1

rmwdum
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Studies in Pathy History

pum;OD; . . . . . .
omoemjyKc&D;xGufawmfrlMuaom qG[mA[fom0uBuD;rsm;
(ta&SYawmiftm&SodkYtpövmrfomoema&muf&Sdjcif;) . . . . .
yk*HjynfydwfoHkrif;acwf (c&pfESpf 652-660) . . . . .
{&m0wDjrpf0uRef;ay:a'oodkh rGwfpvifrsm; pwiftajccsjcif; . . . . .
acwfOD;ydkif;jrefrmhordkif;twGuf ta&;ygonfhref½SL;usrf; . . . . .
c&pfESpf(864)ESpfu a&;aom ref½SL;usrf;vmyoDtaMumif; . . . . .
ynm&Sifrsm; wdwdyy rodonfh ]yoD} a'o . . . . .
pmwrf;&Sif\ t,ltq . . . . .
&cdkifjynfwGif OD;pGmtajcpdkufaexdkifjcif; . . . .
c&pfESpf 700 rwdkifrD &ckdifjynftajctae . . . . .
t&AfESifh yg&Sef;c&D;oGm;rSwfwrf;taxmuftxm;rsm; . . . . .
jrefrmUordkif;twGuf ta&;ygaom t&Afpmaytaxmuftxm;rsm; . . . . .
yk*Hacwf ykodrfNrdKYESifh yoDrif;rsm;

1
5
7
10
14
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18
20
21
23
25
29

yg'EdkifiHawmf&mZ0ifordkif;rS oJvGefp . . . . .
ukvm;[laom a0g[m& . . . . .
yk*HacwfykodrfNrdKYESifUyoDrif;rsm; . . . . .
yoDrif;quf . . . . .
yoDrif;rsm;tkyfcsKyfcJUaMumif; taxmuftxm; . . . . .
ykodrfNrdKYESifh ukvm;eef;awmf . . . . .

32
34
36
38
39
40

'@m&DwGif 0ifa&mufaysmufuG,foGm;aom yoDrif;orD;
18/
19/
20/
21/
22/

Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;\ '@m&D . . . . .
yef;wifukef;&yf . . . . .
OD;vli,f\ ]ukr&EDÅvuFm} rS oJvGefp . . . . .
Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;\ acwfumv . . . . .
pmudk; . . . . .

42
43
46
49
51

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

(1991 ck atmufwb
kd mv 1&ufaehwiG f
AH;k td;k &Gm OD;pGvw
f mG ef \ aetdrw
f iG f
armfvemOD;wGmpDefESifh armfvem OD;[muifwdkhESpfOD;rS
BuD;rSL;aom tcef;tem;ü zwfMum;aompmwrf;/)

2

3

Studies in Pathy History

pum;OD;
<ua&mufvmMuwJh yoDtrsK;d om;wdik ;f &if;om;nDaemifrsm;cifAsm;..
ESppf Ofusi;f yNrJjzpfwJh a,mifrGeyf oDtcef;tem;rSm ,ckvkdpmwrf;
zwfcGihf&wJhtwGuf *kP,
f l0rf;ajrmufaMumif; aus;Zl;wifpum;ajymMum;
vdkygw,f/
uRefawmf ,ckzwfMum;wifoGi;f rJh pmwrf;uawmh yoDordki;f
avhvmcsurf sm; pmwrf;jzpfygw,f/ ordki;f pmwrf;qdk&mrSmudkyJ yk*HacwfeJY
oufqkdiw
f Jhordki;f rsm;jzpfygw,f/ yk*H&mZ0if 'kwx
f rf;ajym&w,fqkdwJh
qdk½k;d pum;udk Mum;zl;Muygvdrrhf ,f/ 'Dqk½d k;d pum;[m taMumif;rJah y:ayguf
vmwm r[kwyf gbl;/ yk*HacwfeJYqkdiw
f Jh jzpf&yftaxmuftxm;rsm;[m
cufcJcufqpfrsm;jzpfNyD; eufeJord af rGUvGe;f vdkY tifrwef tjiif;tcHkrsm;&wJh
ordik ;f acwfBuD;jzpfvYkd yk*&H mZ0if'w
k x
f rf;ajym&w,fvYkd qdMk ujcif;jzpfygw,f/
odawmfrlMuwJhtwdki;f yJ uRefawmf[m ordki;f ynm&Siw
f pfa,muf
r[kwyf gbl;/ ordik ;f bmom&yfukd pdw0f ifpm;avhvmolwpfO;D om jzpfygw,f/
taxGaxGordki;f awGukd avhvm&if;uaeNyD; ukvm;tac:cH&vGe;f
vdkY udk,o
hf rdki;f udk jyefavhvmrdcyhJ gw,f/ a&SUaeOD;jr&JU ArmrGwpf vifordki;f
tusO;f utp q&mOD;bdk;cs,?f a&TbkdOD;bOD; tv,f yoDOD;udkukdav;&JU
jrefrmEdkiif HeJY tpövmrfomoemordki;f usr;f rsm;udk i,fpOfuyif avhvmcJh&
ygw,f/ tJ'Dordki;f usr;f awG&JUaus;Zl;aMumifh udk,ho
f rdki;f udk,f wefzkd;xm;

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

4

&aumif;rSe;f odcyhJ gw,f/ tJ'v
D kd avhvmrSwo
f m;pl;prf;&if;eJY azmfjyygordikf ;f
usr;f rsm;xJrSm yk*HacwfyoDawG&JU ordki;f udk pmrsuEf Smenf;enf;pDom a&;
om;azmfjyxm;wmudk owdjyKrdcJhygw,f/ 'Dtm;enf;csuu
f kdjznfhr,fvkdY
oH"|d mefcsNy;D yk*aH cwfeo
YJ ufqikd w
f yhJ oDordik ;f udk txl;jyKNy;D avhvmrdchJ ygw,f/
tJ'Dvkd yk*Hacwfukd aZmufcsavhvmvdkuw
f Jhtcg txufrSmazmf
jyxm;wJh ordik ;f usr;f rsm;rSm rygao;wJh ordik ;f taxmuftxm;rsm;udk avhvm
awGU&&dS ygw,f/
'Dvkdordki;f tcsut
f vuf topfawGukd awGU&wJhtcg udk,ho
f rdki;f
udk ydkNyD;wefbkd;xm; jrwfEkd;rdygw,f/ uRefawmfwpfa,mufwnf; tae eJY
ajym&&if yk*aH cwfyoDordik ;f avhvm&wm[m wpfaxmifw
h pfnyHjk yifawG xGuf
xl;qef;tHhMozG,f pdw0f ifpm;zG,&f aSd eygw,f/
,ckzwfMum;r,fh pmwrf;udk 1984 ckESprf S 1989 ckESpu
f mv
twGi;f a&;om;NyD;pD;cJyh gw,f/ 1989 ckEpS af emuf aemufykid ;f 5ESpw
f mumv
twGi;f aemufaemuf xyfjznfhpGujf yifqifp&mawG tawmfrsm;rsm; avhvm
awGU&adS yr,fh 'Dtcef;tem;rD jznfph u
G af &;om;zdkY tcsed rf &wmu wpfaMumif;?
<ua&mufvmwJh yoDrw
d af qGnDaemifrsm;xHrS wkeYjf yefvmr,fh a0zeftMuHjyK
h iG ;f jyifqifvkw
d mu wpfaMumif;rdkY rlv
csurf sm;udkvnf wpfygwnf; xnfo
1989 ckESpf rltwdki;f yJ zwfMum;wifjyzdkY qHk;jzwfvkduyf gw,f/
'Dpmwrf;[m yoDordki;f rS[m yoDordki;f avhvmcsurf sm;&JY tydki;f
(1) yk*Hacwf jzpfygw,f/ tydki;f (1)rSm tcef; (3)cef;cGJNyD; yxrtcef;rSm
yk*HacwfOD;ydki;f ? 'kw,
d tcef;rSm yk*Hacwftv,fykdi;f ? wwd,tcef;rSm
yk*aH cwfaESmif;ydik ;f qdNk yD; tcef;acgif;pOfrsm; zGUJ ygw,f/ 'Dtcef; (3)cef;tjynfh
tpHk[m vufESyd pf ufpmrsuEf Sm (80)ausmf &Srd SmrdkY ,cktcef;tem;rSm tp
tqHk; zwfzkYd rjzpfEkid yf gbl;/ 'gaMumifh y0xrtcef;jzpfwhJ yk*aH cwfO;D ydki;f udk
yJ zwfMum;wifjyygr,f/
___

5

Studies in Pathy History

rSw f csuf
þ pmwrf;udk zwf½MI uaom tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm;onf
wrefawmfjrwfrk[r®'f (
qG[mA[frsm; (
awGU&onfhtcg

) ESifh wrefawmf\
) \

trnf emrrsm;udk

oufqdkif&m enf;vrf;twdkif; qkawmif;

arwå mydkY Muyg&ef/

6

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

yoDordkif;avhvmcsufrsm;

?

yk*Hacwf
tydkif; - 1

S TUDIES I N P ATHI H IS
TOR
Y
IST
ORY
PAGAN PERIOD

7

Studies in Pathy History

tcef; (1)

omoemjyKc&D;xGufawmfrlMuaom qG[mA[fom0uBuD;rsm;
ta&SaY wmiftm&Sohkd tpövmrfomoema&muf&jdS cif;
tpövmrfomoemonf jrefrmEdkiif [
H k ,ckac:wGio
f wfrw
S x
f m;aom
t&yfa'oodkY rnfonfah cwf rnfonfEh pS u
f pí a&muf&cdS o
hJ enf;/ tpövmrf
bmom0if jrefrmwdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d pkrsm;\ jzpfay:wd;k wufro
I rdik ;f aMumif;udk
wdusjynfhpHkpGm od&ESd kdi&f eftwGuf þar;cGe;f udk tcdkit
f vHkajz qdk&ayrnf/
od&Yk mwGif tpövmrfomoem jrefrmhajray:odYk pwifa&muf&dS onfch sed u
f mvudk
,wdjywf ajymqdEk idk zf u
Ykd m; rvG,u
f v
l aS cs/ tb,faMumifh qdak omf jrefrmhajrodYk
tpövmrfpwifa&muf&adS om umvonf jrefrmhordik ;f ESit
hf rQ a&S;usveG ;f vSaom
aMumifyh if/
tcsKdUordkif;q&mrsm;u wrefawmfjrwfBuD;vufxufawmfwGif
wynfo
h m0u ajrmufjrm;pGmwdko
Y nf twdki;f wdki;f tjynfjynfokYd omoemjyK
&ef xGucf mG oGm;cJMh uonf/ xdkt
Y euf 0[AfAiftbDuAf&mS acgif;aqmifonfh
omoemjyKtzGJUwpfzGJUonf c&pf (628) ckESpüf w½kwjf ynf uGru
f sK(d ,ck
tac: uefwHk) odkY qdkuaf &mufcJhMuonf/ xdktzGJUESihftwl wrefawmfjrwf
BuD;\ w½kwb
f k&ifxH a&;om;aom pmcRefawmfwpf&yfvnf; yg&Scd o
hJ nf/*
* ACultural Study of The Burmese Era byDr.R.L.Soni(Foreword by The Rt.
Hon’nle U Nu, the Prime Minister of the Union of Burma) 1955. pp.32,36.

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

8

om0uBuD; 0[AfAiftbDuAf&SmESiht
f zGJU0ifrsm;onf w½kwjf ynfokdY
a&vrf;c&D;ESicf JhMuonf/ yifv,ftoG,o
f G,u
f kd jzwfoef;&if; vrf;c&D;
wpfavQmuf&Sd qdyu
f rf;NrdKUtoD;oD;odkYvnf; 0ifa&mufqkduu
f yf&yfem;Mu&
f nf;
onf/ odkYjzpf&m &ckid jf ynfESihf jrefrmhurf;½dk;wef;qdyu
f rf;NrdKUrsm;wGiv
xdo
k moemjyKtzGUJ 0if qG[mA[focifBuD;rsm; ajccs&yfwefaY wmfrcl MhJ uvdrhf rnf/
ordki;f q&mtcsKUd u þodkyY if,q
l cJMh uonf/
om0uBuD;0[AfAiftbDuAf&mS ESizhf UJG \ w½kwjf ynfomoemjyKc&D;
pOfrpS OfrmS [pf*s&D (6)ckEpS w
f iG jf zpf&m xdkc&D;pOfEiS hf a&SUqifah emufqifq
h ko
d vdk
yif tjcm;Q[mA[focifwpfO;D vnf; w½kwjf ynfoYkd a&muf&cdS o
hJ nfh taxmuf
txm;rsm; &Sad vonf/ ¤if;qG[mA[focif\ trnfrmS qmt'fvmbpf[Af&dS
jzpfonf/
OD;pGmyxr om0uBuD;qmt'fvmbpf[Af&o
DS nf bmoma&;zdEydS f
rIrsm;aMumifh ruúma&TNrdKUawmfrS tDo,
D kyd ;D ,m;Edkiif o
H kYd wrefawmfjrwfBuD;\
cGihjf yKcsujf zifh a&TUajymif;wdr;f a&SmifcJhonfhtzGJUwiG f yg0ifcJhonf/ tDoD,kd;yD;
,m;Edkiif HwGif aexdki&f mrS rMumrD t&AfvlrsK;d wdkY\ pGeYfpm;oGm;vmvdkonfh
ADZrsK;d aphu om0uBuD;qmt'fvmbpfocif\ pdwEf SvHk;udk vIUHaqmfcJhav
onf/ om0BuD;onf tDoD,kdyD;,m;wGif Mum&Snaf exdkijf cif; rjyKawmhbJ
yifv,frS &Guv
f TihfNyD; tjcm;wdki;f jynfokdYoGm;&ef qHk;jzwfvkduyf gonf/
* xdt
k csed u
f mvü tm&Afw\
Ykd oabFmc&D;onf yg&Si;f yifv,fauGUrS ravESihf
ZGev
f wdkYwiG f ta&SUzufEkdiif Hrsm;odkY oabFm&Guv
f iT hMf uNyD; atmufwkd bmESihf
Edk0bFmwGif jyefvnfa&muf&w
dS wfMuygonf/
om0uBuD; qmt'fvmbpf[Af&\
DS c&D;pOfukMd unfv
h Qiyf if jrefrmh
yifv,furf;½dk;wef;udk rvGaJ oGjzwfoef;oGm;&rnfh a&aMumif;vrf;udk awGU&
rnfjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh jrefrmhykdief ufurf;½dk;wef;&Sd qdyu
f rf;NrdKU odkYr[kwf
* w½kwfjynfwGif rGwfpvifrsm;pwifa&muf&SdvmyHk-(Haji Ibrahim Tien Ying
M.A \ Muslim in China)

9

Studies in Pathy History

urf;ajcpcef;wpfckckwGif om0uBuD;pDeif;vdkuyf gvmaom oabFmonf
tenf;qHk;wpfBudrf qdkuu
f yfzkYd &So
d nf/ xdktcg om0uBuD;qmt'fvmbpf
ocifonf jrefrmhajrwGif ajccsqif;Munfrh nfjzpfaMumif; rSe;f qMunfEh ikd f onf/
þrSef;qcsufom rSefuefygu jrefrmEdkifiHodkY yxrqHk;a&mufvmonfh
tpövmrfbmom0ifrSm om0uBuD; qmt'fvmbpf[Af&SDocifjzpfonf[k
qdEk ikd af yonf/
om0uBuD; qmt'fvmbpf[Af&o
dS cifEiS hf ¤if;\wynfah wmf ,lpzG f
wdko
Y nf w½kwjf ynfokaYd &mufonft
h cg tpövmrfomoemjyefyY mG ;a&;twGuf
tm;BudK;rmefwuf aqmif&Gucf JhMuonf/ uefwHkNrdKUwGif ¤if;ocifESpyf g;
aqmufvkyw
f nfxm;cJhonfh ]]uGrw
f maqAvD}} (awmufyxGe;f vif;aom
arQmpf ifAvD) BuD;onf r'DemNrdKU&AdS vDrv
S v
JG Qif tm&AfEkid if rH [kwaf om tjcm;
Edkiif w
H iG f yxrqHk;AvDjzpfonf[k qdkonf/ *þrQtxd om0uBuD;qmt'f
vmbpf[Af&\
dS omoemjyKc&D;pOfonf acwfO;D ydki;f uscahJ vonf/

