ● Identify the dependent and independent variables and indicate how relevant variables will be controlled. accurate and repeatable. If you have lots of repeated results.57 cm3. You should then attempt to explain any patterns and trends using your biological knowledge. they may not be testing the hypothesis appropriately. you cannot draw valid conclusions from the results and this should be explained in your write up. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.23 Does caffeine affect heart Student A1. A report on an experiment that does not produce the expected results is often as valuable to other researchers as a report that supports the original hypothesis. NB: you need to make it clear what any bars on a graph are showing. This is perfectly OK. ● Identify any potential errors in readings that can be systematic (values differing from the true value by the same amount) or random (values equally likely to lie above or below the true value). There may be a different trend or no trend at all. Presenting your data Present your data in an appropriate table and graph. this indicates errors within the experiment and any differences between the treatment means may not be significant. Using results to draw conclusions In the discussion of your results you should explain any trends and patterns in your data. identifying any risks and explaining any safety precautions that need to be taken so as to reduce those risks. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. In this case. in an experiment investigating inhibition of the enzyme catalase by copper sulphate you might report that there is a steady decrease in the volume of oxygen produced with increasing copper sulphate concentration: at 0. ● Comment on any ethical issues that arise from using invertebrates in the experiment and explain how these will be taken into account in the practical method used. the results will not show the patterns or trends that you expected. In this case.e. with 2 M copper sulphate the volume of oxygen produced had fallen to 0. If the results that are used to calculate the means are very variable. This also lets you comment on the significance of your results.23S CORE ● Include a risk assessment. Performing the experiment Either use the plan you have created after it has been checked by your teacher/lecturer or use a method supplied by your teacher/lecturer. © University of York Science Education Group. Remember that the hypothesis you suggested may not be correct. you may still think the original hypothesis is sound but there are concerns about the experimental method used and the results obtained are not very valid. For example.25 M copper sulphate the mean volume of oxygen produced was 0. For instance. when you identify a trend in the results you should quote some data that shows the trend.Activity 1. i. remember that you should work out mean values and present these in your report.27 cm3. The range of values can be shown on the graph using bars on each point as a measure of the variation of the data. ● Show how you will ensure that reliable and valid results are produced and describe what you will do to ensure that measurements are precise. See Maths/Stats Support 10 Standard Deviation for details of how to work out standard error. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Alternatively.
Pearson Education Ltd 2008. smoking. cancer and lung diseases such as emphysema and bronchitis. Q13 The best way to lose weight is to increase physical activity and eat fewer calories. Lowering blood cholesterol levels can help many people who have already had a heart attack. Q15 Heart disease is the leading killer of men and women in the UK and in the USA. Q11 If you have had a heart attack. ©University of York Science Education Group. A low blood cholesterol is needed to prevent heart attacks in adults. The most effective dietary way to lower the level of your blood cholesterol is to eat foods low in cholesterol. if prescribed by your doctor.24 Healthy heart quiz Purpose ● To review ideas about risk factors for coronary heart disease. A stroke is often the first symptom of high blood pressure and a heart attack is often the symptom of high blood cholesterol. exercise. Q12 Someone who has smoked for 30 to 40 years will not be able to quit smoking.24S Student Activity 1. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Questions Identify each of the following statements as ‘true’ or ‘false’ to test your knowledge of heart disease and its risk factors. Q1 The risk factors for coronary heart disease that you can do something about are: high blood pressure.A1. The only children who need to have their blood cholesterol levels checked are from families at high risk of heart disease. obesity and physical inactivity. quitting smoking can reduce your chances of having a second attack. Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Smoking is a major risk factor for four of the five leading causes of death including heart attack. 1 of 1 . Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. High blood pressure affects the same number of black people as it does white people. Q14 Eating five portions of fruit and vegetables a day will provide antioxidant vitamins that reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. A blood pressure greater than or equal to 160/95 mmHg is generally considered to be high. restrict your intake of alcohol and take any high blood pressure medicine. high blood cholesterol. The best ways to treat and control high blood pressure are to control your weight. stroke. eat less salt (sodium chloride).
Comment on possible reasons for any changes. Discuss how you might use the information provided to decide which pack would be the most ‘healthy’ choice. To change or not to change People often use scientific information to help make decisions about their lifestyle which may directly (and deliberately) or indirectly reduce their risk of developing cardiovascular disease. 2 3 1 Figure 1 Nutritional information panels from three different varieties of crisps. A B Figure 2 Nutritional information on two ready meals. Q1 The three information panels in Figure 1 below come from the front of crisp multi-packs. All bags contain the same mass of crisps. if you are concerned about your risk of heart disease.25S Student Activity 1.A1. Describe any changes in market share over this period. © University of York Science Education Group. Give reasons for your answer. Answer the questions below. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Q2 Look at the dietary information provided on two packs of chicken tikka masala below. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.25 Making decisions Purpose • To consider how people use scientific information to reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease. each with a mass of 400 g Q3 Table 1 shows data for the sales of different types of milk over a 12-year period. Decide which would be the better buy if you were trying to reduce your risk of heart disease. 1 of 3 .
25 Making decisions Student % Share Whole 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 39.9 32. the makers of cholesterol lowering dairy products. 2 of 3 . this brand took 5% of the market share in the four weeks after its May launch. In the same period after the ban the admissions for heart attacks fell to 2 684.2% by the middle of July.2 57.1 48. Suggest why the insurance company would decide to enter into this agreement. margarine and milk. a Discuss whether these are the findings that you would have expected in the 10 month period following the smoking ban. the market information service of the Milk Development Council.2 52. this declined to 3.A1.3 50. compared with a 14% drop among smokers. made a controversial agreement with a French private health care insurer. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Blood tests were done on patients to check if they were smokers.6 52.6 24. In the 10 months before the ban there were 3 235 admissions for heart attacks in the nine hospitals that took part in the study.0 59.2 25.1 50. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.3 30.6 57.3 27.4 15. A leading brand of margarine added plant sterols to help reduce LDL cholesterol.7 12. Q4 Q5 Q6 In 2005 Unilever.4 15.3 Semi-skimmed 46. Source: MDC Datum.9 53.1 12. © University of York Science Education Group.3 28.8 14. The insurance company will refund up to €40 (£27) a year to customers who buy Flora pro-activ yoghurts. In the UK.25S Activity 1.0 Table 1 Milk sales in Great Britain by fat content. the fall in heart attack admissions was 20%.7 36.3 59.6 37.9 13.0 13.3 13.5 15.8 27.7 54. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. The dip was thought to coincide with the scaling back of the advertising campaign after the launch.4 33. People have decided to try the new product based on the health benefit information provided in the advertising. b Suggest which factors may have contributed to the decrease in heart attacks after the ban. It was found that in non-smokers. but have not continued with its use. Suggest a reason why they may not have continued to buy the product.7 Skimmed 13.4 16.9 15.3 35. A Glasgow University study published in September 2007 reported a 17% fall in heart attacks in Scotland following the introduction of the smoking ban in public places.
© University of York Science Education Group. Margarine contains less fat than butter.8 g of fat per 100 ml are permitted for semi-skimmed milk). so can’t be good for you. a claim that a food is low in fat may only be made where the product contains no more than 3 g of fat per 100 g of solid food. Butter contains a higher proportion of saturated fat than margarine. For example. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A1.5 g of fat per 100 ml of liquid (1. Suggest at least two other possible claims made by manufacturers about food where the regulation should set guidelines. 3 of 3 . to allow people to choose foods which will reduce their risk of CVD.25S Activity 1. Margarine contains lots of chemicals. In 2006. or 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.25 Making decisions Q7 Student 1 2 3 4 Q8 Which of the following is the most ‘scientifically sound’ advertising claim to help people decide whether butter or margarine is the most healthy option? Give reasons for selecting or rejecting each statement. so is better for your health. to avoid misleading or confusing health claims being used on foods. the European Union introduced a new health claims regulation. Butter is a natural product.
1.22. The points are listed in the approximate order they appear within the topic. conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and fibrinogen to fibrin) and its role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). (Checkpoint question 1. (Checkpoint question 1.3) (Activity 1. (Activity 1. (Activities 1. © University of York Science Education Group.13 and 1. Diet – (Activities 1.19. Blood pressure – Activities 1.20) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. You should be able to: o Explain why many animals have a heart and circulation (mass transport to overcome limitations of diffusion in meeting the requirements of organisms). All the points are covered in the textbook but where there is supporting information within the activities this is indicated. high blood pressure.10) o Describe the factors that increase the risk of CVD (genetic. including the major blood vessels.9) o Evaluate design of studies used to determine health risk factors (including sample selection and sample size used to collect data that is both valid and reliable).A1.9) o Explain why people’s perceptions of risks are often different from the actual risks (including underestimating and overestimating the risks due to diet and other lifestyle factors in the development of heart disease). (Activity 1.6 ) o Describe the cardiac cycle (atrial systole.8) o Analyse and interpret quantitative data on illness and mortality rates to determine health risks (including distinguishing between correlation and causation and recognising conflicting evidence). Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Genetic inheritance – Activity 1. plaque formation. health and risk Purpose • To help you get your notes in order at the end of this topic.5) o Explain how the structures of blood vessels (capillaries.26 Check your notes for Topic 1: Lifestyle. diet. raised blood pressure).17 and 1.4) o Explain the course of events that leads to atherosclerosis (endothelial damage. age. (Checkpoint question 1.4) (Activity 1.12. arteries and veins) relate to their functions.5) (Activity 1.2) (Activity 1. (Checkpoint question 1.26S Student Activity 1. gender. 1 of 2 . There are suggestions on making notes and on revision in the Exam/coursework support. Topic 1 summary Make sure your notes cover the following points. (Activity 1. (Activity 1.6) (Age and gender – Activity 1.3 and 1. This sheet may have been altered from the original.11. smoking and inactivity).7) o Relate the structure and operation of the mammalian heart to its function. (Checkpoint question 1. ventricular systole and diastole). (Checkpoint question 1. including its dipole nature.8) o Describe the blood clotting process (thromboplastin release.2) o Explain the importance of water as a solvent in transport.1) (Activity 1. inflammatory response.
23) o Discuss how people use scientific knowledge about the effects of diet (including obesity indicators). This sheet may have been altered from the original.14) o Describe how monosaccharides join to form disaccharides (sucrose. (Activity 1.16) o Analyse data on energy budgets and diet so as to be able to discuss the consequences of energy imbalance. and development of obesity. plant statins. (Activity 1.18) o Describe the evidence for a causal relationship between blood cholesterol levels (total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol) and CVD. © University of York Science Education Group.26S Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.15) o Describe the synthesis of a triglyceride by the formation of ester bonds during condensation reactions between glycerol and three fatty acids and recognise differences between saturated and unsaturated lipids. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. lactose and maltose) and polysaccharides (glycogen and amylose) through condensation reactions forming glycosidic bonds. (Activities 1.17) o Analyse and interpret data on the possible significance for health of blood cholesterol levels and levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). (Activity 1.21) o Describe how the effect of caffeine on heart rate in Daphnia can be investigated practically. anticoagulants and platelet inhibitory drugs).18) o Describe how to investigate the vitamin C content of food and drink.14 and 1. (Activity 1. health and risk o Distinguish between monosaccharides. A1.17 and 1. 2 of 2 . weight gain. (Activities 1. (Activity 1.(Obesity indicators – Activities 1. exercise and smoking to reduce their risk of coronary heart disease. (Activity 1. disaccharides and polysaccharides (glycogen and starch – amylose and amylopectin) and relate their structures to their roles in providing and storing energy (α-glucose and cellulose are not required in this topic).Student Activity 1.26 Check your notes for Topic 1: Lifestyle.25 ) o Describe the benefits and risks of treatments for CVD (antihypertensives. including weight loss. and how these can be split through hydrolysis reactions. and discuss whether there are ethical issues in the use of invertebrates.
had to take antibiotics. she has been to a funeral. Mum. wasn’t he? He didn’t seem to do anything except collect his disability benefit and watch television. a cheerful believer. thanks dear. He was a thoroughly miserable little git though. I know all about that stuff. I’m so tired. Where’s Dad? He’s usually in by this time. Why did you go then? Laurie was only a distant cousin wasn’t he? I’ve only met him a couple of times. Procedure 1 AFTER THE FUNERAL Characters VALERIE MATT CLAIRE TOM a pale. thin woman in her forties. Rachel has got cystic fibrosis and she’s not like that. about the same age. you look shattered. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. friendly with Valerie. (A normal kitchen. you might not be the chirpy.1 After the funeral Purpose ● To provide an overview of the genetic basis of cystic fibrosis and some of the issues it throws up. aged sixteen. You mean the cystic fibrosis? (Nodding as CLAIRE hands her a cup of coffee) Yes.01S Student Activity 2. Enter VALERIE. her husband. life and soul of the party type either. © University of York Science Education Group. Yes please dear. I suppose I thought that our families had things in common. (She sits down wearily. That’s nice. I hate funerals. Read through the play script below. This sheet may have been altered from the original.) I need to sit down for a bit before I start getting supper. had one chest infection after another knowing that the next one might very well carry you off. Want a coffee? The kettle’s just boiled.A2. He’s gone to get an Indian take-away. the local vicar. had chronic diarrhoea and other digestive problems. digestive tablets and goodness knows what other medication and knew that you were unlikely ever to have children and even more unlikely to reach the age of forty. (Each time she pauses for breath CLAIRE interrupts but isn’t quick enough) If you’d been waiting for three years for a heart and lung transplant that was your last hope. whose sister Rachel has cystic fibrosis. CLAIRE gets up and makes a cup of coffee while the following conversation is taking place. either as a class or in small groups. looking very tired. she is dressed very smartly and soberly. been in and out of hospital more times than you could count. . Spare me the lecture. he and Matt enjoy baiting each other. She has to have the physiotherapy and I know she’s been 1 of 4 CLAIRE VALERIE CLAIRE VALERIE CLAIRE VALERIE CLAIRE VALERIE CLAIRE Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. happy. a cheerful sceptic. (Slightly angry and becoming more so) If you’d had to have physiotherapy which involved being thumped on the back every day of your life. CLAIRE is sitting at the table drinking a cup of coffee and reading a magazine.) CLAIRE VALERIE Hello Mum. their daughter. to save you having to cook tonight.
© University of York Science Education Group.01S Activity 2. we were careful. (Pause. though that’s not terribly relevant in twenty first century Britain. And she’s got a good job. Seriously.) CLAIRE VALERIE CLAIRE VALERIE (Exit CLAIRE again.A2. Enter TOM. Dawn’s gone down with ‘flu but I gather you’ve had a pretty rotten day so I’ll get someone else. don’t they? VALERIE TOM VALERIE TOM VALERIE TOM VALERIE TOM Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. (Hastily) I’ll go and do my homework. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Claire. She’s got a long way to go yet. He was absolutely against it. One doctor did suggest that we consider an abortion. it’s no problem. It can’t have helped. They know an awful lot about cystic fibrosis these days. isn’t it supposed to give protection against some disease? Typhoid. I’ll help with the Sunday School. sticks her head round the door. And so am I. There is a short. a credit to you and Matt. taking Laurie to all those weird religious services and those faith healers and trying to convince him that transplants were evil. She’ll manage. perhaps nobody’s children or grandchildren will have to suffer from cystic fibrosis in a few years’ time. This sheet may have been altered from the original. I was going to ask if you could help with the Sunday School this week. while they both drink coffee. (Pause) Did we really do the right thing in bringing Rachel and Claire into the world? Rachel with cystic fibrosis and we know Claire’s a cystic fibrosis carrier. though I don’t exactly feel full of Christian joy at the moment. (She exits and a few moments later. they are quite near to a cure. 2 of 4 . and there’s all that stuff she does at church. your predecessor. A levels.) Brace yourself. wearing a quiet suit and a clerical collar. none of them totally convincing. thank you very much. She wants to go into medicine as a career doesn’t she? She might be the one to find an effective cure. I’m afraid.) No. Cousin Laurie was a lot younger than Rachel wasn’t he? (Exasperated) Thank you. If you want a scientific answer. Claire’s a super kid. She’s been very lucky. Come and sit down. Then after a couple of years I suddenly found I was pregnant again. that cheers me up no end. We really do not have the right to end the life of a foetus just because it isn’t perfect or has a chance of producing children that aren’t. Shall I tell him you’re not back yet? (Hesitates for a moment then makes up her mind. or cholera. indistinct offstage conversation between CLAIRE and TOM. I’d like a chat with him. then university. Tom. there are nearly as many of those as there are theologians. (Sitting opposite her) Questions? Why do things like cystic fibrosis exist? If you want a theological answer. And she didn’t have a mother like Auntie Dorothy. a door bell rings.1 After the funeral Student VALERIE CLAIRE pretty ill but she’s cheerful and happy – usually.) TOM Hello Val. Will she have children or grandchildren who’ll suffer as much as poor Laurie? (Pause) Matt and I didn’t think we would have more children after Rachel. We were always very sensible with her. possibly. Tom’s just coming in the front gate. she’s got to be. Besides. I talked it through with Reverend Duncan. I suppose going to Laurie’s funeral brought all the questions back. but not too protective.
thanks for the food. They know that one in twenty-five people are cystic fibrosis carriers. or even treat it effectively. © University of York Science Education Group. (He takes a poppadom) I don’t object to transplants. I don’t enjoy funerals. MATT enters. Laurie’s mother belonged to a rather weird cult called the Divine Temple of Incarnation. They know exactly where that gene is in a human cell. Goodbye Tom. Tom. This sheet may have been altered from the original. you’ve had enough talk of funerals for one day. It’s to do with transporting sodium and chloride ions across cell membranes. 3 of 4 . might be saying a few words over your dead body. apparently. (He takes a bhaji and starts to eat it. I thought I saw the local coven members rushing away in a panic. They know exactly what the gene does. Thank you.) MATT Hello dear. You never know. Sorry Val. although it doesn’t seem to have helped any cystic fibrosis sufferers yet. If Laurie’s mother hadn’t got mixed up with a load of anti-scientific religious cranks who tried to forbid him to have gene therapy and a heart–lung transplant. They know which chromosome it’s on. (He starts to unpack the take-away. Matt. half falls into the room. did Claire tell you I was getting a take-away? Sorry I took so long. it’s just disguised with different sauces on top. Have a poppadom. It makes something called a CFTR protein. Matt? Over my dead body. It was his lot who were partly responsible for poor Laurie’s death. (He sees TOM) Oh it’s our friendly neighbourhood shaman. you’re starting to speak with your pulpit voice.1 After the funeral VALERIE Student They know it’s caused by a mutation in a gene. (There is a crash as the door is kicked open. And I think perhaps I should be off. Religion – it’s like these take-aways.A2. I must go. his arms full of the brown paper bags that Indian take-aways use. Careful. Not now. (To TOM) Have an onion bhaji. I’ve had a hard day. eventually I. Don’t forget that if Laurie had received a heart–lung transplant it would have come from some healthy young person who would have died in tragic circumstances. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. I forgot the rice and had to go back for it. he might still be alive today. TOM MATT VALERIE MATT TOM MATT TOM MATT TOM MATT TOM MATT TOM VALERIE (Exit TOM. They know exactly where the mutation takes place and they know exactly what goes wrong. or gene therapy. See you at Evensong this Sunday. I was looking forward to a good argument. or my successor. Thank you.) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. MATT has finished unpacking the take-away. (Slightly pompously) Gene therapy is a rather different use of genetic engineering and one that will certainly benefit many people in the future.) That’s a bit unfair: I’m a Church of England vicar.) No that was Doris Crane and Phyllis Bendall trotting along to bingo. Oh? I thought I read a letter of yours in the local paper protesting about the GM crop trials.01S Activity 2. In fact. which means that about one child in two thousand five hundred will be born with the disease. I believe. Goodbye. exactly the same stuff underneath. he half staggers. You don’t have to join in. they know just about every damn thing about it except how to cure it. Don’t go.
I’m just going out. his parents have loads of money and he’s going to study history at University. he’s really great. Student (CLAIRE bursts in. © University of York Science Education Group.A2. His sister’s in my French set. 3 One way of starting a ‘mind map’ is shown below. Using these highlighted passages. Who is this Nathan? We don’t know him do we? CLAIRE He’s in the sixth form at school. highlight or underline the issues that Valerie. he’s the captain of the rugby team. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. VALERIE We want you back home by midnight. . she is ‘dressed up’. CLAIRE Nathan will bring me back. Bye. with another colour. MATT Hang on. he’s got his own car. I got the prawn biryani just for you.. Matt and Claire have to think about. Figure 1 How to start a mind map.1 After the funeral MATT CLAIRE That’s about ready. (Exit CLAIRE. in a hurry) MATT END The play script contains a lot of information about cystic fibrosis and raises many issues that people with cystic fibrosis have to think about.. This sheet may have been altered from the original.. MATT Le Chat? Isn’t that the new nightclub in town? How are you going to get home at that time of night? I hope you’re not expecting a lift from me. work with a friend to produce a ‘mind map’ showing how the information you have gathered on cystic fibrosis is linked together. I’ve been round to their house a couple of times to help her with her homework.01S Activity 2. He’s eighteen. Nathan Cole is taking me out to Pizza Hut then we are going on to Le Chat. 2 Let’s hope he’s not a cystic fibrosis carrier. 4 of 4 . we don’t like it. But you’d like him.) Don’t save any for me.. I’ll give Claire a ca. Read through the play script again on your own and this time underline or highlight the factual biological information about cystic fibrosis and.
it was discovered that my blood sodium was so low I was in danger of seizures and cardiac arrest. Eighty per cent of children with cystic fibrosis are born to parents with no prior history of the disease. played and all those sorts of baby things. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. he sent me to Children’s Hospital of Orange County (CHOC). My doctor put me on antibiotics but I never seemed to get any better. when my doctor in Whittier couldn’t figure out what to do with me. I was seven months old.2 Personal CF stories Purpose ● To find out how cystic fibrosis affects individuals with the condition by reading some accounts by people affected by CF. © University of York Science Education Group. slept. The people carrying the mutation may not know they do so. At the time. a young teenager in America. In fact the oldest person to be diagnosed with cystic fibrosis was 82 years old! However. that time. Angela Angela. This time I was admitted to the hospital and given IV fluids. he just told her to give me Pedialyte® every two hours for all of that night. People with cystic fibrosis have an average life expectancy of just over 30 years but many people live a lot longer than that. Procedure Read each account and answer the questions that follow. During this admission. Fortunately that test came back negative because encephalitis can cause a brain infection and brain damage. In fact 1 in 25 people of European descent carry a mutation that results in cystic fibrosis. For the first six months of my life. I got really dehydrated. As I refused to drink from a bottle (I was still breast feeding) my mom had to feed it to me with an eyedropper. I was admitted to Whittier Presbyterian Hospital and treated for dehydration and bronchitis. gained weight. I ate. but a few weeks later I was severely dehydrated all over again.02S Student Activity 2.A2. has written the following account of how cystic fibrosis has affected her life. That worked. After a few weeks on antibiotics I had a pretty bad cough that never went away and I started to throw up all the time. A sweat test is how cystic fibrosis is diagnosed. I started to get sick a lot. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. The doctors must have suspected that I had cystic fibrosis very soon after hearing all my symptoms from my parents. a sweat test was ordered. When my mom took me to the doctor. At that time. it was discovered that my blood sodium was low. Around six months though. 1 of 3 . It was a Friday when I was admitted though so I couldn’t have the test until the following Monday. It started out as just a cold and ear infection. and this was to be my first hospitalization of many. While I was in the hospital. Read the passage and then answer the questions. Finally. so I was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. I also had a spinal tap to check for encephalitis. Cystic fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is not a rare disease. I did everything any normal baby did. most people with cystic fibrosis are diagnosed within the first few years of life. Soon after I was admitted. Once at CHOC. my doctor thought I had some kind of kidney disease.
Anyway. Usually there are little kids at the CHOC school and I think it is fun to watch the teacher work with them and see how they act in the hospital. My life might seem bad to some people. but I always had to do all these things so I didn’t think anything was unusual about that. my mother’s father died. too. My mom gets so tired and she is not even any fun anymore. being at CHOC isn’t so terrible. I get to do pretty much whatever I want. That first hospital visit wasn’t half as bad as anyone might think. and after it’s in it doesn’t bother me unless it goes bad. I had never met my grandpa because he lived in Texas. When I am on home IVs I have to have a home teacher because I am so tired and I don’t feel well so I can’t go to school regularly. and I had a few surgeries such as sinus surgery. Why do you think Angela was given this medicine? What do you think ‘chest physical therapy’ is? Why do you think Angela gets so tired and has to have a ‘home teacher’ when she is on ‘home IV’? 2 of 3 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. chest physical therapy (cpt) and taking pills every day. my tonsils and adenoids removed and tubes put in my ears.A2. I still have him today. The first time I had home IVs was when I was in the fifth grade. but I am really very lucky. They got the results of my sweat test back while she was gone. My mother didn’t know it yet but it was official. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. All in all. Also when I was eight years old I received a wish from the Make-AWish Foundation. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Sometimes I got sick with a bad cough and needed oral antibiotics. After I was six years of age. It is pretty awful. and I can have it whenever I want. The nurses and other people who work there are really nice and always bring me anything I like to drink and eat.2 Personal CF stories Student This period in my life must have been a difficult time for my parents. I have to go to the school there. such as having my picture taken with famous people like Joan Rivers. Home IVs are another story. Some of my favourite memories are stored away in my mind from CF Camp. I’ve really never thought being in the hospital was very bad. The first dose of the day has to be around 6:00 am so that usually wakes me up when my mom comes in to start the medication. My last dose of antibiotics isn’t due until around 11:00 pm and I can never fall asleep till it is over so I always seem to be up very late. My whole family and I went to Walt Disney World in Florida for five whole days. When I’m in. I get really tired when I am on home IVs. Of course my CF could always get worse in the future but I am thankful every day that I have made it as far as I have with this fatal disease called cystic fibrosis. Most people with CF have this disease much worse than I do. When I’m in the hospital. I would rather be in the hospital than have home IVs. Because of my CF. Q1 Q2 Q3 The first paragraph refers to a medicine called ‘Pedialyte®’. Just a day or two before I was admitted to CHOC. My doctors consider my CF to be very mild. But I never had to be admitted to CHOC for more than an overnight stay again until I was nine years old. I named him Noodles. © University of York Science Education Group. and now he is six years old. The only bad part about having CF then was having breathing treatments. I went to CF Camp for a week every summer for six years. At one of these events the executive director of the CFF for Orange County bought a miniature pinscher puppy in an auction and gave him to me. but it is fun because the kids are all really nice. I got to do many fun things. I had cystic fibrosis. I usually have to have an IV but the only bad part is when they start it.02S Activity 2. going on the TV show ‘Family Feud’ as the CF Poster Child and attending fundraising events for the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF). . When I was younger I didn’t think having CF was so bad. my mom had to fly to Texas for the funeral. and they have medical problems like me.
Activity 2.2 Personal CF stories
Another perspective on the effects of cystic fibrosis on a family is provided by the following account of life with Justin by his elder sister Jess. Read the passage and then answer the questions. When Justin was born I was as excited as a sister could possibly be. I had waited seven long years to have a younger sibling . . . and now I finally had one. Justin acted just like a normal baby, laughing and crying and being adorable. But he wasn’t a normal baby. He had a terrible disease and nobody knew it. In fact, we didn’t find out that he had cystic fibrosis until four years after he was born. During the first few weeks of his diagnosis, things were really scary for me. My whole life changed eight hours after my brother was given a sweat test (this is a test that pretty much diagnoses cystic fibrosis). Justin was whisked off to the hospital the day after Christmas for two weeks. Let me tell you, it’s pretty hard to have only half your family around for two weeks. It was also hard to spend my whole weekend at the hospital seeing my tiny brother with a needle stuck in his arm (actually it was an IV and it probably didn’t bother him nearly as much as it did me). The few weeks after Justin got home, my life changed drastically. We could no longer just run out to the store, because Justin had to get his treatment done or take his medicine. Justin was always getting things because everyone felt bad for him. I began to envy him and I even wished that I had the disease so people would pay attention to me. I got over a lot of my jealousy when I learned about how much medicine he has to take and what he has to go through to stay healthy. I began to look up to him because he was so brave. Today, about four years after he was diagnosed, Justin is a happy eight-year-old who loves to annoy his sister! He hasn’t been hospitalised for almost two years and we are all very happy about that. Did you know that every day, the scientists get closer to finding the cure for CF? When they do, my little brother’s future will be looking very bright!
Q4 The second paragraph of Jess’s account mentions a ‘sweat test’ that is used to diagnose cystic fibrosis. Suggest how sweat might be diagnostic for cystic fibrosis. Q5 Jess writes about ‘how much medicine he has to take’. What sort of medicines do you think her brother, Justin, has to take?
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Activity 2.3 The effect of size on uptake by diffusion
Purpose • To investigate the effect of surface area to volume ratio on uptake by diffusion. • To show why a large surface area in the lungs, combined with a circulation system, is required to meet the body’s demand for oxygen and need to eliminate carbon dioxide.
You need • Block of agar jelly • White tile • Scalpel or sharp knife • Paper towel or filter paper • Beaker (100 cm3) • Potassium manganate (VII) solution (0.02 M) or hydrochloric acid (0.1 M) • Ruler • Rubber or plastic gloves • Graph paper
Diffusion limits size Organisms that rely completely on diffusion for the absorption of substances and their movement around the body rarely grow to be more than a few millimetres thick. The surface area to volume ratio limits the size of the organism. You can investigate the effect of increasing size on uptake by diffusion using agar jelly ‘animals’. Safety Wear eye protection.
Avoid skin contact with potassium manganate. If potassium manganate solution is spilt do not clean it up yourself – tell the teacher/lecturer.
Procedure 1 Cut the agar jelly to give three cubes with heights of 0.5 cm, 1 cm and 2 cm. Putting graph paper under the dish of agar jelly is helpful when cutting the blocks. 2 Place the cubes in the beaker and cover with the potassium manganate solution. If your jelly is green due to universal indicator then use weak acid rather than the potassium manganate (VII) solution. Leave the cubes for 5 minutes. 3 While you wait, calculate the surface area, volume and surface area to volume ratio (surface area divided by the volume) for each of the cubes). Work in cm. See page 58 of the textbook for some help.
4 Pour off the solution and blot the surfaces of each cube dry with a paper towel. 5 Cut each of the cubes in half and measure the distance from the edge that has changed
Q1 What do you notice about the increase in volume of the ‘organism’ when its length doubles? Q2 What do you notice about the increase in surface area of the ‘organism’ when its length doubles? Q3 What do you notice about the surface area to volume ratio as the size of the ‘organism’ increases? Q4 Calculate how long it would take for the solution to diffuse all the way to the centre of each cube. Q5 As a simplification, let us assume that the increase in volume will be directly related to a similar increase in need for oxygen and nutrients. Explain your experimental findings as fully as you can in terms of diffusion and problems the organism would encounter if it got any larger.
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Activity 2.4 The structure of alveoli
To look at the detailed structure of the lungs and identify features that aid rapid diffusion of gases into the bloodstream. To interpret structures of gas exchange surfaces and describe their properties.
Safety Never use a microscope with a daylight mirror in a place where sunlight could strike the mirror. Your retina could be permanently damaged. Procedure
Looking at airways and blood vessels The lungs contain a branching network of tubes that allow ventilation of the alveoli. The action of breathing causes air to move into the lungs along these airways into the alveoli.
Examine a prepared section of lung tissue under low power. Remember that you are looking at a thin, two-dimensional section of the three-dimensional lung. Scan across the slide and locate the different types of airway tubes found within the lungs. Your section may include the trachea, a bronchus, and bronchioles. Look carefully at the cells that line the airways using a higher magnification. What do you notice about these cells? The layer of cells is called pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium – this should give you clues to some of the features you are looking for. See page 57 of the textbook for more help. Draw a simple sketch to show the structure and arrangement of cells in the epithelium. Identify the mucus-secreting goblet cells within the epithelium and label them on your diagram. What is the function of the mucus produced by these cells? Find an airway that has cartilage within the wall. Why do the airway cells contain cartilage? Locate an artery and vein in your section. How can you distinguish between these blood vessels?
Looking at alveoli 6 Most of the section will be made up of the alveoli and their associated capillaries. It often appears as if large numbers of the alveoli have broken down or are incomplete, leaving gaps on the slide. These gaps are in fact cavities that the bronchioles open into. The alveoli themselves open out from these cavities (see Figure 1 on p. 2). Locate a group of alveoli and identify the associated capillaries. Are all the alveoli the same size?
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Activity 2.4 The structure of alveoli
Look carefully at the cells that make up the walls of an alveolus and a capillary. Describe these cells. If available, use an eyepiece graticule and stage micrometer to determine the average diameter of the alveoli and the thickness of the barrier between the alveolus and a capillary. Work out the distance an oxygen molecule would have to travel in diffusing from the centre of the alveolus through the wall and into the capillary. Summarise the observable features of the lung tissue which ensure that there is rapid gas exchange between the alveoli and the bloodstream. Suggest what other features may aid the diffusion of gases but cannot be observed in a prepared cross-section.
Figure 1 Semi-diagrammatic section through a mammalian lung.
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Activity 2.5 Alveoli and lung surface area
Purpose ● To work out how the surface area of the lungs is greatly increased by the presence of numerous alveoli. Procedure Use the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity to compare the surface area of lungs with and without alveoli. Alternatively, complete the calculations yourself using this worksheet. For these calculations we are assuming:
a) that the lungs are two perfect spheres b) that each sphere has a radius of 89 mm, giving a volume of 3 dm3, 3 ×106 mm3 c) that the diameter of an alveolus is 0.25 mm. We first find the surface area of these two spheres by working out:
Surface area of one sphere
= 4πr2 = mm2
Surface area of the two spheres = answer to part (1) × 2 = mm2
We now calculate the surface area of an alveolus by working out:
Diameter of one alveolus Radius of one alveolus
= = diameter 2 = = 4/3 πr3 =
Volume of one alveolus
Surface area of one alveolus
= 4πr2 = mm2
To find out the surface area of all the alveoli that can fit into the two ‘sphere’ lungs you must work out:
The number of alveoli that will fit into both the lungs = volume of lungs/mm3 volume of one alveolus/mm3 = 6 × 106 = alveoli
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Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology, Pearson Education Ltd 2008. ©University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
Activity 2.5 Alveoli and lung surface
Surface area of the alveoli that will fit inside the lungs = surface area of one alveolus x number of alveoli = =
mm2 mm2 mm2
Comparing the two
Surface area of the two spheres = Surface area of all the alveoli in the two spheres =
Alveoli increase the surface area of the lungs times. (Divide the surface area with alveoli by the surface area without alveoli to find the factor it has increased by.)
