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& Its implications
by Anoop Kumar
"We are responsible for what we are, and whatever we wish ourselves to be, we have the power to make ourselves. If what we are now has been the result of our own past actions, it certainly follows that whatever we wish to be in future can be produced by our present actions; so we have to know how to act. " - Swami Vivekananda
DR. RAM MANOHAR LOHIYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY
PREFACE The aim of the project is to make the reader aware of the population problem in India, with its implications and the ways to curb the same. The population burdens the environment. Thanks are due to the faculty of Economics in Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow. The project could not have seen the light in the absence of support of the library of the University. Thanks are due to them also. Above all, I would be thankful to my parents, whose support always helped me in my project.
24th Apr. 2008
INDEX INTRODUCTION POPULATION GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENT Population control - India will beat China by 2025. FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME IN INDIA FAILURE OF POPULATION CONTROL POLICIES Who is responsible? The Challenges Ahead DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN INDIA IMPLICATIONS OF GROWING POPULATION IN INDIA HOW TO COMBAT POPULATION GROWTH IN INDIA 10 CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 8 9
Throughout the twentieth century, India has been in the midst of a demographic transition. At the beginning of the century, endemic disease, periodic epidemics, and famines kept the death rate high enough to balance out the high birth rate. Between 1911 and 1920, the birth and death rates were virtually equal--about forty-eight births and forty-eight deaths per 1,000 population. The increasing impact of curative and preventive medicine (especially mass inoculations) brought a steady decline in the death rate. By the mid-1990s, the estimated birth rate had fallen to twenty-eight per 1,000, and the estimated death rate had fallen to ten per 1,000. Clearly, the future configuration of India's population (indeed the future of India itself) depends on what happens to the birth rate (see fig. 8). Even the most optimistic projections do not suggest that the birth rate could drop below twenty per 1,000 before the year 2000. India's population is likely to exceed the 1 billion mark before the 2001 census.
POPULATION GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENT A research paper has outlined the effect of population on the environment. According to this research, environmental pollution is one of the serious problems faced by the people in the country. Rapid population growth, industrialization and urbanization in country are adversely affecting the environment. Though the relationship is complex, population size and growth tend to expand and accelerate these human impacts on the environment. All these in turn lead to an increase in the pollution levels. However, environmental pollution not only leads to deteriorating environmental conditions but also have adverse effects on the health of people. India is one of the most degraded environment countries in the world and it is paying heavy health and economic price for it. According to the World Development Indicators report in 1997, 1.5 billion people live exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution, 1 billion live without clean water and 2 billion live without sanitation. The increase of population has been tending towards alarming situation. The world's population was estimated to be 6.14 billion in mid 2001 and projected 7.82 billion and 9.04 billion in the year 2025 and 2050 respectively. Contribution of India alone to this population was estimated to be 1033 millions in mid 2001 which has been projected 1363 millions and 1628 millions in 2025 and 2050 respectively. (2001 World Population Data Sheet). According to the provisional results of the Census of India 2001, the population of India on 1st March 2001 is 1027 millions. If the world population continues to multiply, the impact on environment could be devastating. Population impacts on the environment primarily through the use of natural resources and production of wastes and is associated with environmental stresses like biodiversity, air and water pollution and increased pressure on arable land. India is the world's sixth largest and second fastest growing producer of greenhouse gases. Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai are three of the world's ten most populated cities. Two-thirds of city dwellers lack sewerage, one-third lack potable water. India grows equivalent of another New York City every year in its urban population. By the year 2000, more than 350 million Indians will live in cities. In 15 years, more than half of Indians will be urban dwellers; 1/3 will be slum dwellers and squatters
Population control - India will beat China by 2025. Information collected from research articles and newspapers. "Census of India-2001 Report: The total population of India as at 0:00 hours on 1st March 2001 stood at 1,027,015,247 persons. With this, India became only the second country in the world after China to cross the one billion mark. The population of the country rose by 21.34 % between 1991 - 2001. The sex ratio (i.e., number of females per thousand males) of population was 933, rising from 927 as at the 1991 Census. Total literacy rate was returned as 65.38%." "At district level the North East district in Union territory Delhi has the highest population density in the country with 29395 persons per square kilometer." "The population clock in the Union Health Ministry, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi, now ticks at the rate of 31 persons per minute. The clock shows that about 44,640 babies are born in India everyday. " "In the last several decades, fertility control policies in India have failed to promote a sustainable solution to the problem of overpopulation. What factors have caused these efforts to fall short? "
"Currently the sex ratio is 960 women for every 1,000 men - a statistic that the UN says reflects the lower status of women in India, who are more likely to be deprived of food, education and health services. " "The prominence of female sterilization indicates another flaw in the India population control strategies. By targeting women instead of men, the government inadvertently opts for the more hazardous means of birth control. "
