CUPRINS

cuv ANT iN.Ili.I!NTE de,Cru~ln. Cfilim4l<l •....... , , ,.,., .... ,."." .. " ... 1

IN:rR.ODUCERE ." , _.,~ .. ,.,., •. , , ,.,." ,., •....... , .. , ..• ,."., 7

L Potuy<lfifl - CI)me,l1t.qriii , , ;." ,.: " .., .t

] ~ INVEI\l'ir~A FUmGRAFIEI " oc 12.

1 L . W ...,.H .JI': • J" l' "'~

.Lurmna, y.......CI.l .t ~1 . ormat " .. , , , , "." ; ~ -e ; ,'~

2, illt"e.rueiif::t[}ri ., ,.".""., " " ,.'.'" 15

:Y. Jn~'tanta[leu~. ctd~~<:IiFea", , .•.. ,., •. " .. , .. , ,.,.,", .. , ,.: , .• 1-6

2. FOTOCffiRXFlA DOc..'U.ME.NTARA ,.,.,_,." •.. " ,." ...• 18

1. Dela docomenlare 1a ro,:.plornl'c ~tiiirrtlfid ., , " 19

2. POfojulTlldiR'tlca , ,.'." .. "., ".".,.".27

3. TRHCERE:l:N"r.mVISTJ\ A CA'lf"DR¥A TI1LUR]

PE PRES;!. ~.] AJGENTU FQTOGRAFICE , " .. " " .. " :H

4. OI'MAGlliiE A 'RFAJLlILUl ... ,.,." .. ,.,.,,,.,., .. , .. ,.,.,~ .. , .. , .. ,.,., .. , , .3:5

1 ,PrQbI~ma obiectj\'ita~i.i ."'.,.,., .. ,., , .. ,., .. ", , , .. , ,.,., .. ;~5

2. Punerul de vedere " •. , , .. , , , , , ,., ,.,.,., .. ,.,36

3, tUpJ decisi"llli ".,.,." .. , , , .. "., ,," "" ",., .•. , .. , ,.,." 4~

4, Plal1~" de contact: unneI:e nne] metode , , ,.,.,42

5.'J?ORTRETliJl. ,,,.,.,., ,, ,,., .. , _ , ,.,,.:.. , ,.4'7

1, P(jr~t-eaLtll. eficial ~i deri""'He~e. sale , ,.,,,.,, , .. ,., 47

2. Popularoarea geuulu.i ,"'''',., , .. ,., ,.,., ",., ,.,.,'., .. ,51)

3. Portretnl unci s;ooieta~ , ,., " ,., .. ,."." · , .. , .. 51

4. EVi1]u~n ~e'nI1IUl .,., , .. " , ,""., , , ...•. ,.,.".,., .. "., 52

.s

Cup'rilJ!~

Q. ARTA DECOll.A.TIV A .. ,., .. ,., , ,.,., ,.,.,.".,., .. ,57

'] •. Motla ,., " " , ,.",., .. ,.,., .. ,." " 57·

Z .. Pl.lbJlGilJ~e3 " , , ..• " •...•.........•...•... , : " Gt

'J .. BX'PR'BSIA ARTISl'licA " , tl5

1..f0tG,fft'ilt;ie ~i picLJf.Jrii·; leg;'Uud ~i dikam~e ,.: ..• "' ,., 65

Z. Nudul, WI gen foarJ~ "'f'QlQ,gCliltC'" ~, " , .. :~ J 68

~" Pf(1BteJrl;i. stillJ1ui, CU1QHI·Ot"l, ,ulb~il6caJruL. v.· 1.;." .69

4. ]Sloria lulugra:i3ei. (I ist-orIe a diferltll:lor sale stiluri 74

Ii Ayel]hl:l':fl :u:t!i~(iit;il. a. ""'vi~,·",r ';CEln'"'l'n.-W.· :·· .... 1, •• ' . . ' . iM

-""'" .w~ .:1.:1 (.II VIlN 1.IIP.,~I."~15oil •• , •• U~I.~~ G:i 1

fl. :SllpraxerulsH:mi $i forografia , " , : t e ;.".,.86

7. A\iangMdiii gL'TTIl.ana " " •.•.••...•..•••.•. " ~n i'l1

8, Te:nqJnte COl1tel:lI,DQ'El!!I1!l , ,", ", •.•.• , •... "" " •.•.• 89

9. 1,10to~~:rafi<l .tmit:.1l1tiloee .....•........•........•..• , _ •... , ..•..•. 94

10. Elibel:aifeS:, ir~lag~,I~i~Vr. ~., " ,,,.~ ,, , .-96

] l , Pia\4t ~ii lildustrlnr tuJtuml!i. a. fefow:a!t~j ' , ,.!H

K FCHOGRA'·tA:

~mGULARIT A ra S.I PL 'lJRA t:r"" ··TE· .'

- ..' . _l}~ " ,.,,, ,,, " 101

TABLOU ORO NOlOGIC , ' , .. , 104

8,IRUQGRAPIE ' " " 110

,TNDEX." .. J. , 11~

IN-TRODueSRE:

N.imeni n.,ar p~ltea ci'ml.el'll;a in' ziJ:ele n oastre fapml oa.fotngrafia, in fGrffiel~ ei m~l~ple. ~. ;lJi'r~ ~i:n. ce 1'11, e;e ma'i 11lU 1t ea un moo, spec]tic de e;rprimarc, iiifo['mare Iii comualcare. OiIlt:1lniln lao tot pasul, f;1lia a-i Ja 'fIitel1fle,ill p~gi:i1iJ.~ pres.ei c~1i.d.lJ,el'le, ~i rue ';:'I;:'II'j s~~loi', c:ontribl!lind at~t l.a C~TI(!a.~~ eve!1irrlcnlel6r c'lit ~i 1:1 Qltl1Punere<~ V,lrt:u;al1t a ,lll1unturiJor pubUg;it.alCe, 1j.i~nplus, 'inlr~o fotm8i cu tI~ul ~ if:e:tJta, 0 practic.am P~Il tzu a past];<l ,:±mi]itium. !;H1Jnli!'>l1aJltli a e"f:!llm.eptdor ~ellNonale, Uustnlnd propria i8tnri~ ll~ aJibmnu] a'e faruill'e" in "e~eI'I~a d~fo(Ob'Tafi;_N:llle 0 n"_'wr~ YiilrhipLi. fi~nd 1& [«I tie impnrtar!11i ~i intel'e~aTlla ca marhrrlC arrlsticii:saujamaU$it:c1i asupra 1limu eM ~i ca 'Pmctie~soci.t]li popularn:.Ce~ ere IlU este po a .t~ (;;1l;1i1 rutm' mijloact;:<de expri mare ca ,clDematognrfia. picwra saa lkeratura