D

yk*HjynfydwfoHkrif;acwf(c&pfESpf 652-660)
tpövmrfbmom0if tm&Afc&D;onfrsm;

tpövmrfomoemay:xGe;f p yxr&mpkESpf (c&pf 662-700 cefY)
avmufuyif tm&Afukeo
f nfoabFmrsm;onf urÇmyh ifv,fa&rsuEf mS jyifukd
tkypf kd;rdk;vsu&f MSd uonf/ tm&Afa&S;a[mif;'@m&Dwpfckjzpfaom ]]oabFm
om;qif;bwf}} yHkjyifwiG f xdt
kd acwf tm&Afwk\
Yd a&aMumif;oGm;vmayguf
a&mufrI t&dyt
f >rufrsm;yg0ifavonf/ tm&AfoabFmom;wdo
kY nf yifv,f
ork'´&mtwGi;f &ifqkdiMf uHKawGU&wwfaom rkew
f kdi;f ESihf vdIi;f wdkYukd &ifqkdif
* þtqdkudk rmvm,kwuúodkvfrS ygarmu©a[mif; SM zmwDrDu 1958ckESpfwGif

xkwfa0cJhaom ol\okawoepmwrf;wpfckwGif azmfjyí xdktqdkjyKcsufudkzdvpfydkif
EdkifiHtxufvTwfawmftrwf at’DtvGefwdku axmufcHcJhonf/

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

10

tHwk&if; rdrw
d w
kYd ikd ;f jynfEiS hf tvGeaf 0;uGmaom ZefZb
D m? armfv'dku?f oD[k#d ?f
rav;,m;? *smAm;? plrmMwm;t&yfa'orsm;odkY qdkuaf &mufcMhJ uonf/
(rsm;rMumrDESprf sm;u '@m&Dol&Jaumif;qif;bwf\ acwfu
uwåLavSyHkpHwnfaqmufNyD; acwfrDu&d ,
d mrsm; tm;rudk;bJ tma&AsuRef;
qG,q
f yd u
f rd ;f rS prf;oyf&u
G v
f iT chf &hJ m w½kwjf ynfurf;½dk;wrf;qdyu
f rf;NrdKU odkY
atmifjrifpGm qdkuaf &mufcJhaMumif; tar&dueftrsK;d om;yx0Dr*¾Zif;wGif
zwf½&I onf/)
tm&AfrGwpf övifrw
f kdYonf rdrw
d kdYwkdi;f jynfwGif oabFmBuD;rsm;
wnfaqmufcJhMuonf/ tufAvm? yg&Seyf ifv,fauGU&Sd qD&&mrf? ajrmuf
tmz&du urf;ajc&Sd usLepf? qD&D;,m;jynftuf&Sb
f DvmwdkYwGif cvDzGm
or®wrif;rsm;vufxufrt
S pjyKí oabFmusi;f rsm; wnfaqmufc&hJ m ppfol
BuD; qmvm'if\ vufxufwkdiaf tmifyifjzpfonf/ tpövmrfhtarG tESpf
(Lagacy of Islam) usr;f jyKpkol J.H Kreamer u ]]... (tm&AfwkdY)
onf a&aMumif;ul;oef;oGm;vm&eftwGuf oabFmrsm; pGmydkiq
f kid Mf uonf/
wif;eDpNf rdKUwiG f ¤if;wd\
Yk tvky½f rkH sm;ESihf t0,fawmf ta&mif;awmfrsm;&So
d nf/
uGefpwefwifwDEdky,f NrdKUjyEdkifiHwpfckwnf;ESifh jyKvkyfaomukefoG,frI
yrmPonfyif tvGeBf uD;us,o
f nf/ ¤if;wdk\
Y ukeo
f ,
G af &;pm;usuo
f nf
yifv,feufEiS hf ajrxJ yifv,fta&SUykid ;f tm&S twGi;f ydki;f odykY if ysUH EUHS co
hJ nf/
tdE´d,Edkiif H w½kwjf ynfqyd u
f rf;rsm;odkYvnf;aumif;? tmz&duurf;ajcESihf
r'*gpum txdvnf;aumif; ysUH ymG ;a&muf&cdS o
hJ nf/
xdktcsed u
f yk*HjynfwGif ydwo
f Hkrif;tkycf sKyfvsu&f So
d nf[k a&S;
acwfa[mif;jrefrm&mZ0ifrsm;u qdkonf/ acwfopfordki;f ynm&Sit
f csKUd u
ydwo
f Hkrif;vufxuf c&pfESpf (650)avmufwGirf S jrefrm[kac:wGirf nfh
tBuKdvlrsK;d pkrsm;onf ausmufqnfESihf ajrjyefYa'oodkY a&mufvmMuonf/
¤if;wdkYonf vltiftm;awmifhwif;í jrif;NcHe,f? yk*H? rl;jrpf0Sr;f ? wy,if;?
&rnf;oif;wdkYwiG f tajcpdkuo
f nf/ ,cif&ESd Sihaf eaom ysLwdkYESihf yk*He,fwiG f

11

Studies in Pathy History

a&maESmaexdki&f m ysLvlrsK;d aysmufuG,í
f jrefrmvlrsK;d [lí aemufykdi;f wGif
jzpfay:vmonf/ xdkacwfu jrefrmpum;yif yDjyifpmG r&Sad o;acs/*
a&S;OD;jrefrmrsm; jrefrmEdkiif t
H wGi;f odkY pwif0ifa&mufcsed f ouú&mZf
(650)cefaY vmufu jrefrmEdkiif \
H ajrmufykid ;f wGif oufvrl sK;d wd\
kY waumif;
jynf? tv,fykdi;f wGif ysLwdkY\ oa&acwå&m(jynf)? ta&SU awmifykdi;f wGif
rGew
f kdY\ ok0PÖbkr®(d oxHk)jynfwkdY xGe;f um;pnfyifvsu&f o
Sd nf/+
jrefrmhtBudKvrl sK;d pkrsm; pwifa&muf&t
dS ajccsMuonfqakd om ydwo
f kH
±
rif;vufxuf rSmyif tm&Afukeo
f nfoabFmrsm;onf taemufbuf r'*g
pum;rS ta&SUtEd ´,
d uRef;pkrsm;udkjzwfí w½kwjf ynftxd ul;oef;oGm;vm
Mu&mrS oxHk(ok0PÖbkr®)d ESihf rkwårqdyu
f rf;wdkYukd rMumcP 0ifa&mufcJh
Muonf/ þodkaY &muf&cdS jhJ cif;udk c&pfEpS f (800)ausmw
f iG f a&;cJo
h nfh t&Af
rSww
f rf;rsm;wGif awGU&&Sd jcif;jzpfonf/*
xdak cwfu jrefrmhurf;½d;k wef;qdyu
f rf;NrdKUrsm;odYk pcef;oifo
h vdk O'[dk
0ifxu
G v
f maecJMh uaom t&Afvrl sK;d rsm;rSm tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm; jzpfonf/
¤if;tpövmrfbmom0ift&Afvrl sK;d wdo
kY nfum; jrefrmhvrl sK;d wdEkY iS hf a&S;OD;yxr
xdawGUqufqcH o
hJ nfh a&jcm;ajrjcm;wdik ;f wpfyg;vlrsK;d jzpfco
hJ nf/ þtcsuu
f kd
vef'efwuúokdvw
f Gif ygarmu©tjzpf trIxrf;cJhol a'gufwm vSabu
atmufygtwdki;f a&;om;xm;onf/
]]jrefrmvlrsK;d wdkYonf ouú&mZfpOft& t"duxdawGUcJhonfhvlrsK;d
wdkYxJwGif tm&Af? yg&Se;f (zm&pD)?w½kwf ponfhtrsK;d om;wdkYESihf ul;vl;
qufqcH yhJ gao;onf/}}+
* OD;Munfa&; jrefrmhordkif;odtyfbG,ftjzmjzm? pm 5/
+ AdkvfrSL;b&Sifa&; jrefrmEdkifiHawmfordkif;? pm 44/
± a&S;OD;jrefrmhtBudKvlrsK;d rsm; jrefrmEdkiif HtwGi;f ydki;f odkY pwif0ifa&mufvmonfhESpu
f kd

tcsKdUokawoDrsm;u c&pfESpf 8&mpkcefY[kyif azmfjyMuygonf/
* OD;Munfa&; jrefrmhordkif;odtyfbG,ftjzmjzm? pm 156-157/
+ jyifopfEdkifiH&Sd ta&SUawmiftm&SvlrsKd;aA'a&;&modyÜHtqifjrifhavhvmrIwuúodkvf
wGif 1980 ckESpf ZGefvü zwfMum;aompmwrf;/

12

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

D

{&m0wDjrpf0uRe;f ay:ao'odYk rGwpf vifrsm; pwiftajccsjcif;
(t*Fvyd b
f momjzifh xkwaf 0aom ]jrefrmjynfrS rGwpf vifrsm; trnf&dS
bGUJ ,u
l sr;f wGif usr;f jyKorl &kd ,
DS *J g;u {&j0wDjrpf0uRe;f ay:a'odYk rGwpf vifrsm;
pwiftajccsjcif; trnfjzifh tcef;wpfcef;a&;cJh&m ,ckxdk tcef;rS
a&;om;csurf sm;udk aumufEw
I jf yefqkad zmfjyygonf/)
tpövmrfomoemay:aygufvmjcif;ESihf tpövmrfomoemvQijf ref pGm
ysUH ymG ;xGe;f um;vmjcif;u Oa&myESihf ta&SUta0;a'owdk\
Y qufo,
G rf I udk
ydki;f jcrf;ypfvku
d o
f vdk &Scd o
hJ nf/ ¤if;aemuf tm&Swku
d Ef iS t
hf aemufwkid ;f wdk\
Y
ukeo
f ,
G rf v
I rf;aMumif;udv
k nf; rGwpf vifrw
f u
Ykd om vTr;f rd;k csKyu
f ikd f apcJo
h nf/
ta&SUbufwpfavQmuf t&AfEiS hf yg&Se;f rGwpf vifru
f ek o
f ,
G af &; tajcpdu
k pf cef;
rsm; vQifjrefpGmay:aygufvmcJhonf/ c&pfESpf (8)&mpk yxr&mpkwpf0uf
apmapmydki;f umvuyif w½kwjf ynfawmifykid ;f urf;½dk;wef;wpfavQmufwiG f
rGepf vifrv
f pl kval 0;wpfcsKUd wkYd onf tajcwus ysUH EUHS aexdkicf MhJ uNyD;jzpfonf/
þuJo
h Ykd vlO;D a&wd;k yGm;vmjcif;onf ukeo
f ,
G af &;udpw
ö pfcw
k nf; oufouf
aMumifh r[kwaf y/ &SDtmpGEéD y#dyu© pwifjzpfay:vm&mrS rsm;pGmaom
&St
d m'kuo
© nfwrkYd mS ta&SUt&yfokYd xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifcMhJ uonf/ ¤if;wdo
kY nf
udk&D;,m;Edkiif HuJhokdY a0;uGmaom t&yfokdYyif qdkuaf &mufcJhMuonf[k
,lq&onf/ w½kwjf ynfoYkd a&GUajymif; Muolrw
G pf vifrrf sm;xJwiG f yg&Se;f EG,0f if
rsm;vnf; tawmftwefyg0ifavonf/*
* tufpfusLzmwDrD\ ]ta&SUawmiftm&SodkY tpövmrfomoemjyefYyGm;&mwGif w½kwf
jynf\ tcef;u@? pm 7-85(rdwåLyGm;)/
- [k*sfuvpfzkdY'f\ ]a0;uGmaomtdEd´,-tapmydkif;umvjrefrmjynf? rmvm,k
jynf? ,kd;',m;jynfESifhtif'dkcsKdif;em;odkY pGefYpm;oGm;vmrIordkif;aMumif;} (vef'efNrdKU
avm&iftifefblvif? 1904)pmrsufESm 16/

13

Studies in Pathy History

odkYaomfvnf; tpövmrfomoem ray:xGe;f rDuyif yg&Se;f oabFm
rsm;onf w½kwjf ynfurf;½dk;wef;wpfavQmufokdY aygufa&mufusupf m;aecJh
NyDjzpfonf/ w½kww
f kdYonf t&AfwkdYESihf (4)&mpkrS (7)&mpkESprf sm;tMum;
owifou
d Rrf;vsuf qufqaH &;xlaxmifEkid cf NhJ yD;jzpfonf/*
udk;&mpkwiG f w½kwjf ynfonf wefrif;tkypf k;d rIatmufwiG f yGiv
hf ef;
acwfopf wpfacwfumv yGiv
hf ef;vsu&f NdS yD; t&Afwkid ;f rSm tAÁmpD,mrf;quf
rsm;ESihf ukeo
f ,
G af &;qufqrH u
I kd xlaxmifEkid cf o
hJ nf/ od&kY mwGif w½kww
f u
kYd
t&AfwkdYESihf a&mif;0,fazmufum;&ef pdw0f ifpm;rIenf;enf;om jycJhojzifh
xdktcsed rf pS í rGwpf vift&Afwko
Yd nf ESpzf ufjynfaxmifrsm;\ ukeo
f ,
G af &;
aps;uGuEf pS cf kpvHk;udk csKyfukid x
f m;cJMh uavonf/
xdkojkYd zifh w½kwu
f rf;½dk;wef;wpfavQmufEiS hf ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;
qdki&f m a&aMumif;qdyu
f rf;wpfeHwpfvsm;wGif rGwpf vifvlOD;a&wdkY;yGm;cJh&
ayonf/+ rGwpf vifwkdY\ ukepf nfoabFmul;oef;rIvkyef if;csJUxiG jf cif;onf
tm&SwGif (15)&mpkukeq
f Hk;csed t
f xd qufvufwnf&cSd Jhonf/
rGwpf vifukeo
f nf BuD;i,fwkdYonf tdE´,
d Edkiif Hurf;½dk;wef;a'o
rsm; jzefu
Y sux
f al xmifcMhJ uonf/ b*Fvm;a'o&Sd ¤if;wdk\
Y A[dkXmerSae í
jrefrmEdkiif HESihfvnf;aumif;? rmvmbm&SNd rdKUjyrsm;ESihfvnf;aumif;? oD[kdVf
ESiv
hf nf;aumif;?rvuúmESiv
hf nf;aumif;a&mif;0,fazmufum;cJMh uonf/±
rGwpf vifryf ifv,faysmw
f kdYonf (9)&mpkwiG f jrefrmEdkiif HokdY pwif
* tufat,lZm&if\]tma&AsESifhta&SUta0;a'o? *&da&mracwfESifh tD&eft&Afacwf
umvrSm ukefoG,fa&;ESifh,Ofaus;rI aygif;ul;qufqHjcif;rsm;?} tD*spfEdkifiHawmf0if
yx0Dtoif;xkwfa0a&;Xme(udkif½dk 1962)? pm 151-152/
+ zmwDrD? xufnTef;? pm 9/ *sDtD;[maA';]\jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;? acwfOD;umvrS
1842rwfv 10&uf t*Fvdyfodrf;ydkufrIPpwifcsdeftxd}? (vef'efNrdKU avmif;rJef;
xkwfa0a&; 1925)? pm 310/
±
rG w f p vif w d k Y \ uk e f o G , f a &;vI y f & S m ;rI r sm;twG u f tao;pd w f a zmf j ycsuf u d k
]trfqpf'Ducf gef \ ]jrefrmEdkiif HESihrf Gwpf vifwkdY\aygif;ul;qufqHrI? tpövmrfrpfuvf
csm-twGJ 10(Zlvdkif 1936)? pm 416-419 Munfh/