Q1 Q2 What assumptions have you made when estimating the surface area of the lungs in this activity? The actual surface area of a typical pair of human lungs is 60–80 m² but can be as much as 140 m². This maximum lung surface area is closest to which of the following? Circle the correct answer. a a large dining table b the floor of a small room c a tennis court d a football pitch Does your estimate give a reasonably precise value for lung surface area? Explain your answer. Does your estimate give a reliable value for lung surface area? Explain your answer. List the features of gas exchange surfaces and describe how they increase the rate of gas exchange.
Q3 Q4 Q5
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology, Pearson Education Ltd 2008. ©University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
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Activity 2.6 Proteins
Purpose To describe the basic structure of an amino acid. To describe the formation of polypeptides and proteins. To explain the significance of a protein’s primary structure in determining its threedimensional structure. To describe the types of bonds involved in maintaining protein structure. Procedure Complete the interactive tutorial accompanying this activity and then complete this worksheet.
Amino acids Proteins are polymers made up of 20 different amino acids.
Q1 What is a polymer? …………………………………………………………
Q2 Annotate this general structure of an amino acid (see Figure 1) with the name and description of the groups that make it up.
Figure 1 General formula of an amino acid.
Q3 Draw below the general structure of an amino acid as it would be when dissolved in water.
Joining amino acids
Q4 Draw a ring around the atoms in Figure 2 which are removed when two amino acids are joined. Write the chemical formula of the molecule that they form in the box.
Figure 2 Formation of a dipeptide.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology, Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
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06S Activity 2. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Q8 The breaking of a bond by the addition of water is called …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Making a protein Q9 The flow chart in Figure 4 below shows the sequence of events involved when amino acids join to make polypeptides which then combine to make a protein. Splitting the peptide bond Q7 Draw a dashed arrow from the water molecule in Figure 3 to show where the water is added to break the peptide bond. include the types of bonds involved at each stage. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.6 Proteins Q5 The reaction which joins two amino acids is called Student …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Q6 Label the peptide bond in Figure 2. Figure 4 Flow chart showing the making of a protein from amino acids. Figure 3 Splitting of a dipeptide. © University of York Science Education Group. 2 of 3 .A2. Annotate the diagram with a description of what happens at each stage.
6 Proteins Student Q10 Explain how the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain determines the 3-dimensional shape of a functional protein. 3 of 3 . Pearson Education Ltd 2008.06S Activity 2. This sheet may have been altered from the original.A2. © University of York Science Education Group. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Q11 What is the importance of the following in protein folding: a hydrogen bonds …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… b water-repelling and water-attracting amino acid side groups? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
and Jim Ryder: University of Leeds We have made every effort to trace ownership of copyright.4 Plasticine model Teachers’ notes (separate download) Download from www. using models of the structure of cell membranes as an example.org/aboutscience OHP B0.3 Robertson model Sheet B3.nuffieldfoundation.2 Time line Sheet B1.3 Singer and Nicholson model Sheet B3. Resources for students Downloaded from www.2 Danielli and Davson model Sheet B2.1 Aims of the lesson Sheet B1.nuffieldfoundation.2 NMR and X-ray diffraction evidence Sheet B3.org/aboutscience by Andy Hind.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES This is a lesson aimed at helping students to develop their understanding of the role of theoretical models in science. and would be happy to make arrangements with any copyright holder whom it has not been possible to contact. John Leach. COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 .3 Lipid layer evidence Sheet B2.1 Electronmicrograph evidence Sheet B2.1 Structural models of cell membranes Sheet B1.1 Freeze fracture electronmicrograph evidence Sheet B3.
COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 . they use their imagination and creativity to think about data in new ways.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE OHT B0. • In some cases new evidence is gathered which shows one model to be better than another. • Because the models go beyond the data.1 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES Aims of the lesson In this lesson you are learning about the following. more than one theoretical model can be supported by the available evidence. • When scientists produce theoretical models. The theoretical models that they produce are therefore more than careful descriptions of the data.
COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 . You will need to respond to the questions using all the evidence you have been provided with at each stage.1 ‘Freeze fracture electronmicrograph evidence’.1 From looking at the data in the table. The time line will help you see the order these pieces of evidence and models came in. B3.1 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES STRUCTURAL MODELS OF MEMBRANES In this lesson you will respond to a number of pieces of evidence which will be provided in the sequence in which they were discovered.3 ‘Lipid layer evidence’. Task 3 You should now also have sheets: B3. 2. supported or undermined by all the evidence now available? 3. 3. The time line will help you to see the order of events as they actually happened.1 For each of the models. Task 1 You should have a copy of sheet B1. would you agree with the conclusions of Gorter and Grendel? 1.1‘Electronmicrograph evidence’ and a description of two different models.2 Describe what you think led to each model being devised.2 Which do you think is the most useful model? Justify your answer.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE SHEET B1. 2.1 How is each of the models. state how the evidence you have supports or undermines the model. including Singer and Nicholson’s.3 ‘Singer and Nicholson’s model’. 1.2 ‘NMR and X-ray diffraction evidence’ and B3.2 What aspects of the membrane structure is there no evidence for in this data? Task 2 You should have been given sheet B2.
Robertson proposes his model based on Danielli and Davson’s The structure of a protein (haemoglobin) was identified for the first time (1959) 1960 Freeze etching techniques developed giving images of membrane faces 1970 Singer and Nicholson publish fluid mosaic model (1972) NMR and X-ray diffraction techniques are developed sufficiently to provide evidence about the movement of lipids in the membrane 1980 1990 2000 Gunther Blobel receives a Nobel Prize for his pioneering work on the mechanisms by which proteins integrate with the membrane (1999) ???? COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 .2 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES 1920 TIME LINE Gorter and Grendel publish their paper indicating the possibility of a bilayer of lipids (1924) 1930 Danielli and Davson propose their original model of the membrane (1935) 1940 First electronmicroscope images of cell membranes produced 1950 Danielli and Davson publish a revised version of their model (1954) J.D.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE SHEET B1.
8 9.49 4.69 6.33 0.8 0.46 0.46 5.54 0.52 0.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE SHEET B1.66 0.2 2.63 0.1 2. Gorter and Grendel obtained the membranes of red blood cells.95 2. Animal Total surface area of the red blood cell membrane (A) Sq.1 6.33 3.8 1. They calculated the area of the red blood cell membrane and then extracted the lipids that were present.96 9. These were dissolved in petroleum ether and allowed to spread into a layer one molecule thick on a surface of water and the area was measured.27 0.2 5.8 2 1.47 Surface area occupied by the lipids extracted (B) Sq.9 2 1. µ 62 12.02 0.’ (From Gorter.92 0.6 2 2 2 2 2 1.34 0.65 5.9 8. F.9 Sheep Rabbit Guinea-pig Goat Man From these results they concluded: ‘It is clear that all our results fit in well with the supposition that the erythrocytes (red blood cells) are covered by a layer of fatty substances that is two molecules thick.8 9.3 6.8 0. Bimolecular layers of lipoids on the chromocytes of the blood.89 Factor B/A Dog 2 2 2.) COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 .9 2 2. and Grendel.9 4.47 0.97 0.8 1. E. 1924. µ 31.34 3.2 1.1 1.9 0.52 0.33 0.2 6.3 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES LIPID LAYER EVIDENCE Data from the experiment which laid the foundations for a model of membrane structure is summarised in the table below.
Electron microscope images of the cell membrane such as this one give us clues as to its basic structure.1 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES ELECTRONMICROGRAPH EVIDENCE During the late 1930s and early 1940s. BD (1977) The plasma membrane: models for structure and function. The parts that take up the most stain appear the darkest on the image. Reprinted from Gomperts. by permission of the publisher.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE SHEET B2. chapter 2. These are absorbed in different amounts by different parts of the cell. Early micrographs were obtained by staining a very thin section of tissue with heavy metal salts. giving contrasting degrees of electron scattering. page 55. electronmicroscopy techniques were developed which provided much more detailed resolution of the structure of a cell. Academic Press COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 .
holding them in place. the lipids are not free to move around.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE SHEET B2.2 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES DANIELLI AND DAVSON MODEL Danielli and Davson proposed their initial model in 1935 and refined it as in the diagram below in 1954. protein layer lipid bilayer The model consists of A lipid bilayer where two layers of polar lipid molecules are arranged with their hydrophilic heads outward. COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 . A layer of protein covering the surfaces of the membrane. In this model. Note that the protein layer is embedded in the layer of lipids.
Robertson proposed that the inner layer could be either polypeptide or polysaccharide (a long chain sugar molecule).TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE SHEET B2. It is not embedded in it so the lipids are not held in place.3 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES ROBERTSON MODEL The model proposed by J.) The polypeptide layer is on the exterior of the membrane. (Polypeptides are the long chain molecules that proteins are made from. The protein layer is formed from a monolayer of polypeptide chains rather than whole protein molecules.D. Robertson in 1959 is a development of the Danielli and Davson model with the following exceptions. polypeptide layer lipid bilayer inner layer of polysaccharide or polypeptide COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 .
This exposes the membrane’s layered structure showing the outer and inner layers. This electron micrograph image shows a red blood cell treated in this way. chapter 2. the sample is frozen and then cut with a microtome knife to split the cell.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE SHEET B3. by permission of the publisher.1 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES FREEZE FRACTURE ELECTRONMICROGRAPH EVIDENCE In the freeze fracture technique. There are very few of the globular structures that appear in the membrane of the untreated cell. 100 nm globular particles inner membrane surface outer membrane surface The second picture shows a similarly treated cell that has first had 70% of the protein removed. Reprinted from Gomperts. Note the presence of globular particles on the top surface of the inner membrane layer which would be within the intact membrane. page 55. BD (1977) The plasma membrane: models for structure and function. Academic Press 100 nm COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 .
By exposing the molecules of the membrane to a static and an oscillating magnetic field. COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 .TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE SHEET B3.2 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES NMR AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION EVIDENCE NMR stands for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. the hydrocarbon chains of the lipids give off diffraction patterns similar to those of liquid paraffins. scientists have been able to show that the lipids in the membrane. move over distances of up to 50 nm during the duration of the measurement (5 to 10 seconds). However at low temperatures this movement is lost. at higher temperatures. X-ray diffraction has shown that. which have a characteristic magnetic ‘spin’.
The proteins do not form a structural layer holding the lipids in place so the lipid component of the membrane is not rigid but fluid.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE SHEET B3.3 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES SINGER AND NICHOLSON MODEL Singer and Nicholson’s ‘fluid mosaic model’ (1972) was again a development of Danielli and Davson’s model but with more significant differences than in the Robertson model. The proteins are not attached to the outside of the lipid layer but embedded within it. protein molecule lipid bilayer The key differences are as follows. COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 . in some cases extending through the thickness of the membrane.
(1999) Work on molecules that bind with specific receptors on membranes is enabling new drugs to be developed.1.4 B THEORETICAL MODELS: CELL MEMBRANES PLASTICINE MODEL In pilot studies. and the ageing process. Roll out a flattened doughnut of plasticine and superimpose it on a roughly circular sheet of a contrasting colour. the membrane has been fractured in a way which exposes the interior of the membrane bilayer. This surface represents the outer face of the inner layer of the membrane. The simple model described here helps to illustrate this. the sample is frozen and then cut with a microtome knife in a way which exposes the interior of cell organelles. (2000) COPIABLE TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE © UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 2001 . which attacks cancer cells.TEACHING ABOUT SCIENCE TEACHERS’ RESOURCE SHEET B3. In freeze fracture preparation. In the electronmicrographs shown on sheet B3. student feedback suggested that a simple model was helpful in understanding the evidence presented on the freeze fracture sheet. This surface represents the outer face of the upper layer of the membrane Current membrane research Studies of cell surface protein receptors in T-cells has shown a link between tumour necrosis factor (TNF).
The overall focus of this teaching is to make clear to students that scientific understanding does not just emerge from experimental data. In other words. scientists have to decide what kind of data to collect. 64K) Activities OHTs. However. intuitive thinking of scientists. 576K) Lesson B: Cell membranes Focus Experimental data provide the basis from which scientific understanding of the natural world develops. Resources part 1 (pdf. 512K) Resources part 2 (pdf. new evidence may support one model more than the others. In these situations scientists need to decide whether such evidence is sufficient for them to shift their support to this model. Rationale .Search Nuffield Curriculum site only GO Post16 Teaching About Science Key facts Relevance AS/A Biology Time: 60 minutes Downloadable resources Teacher guidance Download with detailed advice for teachers (pdf. scientific understanding does not emerge unproblematically from the data without the creative. and to develop their confidence in evaluating the extent to which evidence supports scientific explanations. In situations where there is more than one model available. background information and student sheets for the lesson. and how to think about that data in order to build scientific knowledge about the world.
Activities This lesson consists of three activities. It should now be clear how the increased amount of evidence supports a single model. further scientific research can lead to the acceptance of one model as a consensus view. Activity B3 Students re-evaluate the two models and a third. Activity B1 Students are asked to evaluate a straightforward conclusion drawn from experimental evidence.The lesson aims to help students develop their understanding of the role of theoretical models in science. competing models can arise. In particular that: • • • producing models involves conjecture and creative thinking. more recent. model in the light of further evidence. ©The Nuffield Foundation 2003 . Activity B2 Students evaluate two competing models in the light of contemporary evidence and identify the parts of the models that are not evident from the data.
1 of 3 . Pipettes and alcohol will be needed instead. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. You need • Raw beetroot • Size 4 cork borer • White tile • Knife • Ruler • Water baths at 0. 70 °C. Beetroot contains red pigments called betalains. e Write a risk assessment for the procedure including the safety precautions you will take. © University of York Science Education Group. including risk management. a Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Planning Before you start the experiment you should: Decide what you think will be the effect of temperature or alcohol on beetroot cell surface membranes and how this will affect their permeability. c Go through the procedure and decide if: • the apparatus is suitable and will achieve appropriate measurements for your investigation • all the variables have been identified and where possible controlled or allowed for • the results will be valid and reliable. 50. repeatable measurements made with suitable apparatus? • there are likely to be any systematic or random errors. or alcohol • Plastic beaker. located within the cell vacuole.8 Why does the colour leak out of cooked beetroot? Purpose • To investigate the effect of temperature or alcohol on membrane structure.08S CORE Activity 2. 30. 60. • To highlight experimental and investigative skills. Normally the pigments cannot pass through membranes but they leak out when the beetroot is cooked or put in alcohol. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 40. about 250 cm3 • 8 boiling tubes • 2 boiling tube racks • Crushed ice • Thermometer (one per water bath) • Colorimeter • Cuvettes • Stopclock • Distilled water • Pipettes for measuring 2 cm3 and 5 cm3 • Small measuring cylinders If alcohol concentration is investigated several water baths and ice will not be required. 20. b Read through the procedure and decide if this experiment will generate appropriate measurements that will allow you validly to test your hypothesis. Write down your idea as a hypothesis that you can test. Are they precise. and support your idea with biological knowledge. a knife and water bath at 70 °C. Safety Take care using a cork borer. The aim of this practical is to use beetroot to examine the effect of temperature or alcohol on cell membranes and relate the effects observed to membrane structure.Student A2. d Suggest alterations to the procedure if needed. 10. To function correctly a cell needs to be able to control transport across the partially permeable cell membrane. Beetroot pigments If you read a recipe for cooked beetroot it will usually recommend that you don’t remove the outer skin of the beetroot and don’t cut off all the stalk and root if you want to avoid getting lots of red dye in the cooking water.
Next day. 10 °C. 2 3 A2. spear with a pointed seeker. measure 2 cm3 distilled water into a cuvette.8 Why does the colour leak out of cooked beetroot? Procedure to investigate the effect of temperature 1 Cut sections from a single beetroot using a size 4 cork borer. In the ICT support there is a datalogging sheet on monitoring diffusion of pigment across beetroot cell membranes. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 13 Describe how you could have improved this experiment to give more reliable results. 50 °C. Repeat the readings for all the temperatures. © University of York Science Education Group. Place 2 cm3 of the dye solution into a colorimeter cuvette and take a reading for absorbency. Place the cuvette into the colorimeter. Switch on the colorimeter and set it to read % absorbance. Do not alter the setting again during the experiment. Leave for 30 minutes in the water baths. Leave for 5 minutes until the water reaches the required temperature. 11 Identify any trends or patterns in your results. 30 °C. supporting your statements with evidence from your data and using biological knowledge. Using a pipette accurately. 40 °C. Cut eight 1 cm length slices from these sections. Set the filter dial to the blue/green filter. 12 Explain any trends or patterns. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.08S CORE Place the slices in a beaker of distilled water. 2 of 3 . Adjust the colorimeter to read 0 absorbance for clear water. making sure that the light is shining through the smooth sides. You can find out more about the biochemistry of the main components of the cell membrane in the textbook and in the interactive tutorials on lipids and protein structure. place eight labelled boiling tubes each containing 5 cm3 distilled water into water baths at 0 °C. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Present your results in an appropriate way. 60 °C and 70 °C. 20 °C.Student Activity 2.g. Shake the water/solution to disperse the dye. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Decant the liquid into a second boiling tube or remove beetroot sections using a technique that does not squeeze the slice e. Leave overnight to wash away excess dye. Place one of the beetroot sections into each of the boiling tubes. Be careful not to spill beetroot juice on your skin or clothing as it will stain very badly.
Be careful not to spill beetroot juice on your skin or clothing as it will stain very badly. supporting your statements with evidence from your data and using biological knowledge. Place 2 cm3 of the dye solution into a colorimeter cuvette and take a reading for absorbency. 60 % and 70 % alcohol. 40 %. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Present your results in an appropriate way. Repeat with seven test tubes containing 10 %.Student Activity 2. 11 Identify any trends or patterns in your results. Adjust the colorimeter to read 0 absorbance for clear water. Do not alter the setting again during the experiment. Next day. This is 0 % alcohol concentration. 30 %. Decant the liquid into a second boiling tube or remove beetroot sections using a technique that does not squeeze the slice. 20 %. Cut eight 1 cm length slices from these sections. for example. place one of the beetroot sections into a boiling tube containing 5 cm3 distilled water.08S CORE Place the slices in a beaker of distilled water. 12 Explain any trends or patterns. Using a pipette accurately. making sure that the light is shining through the smooth sides.8 Why does the colour leak out of cooked beetroot? Procedure to investigate the effect of alcohol 1 Cut sections from a single beetroot using a size 4 cork borer. Leave boiling tubes for 30 minutes. This sheet may have been altered from the original. measure 2 cm3 distilled water into a cuvette. You can find out more about the biochemistry of the main components of the cell membrane in the textbook and in the interactive tutorials on lipids and protein structure. In the ICT support there is a datalogging sheet on monitoring diffusion of pigment across beetroot cell membranes. 13 Describe how you could have improved this experiment to give more reliable results. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Switch on the colorimeter and set it to read % absorbance. Shake the water/solution to disperse the dye. 3 of 3 . Set the filter dial to the blue/green filter. Repeat the readings for all the alcohol concentrations. Place the cuvette into the colorimeter. Leave overnight to wash away excess dye. 2 3 A2. by spearing with a pointed seeker. 50 %. © University of York Science Education Group.
1 of 2 . Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Avoid skin contact with the iodine solution. Add enough iodine to make a light yellowy brown solution.9 Methods of transport within and between cells Purpose ● ● To demonstrate some methods of transport within and between cells. Hold the sides of the plastic up and twist them together to make a closed bag. © University of York Science Education Group. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Experiment 2 Safety Do not eat the grapes! Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 You need • 4 grapes of similar size • 50 cm3 water • 50 cm3 strong sugar solution • 2 small beakers Pour approximately 50 cm3 of strong sugar solution into a small beaker. Peel two of the grapes and add one peeled and one unpeeled grape to each beaker. Leave for at least 24 hours. Remember that plant cells have both a cell wall and a cell membrane. Q2 Suggest why warm water was used. Pour approximately 50 cm3 of water into another small beaker. Half fill the beaker with warm water.09S Student Activity 2. Experiment 1 Safety Wear eye protection. If there are no holes in the bag the complete bag can be used. Procedure 1 Cut a section from the plastic bag. 3 4 Q1 Describe and explain any changes that you saw. You need the largest You need • About 20 cm3 thick starch solution • Warm water • Iodine (dissolved in KI) • Medium sized (200–300 cm3) beaker • Clear plastic bag (the thin ones used for vegetables at the supermarket work well) roughly square sheet possible but with no ventilation holes. Label the beakers clearly. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 2 Spread the plastic over the top of a beaker or your cupped hand and pour the starch solution into the centre of the plastic. To develop scientific explanations using ideas about transport across membrane and membrane structure. Tie a knot in the bag or use a rubber band to tightly seal the bag of starch solution. Place the plastic bag of starch solution into the iodine and observe for about 15 minutes.A2. Then observe and feel the fruit. Procedure Complete the experiments or look at the demonstrations provided and then try to explain your observations as you answer the questions associated with each experiment.
5 cm wide) • 2 thin slices of cucumber (about 0. 1 M salt. 2 of 2 . Take a drop of the liquid from the isotonic blood tube and put it on a microscope slide. Explain what happened to the cells in each case and how this affected the turbidity. what would you expect to observe in plant cells placed in the solutions used in Experiment 4? Give reasons for your answer. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Put 1 cm3 blood in each test tube. Fill one Petri dish with water and the other with saturated salt solution. In the ICT support there is a datalogging sheet on studying diffusion using Visking tubing. Q4 What limits the change in size of: a the unpeeled fruit b the peeled fruit? Experiment 3 Procedure 1 Place a slice of cucumber and a slice of potato in each Petri dish. Wash hands with soap and water after use. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. © University of York Science Education Group. Q7 Bearing in mind your results from Experiment 2. Cover the drop with a coverslip and observe under a microscope. Experiment 4 Safety Mammalian blood is a source of possible infection. Do not pour down the sink.5 cm wide) • Water • Saturated salt solution • 2 Petri dishes 3 Q5 Describe and explain the changes observed. isotonic. Your retina could be permanently damaged. After 5 minutes compare the turbidity (cloudiness) of the tubes either with a colorimeter or by trying to see a page of printed text held behind each tube. To each tube add 10 cm3 of the solution indicated on the label.09S Activity 2. Leave the test tubes for 5 minutes. Never use a microscope with a daylight mirror in a place where sunlight could strike the mirror.9 Methods of transport within and between cells Student Q3 Write a description and explanation of the changes or lack of changes in each piece of fruit. Avoid all skin contact. being careful to cover the slices and making a note of which is which. If spilt.A2. Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 You need • 3 cm3 of mammalian blood • 10 cm3 of distilled water • 10 cm3 isotonic saline • 10 cm3 1 M saline solution • 3 test tubes • 2 pipettes • 3 microscope slides and coverings • Microscope • Marker pen Label your test tubes – water. inform your teacher. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Repeat for the other two tubes. Remove and examine the slices after 10 minutes. 6 7 Q6 Describe the effect of each of the solutions on the blood cells. 2 You need • 2 thin slices of potato (about 0.
Procedure This worksheet can be used with the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity. Questions Q1 Label the structures shown in Figure 1. Apical end of cell Basal end of cell Figure 1 Cells in the airway of the lung. Q3 The commentaries should describe the movement of ions and water in the cells lining the airways of the lungs. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.A2. They should also describe any change in the structures involved (e. Suggest how the absence of a functional CFTR channel can lead to digestive and reproductive problems. Q4 Watch the video clip of the movement of cilia in the airways of the lungs. Q2 Draw labelled arrows on the diagram to show the ‘normal’ situation in your lungs. channel proteins). This sheet may have been altered from the original. digestive and reproductive systems. b Animation 2: the situation with dehydrated mucus. You need to include arrows for: a the movement of Na+ ions in and out of the cell b osmosis between the cell and its surroundings. Write a commentary for the three animations in Interactive tutorial 2.10S Student Activity 2.g. You should also read the account of regulation of ions in the cells lining the airways in the textbook (pages 73–75) before attempting the questions that follow. Q5 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 1 of 1 .10 CFTR protein and membrane transport Purpose ● To explain the function of the CFTR protein and how the expression of a cystic fibrosis gene mutation impairs the functioning of the gaseous exchange. a Animation 1: the normal situation (excess water in the mucus). Explain how absence of a functional CFTR channel in people with CF can lead to accumulation of sticky mucus in the lungs. © University of York Science Education Group. c Animation 3: the CF situation. This is where there is excess water in the mucus and water is absorbed by osmosis into cells lining the airway.10.
and that you have explained why these are necessary • says exactly what measurements you will make and how they will be made • says how you will make sure the results are valid. Catalase is not released by the pancreas. This sheet may have been altered from the original. precise and repeatable • includes a risk assessment with any safety precautions you will take. You are provided with the following equipment: • Standard acidified protease solution or a cylinder of potato tissue (a source of catalase) • Milk powder or hydrogen peroxide solution • Standard laboratory glassware and apparatus including a ruler. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.11 Enzyme concentrations and enzyme activity: Planning Sheet Purpose ● To investigate how enzyme concentration can affect the initial rate of reaction. accurate. could be used to investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on rate of reaction. Hydrogen peroxide is broken down by the enzyme catalase forming water and oxygen gas. © University of York Science Education Group. A white suspension of milk powder clears on the addition of the enzyme trypsin. Use scientific ideas to support your prediction. including catalase. the by-product of various biochemical reactions. The aim of this activity is to investigate the effect of a reduction in enzyme concentration on the rate of reaction. stopclock and thermometer • A colorimeter and cuvette NB: Casein will hydrolyse in acid conditions without addition of the enzyme. it occurs in most cells to break down toxic hydrogen peroxide. including risk assessment. where possible. Reducing concentration The pancreatic duct in individuals who have cystic fibrosis frequently becomes blocked. What do you think will be the relationship between the enzyme concentration and the initial rate of breakdown of the substrate.11S CORE Activity 2. On completion of the experiment make sure you: • present your results in the most appropriate way • identify any trends in your results • explain any trends or patterns supporting your statements with evidence from your data and using biological knowledge • comment on any systematic or random errors in the readings • look at the variation and possible errors within the data • propose changes to your procedure that would improve the validity of the results. Planning Milk powder contains a white protein called casein. controls or allows for them • has a fully explained control • has replicates. Other enzymes. Make sure your plan: • includes a hypothesis about enzyme concentration and the breakdown of substrate with a scientific explanation to support your ideas • includes a procedure which uses suitable apparatus to produce measurements that will validly test your hypothesis • identifies the variables – dependent and independent – and. reducing or preventing the release of pancreatic enzymes into the small intestine. ● To develop experimental and investigative skills. which could be used to investigate the effect of enzyme concentrate on rate of reaction. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 1 of 1 . The pancreas releases several enzymes including proteases. Have your plan checked by your teacher/lecturer before starting the experiment.Student A2.
A2. i. Decide how many different types of bases there are.12S Student Activity 2. Stick the pairs together using the central tabs as shown in Figure 3. Each pair will provide one ‘rung’ of the DNA molecule.e. antiparallel. If put together correctly. the model will wind into a double helix. Questions Q1 Which molecules make up the DNA ‘backbone’? Q2 What do you notice about the base pairing? Q3 What do you notice about the hydrogen bonding between the base pairs? Q4 In what ways is your model similar to a molecule of DNA? Q5 In what ways is your model different from a DNA molecule? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Each of the pairs must be the same width and the hydrogen bonding must match. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 Cut out the two molecules in Figure 1 on page 2. Divide the bases into 14 pairs. 1 of 2 . © University of York Science Education Group. Bend the end flaps under and attach the base pairs to the backbone (Figure 4).12 DNA model Purpose • To show complementary base pairing and the hydrogen bonding involved in the formation of the DNA double helix. Make sure that the sugar-phosphate backbones are running in opposite directions. Figure 3 Figure 4 6 7 Use the section on the structure of DNA in your textbook to help you label each base with an appropriate letter. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Cut out all 28 bases along the dashed lines in Figure 2 on page 2. These are effectively the sugar phosphate backbones of the DNA molecule. Stick the end flap of the base pair to the backbone here.
2 of 2 .A2. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original.12S Activity 2.12 DNA model Student hydrogen bonds Figure 2 Figure 1 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. © University of York Science Education Group.
This sheet may have been altered from the original. Mix well.13S Student Activity 2. © University of York Science Education Group. Add the onion to the salt and washing up liquid solution.A2. Q2 The hot conditions in the water bath help to destroy DNases that might break down the DNA. It should form a layer on top of the onion extract. Air bubbles carry the nucleic acids up into the ethanol. Pour about 10 cm3 of the onion filtrate into a boiling tube and add 2–3 drops of protease enzyme. Stir the mixture frequently. Add 10 cm3 of detergent (washing up liquid). Cool the mixture by placing the beaker in a bowl of ice for a few minutes. Chop up a small onion into pieces. Pour the mixture into a blender and blend for no more than 5 seconds. Leave the tube to stand for a few minutes. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Stand the beaker in hot water at 60 °C for exactly 15 minutes. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Procedure 1 Dissolve 3 g of salt in 90 cm3 of distilled water in a 250 cm3 beaker. roughly 5 mm by 5 mm.13 Extraction of DNA Purpose • To extract nucleic acids from onion tissue. You need • Small onion • 3 g table salt • 10 cm3 washing up liquid • 90 cm3 distilled water • 9 cm3 very cold ethanol • 2–3 drops protease enzyme • Ice and water in a beaker or bowl • Coffee filter papers • Sharp knife and chopping board • Large plastic funnel • 2 x 250 cm3 beakers • Boiling tube • Glass rod • Water bath at 60 °C Safety No naked flames are allowed in the lab while using ethanol. Filter the mixture into a clean beaker. separating the chopped onion from the liquid using a funnel and coffee filter paper. Avoid skin contact with protease enzyme. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) will precipitate into the upper (ethanol) layer. Very carefully pour the ice-cold ethanol down the side of the boiling tube. Stir gently. What might happen if the DNA is left in the hot conditions for more than 15 minutes? Q3 Why must you only blend the onion mixture for 5 seconds? Q4 Why is protease added to the onion extract? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Questions Q1 Suggest what the washing up liquid does to the cell membranes. 1 of 1 .
To outline the process of protein synthesis. Q2 Label the hydrogen bonds between the DNA strands. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 1 of 4 .A2. Figure 1 Diagram of a DNA molecule.4 ‘How is the CFTR protein made?’ in the textbook and the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity to complete the activity. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.14 Nucleic acids and protein synthesis Purpose To describe the structure of DNA and complementary base pairing involving hydrogen bonding. phosphate group and base which make up this nucleotide. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Questions Q1 Circle and label one nucleotide on the diagram of a DNA molecule (Figure 1). Q3 Nucleotides are linked together in ………………………reactions. DNA structure The basic unit of DNA is a nucleotide. © University of York Science Education Group. To understand the nature of the genetic code.14S Student Activity 2. Procedure Use section 2. and label the sugar.
The bases pair in this way because together they need to be exactly the correct size and shape to form one of the ‘rungs’ of the DNA double helix. Adenine always pairs with Thymine. the sequence of bases on the DNA is copied by complementary base-pairing of mRNA nucleotides in a process called …………………………… .14S Activity 2. Fill in the table below to show how mRNA differs in structure from DNA. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Q6 mRNA is another polynucleotide.A2. Figure 2 Complementary base pairing.14 Nucleic acids and protein synthesis Student Complementary base pairing in DNA The bases on the two DNA strands pair with each other in a specific way. A Molecule of DNA Strand 1 Strand 2 Q4 Fill in the letters representing the bases of strand 2. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. and Cytosine and Guanine go together. C C T G A A T C C G A T Messenger RNA (mRNA) Q5 During protein synthesis. DNA Sugar presents in nucleotides Number of strands in molecules Bases presents in nucleotides deoxyribose 2 AGCT mRNA Complementary base-pairing in transcription Q7 Fill in the correct letters on the mRNA strand in Figure 2 below. 2 of 4 . © University of York Science Education Group. making sure that you enter the correct complementary base each time.
referring to the diagram.A2. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 3 of 4 . colour the dots in the key and using the same colours shade in the parts of the diagram referred to by the key. © University of York Science Education Group. Table of the Genetic Code for mRNA 2nd base in codon U 1st b a s e i n c o d o n Phe C Ser Ser Ser Ser Pro Pro Pro Pro Thr Thr Thr Thr Ala Ala Ala Ala A Tyr Tyr STOP STOP His His Gin Gin Asm Asn Lys Lys Asp Asp Glu Glu G Cys Cys STOP Trp Arg Arg Arg Arg Ser Ser Arg Arg Gly Gly Gly Gly U C A G U C A G U C A G U C A G 3rd b a s e i n c o d o n U C A G Phe Leu Leu Leu Leu Leu Leu Ile Ile Ile Met Val Val Val Val Q8 Write in the amino acids which will be coded for by this mRNA sequence: Codons Amino acid G U C C A C U U A A C A C C G Translation Q9 a b In Figure 3. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.14 Nucleic acids and protein synthesis The Genetic Code The table of the genetic code gives: Student the three-letter base code for all mRNA codons the corresponding three-letter abbreviation for the amino acid coded by the codon. Describe the process of protein synthesis in your own words.14S Activity 2.
© University of York Science Education Group. What is the DNA triplet which will have coded for this RNA codon? Using the table of the genetic code above. 4 of 4 .14 Nucleic acids and protein synthesis Student Figure 3 Translation.A2. If this disease is passed on by inheritance. and explain your answer: i There has been a mistake during transcription. this codon is changed from GAA to GUA. This sheet may have been altered from the original. In individuals who have sickle cell anaemia. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. suggest which of the following is more likely to be true. how will this alter the primary structure of amino acids in the polypeptide chain? Suggest why individuals with this mutation have haemoglobin that has a different 3-D structure to ‘normal’ haemoglobin.14S Activity 2. ii The mistake was made during DNA replication where DNA is copied to form new DNA molecules before cell division. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. where the DNA code is copied to form mRNA. Q10 a b c d The base sequence in the section of mRNA that codes for one of the amino acids in haemoglobin has the codon GAA.
Q2 In each magnified circle in Figure 1. Use your own colour code. Q3 How did Meselson and Stahl produce bacterial cells containing only DNA made with 15N? Bacteria containing DNA made with 15N were allowed to divide once in a solution containing only 14N. fill in the number to show the type of nitrogen present in each band. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. and the evidence which supports the theory that is now accepted. They then extracted DNA from the bacterial cells and centrifuged the resulting solution to isolate the DNA. colour in the sections of DNA molecule found in each band to show the type of DNA in each band. In 1958 they grew bacteria in growth medium containing ammonium ions (NH4+) as the source of nitrogen. © University of York Science Education Group.A2. This sheet may have been altered from the original. After a single replication the DNA was extracted and centrifuged. selecting one colour for DNA made with 14N and another colour for DNA made with 15N. light form (isotope) of nitrogen.15S Student Activity 2. so red (heavy). They used two isotopes of nitrogen – 14N and 15N. You will need a colour for medium DNA later. Matthew Meselson and Frank Stahl worked at the California Institute of Technology. blue (light) and purple (medium DNA) would work. Questions Q1 In each of the label boxes in Figure 1 below. 14N is the common. Figure 2 DNA found after first replication. according to the DNA’s density. Figure 1 Position of labelled nitrogen bands in the centrifuge tubes. Procedure Complete the interactive tutorial associated with the activity. Any new DNA made would contain 14N. The type of DNA made by the cells depended on the type of nitrogen present in the bacteria’s growth medium. and then complete this worksheet. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The DNA made with 14N and the DNA made with 15N accumulated at different levels in the centrifuged solutions. 1 of 3 . 15N is the heavier form.15 Meselson and Stahl’s experiment on DNA replication Purpose To describe the method of DNA replication by considering the different theories originally proposed to explain the process.