ill! .repetaWri1nJl1.il. a fos,tpTC'Zisl!i disparili-a rapicl~. a fotografiie.i, in special i:lllp~OI.pa .. i'~ia. teie'o"i7Jiunii. Mal neu, lit lumen ilm<l!l1)rismllhti, fIa, s-a \fhut , .. me,t1if.l{at~ de: iftla&'ll'lill:l videe: ell! tt)aic .;:tees,teEl" fut0gr.llf1.a;· contill ua ~,~. illw1.ea5'C~~~)':rm]. in divIIT"ilElii1: ~:ile dep]asan ~i ,ac;tivJtap., icnlMI vetsil!ric ,a;.i[( ~e itl ce m'aj a!I.UOIruttl1z.at1 ~i dand Il[l~tere un.eipra.ctid dIln a.ln ce qiai ~~pontaJle.

De ,d'tf{l,I, }:ons<lC[;t~ tlind COl QpeJa d~ m:ta, 1-i9lt~gr,::1fia- se ]lltall1e~'i[e itl sJ:me1A)l1u· Jtl.uzeelor ~i gaierii1or; .l1iltwi ,fie picltlr-a ~i <l!]te;Jot'lne de e~prinlareocoliltetlilponme. {j'[Iful de <l opta aJ;<lit~, dct'm: de Fleglijat. jm:l.edind d!1pa imponallt.a miMIii'esfal'ilQr ,t'oITl:s,acran~~ pestetnl lli [tunc. fEfl't)gl'3,fia; este lO silele neaatre suhi:e'Ct a] ~onn:lit.arHlor!i'i (!!rilicilm' din rTe~a :s:cFis5 si a![diovi:zllal~ al studi1lflr apirQtumtak din pnm;L de vedere l ~loric. sociologic, esretic, semiolQgic. III :~oLi .~i lUililverntiit:i ~d~ altfe1 exls;t!l m 'l-1 'mwtewtltu?l pl!ib1ice ~t pn \'<\Ctc, ~eiciaJ iZatil illpredareJ acc;sllli "Stlibieat).

i

~iasjfel s-aejuns la una din primclc 1[lJITcll1iri referitoare 1a, ffltOg[f1Fi;e, .Estt: ca oo;reo art~·~ im:qJilnd {;:I.I seco!l\ll :.U XX-lea cblar fl)t~gr.ajh i~i pun <IE~.a,~~ Iutrer;ue, Uljeriors-uu inteebat si criG,cii ~i istQucii fpt~~rafi~j" Inrr-o rut!\ ~}rdine d~ idei, priltm. m~re ,ceifl;;et~u;,e din dmJ:telrlI1J1?~i:im:I~cli)1I u.mmle· in. C3f~ r~)l(~gJ:.a'f~il a ~!prei)cnii1t subiect de stlldi~.iJL a t'ost fJl demeniul ~~d(llogiet (i.ttlI9'6·2.'lu~f.lIirNI lui Pierre Ih:wn:lielt :ilLD Cadre! p1Jblitfl4Pei j'LTl1I munoyell" - "(larrr.l de lni.jloe"). ,~i H~Il<!: deoaesce dt~liif m 7.ilele noastl'c forogr.lfla.ft itlt:vfmi t una dill praclicirc eele mni dispitiidile.

""FO(tI~1ia es{e ~ fimbDjt tar fotogr,aful un DUlor!»

in Rre.rent He dilm bille seama ~i:lJ Iluoogr<J:f1a IHI e~lt; rcalizarea 1 noc,et'lt~ . h3.7.'<lrdOltn-sfIU, tflccjmidl d~b.niLgiIli; Oil m;j ~ste. cum, rnu] ~1 .au cr~t-(I J'J,'IuYUi: \i~eme"o sin,pJa.reprQdillOerf: aJ1!aturii, ahauil.care n~ irucjilraj~~@Tti., d. If"~ii (I~graoo 111:1 Ihr.b.a] ~lfil.l~ttlrat J,CIlill .fmmel III ~i sim M]ur]fe Sal c:, ~l "elzelat'' &; uiswrle rmbog:a~iliti!:l mod pffigfe,,~i.'II. Fiecil: ll~ 1<orbe~t:e: de Ihlografie ca t)p~ra de ailn sau ca dowment de actnaUmtc, uotiuoea de ~utor, in sensut fID eare-l .u.felegem it) liI(..'nitul'a sail jllrnali!¥itiGii, s-a hnpl!ls piIDa la PW1CHli In Ylre raulre dialiollarr: de fotngraflo ~i-al[l ff!cut iij!lari~i a. in libr,am, al1i:rurl de .s~l.1Q:ii i storiee salt estetiee.