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

14

a&muf&cdS MhJ uonf/ xdkpOfu a&mufvmMuolwkt
Yd odwiG f jrefrmjynfqko
d nf
rSm jrefrmEdkiif Hatmufykdi;f urf;½dk;wef;a'oESihf &cdkijf ynftygt0ifrQom
jzpfonf/* yx0Dtaetxm;t& ukeo
f ,
G af &;vrf;aMumif;\ tzsm;tem;
wGif &Sad omfvnf; jrefrmEdkiif Honf rGwpf vifrrf sm;pwiftajccs&ef a&muf&Sd
vmcsed rf wdkirf u
D oabFmjzifh a&aMumif;oGm;vmrItwwfwiG f uRr;f usiw
f wf
ukejf cif;r&Sad o;acs/
c&pfESp(f 860)ckavmufu jrefrmjynfe,fpyfESihf ,leefjynfwkdYwiG f
yg&Se;f vlrsK;d wdk\
Y tajcpdkupf cef;rsm;udk w½kwcf &D;onfrsm; awGU&MdS u&onf/
+ ta&SUwpfcGiv
f SnhfvnfcJhMuaom rGwpf vifrcf &D;onf tajrmuftjrm;
&Scd Jhonfhteuf rsm;pGmaom c&D;onfwkdYonf w½kwjf ynfokdY a&mufzl;Edki&f ef
arQmfvifch MhJ uaomfvnf; jrefrmjynfokYd 0ifa&muf&efppD OfcMhJ uolrsm;rSmvnf;
renf;vSay/
jrefrmEdkiif aH wmifykid ;f taMumif;udk (9)&mpkEpS rf sm;wGif ay:aygufchJ
Muaom yg&Se;f vlrsK;d c&D;onf tDAEf kck'd ufaAESihf t&Afvrl sK;d qlvkid rf mefwkYd \
ta&;tom;rsm;wGif awGU&S&d onf/ wpfq,f&mpkwGif ay:aygufcJhonfh
yg&Se;f c&D;onf tDAEf kzuD[\
f rSww
f rf;wGiv
f nf; awGU&&Sd avonf/
t&Afvrl sK;d ordik ;f ynm&Sif tvfru
k 'f'pD (10 &mpk)u tdE,
´d urf;ajc
wpfavQmufrS jrefrmEdkiif H rav;uRef;qG,?f ta&SUtEd ´d,uRef;pkrsm; ESihf
oD[kdVt
f xd&Snv
f sm;aom t&AfwkdY\ ukeo
f G,pf D;yGm;ukecf sujf zefYusu&f m
a'oudak zmfjycJo
h nf/ xdt
k csed t
f cgu jrefrmvlrsK;d wdo
Yk nf yifv,fEiS hf uRr;f usif
onfh vlrsK;d wdkYonf yifv,fESihf uRrf;usio
f nfhvlrsK;d r[kwaf o;onfukd
axmufí ,if;rSww
f rf;wGiaf zmfjyxm;onfh ]yJc;l } oabFmom;qdk onfrsm;rSm
yJc;l ütajcpdu
k o
f l t&AfEiS yhf g&Se;f oabFmom;rsm;? odrYk [kwf ¤if;wdrYk q
S if;ouf
aygufzmG ;olrsm; jzpfrnf[k ,lqEdkiaf yonf/ wzef xdkpOf c&pfEpS f (9)&mpk
* [maA;? xufnTef;? pm 10/
+ zmwDrD? xufnTef;? pm 9/

15

Studies in Pathy History

avmufuyif yJc;l wGif rGwpf vifru
f ek o
f ,
G af &;tajcpdu
k pf cef; rsm;&SEd iS ahf vmufNy;D
t&Afukeo
f nfoabFmrsm;vnf; rMumcP0ifxGuo
f Gm; vmaevdrhfrnf[k
cefrY eS ;f &ayonf/
awmifykdi;f jrefrmjynf? ydkí wdwu
d susazmfjy&vQif &cdkijf ynfe,f
urf;½dk;wef;a'o? {&m0wDjrpf0uRef;ay:a'o? yJc;l ESihf weoFm&Da'owdkrY mS
xdkacwfu? rGepf vifro
f abFmom;rsm; ta&SUwkid ;f a&rsuEf mS jyifwiG f ukepf nf
ul;oef;a&mif;0,f&if; odvmMu&jcif;jzpfonf/ jrefrmEdkiif HwGif yxrqHk;
ay:aygufvmaom ukeo
f ,
G af &;tajcpdu
k pf cef;rSm xdo
k w
k yYkd if pwifxal xmif
cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ od&Yk mwGif xdpk Ofu jrefrmEdik if o
H Ykd a&muf&adS ecJMh uaom rGwpf vifrf
tm;vHk;udk wr*Fvma&G;cs,af &mufvmMujcif;jzpfonf[k rqdkEkid yf g/ tcsKUd rmS
oabFmysuí
f ? tcsKUd rmS vnf; twif;tMuyf urf;ajcwGif qif;aecJ&h ef trdeaYf y;
jcif;cH&í? tcsKUd rmS vnf; tajccsaexdki&f efcseaf ecJjh cif; ponfjzifh taMumif;
trsK;d rsK;d aMumifh a&muf&adS ecJMh ujcif;jzpfonf/
(þwGif rdk&,
Sd J*g;\usr;f rS aumufEIwcf suNf yD;qHk;onf/)
___

D

acwfOD;ydkif;jrefrmhordkif;twGuf ta&;ygonfh ref½SL;usrf;
ref½SL;usr;f onf eefapma'otaMumif; a&;om;xm;aom w½kwf
ordki;f usr;f jzpfonf/
c&pfEpS f (500 pkcef)Y wGif ,leefe,fta&SUykid ;f rS avmfavmfrsK;d EG,pf k
wpfckonf ,leefe,ftv,fykdi;f &Sd tJ&[
f kdif odkYr[kwf wvDuefa'oywf
ywfvnfokYd ysUH EUHS vm&mrS ya'o&mZfe,f ajcmufe,fwnfaxmifvmcJo
h nf/
* qGpf'Dufcgef? xufnTef;? pm 419/ zmwDrD? xufnTef;? pm 6/

tm&fbDprwf\ ppfaxG'dpBwdwfa*ZufwD;,m;? twGJ-u? (&efukef 1917)?pm 86/

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

16

¤if;wdu
Yk kd apmajcmufe,f[í
l ac:Muonf/ xdak pmajcmufe,f teuf
awmifbufpeG ;f wGif wnf&aSd om ]rJi&f SJU} udk eefapm(eefausmif-awmifbuf
apme,f)[k ac:wGicf Jhonf/ ¤if;eefapmwdkYonf waumif;Edkiif H awmfukd
wdu
k cf u
kd cf MhJ uolrsm;jzpfonf/ ¤if;wdw
Yk u
kd cf u
kd o
f nfEh pS rf mS eefapmrif; aumfavm
zJi\
hf ausmufpmwdik f a&;xd;k csut
f & c&pfEpS (f 672-673)wGif jzpfonf/ rSeef ef;
&mZ0ifurl waumif;twdkucf &H onfEh pS u
f kd 4if;xufapmí azmfjycJo
h nf/
wpfpwpfpESihf eefapmwdkYonf ppftiftm;awmifhwif;í &mpkESpf
wpfckMumvwfaomf ,leefjynfawmifykdi;f ESihf e,fcsi;f xdpyforQEdkiif HwkdYrS
aMumuf&UHG cefn
Y m;&aom tiftm;pkjzpfvmcJo
h nf/
ref½SL;usr;f udkjyKpkol zefacsmhonf w½kw{f u&mZf\ t&m&Sw
d pf
OD;jzpfNyD; 4if;udk,w
f kdif c&pfESpf (863)wGif eefapmwdkY\ wdkucf kdurf Iukd
udk,af wGUMuHKcJ&h oljzpfonf/ om;tBuD;qHk;tygt0if rdom;pk0if (14)OD;rSm
eefapmwdk\
Y vufcsujf zifh aoqHk;ch&J onf/ zefacsmu
h k,
d w
f kid f toufab;rS
udk,v
f w
G ½f kH;ajy;cJ&h oljzpfonf/ xdkaY Mumifyh if eefapmtEÅ&m,fonf wefrif;
quf w½kwEf kdiif HtzdkY jyóemjzpfaMumif; oabmaygufNyD; olonf c&pf
ESpf (864)cefYwGif ]t½dki;f wdkYtaMumif;} [k t"dyÜg,f&aom ]ref½SL;usr;f }
udk jyKpkavonf/
zefacsmjyKpkaom ref½LS ;usr;f onf jrefrmhordki;f acwfO;D ydki;f udk avh
vm&mü rsm;pGmtaxmuftuljyKonf/ ref½LS ;usr;f udk avhvmjcif;jzifh jrefrmh
acwfOD;ordki;f \ jzpfpOftopfrsm;? tcsut
f vuftopfrsm;udk awGU&v
Sd m&
onf/
a&S;a[mif;okawoenTeMf um;a&;0ef OD;zdk;vwfu ref½SL;usr;f udk
]acwfoak woDw\
Ykd arSmufz}J [kyif ac:wGicf o
hJ nf/ xdaYk emuf ordik ;f ygarmu©
*sDtyd cf sv
f kpu
f kd,w
f kdif ref½SL;usr;f udk w½kwb
f momrS t*Fvyd b
f momodkY
jyefqkdcJhjcif;udk axmufí þusr;f \ta&;ygyHk xif&Sm;ayonf/

17

Studies in Pathy History

D

c&pfEpS (f 864) ckEpS u
f a&;aom ref½LS ;usr;f vm ]yoD}taMumif;
ref½SL;usr;f wGiyf gaom ]yoD} taMumif; razmfjyrD ref½SL;usr;f
pD&ifyHkukd >rufrQazmfjyvdkayonf/ odkYrSom jrefrmhokdi;f twGuf ref½SL;usr;f
vm taxmuftxm;rsm; tzdk;wefyHkukd od&ESd kdirf nfjzpfonf/
ref½LS ;usr;f udk tcef;(10)cef;jzifh ydki;f jcm;a&;om;xm;onf/ tcef;
(1)wGif ,leefe,fajrtwGi;f vrf;aMumif;rsm;udk t"dua&;onf/ tcef;
(2)wGif yx0Dqkdi&f mrsm;udk t"dua&;onf/ 4if;tcef;wGif oHvGijf rpf?
{&m0wDjrpfEiS hf csi;f wGi;f jrpfrsm;taMumif; wpfpw
d w
f pfa'oyg0ifonf/ þodYk
yg0if&jcif;rSm c&pfESpf (672-673)rSpí eefapmwdkYonf waumif;tyg
t0if ysLEdkiif Htm;vHk;udk odr;f ydkux
f m;jcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ þtcef;udk
avhvmjcif;jzifh c&pfESpf 832 ckESprf wdkirf D ysLEdkiif H\ NrdKUawmfonf oa&
acwå&mjzpfaMumif; odomonf/ tcef;(3)onf apme,f(6)e,ftaMumif;
jzpf\/ þtcef;udk avhvmjcif;jzifh eefapmwdo
Yk nf wdAufjrefrmtEG,0f ifrsm;
jzpfaMumif; od&onf/ tcef;(4)onf rsK;d EG,pf krsm;taMumif; jzpfonf/
jrefrmvlrsK;d [lí jzpfay:vmyHkESihf jrefrmtBudKvlrsK;d rsm; a&GUajymif;0ifa&muf
vmyHktaMumif;udk þtcef;wGif tawmftwefpHkvifpGm azmfjyxm;csurf sm;
jzifh axmufvSe;f pdppfEkdicf JhMuayonf/ tcef; (5)wGif eefapma'o&Sd NrdKU
(6)NrdKUtaMumif;ESihf eefapmNrdKUawmftaMumif;udk a&;xm;onf/ tcef; (7)wGif
,leefe,fxu
G u
f keyf pön;f rsm;taMumif;ESihf pdkuyf sK;d a&;? arG;jrLa&;taMumif;
rsm; t"duxm; a&;om;avonf/ tcef;(8)onf eefapm"avhxHk;pHrsm;?
txl;ojzifh 0wfpm;qif,ifrIukd t"duxm;í azmfjyonf/ tcef;(9)onf
eefapma'o\ pD&ifxHk;? tkycf sKyfa&;ESihf ppfa&;udpörsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf/

18

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

tcef; (10)onf e,fajrqufpyfaom Edkiif rH sm;taMumif;jzpfonf/ þtcef;
wGif ysLEdkiif t
H aMumif;tjyif &ckid jf ynf a0omvDNrdKUukyd g azmfjyxm;onf/
,if;odkY tcef;(10)cef; cGjJ cm;xm;onft
h euf wyfNrdKUrsm;taMumif;
a&;xm;aom tcef; (6)wGif a&S;OD;jrefrm (Proto-Burman) ESihf tjcm;
vlrsK;d EG,rf sm; taMumif;vnf; wpfpw
d w
f pfa'oygonf/ þtcef;udk
okawoDrsm;u vlrsK;d pkrsm;taMumif; t"dua&;xm;onfh tcef;(4)cef;ESihf
qufpyfEiId ;f ,SOf í avhvmMu&onf/
azmfjyyg ref½SL;usr;f tcef;(6)wGif e,fajrtvm;tvmrsm;udk
azmfjy&if; wpfae&mü]wzef awmifbuft&yfü jA[®P? yoD? *smAm(Z0)? ay:eD?
cGe;f vGef paom bmomjcm;rsm;&S\
d / olwkdY ukepf nfvJvSnaf om ae&yfrSm
tzdk;xdkuw
f efaom &wemypön;f rsm;pGm&S\
d / a&TESihu
f wdk;udk tzdk;xdkuw
f ef
aom ypön;f tjzpf xm;Mu\}/*

D

ynm&Sirf sm; wdwyd y rodonfh ]yoD}a'o
ref½SL;usrf;tcef;(6)wGif azmfjyxm;aom ]yoD}t&yfa'o\
wnfae&mESiyhf wfoufí ordki;f ynm&Sirf sm; wdwu
d sus owfrw
S t
f wnfjyK
xm;jcif; r&Sad o;ay/ ref½SL;usr;f udk jrefrmjynfolOD;&nfped u
f ]yoD}
azmfjycsuEf iS yhf wfoufí rSwcf suw
f pfcka&;cJo
h nf/ ,if;rSm]w½kwrf Sww
f rf;vm ta&SUawmiftm&S&Sd ]yoD} onf rnfonfh
ae&yfjzpfaMumif; ,ckxufxd rod&ao;acs/ c&pfESpw
f pfq,fhoHk;&mpk
a&mufvmonfw
h kid af tmif w½kwrf w
S w
f rf;rsm;wGif þ]yoD} Edkiif u
H kd yHkazmf
* OD;&nfpdef\ ]ref½SL;usrf;jrefrmjynf}? rdk;a0? ZGef 1987? pm 132/

19

Studies in Pathy History

jyqJjzpf\/ jyifopfordki;f q&m Ferrand tMuHay;cJhouJhokdY xdkae&yfonf
,ckplrMwmuRef;ta&SUbufurf;&Sd Pase jzpfaumif;jzpfaprnf/+
OD&nfped o
f nf ref½SL;usr;f udk bmomjyef&mü rl&if;pmudk,Ef Sihf
oufqkid af om &Si;f vif;csuEf iS hf cuf&mcufqpfrsm;udk 1962 ckEpS u
f w½kwf
bmomjzifh usr;f udk wnf;jzwfxkwaf 0cJo
h l yDuif;wuúokv
d o
f rdki;f ygarmu©
,DS;,efYiw
f m\ tmabmfukd trsm;qHk;tm;xm;í a&;om;jcif;jzpfonf/
OD;&nfped \
f rSwcf suw
f Giyf gaom Ferrand rSm jyifopfordki;f ygarmu©trf
*sDzm&efukd qdkvkdjcif;jzpfonf/ ygarmu©zm&efu tm&Sa&;&m*sme,f±wGif
ta&SUawmiftm&S&dS a&S;a[mif;NrdKU&mG e,fy,frsm;\ wnf&mjypmwrf;wpfapmif
a&;cJo
h nf/ 4if;pmwrf;udk ygarmu©vkpu
f a0zefcsuaf &;cJo
h nf/ 4if;a0zef
csuw
f iG f vkpu
f tyf*szD m&ef\ ta&SaY wmiftm&S&dS ,cifEiS ,
hf ckNrKU&d mG e,fy,f
rsm;udk EdIi;f ,SOaf zmfjyxm;yHktm;vHk;udkrl vufcHEkdirf nf r[kw[
f k a&;cJhzl;
*
onf/
ygarmu©vkpu
f trf*sDzm&efwifjyaom NrKdU&Smrsm;wnfae&mudk
cRif;csujf zifo
h m vufccH o
hJ jzifh ref½LS ;usr;f vmpmom;wGif ]yoD}ESihf ,SOw
f JG
vsuyf g&Sad om Z0(*smAm;)udkMunfhí yoDa'oudk þrQa0;a0;ydkY&efMuHq
xm;jcif;jzpfayrnf/ ref½SL;usr;f vm ]Z0}udk *smAm;[k qdkxm;aomfvnf;
]xefrif;qufordki;f opf}tp&So
d nfh w½kwaf &S;a[mif;rSww
f rf;wGif *smAm;
uRef;udk ]&SJazmf} (Hsiao-P'o) [k azmfjyxm;onf/
ref½SL;usr;f wGif ]jA[®P? yoD ... paom bmomjcm;rsm;} [k
a&;om;xm;&m ,HkMunfukd;uG,rf I rwlnDaomolwkdY\ a'ojzpfaMumif;
xif&Sm;onf/ þtcsuw
f kdYukd tav;teufxm;í pOf;pm;vdkuv
f Qif yoD
wnf&S&d mt&yfonf tpövmrfbmomudk;uG,o
f lrsm; tajcpdku&f m jzpfrnf
[k cefYrSe;f Edkio
f nf/
+ xufnTe;f usr;f ? pm 132/
f ESihf'DZifbmvxkw/f
± tm&Sa&;&m*sme,fpmpOf 11?twGJ 20?trSw1f -2? 1922 Zlvkdiv
* jrefrmEdkifiHokawoe*sme,f? twGJ 13? tydkif; 1? 1923? pm 62-64/