Figure 4 The dispersive theory for replication. iii Draw bands on the centrifuge tubes in Figure 5 to show the DNA present after the first and second ‘dispersive’ replications. Now draw in the four DNA molecules produced when the DNA replicates for the second time. Q6 Figure 4 shows DNA replication according to the ‘dispersive’ theory. In Figure 4. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Figure 5 Bands that would occur after dispersive replication. colour in the DNA and DNA nucleotides using your colour code from question 2. i ii Figure 2 Conservative replication.A2. After two replications the DNA was extracted and centrifuged. © University of York Science Education Group. Q5 Figure 3 shows DNA replication according to the theory of conservative replication. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 2 of 3 . Use your colour codes for heavy. Explain why the bands found by Meselson and Stahl after one replication (shown in Figure 2) refute the theory of conservative replication.15 Meselson and Stahl’s experiment on DNA replication Q4 Colour in the band(s) in the centrifuge tube in Figure 2 to show the density of the DNA that Meselson and Stahl found after this first replication. Assume all the DNA has replicated after each cell division. Use your colour code for this. according to the dispersive theory. This is theory 1 in the Interactive tutorial. where new (14N) and original (15N) DNA are dispersed throughout any new DNA molecules synthesised. This sheet may have been altered from the original. medium and light DNA. Any new DNA made would contain 14N.15S Activity 2. Student Bacteria containing DNA made with 15N were allowed to divide twice in a solution containing only 14N.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. This is theory 2 in the interactive tutorial. Now draw in the four DNA molecules produced when the DNA replicates for the second time. Figure 6 The semi-conservative theory for replication. Assume all the DNA has replicated after each cell division.15S Activity 2. Figure 7 Bands that would occur after each replication. This is where new DNA molecules have one strand of the original (15N) DNA and one strand of the (14N) DNA. Q7 Meselson and Stahl found equal amounts of light and intermediate density (medium) DNA present after two DNA replications.A2. iii Draw bands on the centrifuge tubes in Figure 7 to show the DNA present after each replication.15 Meselson and Stahl’s experiment on DNA replication b i ii Student In Figure 6 showing the semi-conservative theory of replication colour in the DNA and DNA nucleotides using your colour code from question 2. Explain which of these three theories for DNA replication is supported by this evidence and which is refuted. Use your colour code from question 2. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 3 of 3 . according to the semi-conservative theory. Use a separate sheet of paper if you need more space for your answer. © University of York Science Education Group. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.
To confirm some key genetic terms. antennae. Note that each parent donated half the chromosome number (eight) that the adult cells contain. pins and cocktail sticks! They have 16 chromosomes (eight pairs) in their body cells. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Read the information sheets before you start. Keep the Mum and Dad chromosomes separate. so that you have two groups of cards. You are going to carry out a breeding programme. 3 In each group of cards sort them into pairs of the same length. There are 16 chromosomes (eight pairs) in each envelope. Breeding Reebops ‘Reebops’ are imaginary animals. such as number of body segments.e. © University of York Science Education Group. Safety Do not eat the Reebops. 6 Put the remaining chromosomes back into the envelopes. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Both parents show the same features. To illustrate one of the ways in which meiosis is responsible for the tremendous variation that exists in every sexual species. 2 Turn the chromosome cards face down. 5 Now carry out ‘fertilisation’ by mixing the female gamete and male gamete piles to form a ‘baby gene’ pile. One contains Reebop Mum chromosomes and the other contains Reebop Dad chromosomes. Have a look at the parent Reebops. etc. except of course one is male and the other is female. Procedure 1 You are provided with two envelopes. Open the envelope and take out the pack of cards. This sheet may have been altered from the original. It is important for this activity that you have a basic understanding of how gametes or sex cells are formed. You have now carried out sexual reproduction. 4 Now randomly take one chromosome of each paired length from the Mum chromosomes and place in the ‘female gamete’ pile. using the same procedures as in a breeding programme with real organisms.16S Student Activity 2. Note their characteristics. so that you cannot see the genotypes (letters) on them. made out of marshmallows. i. and applying the same rules that are found in genetics.A2. whereby half the chromosomes from one parent have been randomly mixed with half from the other parent to make a unique combination. Meiosis is responsible for halving the chromosome number in gametes so that when gametes combine at fertilisation. the correct number is present in the new individual. 1 of 5 .16 Reebops Purpose To examine how characteristics are inherited. 16. Repeat for each pair of Dad chromosomes and place them in the ‘male gamete’ pile.
Have a look at the other babies present. if it has the genes BB. you will need three white marshmallow body parts. if you have one card with the letter A and another one with the letter a. and see how that is passed on in subsequent generations. Record your baby Reebop genotype and phenotype in this type of table. Remember that all the Mum Reebops had the same chromosomes as one another and that each Dad Reebop had the same chromosomes as the other Dads. Questions Q1 What do you notice about the features that the babies have? Q2 Are there any babies that are identical? Q3 How many are the same as their parents? Q4 How much genetic material does each parent provide? Q5 Where is this genetic material in the parent? Extension You may wish to extend this exercise further by choosing two babies. etc. Draw up a family tree to show how some of the original features are inherited. Join them together with two cocktail sticks. you are ready to assemble your baby Reebop! Refer to the genotype decoding key to check what characteristics your baby has inherited.16 Reebops 7 Student Now. and are themselves used as parents for the next generation of Reebops. For example. which then grow up rather rapidly.A2. For example. and check that you have not made a mistake (mutated a part!). Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Now place your baby in the nursery provided. Collect all the necessary body parts that your baby possesses. When you have completed all the features in the grid. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Table 1 Genotype decoding key.16S Activity 2. © University of York Science Education Group. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. write in the phenotype table the letters that you have obtained in your ‘baby genes’. Antennae Body segments Tail Nose Legs Sex Eyes Humps AA = 2 antennae BB = 3 body segments TT = curly NN = red nose LL = blue legs XX = female (pink body segments) EE = 2 eyes HH = 1 hump Aa = 2 antennae Bb = 3 body segments Tt = curly Nn = orange nose Ll = blue legs XY = male (white body segments) Ee = 2 eyes Hh = 1 hump ee = one eye hh = no humps aa = no antennae bb = 2 body segments tt = straight nn = yellow nose ll = red legs 8 Assemble all the features that your baby possesses. put Aa in the box for antennae. Another idea would be to introduce a recessive mutation for some feature. 2 of 5 .
3 of 5 . Characteristic Antennae Body segments Tail Nose Legs Sex Eyes Humps Allele from Mum Allele from Dad Student Phenotype Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group.16 Reebops Table 2 Phenotype table.16S Activity 2.A2.
The two different gene forms on the pair of chromosomes may be identical or different. Each gene codes for a certain protein molecule. A gene is a segment on a DNA molecule. When a DNA molecule is all coiled up and bunched together just before the cell divides it is called a chromosome. Both members of the pair contribute to the same feature. Any organism that has ‘parents’ has an even number of chromosomes. and ones that will be the structural components of the body. contain the ‘father’s’ and ‘mother’s’ contribution. How an organism looks and functions are a result of the cumulative effect of all of these proteins. The precise location where the gene is found on the chromosome is referred to as its locus. One chromosome in each of the 23 pairs is from the person’s father.A2. but only two forms are ever present in an individual (one from the mother. A gene can consist of a variety of different forms. the other from the person’s mother. The proteins produced by the genes can generally be sorted into two different types: ones that run the chemical reactions in the body. which grows into the offspring. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Since chromosomes come in pairs. Different genes may be very different lengths. gametes. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. such as having hair on the middle segment of your fingers. Humans have 46 chromosomes sorted into 23 pairs. 4 of 5 . DNA is an extremely long molecule. © University of York Science Education Group. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. The male and female sex cells. Figure 1 DNA is coiled up Each chromosome has a separate molecule of DNA. with up to a metre in every cell (Figure 1). the other from the father). One gene is located on one member of a chromosome pair. These two cells combine to make a single cell. so a cell with eight chromosomes has eight molecules of DNA. genes do too. the other gene is in the same location on the matching chromosome.16S Activity 2.16 Reebops Genetics information sheet Student All cells contain hereditary information that is encoded by a chemical called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). which is then made in the cell cytoplasm. because one half of the chromosomes come from the ‘father’ and the other half from the ‘mother’.
If you look at the Key to Reebop features. If both chromosomes have a T form. © University of York Science Education Group. you will notice that two Ts (TT) or a T and a t (Tt) code for the same thing: a curly tail.16 Reebops Student For example.16S Activity 2. the gene is said to be homozygous (two of the same form). If one chromosome has a T form and the other has a t form. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original. If the Reebop has a small t on each chromosome. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. the allele for hair on the middle segment of the fingers (H) is dominant to the allele for no hair (h). 5 of 5 . or if both have a t form. T and t are alleles for the tail shape gene. he or she will have a straight tail. The different forms that comprise a gene are called alleles. the gene is said to be heterozygous (two different forms). in the Reebops activity the gene for tail shape has a T form and a t form. curly tail is said to be the dominant variation and straight tail the recessive.A2. Therefore. Because both the heterozygous (Tt) form and one of the homozygous (TT) forms code for the same variation of tail shape. In humans.
Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original. spherical seeds are dominant to wrinkled seeds. The HD gene codes for a protein that occurs in the brain. 1 of 2 . A woman is heterozygous for albinism. Two pure-breeding (homozygous) pea plants are crossed: one that produces spherical seeds and one that produces wrinkled seeds. then examination of the genetic family tree. The HD allele produces a non-functioning protein and is dominant to the allele for the functioning protein. The allele for albinism is recessive to the allele for no albinism. Give a reason for your answer. what is the expected ratio of spherical to wrinkled seeds that would be produced? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. a b Look at the family tree in Figure 1 above and using suitable symbols suggest what the genotype of individual 6 might be. Figure 1 A pedigree diagram showing the occurrence of sickle cell anaemia within one family. a genetic disorder. Explain what proportion of their children are likely to inherit the disease.17S Student Activity 2. Q3 Huntington’s disease (HD) causes cells in the brain to degenerate. Q2 If parents are aware of a genetic disease within the family they may consult a genetic counsellor. The family tree in Figure 1 shows the occurrence of sickle cell anaemia within one family. a b What is the chance of a mother who is heterozygous for the condition passing it on to a child? A couple who both have the condition would like to have children. A person with the disease gradually loses control of his/her physical movements and mental abilities. Questions Q1 Some forms of albinism. may be due to a single gene mutation. a b c Does the woman suffer from the condition? What percentage of their children are likely to be carriers? Explain what is meant by the term ‘symptomless carrier’. state what proportion of their children would be expected to be carriers of the sickle cell anaemia allele. If individuals 7 and 8 have children. Her male partner is homozygous for the ‘normal’ allele. Q4 In peas.A2.17 Inheritance problems Purpose To provide practice in using appropriate methods to answer questions and solve problems about monohybrid inheritance. sometimes called a pedigree diagram. will let the counsellor advise on the likelihood of any children inheriting the disease. a b 1 What would be the phenotypes of the seeds produced by the F plants? 1 If these F plants were self-fertilised. If the method of inheritance for the disease is understood. © University of York Science Education Group.
From the results below suggest what the genotypes of the parents are in each case. There are also genes that only occur on the X chromosome. It does not occur on the Y chromosome. (Use the symbols XV.) Parent phenotypes Male A B C D E Spherical Spherical Wrinkled Spherical Spherical Female Wrinkled Spherical Wrinkled Wrinkled Spherical Offspring phenotypes Spherical 63 87 0 75 94 Wrinkled 58 29 40 0 0 Q5 A white patch of hair at the front of the head.A2. Will Mike and Sarah’s next child have a white forelock? Catherine marries a man with a white forelock and all their five children have a white forelock. Explain why fathers cannot pass the condition onto their sons. these are said to be sex-linked. A boy’s Y chromosome is always inherited from his father and his X chromosome from his mother.17 Inheritance problems c Student Plants with unknown genotypes were crossed and the seeds they produced collected and counted. The genetic family tree in Figure 2 shows the occurrence of this feature in one family. He grew the seeds produced and found that all the F1 plants were a lovely pink colour. Can you explain to this disappointed gardener why not all the offspring were pink? Q7 The gene that causes Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy occurs on the X chromosome and is therefore described as being sex-linked. Q6 A gardener crossed some red-flowered snapdragons with some white-flowered snapdragons. so males can only inherit X-linked conditions from their mothers.17S Activity 2. where XV is the allele for Vitamin D resistant rickets. Q8 The inheritance of Vitamin D resistant rickets is determined by an X-linked dominant allele. assuming the mother is unaffected. X and Y in your answers. What does this suggest about the possible genotype of Catherine’s husband? Extension questions Some genes do not have a dominant allele. Female mammals have two X chromosomes whereas males have one X and one Y. Figure 2 Pedigree diagram for the occurrence of a white forelock in one family. 2 of 2 . Explain: a why any child of a heterozygous female has a 50% chance of being affected. a b c Explain what the genotype of Maggie is. Deciding that he wanted more of these pink flowers he self-pollinated the pink flowers thinking that this would only produce pink flowers. Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy is an example of a recessive inheritance. (Use R for spherical and r for wrinkled – R and r are easier to distinguish than S and s. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. known as a white forelock. The heterozygotes have phenotypes influenced by both the alleles they possess. © University of York Science Education Group. assuming the father is unaffected b why all daughters but no sons of affected fathers will have the disease. This sheet may have been altered from the original.) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. is caused by a dominant allele.
The two boys were treated for the cancer. unable to touch the outside world.A2. The eleven children in the trial grew and prospered. though progress is taking longer than most had hoped. the drugs used in treatment severely reduce the function of the immune system. in 1992. haemophilia and even heart disease. In the late 1980s. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. making the immune system ineffective. and responded well. This led to uncontrolled growth of the cells. explain why inserting a new piece of DNA in a section that codes for a protein would be likely to cause a problem. ©University of York Science Education Group. Why had it been thought to be unlikely that an inserted piece of DNA would affect a coding sequence? Using the information on this page as a starting point. 1 of 2 . Pearson Education Ltd 2008. What could be more logical than to solve the problem at its source? Some of the results of gene therapy trials are promising. To consider some problems that currently affect gene therapy trials. Attempts to keep the children free from infection led to it being nicknamed the ‘boy in the bubble’ disease as the children often have to exist in controlled purified atmospheres inside plastic ‘bubbles’. Q1 Read the section in the textbook on gene therapy and then make two flowcharts to explain the steps involved when: a liposomes b viruses are used as vectors in gene therapy. Early results from the gene therapy treatment for X-SCID were extremely promising. This sheet may have been altered from the original. These specialised white blood cells no longer function correctly. Somewhat ironically.18S Student Activity 2. Gene therapy is being investigated as a treatment for a variety of diseases and disorders including diabetes. the effect of the ‘therapy’ depends on where exactly the new DNA inserts into the existing DNA. produce a table to show the possible benefits and risks associated with gene therapy. Problems with DNA insertion In gene therapy. Without treatment. as demonstrated in X-SCID gene therapy trials in the 1990s. Gene therapy Gene therapy would seem to be a straightforward way to prevent or cure genetic diseases.18 Gene therapy:another side to the story Purpose • • • To review gene therapy techniques using liposomes and viruses as vectors. People with this genetic disorder have a mutation in the genes coding for a protein on the surface of their T-cells. 3 years after treatment. Q2 Q3 Q4 Using your knowledge of protein synthesis. However. people with this disorder die within the first few years of life unless kept in totally sterile surroundings. two of the boys developed leukaemia. To appreciate the benefits and risks associated with gene therapy. a gene therapy trial was set up to treat a condition known as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID). the new DNA ends up in the existing DNA in the nucleus. As you might expect. resulting in cancer. Investigation showed that in both cases the leukaemia developed because the inserted DNA sequence had disrupted one of the genes that control cell division.
Possible way of delivering liposomes containing normal genes into airways of someone with cystic fibrosis 19. General term for type of cells (non-sex cells) that are allowed to be treated with gene therapy 17. Type of cell in the lung that is targeted in gene therapy for cystic fibrosis 14. Channels that do not function correctly in cystic fibrosis 18.18S Student Activity 2. 2 of 2 . Charge on a DNA molecule 3. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. May be used as a vector for normal gene as it fuses with cell membranes Down 1. Viruses used as vectors must not be allowed to do this inside the cells of the patient receiving gene therapy 5. A kind of treatment that makes patients better 13. Sequence that initiates transcription 10. Term for cells such as sperm or eggs that currently are not permitted to be treated via gene therapy as future generations would also be affected 8.A2. Depends on genotype 4. Can be used as a vector. Process where RNA copies DNA 8. this is altered and hence the phenotype of cells affected by the disease 16. ©University of York Science Education Group. needed to regulate ion movement. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Effective gene therapy treats this. First condition in humans to have been successfully treated using gene therapy 20. Loop of DNA from bacteria used in gene therapy 9. Different forms of the same gene 6. but needs to be disabled first 12. is faulty or absent in people with cystic fibrosis 11. This protein. Liposomes and cell membranes contain these molecules 15. rather than the symptoms of a disease Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.18 Gene therapy: another side to the story Gene therapy crossword 1 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 15 16 18 19 20 Across 2. In gene therapy. Genetic disorder that might one day be treatable with gene therapy 7.
There are around 7. Science correspondent The Guardian. “The eugenic dimension of screening has become more of an issue.500 sufferers in Britain. “There have been 11 studies of this and they’ve all shown a high uptake . cut the incidence of the disabling disease by 95% through abortion. have an average life expectancy of around30 years. and mass screening for spina bifida. When presenting your ideas on the ethical issues you can refer to the ethical frameworks presented in the textbook. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Gene screening ‘could cut cystic fibrosis by half’ James Meek. and.” he said. Its director. July 10 2000 © Guardian Newspapers Ltd. We can’t prevent the disease as such. but we can prevent people being born with this disease. but feared being seen as promoting eugenics – the now discredited pseudoscience of breeding “better” human populations. Is it right to give people the choice to abort those who are deemed less valuable by society?” The Cystic Fibrosis Trust. the only city in the UK where screening is offered to all expectant couples. Mutations in the gene involved are relatively common – one in 24 people have them – and if two carriers have a child. the main charity involved in work on the disease. medically important knowledge of our genes which the NHS was refusing to use. It’s temporary and we hope in the end to have cures. Screening for Down’s syndrome is routine. which causes a thick build-up of easily infected mucus in the lungs and prevents the digestion of food. from an average of 4. Prof Cuckle said: “In the war against congenital abnormalities. said he was angered that last month’s excitement at the deciphering of the human genome glossed over existing. then carefully read the articles below and answer the questions. “It’s quite scandalous that there’s been all this hype about the genome project and enormous expectations of how it’s going to change things. with 250 more born each year. life-shortening disease cystic fibrosis by half.6.A2. 2000 A leading health researcher has attacked as a “scandal” the government’s failure to launch a genetic screening programme which he said could cut the number of children born with the painful. screening is a kind of holding operation. but meanwhile thousands of affected individuals are being born every year. ©University of York Science Education Group.” Sufferers from cystic fibrosis.19 Genetic screening Purpose • To consider the ethical issues raised by genetic screening. experience frequent infections.” he said. and yet we’ve known for more than 10 years the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis and we’re not screening for it. the number of children born with the disease has fallen sharply. Dr Gray questioned whether it would be so easy to introduce spina bifida screening in today’s social climate. In Edinburgh. Howard Cuckle. “We should be offering all expectant couples pre-birth screening so they can prevent the birth of a child with cystic fibrosis. Muir Gray.6 a year to 1. Procedure Read the section on genetic screening in your textbook and view the video clip that accompanies this activity. Your letter should concentrate on the social and ethical issues raised in the article and be no longer than 500 words. said it supported offering parents an informed choice over abortion. But the committee will discuss the issue again this year..” Q1 Compose a letter to The Guardian either supporting the position taken by Professor Cuckle or opposing it. They require constant medication and violent physical therapy. This sheet may have been altered from the original. without a life-extending lung transplant. Prof Cuckle’s support for screening is controversial because abortion is used to reduce the number of cystic fibrosis cases.19S Student Activity 2. Not all the fall can be accounted for by terminations – the implication is that couples with affected genes but a healthy baby choose not to have more children together. 1 of 2 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. the chance of it having cystic fibrosis is one in four. . . professor of reproductive epidemiology at Leeds University. is a passive supporter of screening but is reluctant to lobby for it because of the link to abortion. introduced in the 1970s. Last year the government-appointed national screening committee rejected a report commissioned by the NHS from Prof Cuckle and colleagues which recommended screening. . usually die from respiratory failure.
Tay-Sachs disease and fragile X syndrome. ©University of York Science Education Group. such as blue eyes and blond hair. b Suggest why the HFEA may be taking time to reach a decision. This sheet may have been altered from the original. c Use the article and your own knowledge to list possible reasons for and against screening out human embryos with this particular mutation for a high risk of breast cancer. and this particular form of breast and ovary cancer. muscular dystrophy. or high IQ indeed that would be quite impossible using this procedure. spread vigorously and. It is regrettable that one newspaper yesterday announced this work in such terms. for non-cancerous diseases.’ a Find out what the acronym HFEA means and summarise the role of the organisation. One problem is that embryo screening is frequently presented as making ‘designer babies’. does not yet appeared to have agreed that this is a good thing. once established. the HFEA. a certain type of bowel cancer. they always have had the perfectly legal option of antenatal diagnosis and termination of an established pregnancy – but how much better and more ethical to start a pregnancy knowing that one's child will not suffer from a fatal illness. of course. or play sexual Russian roulette hoping that any pregnancy did not result in a child that would die painfully and prematurely. It is true. Of course. does not yet appeared to have agreed that this is a good thing. that some of these rare hereditary cancers do not present until a person is a young adult. for example. 2 of 2 . affect relatively young people. Lord Winston of Imperial College London is one of the British team who unveiled embryo screening in 1990 Q2 Professor Lord Robert Winston’s article is about the possibility of screening for human embryos that have a high risk of one type of breast cancer. This is not producing children with socalled ‘desirable’ characteristics. that some measures can occasionally be taken to reduce the risk of these cancers . Pearson Education Ltd 2008. the HFEA.a young woman. has been around in the UK since 1990 and numerous healthy babies have been produced. after screening for cystic fibrosis. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. couples carrying fatal mutations could either avoid having children completely.19 Genetic screening Embryo selection is not 'designing children' Lord Winston of Imperial College London 28/04/2007 Student It seems that my colleagues at University College Hospital will shortly be allowed to screen human embryos from those families with the genetic mutation carrying a very high risk of breast cancer.A2. I say 'it seems’ because the regulatory body. All that happens is that embryos free of two or three fatal letters of the genetic alphabet – out of three billion in the entire human genetic recipe – are randomly selected. among many others. are very difficult to treat. or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Before this procedure was invented. of course. He writes that the ‘regulatory body. can elect to have both breasts removed along with her ovaries – mutilation and ‘castration’ – but even this is not necessarily entirely preventative. It undoubtedly is because these relatively rare hereditary cancers – one in the brain called retinoblastoma.19S Activity 2. But what is the difference in dying from muscular dystrophy aged 25 or dying from spreading breast cancer at the age of 30? It is also true. Why is the HFEA taking so long to decide – seeing as it gave my unit permission to screen for genetic cancers as long ago as 1993? Embryo screening.
1 of 4 . Pearson Education Ltd 2008. In preparing for the role. a genetic counsellor ● Dr Pat Swapham. Jane’s husband ● Dr Sam Healham.20 Passing it on Purpose ● To review the ideas covered in Topic 2 using role play Student Procedure In this activity you are asked to prepare for a TV programme hosted by the wellknown TV presenter. a mother who has cystic fibrosis ● Mr John Hewitt. a member of a pressure group called Kids Have Rights.A2. use as much information as you can from what you have studied in this topic. Remember that the other participants will be asking you searching questions and you need to come up with some clear and sensible answers if you are to make your case convincing. a well-known television presenter ● Mrs Jane Hewitt. This sheet may have been altered from the original. You may be asked to take on the role of one of the people appearing in the programme. a doctor researching gene therapy ● Chris Morrall. Nikki Pond. © University of York Science Education Group.20S Activity 2. always tackling controversial ‘human interest’ issues and inviting a response from the audience. a doctor who works in a hospital treating patients with CF ● Alex G Gnome. The current programme poses the question: ‘Should people with serious genetic conditions be allowed to have children?’ Appearing on the show will be: ● Nikki Pond. Nikki hosts a regular programme. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
you should give the members of the audience an opportunity to ask questions and express their own views. and then you should ask them questions. Next. You are Mr John Hewitt. once they have heard all the arguments. you think people are too negative about cystic fibrosis. and you are unable to do many of the things that normal people can do. You also had to have IVF to enable you to have children. and if this is successful. You are 32 years old. a mother of three and have cystic fibrosis. You feel that it is right for you to be able to choose whether to have a family. Finally. and you have had to make a very conscious effort to keep as fit as possible. a well-known television presenter. This means that you are able to work from home a lot of the time. you have a very happy and stable marriage. as well. You are running a series of discussion programmes dealing with controversial issues. The invited family and experts may wish to ask each other questions. This is something that you and Jane talked about before having children. © University of York Science Education Group. There is also the hope that gene therapy will become available to treat your condition. knowing she suffers from cystic fibrosis. you should introduce the people on the panel. and have a wellpaid job developing computer software. so when the time comes for your children to think about having children themselves. When you got married. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 2 of 4 . Both of you realise that Jane could die before the children reach adulthood. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. you know that prenatal testing would be available and medical advances are being made in CF treatment. and you both felt that you wanted to go ahead and start a family even if it meant using IVF. However. and you need to co-ordinate this. fortunately you are in good health so this does not happen very often. You will need to think of how you are going to introduce the topic to the TV audience in a way that will engage their interest. but then no parent can ever be certain that this won’t happen to them. although your children do not have CF. Many children at school with your own children come from single parent families. You need to think about the order in which the people will appear on your programme. At the end of the programme. ask the members of the audience to vote. This sheet may have been altered from the original. by a show of hands. However. you have had to spend periods of time in hospital. they both carry the CF allele and could pass it on to their children.A2.20S Activity 2. which is very useful if Jane has a bad day or has to go into hospital. Cystic fibrosis has certainly affected your life: you have had daily physiotherapy since you were a baby. If you do have to have a period in hospital then your husband is able to look after the children. You understand that. Furthermore. You will need to give each expert a chance to speak. there is no reason why you should not live a full and healthy life. You don’t feel that cystic fibrosis has affected your ability to be a good mother. The discussion needs to be lively and challenging to maintain the high viewing figures the programme is currently attracting. the situation could be much better. with two children aged 5 and 8. you didn’t put Jane under any pressure to have children. you would be in a good position to raise the children yourself. It was something you both discussed. To do this. If the worst were to happen.20 Passing it on Student You are Nikki Pond. On top of that. Your task is to chair the discussion and introduce the topic to the audience. and think about who should answer the questions. Jane’s husband. You are Mrs Jane Hewitt. whether they believe that this woman was right to have children. you will need to prepare a list of questions carefully. You are now 30 years old.
The only treatment currently available for CF patients. and what symptoms it causes. a member of a pressure group called Kids Have Rights. and that the mother is particularly important. © University of York Science Education Group. You really believe that there are no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answers. You are Dr Pat Swapham. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. You should mention physiotherapy and the medication needed by CF people. In early trials.20S Activity 2. You always explain to the people you see how a condition is inherited. You think that the Hewitts have been very selfish in choosing to have children. You are Alex G Gnome. in simple terms. 3 of 4 . However. You think it is very wrong for the Hewitts to have had two children. You have been invited on to the television programme to tell the audience about cystic fibrosis. You are also in touch with a team in the United States who are researching gene therapy. a doctor who works in a hospital treating patients with cystic fibrosis. they may have to take on a caring role. If they want to have children one day. since embryos are created which are destroyed if they carry the CF allele. but you are working on ways to improve it. you never express opinions about whether they should or should not go ahead and have children. Your job is to talk to people who may have genetic conditions in their family. since 1 person in 25 in the Caucasian (white) population of Britain is a carrier of the CF allele. a doctor researching gene therapy. antibiotics and a few other drugs. You believe that children need two parents. a genetic counsellor. They could opt for embryo screening. because so few are available. Explain how the life of someone with CF will be different from normal people. In the hospital where you work. but many people find this ethically unacceptable. you have seen people in similar circumstances making very different decisions for themselves. rather like an asthma inhaler. and this is unfair at a time in their lives when they should be enjoying themselves. This is what is driving your team to research an effective method of gene therapy. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. knowing that Mrs Hewitt has a potentially life-threatening condition.20 Passing it on Student You are Dr Sam Healham. You are Chris Morrall. You should also be prepared to talk about how embryos can be screened for the presence of the CF allele. You need to explain that two people with no family history of CF at all can have a cystic fibrosis child. Mrs Hewitt has put them in a very difficult position. how heart–lung transplants can be used to treat CF patients. apart from physiotherapy. and what treatment is available for the condition. and what gene therapy is. how it affects an individual. As they get older. you have seen far too many CF patients who have died waiting for a transplant. what cystic fibrosis is. so that people who carry CF can be enabled to have a child that does not suffer from CF. You are working on putting copies of the normal allele into liposomes which are inhaled by CF sufferers. You also feel that. just decisions that are right or wrong for particular individuals. by passing a copy of the CF allele onto each of her children. as that is a decision for the individual. is a heart–lung transplant. they will have the dilemma of knowing that they could pass the allele on to them. It will be very traumatic for the children if they have to watch her getting worse and then dying. You need to prepare a short presentation to tell people.A2. You need to be able to explain. they would certainly have decided to remain childless or to adopt children. in clear and simple terms. You have been invited onto this TV programme to explain how cystic fibrosis is inherited. Over the years. They are using a disabled adenovirus to get the normal allele into cells. including antibiotics. This sheet may have been altered from the original. this has not yet been very effective. If they had put the children’s interests first.
20S Activity 2. 4 of 4 .A2.20 Passing it on Student Useful websites You can find out more about cystic fibrosis on the websites listed in the weblinks for this activity. © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.
When you have PKU you have to be very strict with yourself because you always have to check if you can eat the food or not. That is the reason why every newborn in Germany (my home country) and the UK are tested for PKU on about the 5th day of their life. but no one who takes P-AM likes it. Read Anna’s account and answer the questions that follow. pasta or bread or potatoes are possible. so my parents have to spend a lot of money every year for my special food. vitamins. Affected children therefore often have blond hair and blue eyes. Many foods contain protein and therefore phe. drink it with apple juice. but contains other essential amino acids. 1 of 2 . these serious effects can be minimised. If P-AM is not taken or if a ‘normal’ diet is eaten. A usual day for a PKU patient starts with special bread or cereal. but you get used to it and I do not know how it is to eat ‘normal’ foods. tyrosine (tyr). This sheet may have been altered from the original. Everyone has their own way of taking the powder. Sometimes people who do not know that you have PKU want to offer food that Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Coca cola or rice milk are also possible.A2. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. milk products. Milk is made from a special powder. beans.21 Gene mutation: a personal story PKU PKU (phenyketonuria) was the first genetic disorder in humans to be shown to be due to a missing enzyme. such as severe mental retardation and convulsions. Anna was 17 when she wrote this account of how having PKU has affected her life. If a PKU patient takes in too much phe over a long time. Some. In the UK parents are referred to a metabolism clinic if the test is positive. A typical lunch could be noodles with tomato sauce or potatoes with vegetable sauce. Other products have to come from specialist firms which produce products for people with PKU. I have a sister who is a carrier. but she does not have PKU. or sometimes defective enzyme. As a result of the missing. people with PKU will develop brain damage. but with every meal the P-AM powder must be taken. I use a data table to look up how much phe is in specific foods. fish. I have to check how much phe is in my food because I can not get rid of excess phe. melanin is reduced or absent. In the evening. bread. This has no phenylalanine. The powder is very expensive (1 tin costs 200 Euros). like me. they will get irreversible physical and mental damage. The formation of tyrosine is needed to make the pigment melanin. This food is very expensive. the amino acid phenyalanine (phe) can not be converted to another amino acid. rice. I cannot eat any type of meat. just like the P-AM. minerals and trace elements. © University of York Science Education Group. With the metabolic pathway phe tyr blocked. My diet has more restrictions than a vegetarian! Everyone with PKU has to take P-AM (phenylalanine amino acid mixture). Anna’s story Every fiftieth person is a carrier of PKU and two of them are my parents. You can not buy them in a supermarket.21S Student Activity 2. nuts. but the health services have to provide it as a lot of people could not afford it for their children. chocolate or cereal. PKU affects approximately 1 in 10 000 persons of Western European origin. The build up of tyrosine can have serious effects if not treated. My chances of having PKU were 25%. If PKU is treated from birth. eggs. non-essential amino acids.
and c another sister for Anna who was a carrier. three times a day. but drink P-AM which tastes awful. Anna writes that her ‘chances of having PKU were 25%’. People who eat a normal diet do not realise how difficult it is to drink P-AM three times a day everyday. and then you would understand why sometimes I do not want to drink it. Also. a a child that neither had PKU nor was a carrier b a brother for Anna who had PKU. © University of York Science Education Group. Q10 Write a short account of any ethical issues that may arise in the ways that Anna may be treated differently from non-PKU people during her lifetime. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. This sheet may have been altered from the original. what would be the chances of them having. Sometimes it is really hard and I want to be ‘normal’! Questions Q7 Q8 Q9 Draw a pedigree diagram for Anna’s family showing inheritance of the PKU gene. 2 of 2 .A2.21S Activity 21 Gene mutation: a personal story Student you can’t eat and so your amount of phe rises because it is difficult to say ‘no’. your whole life. explain whether she is correct using a genetic diagram. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. normal food smells very nice and you are jealous of friends who can eat it. If Anna’s parents had gone on to have more than two children.