Dar' rnai rnnlt uNUat., monogr.JJllLU~ (retw8l:J1ecliVh flp~ret MUl a unei pmll run opem un:u~ ffiUlW4.t) s-au "$llJl)lli ~il r:i~'~ d.illf~e(ef(la(ice mai lrecveut fflliil fl ite ill tl'f~.u\ {un d~ 5elI1Jl~U1r:ll rolng.,IliW]U] era n:ese'ul.ll,i,fic'fti ¥a fari!l d¢ lilh!t SIJbi~ClU;lui. trllt.a.t) si ill primul rand fOlta, tlcmilllJJla:lelc tehn10e care mll~ [ ti11,qJ repre~ei'ilrU.l pri nclpillele t!efenrl La. f()1~)gr,3tl~·,.

iil tnn.d I.Iill'<).dox:a;!, in teresul <1U'~l:2Lt e mai mare· pentrll instrurnenta dctdLt pentruim aginHe. c:e se pol reallza ell aeestea. inwntin Lla evolu~ie. tehniea. a ~~eK4m] 0 atmctje inCOnlestabilii asnpm ]untiJ am;:ltorih)r ~i Inrr-e mai mil;;a'tn3surli. !fbi,1i[ aSllpra· profcsinl1t~,tHor care all ,;1jum; stil uire rill:ilitatea aCCI;Wl' u,'iMn "ile perfe('~ionate. prodLmerea de i rnagini, iari deea a fosr au tglu I lilI;:gl ij.1t.a fat!! (Ie J:l[)il!1'alUra.. I\proapli toate imagini I~ Iluan:a cast~ 9~£m]],il:t!.!t,1, q] ex~ePtla u.nliii m.<tre ;fium~1r de: .iIllagme de PlllbrMC).NrtL:: IAn~>e

8

reSJ.l(msab~nt<ltetl '''{."Jdl~ei'.' este diI!lce 11l! ee mOl] mull impartilli eu d:irector; i artrstlcl ai a.gefitllo(. Elenu !'Hm'L url:l'l! tot1l:1 respectate precunt ~ dori '-Q fnlu;!!;r:illii, rn r.:;~a cc Wi veste f:nrmattbl s~u o:uhn:l']c, lam iotU<j,! eu mull mal. mnl L dgmlt In ep'ocil in -C8!1'e jpl1es.'l1.El p~l1e~fu. lilil,gi.r1;;r ~':lr.1i a 4e atJci:bllll F:iJ;l;i '0 c~lll.Me, ;-ij:npt~~andu-] e. tm~}n ~1Pro.<lIpt ~ ["dIne dlu 's:Up'f.",:l.ra\~; S-HralU'Il$ in~nl.l.cufuc~tuI ~~.;se.:llI,e'lea:gtli. c~ reproduce'ro.a numal ir naei riir~] din imayine em ~"Rct ca ~Goote.nm . llLUlj. ~U\;'ant di:tl fralit

<iDi.feritcle aem('!lfi~1Da.t f'ol(~ci»

&acum r(j~D~rafl<l ilTlli U lmood'! .fill H.i rla,. e fit~ £41 ~i abordll'ile ei ~a I.~c dtver.se:;.simpta ulfioa~f,ere lstmidi, myellLarul Q!)n61tJJ,l.]G al lot()gratiklli ~] &1 ;. s illud1or) a taClLl [ lqc diJl.lri tolor eln~il':'U!ci -de

lnllpirane kore'u0fi. .

. i f1I 'afoctlse:mni ['icauei e5telk~, 1.:~' .linDe' sit ~ri,"'i1egie"J!e i~' ]~ml;a [mogrntlej m-iue ,tuallii.f~·Siuare a~ caraerer t-~tiv ~i sa oP!1~timre'1Jn :5;tudi~ at. formelor ~i Lt:volll~:id lor a,t&~[ndu-le' difQrileLuf !1,l1dilii vL ... uale, cum ar fi de exemplu aeeea a caClnll.ll~ •. 0 soctljlogle. [I;, fotogr!:l!ficit se sprijin5. r~ un sUI:diu sh;'remaLic at dllefibei1t)r {l~atexte: ale ,a,ells.tem;, ciltpri\[c~te semiolugia, a pernri&lurHclil 111 cOIui,dentre a imaginii rnto;gta4ic'e 1">1l rnesaj, de:mtlflsLr~nd I?IOM:[lSlll el de OOTI:lUIll1:!ru;e.._ si, in paTtie'utM,' d.iferitClt!'ei lipUL'J Ido coaurl,

Dar ca t~rit:e forma. de .lfta ~j de liter,jlul-3, caerice text, i'lIlffginea [C!.tosmJiicj1.tlu es(~ plJ.~i lr.'ivaloJlfe pe cI~lill~deci\t. d:Ji:a. =: 'dt.it.~'~ (je. uo pdivJDto~ c<IJ"¢MilJl eenfere tI aFll,mle ffileqretare. re,-lti;w:nd 1Jf,l I:e~ dereseeiere, de .~re:m:e, AlC~~lS.tl'lcvru!)~~'4daL~gaI,1i de privit(;l,( este ilil !l'ce'l a¥l limp tl'i1JlJw:ra cmue:lI.wl~i lit !lam fl)togndj,ij, cste pri vhiL c~til.it () '~oi1fm'l;"a:-e de esntext 'eChiYiiIJe.[1,d'ir ade~ci! leu Sdllmb~l] de hnerprelaru~ de tecum!. ~I as £fe l 51J1'd. multi etel ce a\l' fl~CVGfU te.fid:i1~t .. I!:;ij .rpTC.ciez,~ ca. eeac mal Inma ima~ine este ce"'-I 'In care toa:tt. f'clulIllc lit: iilbordare sufit fPhs1bile.

in urm.alom:e1e pilgi1.'i~ iili!l. va fi. V(}l'1oa de It opta rnai ,mnl:l pennu un' anume fel de ~cm.illfic1]'~.ij, en atat lrlmi mu.Jt "C'u c~l: ~:!t19ti1 (:om:plemeTlLl1ri.l~ti tune ac;t:'xtc;.t,. ci 'tie .i!! constata dl. J.i>,i~~i:flte<l p,osi'b~ldot' aborJdfuiaie rO;I'Qg.r~T~ci pOflt.e fi pu~ii.ln reta.tH;:, £:11

dive'rni)ffi:tea~r8:('i;ti>d.!Jor aeesteta ~J. III plus. a riille :com, de al1s~mibhd eeestor p~.cth::i f:n$~T!,jll1~~~i~ ci fi~clkl;ialic~pl1Iillt; lttleilr;i Ill! mml de,Wls:lizaft, .Inai:adaptat. Astf~t. mes<tj]JIlJ~'~uj:lrrcJl1llt j se va prera mal dbgj[ij;ba. 0 "Il;lri1li~:i1 tie tip s(;:mi.olub"k,· dup~. '1m .m.~l plls,:hl pracliclJi l!l .anii ~j2;Cd pnlilli'e rutii, Gle RiWH.Ild 'Dartl:re!s, ,ra' de aUr:e.t loorelichtn, in tunp ee t:Gtt0gtaPll de ialtmtm :pmviJ.adi in s~] refJ~i i de ordin s.emiQ~'ljI_gi~Ol!:la ~ilIITlia racul·{.}Pk"TI'll BOI:lruipJr" i']) scfuimb, portrctul Pt)atc fiab~,rd8ir din d:mHHe ·.lilllllcle de v:~I.ere, estetk,so..doiogil:O, istor~c, ps~irunalitk,