"Population in itself is NOT the problem. Lack of basic education and poor economic conditions are. You cannot solve the population problem by clinics. Your assumption that people have no access to family planning methods is only partly true and in any case is not the root of the problem. Population has remained a problem because EDUCATION continues to be a problem. " "The fast rate of growth of population has affected the quality of life of the people. The time has come when future citizens while in educational institutions should understand various issues related to the population problem." "In some places there is no drinking water. People started migrating to cities where they can get some water and work. People will start fighting for food, water and place to live." "The birth rate in India (31 per thousand people) is greater than that of China (20 per thousand people). If this trend continues, India will beat up China by 2025.A.D." FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME IN INDIA India, the second most populous country in the world, has no more than 2.5% of global land but is the home of 1/6th of the world's population. The prevailing high maternal, infant, childhood morbidity and mortality, low life expectancy and high fertility and associated high morbidity had been a source of concern for public health professionals right from the pre-independence period. The Bhore Committee Report (1946) which laid the foundation for health service planning in India, gave high priority to provision of maternal and child health services and improving their nutritional and health status. It is noteworthy that this report which emphasized the importance of providing integrated preventive, promotive and curative primary health care services preceded the Alma Ata declaration by over three decades. Under the Constitution of India elimination of poverty, ignorance and ill health are three important goals. In 1951, the infant republic took stock of the existing situation in the country and initiated the first Five Year Development Plan. Living in a resource poor country with high population density, the Planners recognised in the census figures of 1951, the potential threat posed by population explosion and the
need to take steps to avert it. It was recognised that population stabilisation is an essential prerequisite for sustainability of development process so that the benefits of economic development result in enhancement of the well being of the people and improvement in quality of life. India became the first country in the world to formulate a National Family Planning Programme in 1952, with the objective of "reducing birth rate to the extent necessary to stabilise the population at a level consistent with requirement of national economy". Thus, the key elements of health care to women and children and provision of contraceptive services have been the focus of India’s health services right from the time of India’s independence. Successive Five Year Plans have been providing the policy framework and funding for planned development of nationwide health care infrastructure and manpower. The Centrally Sponsored and 100% centrally funded Family Welfare Programme provides additional infrastructure, manpower and drugs, vaccines contraceptives and other consumables needed for improving health status of women and children and to meet all the felt needs for fertility regulation. FAILURE OF POPULATION CONTROL POLICIES India is first among the countries which adopted an official family planning programme, as early as 1950. However, fifty years later this has not prevented the population touching the one billion mark. It is obvious that despite good intentions and concerted efforts we have failed in controlling our population. Considering the seriousness of the situation it is appropriate to introspect and ascertain as to what went wrong. The problem, though very complex, can be discussed under two headings: (i) (ii) the available methods for contraception and the users.
It is obvious now that there cannot be an ideal contraceptive, suitable for everybody. A careful choice has to be made among the current available methods, depending on the gender, country, socio-religious and cultural practices. According to available information the most accepted methods are the two terminal methods, vasectomy in the case of the male, and tubectomy in the case of the female. These are methods of choice for all those who have completed their family size and to use them is a conscious decision made by the couple. The next most commonly used methods are the barrier methods, still popular
in spite of a high failure rate. The other methods such as the use of contraceptive pills, intrauterine devices and injectables are used by a relatively small percentage of the population. It is also evident that except for the barrier method and vasectomy there are no methods available for male contraception, in contrast to the variety of methods available and in use for the female. Does this mean that the available methods are not adequate for the requirements and this inadequacy is the reason for uncontrolled population growth? The answer is firmly in the negative. The available methods are more than adequate but what is lacking is the will to use them. This brings in the philosophical question as to what is meant by will and why the will is not there. It is for this reason that it was mentioned earlier that the issue of the user is a complex one. The users are both male and female, and with limited options available to the male, the entire burden of limiting the family is shouldered by the female. However, except for a miniscule percentage of the female population, the majority are passive participants in the process with no decision-making capacity. It is in this context that population control was given a new dimension, namely reproductive health, which to a large extent centres around the female. The concept of reproductive health recognizes the diversity of the special health needs of women before, during, and beyond child bearing age, as well as the needs of men and the quality of life of the people involved. Who is responsible? Population, if continues to increase at the same rate, it will destroy the country. Lack of initiative by the government together with sleeping people of India, are responsible for this destructive problem. People are not realizing the problem. One day the result will be roits, fighting over food, water. India will be the largest slums creater. All cities will be like fish markets with people everywhere. Traffic will move like the ants party. Everybody will scream, shout, but nobody will listen.