20

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

odkYwNyD;um; ]yoD}udk ]yoD} [k a&TYavsmajymif;jcif;r&Sb
d J wdkuf
½dkuaf c:wGicf Jhaom NrdKUjyEdkiif Hwpfckonf a&S;u jrefrmEdkiif Hawmifykdi;f wGif
&Scd zhJ ;l onf/ xdkNrdKUjyEdkiif rH mS a&S;a[mif;ykord Nf rdKUjzpfavonf/ ref½LS ;usr;f vm
]yoD}udk ykord jf zpfonf[laom tqdkonf taxmuftxm;rJhaom tqdk
r[kwaf y/ ,if;tqdkukd axmufcHonfh cdkirf mvHkavmufaom taxmuf
txm;rsm;&So
d nf/

pmwrf;&Si\
f t,ltq
q&mOD;rmCjyKpo
k nfh ykord &f mZ0ifwiG f ykord Nf rdKUukd yoDNrdKU[k a&S;u
ac:wGicf ahJ Mumif; atmufygtwdki;f a&;om;cJo
h nf/
]]ouú&mZf 58-ckwGif eef;wufaom yoDrif;vufxufü yoD
rif;udk pGJí 'dkiyf oD (yoDNrdKU)[k ac:wGijf cif;jzpfrnf[k xifayonf/
q&mOD;zdk;usm;\ ykord &f mZ0ifüvnf; ,ckacwftxd jrefrmu&ifrsm;u
]a0hyoD} wvdki;f u&ifrsm;u ]pdeYfyoD} [k ac:aeMuqJjzpfaMumif; jyqdk
xm;ayonf/ yoDrS ykord o
f kdY toHa&GU&ef cJ,Of;zG,f rjrifacs/}}*
q&mrmCudk;um;onfh OD;zdk;usm;\ ykodrf&mZ0ifrl&if;udk
vufvrS ;f rrDojzifh ravhvm&ao;ay/ OD;zdk;usm;onf ykord Nf rdKUEiS yhf wfouf
í a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfrsm;pGmudk od&So
d ljzpfNyD; jrefrmrItaxGaxGukd ESHUpyf
uRrf;usiv
f o
S jl zpfaomaMumifh 4if;jyKpka&;om;onfh ykord &f mZ0ifrmS tjcm;
aom yoDEiS hf oufqkid o
f nfh rSwo
f m;p&mrsm;ygvdrrhf nf[k arQmv
f ifrh o
d nf/
ykord Nf rdKUukd a&S;u yoDNrdKU[k ac:wGicf ahJ Mumif; jrefrmhp,
G pf ku
H sr;f u
vnf; axmufcaH &;om;xm;onf/ ykord Nf rdKUukd pdk;pHcMhJ uaom yoDrif;wdku
Y kd
tpGjJ yKí yoDNrdKU[kac:wGicf ahJ o;onf[k pG,pf kHusr;f wGiaf zmfjyxm;onf/+
odkYtwGuaf Mumifh yoDNrdKUukd tkycf sKyfaomaMumifh yoDrif;[k ac:wGijf cif;
* rmC\ ykodrf&mZ0if? Zlvdkif 1967? pm 137/

+ jrefrmpG,fpHkusrf;? twGJ 6? pm 251/

21

Studies in Pathy History

jzpf&rnft
h pm; yoDrif; tkycf sKyfco
hJ jzifh yoDNrdKUac:wGijf cif;jzpfonf[al om
oabmoufa&mufvsu&f o
dS nf/
'Hk;yoD(#KifyoD)[laom rGet
f ac:ta0:rS yoDNrKU[k ac:cJhonf
[lívnf; ,lqMu&m xdkt,ltqrSm ref½LS ;usr;f azmfjycsuEf iS hf udkun
f aD e
onf/ #KifyoDrSm yoDvlrsK;d wdkY\NrdKU[k t"dyÜg,f&onf/
aemufxyfbmomaa'ahvvmcsuEf Sihf qdkiaf om taxmuftxm;
wpfc&k ydS gao;onf/
]ykord f 32 NrdKUonf rGeo
f rdki;f wGif xif&Sm;aom NrdKUrsm; jzpfMuyg
onf/ ykord rf Get
f oHxGut
f m;jzifh zm;qef;yifjzpfygonf/ rGet
f a&;tom;
rSm zmoDyifjzpfygonf/}*
txufygudk;um;csurf sm;wGif zmoDrSm aemufykdi;f a&;xHk;jzpfí
#KifyoDrmS a&S;toHk;tEIe;f jzpfrnf[í
l vnf;aumif;? zmoDEiS hf yoD uGv
J aJG e
jcif;rSm rGew
f \
kYd bmompum;qdki&f ma'otavQmuf toHxu
G u
f v
JG jJG cif;jzpf
rnf[í
l vnf;aumif; ,lqEdkio
f nf/
(yoDNrdKUukd tkycf sKyfcahJ om yoDrif;quftaMumif;udk þpmtkyf \
qdki&f mtcef;u@wGif azmfjyxm;onf/)

D

&ckdifjynfwGif OD;pGmtajcpdkufaexdkifjcif;
yk*aH cwfO;D ydki;f u jrefrmEdkiif aH wmifykid ;f {&m0wDjrpf0uRe;f ay: a'o
ykord ?f rkwår tp&So
d nfh qdyu
f rf;NrdKUrsm;wGif tpövmrfbmom0if t&Afvrl sK;d ESihf
yg&Se;f vlrsK;d rsm; tajcpdkuaf exdkicf JhMuonfhenf;wl &cdkijf ynf wGiv
f nf;
tpövmrfbmom0ifrsK;d EG,pf krsm; a&mufvmtajcpdkucf JhMuonfh acwfNydKif
ordki;f aMumif; &Scd ahJ vonf/ xdkordki;f aMumif;rSm a&S;usveG ;f vSojzifh '@m&D
* Edkifarmifwdk;\ ]rGefa0g[m&ESifhjrefrmpmay}? jrwfav;r*¾Zif;? rwf 1988?

pm 150/

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

22

qefaeaomfvnf; vufawGUordik ;f jzpf&yfrsm;ESihf qefu
Y sijf cif; r&So
d jzifh y,fcs&ef
rjzpfEkdiaf cs/ xdkYtjyif &cdkijf ynfwiG f a&S;OD;pGmtajcpdkuf aexdkiMf uolrsm;rSm
tpövmrfomoemawmf\ xGwaf cgifrud#k jf zpfawmfral om wrefawmfjrwfBuD;\
r[maoG;r[mEG,rf sm;jzpfojzifh ydí
k yif *kP,
f t
l av;xm;zG,f &Sad eayonf/
c&pfEpS f 680 wGif jzpfymG ;aom u&fbvmppfyüJG wrefawmfjrwfBuD;
\ ajr;awmftrd mrf[pk ikd ef o
f ciftm; ,AD'u
f uGyrf sut
f Edik cf ahJ vonf/ [Z&wf
tvD\ om;jzpfol (tdrmrf[pk ikd ef o
f cif\ tazwltaruGn
J )D rk[r®'[
f eDzu
f
tdrmrf[kpkdief u
f sqHk;aMumif; owif;Mum;í ,ZD't
f m; ppfaMunmcJhonf/
odkaY omf rdk[r®'[
f eDzo
f cifrmS aemufvku
d t
f iftm;csi;f rrQí ppf½;HI cJ&h onf/
þwGif rdr\
d aemufvku
d rf sm;ESit
hf wl ta&SUp;l pl;t&yfokYd xGucf mG vmcJ&h onf/
aemufqkH;wGif rk[r®'[
f eDzo
f cifonf &cdkijf ynfokYd a&muf&v
dS suf
NrdKUawmfjzpfaom a0omvDNrdKUwGif cdkvIHaexdkiv
f mcJhonf/ xdkokdYaexdki&f if;
[eDzo
f cif\ aemufvkdufaemufygrsm;ESihf awmifwef;om; vl½kdi;f rsm;[k
azmfjyMuonf/) ESihf &ckid jf ynfe,fajrmufykdi;f &Sd armif;awmESihf Al;oD;awmif
t&yfa'orsm;ü ppfyrJG sm;jzpfymG ;cJo
h nf/ tqdkppfyrJG sm;udk tEdki&f &Sd NyD;aemuf
rk[r®'[
f eDzo
f cifonf vl½kid ;f wd\
kY bk&ifr ]uD,myl&}D ESihf vufqufco
hJ nf/
c&pfESpf 700 rwdkirf D jzpfyGm;cJhaom 4if;ppfyGJrsm; NyD;qHk;onfh
aemufykid ;f wGif ajr;awmfrk[r®'[
f eDzo
f cifEiS hf uD,myl&w
D kYd toufxufqkH;
aexdkio
f Gm;cJhaom t&yfwGif ,aeYwkid ;f [eDzmawmifESihf uD,myl&Dawmif
[lí &Sad Mumif; &cdkijf ynfvlrsK;d pktaMumif;a&;om;ol wm[D&b
f omu
a&;om;cJo
h nf/

* Ba Tha : The Early Hindus and Tibeto-Burmans in Arakan, The
Guadian.

23

Studies in Pathy History

D

c&pfEpS f 700 rwdik rf D &ckid jf ynftajctae
wrefawmfjrwf\ajr;awmf rk[r®'f[eDzfocifESifh aemufvdkuf
aemufygrsm; &cdik jf ynfwiG f vma&mufí tajccsaexdik cf MhJ uonfh ordik ;f jzpfpOf
udk twnfjyKEdki&f eftwGuf xdkacwfumv&cdkijf ynf\ tajctaeudk avhvm
cJh&m xdkpOfumv &cdkijf ynfwGi;f a&; tajctaeonf jynf&G,ajcmufjcm;
rNidrrf oufjzpfvsuf &Sad Mumif; awGU&&dS onf/
&ckid jf ynf\ acwftydki;f tjcm;t& xdkacwfonf a0omvDacwfjzpf
onf/ ydkí wdwu
d susqkd&vQif a0omvD'kw,
d acwfjzpfonf/
]a'Gipf jE´onf at'D 370wGif pjE´rif;qufukd wnfaxmifí
a0omvDjynfukd wnfc\
hJ / at'D 600 ta&muf rif; (13)qufajrmufwiG f
jynf&,
G ajcmufjcm;í pjE´rif;qufjywfonf/ pjE´'kw,
d qufukd at'D 700
ausmrf S awGU&vsuf rnfonfhumvwGif ysupf D;aMumif; ajym&efcufcJ
vSygojzifh &mZ0ifordki;f taxmuftxm;rsm;udk a&S;a[mif;okawoeu
oGm;a&mufw;l azmfay;onftxd apmif&h acsO;D rnf/ xdkpjE´rif;wdkY tkycf sKyfaom
jynfolwkdYum; rnfonfhtrsK;d rnfonfhtcguyif &cdkiüf tajcpdkuv
f suf
jynf&mG xlaxmifco
hJ nfukd ,ckwkid f rajymEdkiaf o;acs/}*
txufazmfjycsurf mS a'gufwmoef;xGe;f \ oH;k oyfcsujf zpfyg onf/
a'gufwmoef;xGe;f u pjE´rif;quf 13quf[k qdkaomfvnf; ausmufpm
taxmuftxm;rsm;t& pjE´rif;qufrSm (16)quf&So
d nf[k qdkygonf/
odkY&mwGif rif;oHk;yg;\ trnfrSm &SmrawGUao;ay/ ausmufavScg;NrdKUac:
a0omvDNrdKUawmf\ wnfae&mum; ajrmufO;D (,ckNrdKUa[mif; NrdKU) ajrmufbuf
* a'gufwmoef;xGef;? acwfa[mif;jrefrm&mZ0if/

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

24

9 rdkicf efY tuGmta0;wGif &Syd gonf/
&ckid jf ynfokdYa&mufvQif rk[r®'[
f eDzo
f cifESihf aemufvkduw
f kdYonf
a0omvDNrdKUawmfwiG f cdkvaHI exdkicf o
hJ nf[k ½dk;0ifnm§ ordki;f rsm;wGif azmftcsed f
ESihf pjE´rif;qufjywfaomtcsed w
f kYrd Sm wdkuq
f kid v
f Quf&adS vonf/
c&pfESpf (700)ausmv
f Qif pjE´rif;quf jyefqufonf[laom
tcsut
f & vnf;aumif;? rk[r®'[
f zD o
f cifEiS hf awmwGi;f bk&ifruD,myl&w
D kYd
onf &ckid jf ynfajrmufykdi;f ,ck ar,ka'oywf0ef;usiw
f iG f NrdKU&mG xlaxmif
aexdkicf o
hJ nf[al om &mZ0ifpum;t& a0omvDjynf\ eef;wGi;f a&;wdkw
Y iG f
¤if;wdkY pGuzf ufywfoufcJhjcif;r&S[
d lívnf; ,lqcefYrSe;f &ayonf/
azmfjyyg rk[r®'[
f eDzo
f cifEiS u
hf ,
D myl&b
D &k ifrwdYk xlaxmiftyk cf sKyf
cJah om jrdKU&mG Edik if u
H ykd if &mZ0ifvmy#duú&m;jynfjzpfonf[k tcsKUd ordik ;f q&mu
,lqcJah vonf/
þodkYjzifh tod&cuf vQKdU0Suv
f su&f o
Sd nfh ajr;awmfrk[r®'[
f eDzf
ocif\ jzpfaMumif; xkyw
Ü w
f u
kYd kd wdwu
d susokawoejyK&ef vdkvmayonf/
,aeYwkid f wnf&adS eaom [eDzmG awmif uD,
G myl&aD wmifrsm;ay:wGif NcHKEG,f
ydwaf ygif;rsm; zHk;tkyv
f su&f aSd om a&S;a[mif;tkw½f k;d tkww
f Hwkdi;f rsm; awGU&Sd
&onf[k udk,af wGUMuHKoltcsKUd \ ajymjycsut
f & od&ygonf/ odUjkzpfí
rk[r®'[
f eDzo
f cif &cdkijf ynfokdY a&mufra&muf udpörSmvnf; txufwGif
a'gufwmoef;xGe;f a&;om;cJo
h uJo
h kYd a&S;a[mif;okawoeu oGm;a&mufw;l
azmfonfukd arQmv
f ifah pmifph m;&ayOD;rnf/
rk[r®'[
f eDzo
f cif\ jzpfpOfukd azmfxw
k &f efrmS jrefrmEdik if &H dS wdik ;f &if;
om;tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm;twGuo
f mru tpövmrfomoemawmf ordki;f
twGuyf g ta&;ygvSaom udp&ö yfjzpfaeayawmhonf/