Toa1~ac~S(e cQ"nsideY~n!li.fl1i.l (ae d:eefu :s!'i ;d\.l~a ~1li !ill. .e-YldeIlt~: m pr.i:mul Ifuldsa ·s~ m~1;Ipii prin id,elllili ol!..re~ 1J.rltH:::!Pll~I;lJ ()[ «;Iilit.a~~¢", ale fott1b'J'aGltl. -~I;l 't.efi'!rlen proxine di.ntHI p.oojtl.decaliJ dl;: ,omm teor,~ti~- ~j: a diff;if.n:telo:r;c.onfexte ill ,car~ e {lra.c:t~alii, -

NI.! ·se PQale ritsrQ~dc ,13. :[rt!.ni,*art:a du;orffiQ .metodf)]ogk: ''OL1il1 s!l. abordliln fQ[@gmfia.Tt 1I1ir1i a ne 1ntero~a in1:'lill!te: <l:su~ra ~lat!J.rli acesteia, fn cjl'cumstOlj[Jtele die d'INeJ'l'il~Eica~ln C<i.Te'flaro ~~ N'I;:.prezlnlli

lnca de ia in.ca,put '

Cuyilllt\l] fCiwg~llfieao?F.l!J!lltiurri 1ii p.rJ.dt:ieiatat @·di.feritr:l, l'I!iemcn[:a ~cri~'U]!Ji! "fu)m$'h::~l!ro~ ~i iti8!ri:stul!"s.odu' ·arrt®::mioi. dat rrel:mle adnl:is oa. s¢'n:snl ~i .a~sibilit:i1!.t~ lucr:.(i[jJQr Ibrs~'~hmseb~

int:rutotul .

ell. lOate:;a,C"estea, in c~l f(f~Qg{ruf.i.e:~. dO~lii"~:ef!llJi dQmm.aror,a, nici 0 illdlilial!i; ]rnpo~~ lQ,t 1.t~(L1:.m. prim 1].1 ..rna i&l'fit1d !~£ appt ~.otlQ rniotl., E.. .. tJ:l; vo~ba' derepol'l'tlj {lices.nd [erlll.!tll. p:Ut1:D 'lQJm wIg ii vnm prere,f'l ee] dcifQtog['l.lfle, cliol;!!J!!llent.i,u;a) l'i'i ~ portrd .. fleJIlJti ~~afa nu sunt ~i_mi~te '~!I tbWgra"~:il,\':: d1if (]~ ~,i'ia~t gi"it tfl ~aJr~tl ~s:ie~ arte

o functi{l ~i selF1OmC[lp:ecPN~ci.L sp~iflce, :inmliltabi"1e. .

Pe dt <lita pai[J~. fllt,@grnfi;a: f\,* rj:npliJ1~t~ in (lreij'j~!ll' d:~ d( m:il Lumi ali?: t::w,r rrol'l1li~.,[l rtu: SlJ.n~ ~ altrd OM.mru~ d~ 11el:iNnt;'dar care mllln guvernate ~.e J.¥"'g:lputw diwfe:rlte: ]umea ,arlei~I cea aCOllIlil[l(1!et Altfel spus: lnmea e;>;:prummt :p~I"Hfmale\ci!Te nltJ1iI1..'1lC~llt ll!l1elt:: tradi'~i]

10

1

, Tft>t1Jri~folob'vrfiici e$t.t :fj;l paJl!..'i;j fmldatrii. pt;;6'~'i)] ~qi~:a ltd elctnelfte ~h[UQ~',[ul]darr1e,'lilal~~.lI:1fl1jna cemditj"""'s'''''''qu' ~'n' """, .•. ~, f"'. ,t .. ' ~~ .. ,

• • . ' .,', ,~.,_. u, .. " <L VH U .0.' OgF<u!fe1

e-~lstem<l u,~d l~llc1!lJ.~ pe care :~;]'.se' ma.~j'~a]i;r;(l"i!'}irtlagiwea ~j ~lrve~ek.fi)IU1~~Llll ~cr\'jnd caJ~aatcruniJcii aceleia~i im,&gini ~tru (J!~(:ruK; d]m~liIIbeste, treI ]civdm:L,. ~i a e-o nmn::iel'a 1'a!lo1111Jm:mta~!i" se ~rec.[lIl!~l~lera.c:J '(lce,lIM~1'is.W'ne este prmltisl1] 'unc] lntGraL:~~~lili~ pe: ~·o P!fI'le aWLn~lanlO'i~or ap8!tal~ ee deten:ninl1 noi iHMi~ ~ de a}til~art:e :letesH~!jJe ~1 ex]ge[Jj~ele .. ~ pHllmJ Ic[~ar;iei 'V1z)~a_le ce fll"(:IH 7..e>l74 tI:U:ll d\lc Ta. anumi le It:r::rc:c~ri lCri~~(f:C.