1 of 2 . catalysing a wide range of intracellular and extracellular reactions. digestive and reproductive systems. by the effect of alcohol concentration or temperature on membrane permeability.9) О Passive transport (diffusion. (Activity 2.4) О How enzyme concentration concentrations can affect the rates of reaction and how this can be investigated practically by measuring the initial rate of reaction. (Activity 2. thickness of surface.6) О The formation of polypeptides and proteins (as amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds in condensation reactions).10) О Mechanism of action and specificity of enzymes in terms of their three-dimensional structure. the understanding that enzymes are biological catalysts that reduce activation energy.6) (Checkpoint question 2.1) О The basic structure of an amino acid (structure of specific amino acids is not required). Topic 2 summary Make sure your notes cover the following points.2) О How models such as the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes are interpretations of data used to develop scientific explanations of the structure and properties of cell membranes. (Activity 2. (Activity 2.6) О The significance of the protein’s primary structure in determining its three-dimensional structure and properties (globular and fibrous proteins and types of bonds involved in three-dimensional structure). The points are listed in the order they appear within the topic. facilitated diffusion). (Activities 2. © University of York Science Education Group. 2. active transport (including the role of ATP).22S Student Activity 2. differences in concentration) and how the structure of the mammalian lung is adapted for rapid gas exchange.3 and 2.5) (Checkpoint question 2.4 and 2. (Checkpoint question 2. e. (Activity 2. (Activity 2.22 Check your notes Purpose • To help you get your notes in order at the end of this topic.g. All the points are covered in the textbook but where there is supporting information within the activities this is indicated. (Activity 2.11) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.3. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.8) О The meaning of osmosis in terms of the movement of free water molecules through a partially permeable membrane (consideration of water potential is not required). There are suggestions on making notes and on revision in the Exam/coursework support.A2. This sheet may have been altered from the original. You should know the following points: О The properties of gas exchange surfaces in living organisms (large surface area to volume ratio. endocytosis and exocytosis and the involvement of carriers and channel proteins in membrane transport. (Activity 2.7) О How membrane structure can be investigated practically. (Activity 2.9) О How the expression of a gene mutation in people with cystic fibrosis impairs the functioning of the gas exchange.
(Activity 2. (Activities 2.14) The nature of the genetic code (triplet code only) and a gene is a sequence of bases on a DNA molecule coding for a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. This sheet may have been altered from the original.7) О Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.15) How errors in DNA replication can give rise to mutations and how cystic fibrosis results from one of a number of possible gene mutations.22 Check your notes Student О О О О О О О О О О О О The basic structure of mononucleotides (as a deoxyribose or ribose linked to a phosphate and a base. (Activities 2. The meanings of the terms: gene. (Activities 2.15) How Meselson and Stahl’s classic experiment provided new data that supported the accepted theory of replication and refuted competing theories. thymine. recessive. (Activity 2. cytosine. including the interpretation of genetic pedigree diagrams.22S Activity 2.16) (Checkpoint question 2. and heterozygote. messenger RNA and the template (antisense) DNA strand (details of the mechanism of protein synthesis on ribosomes are not required).19) Identify and discuss the social and ethical issues related to genetic screening from a range of ethical viewpoints. adenine or gauanine). (Activities 2.6) Monohybrid inheritance. © University of York Science Education Group.12 and 2.12 and 2. allele.14) The structure of DNA and RNA (as polynucleotides composed of mononucleotides linked through condensation reactions).e.14) Outline of protein synthesis. (Activity 2. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. including the role of transcription. (Activity 2. geneotype. phenotype.12 and 2.14) The process of DNA replication (including the role of DNA polymerase).16) The principles of gene therapy and the distinction between somatic and germ line therapy.A2.19) (Checkpoint question 2.18) The uses of genetic screening: identification of carriers. (Activities 2. 2 of 2 . i. (Activity 2. dominant.14) How complementary base pairing and the hydrogen bonding between two complementary strands are involved in the formation of the DNA double helix. translation. (Activity 2. (Activity 2. pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal testing (amniocentesis and choronic villus sampling) and discuss the implications of prenatal genetic screening. uracil. homozygote.
Q3 Here are five features associated with membranes in cells: (1) contains pores (2) selective permeability (3) may be stacked or folded (4) fluid (5) may surround organelles. You may find you have more than one letter for some of the shapes. Write the letters of the appropriate 3-D shapes beside the 2-D shapes. a Write the appropriate number 1–5 beside each characteristic below to show which of the features are associated with the features above. and at how structures in cells are related to their functions. Figure 1 2-D and 3-D shapes. To recognise organelles from electron micrograph images. Describe and explain any differences that you observe between these three micrographs. decide which of the 3-D shapes could be sectioned (cut through) to produce that 2-D shape. 3-D cell structure In this activity you will look at the 3-D structure of cells. Questions Q1 For each of the 2-D shapes in Figure 1 below. Use the textbook and the interactive cell to help you complete this activity. Provides large surface area for attachment of enzymes Determines which molecules enter or leave the cell Allows passage of large molecules through the membrane Can fuse with itself Can change shape and fold Forms an extensive channel system Forms a separate compartment within a cell Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.01S Student Activity 3. This sheet may have been altered from the original.1 Cell structure and function Purpose To describe the ultrastructure of a typical eukaryotic animal cell. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 1 of 4 . Q2 Look at the three electron micrographs of mitochondria in the interactive cell. © University of York Science Education Group.A3.
The balance of ions inside and outside a cell can be controlled Membrane can pinch off sections and reseal itself Enzymes can be isolated for specific chemical reactions at a particular location in the cell mRNA can pass out of the nucleus Large molecules can be directed and transported quickly about the cell Components of ribosomes can pass to the cytoplasm from the nucleolus c Write one or more numbers beside each example below to show which of the five features these may be associated with. 2 of 4 . © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.A3.01S Activity 3. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.1 Cell structure and function b Student Which of these examples of functions associated with cell membranes are associated with features 1–5? Write a number beside each function. Nucleus Mitochondria Chloroplasts Vesicle formation Exocytosis and endocytosis Endoplasmic reticulum Cell surface membrane Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
A B C Figure 3 Electron micrograph of bat pancreas cell. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Identify the organelles A to C. Q4 Identify the organelles A to E in the frog white blood cell (Figure 2). 3 of 4 . © University of York Science Education Group. Q5 Figure 3 shows a bat pancreas cell.1 Cell structure and function Student Look at the microscope images of organelles in the interactive cell before trying to identify the organelles in the electron micrograph photographs shown in Figures 2.A3. 3 and 4. Magnification x12 300. A B C D E Figure 2 Electron micrograph of a frog white blood cell. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Magnification x12 300.01S Activity 3.
4 of 4 .1 Cell structure and function Q6 Identify the organelles labelled A to C. Magnification x12 300. This sheet may have been altered from the original.A3. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. Student A B C Figure 4 Electron micrograph of part of a cell. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.01S Activity 3.
1 The flowchart shows the sequence of events that occur when a digestive enzyme is made. Moving proteins through the cell In Topic 2 we saw how mRNA made it possible to transfer the DNA code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.2 Protein transport within cells Purpose To explain the role of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the Golgi apparatus in moving proteins around cells.02S Student Activity 3. processed and released from a cell. Q1 What other proteins might be secreted from the cell? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. You will see how the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are involved in processing and moving proteins through the cell to where they are needed.A3. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. In this activity you find out what happens after a protein is made. 1 of 1 . Procedure Use the interactive tutorial or read the textbook (pages 105–106) before completing the tasks that follow. Here the instructions are used to make polypeptides. This sheet may have been altered from the original. © University of York Science Education Group. Answer the questions in the flowchart to complete the details of the sequence. 2 Indicate where each event in the sequence occurs by adding arrows and the letters used in the flowchart to the diagram.
If the journey takes 2 hours. Q2 Put scale bars onto Figure 1 for the egg and the sperm. Questions Q1 Label and annotate in detail both the structures and the events on Figure 1 below which shows the acrosome reaction. Q5 What is the function of the middle section of a sperm? Q6 In humans the sperm have to travel from the top of the vagina. where they are deposited during intercourse. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Use your textbook and the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity to complete this worksheet.3 Gametes and fertilisation Purpose • • To explain how mammalian gametes are specialised for their functions. © University of York Science Education Group. To describe the acrosome reaction.A3. by what factor is the sperm drawn out of scale? Q3 In a woman. to the top of the Fallopian tube – a distance of about 15 cm. where does fertilisation normally take place? Q4 Suggest reasons for the different sizes of egg and sperm cells. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Are the egg and sperm drawn to scale? If not. 1 of 1 . what is the average speed of the sperm’s journey in cm per hour and metres per second? Q7 The acrosome is a modified lysosome.03S Student Activity 3. Q8 Explain why sperm do not approach and attempt to enter any cells apart from the egg cell. Figure 1 The acrosome reaction and fertilisation. Compare an acrosome with a lysosome in a normal body cell.
This sheet may have been altered from the original. until you have one adult male and one adult female. Wash your hands with soap and hot water after handling Pomatoceros and associated equipment. You can watch the video clip that accompanies this activity or undertake the experiment yourself to complete the tasks within the procedure. Where to look Pomatoceros is a marine worm found on rocky shores around the UK coast.4 Fertilisation in a marine worm Purpose • To observe sperm. Identify whether the worm is male or female. taking care not to damage the animal. You need • • • • • • • • Microscope Blunt seeker 6 Petri dishes 2 cavity slides Coverslips Fine pipette Sea water at 10 °C Live Pomatoceros on stones Procedure Observing the production of gametes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Find a pebble or piece of rock with one or more Pomatoceros worms attached. Insert a blunt seeker into the anterior (front) end of the tube and gently push the worm out of the broken end of its tube into a Petri dish of sea water at approximately 10 °C. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Make a sketch of a single sperm as best you can. break off the posterior (narrow) end of the tube of one of the worms. which is triangular in cross-section. adult females almost violet. This distinctive casing is attached to rocks – see Figure 1.A3. Estimate approximately how many eggs were released by the female. Adult males are yellow at their rear ends. and almost certainly within 40 minutes. showing the position of the pigmented area and the nucleus. Remove some sperm with a pipette and examine them on a cavity slide with a coverslip under high power and low power. Put to one side any worms of uncertain sex. Gametes will probably be shed very quickly. Using a pair of forceps. 5mm Figure 1 The worm’s triangular case is attached to rocks. The worm lives within a curved. re Safety Do not use a daylight illuminated microscope where direct sunlight may strike the mirror as this could damage your eyes. using separate Petri dishes of sea water. Observe the dishes at frequent intervals. Do the sperm stick together? How do they move? Estimate approximately how many sperm were released by the male. Repeat steps 1–3. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.04S Student Activity 3. © University of York Science Education Group. Remove a few eggs with a pipette and examine them on a cavity slide with a coverslip under low power and high power. Make an annotated sketch of a single egg. eggs and fertilisation. white case. 1 of 2 .
Pearson Education Ltd 2008. (1987) Biology: A functional Approach. Make annotated sketches at intervals after fertilisation. 1 By means of a fine pipette put some sea water containing one or two unfertilised eggs on a cavity slide. Nelson Thornes. so you will need to have everything ready in position before adding the sperm in step 2 below.J. 2nd edn. © University of York Science Education Group. 2 of 2 .A3. Compare fertilised eggs with others shed at the same time that remain unfertilised. Student Manual. Note particularly the behaviour of the pigmented region of the egg and any changes that can be seen in the nuclei. 2 3 4 Add some water containing sperm. The procedure is modified from Roberts.04S Activity 3.V and King. T. Cheltenham. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Put on a coverslip and examine under high power and low power. Interpret your findings as far as you are able.4 Fertilisation in a marine worm Observing fertilisation Student Fertilisation usually occurs rapidly. This sheet may have been altered from the original. M.B.
Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. needed for fertilisation.A3. All the cells come from two individuals – one male and one female. Move the strands to opposite ends of the new cells. pipe cleaners or string – four of each size. Q6 Comment on the biological importance of variation caused by independent assortment and crossing over. © University of York Science Education Group. Pinch the cells to create four cells in total.) • 6 paper clips Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Make an ovary or testis cell by laying out the string to represent the cell surface membrane. for example by one person putting the pair behind their back. Pair up chromosomes of the same size so they lie next to each other across the centre of the cell (called the equator).05S Student Activity 3. In each of the two new cells line the chromosomes up across the centre of the cell at right angles to the line of the previous cell division. and another person selecting one hand at random. one in each hand. Together make a fertilised egg and place in one central ‘maternity unit’ (the front bench or equivalent). Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 1 of 1 . Your teacher/lecturer will give you ‘chromosomes’ of the right colour – depending on whether you start with a cell from an ovary or from a testis. Replicate all chromosomes in the cell by placing an additional strand alongside each. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Link the two strands with a paper clip to represent the centromere. Separate each pair of chromosomes with one chromosome going to opposite ends of the cell. Then randomly find another person who has the opposite type of cell. • To discover how meiosis introduces variation. Draw the string together across the centre of the cell so that two cells are formed. The group should view all cells created and answer the following questions. small. Think of a way to ensure that which of the pair goes to each end is completely random. (Half the group should be making ovary cells while the other half are making testes cells. medium and large.) Place two ‘chromosome’ strands of each of the three sizes randomly inside the cell. Remove the paper clips and separate the two strands making up each chromosome. making a cluster of chromosomes at each end. Now each person randomly selects one of these four egg or sperm cells.5 Chromosome assortment Purpose • To see how chromosomes behave during meiosis. sperm or egg. Questions Do any of the fertilised egg cells contain the same combination of chromosomes? What are the chances of there being two cells with the same combination of chromosomes? How many different combinations of chromosomes are possible? What would be the chances of two cells having the same combination if there were: a four chromosomes in the cell b 23 chromosomes in the cell? Q5 Suggest how you would modify this model to illustrate the effect of crossing over. You need • A length of string (approximately 60 cm long) • 12 ‘chromosome’ strands (straws.
2. First you must make the pollen grain germination medium. place 2 small drops of sucrose solution into a clean upturned canister lid made of clear plastic film. However. Using a dropper pipette. Wear eye protection when preparing the germination medium. and with a microscope you can observe tube growth in real time. add two small drops of mineral salt solution into the same film canister lid. so a ‘delivery strategy’ has evolved. microscopy techniques and observation. The pollen grain itself germinates.A3. Do not use a daylight illuminated microscope where sunlight may strike the mirror. when pollen lands on the stigma it is some way from the ovary. To develop skills in slide preparation. This pollen tube growth is under the control of the pollen’s tube nucleus. a tube grows. pushing down between the cells of the style towards the ovary. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Plant fertilisation In order for plant fertilisation to occur. This sheet may have been altered from the original. the nuclei of the pollen grain and ovule have to fuse. as it is within the tissue of the style. 1 of 2 . With a second clean dropper pipette. as this could damage your eyes. You need Brassica flowers with ripe stamens 1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. Normally pollen tube growth cannot be viewed. But pollen grains will germinate rapidly in solution. Safety Take care when handling and mixing chemicals.2 M sucrose solution Mineral salt solution Dropper pipettes Clear film canister lids Microcope slides and coverslips Stage micrometer and eye piece graticule Forceps Blu-tack® Microscope Procedure 1.6 Observing pollen tube growth Purpose To observe pollen tube growth.06S Student Activity 3.
Record your results. © University of York Science Education Group. Put a drop of your germination medium onto the centre of a coverslip. Work out a way of estimating the size of a pollen grain. Work out approximately how long it will take for the pollen tube to reach the ovule. Make a sketch of half a dozen pollen grains. 2 of 2 . Are they all the same? 9. 8. Invert the coverslip and put it on the film canister lid (this is stuck on the microscope slide). Questions Q1 Why do you need to measure more than one flower and more than one pollen tube? Q2 How do you think the pollen tubes grow in the right direction within the style? Procedure based upon Science and Plants for Schools (SAPS) student worksheet 4 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 12. Keep the pollen grains under the microscope for an hour. Design a method for measuring the rate at which the pollen tubes grow.06S Activity 3. Go back to the flowers and measure the distance from the stigma to the bottom of the ovary in 10 different flowers. This sheet may have been altered from the original.A3. 10. 11. Mix the solutions well. 7. Gently dab the anther onto the drop on the coverslip. Observe them every 10 minutes or so. remove a ripe stamen from a young flower. 4.6 Observing pollen tube growth Student 3. Make sure there is plenty of pollen on the drop. Compare what happens to your pollen grains with those set up by other members of your class. Compare your estimate with those of the rest of your class. 5. Observe the pollen grains in the hanging drop of solution under low power. and use the method to make an estimate. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. and stick the film canister lid to a microscope slide with a bit of Blutack®. Using forceps. 6.
2 ‘From one to many: the cell cycle’) and the interactive tutorial in Activity 3. Divide the cards into these five groups that represent the four stages of mitosis plus cytoplasmic division. Flick the cards several times and then identify five stages in the sequence. Procedure You will be provided with a set of chromosome cards that make up a flick book showing the chromosomes moving around the cell. This sheet may have been altered from the original.8 to check if your stages are the same as the ones traditionally identified by biologists. To discover how it can be separated into a series of distinct stages. Ensure your cards are fully shuffled before you start.A3. 1 Place the cards in the correct order so that when the pack is ‘flicked’ the moving picture created shows the chromosomes going through the process of mitosis and cytoplasmic division to form two new cells each containing the same number of chromosomes as the original parent cell. 2 3 4 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. The cell contains only four chromosomes. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group.7 Mitosis flick book Purpose To see that mitosis is a continuous process. Draw an annotated cell or write a short description of what appears to happen in each of the stages. Use the textbook (section 3. The cards can be held together with a large bulldog clip to make ‘flicking’ easier.07S Student Activity 3. 1 of 1 .
A3. and stick them in the correct boxes below the graph on the right or use a number key. Cut out the pictures of the cells below. Assume that a cell contains two arbitrary units of DNA just after cell division. © University of York Science Education Group.8 The cell cycle Purpose To appreciate the role of DNA replication and mitosis in the cell cycle. 1 Draw on the graph a plot of the quantity of DNA in a cell during the cell cycle. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Procedure Watch the cell cycle interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity or read the textbook (section 3.2 ‘From one to many: the cell cycle’) before attempting the following tasks.08S Student Activity 3. 2 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase 1 of 1 .
©University of York Science Education Group. Record your results in a table. In order to see the chromosomes inside the cells. To consider the duration of the stages of mitosis in relation to the whole cell cycle. Your drawings will be simple outlines of the cells and the groups of chromosomes in them as few other structures will be visible. the cells must be separated and spread out into a layer that is ideally just one-cell thick. Aim to show the relative sizes and positions of the chromosomes and the cell accurately. To observe the stages of the cell cycle in living tissue. Draw one cell to illustrate each stage. metaphase. See Practical Support Sheet 9 Size and Scale for information on the use of a stage micrometer and eye piece graticule. anaphase and telophase. a high proportion of the cells will be undergoing mitosis. Rank these values from highest to lowest. To develop certain experimental skills. 1 of 3 . Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Q2 Count the number of cells in the area visible under the microscope when viewed at x400 (the field of view).Activity 3. The mitotic index is used for studying tumour growth in cancer patients. Suggest possible reasons. Preparing the cells To see mitosis in action you need to look at living cells. Why is this helpful in your preparation? Q8 You may have found few dividing cells in your root tip(s). Hydrochloric acid will break down these pectins that hold the cell together. calculate the mitotic index for your root tip.09S CORE To prepare some slides of actively dividing plant tissue. Plant cells are glued together by a middle lamella of pectins. If you have time. the use of microscopes. Examine your preparation carefully for cells undergoing different stages of mitosis. Count the number of cells in each stage of mitosis. prophase. b Explain how you ensured. Mitotic index = number of cells containing visible chromosomes total number of cells in the field of view Q5 a Using a stage micrometer and eyepiece graticule make appropriate measurements to allow you to compare the size of interphase cells with those that are undergoing cytoplasmic division. Annotate to describe what is happening.9 Observing mitosis Purpose • • • • Student A3. Identify the different stages by comparison with labelled pictures or photographs of cells during mitosis. Using the formula below. Q4 If a group of cells is dividing rapidly. Given that your preparation freezes the process of mitosis at one point of time. Q3 Calculate the percentage of the cells in each stage of mitosis. or could ensure. Q7 The cellulose walls of plant cells are held together by a cement called the middle lamella. compare this value with the mitotic index of an area of cells away from the tip and comment on your findings. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Treatment with hydrochloric acid breaks this down. Garlic bulbs grow roots that have actively dividing cells in their tips. what do these values suggest to you about the length of time a cell spends in each stage of mitosis? Explain how you arrive at your conclusion. The amount of cell division occurring in a tissue can be quantified using the mitotic index. producing reliable and valid results and recording results. A group of cells that is not dividing will have all cells in interphase of the cell cycle. Comment on your finding. Questions Q1 Identify cells in the following stages of mitosis: interphase. namely safety. Bear in mind that mitosis is a dynamic process so cells may have been fixed in transition from one stage to the next – you will have to interpret what you see. that the results are i reliable and ii valid. Q6 Explain the safety precautions taken during this practical. Use Method 1 or 2 to stain chromosomes. Each cell has only eight chromosomes so it is relatively easy to see the chromosomes once they have condensed. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
squash the slide again between two wads of filter paper. 7 View under the microscope (x400 magnification) and look for cells with visible chromosomes. Press gently to spread the root tip. 2 Put the root tips into a hollow glass block or small sample tube containing 2 cm3 1 M hydrochloric acid for exactly 5 minutes. adjust the time they are left in the stain. DNA stains dark blue with toluidine blue stain so you should be able to see blue groups of chromosomes against a paler background. then dry them on filter paper. tips that are turning brown will give poor results.Activity 3. 5 Gently break up the root tip with a mounted needle (this is called maceration). Avoid lateral movement of the coverslip.09S CORE Procedure 1 Cut off about 1 cm from several root tips of some growing garlic roots. Wear eye protection. and blot firmly with several layers of tissue or filter paper. Toluidine blue is harmful if ingested and will also stain skin and clothes. Leave the root tips for 4–5 minutes. Make sure you keep this rounded tip. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Cut about 2–3 mm from the rounded growing tip. actively dividing cells. rounded end. Add one small drop of toluidine blue and leave to stain for 2 minutes. Choose root tips which are white and have a firm. If cells are overlapping. ©University of York Science Education Group. Take care – the root tips will be very fragile.or under-stained. Try to adjust your procedure to remedy the problem. Student A3. 9 If your preparation is not very successful. You need • Garlic roots • 1 M hydrochloric acid • Toluidine blue stain • Cold distilled water • 2 watch glasses or small sample tubes • Hollow glass block or small sample tube • Pipettes (and pipette fillers) or small measuring cylinders • Microscope slides and coverslips • Pair of fine forceps • Filter paper or soft tissue paper • Microscope with magnifications of x100 and x400 4 Transfer one of the root tips to a clean microscope slide. 3 Put the root tips in a watch glass containing approximately 5 cm3 cold water. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. repeat with some of the other root tips from step 3. discard the rest. 6 Cover with a coverslip. 2 of 3 . for example if your cells are over. or tap gently on the coverslip with the end of a pencil. 8 Look for regularly shaped.9 Observing mitosis Method 1 Using toluidine blue stain Safety 1 M hydrochloric acid is an irritant.
or tap gently on the coverslip with the end of a pencil. DNA stains dark red/black with acetic orcein stain so you should be able to see red/purple groups of chromosomes against a paler pink background. Student A3. 7 Transfer one of the root tips to a clean microscope slide. 5 Put the root tips into the pre-heated hydrochloric acid for exactly 5 minutes. for example if your cells are over. Wear eye protection and avoid skin contact. Wear eye protection. It is important to blot the tips well to remove the water at this stage. Cut about 2–3 mm from the rounded growing tip. 2 Cut off about 1 cm from several root tips of some growing garlic roots. Wear eye protection and avoid contact with skin. has an irritating vapour and stains. Orcein ethanoic stain is corrosive. rounded end. 4 Remove the root tips and place them in a second watch glass with approximately 5 cm3 ice-cold water. Mop up spillages immediately. 10 View under the microscope (x400 magnification) and look for cells with visible chromosomes. Choose root tips which are white and have a firm. Leave for 4–5 minutes. then dry the root tips on filter paper. Press gently to spread the root tip. discard the rest. or a precipitate may form when staining. Try to adjust your procedure to remedy the problem. This sheet may have been altered from the original. repeat with some of the other root tips from stage 6. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 11 Look for regularly shaped. Add one small drop of acetic orcein stain and leave to stain for 2 minutes. actively dividing cells. 12 If your preparation is not very successful. and blot firmly with several layers of tissue or filter paper. 8 Gently break up the root tip cells with a mounted needle (this is called maceration).9 Observing mitosis Method 2 Using orcein ethanoic stain Safety 1 M hydrochloric acid is an irritant. 9 Cover with a coverslip. You need • Garlic roots • 1 M hydrochloric acid • Acetic alcohol (ethanoic alcohol) • Orcein ethanoic stain (acetic orcein) • Ice cold distilled water • Water bath at 60 °C • 2 watch glasses or small sample glasses • Test tube • 2 Pipettes (and pipette fillers) or small measuring cylinders • Microscope slides and coverslips • Pair of fine forceps • Filter paper or soft tissue paper • Microscope with magnifications of x100 and x400 3 Put the root tips in a watch glass containing approximately 2 cm3 of acetic alcohol for a minimum of 10 minutes. ©University of York Science Education Group. wash the area thoroughly with water for 10 minutes. Make sure you keep this rounded tip. Take care – the root tips will be very fragile. 3 of 3 . 6 Repeat step 3. Acetic alcohol is both corrosive and highly flammable.Activity 3. If contact does occur.or under-stained. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. tips that are turning brown will give poor results. causes burns. adjust the quantity of stain added.09S CORE Procedure 1 Put a test tube containing 2 cm3 1 M hydrochloric acid into a water bath at 60 °C. irritant.
A3. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Use the spreadsheet to answer the following: a Calculate the % time spent by cells in each phase (cells in one phase divided by total number of cells. b Assume the cell cycle is completed in 15 hours. Q4 In which phase of the cell cycle do the cells appear to spend most time? Suggest a reason for this. The cell counts you will need to complete the calculation can come from practical work completed in Activity 3. Q2 Why is it fair to assume that the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle represents the proportion of time spent by individual cells in each phase? Q3 Enter the figures for your cell count into a spreadsheet. © University of York Science Education Group. In this activity you will investigate the dynamic nature of mitosis.9. Preparing for the activity Counting the number of cells in one phase. telophase. In the second part of the interactive tutorial a spreadsheet is used to analyse the data.10S Student Activity 3. and dividing this number by the total number of cells. Calculate the actual time spent in each phase. multiplied by 100). Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This allows the length of each phase to be calculated if we assume that the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle represents the proportion of time spent by individual cells in each phase. and produce a pie chart to show this. the exercise can be done without one. If you do not have access to a spreadsheet. 1 of 1 . or from the first part of the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity. Q5 Compare your recorded frequencies of the different stages of the cell cycle with the data below which show the observed occurrence in representative microscopic fields. will give the proportion of cells in that phase. Questions Q1 Explain how the cells in an onion root tip photomicrograph (see the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity or the textbook (page 118) for an example) or in a root tip squash that you have prepared suggest that there is a sequence of phases to mitosis. e.10 Mitosis cell count in an onion root tip Purpose To determine the length of time each stage of mitosis lasts in an onion root tip. This sheet may have been altered from the original.g. How are these results similar /different from your own cell count? Phase Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Number of cells 2250 268 76 51 79 % of total cells 83 10 3 2 3 Q6 Suggest a reason for any differences between the two sets of data.
When the seedlings have just started to unfold their cotyledons (seed leaves). as in this case.5 g of agar powder and add to 250 cm3 of distilled water.Student A3. Make sure the cotyledons do not touch the agar. © University of York Science Education Group. Try to observe over a period of 10 days or so. Put one explant into each test tube or bottle. and even new roots and flower buds. 1 Sprinkle some seeds of white mustard (Sinapsis alba) or rapid cycling brassica (Brassica rapa) onto a damp sponge placed in a plastic tray. Do not open the tubes again. Plant tissue culture is used in industry to develop improved plant and food crop species. These are the explants. Complete plants from cells Plant tissue culture refers to the growth of individual cells or. 6 Cover the tubes with cling film or a clear lid. and the date. increase the disease resistance of plants and encourage plants to produce increased quantities of phytochemicals used in drugs. If you have a mobile phone and can use it at your school or college. In this practical you will take the tops of plant seedlings and grow them into complete plants on agar. not those that are speedy on a bike!) Over a week or two you should see the explants (the parts of the seedlings you removed) grow new leaves.11S CORE Activity 3. With most plant species this could take many weeks. This sheet may have been altered from the original. and record when anything of note develops. Activity based on SAPS student sheet 12: Fast tissue culture ©SAPS Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. set the alarm to remind you to visit your explants every day at break or lunchtime. Leave the hypocotyls (the early stem) and roots behind on the sponge. 4 With a sharp pair of scissors cut the tops off the seedlings just below the shoot apex (growing tip). Cover with transparent cling film and place in a warm. 3 Whilst the agar is still molten. 2 Measure out 2. 5 Carefully push the cut end of each explant into the agar. Allow to cool and solidify. 7 Observe the progress of your explants daily. a new stem and more leaves. 1 of 2 . light place to germinate. organs.11 Plant tissue culture Purpose To demonstrate the totipotency of plant cells. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. on an artificial medium. In this case start where your teacher indicates. they are ready to culture. Place the tubes in a rack under a light bank or on a sunny windowsill. pour about 2 cm depth into several short-necked test tubes or McCartney bottles. Heat and stir gently until the agar dissolves. but you will use ‘rapid-cycling’ plants. Procedure Some of these steps may have previously been done for you. On each tube or bottle write your name or initials. (These are plants which grow and complete their life cycles quickly.
What further information would you gain by doing this? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 2 of 2 .11 Plant tissue culture Student A3. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. and comparing your results with growing the shoot apex/cotyledons together. would you expect the explants to obtain from the agar? Q2 Why is it advised you use short-necked test tubes or McCartney bottles? If you only had long-necked test tubes what should you do? Q3 Why should you cover the tubes with a transparent lid? Q4 Why should you not open the tubes again once you have set them up? Q5 Suggest what measurements could be made as the explants grow.Activity 3. Q6 Explain why the explants can grow and develop new leaves. This sheet may have been altered from the original. or isolated cotyledons on their own. stem and roots. © University of York Science Education Group. Q7 You could extend this experiment by just growing the shoot apex (no cotyledons).11S CORE Questions Q1 What. if anything.
. © University of York Science Education Group. there would immediately be attempts to go further. no consensus (agreement) for or against the use of human embryos for research.” Professor Julia Polak. Junior Health Minister “The cloning of human embryos would be like a bursting of a dam. Fourth Presbyterian Church.12S Student Activity 3. A variety of views In this activity you will consider some of the different views expressed about the status of the human embryo and the use of embryo stem cells for research. as yet. 1 of 2 . But the lives of people with cancer. Jewish. Liberal Democrat MP and science spokesperson “Those who oppose this development need to show good reason why people with chronic illnesses should be denied advances in medical treatments that would substantially improve their quality of life. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Director of the Tissue Engineering Centre at The Hammersmith Hospital. Once human embryos are cloned and used for the breeding of organs. Member of the European Parliament “To rush to approve the destruction of embryos in order to harvest and experiment on ES cells is inadvisable and unnecessary. . Although most scientists believe that embryonic stem cells will be more valuable for research than multipotent stem cells from adults there is.” Frank E. .” A coalition of 11 religious leaders representing Church of England. But we also owe a measure of respect to the millions of people living with these devastating illnesses and the millions who have yet to show signs of them. Here is a selection of quotations from people for and against the use of human embryos for research: “This research is very pro-life.” Dr Piete Liese.” Dr Evan Harris.12 Ethical concerns about stem cell research Purpose To discuss the ethical implications of stem cell research. and we owe a measure of respect to the embryo. The life of a clump of cells smaller than a pin-head – the pre-14-day-old embryo – does deserve some respect. London Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. USA “I may feel sorry about two or three cells but also I care about the millions of cells that are a human person. You will think about and decide what your own position is on this issue. Muslim. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Free Church. Young. Roman Catholic and Sikh traditions “The human embryo has a special status.” Parkinson’s Research Interest Group “There is widespread agreement that the huge philosophical and ethical implications of these developments have not been considered fully. diseases such as Parkinson’s and organ failure who could be saved by the development of stem cells deserve to be given a higher value.” Lord Hunt. We should address the ethical concerns first. Reformed Theological Seminary.A3.
run off 20 photocopies. 10 adult women and 10 adult men. ‘Do you think the government should permit the use of human embryos for medical therapies if it was likely that this would save some people’s lives?’ – and some ‘open’ questions that cannot be answered in this way – e. © University of York Science Education Group.g. (Hint: think about designing it for someone with a reading age of a typical 14-year-old and make sure it can be read in just 5 minutes!) 2 3 Show this leaflet to your teacher/lecturer and.12 Ethical concerns about stem cell research Student Procedure Activity 1: Find out people’s views on human embryos in medical research 1 Produce a short summary leaflet about the arguments for and against using human embryos for medical therapies suitable for a member of the general public.g. The next day. 2 of 2 . ‘How would you feel if you heard that human embryos were being used for medical therapies?’) Show this interview schedule to your teacher/lecturer and. run off 20 photocopies. or 10 Advanced level Biology students and 10 Advanced level English students. (Hint: practise a couple of interviews with your friends first. Tell them that the next day you would like to carry out a 5 minute interview with them about their attitudes towards the use of human embryos for medical therapies (not their knowledge of the science). 4 5 6 7 Activity 2: Debate about whether embryonic stem cells should be used for research Organise a debate or discussion in which both sides of the issue are argued: whether the use of embryonic stem cells for research should be permitted or not.12S Activity 3. once they have approved it. Give the leaflet to 20 people who fall into two different categories – e. once they have approved it.) Analyse your findings to see if there are interesting similarities or differences between your two different categories of people. At the end of the debate or discussion take a vote to see how many people would approve of greater use of stem cells in medical therapies. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Discuss your findings with the rest of the group.g.A3. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. carry out the interview with these 20 people. Ensure you can write down the important bits of what is said and ensure you have more than enough copies of your interview schedule. Produce a short interview schedule with just five questions about people’s attitudes towards the use of human embryos for medical therapies. (Hint: have some questions that can be answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’ – e. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
1 of 3 . Acetabularia was cut into three sections which were then allowed to develop separately Q1 From the results of Experiment 1. It has a rhizoid at one end. Questions Look at the figures and answer the questions that follow each one. Figure 2 In Experiment 1. it is possible to perform microsurgery on it. and a ‘hat’ at the other end. the tip was cut off a young cell and the rhizoid was left attached for a few days. It has been used to study the role of the nucleus and cytoplasm in development. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. To appreciate the influence of the nucleus and cytoplasm on development. what can you conclude about the position of the genetic material in the Acetabularia cell? Figure 3 In Experiment 2. 2–3 cm long.13S Student Activity 3. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Figure 1 The structure of Why use Acetabularia? Acetabularia. containing the nucleus. © University of York Science Education Group. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.13 Acetabularia experiments Purpose To encourage students to discuss the evidence and conclusions drawn from a set of experiments. To help you answer the questions. The rhizoid was then cut off. and transferring the nucleus from one section to another. Because Acetabularia is such a large cell. dissecting the sections.A3. Acetabularia (Figure 1) is a green alga consisting of a single cell. perform the experiments yourself in the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity. and the new tip developed a hat.
the rhizoid and hat were cut off.13S Activity 3. and with the nucleus in the rhizoid. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A3. 2 of 3 . Q3 What extra information does the result of Experiment 3 give you that supports or modifies your answer to 1? Figure 5 In Experiment 4. The cells developed hats which were intermediate to the hats of the two species. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.13 Acetabularia experiments Student Q2 Does Experiment 2 give you any evidence that either backs up or conflicts with the conclusions you drew from Experiment 1? Figure 4 In Experiment 3. Q4 What can you conclude from Experiment 4 about what influences development of the tip of the Acetabularia cell? Q5 Explain how Experiment 4 supports the conclusions made from the first three experiments. the rhizoids and stems from individuals of two different species of Acetabularia were separated and the stems switched. © University of York Science Education Group. The stem grew into a complete cell with hat and rhizoid. then the nucleus was transferred from the rhizoid into the stem of a young cell.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original. You should include relevant information about transcription and translation (Topic 2) in addition to what you have learned in Topic 3. Extension activity 1 Summarise the conclusions that can be drawn from the four Acetabularia experiments in a table similar to the one below. 3 of 3 . Supporting evidence Experiment 1: The rhizoid is the only section which develops into a complete plant. you should write this in the last column. or make brief notes. as the tip can develop a hat even when the rhizoid is cut off. You could draw a flow diagram with sketches. Conflicting evidence Experiment 1: Some genetic material could be in the tip. If there is another piece of evidence which conflicts with the conclusion. Experiment 4: The new hats that eventually develop correspond to the species of Acetabularia of the rhizoid. © University of York Science Education Group. such as development of a new hat.A3.13S Activity 3. For each statement that you write into the conclusion column.13 Acetabularia experiments Student Q6 Outline the ‘story’ of how the nucleus in the rhizoid of Acetabularia controls cell processes at a distance. An example is given: Conclusion 1. you should state the precise evidence from one or more of the experiments. All the genetic material is contained in the rhizoid.