25

Studies in Pathy History

D

t&AfESifhyg&Sef;c&D;oGm;rSwfwrf;taxmuftxm;rsm;
tdE´dEkdiif H e,l;a'vDNrdKUwGif 1961ckESpu
f usi;f yonfh tm&Sordki;f
uGe*f &ufwGif jrefrmEdkiif Hordki;f aumfr&Sirf S usr;f jyKt&m&Sd aZ,sausmx
f if
Adkvrf SL;b&Sif wufa&mufü ordki;f pmwrf;wpfapmif zwfMum;cJhygonf/
t*Fvyd b
f momjzifh zwfMum;cJah om xdpk mwrf;\trnfrmS "Coming of Islam
f D jrefrm Edkiif HokdY
to Burma down to 1700 A.D" (c&pfESpf 1700 rwdkir
tpövmrfomoema&muf&jdScif;) [líjzpfonf/ xdpk mwrf;wGif Adv
k rf LS ; b&Sio
f nf
,cifjrefmrodki;f pmtkyrf sm;wGif trnfrazmfjyzl;ao;aom t&AfEiS hf yg&Se;f c&D;
oGm;rSww
f rf;rsm;udk xkwaf zmfwifjycJhonf/ atmufwGif Adkvrf SL;b&Si\
f
pmwrf;rS yk*aH cwfO;D ESio
hf ufqkid &f mtydki;f udk bmomjyefí azmfjyygonf/)
]wrefawmfrk[r®'o
f cif vGeo
f nfhaemuf ESpw
f pf&mtwGi;f tpö
vmrfomoemonf ,la&;&Sm; (tD&ef? tmz*efESihf wl&uDtcsKUd ) tv,fykdi;f
odYk jyefyY mG ;vmcJo
h nf/ ta&SUwidk ;f odYk qd&k vQif c&pfEpS f 1202wGi b
f *Fvm;jynf
&Sd jA[r®ykwå&jrpfurf;odkY tpövmrfukeo
f nf oabFmrsm;onf tdE´d,ESihf
ta&SUta0;a'oodkY 1202ckEpS f rwdkirf D ESpf 300avmufapmí oGm;vmaecJh
MujyDjzpfonf/ c&pfESpf 871ckwGif trnfrodyk*¾dKvfwpfOD;jyKpkonfh t&AD
pmtkyw
f pftkyw
f iG f azmfjyxm;onfrSm xdkacwfu t&Afc&D;onfESpOf D;onf
tef'refuRef; (uyÜvDuRef;)ESihf Armjynfawmifykdi;f b*Fvmyifv,fatmf
twGi;f a&mufaygufczhJ ;l aMumif; od&onf/*
c&pfESpf 851ckESpw
f Gif qlvkdirf eftrnf&Sd yg&Se;f vlrsK;d ukeo
f nf
wpfO;D onf tdE,
´d ESiw
hf ½kwjf ynfokYd oGm;vmcJah om ol\c&D;pOfukd rSww
f rf;
* Anciennes Relations des Indes et de la Chine par M.I' Abbe
Renaudot. Paris 1928.pp. 5&6

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

26

wpfapmifa&;cJhzl;onf/ ol\ rSww
f rf;onf w½kwjf ynfESihf tdE´,
d urf;ajc
e,fajrrsm;taMumif; tapmqHk;azmfjyxm;aom t&ADpmayjzpfavonf/
,tfuAl aD &;onfh udwmbGvb
f kv'f ef (Edkiif rH sm;taMumif;) (c&pf
ESpf 880)? t&AfvlrsK;d wdkY\ [D½kd'kd;wyfp[
f k *kPjf yKjcif;cH&ol tvDtvf
+
rwfptl'D a&;onfh rl½;l *RvAf [Af0rtm'DEv
G *f s0g&f (a&Tjrufcif;ESihf &wem
wGi;f rsm;) (c&pfESpf 943)? trnfrod pma&;q&m\ yx0D0ifrSww
f rf;[k''l v
G t
f mvmr(f urÇmeh ,ferd w
d )f (c&pfEpS f 982)? wm[D&rf m&mAmZD a&;onfh
+ tvD [ [H t vf r wf p f t l ' D ( 912-957)onf *&d a &mrynm&S i f r sm;jzpf M uaom
[D½dk'dk;wyfpf? yvifeD tp&SdolwdkYESifh EdIif;,SOfjcif;cH&ol tpövmrfhpG,fpHkynmausmfBuD;
jzpfonf/ tvfrwfpt
f l'Donf ordki;f jzpf&yfrsm;udkESpt
f ydki;f tjcm;jzifh rSww
f rf;wifrnfh
tpm; rif;quftvdkuf acwftvdkufcGJjcrf;pdwfjzmcJholjzpfonf/ordkif;jyKpk&mwGif
'@m&Dyg;pyf&mZ0ifudk yxrpwiftoHk;jyKcJhonfjzpofnf/ tufrwfpftl'D jyKpkonfh
}a&Tjrufcif;ESifh&wemwGif;rsm;} usrf;onf twGJ 30&Sdonf/
t&Aforkdif;jyKpkol ygarmu©[pfwDu]þa&Tjrufcif;ESifh&wemwGif;rsm;} udk jyKpkolonf aphpyfaocsmNyD; odyHÜ
enf;usaom okawoepl;prf;csufrsm;jzifh rGwfpvifavmuudkomru tif'dkyg&Sef?
a&mrESifh [Db½l;ordkif;wdkYudkyg tusKd;jyKcJhonf} [k csD;usL;cJhonf/
f nfpl;prf;cJholjzpfonf/ i,f&G,pf Of
rwpftl'Donf ta&SUwkdi;f wpfcGif vSnhv
tcgrSmyif yg&Sm;jynfwpfavQmuf oGm;vmaecJhonf/ xdkYaemuf tdEd´,jynfrlvfwefodkY
a&muf&SdcJhonf/ aemuftacgufrsm;wGif uifab? 'uúefESifh oD[dkVfuRef;wdkYodkY a&muf
&Scd Jhonf/ xdkrSwpfqifh w½kwjf ynfESihf tif'kdcsKid ;f em;wpfcGif a&mufcJhjyefonf/ xdkYaemuf
bpG&m(tD&wfEdkifiH)odkY jyefí tem;,l&if; a&Tjrufcif;ESifh&wemwGif;rsm;}udk a&;om;
avonf/
taemufzuf tm&Stv,fydkif;wpfcGifodkY c&D;&SnfxGufcJhao;onf/xdkc&D;rS
tjyef udki½f kdNrdKUa[mif; zlpwufwGif tem;,l&if; twGJ 30&So
d nfh rD&mwGZZf rmef;(acwf
\aMu;rHk)usr;f BuD;udk a&;om;cJhonf/ ol\usr;f rsm;wGif ola&mufcJhaomwdki;f jynfrsm;
\ yx0Dordkif;0iftaMumif;rsm;ESifhvlrsKd;pk "avhxHk;pHrsm;udk tao;pdwfa&;om;oGm;
cJhonf/ *l*s&wfoabFmqdyfwGif xdktcsdefu t&AfvlrsKd;wpfaomif;cefYESifh¤if;wdkY\
tquftEG,frsm; aexdkifvsuf&Sdonf[k oluazmfjycJhonf/-(yoDausmfOD;)

27

Studies in Pathy History

]w½kwjf ynf? wl&uD? tdE´,
d jynfrsm;ESihf oufqkdi&f mrSww
f rf;}*
txufygusrf;*efrSwfwrf;rsm;tm;vHk;ü xdkacwfw½kwfjynfESifh
awmifp,
G af wmifwef;rsm; ydik ;f jcm;vsu&f o
dS nfh tdref ;D csKypf yf Edik if o
H ;kH ck taMumif;
d ef
yg&So
d nf/ þae&mwGif w½kwjf ynf[kqkad omfvnf; eefapmjynfukd qdkvk[
&So
d nf/ xdkEkid if o
H kH;ckukv
d nf; pmvHk;aygif;trsK;d rsK;d jzifh azmfjyxm;onf/
1/ #Lokvf (Tusûl) odkYr[kwf Mwokvf (T.sûl)
2/ rl*sm(Mûja)? rl&S(Mûsha) odkYr[kwf rlq (Mûsa)
3/ rmbf (Mâ b.b)? rJ ' f (May.b)? rJ i f (Mâ n.d) od k Y r [k w f
rmeuf(f Mân.k)
ygarmu©*st
D yd v
f kypf u #Lokvf odrkY [kwf wd&pf v
l Ef kid if rH mS c&pfEpS f
(7 rS 9) &mpktwGi;f jrefrmhyx0De,fajrwGif wnf&cdS ahJ om ysLEdkiif jH zpfonf
[k owfrw
S af zmfjycJyh gonf/ ,Six
f ef½LS usr;f (xef&mZ0ifopf)udk udk;um;í
aygarmu©vkpu
f ]ysLwdkYonf rdrw
d kdYukd,u
f kd rdrd ]xlavmfusL;(Tuet-latsiu)}? *smAm;vlrsK;d wdkYu ]xlvDausm}f [kac:onf/ þtac:ta0:
ESpcf pk vH;k onf a&S;rGef ausmufpmyg ]wd&pf v
k }f ESihf oHwal Mumif;uGjJ zpfonf[k
qdkonf? (c&pfESpf 1100 xdk;usepf pfom;ausmufpmwGi)f usepf pfom;\
eef;awmfziG yhf t
JG aMumif; a&;xd;k &mü oDqrkd aI v;rsK;d udk azmfjyxm;onf/ ¤if;wdrYk mS
rd&rf m(jrefrm)? wd&pf kv(f ysL)? rJGi(f rGe)f ? rJi-f ¿ wdkYjzpfonf/
t&AfrSww
f rf;rsm;wGif azmfjyxm;aom Edkiif HoHk;ckteuf useEf Spcf k
rSm rDcsJeEf Sihrf ad emh* [líjzpfonf/ þEdkiif HESpcf k\wnfae&mudk azmfjyjy&ef
* (1) "Meadows of gold and Mines of Gem," edited and translated by
de Meynar and de Courteille. 9 Vols. Paris. 1861-77. See Vol. I p. 388.
(2) Edited by Prof.Manosky of London University in Gibb Memorial Series of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1937. pp.242-3
(3) Edited by Prof. Manosky of London University. Royal Asiatic
Society. 1942. Paras.51,52,53,57 & comments on pp. 49, 147-154.
* Ba Shin : Coming of Islam to Burma down to 1700 A.D, (BBHC, III,
1963) pp. 1-2.

28

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

cJ,Of;ayonf/+
Adkvrf SL;b&Si\
f ]c&pfESpf 1700 rwdkirf D jrefrmEdkiif HokdY tpövmrf
omoem a&muf&jdS cif;} pmwr;frS yk*aH cwfO;D ESio
hf ufqkid &f mtydki;f udk bmom
jyefqkdcsuf þwGif jyD;ygNyD/ Adkvrf SL;b&Si\
f pmwrf;rS uset
f ydki;f rsm;udk
þusr;f \ qdki&f mtcef;u@rsm;wGif jyefqkdxnfhoiG ;f &ef &nf&,
G yf gonf/
Adv
k rf LS ;b&Si\
f pmwrf;onf omrefordik ;f pmwrf;onf rnfumrwå r[kwb
f J
xdyw
f ef;jrefrmordik ;f ynm&Siw
f pfO;D u urÇmo
h rdik ;f ynm&Sirf sm; a&SUarSmufwiG f
jrefrmEdik if \
H tpövmrfomoemordik ;f udk wifjycJah om w&m;0if rSww
f rf;rSw&f m
jzpfaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/

D

jrefrmhordkif;twGuf ta&;ygaom t&Afpmaytaxmuftxm;rsm;
þae&mü jrefrmhordki;f twGuf t&Afpmaytaxmuftxm;rsm;\
ta&;ygyHkukd tenf;i,fazmfjyvdkygonf/ t&AfvlrsK;d wdkYonf ysLacwf
uwnf;u jrefrmEdik if EH iS hf OD;OD;zsm;zsm;xdawGUqufqcH o
hJ nft
h aMumif; txuf
wGif azmfjycJhygNyD/ t&AfvlrsK;d wdkYonf ordki;f rSww
f rf;a&;rSwo
f nfh tavh
tx pGNJ rJorl sm;jzpfMuonf/ odkjY zpf&m t&Afordki;f ynm&Sirf sm;ESihf c&D;onf
rsm; rSww
f rf;wifoGm;onfh pmayrsm;onf t&ADvkd xkESihx
f nfESihf &Sad eay
onf/ xdktxJwiG f ta&SUwkdi;f ESihf oufqkdi&f m ordki;f rSww
f rf;rsm;rSm ta&
twGuf renf;vSay/ Adv
k rf LS ;b&Si\
f pmwrf;wGif azmfjyxm;onfh pmtkypf m&ifrmS
olaY cwfu t*Fvyd Ef iS h f jyifopfbmomodjYkyefqNkdy;D orQom jzpfonf/ bmomrjyef&
ao;onfh pmtkypf mwrf;trsm;tjym; useaf yao;onf/ xdt
k xJwiG f tenf;ESihf
trsm;qdo
k vdk jrefrmEdik if t
H aMumif; azmfjyonfh pmtkyrf sm; rkcs&rdS nfjzpfonf/
+ aemufydkif;wGif a'gufwmoef;xGef;OD;ESifhOD;&nfpdefwdkYu ]rDcsJef} udk wdkufukvm;

[kvnf;aumif;? ]rdaemh} udk jrif;NcH[kvnf;aumif; owfrSwfazmfjyEdkifcJhygonf/
- (yoDausmfOD;)

29

Studies in Pathy History

q&mBuD; *sDtyd cf sv
f kypf OD;aqmifonfh jrefrmhordki;f ynm&Sirf sm;onf
w½kwrf Sww
f rf;rsm;udk avhvmMu&mrS jrefrmhordki;f twGuf ,cifu rodcJh
&aom taxmuftxm; tcsuftvuftopfrsm;udk odvmcJhMuonf/
xdktaxmuftxm;topfrsm;udk tajccHí txl;ojzifh acwfOD;ydki;f jrefrmh
ordki;f \ ikwu
f u
G jf r§Kyfuu
G rf sm;udk us,jf yefpY mG azmfxkww
f ifjyEdkicf MhJ uonf/
tu,fíom t&ADpmaytaxmuftxm;rsm;udk Edu
I cf Rwaf vhvmcGi&hf rnfqkd
vQif jrefrmhordki;f ESihyf wfoufí aemufxyf ikwu
f Gujf r§KyfuGurf sm;udk azmf
xkwEf kid Of ;D rnf[k arQmfvifch surf sm;pGm &Sad eayonf/ þe,fy,fonf jrefrmh
orkid ;f ynm&Sirf sm; ravhvm&ao;onfh e,fy,fopfjzpfonf/ þe,fy,f
wGif ajccs&ef rGwpf vifwkdYonfh tjcm;olrsm;xuf tcGihfta&;&So
d lrsm;
jzpfMuygonf/
t&ADtaxmuftxm;rsm;udk pl;prf;avhvmjcif;jzifh wpfzufwGif
jrefrmEdkiif H\ ordki;f uGuv
f yrsm;udk jznfhEkdirf nfjzpfNyD; tjcm;wpfzufwGif
acwfOD;ydki;f jrefrmEdkiif Hü tajccsJhonfh rdrw
d kdY\ twdwo
f rdki;f udkvnf; azmf
xkwEf kdirf nfjzpfygonf/ odkYjzpf&m ESprf sK;d ESpaf xGtusK;d &So
d nfh þrGejf rwfvS
aomvkyif ef;udk &nf&,
G cf su&f &dS jdS zifh aqmif&u
G o
f ihv
f yS gonf/
vlBuD;rif;taygif;wdkY cifAsm; ...
uRefawmf&h UJ pmwrf;uawmh rjyD;aom;ygbl;/ 'gayr,fh tjcm;tpD
tpOfrsm;&Sad ewmaMumifh wpfaMumif;? 'DtaMumif;t&mwpfckwnf;udkyJ tcsed f
Mumjrifph mG em;axmifae&jcif;aMumifv
h nf;aumif; y&dowfrsm;taeeJY NiD;aiGU
yifyef;jcif;rsm; jzpfrSmaMumifh 'DrSmyJ &yfem;vdkuyf gw,f/ ed*Hk;csKyftaeeJY
ajymvdkwmu udk,hfordki;f udk,f wefzkd;xm;yg/ 'grS olrsm;awGuvnf;
uRefawmfwkdYordki;f udk wefzkd;xm;vmrSmjzpfygw,f/
uRefawmfwkYd cifAsm;wdkY vlwpfpkauv;u udk,o
hf rdki;f uk,
d t
hf rsK;d
om;tpOftvm&JU rGejf rwfjcif;? xGe;f ajymifjcif;rsm;udk odxm;½HkeYJ rvHkavmuf

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

30

ao;ygbl;/ wjcm;nDaemifwkid ;f &if;om;rsm;vnf; uRefawmfwk&Yd UJ rGejf rwfw?hJ
xGe;f ajymif;wJh opömw&m;apmifhocd JhwJhordki;f udk odvmMuzdkY? avhvmMuzdkY?
pdw0f ifpm;vmzdkYta&;[m uRefawmfwkdY&JUta&; jzpfw,fvkdY wifjyajymMum;
&if; ed*Hk;csKyfvkduyf gw,f/
tm;vHk;udk aus;Zl;wifygw,f.....
<ua&mufvmwJh y&dowftaygif; csr;f ajrhom,mapaMumif; ...
qkawmif;ygw,f/
(yoDausmOf ;D )
1-10-1991