Lumiml

. _ '.. At~t ~~n~ ~lJn~'t de -vedere ,ehtin'1n c .t~t ~i estetie, m[ exi ~tj fom~rahe I-~a ! 1!11\l]]na. Dum] na e,.<';[{1 maLGri:lJ prii-mia '[l~nl1',u1!ftll~.

a,~<i ~I]:nes [I: ,C? ibarea pe!tlt~l1pictor, Ftitogmfu]. 0' oh.seni. 0 ~l[~]~"fJe:, {!gl]U;le~:la~ :0 s~u1pf;e!i7.ii ~; d:ria. n mCru'!i:.!)a mUitll maj t:\'Hkn~ C~tI(l: ~H"'ffil12.~ tn I:db-'~le&gm. 0 io'l@g)l"afie 'ffirl\Jllminn {e fu Hl[l~lnt~ ffir;.. ~.n'llh;l<l, ei.\~ ~n.m semi pru['JriU~lfj gUfaL D? ~~bjcj1:j ~ U,UlTlfl I!Jmnn]1 rl1l1tlnllc lun'iirUll arI:iJ5t:l:lL~tt Dar if! sUfJ~o atrisliUl H'Icc~d1 (!eseoris~_regas~~lSbl'imnd.elllt WI1lJrill. ,Mal: ~ll',in JU'list:ul (<I:oe v ~1n mod delibl;lmts<I Ti@(iea nnl ~~W. Jmi forme ~i ~nh~lroltilri ,Chl.P'l,l~ ui ~~!<I nbi Dr;:tului ~~ sc r~lo8~~le ~ i~mni~~arua :zlsiti ;M'lj.ficlfll~ pei:nt~ill a ntMCfl 0 dlfeEe!n:tadfa~1i de runbianta lnrnink znei.

Iu stl,ldiout:lllie .de 'n;(}Jrtrete .a le~ec"·l ',!lu· 1:' ,,:,- 'V ["-" '1 ,Ii:.. , ·1

_ 'L~" , .- ,- _'-' ,,-- ." .n. ,,,,,-_GOlJ. ~UI)~(:'lC'tU '~e

p,la .. a KU~ 111'1 g 'arn dlil prolOO~i0 ee 1Us~. stt In\Iactt 11lmina:~ nioi suse ~une.a pfOltHel~a sa. se poocooe£ie .aiJfeI,i.aI"fotogroful au luc:mder;fi<t

'11) ~T'Jle7;plj lj]]Bl_ '

12

1

Est!: cl ijf c:a i:J:jv~lltaJ:ea ~i pTogreselc Hmnliilll:rH artijit:i.811e, mIIIR!1.1n3 C'Li &e.ll:sibtlitl'It,en din ee Ii'! ce lIla1 mmea plitci]9f fot,(~~~, II fi Itrldor ~i alllenQ1'.areill .. ~pljruJ.,il;ntlnlJ OI:ntfim[irii H1I1I,furial~lg)'r all 1IK1Ol;n~ In, ~on5:ide:~bil praqicfI folQ:g1l'1lIfl9!i, ~ub:i@:Gtcll:t ~i_.Wt:eF\'e.gti:;l operalofulul, tn ,s[lildin ~i ]'1.1 l:;(terio]', A;~trclt ~e]ll@it"\\:.rij :?llil .putut fotogral11l. ev~nii1fie!)l~te noitU!{I('. din 1l!J::Jrile o~. lnswdlu S~tl *on:S.Latult l.:iIJ lu,mi.u!puttm.ite \'~~ta lor oc.aijl pbmi'2;l;. B1it-Zr'ul eteetreoie ill adu~, .1~ ~p'e\daJ [ll dpmePluJ :futngraIj~i modei, posi bi hiatNl. d,;:: :1. Sl!l;p'nt\de, m~ari dtll e<;'l'[1 ~ ,tl'lai. s~Jn~tlGam., ih C1)ntr~~t 1:\1 v(fcilea rubnici1 ('I. tUl'Igste:I1!lJtui, de5lU:d cl,e bi:ll1e' iadaptilitii mon1Atilor de llmga dur<]lii :De ~a~it¥a ,;J[ni., ·jn!\.-pOrtal, 'keh11~ sa "@,P{!1l "t.uh " (blit4, fn plimli bunirl~'iJ S .. a delV~j1tf;ltii &,a M.8li:iJnati~t ill.ll]Jere cu:uri Il.jul'lgii'l1l.dil-lle (1a.r.e!pOi:1aj,~~l·~~ se spdjlne'pe'il(il~~ .. ta,

Pelicula

Dill ferkire, nl\l]t~ 'flltO£,of',f11 prefed:i sl'i' filIl ~ueaJ;gii' cont£-a i ~lt:mci 8i de7;\,·ohatl arH; ce s'ei s.prijina. lie .rea]~.dl:ti:le unei te"hnologil, recnnnscute. Fl'1!"1 n(m,atl: fie [;clri~eazll dona, te[ldh'lte~ umi :'i.a nl'lulralizeze .inu'mowl eDel:;tele lel!nilJr; dcrIi'CfuUlIl-se. ill:~}lintu11ralla g1:iskii tUlei peticllle i11rJ nici·.f) GQmifirEinIfl, fie eli ec.l! .. alllV'tugrafi~.i !I.~b-tibguU saua celei 0010]', 'in timp ,ccaltii au amplifica.t a.r:;;~sl:e domlrmnte ~] chiar granul1a,ti'Bi atliluilltOI: filme

Dar eKist:i lf1lir-adt:\'~t neuu;atit1i,ti ill m)twm 1wc;U,1i: se pUlle sub e :al:t~ forma (l,mblem',!H]c Ilcrct;oh'at a. obiectivitr~t.ii f!:)Lograt;ei'!