1 of 2 .14 Induction of β-galactosidase Purpose • • • To demonstrate practically the switching on of a gene.A3. the disaccharide found in milk. coli has a gene for an enzyme called βgalactosidase that breaks down the lactose. © University of York Science Education Group. ONPG. coli in nutrient broth without lactose • Culture of E. E. Keep away from flames. ethanol or hypochlorite • 5 × 1 cm3 sterile pipettes with filler • 5 or 10 cm3 disposable syringe • Dropper • 4 test tubes and rack • Bungs or Parafilm® for test tubes • Water bath at 35 °C • Stopclock • Disposable gloves • Access to a fume cupboard • Marker pen • If optical density is being measured: hairdryer and colorimeter ONPG as indicator Cells only express genes when the protein products they code for are needed. Any spills should be cleared up quickly and correctly. The formation of this yellow product is used in this activity to indicate the presence of active β-galactosidase. Safety All enzymes should be treated as potential allergens. thus conserving energy and resources within the cell. You need • Culture of E. The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.14S Student Activity 3. To practise aseptic techniques. a colourless synthetic compound. presenting results and drawing conclusions. The disinfectant used may be toxic or harmful and likely to irritate the skin. See the Practical support on plate pouring and aseptic techniques for detail. This sheet may have been altered from the original. namely safety. The presence of lactose switches on this gene so the enzyme is produced. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. The vapour is irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes and evaporation should only be done in a fume cupboard. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Methylbenzene is highly flammable and harmful by inhalation. coli) can use different carbohydrates as a food source. To develop certain experimental skills. Small quantities can be used with care at the bench. Aseptic techniques should be employed when using microorganisms. is present in the growth medium it must be broken down into the monosaccharides glucose and galactose before it can be utilised as an energy source in respiration. a yellow compound. can also be broken down by β-galactosidase to give galactose and ONP. coli in nutrient broth with lactose • ONPG solution • Methylbenzene (toluene) • Disinfectant – clear phenolic. Wear eye protection. If lactose. avoid contact and ingestion or inhalation.
transfer the tube to a fume cupboard. 3 5 Using the same techniques. 10 Put all the test tubes in a water bath set at 35 °C. labelled 4. coli in nutrient broth without lactose to test tube 1. and shake to help disperse the ONPG. Estimating the quantity of β-galactosidase The optical density of the sample can be measured using the following technique: After adding the methylbenzene. ® ® ® 9 Cover each test tube with Parafilm (Parafilm is a trade name. 11 Compare the colours of the tubes as any colours develop. 3 8 Add 1 cm of the ONPG solution to each test tube. 2 of 2 . Then transfer the tube to a water bath and add ONPG as previously. 3 6 If the enzyme β-galactosidase is available. transfer 1 cm of the E. 3 3 Using aseptic techniques.A3. Record your observations in an appropriate way. Use a hairdryer to evaporate all the solvent. Measure the optical density of the sample at 420 or 440 nm. This sheet may have been altered from the original. like Sellotape ) or a bung. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This is a control. because the addition of the enzyme should change the colour in the test tube and allow comparisons with the other tubes. 12 Explain your findings with supporting evidence from the experimental observations and using your biological knowledge. © University of York Science Education Group.14S Activity 3. add 1 cm of distilled water to test tube 3. transfer 1 cm of the E. coli in nutrient broth with lactose to test tube 2. 7 Add five drops of methylbenzene to each test tube. This is a second control. 2 Label three test tubes 1 to 3. 3 4 Again using aseptic techniques. add 1 cm to a fourth test tube.14 Induction of β-galactosidase Student Student Procedure 1 Wipe down the bench with disinfectant. Describe in detail how this procedure could be used to estimate the quantity of β-galactosidase in a sample Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
stigma. You should have learned these at primary school or in your first years at secondary school. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. filament. © University of York Science Education Group. but as a revision exercise label the parts of the diagram below and add each part’s function. 1 of 6 . To appreciate how the ABC model of flower development was worked out. Ensure you include the terms: petal. and receptacle. anther. style. carpel. ovary. sepal. It can stain if damp. stamen.15 Modelling flowers Purpose • • To understand that cells in the flower become specialised through differential gene expression. Avoid contact with skin or clothing. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Flower structure Before completing this activity you need to recall the terms used to describe the parts of a flower. It may help to dissect the flower of a perennial geranium (Cranesbill) or a stargazer lily and then draw it in cross section.15S Student Activity 3. ovule. Safety Lily pollen can cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever) in some individuals. Figure 1 Cross section of a Cranesbill flower Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A3.
in the fourth whorl at the centre. These are green when the flower is in bud. It was proposed that there were three groups of genes: A. This sheet may have been altered from the original. undifferentiated cells that differentiate into sepals. In the late 1980s several research groups used mutant snapdragon (Antirrhinum) and mustard (Arabidopsis) flowers to develop the ‘ABC model of flowering’ to explain the control of flower development. © University of York Science Education Group. In some species.15S Activity 3. In the mutant plants the flower parts develop in the wrong whorl. which are often brightly coloured and showy to attract insect pollinators. in which case they are called tepals. You are going to construct the wild type and three mutant flowers and use them to work out how genes A. Each carpel consists of an ovary and stigma. are the carpels or female reproductive parts. Figure 2. B and C determine the development of flowers. the sepals and petals are indistinguishable. In the third whorl are the stamens – the male reproductive parts which produce pollen in anthers at the end of filaments.A3. Finally. Moving in you will see the petals themselves. B and C controlling the flower development. and usually a style connects the two. Figure 2 Flower parts are arranged in 4 concentric whorls. If you look down on an open flower. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. the outermost circle contains the sepals that protect the flower bud. these growing tips of shoots consist of rapidly dividing. Flowers develop at the apical meristems. petals and so on. Several carpels often fuse together. but often turn brown and shrivel once the flower has opened. 2 of 6 .15 Modelling flowers Genetic control of flower development Student The parts of a dicotyledonous flower are arranged in four concentric whorls or circles of organs. The two innermost whorls of the flower contain the reproductive organs. When all three groups of genes are expressed the flower forms correctly.
Remember that the complete half-flower will have 8 parts since each whorl appears twice across the flower: 1. This sheet may have been altered from the original.1.2. Gene groups _____ and _____ must be expressed for these to form. sepal. carpel. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. and in the absence of gene C. petal.4. Use the information in the table to complete these summary statements: Whorl 1 should contain ____________________. Gene group _______ must be expressed for these to form. construct the longitudinal section ‘half-flower’ for the wild type. Shade in the appropriate boxes of the table above to indicate where these occur. © University of York Science Education Group. normal) A + C (B .mutants) Table 1 The appearance of wild type and mutant Antirrhinum flowers.15S Activity 3. Gene groups _____ and _____ must be expressed for these to form. gene A is expressed in all whorls.2. Repeat step two for each of the three mutants.mutants) B + C (A . stamen. 3 4 5 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.mutants) A + B (C . or sepal. Whorl 4 should contain ____________________. Whorl 2 should contain ____________________. In the absence of gene A.3. petal. and identify the flower parts that do appear in the correct positions for each of the three mutants. Group __genes are active in whorls 1 and 2. Whorl 3 should contain ____________________.3. Group ___genes are active in whorls 3 and 4.4.15 Modelling flowers Student Procedure 1 Complete the top row of the table overleaf showing what the normal or ‘wild type’ flower should have in each whorl. 3 of 6 . Stick your completed ‘half-flower’ in the correct place on the table at the end of this Activity sheet.e. stamen.A3. carpel. 2 Using the ‘cut and stick’ flower parts or by drawing the parts. Look at your model flowers. Whorl 1 sepals carpels sepals Whorl 2 sepals stamens petals Whorl 3 carpels stamens petals Whorl 4 carpels carpels sepals Genes expressed A + B + C (‘wild type’ i. gene C is expressed in all whorls. Each group of genes is active in ___adjacent whorls. Gene group_______ must be expressed for these to form. Group __genes are active in whorls 2 and 3.
135– 142. © University of York Science Education Group. Using a different colour for each gene group shade in the parts where each gene is expressed in the wild type flower. This sheet may have been altered from the original. You will need to use hatched colours for the expression of two gene groups. B and C control the development of flower parts. E. Thieffry. D and Alvarez-Buylla. L. Bioinformatics.R. 593-606. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. References Lohmann. D. 2. ‘Genetic control of flower morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana: a logical analysis’. 4 of 6 . U. and Weigel. 15.A3.15 Modelling flowers Student 6 Figure 4 shows the regions where the three gene groups are active. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Complete the key with your colours. (A summary or review article) Mendoza.. Key Gene group A expressed Gene group B expressed Gene group C expressed Figure 4 A diagram showing how the three gene groups A. ‘Building beauty: The genetic control of floral patterning. J.’ Developmental cell.15S Activity 3.
© University of York Science Education Group. 5 of 6 .A3. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Wild type flower Mutant A– (genes B and C expressed) Mutant B– (genes A and C expressed) Mutant C– (genes A and B expressed) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.15S Activity 3.15 Modelling flowers Student Table 2 Structure of the wild type and mutant flowers in the ABC model of flowering. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.
15 Modelling flowers Student Sepals Petals Stamens Carpels Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.15S Activity 3. © University of York Science Education Group. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.A3. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 6 of 6 .
16 Purpose • • Many genes can affect a single characteristic To examine how some characteristics are affected by alleles at many loci. 1 of 2 .16S Student Activity 3. weight and intelligence. © University of York Science Education Group. If two homozygotes were crossed they would produce heterozygous individuals. Inheritance of height Suppose that only two genes A/a and B/b were involved in the determination of height. Each allele has a small effect on the characteristic. Some characteristics are affected by alleles at many loci. To show how polygenic inheritance can give rise to phenotypes which show continuous variation. Any characteristic that shows continuous variation may be partly the result of polygenic inheritance. height. Alleles at many loci You have already met monohybrid inheritance where each locus is responsible for a single heritable feature. for example skin colour. The alleles A and B each contribute 10 cm to the height – so the homozygous AABB would give a height of 40 cm above our baseline. Remember: A and B each contribute 10 cm a and b each contribute 5 cm 20 cm aabb ab AaBb Parent phenotypes (height above baseline): Parent genotypes: Gametes: F1 offspring genotypes: F1 offspring phenotypes: 40 cm AABB AB 30 cm If two heterozygotes were crossed there would be a range of phenotypes as shown below: Gametes from one parent AB AB AABB Ab AABb aB AaBB ab AaBb Gametes from other parent Ab AABb AAbb AaBb Aabb aB AaBB AaBb aaBB aaBb ab AaBb Aabb aaBb aabb Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. and the effects of several alleles jointly contribute to the phenotype of an individual. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The alleles a and b each contribute 5 cm to the height above a baseline. all of the same height. Look through the worked example on inheritance of height and then answer the questions that follow.A3. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
The more loci. results in the sort of smooth height curve seen in Topic 3. the number of height phenotypes would increase. 2 of 2 . and R3. Many characteristics whose inheritance is polygenic are also affected by the environment. the larger the number of R alleles inherited. or have the severity of their expression affected by factors in the environment. and the smaller the differences between neighbouring classes. The flowers show a range of colours from deep red to white. each contributing a smaller increase in height.16S Activity 3. for example diet. the greater the number of height classes. This. and the white alleles are r1. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. If. Number of offspring with that height 6 5 4 3 2 1 20 25 30 35 40 Height above baseline/cm Figure 1 Graph showing height distribution of offspring. What will the genotypes of the parents and offspring be. r2 and r3? Q3 Coronary heart disease is thought to be the result of alleles at several loci. assuming that the deep red alleles are R1.16 Many genes can affect a single characteristic Student Q1 Fill in the phenotypes for each of the genotypes in the table on page 1 to check that the range of heights obtained is the same as the data presented on the graph in Figure 1 below. page 134. but the effect of these alleles is combined with environmental factors that increase the risk of developing the disease. Q2 The colour of a plant’s flowers is controlled by alleles at three loci. Such diseases are known as multifactoral. there were many. the darker the colour of the flowers. This sheet may have been altered from the original. If a deep red homozygous plant is crossed with a white homozygous plant it produces plants that are pink. instead of two loci.A3. Many genetically inherited diseases are thought to be polygenic but are triggered by factors in the environment. What factors have been identified as increasing the risk of CHD? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. © University of York Science Education Group. R2. combined with the effects of the environment.
4 cm for men and 161. Collecting evidence Few people reach the height of Nigel Fingleton from Durham. © University of York Science Education Group.A3.33 m (7 feet 7 inches) he is one of the tallest men in the world. Figure 1 Average height of army recruits. In 12 years males had increased in height by an average of 0. It is estimated that the average height in the UK has risen by about 8 cm in 250 years. In 1993 the Health Survey for England recorded a mean height of 174. To give experience of using a spreadsheet and comparing means using statistical methods. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Figure 1 shows the average height of recruits to the Dutch. you can take part in the SNAB Height Survey and also find recent data on the Internet.1 cm for women. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.40 cm) and 163. 1 of 7 . At 2.6 cm and females by an average of 0.8 cm for males and 160.2 cm.17S Student Activity 3.17 Are we still getting taller? Purpose To demonstrate that certain characteristics (in this case human height) may be affected by both genotype and environment. In 2005 the mean heights for UK males and females aged 16–24 years were 177. In the time since these data were collected has there been an increase in the height of this age group? To answer this question. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.0 cm (standard error of the mean 0. But there is evidence that the population is getting taller. Belgian and Spanish armies between 1960 and 1990 indicating an increase in height of more than a centimetre per decade.33 cm) respectively.9 cm for females.20 cm (standard error of the mean 0. In 1981 the average height of adults in the UK was 173.
This sheet may have been altered from the original. Calculate standard deviations and errors for the male and female height data. The data can be accessed for use by any centre by going to the online spreadsheet that accompanies this activity. Calculate the mean male and female heights. and that the person being measured is standing straight. 2 of 7 .5 or 151. The standard deviation is a measure of how much variation there is in the sample. Is there any significant difference between the two sets of values? You could test this using a t-test. frequencies of the heights and plotting the data.6 cm as 152 cm. Statbase®. or the Department for Health website. This should also show that height exhibits continuous variation. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. © University of York Science Education Group. Analysing the data The data can be analysed by hand or by using an Excel spreadsheet as explained on pages 3–7. How could this activity be extended to investigate causes of any height differences over time or in different locations? Q2 Q3 2 Finding recent data on the internet Look for data on the Government national statistics site.) Comment on your findings.17 Are we still getting taller? Student 1 The SNAB Height Survey You can enter your height into the survey as an individual or as a class set.A3. (See the Maths/stats support for statistics help.) 2 3 Questions on the SNAB Height Survey Q1 Compare the mean values you have obtained with those from the 2005 Health Survey of England for 16 to 24-year-olds. But any one individual should only be entered on one occasion. The weblinks for this activity has a link to the best place to start. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 1 Check that the data are normally distributed by working out the Figure 2 Measuring height. If not. The standard error provides an estimate of how close the sample mean probably is to the mean for the whole population. not leaning back against the wall.4 cm as 151 cm and 151. To ensure that the all the data are collected in the same way you need to follow the height measuring procedure outlined below. You should include biological explanations and comment on the reliability of the data. For height measurements you should get a bell-shaped. This scale should have 1 mm divisions. Ensure that the back of the block is flat against the wall. Give possible reasons for the increase. The height measurement in centimetres is read from the scale to the nearest cm. Once there. a measuring tape should be attached to a wall or an accurate scale marked on a wall. (See the Maths/stats support if you need help. A right-angled block is brought down so that it lightly rests on the head. normal distribution curve. click on the list of tables. lack of change or decrease in height.17S Activity 3. The measurements are then entered into the database. Enter a figure like 151. Height measuring If a height-measuring stand is available this should be used.
from smallest to largest (Figure 4).17 Are we still getting taller? Student Calculations using an Excel spreadsheet Calculating frequencies 1 Select all the student heights (click on the first height value and then drag the cursor over the rest until they are all highlighted – Figure 3). Pearson Education Ltd 2008.A3. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 3 of 7 .17S Activity 3. Figure 4 Put the data in size order. 2 Press the icon on the tool bar to put the heights in order. Figure 3 Select all the height data. © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
Click on the cell adjacent to the first cell of your interval data.g. Figure 5 Define interval categories. 130. 126–130. 4 of 7 . 135. © University of York Science Education Group.17S Activity 3.165 for 162 (Figure 5). 131–135 and 136–140.A3. Then enter values in the column below at 5 cm intervals. For example. 121–125. Drag down and select a column of cells that is one cell longer than the interval data (Figure 6). 3 In the first cell of the column alongside the data enter the smallest value rounded down to the closest 5 cm. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 140 etc. for example 125. 120. Figure 6 Selecting cells for the frequency values data in each size category. 130. 4 You can now use the frequency function to work out the number of values in each of the 5 cm intervals you have defined. Continue until you have entered the 5 cm value above the largest result e. for example if the smallest value was 124 you enter 120.17 Are we still getting taller? Student Screenshots reproduced with permission of Microsoft Corporation. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 135 and 140 would give intervals of 0–120. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 125.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A3. Figure 8 Working out the frequency. This sheet may have been altered from the original. © University of York Science Education Group.17 Are we still getting taller? 5 Student Click on the ƒx (function) icon on the tool bar. Click on the red arrow at the end of the box (Figure 8). Select the function category ‘Statistical’ and then the function name ‘Frequency’. Click OK (Figure 7). 6 A box appears asking you to enter data_array. Click on the first height data value and drag down until all the student height data are selected. 5 of 7 . Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Figure 7 Using the function icon to work out frequency.17S Activity 3. This takes you to the spreadsheet.
Figure 9 Working out the frequency.A3. Figure 10 Working out the frequency.17S Activity 3. The selected cells will have appeared as the Data_array. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Return to the frequency dialog box and you should see the cell numbers as the Bins_array (Figure 10). Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. 6 of 7 . Click the Bins_array red arrow and select all the values in your interval data column.17 Are we still getting taller? Student Open the frequency dialog box again by clicking on the red arrow (Figure 9).
For height measurements you should get a bell-shaped. 11 The average dialog box will open. Click OK. 10 Click on the ƒ icon on the tool bar. Calculating the mean male and female heights 9 Click in the cell you want the answer to appear in. Calculating standard deviations and errors x 12 Open the STDEV dialog box using the ƒ icon on the tool bar. Figure 11 Drawing a graph. © University of York Science Education Group. Press the red arrow alongside ‘Number 1’ to go to the spreadsheet. 8 Still with this set of data selected click on the graph button on the tool bar (Figure 11) and draw a line graph to display the trend.17 Are we still getting taller? 7 Student Hold CONTROL + SHIFT down and click OK. The number of values that are in each of the interval classes you defined will appear in the cells that you selected in step 4 (Figure 11). Select ‘Statistical function’ category and ‘Average function’ x name. 7 of 7 . Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Return to the dialogue box by clicking the red arrow.A3. This sheet may have been altered from the original.17S Activity 3. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Click OK and the calculated average will appear in the answer cell. normal distribution curve. In the STDEV dialog box enter details in the ‘Number 1’ box by going to the spreadsheet and selecting all the values that were used to calculate the average in step 11. Select all the cells with data for male heights. 13 To work out standard error divide the standard deviations by √n where n is the number of items of data. Repeat steps 9 to 13 for the female data.
and Xm for the mutant allele. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Why did the MAOA ‘knock out’ mice have very high levels of neurotransmitter compared with normal mice? How might researchers have decided that the ‘knock out’ mice were ‘fearless and aggressive’? Why were males of Maori descent excluded from the King’s College analysis? Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Why is it important that the Dunedin study’s findings have been confirmed by several other studies? Q11 Can we conclude from the Dutch research and the King’s analysis of the Dunedin study that anti-social behaviour is caused by a genetic mutation? Explain and justify your answer. To answer the last two questions comprehensively will require extended writing. and not just some? A retention rate of 97% after 26 years is very high for this type of study. Watch the video clip of a news report and read the ‘Nature or nurture?’ article below about Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). A case study In this activity you consider the relationship between monoamine oxidase A deficiency. in the passage of nerve impulses. and anti-social behaviour.A3.18 Genes or the environment Purpose To appreciate the difficulty of determining the extent to which characteristics in organisms are caused by genetic or environmental factors. Using XM for the allele on the X chromosome which results in normal levels of MAOA. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. childhood maltreatment. The amended version of the article ‘Nature and nurture?’ that is the case study overview on the Ethical Emporium website for Genes and anti-social behaviour can be found at the following URL: http://www. explain why males are more likely to be affected by low levels of MAOA than females. Suggest why the Dunedin study might have achieved this high retention rate. childhood maltreatment and anti-social behaviour that appears on the Ethical Emporium website that accompanies this activity. © University of York Science Education Group. Look back at the information on epidemiological studies in Topic 1 section 1. and the role of the enzyme Monoamine oxidase A. and answer the questions.18S Student Activity 3. 1 of 2 .windfalldigital. Questions Q1 The New Zealand Dunedin study described in the ‘Nature or nurture?’ article is an example of a ‘longitudinal’ study. Use full sentences so as to produce some notes on this topic. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Outline the function of neurotransmitters.3. Which type of epidemiological study is similar to the Dunedin study? In what way is the Dunedin study different from the epidemiological studies described in Topic 1? Why was it important that the medical researchers in Dunedin tracked all the children born between 1972 and 1973.com/ethicalemporium/. Draw a series of annotated diagrams to show what is happening at a synapse in a person with a normal levels of MAOA and b a person with low levels of MAOA.
Discuss the questions below with another student and note down what you think. His foster family are finding him increasingly hard to cope with. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Q13 You are a social worker working with a foster family looking after and supporting Jason. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. What social. moral and ethical issues do these reports raise? To find out what some real scientists and researchers think about these issues. Look up some of news reports.18 Genes or the environment Extension Student Q12 When this scientific study was published in August 2002. although his father is in prison. News clip (from Genetic influences section) Introduction to MAOA (from Options and ethics: testing and treatment section) Explanation of genetics (from Options and ethics: testing and treatment section) Jason’s options (from Options and ethics: testing and treatment section) What a counsellor does (from Options and ethics: testing and treatment section) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Jason’s natural mother maintains contact. There are no ‘right answers’! • • • • • • Do you think Jason should be tested? Who will benefit from knowing the results of the test? How would you explain about MAOA to his foster parents? How would you deal with the maltreatment issue? What sort of concerns and worries might all the involved parties have? How would you reassure them? To find out more about Jason’s situation see the clips on the Ethical Emporium website. visit the Ethical Emporium website and read the ‘Options and ethics: commentators’ section”. © University of York Science Education Group.A3. 2 of 2 .18S Activity 3. You have a colleague who is a genetic counsellor and she thinks Jason should be genetically tested to see if he has the MAOA allele mutation. Jason was maltreated as a child and exhibits quite severe anti-social behaviour. its findings were widely reported in mainstream newspapers and magazines.
3.g.5) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. (Activity 3. lysosomes. regulatory authorities relating to human embryo research. ribosomes. (Activity 3. nucleolus. This sheet may have been altered from the original.7.2) explain how mammalian gametes are specialised for their functions. (Activity 3.3) describe the process of fertilisation in mammals and flowering plants (starting with the acrosome reaction in mammals and pollen tube growth in plants and ending with the fusion of the nuclei). (Checkpoint question 3. 1 of 2 .5) (Checkpoint question 3. mitochondria. There are suggestions on making notes and on revision in the Exam/coursework support.2) explain the role of meiosis in the production of gametes and genetic variation through recombination of alleles and genes including independent assortment and crossing over (details of the stages of meiosis are not required).3) (Checkpoint question 3. (Activity 3.19 Check your notes for Topic 3: The voice of the genome Purpose • To help you get your notes in order at the end of this topic.4) explain what is meant by the terms stem cell. ability of stem cells to develop into specialised tissues.A3. (Activity 3.1) explain the role of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and the Golgi apparatus in protein transport within cells and including its role in formation of extracellular enzymes. explain the role of mitosis and the cell cycle for growth and asexual reproduction. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group.12) (Checkpoint question 3. You should be able to: o o o o o o o o o o distinguish between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells in terms of their structure and ultrastructure. The points are listed in the order they appear within the topic.6) explain the importance of fertilisation in sexual reproduction. (Activities 3. All the points are covered in the textbook but where there is supporting information within the activities this is indicated. procedures to obtain stem cells and their risks). Topic 3 summary Make sure your notes cover the following points. centrioles.19S Student Activity 3. pluripotency and totipotency and discuss the way society uses scientific knowledge to make decisions about the use of stem cells in medical therapies (e. who could benefit from the therapies.8 and 3. (Activities 3. (Activity 3. rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum.9) (Checkpoint question 3. potential sources of stem cells.10) describe the stages of mitosis and how to prepare and stain a root tip squash in order to observe them practically.3 and 3. and Golgi apparatus) and recognise these organelles from EM images.1) describe the ultrastructure of an animal (eukaryotic) cell (nucleus.
producing active mRNA leading to synthesis of proteins.11) explain how cells become specialised through differential gene expression. © University of York Science Education Group. animal hair colour. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. tissues into organs and organs into systems. monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and cancers). (Activity 3.16) explain how phenotype is the result of an interaction between genotype and the environment (e.A3. (Activity 3. (Activity 3.6) describe how the cells of multicellular organisms can be organised into tissues. which in turn control cell processes or determine cell structure in animals and plants (details of transcription factors are not required at AS).19 Check your notes for Topic 3: The voice of the genome Student o o describe how totipotency can be demonstrated practically using plant tissue culture techniques.19S Activity 3.13.g. explain how some phenotypes are affected by alleles at many loci (polygenic inheritance) as well as the environment (e. 14 and 15) (Checkpoint question 3.18) demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the practical and investigative skills identified in the table of How Science Works in the specification.g. o o o o Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.17 and 3. This sheet may have been altered from the original. but the data on the relative contributions of genes and environment is often difficult to interpret. human height. (Activity 3. height) and how this can give rise to phenotypes that show continuous variation. 2 of 2 .
Visit the websites in the weblinks that accompany this activity. What clues do you have that these are distinct species. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 8 of the original 11 species having disappeared. What would the climate be like in the Galapagos Islands and why? The Galapagos Islands are volcanic. and why might these differences have evolved within the same group of islands? Terrestrial mammals on the Galapagos have suffered high levels of extinction. and most importantly a particularly high level of endemism (species found here and nowhere else) Look at the interactive map and factfile in the tutorial that accompanies this activity to learn more about the Galapagos and discover some of the species to be found on the islands. seem to have for life on the islands? Do you think there is any adaptive reason why the blue feet in the blue-footed booby could have evolved? The marine iguana is the only truly marine lizard. spending much of its time in the water. What physical adaptations would this species require that would differ from its land-living relative? Although they spend most of their lives at sea. What adaptations do large cacti such as Opuntia spp.1 The Galapagos Islands Purpose • To introduce some of the biological ideas covered in the topic. often travelling thousands of miles in the process. This sheet may have been altered from the original. How would the origin of the islands affect the animal and plant life that has become established here? Galapagos Island tortoises can grow to over 1. female turtles return to lay eggs on the beach on which they were born. What advantages could there be to this large size? Iguanas are cold-blooded and need to regulate their body temperature by moving in and out of the sun. then answer the questions that follow. 1 of 1 . botanist and great-great-granddaughter of Charles Darwin.A4. What might have caused these extinctions and may continue to threaten many of the animal and plant species on the islands? What are the possible conflicts that may arise between human and wildlife populations in the Galapagos? Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.01S Student Activity 4. The islands are bathed in cool polar ocean currents. Why could this be? Four species of Galapagos finches were sketched by Darwin during his voyage. having erupted from the seabed around 3 km below the sea surface.5 m in length and weigh over 250 kg. © University of York Science Education Group. Questions Q1 The Galapagos Islands lie 1000 km off the west coast of Ecuador. and receive rain from the South East winds. Why do you think this behaviour has evolved instead of the turtles stopping at the first beach they come to? What could be the purpose of the large throat pouch in the magnificent male frigate bird (Fregata magnificens)? Galapagos finches are unique to the Galapagos Islands and yet birds such as the frigate bird and the green turtle are found throughout the Pacific. Suggest why species such as this are more common in the tropics than in temperate climates. Listen to the interview with Sarah Darwin. The Galapagos Islands are estimated to have between 5500 and 6000 identified species. Darwin and the Galapagos – then and now Darwin spent five years travelling around the world on the Beagle. The wealth of animals and plants he encountered and the adaptations they exhibited were the stimulus for the theory he developed over the next 20 years and published in his book The Origin of Species.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.2 What is it? Purpose • To introduce some of the biological ideas covered later in the topic. Identifying organisms Biologists in the field have to use their observation and interpretation skills to make deductions about the organisms they discover. Specialised middle chisel-like incisors. This observation and interpretation is as important to biologists today as it was for Darwin. 1 of 1 .02S Student Activity 4. This sheet may have been altered from the original. This lets them build up an accurate picture of their lives. Q1 a What animals do you think it is most closely related to? b Can you suggest anything about what it eats. • To highlight the need for detailed information about a species if it is to be conserved. • To develop observation and interpretation skills. deciduous forest and dry scrub forest. if anything. is being done to protect the aye-aye and its habitat. Aye-ayes are found on only one island. this is its common name. Do not worry if you get the answers wrong. Length: body 400mm. or how it gets its food? c What sort of habitat do you think it occupies? d Is it likely to be active at night or during the day? Q2 You have less information than most taxonomists would have about a new organism. Find Figure 1 Field sketch Source: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust out what. tail 400 mm Large eyes reflect light (tapetum) Weight: 2575–2800 g The biggest threat to these organisms is the destruction of their habitat. which is vital if you are going to find out more information about it. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. finger – long and Q6 If you look it up on the World needle-like Conservation Union (IUCN) Red Data List you will find that it is classified as endangered. If they are lucky they have a chance to observe it alive as well. giving a reason for each of your answers. suggest where this might be (the Latin name provides a big clue. its scientific name is Daubentonia madagascariensis. It is an ayeaye. What information could you get from a dead specimen that you could not get from a live one and vice versa? Q3 Would a (living) captive specimen give you more or less information than a free-living one? Explain your answer. Coarse black hair with Q5 The first part of the scientific white tips and a soft name is shared by the aye-aye’s white undercoat. In this exercise your task is to make some deductions about the animal in the field sketch provided. ever-growing share the name Daubentonia. Find out what being classed as endangered really means by visiting the IUCN website. © University of York Science Education Group. closest relatives. Do some research and find out how many other species Large. how they interact with their surroundings and what threats they may face now or in the future. A key lets you name the animal. if you cannot spot where use the weblinks that accompany this activity to find Large mobile ears their location). Questions Study the field sketch and try to answer the following questions. Q4 If biologists do not recognise this animal they would use a key to help them identify it. Q7 Aye-ayes live in rainforest.A4. Normally they would have an actual specimen (usually dead). but try to make an intelligent attempt.
Activity 4.3 Ecological niche of a leaf-cutter bee
• To consider the ecological niche of a leaf-cutter bee.
Working out the niche In this activity you will be a nature detective and work out one way the leaf-cutter bee is exploiting its environment – an aspect of this type of bee’s ecological niche.
Figure 1 shows a leaf-cutter bee holding a piece of leaf which it has cut from a rose bush. Figure 2 shows rose leaves after a visit by leaf cutter bees. These bees eat nectar and pollen, so they are not using the leaves for food.
Leaf-cutter bee and piece of leaf cut from a rose bush
Figure 2 Rose leaves cut by leaf-cutter bee.
Q1 Look at the shape of the leaf pieces cut from the rose bush. There are two main kinds of shape. Draw a diagram of the two shapes. Work out the approximate ratio of one shape to the other. Q2 Suggest what sort of structure the bee could make from these leaf pieces. Q3 Suggest how the bee might use the structures created. Q4 Comment on whether these bees should be considered garden pests.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology, Pearson Education Ltd 2008. ©University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
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Activity 4.4 Well-behaved beetles
• To investigate behaviour of seed beetles as an example of behavioural adaptation.
Callosobruchus maculatus, the seed beetle The natural habitat of seed beetles is a field crop of beans (azuki, mung or black-eyed beans) in a tropical or sub-tropical country. When adult seed beetles (Figure 1), emerge from the bean in which they have developed, they live for 2–4 weeks. Amazingly, they neither eat nor drink during their adult lifetime! This is just one fascinating aspect of their behaviour which can be witnessed in the classroom.
Figure 1 Male (left) and female (right) adult seed beetles .