31

Studies in Pathy History

yk*HacwfykodrfNrdKUESifh yoDrif;rsm;

32

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

ykodrfNrdKUonf a&S;tvGefusaom qdyfurf;NrdKUwpfckjzpfygonf/
jrefrmEdkiif HwGif uke;f wGi;f tusqHk;yifv,fqyd u
f rf;NrdKUvnf; jzpfygonf/
ykord u
f kd a&S;u twdoOöme*&? todwOöe? ukord ? aumhorde?f ukord ?f
e*&a0ykv?’ em*ykv’ pojzifh ac:a0:cJMh uonf[k qdonf/
yk*aH cwfO;D uyif rGew
f kaYd 'o &mrnwGif ykord Nf rdKUwnf&cdS o
hJ nf[k
,lq&onf/ urf;½d;k wef;qdyu
f rf;a'owpfcjk zpfonft
h avQmuf wdik ;f wpfyg;
rS yifv,fu;l oabFmrsm; a&muf&q
dS ku
d af &muf&m a'owpfckjzpfco
hJ nf/

D

yg'EdkifiHawmf&mZ0ifordkif;rS oJvGefp
yg'Edkiif aH wmfrmS a&S;u (,ckacwf &efukeNf rdKUEiS hf teD;wpf0ku
d jf zpf
aom) oHvsiaf usmufwef;wGif wnf&cdS NhJ yD; ay:wl*v
D rl sK;d iZuFm\ zsuq
f ;D
vk,ufraI Mumifh taxmuftxm;ruRif;usecf ahJ om a&S;a[mif;rGeNf rdKUwpfNrdKU
jzpfygonf/ jynfawmfom OD;xGe;f &Dqkdolu awGU&So
d rQ yg;pyf&mZ0if
pm&mZ0ifrsm;udk pkpnf;í ordki;f wpfapmifa&;om;xkwaf 0cJhygonf/ ¤if;
pmtkyw
f iG f -

33

Studies in Pathy History

]jrefrmjynf ½dk;rBuD; 3ck\ yifv,furf;ajcwpfavQmufudk
vufeufEkdiif HawmfjyKvkyf pdk;rdk;cJhMuavonf/ xdktcg a&SYUbufurf;ajc?
[Hom0wD? armfvNrdKif? a&;? bdw?f xm;0,fwko
Yd nfvnf;aumif;? taemuf
'v? wGHaw;? ajrmif;jr? ykord w
f kdYonfvnf;aumif; yg'bk&ifrsm;\ Edkiif H
awmftwGi;f yg0ifaom NrdKU&mG wdki;f jynfrsm;jzpfcMhJ uavonf/}*
xdka'owGif rif;qufaygif; (40)rQ&Scd JhNyD; yg'NrdKUEkdiif Hawmfwnf
axmifol wdóabm*aoerif;\ aemuf (6)qufajrmufjzpfaom okrrkc
eef;apm&Si(f rGeb
f momtrnf&if; jAm*sJUz&mhapm) \ vufxufwGi-f
]tdE´d,[dE´Lukvm;rsm; oabFm (17)pif;jzifh ajrvk&efvm&m
eef;apm&Si(f jAm*sUJ z&mhapm) udk,w
f kid cf sw
D ufí ukvm;ppfonf (7000)ausmf
udk av;ESihfypfcwfokwo
f ifum uket
f jynfhESihf oabFm (17)pif;udk odr;f
ydkuv
f ku
d af vonf/}+
azmfjyygppfyJGukd atmifjrifonfhtxdr;f trSwt
f jzpfjzifh ]ordepf uü
0wf}[laom trnfu,
kd Nl yD; bodwcf cH o
hJ nf[k qufvufazmfjyxm;yg onf/
txufwiG f azmfjyxm;aom tcsut
f vuf tao;pdwrf sm;udk ordki;f ynm&Sif
J Of;ayrnf/ odakY omfvnf; yg'bk&if jAm*sUJ z&mh\
rsm;taejzifh vufcEH ikd zf ckYd ,
vufxufu yifv,fork'&´ mwGi;f ü&Sad eaom e,fajrcsUJ xiG rf I tEÅ&m,frsm;
aMumifh azmfjycsurf mS rl ordki;f ynm&Sirf sm;taejzifh jiif;y,fí r&Edkiaf y/
](jAm*sJUz&mhapm\ vufxuf) ppfa&;ppf&mwGiv
f nf; xdktcsed u
f
u&D-eD*½dkwkd &Sr;f (Zif;r,fom;rsm;)ESihf rMumcPwdkucf kdu&f aomtcsed jf zpf
avonf/ ¤if;tjyif tdE,
´d rS ajrvk&efvmaom [dEL´ ukvm;rsm;? yoDbmom
0ifrq
l vifukvm;rsm;tjyif awvf*u
l kvm;rsm;ESihf tBudrBf udrw
f ku
d cf ku
d w
f eG ;f
±
vSe&f ao;onf/}
* OD;xGef;&D? yg'EdkifiHawmf&mZ0ifordkif;? pmrsufESm 76/
+

±

OD;xGef;&D? yg'EdkifiHawmf&mZ0ifordkif;? pmrsufESm 59/
OD;xGef;&D? yg'EdkifiHawmf&mZ0ifordkif;? pmrsufESm 63/

34

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

OD;xGef;&Du rlqifbmom0if yoDukvm;[k azmfjy&rnfhtpm;
yoDbmom0ifrq
l vifukvm;[k azmfjyxm;ygonf/ þae&mü [dEL´ ukvm;
awvf*lukvm;rsm;ESiht
f wl a&maESmazmfjyxm;aom yoDbmom0ifrlqvif
ukvm;qdkorl sm;rSm tdE,
´d Edkiif o
H m; ukvm;rsm;r[kwaf Mumif; azmfjyzdkv
Y kv
d m
ygonf/

D

]ukvm;} [laom a0g[m&
ukvm;a0g[m&ESiyhf wfoufí ordki;f ynm&SiBf uD; Adkvrf LS ;b&Siu
f
atmufygtwdki;f zGiq
hf kcd yhJ gonf/
]Edkiif jH cm;om;rsm;udk a&S;jrefrmwdku
Y ac:aomukvm;[lonfh trnf
onf ukvykwå trsK;d aumif;om;? odkYr[kwf ukv jrwfaomtrsK;d [laom
ygVda0g[m&wdkYrS qif;oufvmonf[k ,lq&onf/.... ,ckacwfwGif
ukvm;[laom a0g[m&onf rESpNf rdKUb,
G jf zpfaom teufoabmudkaqmif
d Saomtrnf jzpfcJhavonf/ a0g[m&\
aomfvnf; rlvu *kPo
f u
d ©m&Sv
t"dygÜ ,fonf tajctaetvdkuf ajymif;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/*
Adkvrf LS ;b&Sif wifjyaom ]ukvm;} onf ]ukvykwå}rS qif;ouf
vmaom a0g[m&jzpfonfq
h kad om tqdktjyif ]ukvm;} qdkonfrmS ork'&´ m
udk ]ul;vm} olrsm;udk ac:jcif;jzpfonf? ul;vmrS ukvm;jzpfonf[k
qdkorl sm;vnf;&So
d nf/

* AdkvfrSL;b&Sif? taemf&xmt&ifu jrefrmEdkifiH? ('kwd,tBudrf)? pm - 260/

35

Studies in Pathy History

D

]ukvm;} [laom a0g[m&twGuf t,ltqtopf
ukvm;a0g[m&ESiyhf wfoufí aemufxyfavhvmawGU&adS om MuHq
csut
f opfukd þpmwrf;&Sib
f ufrS wifjyvdkayao;onf/ tdE´d,Edkiif HrS
ynm&SiBf uD; pdki,
f 'fqkavrefe'f0u
D ]½dk;½dk;0efxrf; odkrY [kwf oabFmom;[k t"dygÜ ,fem;vnfEkid af om
]cvmo(Khalasi)} qdkonfh a0g[m&&Syd gonf/ þa0g[m&rSm rl&if;
t&ADa0g[m&jzpfygonf/ ]cvm;pf(Khalasi)} qdo
k nfrmS t&ADt"dygÜ ,ft&
tjzLESiht
f euf aygif;pyfxm;jcif;udk qdkvkyd gonf/
tom;rJrcd ifESihf tom;jzLzcifwkdYrS arG;zGm;vmaom uav;udk
]cvmoD} [k ac:ygonf/ t&AfvlrsK;d wdkYonf cdki;f apavh&MSd uNyD; ¤if;wdkYrS
arG;zGm;vmaom uav;rsm;udk oabFmay:wGif trIxrf;tjzpf xnfo
h iG ;f avh
&SMd uonf/ xdkuav;rsm;udk ]cvmoD(Khalasi)} [k ac:avonf/*
txufyg taumufEIwcf surf sm;t& yk*Hacwfu jrefrmEdkiif Hyif
v,fqyd u
f rf;NrdKUrsm;odkY qdkuyf af &muf&aSd eMuaom t&Afukeo
f abFmrsm;wGif
oabFmtrIxrf; ]cvm;pf}rsm; yg0ifrnfjzpfonf/ oabFmom;rsm;wGif
]cvm;pf}rsm;rSm vlOD;a&trsm;qHk;jzpfzG,v
f nf; &So
d nf/ ¤if;wdkYtm; tjcm;
oabFmom;rsm;u trnfoD;jcm;ac:raeawmhbJ ]cvm;} [k om ac:Mu
rnfjzpfonf/ odkjY zifh a'ocHrsm;u oabFmom;rSev
f Qif ¤if;wdkt
Y NrJMum;ae&
* Syed Sulaiman Nadvi: "The Arab Navigation", MWL Journal. Mar.
1982. p. 24.

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

36

aom cvm;qdkonfhtoHk;tEIe;f jzifh vdkuaf c:&mrS wpfjznf;jznf; ]uvm;}
[laom toHk;tEIe;f ay:aygufvmonf[k ,lqEdkiaf vonf/
txufygt,ltqtjyif tjcm;jzpfEkid zf ,
G &f o
dS nfh t,ltq wpf
&yf&ydS gao;onf/ t&Afc&D;onfrsm;jzpfMuaom tAlZu
kd 'f [
f pH(at'D-916)ESihf
rmwft'l (D at'D-943)wd\
Yk rSww
f rf;rsm;wGif rav;uRe;f qG,t
f wGi;f rS ]uvm;
(Kalah) trnf&dS qdyu
f rf;NrdKUtaMumif; azmfjyxm;onf/ tAl Zdku'f [
f pHu
-]uvm;}Nrd K Uonf tvG e f r a&;ygaom uk e f o G , f a &;tcsuf t jcm
qdyu
f rf;NrdKUjzpfonf/ rkwcf g;? y½ky?f pE´u;l eHUom? qifp,
G ?f oHjzL? opfeuf?
[if;cwftarT;tBudKifESihf tjcm;ukepf nfrsK;d pHk ul;oef;a&mif;0,f&mwGif
t"duusaom pcef;wpfckjzpfonf/ t&AfEkdiif HwpfEkdiif Hjzpfonfh tdkrefEkdiif H
ESihv
f nf; yHkrSeu
f l;oef;qufoG,rf I&o
Sd nf} [k rSww
f rf;wifcJhonf/
t&Afc&D;onfBuD; rwfpt
f l'Duvnf; ¤if;\rSww
f rf;wGif
]uvm;} qdyu
f rf;NrdKUtaMumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/
]a&S;txufu w½kwjf ynfonf yg&Sjynf&Sd aq&zfqyd u
f rf;NrdKU?
tma&As&Sd tdkrefqyd u
f rf;NrdKUwkdYESihf wdku½f kducf &D;pOf&cSd Jhonf/ odkY&mwGif ,ck
tcg xdEk pS Ef idk if \
H tMum;wGif uvm;qdyu
f rf;u ukeo
f nfoabFmrsm;twGuf
qHkawGUap&m pk&yftjzpf wnf&adS eavonf}[k rwfpt
f 'l u
D azmfjycJyh gonf/
txufazmfjyyg ]uvm;}qdyu
f rf;rSm rav;uRef;qG,t
f wGi;f &Sd
ojzifh jrefrmhurf;½dk;wef;ESihf teD;uyfqk;H wnf&o
dS nfh qdyu
f rf;NrdKUjzpfygonf/
xku
d vm;qdyu
f rf;NrdKUukd A[dkjyKí toGm;tjyef pcef;axmuftjzpf 0ifa&muf
vmMuaom Edik if jH cm;om;rsm;udk &mrna'oom;rsm;u ]uvm;}[k ac:jcif;
vnf; jzpfEkid yf gao;onf/
txufyg t,ltqrsm;onf þpma&;ol\ twåaemrwd ,lq
csurf sm;omjzpfygonf/ jzpfEkid rf jzpfEkdif ynm&Sirf sm; a0zefoHk;oyfEkdi&f ef
wifjyvdkujf cif;jzpfygonf/

37

Studies in Pathy History

D

yk*HacwfykodrfNrdKUESifhyoDrif;rsm;
yoDrif;rsm;rwdkirf D ykord Nf rdKUukd tkycf sKyfcJhaom rif;qufwpfquf
&SdcJhonf[k ykodrfordkif;rsm;wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/ ¤if;rif;qufudk
orv0drvrif;quf [lívnf;aumif;? yxrykord rf if;qquf [lívnf;
aumif;? q&mOD;rmC\ ykord &f mS Z0ifwiG f azmjyxm;ygonf/ q&mOD;rmC
onf 0drvrif;qifEiS yhf wfoufí]xdkorv0drvwdkYonf oxHkbk&ifoD&rd maomu\ om;awmf
rsm;jzpfaMumif;? ([Hom0wD ycJcl;wnfrnfhae&mwGi)f yifv,fwrd rf S ay:
vmonfhuRef;udk (A*Fg 12 NrdKUrS) [dE´LpabFmom;ukvm;rsm;ESiht
f Edkiv
f kMu
&m rdrw
d kdYu tydki;f &Muojzifh [Hom0wD[k trnfwyfum orvrif;jyK
aMumif;? 0drvmrSm tdraf &SUrif;jzpfapaMumif; ponfjzifh orkid ;f tcsKUd wGif
jyqdkMuavonf/}*
odk&Y mwGif &mZ0ifrsm;ü tuGu
J t
JG jym;jym; azmfjyxm;aom orv
0drvrif;qufukd q&mOD;rmCu '@m&DqefvaS om taMumif;t&mrsm;jzpf
[k oHk;oyfcyhJ gonf/+
orvrif;eef;wufí 12ESpMf umvQif ewf&GmpHNyD; 0drvrif; eef;
wufaMumif;? 0drvrif; r&So
d nfhaemuf (awmifeef;zGm;) owåKaZ,s eef;
wufaomtcg (ajrmufeef;zGm;) nDaemifajcmufOD;wdkYu [Hom0wDrS xGuf
ajy;cJhMuNyD;aemuf wd,*FvuRef;wGif twdoOöme*&NrdKU(ykord Nf rdKU)udk wnf
onf[k ordki;f a[mif;rsm;wGif vm&Syd gonf/
* rmC? ykodrf&mZ0if? pmrsufESm - 133/

+ xufnTef;usrf;? 136 - 7/

38

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

yxr ykord rf if;qufjzpfonfh txufygajrmufeef;zGm; nDaemif
ajcmufa,mufw\
kYd trnfrsm;udk &cdki&f mZ0ifyg trnfrsm;ESiv
hf nf;aumif;?
aywm0w¬K? tXuxmZmwf tXuxmwdkYüvmonfh trnfrsm;ESihf xyfwl
nDaeyHkukd q&mOD;rmCu EdIi;f ,SOjf yygonf/ ¤if;aemuf ],HkMunfz,
G &f o
dS nfjzpfap? r&So
d nfjzpfap a&S;ordki;f a[mif;wdkY \
ta&;BuD;aom jyqdkcsufrsm;udk wpfqifhjy&ef wm0ef&Sdonfhtwdkif;
azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/ jyqdkcJhaom 0gok'wåpaom nDaemifajcmufOD;wdkYonf
wpfOD;jyD;wpfO; (ykord af c:wGirf nfh) twdoOöe*&ü rif;jyKMuavowf/
1/ 0gok'wå
eef;pH
9 ESpf
2/ Av'wå
/
10 ESpf
3/ r[maZ,
/
7 ESpf
4/ plVaZ,s
/
8 ESpf
5/ om*&
/
6 ESpf
6/ *edX(uedX¿)
/
7 ESpf
nDaemifajcmufO;D wdk\
Y eef;oufrsm;udk aygif;ygu (47)ESprf &S adS v
onf/ aemufqHk;rif; uedVeef;oufukeaf omtcg ouú&mZf 583 odkY
a&mufNyD[k qdkavonf/

yoDrif;quf
D
]ouú*&mZf 583 ckwGif yoD(ukvif;)rif;rsm; vma&muftkypf kd;
aMumif; ordki;f rsm;wGif jyqdkMuavonf/ xdkouú&mZf rSeyf gu yk*HwGif
uspGmrif; (581-596)tkypf kd;aecsed jf zpfo
f nf/ ouú&mZfrSef rrSet
f yxm;í
ukvm; (yoD)yoDrsm; vma&muftkypf k;d onf[k qdkjcif;um; rSeyf k&H avonf/