F30WJ:atu1

In iSJOriiJi Ptl;::tlifji, mitanl r1rezent<ta. trel formi!turi dnm]J:lant~. c:orospufUi<"lruJ la Ire' mpm1lilii dikFi ill rout: illJLl,im~l ~]~~time;,:! P~1l7,{;:i tll lega{~ de ·trei feme prillc1pal!l.: m~lrini1 (oea mal larga), peisaj ~i poJtr'Il\L III istnfia fqtograflei, fuml.ati:ll cel,m;:t.i r.t:llof>-i'E, l'esp~ liv 24 l'i.~,~, m 1;1 It hw~ in veM.a~ "ex nihUo·'. ci a. fth~t tmpwI[Ju ~attdJIJJ dnematQ'.gr8!fie"ILiI mod e\l'1_UEmt, for.maml24 x 36 OJ to~t ultT~1.;;d rnai de,gnlhl1 prig, latimea sa Iclh;iil. prin. 1i&1im~$i , In plus, este adaPl~l mal bine ul:iUz1'irii in exterior (l.eciU 1ft! inLCl;ior mfuI~I.i:re;:l diD ce illl ce mai, U~naF'd a ma~erialu]ni l1ec;oR'sp1.!f17-5itOJ f'l-ui1lHfnci aq~astli 1JtiJizru-e •. Ai fl trebuit mlii mlil~ ge.tl~~i.i pentru OIl. ;a{')~f:it ti.n de 5papl1 s~ fie ]mbmT:l:.J;i~ de ochiul f01!Qgt·miUtul ~i :S01~~i gfu,;ea~c.Jf ~ubi.t:.~~.l1~. ideal. Dadt raportul ]ll.ti[rn;Jln:i':inim~ cerespnnde astf¢1 p~i",aJul\.li urbau. au acelasl este cazel jllortrelului pcmro. care rOJ:;Hlatul mediude ,6" 6 ~i derivatele aeestula sunr mai hine adapl:.:llC; eli ~o.ate;di Thpllemex.. 1[i1';tC inti!!. utU1"zatl1e s,tr<ld'[I, '!5i~r,El'ITiul ;~&U qetn~[[c1nU'e speelal pemli~1Td ldtr- tmfuJ de _ft vedea N!Ii;1. ~ ifi \'azwl:, ~n o~ pri \~e~te c~me.m~ ea par.1se..~te rareori stutlieul, fi.ind re.zetvllla ]11 pl"lll'uil raru] luani tl(';, irnagini exrrem de precise, prinl:TC: -aUdit pentru _lIlJD]krta;te. Mli.ll!~ paisafi\i~tt acrsall, nmjQ~i~tea america"iili, Lmn1tres.c sii practice m:it.a lor rn acc~t .rel, elirrulltlnd eriee deform am Kl. (~btiriitlteI o definlre ~n~ a iJ.:mJgi:l1Iii _ Dar diIlc{)lt} 'dc-o d~ege.re lC:m eswti(,:~1 In lemc]:!t.a pe u admiuistrrure a .spa{ilului 11] ~·tli h!n'i:d~lr t'apm1mi dhrue-lnliitil1u;\.1 ~. l1ilin~e.:1 imagillii. iUlper:lI.i velc ~tlOm;t>e l'egkim de su bieete ~i cnmc.Iu.i specifltesm;(t c~le ce deteunirlli. J~}losirea formaltl.CUo.r fi.1t9:£rri.fice. Un. !q~QilteI I.)~ m:e uici. tJm_pu], nki mijlu:w.c!t:: {inanl'iare de a fulosl o eamer.a; tllnuiQ cu'nlr'i'!.f, 'd.i:cO,{il a:ge~lt~i.Ion:le putm,cij rule

J.4

hn'c-pmrea [otograDe'l

1

_ PmcedcUl. a fost mm:rl:t sjmplu'"dfignerrotfp" .~i preztrutatin 1839 III fflt« A~ldentiei J~ ~tlilll!~: tksoop~i.~ fQtQ,gr".uiei m~ SC' d®s.e~1il de OO~W'eil ~lii]1~:lidi, Da1i ~lltla mat rmna'l1 de.fecle ct l\lI,~Tlt ~nCil: f(.~onside>Hlte ca atfU'e: tieclli'e.i. ,e_,xPi:lII!tri ml~ QUre5'pun!k~i.t 0 imagine.

Fo1ogrd!Ji.a mooernA.. ce reali,tefU';,a Ct!plctre'!l .m·ltllnH1~lir m:iimit<lt de imaboini :pozitivp pl¢cful}1 d~ Ia awl a'!'] di~~ ];I 'g:a{;i'v" ~e va ufl~f,~ 111 urma cen:;I!:~ilor tn~PJiJ.l~ 1J~ 1,~.lIgl~\-li \V-lJ ia1'fl, HenzyFox, T~lbcJL Acestaa !U,RJt CaJll i!ilar.;r.:ea.~i ~i{}'ad1i. Ctl ~n:;agUflne. rlU-rnllnclla punet tn j 84 ~ 4~ -~isul 5~l4F·~'ilt1lip~'.ln~·~.pMd qu riee.1sti'l: d.a~il. prog,~sele \1 ]1eU(lare ;&0 \'\11' f~sf~Girt~e iiS"l;\fI~<! c:ml.iill~lwpel.ic!1"l,;ltlr negal! ve ~l {Xl(l.i1ive ~l ~isUpm sulilsta r q.e~m.'clllmice, celer n~at bine acI&lpr.ate aecster pel.icuie, Slida va 11 pe. tand M.."tJsibili~l!(!it la al!1uTIliori, co l'n<iill, sl in L~ h~ din un.rm Ictl Vlilmit cle afb,ri.nr. Co!odil:tl!},rf;l:r,cntll. i:noon\'cllitl!-lIw! llobbi1 d'l pl<l{<lt I'roOIJla e.x.pusi'i Iinediill dupa~par.ru1;l,! in stare Ind't llme45.. C~ ,bl;;, ne puwm Ii.~or lrnab';;I1f!~, ijI' fi.avIU consr:efll{e a'S~pta fe]uitli ill (;:a~' !Hl:l't. pfacticm fl'lLografLa: W: ~]{emplo, mtllta vreme nu tlG'~!l1I fi :pull..lL deliL11i:l. furl!' Ull tntrC.g lITbOli4lIoir ill~t:uri_ Pmgresela t01l!ni.ce vel' ill" nJ.entfi nu ]] lima! manicra de IDI(1gnifleJ'8, c.l !Hal ilks subiecteJ(! fotogral'i't'i. 'OIit:o fotQ:gm.fiQ't: U'eb-llierttinur[Cl~ y>rcgildta. pmm.edi'l:;lJii. SuhiecwJ tr'clb!lie 'Sa l'ie cu {,crill I ti1.ispomibi·1 ofelfi'ndll-Sc' priv.trir ~j: mul~p!el~r mMeVIl!, ~t1(m lapi lor fotogtar11lui.- n Clap,3 irnn()Itfima in e\'o1i.lti [1- aC~5tr.ii teh.ii.ikiva n fliMO,lla ~e utili?-::1TC'a unei nu] Sl.l'bstolnW; de_:'l.f.imde fQ"Tl~j s!..!porudul 6l!!Jrarl;;~,ltl sensibile, geJaliml. Aoe:<lsfl1 snhsta11t1i nrulrmai i1~1rcle,mfinuit>Se va gcmmil1zadi~1 1880;ffint a se suhsiitul 1lltrU'L01ul stjeki_