A beetle begins life as an egg, laid on a bean. The egg hatches 4–6 days later, and the larva eats its way into the bean until it is about 18 days old, when it pupates. About one week later, the adult emerges and searches for a mate. Seed beetles engage in multiple mating. In fact, males appear to do nothing other than mate, recover and look for more mates! Like males, females are also eager to mate, after which they identify good egg-laying sites on beans. This is to ensure that their offspring survive, mate and make a genetic contribution to future generations. Females subsequently mate again and lay more eggs, repeating this pattern of behaviour until they die. Investigating the behaviour of seed beetles Seed beetles are remarkably easy to keep, so are perfect for behaviour studies. Most of us know that woodlice seek out dark places during daylight – but what about seed beetles? Are seed beetles positively or negatively phototactic (move towards or away from high light intensity)? Do beetles move as fast on vertical surfaces as they do on horizontal surfaces? Can females recognise a good egg-laying site, what happens if the seed coat of a bean is removed – do females still lay eggs on it? Select one of the questions posed above. Design an experiment to answer the question. Your plan should include a detailed description of the procedure you will use. Complete the experiment and explain the advantage in the field of the behavioural adaptations exhibited by the beetles.
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Activity 4.5 Adaptations
To communicate knowledge and ideas about adaptation. To develop presentation skills in combining a range of media and exhibits.
An exhibition on adaptation
In this activity you will work in collaboration with other students to produce an exhibit about a named organism. Your exhibit will form part of a whole-class exhibition featuring a range of different organisms. The aim of the exhibition is to communicate the concept of adaptation. Some examples of adaptations are described on pages 3–6 of this activity sheet with questions for you to answer. Before the exhibition Discuss as a class: • what might be the features of a successful exhibit? • how many students will prepare each exhibit? • how and where you will most effectively set up the whole exhibition? • who you will invite to see it? • how each student will most effectively learn from others’ exhibits? • Are there any health and safety implications in setting up the exhibition? Planning your exhibit Use the questions below to plan your group’s exhibit and allocate tasks for your group. What are the aims of your exhibit? These may be, for example, to communicate information using a variety of media, to communicate specific points about the subject content, communicate to a specific audience etc. What are the main adaptations to be featured? Think about the organism’s environment, and how the adaptation helps them to survive. What objects or media will best illustrate the main points you are trying to communicate? You could use real whole or part specimens, microscope slides, drawings, photos, looped video clips, posters, PowerPoint, text labels, leaflets etc. What type of space is available for your exhibit? Draw a plan of your exhibit to fit the space you have been allocated, showing what you will include. Annotate the plan with details of each aspect, for example, any objects, photos, labels or text to be used. A planning form like the one shown over the page would help you organise these details.
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Activity 4.5 Adaptations
Add to your planning form details of who is responsible for each part of the exhibit. One additional task for your group is to make an evaluation form for other students to evaluate your exhibit. The evaluation should refer to your aims.
Table 1 Example of an exhibition planning form.
Planning form Title of exhibit: Aims of the exhibition: Date, time and venue: Name of item Description of item Who is responsible? Deadline for work to be completed
A form which collects feedback on whether the exhibit has successfully fulfilled its aims
Leave plenty of time to set your exhibit up, and make sure you know who is responsible for dismantling it at the end of the exhibition.
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using hearing alone. 3 of 7 . Q1 Suggest why the barn owl has a disc of feathers surrounding its facial disc. Q2 Explain why the owl moves its head when it hears prey. the leading edge of the first primary feather on each wing is serrated (Figure 2). Figure 1 Face of a young barn owl. The left ear hole is slightly higher and at a different angle from the right one. When it hears potential prey. In addition. What do you notice? Pull it firmly until the barbs separate. Q4 What selective advantage is there for the owl: • • in having two ears in moving its head when it hears prey. © University of York Science Education Group. Birds have no external ears like a mammal – just simple openings.05S Activity 4. Now smooth the feather back into shape until the barbs rejoin. (Think of the noise made by a swan’s wings for comparison). Feathers The flight of an owl is very quiet. Figure 2 The serrations of the first primary feather of a barn owl Figure 3 Feather structure Q5 Give two advantages of an owl’s silent flight. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Q3 Give a reason why an owl has two ears. This helps to reduce the turbulence caused by the wing as it cuts through the air.5 Adaptations Barn owls Hearing Student Barn owls catch their prey – mostly voles and mice – in complete darkness. Look at Figure 3. This sheet may have been altered from the original. the barn owl tilts its head and moves the ruff of feathers surrounding the facial disc. It achieves this by having very soft feathers. The ear openings of the barn owl are hidden in the disc of feathers around the face (Figure 1). Pearson Education Ltd 2008. or try pulling the vanes of a bird’s flight feather apart.A4.
05S Activity 4. followed by a crash. 4 of 7 . it was nesting above the bar next to the speakers of the sound system and had no fear of people. Eggs and incubation Barn owls feed on small mammals. Normally the owls would nest in caves within the dark volcanic rock that makes up the island. The Galapagos barn owl (Figure 4) looks a bit different from the British one. Barn owls are found worldwide. This sheet may have been altered from the original. This barn owl was in a restaurant with an open veranda on Santa Cruz island. so the young hatch at 2-3 day intervals. then bring the object nearer until it comes in to focus.5 Adaptations Student Use a hand lens or microscope to study the fine structure of the barbs. Q7 What advantage is this structural adaptation to the bird? Colour The barn owl’s spotted. Q6 Suggest the function of the feather barbs. Many birds start to incubate their eggs only after the whole clutch is laid. especially field voles. © University of York Science Education Group. with a peak population every fourth year. as this species often nests in hollows in trees lined with yellowish rotting wood. This staggered egg laying is controlled by hormones. 400 miles off the coast of Ecuador. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Although completely wild. buff-coloured back may help to camouflage the female when on the nest. Field voles vary in numbers from year to year. so the chicks all hatch at about the same time. Q8 Suggest reasons for the differences in appearance between a British and a Galapagos barn owl. hold the lens close to one eye. and the chicks differ considerably in size (Figure 5). To get the best view through a hand lens. but hold it up in a good light source.A4. Figure 4 A Galapagos barn owl. One egg is laid every 2-3 days. The owls can not predict how many voles there will be to feed their young when they start laying their eggs. Do not lean over the object. Barn owls start to incubate as soon as the first egg is laid. They have even reached the Galapagos Islands.
The harmless insects which look like the models are called the ‘mimics’. By this stage they show some anxiety and make themselves as tall and imposing as possible (and make a hissing noise). These owlets were produced in a good vole year. 5 of 7 . These owls are sleepy because it is daytime. nearly ready to fly. behavioural (B). These include many kinds of hoverflies. and your biological knowledge. but is closely linked to the behaviour of the predator. Many insects mimic the bee and wasp colouring but are quite harmless. In this case the Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. a b c d e f Good hearing Feather structure Competing for food Laying eggs at 2-3 day intervals Incubating immediately the first egg is laid Toe structure Mimicry Many of us have been stung by a wasp and have learnt to associate yellow and black stripes with a sting. which of the owlets would survive? Why? Q10 What might happen in a bad vole year. This sheet may have been altered from the original.A4. B Older barn owl young (owlets) in a nest-box. We therefore tend to avoid touching any insect with this colour pattern. © University of York Science Education Group. Notice the range of sizes. Mimicry is an anatomical adaptation. to suggest how the middle toe of a barn owl is adapted to its functions. Q9 If it turned out to be a bad vole year. Types of owl adaptation Q12 We can classify adaptations as physiological (P). and four have survived. State which of these three types of adaptation each of the following exemplifies. seen from below Q11 Use Figure 6. collecting pollen from flowers. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. if all the owlets were the same size? Adaptations of the feet Figure 6 The third toe of a barn owl. Q13 What advantage does a hoverfly gain from mimicking the colour pattern of a wasp? Stinging species are called the ‘models’. Two are trying to hide behind the others. But do all insects with yellow and black stripes have a sting? The answer is no.05S Activity 4. You may see these in a garden. The models are mostly those with ‘wasp’ or ‘bee’ at the end of their name.5 Adaptations A B Student Figure 5 A Four newly-ringed barn owl chicks. or anatomical (A).
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Figure 7 Web of a garden spider Q22 Explain how the production of a web helps the spider survive. You will need a humid place to grow them. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Q14 Suggest what might happen if the mimics became much more common than the models.05S Activity 4. Eating two or three berries would kill you! Carnivorous plants Carnivorous plants. and the famous poisonous fly agaric toadstool. Spider’s web A spider can construct a very complex sticky web using silk glands in its abdomen. and why. You must not give them fertilizer or even tap water – rain water is best.5 Adaptations Student behaviour (avoiding insects with warning colouration) is probably not inherited. is red with white spots. venus fly-trap or pitcher plants. But most poisonous plants and fungi have no warning colouration at all. Q21 Suggest why carnivorous plants usually have their flowers on a long stalk. Try this You can buy commercially grown carnivorous plants. The deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) purple flowers look uninviting to humans. They are well adapted to their habitat. Q20 Describe how does a pitcher plant trap its prey. Q17 Which molecules in an animal’s body will provide nitrates to the plant when digested? Q18 Suggest how the plants are able to break down all the molecules in the bodies of the captured animals. She usually makes a new one every day (Figure 7). such as a shady kitchen window ledge. You can also buy seeds of some of these plants. but is learned by experience. so this is a genetically inherited behavioural adaptation.A4. Suggest why not. Q23 Suggest why a spider eats the old web as she removes it to build a new one. Suggest why plants and fungi do not usually warn herbivores in this way. © University of York Science Education Group. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. so it is not a genetic adaptation. obtain their mineral nutrients – such as nitrates – by trapping and digesting small animals such as insects. A garden spider can destroy her damaged web and make a new one in less than one hour. They do not learn by copying the behaviour of other spiders. such as sun-dew. Note: Some poisonous plants do have colours that may be warning to herbivores. such as sundews. You will find out a lot about how they are adapted to their niche. and a supply of insects to feed them – for example a colony of fruit flies or crickets. Q16 Suggest where carnivorous plants might grow. yet they do not usually have warning colouration. Q19 Carnivorous plants do not grow in grassland and scrubland in the general countryside. Q15 Many plants and fungi are poisonous. Amanita muscaria. for example henbane has purple veins on its flowers. 6 of 7 . Many spiders never see their parents. pitcher plants and bladderworts. but the berries look quite tasty. Try growing them yourself.
A fungus which grows on old cow pats is able to fire its spores accurately towards chinks of light between the grass blades. When plaice are put in an aquarium with chess boards covering the bottom. the plaice change their colour pattern to mimic the black and white squares. 19 Some bacteria glow in the dark using an enzyme called luciferase.05S Activity 4. 17 If two species of sponge are mixed together in a blender. Some species flash in unison like Christmas lights.5 Adaptations Niches and adaptations – True or false quiz? For each of the following statements decide if it is true or false. When alarmed. but when they reproduce sexually all the cells join up to form a sporangium. Hardy’s swift lays its eggs on the male’s back in the air. 15 Jellyfish have specialised cells which shoot out a poison dart. The heat helps to disperse a smell which attracts pollinating insects. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 14 The strangler fig has been known to entwine sleeping people in Africa and squeeze them to death. There is a species of nematode worm which has only been found in German felt beer mats. the woodcock (a wading bird) flies off carrying its young between its legs. 12 Racing pigeons use landmarks to find their way home. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 20 Tropical fireflies flash in the dark to attract mates. 16 Starfish digest their prey by turning their stomachs inside out. 11 A shark can detect blood in the water at the concentration of ten drops of blood in a large swimming pool. 13 The wild arum produces heat by metabolising starch in part of its flower. called the spadix. Some arctic fish have antifreeze in their blood. paralysing their prey. helping to make the signals more effective. © University of York Science Education Group. Midwife toads carry and hatch their spawn on their backs. 18 Slime moulds live as single amoeba-like cells most of their lives. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mice have adapted to living in frozen food stores by growing extra thick fur. 10 Chameleons can swivel each eye independently when searching for insect prey. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Student Hedgehogs living near roads have stopped rolling up in to a ball when they are alarmed – helping them to avoid being squashed by vehicles. Studies of marked birds have shown that they follow the M25 and turn off at major junctions leading towards their home. and the young are reared entirely in the air.A4. they can reassemble themselves into sponges of separate species. 7 of 7 .
Then look at pages 152–153 in the AS textbook to check that you got the order right. Mix the coloured and uncoloured paper pieces together and put them on the patterned paper. and the need to keep the ratio of maggots of different colours presented to the birds roughly the same over the course of the investigation. ● ● ● ● Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Lay out the patterned paper. Questions Q1 How many coloured and uncoloured pieces of paper were picked up and put in the beaker over the course of the whole experiment (this is your observed value)? Q2 How many of each colour would you expect if there were no advantage to being camouflaged (this is your expected value)? Q3 How could you tell if the difference is statistically significant? 3 Using pastry ‘maggots’ and birds as predators Pastry maggots can be made quite easily using a flour.A4. fat and water dough. While you are planning. The maggots can either be put out on coloured backgrounds or directly on grass for birds to be the predators.6 Natural selection in action Purpose ● To demonstrate natural selection. Ensure that the patterned pieces are pattern side up.06S Student Activity 4. this represents the habitat. your teacher/lecturer can give you a recipe. Design (and you may get a chance to carry out) an experiment to investigate natural selection using different coloured pastry ‘maggots’ for garden birds to ‘prey’ upon. Comment on your results and answer the questions that follow. pattern side up. Count the number of each colour of paper in the beaker and record your results. be aware of the need for controls. You need ● ● ● Large piece of patterned paper 50 cut-out pieces of the same patterned paper 50 cut-out pieces of white paper (of the same size and weight as the patterned paper) Partner to lay out the equipment and time the activity Pair of forceps Stopclock Beaker 2 Natural selection in the classroom In this activity a predator (you) is presented with a prey population with two different phenotypes. and put them in a beaker. ©University of York Science Education Group. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. one camouflaged and one which stands out from the habitat background. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Replace the ‘eaten’ pieces of paper and rearrange the pieces of paper on the background. Repeat steps 2 to 4 several times. Give the ‘predator’ 15 seconds to pick up as many pieces of paper as possible using the forceps. 1 of 3 . The predator is given a fixed length of time to find as many prey items as they can. 1 Natural selection card sort Confirm your understanding of the principles of natural selection by putting the cards describing the adaptation of head lice to head lice shampoos in the correct order.
2 of 3 . ©University of York Science Education Group. Head lice and natural selection c The survivors get together and breed. This is an example of natural selection at work. k For a while. j Drug companies develop shampoos containing chemicals which kill the head lice. i Head lice have been infesting peoples’ heads for millennia. d Over the centuries many different mutations have produced different alleles. e Soon virtually all head lice are resistant to the chemicals. b There is a lot of genetic variation in the head louse population due to the large number of different alleles. This sheet may have been altered from the original. f The alleles for resistance to the chemical become more common in the population. all but a very few head lice get killed by the chemicals in the shampoo. g Now when people use the shampoo it does not kill the head lice. They produce offspring that inherit the alleles that makes them resistant to the chemical. Head lice are no longer a problem. h Head lice have become a problem once again.06S Activity 4.A4.6 Natural selection in action Head lice cards Student a The few remaining head lice survive because they happen to have alleles which make them resistant to the chemicals. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
A4. b Explain the effect in each case in terms of natural selection. and the other half are red. A similar change has occurred in Uganda’s Queen Elizabeth National Park and in the Kruger National Park. 3 of 3 . then look at the graph by clicking on the graph button at the top right of the screen. Start by using the default settings. Occasionally elephants are born which grow no tusks or only very small tusks. In Zambia's North Luangwa National Park there has been a severe problem with ivory poaching. This sheet may have been altered from the original. and nearly 40% of elephants were found to be tusk-less in the 1990s.6 Natural selection in action Student 4 Elephant tusks Tusks are the upper incisor teeth of elephants which have evolved into long tools used for ripping bark. Frog evolution In this activity you will use the Newbyte Natural selection: Frogs software to investigate how predation can lead to evolution by natural selection of a prey species. Comment on whether elephants are a typical species to show rapid adaptations of this kind. Now investigate what happens when you repeat the experiment with 7% poisonous frogs. then again when the poisonous allele is linked to the allele for red ‘warning’ coloration. so that you add red frogs that are not poisonous. 1 2 Load the software and read the information on the help wizard and the background information from the help button. and see what effect this has on the population after several generations. Q2 In this software you can only start with a population of 30 frogs. red frogs may appear in the next generation. How do you think the results would differ if the frog population was much bigger to start with? Q3 Explain why. 3 4 5 Questions Q1 a Describe how camouflage. You can print the graph if you wish. even if all the red frogs are consumed by predators in one generation. only 1–2% of elephants have no tusks. where you act as a predator catching frogs from a population of 30 frogs. In protected populations of African elephants in well managed national parks and reserves. warning coloration and mimicry affect the genetic make up of a population. You can add a mimic species. Explain what is likely to happen to tusk growth in elephant populations when poaching is controlled. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. pushing over trees and defending the herd. ©University of York Science Education Group. Work through about 10 generations. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Half of the frogs have camouflaged colouration. Questions Q1 Q2 Q3 Outline the probable sequence of events which led to reduction of tusk size and an increase in tusk-less elephants in poached populations. Linkage means that the genes are on the same chromosome so are inherited together – in this case it means that the red frogs will mostly be poisonous.06S Activity 4.
Questions How many species? Q1 Read the key biological principles box on pages 144–145 of your AS textbook and make a note of what is meant by the term ‘species’. • To investigate biodiversity in terms of the number of known species of different organisms. 1 of 2 . 3 Using the Natural History Museum website ‘Exploring Biodiversity’. 4 Using all the information you have collected. put together your own definition of biodiversity that accurately reflects the different interpretations of the term. Q2 Use these data to answer the following questions: a Which is the group with the largest proportion of the likely total number of species that have been described to date? b Can you suggest why this group has the largest proportion of species described? c Which two groups have the lowest proportion of species described? d Can you suggest why these groups are not being described as quickly as other groups? If you have time Q3 Explore the ‘species-scape’ on the Natural History Museum Exploring Biodiversity website and find out why it is drawn as it is. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Defining biodiversity Biodiversity is a very difficult idea to define in words and people use it to mean a number of different things. Lots of people just use the term as the number of different species. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Table 1 on page 2 gives data for the number of species described and the estimated totals in some groups of organisms. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 2 Look up the word in any biological dictionaries you have access to and make a note of the definition. © University of York Science Education Group. Q4 The numbers of species described on the Natural History Museum ‘species-scape’ do not always agree with those in Table 1. but there is a range of definitions and although we do not need to learn them all it is useful to be aware of them when discussing biodiversity and the conservation of biodiversity. Suggest a reason why this is the case.07S Student Activity 4. using no more than 30 words. The website is in the weblinks that accompany this activity. 1 Look up the word biodiversity in your AS textbook and write down any definitions it gives for biodiversity. look at the section on biodiversity definitions accessed as supplementary information.A4.7. What is biodiversity? Purpose • To explore the range of meanings for the term biodiversity.
A4.07S Activity 4. 2 of 2 . n/a – data not available Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. © University of York Science Education Group. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.7 What is biodiversity? Table 1 Estimated number of species Student Group Bacteria Protoctista Animalia Vertebrates total Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians Fishes Number of species described 4000 80 000 52 000 4630 9946 7400 4950 25 000 Estimated total 1 000 000 600 000 55 000 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 8 000 000 750 000 200 000 150 000 400 000 1 500 000 320 000 14 000 000 963 000 Insects and myriapods 75 000 Arachnids 70 000 Molluscs 40 000 Crustaceans 25 000 Nematodes Fungi 72 000 Plantae 270 000 Total in the five kingdoms 1 750 000 Source: Data from UNEP-WCMC. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
Much of their work goes on hidden behind the scenes in museums and research institutes around the world. Look up any words that you are unfamiliar with before answering the following questions based on the text.08S Student Activity 4. ©University of York Science Education Group. Questions Q1 What does Martin Brendell mean when he says that the beetle found in the Kalahari is probably an ‘unrecorded species’? Q2 How many species of beetle have been ‘described’ by scientists so far and what does this term mean? Q3 Using Peter Hammond’s lowest estimate of total number of beetle species. This is about two beetle taxonomists. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original.8 The next bug thing Purpose • To provide practice in reading and analysing extended text. 1 of 5 . Q5 How many scientific names does each beetle species have? State one example. Q4 Describe the characteristic features that all beetles have in common. calculate what percentage of the estimated total number of beetle species have been described so far. who work at the Natural History Museum in London. Beetle mania Many of the scientists who work on cataloguing biodiversity are specialists in one group of organisms. Q6 Who devised the system of naming used by all biologists today? Q7 What are holotypes? Q8 Why do you think that the process of describing and naming organisms is actually one of the constraints in cataloguing global biodiversity? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A4. Martin Brendell and Peter Hammond. • To introduce binomial nomenclature and taxonomy. Get an idea of the scale of biodiversity and the challenge faced by the biologists researching just one group by reading the extract of the article ‘The next bug thing’.
colour-coded drawers. “Yes. have trekked out here to collect salt. This was no unlucky shipwreck – the beetles must live here. From a Hobbit-like den in a corner popped Martin Brendell. How had it got here? Had it been blown from the relative fecundity of the desert by the hot wind? And then there was another. Weeks later. streamlined black oval. perhaps a decade old. “Gill’s salt beetle. tooth-jarring. it’s a baked crust of salt. For most of the year. the most ardent survivor in the world. Here. in the 1960s. the San people. This isn’t merely a temple or a museum. which they barter for tobacco and beads. I was surprised to come across a beetle. each filled with thin.” And I can’t understand why he isn’t slapping me on the back. when he came to the museum and wanted to work on mammals. a predator”. but it’s also a poison. But why. It sickens the earth. It is the closest thing this city possesses to a humanist pantheon. Its main value is as a preservative. reaching for the dusty bottle of amontillado kept for just such occasions. I’ve always adored Waterhouse’s monumental mausoleum to Mother Earth on Brompton Road. He is possessed. pad nowhere. In the wet season it becomes a shallow soda lake. To get to beetles. honorary fellowships. ©University of York Science Education Group. and you had better understand them. and burns and sucks the moisture from the living and the dead. back home. the bushmen. In a couple of years he’ll have to retire. lecture tours. And another. Things that do decide to make a life for themselves here tend to be curmudgeonly. A couple of centimetres of questing. I see papers in serious magazines. left past the bust of the remarkable Frederick Selous. The Kalahari is a place of few words. Elephants’ footprints. so he doesn’t. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. you go through the terracotta hall. This sheet may have been altered from the original. put them in my pocket and forgot about them. until you come to large double doors marked “entomology library”. Nothing lives here. and it doesn’t bear thinking about.08S Activity 4. A beard – and a name: my name.8 The next bug thing Student THE NEXT BUG THING They’re stoic. appended to the great roll call of life. I collected a couple in a film canister. It employs 900 people. “But there wasn’t an opening. To say he’s obsessed with beetles is not enough. I gave him my little beetle and waited. A A Gill falls for the beetle. and has been since he was 17. Row upon row of cabinets that reach twice as high as a man. on through monkeys and the “Darwin Experience”. he says. are the Makarikari salt pans. tooled-up specialists. 350 of them natural scientists. Flocks of exhausted finches lie preserved in basrelief. I don’t know. Museum is not the right word for this building – less than 1% of its collection is on display. so I got beetles”. or even a resource. It’s probably an unrecorded species. wooden. with a shudder of someone who narrowly escaped a lifedeforming accident. so flat and featureless you can turn 360 degrees and see nothing but the curve of the globe. you step into the secret part of the museum. thorn-whipped drive from any direction. past the stuffed drongo. Up another flight of stairs – through a locked door with a sign asking you not to bring in unwanted live specimens – are beetles. though. overrun with flamingos. It is unforgiving of innocent mistakes. turns men mad. Called? “Oh. He has the personable manner of a man whose inquisitiveness is at odds with a natural reluctance to socialise. Salt – the oldest currency in the world. He has been here ever since.” My mind races – a new species. a day’s slow.A4.” You mean I’ve discovered a new beetle? “Perhaps. I’d guess that he was once a solitary foraging boy with disgusting pockets. with nothing better to do. the origin of our word “salary”. and how? It was one of the little mysteries of a desert where all life is something of a mystery. 2 of 5 . For thousands of years. There are rules here. At its heart. it’s an ark. it’s carnivorous. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. awards. the lead curator of beetles. I’ll have to check. up the grand staircase. This is an extraordinary place. things only die. well. and burrows on. So while picking over the glittering white crust. suspicious. skilful and brave and have no hang-ups about sex. A grateful nation. I went to the Natural History Museum in South Kensington to see Martin Brendell. I love it here.
” Christ. There are beetles that look like bird sh** and ones that are smaller than dust particles.” “. lived for seven years in a goldfish bowl on my fridge. And then one wet afternoon with nothing better to do. the first-worldwar army knife with its spike for horses’ hooves and its blade sharpened down to a nub. They came from one corner of the Venezuelan rainforest last year. “It’s an interesting question. There are beetles that live in ants’ nests. curling postcards. then at me.08S Activity 4.” he said. This sheet may have been altered from the original. like a fairy’s jewel case. not a question to be bandied about lightly. and promised that one day I’d go back and find out more. There is one which is the size of a hot dog. Over the next four years. Up until now. There are beetles that specialise only in beaver hair.” Stop. possibly 5m. beetles.” And he goes to a filing cabinet and starts pulling open drawers. The only place they don’t live is sea water. with the apologetic reserve of a man who’s about to piss on a stranger’s fireworks. but how long do you propose we live? It was like asking someone to bottle Niagara Falls with a spoon. I got a terse call from an assistant: “It’s a Pogonus of some sort. “Let me show you something. probably 2m. I thought of Pogonus and the metropolis of beetles. Glossy big ones.” And he’s off again. Look.A4.” he jerks a foreleg.” It was. Inside each are hundreds of beetles. Every fifth living thing is a beetle. And one. “All these beetles.000 people in the world working on Coleoptera [beetles]. I now realise. “About your beetle – we’ll give you a call. six legs. There are beetles that look like leaves and twigs.” So let’s get this straight – at the most conservative estimate. with that much diversity. .” And two weeks later. imitating ants. biting mandibles. “you need to speak to Peter Hammond. The Smithsonian may be larger.” Hammond pops out of another den.000 described species. paperweight beetles. . There are only 2.000 species. spots and runic filigree. ones with horns and flanges. There will definitely be 1m beetles. I sat in Brendell’s little higgledy-piggledy den. In one genus of weevils. the hard wing coverings. . Blaps gigantean.” finishes Hammond. the bottom half underwater. Dozens of them. One in every four animals is a beetle. But the general definition includes an exoskeleton. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. what makes a beetle a beetle? There is no one thing that all beetles have that no other insect has. the museum beetle. The whirligig beetle has an eye that’s bisected – the top half sees in air. There are beetles that live in collections of beetles. They fold them Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. with a fathomless pity. jokey fridge-magnet beetles. ©University of York Science Education Group. yes.” he says.8 The next bug thing This is exciting – a new beetle. rubbed a mandible on his thorax and said: “Beetles are by far and away the most successful creatures in the world. “Beetles” says Brendell. “were perfect . It’s more an observation than a question. Paris may have more. 10m years ago.” And that was that. In the beetle department. there are thousands of plants that have their own specifically adapted beetles. This museum has more variety. “Beetles have colonised every conceivable habitat. then beetles must be Darwinishly mutating at a rate of knots? They look at each other. a question that should have come with the unspoken caveat of not how long have you got. I did. the little magnifying glass and the bottles of pins. have wings that can be five times the size of their cases. Ones with stripes. there are 2. but it’s got a lot of repeats.” He looks at my offering. Let me show you. bright little ones. though not generally great flyers. once in a while. This is the most comprehensive collection in the world. That’s equal to half the total number of known mammals. in more places than anywhere else. Incidentally. from the edge of the polar ice cap to the middle of the hottest desert. And I said: “Tell me about beetles. stop. pulling open drawers. I’ve got to get a mandible on all this – how many species of beetle are there altogether in the world? “Ah. and one or two that just look like beetles. So. conceivably 10. and elytra – that is. . “are unnamed. it was called Barnacle. there are 10m named specimens. and 2m unidentified ones. with its piles of papers and books. There are beetles that eat opium and strychnine. 3 of 5 . “Ah. we know of less than half the beetle population of the world? “Very conservatively. He took a deep breath. there are about 450. from more habitats. but no Student one knows where anything is.
later ennobled Baron Karl von Linné. original examples. a couple of papers and a chair. It’s all beginner’s stuff. Carolus Linnaeus. Brendell’s off again: “Some beetles that live in the desert have fused elytra.000 to 40. The science of naming. They are of huge value. This sheet may have been altered from the original. There’s one that never really develops from the larval stage . Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The Natural History Museum holds more holotypes from across the natural world than anywhere else. including a hawk moth. But it wasn’t until 1758 that the Swede. only about 30 known species. Aristotle tried to organise the haphazard colloquialism of Student the world. Imagine a lifetime spent defusing exploding beetles.000 members (beetles have over 200 families). From the Greek taxos. They don’t go in for complicated displays and courtship. . in fact. grubs. so they all have to be re-pinned and labelled. And what we call biodiversity is a meaningless and formless emotion if we can’t put a name to its parts. Each tray is an aesthetic wonder. Brendell once asked an obscure German museum for a holotype specimen. It’s a problem. and got the curt reply: “Your RAF bombed it. Some are soft-bodied. In the trays. What none of us has mentioned is how awesomely. This means they are holotypes. and nomos. some specimens wear the discreet award of a small red dot. And it’s not the done thing to name a species after yourself. If you order red snapper in a restaurant. beetles were discovered and named in an amateur way. For 200 years after the Linnean system. Since the war. and the copper reacts with the fatty tissue of the beetles and causes verdigris – which makes gas. With their neatly written labels and amazing patterns. there have been enough species discovered since the beginning of the 18th century to account for one every six hours. But the old pins are brass. only one has ever been found. “law”. all called red snapper. 4 of 5 . they’re not picky. set at a specific height through their right elytron. ©University of York Science Education Group.” “Hmmm. Beetle willies are like Yale keys – no two species are the same. pupae and adults. . It’s a delicate job. it has all been more purposeful and scientific. and are sent to other scientists to study. you could get one of 30 different fish. the standard work. What’s he doing? “Well.08S Activity 4.A4. against which all other contenders have to be measured. stop. a species name: gillae. In some species. So Brendell gives me a duffer’s guide to Coleoptera. So. Still. by the way.” Hammond has a theory – he thinks that the success of beetles can be put down to two things: sex and crunchiness.8 The next bug thing up like origami umbrellas. for instance. some are hairy. although Brendell has more than 15 named after him. I realise the more I know. The Aborigines believe that a thing without a name doesn’t really exist. then. arrestingly beautiful they are. “But there are 12m. And the crunchiness is the ergonomic robustness Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Except it’s not called that yet.” Good grief. I don’t entirely understand the sex bit. This collection is. a family name: Carabidae of which there are 30. first. a reference book of scientific terms. I slowly become aware of the importance of a corner of science I haven’t ever paid attention to: taxonomy. And as I pull out drawers. all the beetles in the collection – which. started with Joseph Banks’s specimens from Captain Cook’s Endeavour – are stuck on pins. then a generic name: Pogonus – which is quite small. and after an hour I’m drowning in the vastness of the subject. He called beetles Coleoptera – “sheath wing”. With something as vast and varied as the Coleoptera. Your peers do it for you – coleopterists look after each other in the immortality stakes. devised the binominal nomenclature system – a generic name coupled with a specific name – and set out to name everything all over again. because a drawing of its willy has to be made and reputably published first. they bridge the chasm between science and art. though not all beetles necessarily have all of them. all Halophilous (salt-loving). So I go and look at more beetles. We pass a man working at a desk. but I think it’s something to do with the fact that beetles are apparently easy lays. and have copper in them. “arrangement”. and form an airconditioning system. the less I understand. which in turn can make the beetles explode.” Stop. a priceless resource. And they have four distinct lives – as eggs. precision in name is vital. my beetle is organised as. surrounded by specimens.
smoking the canopy and using cadavers. I expect it’ll still be a new species. They have a tough confidence. There is a trendy new scientific word – biophilia. I find myself picking individuals. under a rock. human sh**’s marvellous. But I drag it out. The truth is. Beetles are as strange. We tend to think that the brightest edge of science is quantum physics.08S Activity 4. Homo sapiens. If the world were to end tomorrow and we could choose to save only one thing as the explanation and memorial to who we were. I’m hooked. A pheromone of empathy. Brendell and Hammond look at the beetle collection and see a resource. But there doesn’t need to be. Carabidae pogonus (sod the orthodox procedure and proper channels) gillae. He and Hammond have collected everywhere. then.A4. the vast inquisitiveness and range of collated knowledge and its consequent beauty would tell all that is the best of us. often with danger. And sh**. inquiry and the open-mindedness that is the defining characteristic of our species. but now.” Brendell laughs. the collection has doubled. the innate emotional affiliation of human beings for other living things. 5 of 5 . one morning. The last frontier is at your feet. marvellous and varied as the most vivid sci-fi imagination. a record of diversity and a monument to the awesome achievement of beetles. “I find a goat’s entrails are particularly effective. they’re so wonderful. Until now. I see something perhaps they don’t: it’s also a monument to human achievement. You mean you suck at rotten entrails and sh**? “Yes. and pinned into a corner of this encyclopaedic wonder would be my little beetle. thousands and thousands. Brendell pops out. beaming: “I’ve discovered something about your Pogonus. finished this story in a day. During Brendell’s time here. They’re utilitarian and can live in places that would put off other orders. to question. then we couldn’t do better than the Natural History Museum.” Student Being a coleopterist is as close as anyone can get to living the dream of being on the Starship Enterprise. This sheet may have been altered from the original. But there’s something about beetles. How many beetles do you think you’ve killed? “Oh. I’ve been pretty immune to biophilic tendencies. although it wouldn’t contain a single human. Always with difficulty.” Even after all these years. oddly. then kill them. Pogonus rodolphi. Were your salt pans wet underneath? That’ll be it. a connection. and with a passionate patience. I could have. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.8 The next bug thing of most beetles. You suck on one. but also transcendent. no Linnaean holotype for man.” They use a specialist piece of equipment called a pooter – a glass jar with two tubes. the ability to think. Every one of the 12m specimens here in South Kensington carries with it a story of huge diligence. nets and sieves. and being pleased when they get away. Brendell and Hammond find God in small things. he’s shiny with pleasure. Sapiens. I’m a city boy – the only natural world I’m drawn to are things that come off plates. and the beetle is pulled up the other. When I was young I collected like a madman. from the dank rainforest to the high Himalayas. I’ve found a paper published about a similar one in Tanzania. Perhaps it’s a recognition of fellow bourgeoisie. It’s a predator that has regressed to eating algae. or a syringe for the larger specimens.” They use a fumigating poison that smells like nailvarnish remover. © AA Gill/The Sunday Times Magazine 7 April 2002 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. it’s disgusting. should have. but there’s so much left undiscovered and unanswered right here. Then. “But I mind it more and more. ©University of York Science Education Group. I’m getting old. You boldly go and find new habitats and weird life forms. well. They collect using light traps. There is. minute and inconsequential. Mostly unremarked and unregarded – lives devoted to the fundamentals of life on Earth. The systematic order.