39

Studies in Pathy History

,if;odkY yoDukvm;rsm; vma&muftkypf k;d onfukd taMumif;jyKum
rGew
f ku
Yd ]'Hk;yoD}(!Kif;yod)[kac:Mujcif;jzpfaMumif;udkvnf; ordki;f a[mif;
wdküY jyqdkMuavonf/
1/ yoDrif;eef;
8 ESpf
2/ atmfvaH w(tl&'f ¿
l )
1 ESpf
3/ tuúywfrif;
3 ESpf
(atmfvHukd a[mfvH[kvnf; rluGJ&So
d nf/ ukvm;rsK;d (60)wGif
wpfrsK;d )/*
q&mOD;rmCu yoDrif;qufEiS yhf wfoufí ]ordki;f rsm;wGif jyqdk
Muavonf}[líom a&;om;cJhNyD; rnfonfhordki;f a[mif; rnfonfhusr;f
*efrsm;ü azmfjyyg&So
d nf[k wdwu
d sus &nfnTe;f cJhjcif; r&Sad y/ odkY&mwGif
orv0drvrif;qufrsm;rSm aumufcsucf scJhouJhokdY '@m&Dqefonf[k
aumufcsurf csbJ ]yoDrsm; vma&muftkypf kd;onf[k qdkjcif;um; rSeyf Hk&
avonf} [k aumufcsucf sxm;aMumif; awGU&avonf/

D

yoDrif;rsm; tkyfcsKyfcJhaMumif; taxmuftxm;
tuúywfrif; eef;pHí 3ESp&f aSd omtcg *kPo
Ö m&? *kPo
Ö m&DwkdYu
vkyMf uHí eef;wufMuonf[k ykord &f mZ0ifu qdkonf/ odkYaomf ykord u
f kd
tkycf sKcfY o
hJ nfh yoDrif;qufrmS ykord &f mZ0ifwiG f azmfjyxm;ouJo
h kYd oHk;quf
om ruay/ prÁLU'DyOaqmif;usr;f wGif ](yk'rf 10(*)ykord )f ...rGef 21quf jrefrmukvm; 24 qufe,f
onf ta&SUacsmif;tjcm;? taemufukd e*g;&pfyoQL;&Gm? ajrmufukd ydkiu
f r®ajr
+
tjcm;e,f 4&yf pD&ifonf} [kqkdxm;onf/ þprÁLU'DyOaqmif;usr;f udk
* rmC? ykodrf&mZ0if? pmrsufESm - 133/

+ prÁLU'DyOaqmif;usrf;? pmrsufESm - 58)/

40

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

ordki;f ynm&Sirf sm;u tm;uk;d tm;xm;jyKxdkuaf om tkycf sKyfa&;ordki;f tjzpf
vufcHxm;ygonf/ a*stufpzf meDAJvEf Sihf OD;azarmifwifuJhokdY ynm&SiEf Spf
OD;u wnf;jzwfco
hJ jzifv
h nf; ydkí cdkirf mudk;um;xdkuyf gonf/ a'oEÅ&rSwf
wrf;wpfckwiG v
f nf;]ykord Nf rdKUwGif rGerf if; jrefrmrif;rsm;tjyif yoDukvm;rsm;yif
rif;vkycf zhJ ;l onfrmS xl;jcm;rIyifjzpfonf/ odakY omf ykord Nf rdKUwiG pf k;d pHczhJ ;l aom
rif;wdrYk mS rif;i,frsm;tjzpfom tkycf sKycf MhJ ujcif;jzpfonf/ tcsKUd rmS rif;trnfcH
NrdKUpm;? NrdKU0eftqifrh Qom jzpfayonf/}*
ykord Nf rdKU yoDrif;rsm;taMumif; awGU&adS om taxmuftxm;rsm;rSm
þrQomjzpfonf/ aemufq;kH taeSihf ykoed Nf rdKUordik ;f pmtkyw
f iG f azmfjyxm;aom
yoDrif;quf\eef;awmf&mtaMumif; azmfjyvdkayonf/

D

]ykodrfNrdKUESifhukvm;eef;awmf}
]No Document No History} 0w¬Kypön;f oufaocHr&Sv
d Qif
&mZ0ifr[kwf qdkonfhtwdki;f ykoed w
f iG f 12ESpw
f kdiw
f kdif ukvm;rsm; pdk;pHpOf
u ukvm;eef;awmfuke;f ae&mrSm ,cktrSw(f 1) txufwef;ausmif;uke;f
ae&mü jzpf[ef&ydS gonf/ Govt. Hight School 1921 ck? atmufajctwGuf
ajrwl;&mwGif 1awmifcef&Y adS om a&S;tkycf syBf uD;rsm; ay:vmonf/ ausmif;0if;
ESihf wpfqufwnf; trdeYaf wmf&rif; OD;xGe;f atmifnKd \ tdrw
f kdiw
f l;&mwGif
vnf; ukvm;rsm; aq;vdyaf omufaom wrmulAl;rsm;ESihf xdkAl;udk quf
aom ydkuv
f Hk;rsm; awGUygonf/ ydkuv
f Hk;rSm ydkuw
f kdr[kwf ydku&f Snjf zpfí
ukvm;txufwef;vTmrsm;? txl;ojzifh r[m&mZmoHk;ypön;f jzpf&ygrnf/
* vGifarmif? rSwfwrf;ordkif; '*Hk{&mweoFm&Dwdkif;? pmrsufESm - 241/

41

Studies in Pathy History

þonfukd &nfí ukvm;eef;awmfuke;f rSm [dkupf ul;ausmif;wpf0kdujf zpf
&ygrnf/+
þtxmuftxm;rsm;t& yk*Hacwfu ykord u
f kdtkycf sKyfcJhaom
yoDrif;rsm;ESihf ywfoufí aemufxyfazmfxkw&f efrsm; &Sad eao;aMumif;
od&ygonf/
___

+ ykoed o
f ed ;f ? ykoed Nf rdKUordki;f ? pmrsuEf Sm - 97/

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

42

'@m&DwGif 0ifa&mufaysmufuG,foGm;aom yoDrif;orD;

43

Studies in Pathy History

D

'@m&DwGif 0ifa&mufaysmufuG,foGm;aom yoDrif;orD;
ykord (f 32)NrdKU\ orkid ;f udk avhvmMunfrh nfqkyd gu ork'a´ Cmo
rif;ESihf Or®m'EÅrD if;orD;wdkt
Y aMumif;udk tBudrBf udraf wGU&vdrrhf nf/ {&m0wD
wdki;f twGi;f emrnfBuD;bk&m;ykxkd;rsm;udk wnfaqmufoGm;cJhaom þrif;
ESihfrb
d k&m;wdkY\ trnfukd rMum;zl;ol &Sm;ayvdrhfrnf/ odkYESihfwkdif Or®m'EDÅ
rif;orD;onf yoDrif;orD;wpfyg;jzpfaMumif; a&;om;rnfqkdvQif txl;
tqef;jzpfukeMf uvdrrhf nf/ tb,faMumifq
h kad omf ykord Nf rdKUtaMumif; tvGef
jynfph kpH mG a&;xm;aom q&mOD;rmC\ ykord &f mZ0ifwiG v
f nf;aumif;? ykoed f
ode;f \ ykoed Nf rdKUordki;f pmtkyif ,fwiG v
f nf;aumif; þtaMumif; azmfjyxm;
jcif; r&Sad omaMumifh jzpfonf/
h nfh
udkvked aD cwfu Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;taMumif; tapmqHk;a&;om;cJo
rSww
f rf;rsm;wGiv
f nf; þrif;orD;onf yoDrif;orD;jzpfaMumif; azmfjyxm;
jcif; r&Sad cs/ 1915 ckEpS u
f xkwaf 0cJo
h nfh [oFw'dpMwdwaf *Zufw;D ,m;
wGif Or®m'EÅDrif;orD;taMumif;udk atmufygtwdki;f azmfjyxm;onf/

D

Or®m'EÅrD if;orD;\ '@m&D
][oFw'dpMwdwEf Sihf ywfoufaom aAGaqmfOD;azmfjycsuo
f nf
Or®m'EÅDrif;orD;'@m&DESihf qufpyfvsu&f o
Sd nf/ þ'@m&Donf tkwzf kdNrdKU
teD;wGif Zmwford ;f onf/ tkwzf kdNrdKUukd &Sp&f mpku usKu
d t
f *F[laom rGef
trnfjzifh wnfcJhonf[k qdkonf/

44

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

Or®m'EÅDrif;orD;onf at'D 1250 wGif ykord Nf rdKUukd tkycf sKyfcJh&
onf/ taxmuftxm;tcsKUd t& rif;orD;\ trnfrSm Or®mjzpfNyD; 'EDÅrSm
olr\aemifawmftrnfjzpfonf/ tjcm;rSww
f rf;wpfckt& þrif;orD;onf
at'D 984 ckwGif eef;pHcJhaomykord b
f k&if ork'ªaCmorif;\ rdbk&m;jzpf
onf/ a'owGi;f ajymqdkazmfjycsurf mS þrif;orD;onf wef,if(weoFm&D)
rS rGerf if;qufbk&ifwpfyg;\ orD;awmfjzpfonf/*
arm&pfqifu qufvufí [F'dpBwdwfa*ZufwD;,m;wGif
Or®m'EÅrD if;orD;\ tcspZf mwfvrf;udk rSww
f rf;wifcyhJ gonf/ xdZk mwfvrf;rSm
trsm;odxm;onfh Zmwfvrf;yifjzpfygonf/
ykoed o
f ed ;f a&;om;onfh ykoed Nf rdKUordki;f onf q&mrmC\ ykord f
&mZ0ifEiS hf EdiI ;f ,SOv
f Qif usO;f yifusO;f aomfvnf; þpmtky\
f xl;jcm;csurf mS
ykord Nf rdKU\&yfuu
G rf sm;udk wpfuu
G cf si;f aemufcHordki;f ESihw
f uG azmfjyxm;
jcif;jzpfonf/ tqdkyg&yfuu
G rf sm;teuf Or®m'EÅrD if;orD;ESihf wdku½f ku
d o
f uf
qdkio
f nfrSm yef;wifuke;f jzpfonf/ xdktaMumif;udk ykoed o
f ed ;f \ ykord Nf rdKU
ordki;f wGif þodkaY zmfjyxm;\/

D
yef;wifukef;&yf

]yef;wifuke;f [k ac:qdk&jcif;rSm ork'´aCmoESihf Or®m'EÅDwkdY
vufxufu rSww
f ikd w
f pf&yfjzpfcyhJ gonf/ Ouúvmyrif;BuD;\ om;rsm;udk
xD;eef;twGuf pdk;&dr&f ojzifh i,fpOfu pGeYyf pf&mwGif wpfa,mufukdbDvl;
rif;u awGU&SNd yD; EdkYcsKw
d kduaf uR; arG;pm;ojzifh bDvlrif;om;jzpfvm\/
wpfa,mufukd tke;f uRef;(uyÜvu
D REf;)rS awGU&adS rG;xm;&m tke;f pm;uRef;rif;
* Henzada District Gazetter Vol A. Compiled by W.S.Morrison, I.C.S.
p . 16.

45

Studies in Pathy History

om;jzpfvm\/ wpfa,mufukd ukvm;rsm;awGU&Sad rG;xm;&m ork'´aCmo
rif;om;jzpfvm\/ nDtpfukt
d &if;rsm;jzpfMu\/ odakY omf olwckYd si;f rodMu/
Or®m'EÅDrSmvnf; ESrt&if;jzpfaMumif; vlwkdYrodMu/ ¤if;wdkYoHk;OD; ykoed o
f kdY
a&muf&v
dS maom Or®m'EÅt
D wGuf ppfcif;tEdik &f ,lou
l ,liiford ;f &ef oabm
wlMuonf/ Or®m'EÅDu Mum;0iftqHk;tjzwfay;\/
]toifrif;om;rsm; trsK;d orD;wpfa,muftwGuf ppfbuf,SOf
NydKif&onfrmS &Supf &mvdvyd ifjzpfygonf/ toifwkYd oabmusvQif uREfkyf
tMuHay;vdkyg\} [kqkd&mwGif ay;cGihfjyKojzifh ]bk&m;wnfMuyg? tvsif
NyD;olukd pkvsm;&pfywf vufxyfygrnf}[k qdk\/ tm;vHk; oabmBudKufnD
Mu\/
,ck a&Tarma|mae&mwGif ork'´aCmou vnf;aumif;?
bk&m;BuD;uke;f t&yfwiG f bDv;l rif;om;u vnf;aumif;? waumif;t&yf
wGif tke;f pm;uRef;rif;om;uvnf;aumif;? a&Trka|m? r[mapwD? r*Fvm
apwDrsm; tNydKiw
f nfMu\/ þwGif Or®m'EÅrD if;orD;u csp&f if;pGJ jzpfaom
ork'a´ Cmorif;BuD;tm; ]toifrif;om;? uREykf u
f t
kd vd&k jdS im; tH?h opfBuD;?
0g;BuD;? tkwBf uD;wdkjY zifh bk&m;udk rwnfEiS hf bk&m;qdk&mwGif *wdu0wfü
b,fvkb
d ,ftpm;rsK;d qdkonf rygojzifh bdeyfawmfNyD;vQif acgif;avmif;yHk
rSpí jcif;azmif;um;&ufí ydwjf zLywf? xD;awmfwifygqdkojzifh Or®m'EDÅ
tMuHay;csut
f wdki;f wnfap&m tvsijf yD;ojzifh ork'a´ Cmou Or®m'EDÅ
udk &awmh\/
aemufwiG f Or®m'EDÅrzd k&m;BuD;onf a&Trka|m? r[mapwD (bk&m;
BuD;uke;f bk&m;) r*FvmapwD(waumif;bk&m;)wdkYtm; wpfae&mwnf;rS
yef;uyfEkdi&f ef yef;cHkukd ,ckyef;wifuke;f t&yfü wnfap\/}*
ykoed o
f ed ;f \ yg;pyf&mZ0ifwGif Or®m'EDÅukd yoDrif;orD;[k
* ykodefodef;\ ykodefNrdKUordkif;? pmrsufESm 60-61/