in :foec-a~i epoc~1. ame1'lcanu.1 GeO{f~;t;lgastm.an va InIQGl!.i st1nj~I1.lto;lrelr['pUici de s.lid:tl .pKinu,,,,o pelictllll SUl~l:i lf8l1lSlParenLa, incll.rc.at1i jDtr'-Uf.i mic aparat nul'll; I Kodak (I S8S), Ll'mea 'foto,svdl'ie i se va'put-e,l de arum. Inainte ,aeschide illI~lrto,rilor., ;gor>iC:f~uea KJM1uk 'se m::npa d('! tnate ()pel'a{iHe rchnlce- (d,I,;!i,'eloj),arca fi1nu.ului, rclnt:mi;1r[ea a_P·.TI'atu l'u;) ~]-~l 'hr\'il~, dl~ntil s~ se .c..'.nnsaifce numai imagi$ili (f; CUIlOSCLJrt t~.lcbruJsiogM!I;mbli~itru': "~,\pasflfi.,fle hl~t:on. !J.ui ne 'V(Ill'! ~jculla de rC~hll"), Pc,de· ,lIra p:ahc, ~ell~~hj l'lfatea, tlh:udor Si! v il]lbE1l1ilt.1ri, d'tlUlfl'·ee.e Hrnpul de expllne:re c redJ]'S ttl rltOd progresl'vl,!:! 0 mrime de secum.m, (tnainlic de sffu:~ibl secoiullli), de

16

1

rnnnele de "insrantaneu" .fol()~]t nuill 'limp rentn! fmogmile, ee culorile ",'or plUea 11 Jr-e.ptOdliSC - fra~ii. Lumiele punla in l 907 11111 procedeu autocrom - e&entiallll "l,il: fi. realiZHt ~i uu II deem op-nblemi1 {Iel,£r:fecpmm:re; diver:,;ific<lu:aienljl.elor. . • a t:muh:ii1Qr.La. sf.1r.~itu1 M,;·cil1.!lui S~t ate fti~9g;ral1a mice, Reporlftjul de acw.JI.I,imre ilipiflre~ p;rinl:re aJ.t.ek, si b>1'<J:!le

condil1iteh1'lice de f : mobHital.t.ll m ... terialulnl r;;i

r~idh.al.C <'I r~!:!Gtiei f s~i)s.ih1.le< Ana fotogf<3liei

111 pmiClll.dfl[ da~ori~ I:milM mmJCrialre (~ptJce; ce pm:llut v}ln!aJ; tIlJread[stan:~eisa.u .. diil COI1~ apropierea. se UeJPllt~a. Ulilghil.ll )ucg ~l p::i.nqromica m1tic 1110diiicliri

, aSl1prnllttuii in cimlpru'a~~.(:111 cam:p{lllrflditiumd al, ochi L1~UI in dl;lnl~n~!J~ nihPlTii ~i milj:$or.lhii.. ,olo!;lTatia i~], va ad~ce l;,t dUVfll[m\e<l ~i [:~m~I.ruC1lICa cuno a ~tenL~i nliiio;c,

De lu imnginea. argintatii fa im.,glfltil nurIDeri'ca

in o.dl,{Jlililu] aecsuri 5l:Efiqih J~ seeol apare fQtugt'lilfilf maf..l;tD.eti~~ penni'!'!:: ca jm~diat iJlJ[.?a fi.)fogra!fieI:~ s~pri"'fi~ill1e un Beran ~c Jlllllgilili ee 1;;]U V(lr n fixat:e pe t'I relicu.ffi-fihtt w,aaipo.nala" . Prin ana1ogi't: ttecci,ll Ia digital ~i aceastli bJ.:lh'.CfSilfli: care a:reclea/i !lpalC foemele tie CQllul1)ic~e. di.ferilcl~ d!1 trarare ~,j Diansmitere, are o\'iden'- reper.cl.lrsi,urti ~i asupTa

fmografiej" N u ·(;'~m tl.'eClll .• asupTfls1J.biectelut tt1ij:tate,. dar ai:a:upra lll.lpoinlm i:n~agtltij (care "'1'1 fi vii toni] if,-~riii ougilltatl;?j ~m:6d~11IJJ in care aeeasra ... a Vi lmmn;lis·N. 1.1'1 eeea ee ptive~t¢, periec:li.D1'llirii din 4omelllJol reliriIcij roto~on.tfte:.rii, aC6!llea

tradu·s prill genendi;:t:a1.:ea. aulorn.!di7.ffii.1.Il'l:ijsurarea lumitU1 :o,;i

dj_~t'all{ei): Zoom...:ul diu ce in ce;rn:ai ra~pillldil la model,de arnatodlm:. ok,d!. nluUi.p[e po~jbiilta;li ,de incadrare, ] itUe:,!!ral in apal.',n ca1cu h::azli fn Ittflctie de pri ('lritarHe (Ie. fotogmf apl:ic~ma.diJtb-ri~il~r flill'-rrmenli (a1eg~ea tiimpulul

expunere, ere.), 10 ~bimh< dll('!a IIne]c apa.nlte ~lif.ll dtllate ICn .... ' .. Ul"",'~ de cal'C!~1 cele mal pEr.recFNrat~ . i dinee in ce maw' o gamti de ap~te: hU.lle ilIt; amncst ~~..;au Illtcut ap:t'U"itia: aju1'l~ 111 ll~Lim:il'ltili -sijalM _VI ~Q;tt~'Cs in crestere, nch.hd ~~