Note that the diagram does not show all of the phyla. Members of a taxon share common features. beverages. Q1 What are the names of the five kingdoms? Q2 What are the other groupings found in the hierarchy? Use your biological knowledge to assign each of two key feature cards provided to the correct kingdom.A4. Read pages 159–161 of the AS textbook before continuing with this sheet. 1 of 3 . This sheet may have been altered from the original. if this has not been done already. which is within the hot drinks section that can be found in the drinks aisle. Lay out the kingdom cards as column headings. Cut out the cards. to the correct phylum and class. look at the organisms shown in the virtual tour of the Galapagos islands in the Interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity (or the ones provided by your teacher/lecturer) and see if you can assign them to one of the five kingdoms and. Q4 What do all the classes in the phylum Chordata have in common? Q5 What do spiders. nor all of the classes. where appropriate. centipedes and insects have in common? Q6 If you have time. Organising organisms Imagine trying to find your favourite brand of biscuit in a supermarket where they just randomly put all the items on the shelves. These summarise the common features of the organisms in the five kingdoms and some animal phyla and classes. etc. Then place the key features cards in the appropriate columns. toiletries. Then complete the questions below using the description of the five kingdoms in the columns or in Figure 1 on page 2 of this activity. within the coffee section. You can quickly find the ginger snaps! Biologists faced with the huge number of organisms that have so far been described also need to organise them in a logical way. this is no longer the case. items are arranged in groups with common features – biscuits. ready meals. Q3 Colour all the phyla on the sheet one colour and all the classes another colour. Q7 a b c Who proposed a new system of classification? What are the main groups that make up the top level of this classification? What feature is used to assign organisms to these groups? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group.9 Being Darwin Purpose • • To consider the scientific classification of organisms To look in detail at naming organisms.09S Student Activity 4. organisms are placed into a hierarchy of groups called taxa (singular taxon). For a long time the five kingdoms were considered to be the top level in the taxonomic hierarchy. Read page 161–163 of the AS textbook and then answer the questions below. Note that some features are shared by more than one kingdom so there are some cards with the same features. confectionary. Most supermarkets are pretty well organised. In the same way that all the different brands of decaffeinated coffee might be shelved together. In this activity you consider the taxonomic hierarchy developed by Whittaker in 1959 and modified by Margulis and Schwartz in 1982 and try putting some of the organisms that Darwin found in the Galapagos Islands into their appropriate taxonomic groups.
mammary glands. Animalia Eukaryotic.A4. (e. Cnidaria Jellyfish. © University of York Science Education Group. sea cucumbers) Insecta 3 body segments. octopus.g. pin worms. herring. e. 2 pairs antennae.) Chordata Have spinal cord. (e. and chitinous exoskeleton. brittle stars. shrimps) Chondrichthyes Fish with cartilaginous skeletons. wings. (e. pike. rays) Osteichthyes Have scales. Cannot photosynthesise.g. metamorphosis. sea anemones. lay eggs with leathery shells. 8 legs. Figure 1 Taxonomic groups using the five kingdoms classification Margulis and Schwartz. (e. Fungi Eukaryotic. (flukes) Annelida Segmented worms. Porifera Sponges. spiny skinned. (e. Have cell walls made of chitin. lungs. (bony fish. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Lay eggs with hard shell. scorpions) Crustacea Calcareous exoskeleton. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Aves Feathers. (e.g. Can photosynthesise. Mollusca Unsegmented. Plantae Eukaryotic and multicellular. Include earthworms. beak.g. Have cellulose cell walls. Reptilia Scales. Can be singlecelled or multicellular. ascarid worms) Arthropoda Segmented body. lungs. (e. homeothermic. muscular foot. Protoctista Eukaryotic simple organisms. Only one mouth/anus. spiders. Echinodermata Marine. flies) Myriapoda Centipedes.g. ragworms and leeches. millipedes. have five-fold radial symmetry.g. Cannot photosynthesise. fins. clams. 2 of 3 . Nematoda Unsegmented roundworms. and gills. 1 pair antennae.9 Being Darwin Student All organisms Prokaryotae No nucleus. multicellular and have no cell walls.g. tuna) Amphibia Smooth moist skin. etc. Bacteria and blue-green bacteria. hydra and corals. All kingdoms and animal phyla are shown but only some other taxa. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Arachnida 2 body segments. sea urchins. Homeothermic. sharks. snails. star fish.09S Activity 4. Platyhelminthes Unsegmented flat worms. Include algae and unicellular organisms. many body segments. No membranebound organelles. Mammalia Fur.g. 6 legs.
sapiens Tiger Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Felis F. is shared by all closely related species. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. In addition to writing the name in italics. the genus. This sheet may have been altered from the original. The scientific names for some common wild flowers are shown in Table 2. thus tiger would be F.9 Being Darwin Naming organisms The taxonomic classification of humans and tigers is shown in Table 1. 3 of 3 . The scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens and that of tigers is Felis tigris. want to refer to a particular species they use the scientific name to avoid confusion. Table 2 Common name red clover creeping buttercup herb robert Cut-leaved cranesbill Meadow thistle Q8 Scientific name Trifolium pratense Ranunculus repens Geranium robertianum Geranium dissectum Cirsium dissectum Look at the list of scientific names. or herb robert and cut-leaved cranesbill? Explain your answer. tigris Student Frequently one species will have many different common names. so when biologists. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. The first time a scientific name is used it is given in full.A4. after that it can be shortened.09S Activity 4. tigris. The first part of the name. The second part of the name is the particular species in the genus. Table 1 Human Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primata Hominidae Homo H. They are written in italics or underlined to identify them as scientific names. what other common convention is used? Q9 What genus does red clover belong to? Q10 What is the species name for creeping buttercup? Q11 Which two plants are most closely related: meadow thistle and cut-leaved cranesbill. be they research scientists or keen gardeners.
© University of York Science Education Group. which have varying degrees of evidence to support them. is the source reliable? Is the writer trying to persuade you to accept their ideas for commercial or political reasons? • Place the ideas you researched in a rank order. and how do they move from being extreme to being mainstream? Below are examples of some biological ideas. To recall how species are defined. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 1 of 3 . Brilliant idea or simply crazy – what’s the evidence? In this activity you think about how scientists work when a new idea comes forward.A4. How can we decide whether they are brilliant ideas or simply crazy? To do Read the following accounts. Is it based on ‘peer-reviewed’ scientific papers (ie subjected to scrutiny by other experts in that field before publication)? If it is information from the Internet. with the one with the greatest support number 1.10 New ideas in biology Purpose • • To consider how new ideas in science are assessed and tested by other scientists. then research each of the ideas. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Remember that there is no such thing as a ‘scientific fact’ – all scientific ideas are only as good as the evidence that supports them. Give reasons for your selection. some new and some older. and how evidence is used to make decisions about classification of species. and the one that you consider to be on the shakiest ground last. For each idea: • Produce a list of evidence that supports the idea.10S Student Activity 4. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. • Consider how the ideas could be tested further. • Consider whether you can trust the ‘evidence’ you have quoted. Ideas which cannot be tested by experiment or observation (for example some religious ideas) are beyond the scope of science. How are new ideas tested by scientists. and even accepted ideas can be overturned.
giving rise to modern eukaryotic cells. As a result. Morphogenesis (the development of an organism) not only depends on genes and gene products but also on organizing fields. are as different from bacteria as we are! The reasoning comes from their ribosomal RNA. Lynn Margulis and others in America developed these ideas in the 1960s. The prokaryotes are separated into two distinct groups. This means that the form and behaviour of organisms is influenced by past events. But mutations do accumulate very slowly. For example. in hot springs and very salty water. He proposes that morphogentic fields are shared by members of the species through a kind of non-local resonance. This is because any mutation is likely to impair their function. Three Domains The idea that all living organisms can be classified under three domains – Archaea. They developed a mutualistic relationship. 2 of 3 . The eukaryotes probably benefited from the products of the metabolism of the prokaryotes: sugar and oxygen from the photosynthetic prokaryotes that became chloroplasts. The Archaea live in all sorts of odd places. It is claimed that Archaea. if all your class learned the SNAB course very thoroughly it would make it easier for everyone else studying the course to learn the same course in the future. Sheldrake has made strenuous efforts to test the hypothesis and New Scientist magazine held a competition in the 1980s offering a prize for the best ideas to test it further. called morphic resonance. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. and ATP from the nonphotosynthetic prokaryotes that became mitochondria. in subtle and random ways which don’t affect them too much. they tend to remain unchanged in evolution. such as oil deposits deep in the earth. © University of York Science Education Group.A4. which look very like conventional bacteria on the outside.10S Activity 4. Each individual both draws upon and contributes to the collective memory of the species. Since ribosomes have a role in protein synthesis. Bacteria and Eukaryotes – was put forward in the 1970s by Carl Woese in America. Formative causation The idea of formative causation is an idea proposed in the 1980s by British scientist Rupert Sheldrake.10 New ideas in biology Student The ideas Endosymbiosis Endosymbiosis is the idea that eukaryotic cells are associations of different types of cell which joined forces many millions of years ago. Prokaryotes are thought to have been engulfed by larger cells. new patterns of behaviour can spread more rapidly than would otherwise be possible.
A sub-species means that the Neanderthals were distinct in anatomy from modern people. considered to be the same species? Q3 Suggest why it is difficult to tell from fossil and archaeological evidence alone whether we are the same species as the Neanderthals. of all races. and possibly made simple shelters and wore clothes. This sheet may have been altered from the original. with prominent brow ridges and wide nostrils. the third word added to its binomial name denotes the subspecies – we are Homo sapiens sapiens. Neanderthals lived alongside CroMagnon people for 10–15 000 years. buried their dead. They had more robust skeletons and muscles than modern humans. why is nuclear DNA more useful than mitochondrial DNA? Q6 Neanderthals may have competed with modern humans for the same ecological niche. 3 of 3 .10S Activity 4. unlike the Cro-Magnon people in Spain and France. Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. but not so distinct that we can be sure they did not interbreed to produce fertile offspring. appearing in Europe about 40 000 years ago. Q4 Nuclear DNA has recently been sequenced from Neanderthals. © University of York Science Education Group.A4. What is likely to happen when two (sub) species compete for the same niche? Q7 If we find evidence that Neanderthals used different tools from other populations living at the same time. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. How could this be used to determine if the Neanderthals are a separate species? Q5 When looking at how closely related two species might be. who were fully modern.10 New ideas in biology Student How do we classify our nearest (extinct) relatives? Read the passage below and then answer the questions. Figure 1 shows the skulls of both Neanderthal and modern man. Can you tell the difference? Typical Neanderthals are known from fossils to have lived in Europe and Asia during the Ice Age (from about 100 000 years ago). and died out only 20–30 000 years ago. have traditionally been classified as a subspecies of modern humans. It is not known whether they had language. They do not seem to have made cave paintings. They made beautiful stone and bone tools. can this be taken as evidence that they are different species/subspecies? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. They were well adapted to a hunter-gatherer life in the cold climate. Figure 1 Compare the Neanderthal and modern skull. Questions Q1 What is a sub-species? How does it differ from a species and from a genus? Q2 Why are all modern people. Neanderthals.
A4. which can be hundreds or even thousands of years old. 1 of 4 . 277 hedges were sampled in total. They then counted the number of shrub species present in the hedges and plotted a graph of their results (see Figure 1). Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.11S Student Activity 4. From the 1400s. The process accelerated during the 18th and 19th Centuries. Measuring biodiversity Measures of species richness are normally used to talk about biodiversity. p80. MD Hooper and NW Moore 1974 William Collins and Sons. This sheet may have been altered from the original. In this activity you investigate the plant biodiversity of hedges and you also compare the biodiversity of six sites on Pocklington Beck using species richness and species evenness. They chose hedges whose ages were known from historical records. concern about the loss of hedges through agricultural intensification prompted government scientists to study hedges. many areas of open common land were enclosed by hedges. E Pollard. fields are often bounded by hedges. the scientists counted the number of shrub species in a fixed length – 30 yards – of hedge. There are other measures of biodiversity and you can compare the values of biodiversity given by three different measures and evaluate them. In order to make fair comparisons. Biodiversity and dating hedges In Britain. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.11 Exploring biodiversity Purpose • To consider how biodiversity can be measured. and brought under individual ownership. when many enclosure plans were enforced through parliamentary act. © University of York Science Education Group. The relative frequency of hedges in a class are shown by the size of the circle. From: Hedges. In the 1960s and 70s. A graph to show hedge age and the number of shrub and tree species in 30 yard lengths.
college or home to study. Explain how you could measure the species evenness of your hedge. elder. You may need an identification guide to help you identify the shrubs and trees in your hedge. It is sufficient to measure this by striding out 30 long paces. © University of York Science Education Group. The website accompanies this activity. field maple. privet. oak. 2 of 4 . crab apple. If you are unable to identify all the shrubs on the spot. A section somewhere in the middle of a long stretch is best. Date your own hedge Procedure Select one or two hedges near your school. hazel. The following are the shrub species you are most likely to find: Hawthorn. field rose. Choose a parish boundary hedge if you can. collect a small twig (with leaves) from each shrub species. The sample data in Table 1 on page 3 gives the number of individuals counted at each of six sites on Pocklington Beck.A4. use the graph above to estimate the age of the hedge. but do not count bramble. ash. When you have your figure for the number of shrub species in your 30-yard section. Find a representative 30 yard section of your hedge. Comment on whether this affects which site is considered to have the greatest biodiversity Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Q6 Work out the species richness for each site and decide which site has the greatest biodiversity. Q7 Compare species evenness for the six sites. Q2 Suggest possible reasons why older hedges have more shrub species than younger hedges. This sheet may have been altered from the original.11S Activity 4. Include trees of all sizes. dog rose. Q5 The evenness of shrub species composition in the hedge is another measure of biodiversity. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Do not choose a section near a field corner. gorse. sycamore. blackthorn. wood or other major feature.11 Exploring biodiversity Student Q1 Describe any correlation shown by the data in Figure 1. buckthorn. Questions Q4 Suggest reasons why the estimate of your hedge’s age could be a) too young b) too old. holly. Q3 Explain whether you would expect older hedges to also have more insect biodiversity. If you have time measure several 30yard lengths so you can take an average. Identify all the shrub and tree species in your 30-yard section. dogwood. take the samples back in a plastic bag and use an identification guide or the online tree identification key. Use the data to complete the questions that follow. elm. honeysuckle or any herbaceous plants such as nettles and hogweed.
The data below is also available as an Excel spreadsheet which can be accessed through the activity page. This sheet may have been altered from the original. © University of York Science Education Group. Numbers of individuals counted at each site.A4. Taxonomic group Platyhelminthes Name Polycelis nigra Polycelis feline Site 1 14 8 * 9 1 2 1 9 1 * 1 263 17 419 4 * 47 2 6 4 5 24 7 * 7 2 1 2 * 7 9 * * 1 * Site 2 * * 175 * 46 1 34 1 1 1 * 659 2 213 * 31 37 * 17 * 4 671 43 1 33 22 * 19 9 51 18 * * * * Site 3 * * * 428 * 6 * * 1 * * * 4 * 17 * * * * * * * 6 28 * * * * * * * * * * * * Site 4 * * * 48 * 21 * 1 * 12 * * 56 * 13 * * 3 * * * * 1037 * * * * * * * * * * * * * Site 5 * * * * * 7 * 2 * * * 1 18 * * * * * * * * * 92 2 * * * * * * * * * * * * Site 6 * * 6 11 3 1 * 8 * * * 4 58 * 43 * * 14 1 5 * 12 164 3 * 35 15 7 * 1 6 17 5 * * * Annelida True worms Horsehair worms Tubifex tubifex Other worms Leeches Mollusca Spire shell snail Ramshorn snail Fresh water limpet Arthropoda Crustacea Cyclops Water hoglouse Gammarus pulex Insecta Large water boatman Olive mayfly nymph Burrowing mayfly nymph Flattened mayfly nymph Striped mayfly nymph Swimming mayfly nymph Sand cased caddis larvae Stone cased caddis larvae Green caseless caddis Midge larvae Chironomid midge larvae Dicranota larvae Tipula larvae Elmid beetle/larvae Halipid type beetle Agabus type beetle Other beetle Arachnida Red mite Brown mite Other mite Chordata Fish Bullhead fish Brown trout Erpobdella octoculata Glossiphonia complanata Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 3 of 4 .11 Exploring biodiversity Pocklington Beck: Exploring biodiversity Student Table 1 Sample data for Pocklington Beck. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.11S Activity 4.
and for each species suggest an explanation for the pattern of distribution. 4 of 4 . navigate to measuring biodiversity hotspots. Q8 First. Suggest a reason for your selection.11S Activity 4. bullheads and black grouse. Q9 Hover the cursor over one of the species symbols and see where this species exists on the grid. Look at the distribution of ground beetles. (The website is in the weblinks that accompany this activity. explain why the hotspots are not the same when using the different measures of biodiversity. The information that appears by using the drop down species menu may help. Q10 Check to see if the hotspots you suggested agree with those in the programme by clicking on ‘show measures’ and then select each of the three ways of measuring biodiversity (species richness. Write a short summary for each of the biodiversity measures.) Your task is to explore the virtual landscape and investigate the biodiversity of each grid square using three different biodiversity measurements. Note the way in which the distribution of biodiversity and in particular the hotspots (in red) change. taxic richness and range-size rarity) in turn.11 Exploring biodiversity Student Using the Natural History Museum Exploring Biodiversity website. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.A4. If you go to the bottom of the screen and click on the name of each method you get background information describing how each method of measuring biodiversity works. look at the imaginary landscape and decide which grid squares you think would be biodiversity hot spots. Which do you think is the most commonly used measure of biodiversity and why? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Q11 Using this information. This sheet may have been altered from the original. © University of York Science Education Group.
The other seven sequences each have two bands showing that the individual is heterozygous for each of these sequences. 1 of 3 . resistance to disease and spawn size will all affect genetic fitness.) By examining the prepared DNA fingerprints it is possible to calculate how many of the different gene loci are heterozygous. have more than one allele present. In Britain there are now very few populations. due to loss of its preferred habitat of heath or sand dunes. Note that sequences I. The genetic fitness of a population reflects the average ‘fitness’ (the likelihood of survival and successful breeding) of the individuals within it. VI and VII give only a single band. © University of York Science Education Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Figure 1 represents the DNA fingerprint of 10 DNA microsatellite sequences for one individual. Measurable quantities such as rate of growth. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. (You will discover exactly how these fingerprints are made in Topic 6. indicating that the individual is homozygous for these sequences.12 Natterjack toads and genetic diversity Student Purpose • To consider how genetic diversity can be measured • To calculate and compare the heterozygosity index for two populations Heterozygosity index The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is Britain’s rarest amphibian. Genetic diversity has been measured by preparing DNA fingerprints for individuals within the populations. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. with a stronghold around Formby and Ainsdale on Merseyside. i. Figure 1 The banding pattern for 10 DNA microsatellite sequences in an individual. Trevor Beebee and his research group at the University of Sussex have investigated the genetic diversity of natterjack toad populations and attempted to correlate this diversity with the genetic fitness of the animals.e.12S Activity 4.A4. The proportion of genes which are present in heterozygous form can be expressed as a number called the heterozygosity index. It is very restricted in distribution.
If you are interested in natterjack toad conservation. Because it is a proportion rather than an absolute number. Figure 2 Fingerprints for microsatellite VII in 21 individuals.0 2.189 0.336 0. You could use an automated programme such as Microsoft Excel® to do this.0 0.A4. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.12 Natterjack toads and genetic diversity Student A heterozygosity index for each sequence can be calculated using the equation: heterozygosity index = number of heterozygotes number of individuals in the population The DNA fingerprint banding patterns for sequence VII in a population of 21 individuals is shown in Figure 2. 2 of 3 . it is unaffected by the sample size.269 0.293 0.6 5. why not conduct an Internet search for information on these animals? You will find more data on their distribution and on conservation measures being taken to protect them.1 5. Q3 Two other small populations of toads were studied. Q4 Use your results to predict the approximate tadpole growth rate for members of these populations. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The heterozygosity index for this sequence is: heterozygosity index (VII) = 7/21 = 0. Table 1 Population number Population size/number of clumps of spawn laid Tadpole growth rate/mm per week Average heterozygosity 1 33 2 11 3 146 4 17 5 87 6 20 5. DNA fingerprints were prepared and are shown in Figure 3. The heterozygosity index is a useful measure of genetic diversity. This sheet may have been altered from the original. The research group let by Trevor Beebee obtained the results in Table 1 below. or you can plot the data by hand. Which of the two populations is more likely to succeed over a lengthy period of time? Suggest three environmental factors which should be controlled if these growth rate results are to be compared in a valid way.8 4.325 Questions Q1 Plot tadpole growth rate against average heterozygosity.257 0.6 4.333 An average heterozygosity index for the population is determined by taking the mean of all of the heterozygosity index values for each of the microsatellite sequences studied in the individuals of this population. Q2 What do these results suggest about the benefits for genetic diversity (heterozygosity) in terms of genetic fitness? Use results from the table and from your graph to support your conclusions. Use these DNA fingerprints to calculate the heterozygosity index for these two populations.12S Activity 4. © University of York Science Education Group.
This sheet may have been altered from the original. 3 of 3 . © University of York Science Education Group.12 Natterjack toads and genetic diversity Student Figure 3 DNA fingerprints for microsatellites in two toad populations.A4. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.12S Activity 4. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Viewed through an optical microscope the nucleus contains darkly stained material which condenses to form separate visible during nuclear division. These organelles are situated in the cell Plant cells possess a number of unique structures which do not occur in animals cells. Glucose produced in photosynthesis is stored as starch within .13 Plant and animal cells Purpose • To compare the typical ultrastructure of a plant and an animal cell. Questions Q1 Use the following terms to complete the passage below. © University of York Science Education Group. Each is surrounded by a and each cell has a single surrounded by a cell. Some terms may be used more than once. photosynthesis. Animal and plant cells are both types of There are other membrane-bound structures common to both animals and plants such as the . They are surrounded by a fairly rigid also have a large outside the surrounded by a membrane called the . They . cell surface membrane cytoplasm nucleus cell wall endoplasmic reticulum tonoplast chlorophyll chloroplasts eukaryotic vacuole chromosomes nuclear membrane amyloplasts Animal and plant cells have many features in common. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.13S Student Activity 4. 1 of 2 . Use the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity to complete this worksheet. which itself is .A4. Also present are which are involved in .
indicate which of the structures in Table 1 are found in each cell type. Table 1 Structure Chloroplast Chromosome Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Amyloplast Large cental vacuole Tonoplast Cell wall Nuclear membrane Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Q3 Plant cell Animal cell a Decide which of the electron micrographs in Figure 1 shows an animal cell and which a plant cell.13S Activity 4.A4. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 1 2 4 3 5 A Figure 1 Electron micrographs of cells B b State which part of the cell is involved in: i photosynthesis ii respiration iii modification of lipids iv endocytosis Q4 a In which part of the cell are: i proteins synthesised ii DNA molecules transcribed iii glycoprotein molecules assembled iv lysosomes formed Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. © University of York Science Education Group.13 Plant and animal cells Student Q2 Using ticks and crosses. 2 of 2 . b Identify the parts labelled 1 to 5. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
© University of York Science Education Group. Figure 1 Formation of cellulose from β-glucose.14S Student Activity 4.A4.14 Cellulose structure Purpose • To describe the structure of cellulose Questions Q1 Use the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity and then annotate Figure 1 below. 1 of 2 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. This sheet may have been altered from the original. . to explain how β-glucose units can be joined to form a strong. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. structural carbohydrate.
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.14S Q2 In Figure 2. 2 of 2 .Activity 4. © University of York Science Education Group.14 Cellulose structure Student A4. Q3 Use Biochemistry Support 11 Carbohydrates and 14 Cellulose to produce a table to compare the structures and functions of starch and cellulose. This sheet may have been altered from the original. in which direction is cellulose stronger: AB or XY? Explain your answer. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Figure 2 Cellulose strength is due to bonding.
You need • Small piece of tinned rhubarb • Microscope slide • Coverslip • 2 mounted needles • Forceps • Watch glass • Methylene blue (1% solution) • 50% glycerol • Filter paper 2 Use mounted needles to tease the vascular bundles apart. Place a drop of dilute glycerol on the fibres and mount under a coverslip. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 5 Look for xylem vessels amongst the separated tissues. place a drop of glycerol on the slide next to the coverslip. 3 Draw off the extra stain with filter paper. for example spiral or annular (in rings) thickening or. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Do not move your coverslip sideways at all. If liquid comes in contact with skin. flood area with water and then wash thoroughly with soap and water. Cover the tissue with a drop of methylene blue. virtually complete lignification of the walls. Use Figures 4. ©University of York Science Education Group.15S Student Activity 4.15 Looking at plant stems Purpose • To look at the structure of xylem vessels and sclerenchyma fibres. Avoid contact with methylene blue as it stains clothes and skin. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. You may need to re-irrigate the slide with glycerol after squashing it. • To locate the position of these tissues within the stem. 1 of 3 . Procedure 1 Place a small piece of tinned rhubarb on a watch glass.49 and 4. Blot off any excess and re-examine the slide. It will be drawn under the coverslip by capillary action. To do this. • To investigate the transport route of the xylem vessels through the plant. The xylem vessels may show different types of wall thickening. Use forceps to pick out one or two vascular bundles from this block of tissue and place them on a microscope slide.50 in the textbook to help you identify these tissues. in some cases. medium and high magnification. 4 Examine your preparation under low. If the tissues are not separated enough you may be able to separate them more by placing your slide on a piece of filter paper and then pressing down with your thumb on the coverslip covered by a filter paper pad. Part A Looking at tissues The procedure below lets you look at the structure of xylem vessels and sclerenchyma fibres in rhubarb. and leave for 5 minutes.A4. Make drawings of a few xylem vessel elements. Safety Wear eye protection.
Use a paintbrush to transfer your sections to a watch glass of water. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 2 of 3 . as a small segment will be sufficient. cambium and phloem and any sclerenchyma). Safety Acidified phloroglucinol is corrosive and highly flammable. You need • Piece of stem from herbaceous plant • Acidified phloroglucinol – benzene1. Using a wax crayon. Label the position of the vascular bundles (xylem. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 5 Add a few drops of acidified phloroglucinol and a coverslip. You do not need a complete section across the stem. ©University of York Science Education Group. The procedure given below is for cutting hand sections of buttercup or any herbaceous stem. 3 Cut a lot of sections. 7 Use your sections and/or a prepared slide of a cross-section across a dicotyledonous stem such as Helianthus to draw a low-power plan drawing.A4. draw a line from top to bottom of the slide on both sides of the specimen to stop the dye spreading. 4 Select the thinnest sections and transfer to a slide. 6 Examine under a microscope. 3. Wear eye protection and avoid inhalation and skin contact. flood area with cold water for 10 minutes and then wash thoroughly with soap and cold water. Procedure 1 Use a sharp scalpel to cut out a piece of stem.15S Activity 4. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 5-triol in ethanol with concentrated hydrochloric acid • Sharp scalpel • New razor blade • Watch glass • Paintbrush • Pipette • Microscope • Microscope slide • Coverslip • Wax crayon Figure 1 Cutting thin transverse sections of a stem using a razor blade.15 Looking at plant stems Student Part B Exactly where are the ‘fibres’ found? You can either make your own sections of a plant stem or look at ready prepared slides. 2 Hold the stem as shown in Figure 1 and cut thin transverse sections across it using a moistened new razor blade. If the liquid comes in contact with skin. Take care when using a scalpel or razor blade.
Make • 8 pieces of A4 paper three more paper rolls in the same way. Now • Rubber bands.g. Procedure Roll one piece of A4 into a simple tube long-ways You need and join the edges together using sticky tape. making sure they are not too tight and do not kink the legs. but place rubber bands at intervals along the length of the legs. Place one large book or magazine on top of the four legs. like a table. Notice how the vascular tissue in the stem is in a ring near the outside edge. Part D Route of xylem vessels through the stem A cross-section of the stem gives a two-dimensional image of where the vascular tissue is located within the stem. and test it to destruction. 3 of 3 . 2 Place the cut end in a beaker of dye for approximately half an hour.15S Activity 4. Both of these procedures can conveniently be done with broad bean plants. scrape away the outer layers of tissue from the stem to reveal the xylem vessels which have taken up the dye. You need • Broad bean plant about 15–20 cm tall with several leaves • Beaker of dye e.A4. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. ©University of York Science Education Group. Run the trial again. Careful dissection of the stem should reveal the route that the xylem vessels take up the plant and into the leaves. making sure the • Books or magazines legs are near the corners and are not kinked. eosin • Sharp scalpel or new razor blade • Hand lens 3 With a great deal of care. Add books/ magazines one at a time. make a guess about how many similar books/magazines you could pile on top of the first one before the structure collapses. How near was your guess? Were you surprised how much weight could be supported by tubular pieces of paper? Repeat the investigation. In this investigation we will look at how the distribution of vascular tissue provides resistance to the different forces acting on stem.15 Looking at plant stems Student Part C Investigating support in plants stems Look at Figure 4. Arrange them • Sticky tape to make four legs. Explain any differences you found between the two trials. Safety Take care when using a scalpel or razor blade.41 on page 176 of the AS textbook. This sheet may have been altered from the original. and make comparisons with the structure and role of xylem vessels in the plant stem. To get a three-dimensional picture you either have to cut a series of longitudinal sections of the stem or dissect out the stained vessels. Procedure 1 Cut a broad bean plant just above soil level. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.
16 Water transport in plants Purpose • To explain the role of xylem vessels and transpiration in the movement of water through a plant. highlighting the role of xylem vessels.16S Student Activity 4. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. (It may be easiest to start with transpiration from the leaves.) Ensure that you have explained what is happening at each of the places numbered on the plant in Figure 1.A4. Xylem and water transport Work through the interactive tutorial that accompanies this activity and read the section on water transport in plants in the textbook before completing the task below. 1 of 3 . © University of York Science Education Group. xylem diffusion substomatal cavity capillary action cohesion stomata transpiration hydrogen bond cell walls evaporation lignin Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Use the list of key words below Figure 1 in your account. Task Write a short passage (around 100 words) explaining how water moves through a plant. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
The spring/bungee cord should be positioned around the trunk and attached to the force sensor. It also maintains the shape of the plant. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The difficulty is that the changes are very small and fall outside the accuracy of many conventional measuring instruments (e. record other environmental conditions at the same time. is caused when the plant cells lose water to the point where they cannot hold their shape and the plant collapses.5 m or longer). 3 Select the appropriate function on the logger and start recording.16S Student Water loss in plants The majority of the mass of a plant is water. This sheet may have been altered from the original. rulers). Water helps support the plant. You need • Tree with a trunk about the same diameter as a street light • Datalogger and sensors (force. This experiment uses a force sensor to measure the changes in size of a tree trunk. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 2 Connect the sensor to the datalogger with a long cord (1. If appropriate sensors are available. This enables the sensor to be placed away from the trunk. © University of York Science Education Group. Procedure 1 Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 1.16 Water transport in plants A4.g. particularly in non-woody plants. Safety The springs or bungees may be under high tension.Activity 4. 2 of 3 . Does this water loss produce a change in the trunk dimensions (girth)? It should be possible to measure any change in size of the plant. for example. for example light and temperature. spring/bungee cord trunk force sensor Figure 1 Measuring the girth of a tree trunk. Care should be taken when connecting and disconnecting. Wilting. You can check out how much might be lost by doing a transpirometer experiment. temperature and light) • Bungee cord or steel spring A tree loses many litres of water per hour in transpiration.
© University of York Science Education Group. Explain why the change in size takes place. The axis will need to be adjusted as the changes in force are very small. Place the logger in a polythene bag and place it somewhere secure for the datalogging period. Think of what is happening within the plant at a cellular level. Analysing the results Download the data from the logger.Activity 4. How much did the girth of the tree change? (You will need to produce a calibration of force against distance. This sheet may have been altered from the original. It is best not to place the unit directly on the ground. this helps to reduce the chances of rain getting into the bag. Suggest a control that could be used to check if this is the case. Produce a trace from the data. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 5 The data should be collected over a 3-day period.16 Water transport in plants 4 A4. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.16S Student Check that data are being collected. 3 of 3 .) The changes in force measured by the spring may be due to the effect of temperature on the spring. Relate any patterns observed to changes in environmental conditions that have occurred over the same period. Questions Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Describe any patterns in the data.
Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. Q3 Name the green pigment. The new leaves look blotchy. which is needed for photosynthesis. Q5 Putting all the ideas together from questions 1–4: a explain the pattern of dark and light green in the new leaves of this orange plant. The newer leaves in front are a lighter green colour than the older leaves behind. Q1 Describe the pattern of dark and light shades of green on the new leaves (look at this sheet online to see the photo in colour. Q4 Name the mineral ion which is needed in the synthesis of this pigment. Identifying sick plants How are minerals. Figure 1 shows part of an orange plant. such as nitrate. 1 of 2 . present in plant leaves.17S CORE Activity 4. This sheet may have been altered from the original. which suggests that the plant is unhealthy. Q2 From your knowledge of plant anatomy.17 Sick plants Purpose To put together ideas about the transport and use of plant minerals To investigate the effect of plant mineral deficiencies. calcium and magnesium ions. explain how the pattern you have described compares with the distribution of xylem vessels in a plant leaf. transported and used in plants? What happens if the plant isn’t getting enough? Gardeners and fruit growers need to be alert to signs of deficiency and give appropriate treatments.Student A4. Figure 1 An orange plant Use the photo and the SNAB AS textbook to answer the questions below. b suggest a treatment for the plant which will help it to make uniformly dark green leaves. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. c suggest why it is only the newer leaves which show symptoms.
• Make sure your plan includes: • • • • • • • • a hypothesis about the effect of mineral deficiency with a scientific explanation to support your idea a procedure that will validly test your hypothesis identification of the variables – dependent and independent – and. This sheet may have been altered from the original. controls or allows for them a fully explained control replicates. where possible. After a while they fall off and establish new plants. including solutions with: – all nutrients present – lacking nitrogen – lacking magnesium – lacking calcium – lacking all nutrients. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Planning Using Mexican hat plantlets or germinated mung beans. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. Standard laboratory equipment.17S Activity 4. design an experiment to investigate mineral deficiencies. 2 of 2 .17 Sick plants Investigating plant mineral deficiencies Student The Mexican hat plant (Bryophyllum) reproduces asexually. Alternatively germinated mung beans could be used.A4. These miniature plants are ideal for investigating the effect of plant mineral deficiencies. You are provided with the following equipment: • • Mexican hat (Bryophyllum) plantlets or germinated mung beans a range of nutrient solutions. and an explanation of why these are necessary a statement of exactly what observations and measurements you will make and how they will be made information about how you will make sure the results are valid and reliable a risk assessment Have your plan and risk assessment checked by your teacher/lecturer before starting your practical work. Plantlets grow from buds along the leaf edge.