The Challenges Ahead India’s per capita income has doubled over the past 20 years. With population growth slowing now to about 1.6 per cent per annum, a growth rate of the gross domestic product
(GDP) of around 9 per cent per annum would be sufficient to quadruple the per capita income by 2020. Opinions on achievable rates of economic growth have a tendency to swing along with the short-term economic performances. Two years ago, the global boom, the IT revolution and the all round optimism led many to believe that in the coming decade India could mimic the 9-10 per cent growth rates that China achieved over a twenty year period. Such optimism is out of fashion today. But there is ample evidence showing that if we can adopt a longer term perspective that is not blinded by immediate circumstances and fluctuating moods, higher rates of growth should be achievable for India in the coming years. This is not a prediction—it is a potential. The reality will depend on how effectively we seize the opportunity to do so. From a historical perspective, global rates of development have been increasing for more than a century. The dramatic rise of Japan and the East Asian tigers, and most recently China, are illustrative of this point. An objective assessment reveals that all the major engines of economic growth that have accelerated growth up till now, will be present in greater abundance in the coming years than they had been in the past.
POPULATION OF INDIA — 2001
Total INDIA 20503597 1. Andhra Pradesh 20503597 2. Arunachal Pradesh 3. Assam 3389413 4. Bihar 8679200 5. Chhatisgarh 4175329 6. Goa 7. Gujarat 18899377 1343998 50596992 685617 26344053 658381 24252939 675129 31697615 668869 20795956 10452426 10343530 16620627 82878796 43153964 39724832 74199596 1091117 26638407 573951 13787799 517166 12850608 868429 23248994 222688 75727541 38286811 37440730 55223944 75727541 Male 38286811 Female 37440730 Rural 55223944 Urban
8. Haryana 6114139 9. Himachal Pradesh 10. Jammu & Kashmir 2505309 11. Jharkhand 5986697 12. Karnataka 17919858 13. Kerala 14. Madhya Pradesh 16102590 15. Maharashtra 41019734 16. Manipur 17. Meghalaya 18. Mizoram 19. Nagaland 20. Orissa 21. Punjab 22. Rajasthan 13205444 23. Sikkim 24. Tamil Nadu 27241553 25. Tripura 26. Uttar Pradesh 34512629 27. Uttaranchal 28. West Bengal 22486481 Union Territories 1. Andaman & Nicobar Islands 2. Chandigarh
21082989 6077248 10069917 26909428 52733958 31838619 60385118 96752247 2388634 2306069 891058 1988636 36706920 24289296 56473122 540493 62110839 3191168 166052859 8479562 80221171
11327658 3085256 5300574 13861277 26856343 15468664 31456873 50334270 1207338 1167840 459783 1041686 18612340 12963362 29381657 288217 31268654 1636138 87466301 4316401 41487694
9755331 2991992 4769343 13048151 25877615 16369955 28928245 46417977 1181296 1138229 431275 946950 18094580 11325934 27091465 252276 30842185 1555030 78586558 4163161 38733477
14968850 5482367 7564608 20922731 34814100 23571484 44282528 55732513 1818224 1853457 450018 1635815 31210602 16043730 43267678 480488 34869286 2648074 131540230 6309317 57734690 2170245 543094 60005 570410 452612 441040 352821 5496318 8245566 8267135 594881
192985 508224 121731
163280 392690 98720
239858 92118 169995
116407 808796 50456
3. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 220451
4. Daman & Diu 5. Delhi 12819761 6. Lakshadweep 7. Pondicherry
158059 13782976 60595 973829
92478 7570890 31118 486705
65581 6212086 29477 487124
100740 963215 33647 325596
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN INDIA Over the last four decades there has been rapid fall in Crude Death Rate (CDR) from 25.1 in 1951 to 9.8 in 1991 and less steep decline in the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) from 40.8 in 1951 to 29.5 in 1991. The annual exponential population growth 2% in rate the has been over period 196190. During the nineties decline steeper the in than
CBR has been that in the (CDR) and consequently, the annual population growth rate has fallen below 2% (Figures 3 & 4). The rate of decline in population growth is likely to be further accelerated during the next decade. The changes in the population growth rates have been relatively slow, steady and sustained. As a result the country was able to achieve a relatively gradual change in the population numbers and age structure. The short and long term adverse consequences of too rapid decline in birth rates and change in age structure on the social and economic development were avoided and the country was able to adapt to these changes without massive disruptions of developmental efforts.