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

46

azmfjyrxm;aomfvnf; aemifwGif ykord b
f k&ifjzpfvmrnfh okr'´aCmo
rif;onf Ouúvmyrif;\om;jzpfaMumif; azmfjyxm;onfukd awGU&av
onf/ odkYomru Ouúvmyrif;f u rdr\
d xD;eef;pnf;pdrf vk,lrnfukd
pdk;&drí
f rdr\
d om;oHk;OD;udk pGeyYf pfc&hJ mwGif om;wpfO;D jzpfol ork'a´ Cmo
tm; xdktcsed u
f ykord u
f kt
d kycf sKyfvsu&f adS om yoDrif;u awGU&adS rG;xm;cJh
onf[k qdkavonf/ þae&mwGif ork'a´ CmoESihf ykord &f dS yoDrif;wd\
kY
qufpyfru
I kd t&dyt
f >rufpí od&&dS ygonf/ ykoed o
f ed ;f \ ykoed Nf rdKUordki;f
tajcm;wpfae&mwGif ]pwkw¬om;rSmrl oabFmwpfpif;uawGU&jSd yD; ykoed Nf rdKUokdYa&muf
vmonf/ þwGif ukvm;yoDrif;tm; qufo&m om;tjzpfarG;pm;
onf/ t&G,af &mufvQif yoDrif;[lívnf;aumif;? obm&rif;[lí
vnf;aumif;? ork'´aComrif;[lívnf;aumif; ac:a0:Muonf/}*
[oFw'dpMwdwaf *ZufwD;,m;ESihf ykord o
f rdki;f pmtkyrf sm;wGif
Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;ESihf vufqqufcJholukd ork'´aCmo[k wpfnDwpf
nGww
f nf; azmfjyMuaomfvn; aMu;wdki0f efOD;wifMuD;jyKpkonfh 1931
ckxkwf rtlyif'pd Bwdwaf *ZufwD;,m;wGirf l ork'´aCmotpm; ae*&D
rif;om;[k qdkygonf/
]ykodrfrS Or®m'ED´rif;orD;\ ½kyfqif;t*FgvSywifhw,fjcif;
owif;onf oD[kdVo
f kdYwkdif ysHUESHUausmMf um;onf[kqkd\/ odkYjzifh auoe
rif;om;onf Or®moEDÅrif;orD;ESihf vufqufEkdi&f ef tvdkYiSmykord o
f kdY
c&D;xGucf o
hJ nf/ odkaY omf auoerif;om; ykord o
f krYd a&mufrD vrf;ckvyf
ü pdwx
f cd kduzf G,pf um;wpf&yfu BudKqdkvmonf/ Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;udk
ae*&Drif;om;u olYxufOD;oGm;jyD [laomowif;jzpfonf/ þwGif
olYarQmfvifhcsuf jydKuGJysupf D;jcif;txdr;f trSwt
f jzpf a&TjrifwifapwDukd
* xufnTef;? pmrsufESm - 6/

47

Studies in Pathy History

,ckawGU&SUd &aomt&yfü wnfxm;cJhonf/*
rtlyifa*ZufwD;,m;wGif oD[kdVEf kdiif Htxd ysHUESHUausmMf um;cJh
onfh Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;\ vSyrIEiS hf rif;orD;udk pkvsm;&pfywfEkid &f efykord f
odkY c&D;xGuv
f mcJhaom oD[kdVrf if;om;auoeaMumif;rSm tjcm;rSwf
wrf;rsm;wGif rygojzifh xl;jcm;onf[k qdkEkdiyf gonf/ [oFwa*Zuf
wD;,m;wGirf l oD[kVd rf if;om;ykord v
f monft
h aMumif; rygbJ ajymif;jyef
qdkovdk ork'´aCmrif;om; oD[kdVo
f kdYoGm;onfhtaMumif;udk azmfjyxm;
ygonf/ ork'´aCmorif;om;onf oD[kdVo
f kdY bk&m;zl;oGm;cJhjcif;jzpfyg
onf/

D

OD;vli,f\ ]ukr&EDv
Å uFm}rS oJveG pf
OD;vli,frSm rif;wke;f rif;w&m;BuD;vufxuf ausmif&pfpif
awmfBuD;rS pmqdkawmfjzpfygonf/ orm;awmfBuD;wpfOD;vnf; jzpfyg
onf/ pmqdkawmfOD;vli,fonf ork'´aCmorif;ESihf Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;wdkY
\ jzpf&yfudk ]ukr&EDÅvuFm}trnfjzifh rSwfwrf;wifcJhzl;ygonf/
xdkvuFmrSm wdrjf rKyfaysmufu,
G v
f su&f o
dS jzifh ,ckwkid f avhvmcGirhf &yg/
OD;vli,f\ ukr&EDÅvuFmudk tajccHía&;xm;aom owdk;
aomif;\aqmif;yg;wGirf l txufazmfjyyg a*ZufwD;,m;rsm;rS tcsuf
tvufrsm;wdkYESihf uGJvGJaeayonf/ ,if;aqmif;yg;ü]rGeb
f k&ifokr'´aCmorif;onf ykord Nf rdKUrSukvm;rif;\ orD;
ukr&EDÅrif;orD;udk ck;d ,lajy;vmNyD;aemuf Or®m'EDÅtrnfjzifh rdzk&m;
ajr§mufawmfrlonf/ xdkYaemuf ork'´aCmobk&ifESihf Or®m'EDÅrzd k&m;wdkY
* arwifEGJU? ]'@m&DrSordkif;odkY}? tawG;tjrif? Mo*kwf 1988? pmrsufESm-103/

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

48

onf ,ck0g;c,frNrdKUe,f o&GwNf rdKuf&mG teD;wGif yku©0wDNrdKUukd wnfí
eef;pdkufonf/ ,ck rku©0wDeef;awmfysufonf 0g;c,frNrdKUe,fESifh
armfvNrdKifuRef;NrdKUe,fpyf&Sd o&GuNf rdKuf&GmteD; vbGwå&Gmzsm;wGif &Sd
onf/
xdkork'´aCmobk&ifESihf Or®m'EDÅrzd k&m;wdkY wnfcJhaomNrdKUrsm;
rSm aZ,smNrdKU? usKu
d x
f D;NrdKU? usKu
d yf Nd rKdU? uke;f awmfBuD;NrdKUwkdYjzpfonf/
usKu
d yf Nd rdKUrSm ,ckwkdi&f Sí
d useef ef;awmf&mESihfNrdKUysurf sm;udkvnf; armf
vNrdKifuRef;NrdKUe,fxJwGif awGUEkdio
f nf}[k azmfjyxm;onf/*
pmqdkawmfOD;vli,f\ ukr&EDÅvuFmudk avhvm&vQif Or®m'EÅD
rif;orD;taMumif; ,ckxufykdíodEkdiv
f rd hfrnf/ ,ckrl Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;
onf ykord Nf rdKUukdtkycf sKyfvsu&f Sad om yoDrif;\ orD;awmfjzpfaMumif;?
rif;orD;\rlvtrnfrSm Or®m'EdDÅr[kwb
f J ukr&EDÅjzpfaMumif;? crnf;
awmfyoDrif;u awGU&SdarG;pm;xm;aom ork'´aCmorif;om;ESifhcspf
BudKufrNd yD; rif;om;\ cdk;&mvdkuaf jy;cJhaMumif;rsm;udkom od&onf/
[oFw'dpBwdwaf *ZufwD;,m;\azmfjycsut
f & okr'´aCmo
rif;om;ESihf Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;wdkY ykord Nf rdKUrSxGuaf jy;Mujcif;onf tjcm;
taMumif;wpfckaMumifhjzpfonf/ Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;\ acsmarmvSyrI
ausmaf Zmowif;aMumifh[kvnf; qdkEkdio
f nf/
][oFo'dpBwdwftwGif; a&S;a[mif;okawoeynmt&
pdw0f ifpm;zG,t
f aumif;qHk; taqmuftOD;av;ckonf Or®m'EDÅrzd k&m;
ESihf Muif,mawmfykord b
f k&if ork'´aCmowdkY wnfxm;cJhaom bk&m;
av;qlyifjzpfonf/ yJcl;bk&if a'G;&mZm"d&mZfu Or®m'EDÅrdzk&m;udk
wyfrufNyD; odr;f ydkuv
f kdonfhab;&efrS udk;&mpktqHk;ydki;f wGif ykord rf S
* owdk;aomif;\ ]&mZifwGifaysmufuG,faeonfh rif;ESifhrdzk&m;}? (1-7-1969)

aeYxkwf tdk;a0*sme,f? trSwf -22)

49

Studies in Pathy History

xGufajy;cJhMuonf/ ¤if;wdkYxGufajy;&m vrf;wpfavQmuf ykodrfESifh
[oFmw'dpMwdwt
f Mum; bk&m;rsm; wef;pDí wnfoGm;cJhonf/}*
[ka*ZufwD;,m;wGif azmfjyxm;onf/ yJcl;bk&if a'G;
&mZm"d&mZf\ &efrSvGwf&majy;vmcJhaom ZeD;armifESHonf &cdkif½dk;r
awmifajctxdyif a&mufoGm;cJhMuonf/ tjcm;rSww
f rf;wpfckwGi-f
].... ykodrfNrdKUrS xGufajy;vmaom ork'´aCmorif;ESifh
Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;wdkYonf *lxGwNf rdKU\taemufbuf rdki(f 20)ausmcf efY&Sd
&cdki½f kd;rawmifteD;rSm yxrNrdKU wnfaeMu\/
xdkae&mudk rBudKufí ta&SUbufokdY xGuv
f m&m *lxGwNf rdKUokdY
a&mufonfhtcg BudKufESpo
f ufí *lxGwNf rdKUrSmaeMu\/+
*lxw
G Nf rdKUrSm ,ckacwf jrefatmifNrdKUjzpfonf/ Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;
taMumif;a&;xm;onfh txufygaqmif;yg;rSww
f rf;rsm;wGif trnf
razmfjyao;aomNrdKUrSm ]Or®m'EDÅ}NrdKUjzpfonf/ prÁLU'DyOaqmif;usr;f ü
}Or®m'EDÅ}trnfjzifh NrdKUwpfNrdKUukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/±xdkNrdKUrSm Or®m'EDÅ
rif;orD;\trnfukd tpGJjyKí rSnhaf c:xm;jcif;omjzpf&ygrnf/ odkYaomf
rif;orD;ESihf rnfokdUqufpyfrI&So
d nfukdawmh wdk;csJUavhvm&ygOD;rnf/
prÁLU'DyOaqmif;usr;f wGif Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;\trnfjzifh NrdKUwpfNrdKUwnf
&Scd JhaMumif; azmfjyxm;jcif;onf yk*Hacwfu ykord Nf rdKUwGif Or®m'EDÅtrnf
&Sd rif;orD;wpfyg; '@m&Dr[kwb
f J trSew
f u,f aoG;om;cEÅmjzifh
&Scd Jhzl;aMumif; cdkirf maom taxmuftxm;wpf&yfyifjzpfygonf/

* Henzada District Gazetter Vol A. Compiled by W.S.Morrison, I.C.S.
p.29
+ oD[aqG(o'¨r®aZmwdu"Z)\ xufnTef;? pmrsufESm - 35/
± ]prÁLU'DyOaqmif;usrf;? pmrsufESm - 57/

50

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

D

Or®m'EDrÅ if;orD;\ acwfumv
Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;\jzpf&yfZmwfvrf;udk '@m&DxJrS qGJxkwí
f
orkid ;f ZmwfcHkay: jyefwif&eftwGuq
f kdvQif OD;pGmyxr rif;orD;ay:
xGe;f cJhonfh acwfumvuudk a&&maocsmatmif owfrSw&f ygrnf/
tb,faMumifhqkdaomf þrif;orD;ay:xGucf Jhonfh acwfumvudk rSwf
wrf;rsm;wGif trsK;d rsK;d tzHkzHk azmfjyvsu&f Sad omaMumifhjzpfonf/
Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;taMumif;udk yxrqHk;rSwfwrf;wifcJhaom
[oFmw 'dpBwdwaf *ZufwD;,m;wGif þrif;orD;\ acwfukd at'D
1250 [kvnf;aumif;? [D[aqG(o'¨r®aZmwdu"Z)a&;onfh ]&mZ
0ifESihf'@m&DvmNrdKUe,fjzpfpOfrSww
f rf;rsm;}pmtkyw
f Giv
f nf; rif;orD;
ay:xGufonfhacwfonf aumZmouú&Zmf 600[kvnf;aumif;?
800[kvnf;aumif; pmrsuEf SmESpcf kwGif ESprf sK;d ESpzf Hk azmfjyxm;onf/
*
uGJvGJonfhESpu
f mvrSmvnf; &mpkESpf ESpcf kpmrQjzpfonf/ odkYESihftrQ
Or®m'EDÅrif;orD; ay:xGucf Jhonfhacwfonf yk*HacwfOD;ydki;f jzpfEkdio
f vdk?
yk*HacwfaESmif;ydki;f wGiv
f nf; jzpfEkdiaf vonf/
[oFw'dpBwdwfa*ZufwD;,m;wGif anmiyifom&Sd usKduf
oóajymifbk&m;rS |myemypön;f rsm;udk taxmuftxm;jyKí Or®m'EDÅ
rdzk&m;ESio
hf rk'a´ Cmorif;wdkY ykord u
f kt
d kycf sKyfco
hJ nfEh pS o
f nf at'D 984
[kqkdygonf/ xdk|myemypön;f rsm;udk ork'´aCmorif; oD[kdVo
f kdY bk&m;
zl;oGm;&mrStjyef ,laqmifvmjcif;jzpfonf/ xdkouú&mZfazmfjycsuo
f m
* oD[aqG(o'©r®aZmwdu"Z)\ ]&mZ0ifESifh'@m&Dvm NrdKUe,fjzpfpOfrSwfwrf;rsm;

(1)? pmrsufESm-25 ESifh 38/

51

Studies in Pathy History

trSet
f uefjzpfvQif Or®m'EDÅrif;orD;ay:xGe;f cJhaom acwftcsed f umv
onf taemf&xmt&ifu yk*aH cwfO;D ydki;f jzpfonf[k ydkiyf kid Ef kid Ef kid f ajymqdk
Edkiaf yjyD/ þodkaY jymqdkEkid af vmufatmifvnf; ykord Nf rdKU\ordki;f u a&S;us
NyD; tcsed u
f mv us,0f ef;rI&So
d nf/ xdkYjyif trsm;odxm;ovdk ykord u
f kd
tkycf sKyfcJhonfh yoDrif;qufrSm oHk;qufom ruay/ prÁLU'Dy Oaqmif;
usr;f tqdkt& ykord f 32NrdKUukd tkycf sKyfco
hJ nfh ]jrefrm ukvm; 24quf}[k
qdkxm;ayonf/*
___

]prÁLU'DyOaqmif;usrf;? pmrsufESm - 57/

52

yoDordik ;f avUvmcsurf sm;

pmudk;
1/ a*stufpzf meDAJvEf SihfOD;azarmifwif(wnf;jzwf)? pr®LU'DyOaqmif;
usrf;/
2/ jrefrmhpG,pf Hkusr;f ? twGJ 6/ pmayAdrmef? &efuke/f
3/ a'gufwmoef;xGe;f ? acwfa[mif;jrefrm&mZ0if? r[m'*Hkpmay?
1964/
3/ Adkvrf SL;b&Si?f jrefrmEdkiif Hawmfordki;f / pwkw¬tBudr?f 1952/
4/ Adkvrf SL;b&Si?f taemf&xmt&ifu jrefrmEdkiif H/ 'kw,
d tBudr/f
1975/
5/ rmC? ykord &f mZ0if/ ZGJpmay&dyNf rdKU? 1967/
6/ ykoed o
f ed ;f ? ykoed Nf rdKUordki;f / ckESprf yg? &efuke/f
7/ vGiaf rmif? rSww
f rf;ordki;f '*Hk{&mweoFm&Dwkdi;f ? &efuke?f 1978/
8/ jynfawmfomOD;xGe;f &D? yg'Edkiif Hawmf&mZ0ifordki;f ? wwd,ESyd ?f
1978/
9/ OD;Munf? jrefrmhordki;f odtyfbG,&f mtjzmjzm/
10/ oD[aqG? &mZ0ifESihf '@m&DvmNrdKUe,fjzpfpOfrSww
f rf;rsm;(1)/
11/ OD;&nfped ?f ]ref½SL;usr;f jrefrmjyef}? rdk;a0? ZGef 1987/
12/ arwifEGJU? ]'@m&DrS ordki;f odkY}? tawG;tjrif? Mo*kwf 1988/
13/ Edkiaf rmifwk;d ? ]rGeaf 0g[m&ESijhf refrmpmay}? jrwfav;? rwf 1988/

53

Studies in Pathy History

1. Moshe Yegar; The Muslim of Burma, A Study of a Minority
Group.
2. Siddiq Khan; Muslim Intercourse with Burma.
3. Dr.R.L Sono; A Cultural Study of The Burmese Era, )(Foreword
by The Rt.Hon'ble U Nu the Prime Minister of the Union of
Burma) 1955.
4. Burma Gazetteer, Henzada District, Vol.A, complied by
W.S.Morrison, I.C.S.
5. Ba Shin; "Coming of Islam to Burma down to 1700 A.D", BBHC,
III. 1963.
6. Allama Syed Sulaiman Nadvi: 'The Arab Navigation", MWL Journal. March 1982.
7. Tahir Ba Tha (Buthidaung); The Early Hindus and Tibeto-Burmans in Arakan, The Guadian, Burma's National Magazine,
November 1954.
8. Dr. Hla Pe; Social Contacts; Their Impact on Burmese Cultural
Life.
9. Haji Ibrahim Tien Ying M.A.: Muslim in China.

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