The latter produces more uniform. Table 1 Fibres and their uses Fibre Flax Cotton Hemp Coir Jute Manila Useful part of the plant Stem of flax plant Hairs on the seeds of plant belonging to the mallow family Fibres from the stem/leaves of the hemp plant Fibre from the husks of the fruit of the coconut Fibre from the stem of the jute plant Hard fibres from the leaves of a type of banana Softwood trunks Applications Linen for clothing Cotton for clothing Used for ropes. sacking and carpets Marine cables and other ropes. nets and matting Paper. ‘Fibres’ have been extracted from plant stems for centuries and used in the commercial manufacture of a wide range of textiles and paper. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Alternatively water retting may be used – stems are immersed in water. cardboard Pulp Fibres can be removed from plant stems by simply scraping away the upper layers of tissue or by retting. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. The term ‘fibres’ does not just refer to the sclerenchyma but is used to describe a range of ‘fibre-like’ structures. During soaking. Their use is dependent on their properties. It is then relatively easy to remove the cellulose-rich fibres. ropes Hessian. These plant fibres have been used for different purposes. namely planning an experiment that will produce appropriate results to test a hypothesis or idea. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Using plant fibres In this activity you extract the fibres from plants and then test their strength. The procedures on the next page use these techniques to extract the fibres from New Zealand flax leaves or nettle stems. backing for carpets Floor coverings. microbial action breaks down the stalks. • To develop certain experimental skills. higher quality fibres but is more expensive and produces nitrogen-rich waste-water that must be treated before discharge. © University of York Science Education Group. using apparatus and a procedure that is suitable to produce valid results.Student A4.18 Extraction of ‘fibres’ from plants Purpose • To extract ‘commercially useful fibres’ from a plant stem and investigate their properties. 1 of 3 . bacteria and fungi break down the soft tissues of the stems leaving the cellulose intact. as indicated in Table 1. This can be field retting – plant stems are cut or pulled up and left in the field to rot.18S CORE Activity 4.
18S CORE You need • Leaf of New Zealand flax plant • White tile • Scalpel or razor blade • Forceps Separate the fibres using forceps. they contain both the xylem vessels and the sclerenchyma fibres. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. You could extract and compare some different fibres. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. These ‘fibres’ are made up of the vascular tissue. Your plan should include a detailed description of the procedure used to test the fibres. Student A4.18 Extraction of ‘fibres’ from plants Extracting fibres from New Zealand flax Safety Take care when using a scalpel or razor blade Procedure 1 2 Carefully scrape the surface layer of tissue from each side of the leaf. Compression strength is the maximum stress caused by a pushing force that a material can withstand without crushing.Activity 4. Tensile strength is the maximum stress caused by a pulling force that a material can withstand without failing. It should use apparatus that will provide valid results. How strong are the extracted fibres? Are they as strong as the intact stem? Devise an experiment to test the strength of the fibres Strength can be defined as the maximum stress a material can withstand without failing (breaking). The outside cuticle and epidermal layer will rub away and the central pith will be left when you peel away the fibres. they contain both the xylem vessels and the sclerenchyma fibres. This may have already been done for you. 2 Remove the stems from the water. You need • Stems of mature stinging nettles or other plant stems • Bucket or bowl • Rubber gloves • Paper towels Procedure 1 Remove the leaves and any flowers from stems of mature stinging nettles. You could investigate whether the strength of the stem is entirely due to the fibres or whether the epidermis and packing tissue make a major contribution. Place the stems in a bowl/bucket of water so that they are completely submerged. The method should produce precise repeatable measurements that reduce any systematic or random errors. Extracting fibres from mature nettle stems Safety Wear eye protection and gloves when handling the unretted nettles to avoid being stung. 2 of 3 . The stems are soaked for at least a week. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Wash your hands after handling the soaked fibres. © University of York Science Education Group. You could design an experiment to find out if the plant fibres under tension are stronger or weaker than synthetic fibres. These ‘fibres’ are made up of the vascular tissue. leave them outdoors because they are very smelly. Wash the stems to remove the softened tissue and then dry the remaining fibres.
Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group. They must not be too stiff. 3 of 3 .Activity 4. How stiff are the extracted fibres and plant stems? Is it the fibres that make the stem stiff? Does stiffness vary between different plant fibres and stems? Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. This sheet may have been altered from the original.18 Extraction of ‘fibres’ from plants Can you think of any other important properties you could test for? Student A4.18S CORE Plant stems must not only be strong but often they must able to bend in the wind and return to their original shape without any permanent distortion.
The Practical Support has a sheet on plate pouring and aseptic technique. recording results and drawing valid conclusions from results. Whatman antibiotic assay paper discs) • Sterile Petri dish • Sterile forceps • Tape • Marker pen • Incubator set at 25 °C Antibacterial chemicals Plants are susceptible to infection by bacteria and fungi. The advantage of using methylated spirits instead of water is that it kills any bacteria that might otherwise contaminate the extract. such as working safely. This sheet may have been altered from the original. but would garlic be better? Mint may numb our gums but is it lethal to bacteria? In this activity you will investigate whether two plants contain antibacterial chemicals and their effectiveness by looking at the growth of bacteria on agar plates. Chemicals in their cells are toxic to bacteria or interfere with their metabolism in some other way.1 cm3 of extract onto a sterile 13 mm Whatman antibiotic assay paper disc. Pipette 0. if not. Do not open Petri dishes containing growing microorganisms. This may have been done for you in advance. 1 of 3 .Student A4. ©University of York Science Education Group. producing valid reliable results. (If these are not available.19 Why do they put mint in toothpaste? Would garlic be better? Purpose • To investigate the antibacterial properties of plants. read through the procedure and suggest what you might expect to observe on the plates. • To develop certain experimental skills. Procedure 1 Agar plates seeded with suitable bacteria need to be prepared. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Safety Methylated spirits is toxic and highly flammable and because of the latter hazard should not be used while naked flames are in use – which happens in the preparation and pouring of agar plates. Decide how you would take precise measurements to enable you to make valid conclusions from the data. destroy or inhibit the growth of certain bacteria. Several plants are known to. Only bin used Petri dishes after they have been autoclaved.g. follow the instructions on the sheet Pouring agar plates (page 3). Use aseptic techniques. they do everything to repel such attacks. A plant with this property is known as antibacterial. You need • Agar plate seeded with bacteria • Plant material (garlic cloves and mint leaves) • Pestle and mortar • 10 cm3 industrial methylated spirits • Pipette (sterile) • Paper discs (e.) 3 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Before you start.19S CORE Activity 4. 2 Obtain a plant extract by crushing 3 g of plant material with 10 cm3 of industrial methylated spirit and shake it from time to time for 10 minutes. or thought to. discs cut from new filter paper using a hole punch can be used. You can probably guess why there is mint in toothpaste.
Check with your teacher/lecturer before proceeding. the plant and bacteria used are recorded on the plate. Observe the plates without opening them.19 Why do they put mint in toothpaste? Would garlic be better? 4 5 6 Let the paper discs dry for 10 minutes on open sterile Petri dishes. 10 Do not throw the plates in the bin. making sure your report includes: • a discussion of any safety precautions taken • results presented in the most appropriate way • an explanation of any patterns in the data using evidence from the data and your own biological knowledge • comments on how valid your conclusion is • comments on how you ensured that the results obtained in this experiment were reasonably reliable • suggestions for how you could have obtained more reliable results.) 11 Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after completing the practical. Do not tape all round the dish because this can lead to the growth of anaerobic bacteria.Activity 4. Ensure that you can distinguish between the different discs by marking the underside of the Petri dish. making separate test discs for each extract. 2 of 3 .19S CORE Student Repeat steps 1 to 4 for other plants. Three test discs and a control can be placed on a single Petri dish. Make any appropriate measurements that will enable you to compare the antibacterial properties of the different plant extracts. Bacterial growth on an agar plate looks cloudy. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. ©University of York Science Education Group. the date. 8 9 Incubate the plates for 24 hours at 25 °C. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 13 Write up your experiment. Use sterile forceps to place the test discs onto the bacterial plate together with the suitable control per plate. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 12 Present your results in the most appropriate way. (The unopened Petri dishes will need to be autoclaved before disposal in the dustbin. 7 clear tape Figure 1 A convenient way of taping a Petri dish without allowing anaerobic conditions to develop. Make sure your name. A4. Decide within your group what a ‘suitable control’ should be. Close the Petri dish and tape it as shown in Figure 1. some of which may be harmful.
2 Melt the agar by placing the bottle or tube in a hot water bath (agar melts at 97 °C). See Figure 2 below. The lid of the Petri dish should only be lifted enough to allow entry of the pipette. NE–SW and NW–SE to mix the bacteria with the agar and allow the agar to set. ©University of York Science Education Group. Aseptic techniques should be used throughout to avoid contamination. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Replace lid and tape as shown. a temperature at which you can handle the bottle. 5 Pour the 15 cm3 of molten agar into the Petri dish and replace the lid. Take care not to let it cool too much or it will set as you pour it into the Petri dish. otherwise once the bacteria have started to grow they will be unaffected by the antimicrobial agent. 3 of 3 . You will need to use a cloth to do this. The agar will start to solidify at about 42 °C. N–S. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.19 Why do they put mint in toothpaste? Would garlic be better? Pouring agar plates Safety Do not do this procedure if methylated spirits is in use as part of this activity. Flame neck of culture tube. Pipette into Petri dish. 6 Please note: It is essential that the plates are used for the investigation an hour or so after the agar has set. Procedure A4. Gently push the plate back and forth. This sheet may have been altered from the original.19S CORE Student You need • 15 cm3 of sterile agar in an agar bottle or test tube • Beaker into which the agar bottle will fit • Sterile Petri dish • 1 cm3 sterile pipette 1 Collect a bottle or test tube containing 15 cm3 of sterile nutrient agar. Raise just enough to give access.Activity 4. Flame neck of culture and replace plug. 3 Once all the agar has melted remove the bottle. Allow the agar to cool to about 50 °C. If the bottle has a screw cap it should be loosened to allow air to escape. Figure 2 Aseptic techniques. 4 Pipette 1 cm3 of bacterial broth into a sterile Petri dish using an aseptic technique. cotton plug from tube sterile pipette Take sample.
In homeopathy. produce similar effects to the patient’s symptoms. Only a few of these have been subjected to clinical trials. Read the brief descriptions of a few alternative therapies below. Remember that the placebo effect.) Choose one ‘alternative’ therapy and design a trial to test its efficacy (effectiveness). It is believed that the more they are diluted the more effective they are. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. concentrating on the areas which are thought to affect the afflicted part.20S Student Activity 4. very fine needles are stuck into the patient at special sites. 1 of 1 . See the weblinks for this activity for more details. Reflexology is based on the idea that specific areas of a person’s feet influence parts of the rest of the body. (You can find out more details in the New Scientist 26th May 2001 edition. the patient uses minute quantities of substances which would. This sheet may have been altered from the original. some rigorous acupuncture trials have produced very positive findings. is thought to be particularly strong in this area. However. What similarities and differences do you notice? In what way is the current system of drug testing safer and more reliable? What do we gain nowadays from testing the drug on healthy volunteers first? Why is it important to: a randomly assign patients to the treatments b have a double blind trial? (Assume the researchers are well meaning and honest!) Q6 Many people in the UK use ‘alternative’ therapies such as aromatherapy. Different essential oils are used to treat different conditions. and a second showing the steps involved in developing a new drug today. if given in much larger amounts. These may be inhaled. red onions may be used to treat watery eyes. and in many cases where trials have been run the results have been ambiguous.A4. it has several articles in a special section on this subject and is accessible on the New Scientist Archive website. so you will need to design your placebo with care. Compare the two flow charts. rosemary can be used for muscle pains and dandruff. Although digitalis can be fatal in even quite small doses it was used for centuries in herbal remedies to treat some heart conditions. The feet are massaged. or diluted in other oils and massaged onto the skin. and reflexology. In aromatherapy. The needles are said to influence the flow of energy in the patient and vibrations of the needles can change the effects. patients are treated with ‘essential oils’ from plants.) The substances are diluted to extremely low concentrations. Q1 Make two flow charts: one outlining the stages that William Withering went through when he was working on digitalis. © University of York Science Education Group. where the patient’s belief in the procedure affects the outcome. homeopathy.20 Testing a new drug Purpose To compare William Withering’s approach to drug development with methods used by drug companies today. while lavender can be used for acne. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. For example. Skill is needed to make sure the needles are accurately sited. asthma and hypertension. (For example. The man responsible for bringing the use of digitalis into conventional medicine in the 1700s was William Withering. Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 In acupuncture. Aromatherapy is the use of volatile plant oils for physical and psychological wellbeing. Read through sections in the textbook titled ‘Digitalis and drug development’ (page 185) and ‘Drug testing today’ (page 186) before attempting the questions. Digitalis Digitalis is a natural toxin found in foxgloves. Try to use the same layout to make comparisons easier.
Observe the corn as it heats. care must be taken to avoid any burns from spitting fat or popping corn. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. 3 Once the corn has ‘popped’. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. You must not eat the popped corn unless you do the practical with ‘food use only’ utensils. If water is present the granule absorbs the water and starts to swell. Add some annotated labels that could be included when they reprint the book. However. Here you can have a go at popping some corn and then try to explain what has happened. If very little water is present and heating occurs under pressure the starch forms a plastic mass.21 Superheating starch Purpose • To describe the use of starch as a packaging material. Heat the pan gently over a medium heat. Superheating causes starch to gelatinise: as the starch is heated. Heated from cold with the corn. You need • 2 or 3 kernels of popping corn • Teaspoonful of cooking oil • Cooking pan Heating starch under pressure Ever wondered how they make savoury corn puffs (such as ‘Wotsits’)? It’s simply done by heating starch under pressure. The results look just like snacks but don’t try to eat them! The guidebook had failed to include labels on the diagram to explain the process. 2 Place two or three corn kernels in the oil. If water is superheated under pressure and then the pressure is released the water turns to steam.A4. wear eye protection and do not stand over the pan. corn snacks or starch foam packaging uses exactly the same principle as popping corn. the oil is less likely to spit. held in a clamp and angled so that you can see down into the pan from a safe distance. hydrogen bonds within the granules break. Making pop corn in the kitchen would be done with a lid covering the pan. Procedure 1 Place a teaspoonful of oil into a cooking pan. This sheet may have been altered from the original. 4 Observe the corn carefully. Figure 1 is from a guidebook for a factory tour. What happens when the starch in corn kernels is superheated? You get popcorn. Only a small amount of oil is used.21S Student Activity 4. Starch extruders Making puffed breakfast cereal. Safety Care must be taken when heating oil and popping corn without a lid. Do not place the corn straight into hot oil. You could use a plane mirror. 5 Explain your observations. Here. taking care to stand well clear in case the oil spits. 1 of 2 . without a lid. Do not use any more than a teaspoon of oil. remove the pan from the heat and allow it to cool. It shows a diagrammatic representation of a starch extruder that is used to make starch foam packaging. ©University of York Science Education Group.
2 of 2 . This sheet may have been altered from the original. How would you check that it was starch packaging? (Eating it is not a test!) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. it can also be moulded into shapes and made into transparent films. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. So.Activity 4. ©University of York Science Education Group.21 Superheating starch A4.21S Student starch water Figure 1 A starch extruder used to make starch foam packaging. Not only can starch be made into foam pellets. Think back Some science equipment comes packed in starch packaging. To find out more about starch foams and films see the weblinks for this activity. the foam box that fruit is sometimes packed in at a supermarket and the clear film that covers it can both be made of starch.
Do this by completing one of the on-line questionnaires that can be found in the weblinks accompanying this activity. or ‘Earth Summit’. This sheet may have been altered from the original. These included Agenda 21. © University of York Science Education Group. The aim is to encourage people to think globally but act locally. and probably more than two. list the negative and positive impacts that humans have on the world.22S Student Activity 4. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. this requires each country to draw up a national strategy of sustainable development and is implemented by UK local authorities. So the impact we have on our planet will also rise. Make a list of 5 ways you could make your lifestyle more sustainable. Making our lifestyles more sustainable In 1987 the Brundtland report highlighted the need for development that could be sustained without depleting natural resources or harming the environment. saw international agreements to increase sustainability. Your ecological footprint Measure your own demands on the planet and to calculate your individual ecological footprint. To consider ways of achieving greater sustainability. Your footprint is given in terms of Earth units i.A4. 1 of 1 . in Rio de Janeiro. The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.22 Is your lifestyle sustainable? Purpose To calculate your own ecological footprint. What impact do we have on the planet now? As individuals or in groups.e. Brazil. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Identify those impacts that you contribute to directly or indirectly. You will almost certainly find that your footprint is greater than one planet. But remember that it not as simple as changing to using plant-based products if natural forest and all its biodiversity has been destroyed to plant the crops. the number of planet-Earths we would need to support everyone now alive if they all had your particular lifestyle. Human impacts on the world The world population is estimated to rise by 40% in the next 50 years.
location and any movements between zoos. 1 of 3 . you have to identify key individuals involved in the captive breeding programme. L1 Sex F *Sire *Wild *Dam Wild Date of Event Aug 1985 Aug 1985 Nov 1996 Nov 1990 Dec 1990 Nov 1996 Jul 1999 Nov 1990 Dec 1990 Nov 1990 Dec 1990 Nov 1990 Dec 1990 Dec 1992 Apr 1998 Jul 1999 Nov 1990 Dec 1990 May 1998 Aug 1993 Dec 1998 Aug 1994 May 1998 Aug 1994 Mar 1995 Apr 1998 Jul 1995 Nov 1996 Event Capture Transfer to Death Capture Loan to Transfer to Transfer to Capture Loan to Capture Loan to Capture Loan to Transfer to Transfer to Transfer to Capture Loan to Transfer to Birth Transfer to Birth Transfer to Birth Birth Transfer to Birth Loan to Location Malagasy Zoo G Zoo G Malagasy Zoo A Zoo B Zoo A Malagasy Zoo A Malagasy Zoo A Malagasy Zoo A Zoo G Zoo A Zoo B Malagasy Zoo A Zoo D Zoo A Zoo C Zoo A Zoo D Zoo A Zoo G Zoo A Zoo A Zoo B L4 M Wild Wild L5 L8 L10 M F M Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild L11 M Wild Wild L13 L15 L16 L20 L21 M F M F F L5 L5 L5 L10 L5 L8 L8 L8 L1 L8 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.23 Animal dating agency Purpose • To examine the use of studbooks to manage captive populations of endangered animals. What are studbooks? Studbooks are kept by zoos involved in breeding endangered species. Names of the actual zoos and the species of lemur have been removed for reasons of privacy. Stud No. their parents. © University of York Science Education Group. using real data from a lemur studbook. In this activity. This sheet may have been altered from the original.23S Student Activity 4. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. They keep a record of the history of all captive individuals. This should highlight the complexity of animal management in a modern zoo. Managing captive lemur populations Read pages 195–197 of the AS textbook and then use the data in Table 1 taken from a lemur studbook to answer the questions that follow.A4.
2 of 3 . This sheet may have been altered from the original. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. © University of York Science Education Group.A4.23S Activity 4.23 Animal dating agency L22 L24 L25 L26 L27 L28 F M M M M M L5 L11 L11 L5 L5 Wild L8 L15 L15 L8 L8 Wild Apr 1996 Jun 1998 May 1996 May 1998 May 1996 May 1998 Jan 1997 Jan 1997 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Dec 1998 Jan 2001 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Oct 1998 Oct 2001 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Dec 1998 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Dec 1998 Jan 2001 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Jun 1998 Oct 2001 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Nov 2001 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Dec 1998 Mar 1997 Apr 1997 Oct 1998 Jan 1998 Jun 1998 Feb 2002 Jul 1998 Dec 1998 Oct 1998 Oct 1998 Birth Transfer to Birth Transfer to Birth Transfer to Birth Birth Capture Transfer to Transfer to Death Capture Transfer to Capture Transfer to Transfer to Transfer to Capture Transfer to Transfer to Capture Transfer to Transfer to Death Capture Transfer to Transfer to Transfer to Capture Transfer to Death Capture Transfer to Capture Transfer to Transfer to Capture Transfer to Transfer to Birth Birth Transfer to Birth Transfer to Birth Birth Student Zoo A Zoo E Zoo A Zoo D Zoo A Zoo D Zoo A Zoo A Malagasy Zoo A Zoo F Zoo F Malagasy Zoo A Malagasy Zoo A Zoo C Zoo E Malagasy Zoo A Zoo F Malagasy Zoo A Zoo F Zoo F Malagasy Zoo A Zoo E Zoo C Malagasy Zoo A Zoo A Malagasy Zoo A Malagasy Zoo A Zoo F Malagasy Zoo A Zoo C Zoo A Zoo A Zoo H Zoo A Zoo F Zoo A Zoo A L29 L30 M M L28 Wild Wild Wild L31 M Wild Wild L32 F Wild Wild L34 M L33 L32 L38 M Wild Wild L39 L40 F F Wild Wild Wild Wild L41 F Wild Wild L42 L44 L46 L47 L48 F M M M M L5 L38 L31 L5 L5 L8 L39 L40 L8 L8 Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.
Which males must she not be paired with and why? Wild-caught animals are genetically important. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Sire = father.23 Animal dating agency L49 L50 L51 L52 L53 L57 L58 L60 L62 L63 L64 L65 L66 L75 M F M M M M F M F F F M M M L38 L5 L5 L31 L31 L29 L38 L5 L29 L29 L38 L31 L31 L5 L39 L8 L8 L40 L40 L20 L39 L8 L20 L20 L39 L40 L40 L8 Apr 1999 Aug 1999 Jul 2001 Aug 1999 May 1999 May 1999 Mar 2000 Apr 2000 Oct 2000 Jan 2001 Jan 2001 Apr 2001 May 2000 May 2001 Jul 2001 Birth Birth Transfer to Birth Birth Birth Birth Birth Birth Birth Birth Birth Birth Birth Birth Student Zoo A Zoo A Zoo H Zoo A Zoo F Zoo F Zoo A Zoo A Zoo A Zoo A Zoo A Zoo A Zoo F Zoo F Zoo A *Note Wild-caught animals: an assumption is made that wild-caught animals are not related. 3 of 3 . a Why do you think this is the case? b Which lemur(s) in the studbook extract are the most important to breed from? Give reasons for the use of studbooks in captive-breeding programmes? Q4 Websites for further information • • The American Zoo and Aquaria website gives a good description of what a studbook is and how it works. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Other studbooks can also be accessed on the web by conducting a search with the terms ‘studbook’ and ‘zoo’. Source: DWCT/Jersey Zoo. © University of York Science Education Group. Dam = mother. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. The website is in the weblinks that accompany this activity.A4. Questions Q1 Q2 Q3 Which female lemur in Zoo A has had the most offspring? L21 needs a new mate.23S Activity 4.
1 of 3 .A4. • To examine some data on the captive breeding of the Mauritius kestrel which provides an example of how captive breeding can be highly effective. The plan was drawn up by the Madagascar Fauna Group. This sheet may have been altered from the original. The group includes the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust based at Jersey Zoo.24S Student Activity 4. a collection of conservation organisations concerned with biodiversity conservation on the island. In order to ensure that a reintroduction programme is going to work it is vital that research is conducted to find out exactly how well captive-bred individuals can survive in the wild. The Betampona forest reserve was chosen as the release site as it was a protected site and research had shown that the area could benefit from an increase in the wild Varecia population. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. a web-based journal produced by the Madagascar Fauna Group. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Back in 1997 a plan was put into action to release some captive-bred black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) back into their native forest in the northwest of Madagascar.24 Putting them back Purpose • To highlight some of the complications of releasing captive-bred animals back into the wild using the example of the release of captive-bred black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) back into their native forests of Eastern Madagascar. © University of York Science Education Group. Ruffed lemur reintroduction Figure 1 Varecia variegata variegata ready for release. Study this report on the release of captive-bred black-and-white ruffed lemurs before completing the questions that follow. The following is an extract from Lemur News.
and at least one of these offspring is also presumed to have fallen victim to C. This paper will discuss the impact of this predator on the success of the project and its implications for future reinforcement or reintroduction efforts. one pair produced triplets in October 1999. However. travel and navigation within the forest. v. The impact of Cryptoprocta ferox on the Varecia v. variegata released to date. Give reasons for the inclusion (or non-inclusion) of juvenile or adult lemurs in the release programme. A. Also both groups have shown similar ranging patterns to wild V. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A4. Three males and one female released in January 2001 are still surviving and showing good signs of adaptation in terms of food location. 1998. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. 2 of 3 . variegata) in the Betampona Reserve since 1997 (Britt et al. Lemur News provides reports on other lemur species and conservation work being conducted in Madagascar on this unique group of mammals. Lemur News 6. three females) have been killed by C. Of the remaining animals one male died as a result of injuries sustained during a fall or possibly malnutrition and another female simply disappeared. Extract from Britt. v. 2000). This group showed no inclination to range far from their release site in search of food. but also due to her poor adaptation over a period of 2 years in the forest.24S Activity 4. © University of York Science Education Group. (2001).. family: Viverridae] called the fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). Preliminary analyses of behavioural data indicate that individuals with early or long-term experience in enclosures that simulate the natural forest environment of this species adapt better to life in the wild. A. C. ferox. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 What was the fate of the released captive-bred lemurs? What percentage of the released lemurs survived? Why was ‘supplemental feeding’ carried out on the release group? Do the results give any indication that captive-bred lemurs can be successfully released into the wild? Suggest what modifications a zoo could make to their reintroduction programme to increase the chances of successful release into the wild. Of these five. However. 35–37.24 Putting them back Student Extract As previously reported the Madagascar Fauna Group have been attempting an experimental reinforcement of captive-bred black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia v. The release programme Of the 13 captive-bred V. others have adapted poorly. For both groups it has been possible to stop supplemental feeding within a few months of release. the second release group had very limited experience (a few months) in ‘natural habitat enclosures’ and remained reliant on provisioning throughout their 2 years in the forest. regardless of the degree of adaptation it is clear that captive-bred individuals of this species are extremely vulnerable to predation by a cat-like carnivore [actually a civet. One male from the November 1997 release is integrated into a wild group and thriving. It is particularly disappointing that this pair who had been able to reproduce and raise triplets were killed. ferox predation. This has been the case for both the first and third release groups. Whilst some individuals have shown encouraging signs of adaptation to a wild existence. A female released in November 1998 has been withdrawn from the programme following the killing of her two fellow releasees by C. and Katz. The website for Lemur News can be found in the weblinks that accompany this activity. five (two males. variegata Reinforcement Project at Betampona. ferox. variegata and have established territories of comparable size. Welch.
from endangered to vulnerable. 3 of 3 . The website is in the weblinks that accompany this activity. © University of York Science Education Group. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. This sheet may have been altered from the original. Season 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Total population 4 6 6 12 15 16 18 20 17 20 20 34 35 34 48 62 110 135 Natural production 0 2 0 6 6 5 4 4 3 8 5 12 8 8 8 8 10 12 Number of captive fledglings released Number fostered 5 12 13 12 24 26 55 53 12 8 8 10 12 28 24 Source: The data are from a paper by Carl Jones. Based on the shape of the graph for natural production do you think that the species would have gone extinct over time without the release of captive-bred stock? What natural events could have caused the natural population to go extinct if numbers had remained low over a long period? Q10 One argument for increasing population size rapidly when the original population of a species is low is that it generates more individuals. Table 1 Changes in population size of the Mauritius kestrel.24 Putting them back Student Saving the Mauritius kestrel Table 1 shows the changes in population size for the Mauritius kestrel (Falco punctatus) from its low point in 1973. published by DWCT).A4. Mauritius Wildlife Fund (Dodo Journal. What could have happened to the wild kestrel population as a result of inbreeding? The Mauritius Wildlife Foundation website provides additional information on the kestrel and other species currently being brought back from the brink of extinction on the island of the dodo. Q7 Q8 Q9 Explain the impact of releasing captive-bred kestrels on the total wild population. The species was reclassified. By 2002 the wild population was over 350 pairs and the population had stabilised. Using a spreadsheet (or graph paper) draw a graph of the data to illustrate the changes that took place between 1973 and 1990. Use this to answer the questions that follow.24S Activity 4. Direct management of the wild population began in 1983. This involved a combination of fostering captive-bred kestrels by wild pairs and release of captive-bred fledglings. some of which should be able to survive the impact of inbreeding. with only two known pairs surviving in the wild. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. up to 1990.
Why may seeds lose their viability with time? Q3 Some plant species’ seeds are longer-lived than others. a British woodland herb only survive seed bank storage for a year or two at best. For example. © University of York Science Education Group. However. a What are the advantages of seeds being long-lived in the wild? b Why is it useful for researchers at the seed bank to know the longevity of the seeds in their care? Q4 The Millenium Seed Bank Project (MSBP) is conducting research to determine the longevity of the seeds they store. whereas sunflower seeds and oil-seed rape have predicted longevity of 165 years and 843 years respectively. a b Identify the shortest-lived and longest-lived species. M yosotis arvensis H ypericum perforatum Prunella vulgaris Plantago lanceolata R anunculus sceleratus C hrysanthem um leucanthem um O riganum vulgare D ipsacus fullonum Brassica napus R um ex acetosa 100 Figure 1 Results of an experiment to investigate longevity of 10 species. read the SNAB AS textbook and visit the MSB website and find out more about the creation of a worldwide seed conservation network to safeguard wild plant species. 80 Germination (%) 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Storage tim e (days) Source: Millenium Seed Bank Save Our Seeds Project Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. Seed longevity is measured as the time for viability to fall to 50%.25S Student Activity 4. Seeds are considered viable if they can germinate and produce a radicle (young root) which protrudes through the seed coat (testa). This sheet may have been altered from the original. Figure 1 shows the results some of the results research completed as part of the Save our Seeds project. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Seed banks Watch the video about the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) that accompanies this activity.A4. with time all seeds lose their ability to germinate. Anemone nemerosa.25 More than just saving seeds Purpose • To discuss and evaluate the methods used by seed banks in the conservation of endangered plants. Then answer the questions that follow. Questions Q1 Draw a flow chart to summarise the processes involved in the storage of seeds in a seed bank. and the chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum). seeds of wood anemone. Comment on the longevity of the buttercup (Ranunculus sceleratus). Look at the results on page 2. Q2 The scientists operating the seed bank need their seeds to remain viable while in storage. 1 of 2 .
Q7 International partnerships are an important feature of conservation and reintroduction programmes. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.A4.25S Activity 4. Explain why the priorities of the scientists at the MSB need to be balanced with those of international partners. © University of York Science Education Group. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. Describe one example from the UK and one from aboard. People express views both for and against. Q8 Describe how seed bank collections can be used for research and education.25 More than just saving seeds Student Q5 The MSB Project identifies habitats and species that are a priority for seed conservation. Many partners within the Project focus seed collection on particular species. Q9 There is much discussion about the role of zoos in the conservation of endangered species. What features are used to decide which species are collected? Q6 MSBP collections are being used for the reintroduction of species to the wild. Discuss whether the concerns that many people have about zoos also apply to seed banks. 2 of 2 .. This sheet may have been altered from the original.
5) Discuss examples of adaptation of organisms to their environment (behavioural.5) Describe how natural selection can lead to adaptation and evolution.14.3 and 4. (Activities 4.14) Compare the structures.26S Student Activity 4.15 and 4. © University of York Science Education Group. (Activities 4.11 and 4. (Activities 4.12) Compare the structure and ultrastructure of plant cells (cell wall.6) Explain the terms biodiversity and endemism.10) Describe how biodiversity can be measured within a habitat using species richness and within a species using genetic diversity.6) (Activities 4.e. (Checkpoint question 4. position in the stem and function of sclerenchyma fibres (support) and xylem vessels (support and transport of water and mineral ions). (Checkpoint question 4. chloroplasts. This sheet may have been altered from the original.2) (Activity 4. pits and middle lamella) with that of animal cells.3) (Activities 4.A4.18) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. (Activity 4. (Checkpoint question 4. plasmodesmata. (Checkpoint question 4.4) (Activity 4.5) (Activity 4. physiological and anatomical). vacuole.9 and 4. (Activity 4.15) Explain how the arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls and secondary thickening contribute to the physical properties of plant fibres.26 Check your notes for Topic 4: Biodiversity and natural resources Purpose • To help you get your notes in order at the end of this topic.1) (Activities 4. variety of alleles in a gene pool. amyloplasts. 1 of 2 .13) Compare the structure and function of the polysaccharides starch and cellulose including the role of hydrogen bonds between α-glucose molecules in the formation of cellulose microfibrils. 4. Topic 4 summary Make sure your notes cover the following points. three domains based on molecular phylogeny). All the points are covered in the textbook but where there is supporting information within the activities this is indicated. e. The points are listed in the approximate order they appear within the topic.15 and 4. There are suggestions on making notes and on revision in the Exam/coursework support. (Checkpoint question 4. tonoplast.4 and 4. (Checkpoint question 4.g. which can be exploited by humans. which leads to new taxonomic groupings (i.16) Identify sclerenchyma fibres and xylem vessels as seen through a light microscope. You should be able to: o o o o o o o o o o o Describe the concept of niche. Pearson Education Ltd 2008.7) Discuss the process and importance of critical evaluation of new data by the scientific community.
22) Explain the importance of water and inorganic ions (nitrate.7) (Activities 4.19) Discuss and evaluate the methods used by zoos and seedbanks in the conservation of endangered species and their genetic diversity (e.17) Describe how to investigate plant mineral deficiencies practically.g.24 and 4.20) Describe how to investigate the antimicrobial properties of plants. (Activity 4.25) Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology.17) Compare historic drug testing with contemporary drug testing protocols. Pearson Education Ltd 2008. plantbased products to replace oil-based plastics.23.18) Describe how the uses of plant fibres and starch may contribute to sustainability. e. three-phased testing. captive breeding programmes. (Activity 4. reintroduction programmes and education).g. (Activity 4.26 Check your notes for Topic 4 Student o o o o o o o Describe how to determine the tensile strength of plant fibres practically. 4.A4. double blind trials. This sheet may have been altered from the original. (Activity 4. (Activity 4. e. © University of York Science Education Group.26S Activity 4. placebo. calcium ions and magnesium ions) to plants. William Withering’s digitalis soup. (Activity 4.g. (Checkpoint question 4. scientific research. 2 of 2 .
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