In spite of the uniform national norms set under the 100% Centrally Funded and Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of Family Welfare , there are substantial differences in the performance between States as assessed by IMR and CBR. Though the decline in CBR and IMR has occurred in all States, the rate of decline is slower in some States. At one end of the spectrum is Kerala with mortality and fertility rates nearly similar to those in some of the developed countries. At the other end, there are four large northern States (Uttar Madhya Rajasthan) Pradesh, Pradesh with Bihar, and high
Infant Mortality Rate and Fertility Rates. Though the decline in CBR, IMR and CDR has occurred in all States, the rate of decline was slower in some States like U.P. and Bihar. There are substantial differences in CBR and IMR not only between States but also between the districts in the same state. IMPLICATIONS OF GROWING POPULATION IN INDIA Population growth and its relation to economic growth has been a matter of debate for over a century. The early Malthusian view was that population growth is likely to impede economic growth because it will put pressure on the available resources, result in reduction in per capita income and resources; this, in turn, will result in deterioration in quality of life. Contrary to the Malthusian predictions, several of the East Asian countries have been able to achieve economic prosperity and improvement in quality of life in spite of population growth. This has been attributed to the increase in productivity due to development and utilization of innovative technologies by the young educated population who formed the majority of the growing population. These countries have been able to
exploit the dynamics of demographic transition to achieve economic growth by using the human resources as the engine driving the economic development; improved employment with adequate emoluments has promoted saving and investment which in turn stimulated economic growth. Following are the adverse effects of population growth on the Indian Economy: 1. adverse effects on savings 2. unproductive investment 3. slow growth of Per Capita Income 4. underutilization of labour 5. growing pressure on land 6. adverse effect on quality of population and 7. adverse social impact HOW TO COMBAT POPULATION GROWTH IN INDIA Rapid reduction in the population growth rate can be achieved by meeting all the feltneeds for contraception; and reducing the infant and maternal morbidity and mortality so that there is a reduction in the desired level of fertility. Following methods can be adopted fro the same: 1. Using various means of communication to persuade people to adopt small family norms. 2. Making available family planning methods through different outlets in every region. 3. Setting up the family planning centers to make available the services relating to family planning methods. 4. Financial assistance to the acceptors and motivators of the family planning methods. 5. Promoting female education and employment. And 6. Promotion of delayed marriages. CONCLUSION
Rapid population growth continues to be a matter of concern for the country as it has manifold effects, one of the most important being environment degradation. The outcomes of excessive population are industrialization and urbanization. The study reveals that rapid population growth has led to the overexploitation of natural resources. The deforestation has led to the shrinking of forest cover, which eventually affects human health. The considerable magnitude of air pollution in the country also pulls up the number of people suffering from respiratory diseases and many a times leading to deaths and serious health hazards. The situation is also similar for water pollution, as both ground water and surface water contamination leads to various water borne diseases. From the various effects of environmental degradation on human beings, discussed in this paper, it appears that if human beings wants to exist on earth, there is now high time to give top priority to control pollution of all types for a healthy living. It can be said that even after fifty years of independence, India is unable to achieve the desirable standards of health for its population as consequences of environment degradation. What is desired is the will of the people as well as the cooperation of the Government to promote family planning methods.
BIBLIOGRAPHY TEXTS • Dhingra, I.C., Garg, V.K., Economic Development and Planning in India, (15th edn.), 2002, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi • URLs http://www.popline.org/docs/1490/190029.html http://www.usaid.gov/in/ programareas/environm.html http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2001-02/chapt2002/tab91.pdf http://www.india2020.org.in/category/india2020/report/ http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/wrkpapers/wp_hwpaper.pdf Misra, S.K., Puri, V.K., Indian Economy, (25th edn.), 2007, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai
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