, ft1;togl:ufuluH;:uu{ ded el.it~TI'ite ·aStfu.i lie Gin c~ orlIlstringei;t; , Dar l:1.I toa~/e l'iCestkif on s-a hlCegiS'llili ~n lumea amaton&nlUlnii CJ1~[,ere ':1. prorib!lcli.eil cl~ imJgiru~ ~aci, aup;) CbUn 0 .£Irati!' slaf.i soliej (19SQ)., ul] ellmpean cOl1snmil; in me~ie Qaf!r-I:rd fiJnieiJ'G"illl[

17

2

,FO'f'OGRAFIA DOCUMENTARA,

MuJ{i QafiJi:..'nia~m;i'17A. fotQgr<lfia eu iJe~, 9C "Clt:lcl1menf' ct:ea. ce ~nreapm1i' di ea este 1f1 p~JlmI ri\l1d marroml ul~d refllltati ~i dec.i ,amin~t'ILl de flk:ast;!. FeaI.ilat~, Tlfnpuljo;iciliai~t un rol~&eilti:al mai ;d~s dm PlIlWl de ve,der¢ emoti,Q'[l.!!J, atnnci c~ntl fQtog'l1~.Il~ esse fl:ac~~illnl. eon~tieT'J Li;l;~a W~i.m.h5.rl,i, ~ll sprutfiei. diJillt:' a :tt1Q1F(;ij. Cu\~anllJl decnment con'~~. (];~ aS~mel1e\i, mtl'-CI lTI~ltrii tmrec!1m cmlfu.z~,id6,cn ~le 'eA,clllsivltate' fi.l'l.ogmfia ~lc!ln mart.o!: J1P,at,te - ell este IMl credlJ:nltl deem un text sere - j~1f vro@:j'fE:';lj,.<:u ~5te C1:I atilt. I.nai mare cu GAt eaeste micl'!:: DlgT,lf. acensMi rrim~ noo.l'oare [rc;b:u1e.n~rulhltA, functia dOtit1n1el1tarl' eV@lu.aml dJ¢'m (IltigiV1~ l~ - [atogl a"i~i~i pfr1l5 ';1:7,1;

De la, de:.~ . .'DlRrirea unor Hoi lumi Ia enmcn:1:aNa,. is(orie:i A9oci~lli In inQeput cu mruiIe t!'tpedi.tii:; 'ea ~Ie. LJll in~1:nilnen:t. nOI!i de ~e"'CgiPcr3re a. lum1], AppI; din c:e.ll1 ee m;ij periect1nnat ~j d;ct nam .u~r de folnsit .~,i ~l$ns.libU. 'l.Cr;:sl [IlSUUm~Tit cOlD.J:llucfi vi.:.ma1 $1 C(~1]tr:l!Hue I." i(;'u.tl0n:St~rell.. all s.ll1111 sl'unem ill ill'~ei]egerna evemnlcn1.elor.· gT~"injJ'U-~i ilstfel iocul11l nru!la a1~tl1[i de li:XJtu,i scus, rn);o.cllllt(j. j·lus&:rn.lii(e. pi:: .aici rermenul de,"'font;UumflIi5Jic.i1" _ P~i1iu!i :v~ca~li. de lip ,£.eogr~n(,:;aQ~e41 00 :ciUlIitp.de ~utog,rafic1i, i sc aclaugl'J pTm lIlr~llare o l.mlC\Jecl:I ~rfJ.Cle,r i<sto.ri.o,Qcee<l d", fQtoj\lm!di.sti,If~, sau mat ampJu. de mpor[4Jj,

Rap',?~ea imaginii hi realitate~~i tiplp

~. . ~illtr~() pL!rspecti \'5' t:COl'end de aeeaStaq:Hili, 1M 11'eP.l1i Na me :.ntftl~aItl cal,e esll; rnpmw1 specific pe~ij,rer ima.g:im:a fmC!~fldi il l~Ul'etlne cu re,aluB. - n{lr~ une ce 11 mm<IL~ S.1 f e u~Jjnitii - .ml'i~)f.l diferlt tit,od ru. r~Ji()daHc In:ochy;j de repreZ4nl.aru; Cum es'te Ptcw.rn, Il~ !':fat"~it. ar !I:cOlllll..ule ganJHl1]n CfL'>C!illll!hTLI mal de_gr.l,ba:J:l..cre.illb:llilLalcade bare sc blclcura ~i care at' e~lic:a cx.il:aor<hn~lI'li dezyol'li:ire:ih d:l\'i~rMl fijJrfi~e 0. fOl:ogd.'af.l:el dm:um.c'lJtarc, fotfYW,1i.I.:iu, pe C?4re II pu'tem timl;Sldenro uJ:C(; primlta :!fi el!Cp1'i.l'Ila'~ CliJ¥.nt •• ~f.GsUi ex:istfm!;a'a ucea

1&

Fflfo.grafia documentalf'l ' 2

tnfliti~~ill. Voihi'fui despre foh~;graM de aDlat\}f. reJlgm~m ale _peete no rrcbuie IlCfglijatfl: :acc:astl1 un este [:am 1eglltllf.1'.r:u ilumai di.~lIbj~teje. saler:>lI urrude ale fatogrnf,l;]i.lJ. ~i lrlUe,'~c

adesea SilLliitii obi ~mljtc~ A.l;lOro;ne~ aeestei ,pn:lC'Ei.ci da oeazi a, relatiei fotHgtafiei cu llin,ul. care joaca, aid nnrol rnll~t Accasta ill da,4ie. ,asen:lemlit QI:ll;'i:Zia slt be rrp 1L:oi pupU! fOIo,grafioei in a1.am cQnrexttllui s[la\lwlefllp(1I'<tJ GoI pnxllic:erii .wI'7~"ri, sOlie, ~11i1,1pra vro;;~'illlq'i 'c~!fiplex dy eitire <I unei irnqgJni.

19

a reunit-mai muIFI\}~ogl"an fi;cQa~ ,;t_\,.&ndml,slYlliea-c<1. Fr,op~ie ~1 dm ~ it su'@ieC'tej:e sale: Qe pnN21]'h~'qic 1>ii t~atlO: :JJ~rgcMt:c, pei~ajlJl~l!1iWFal'l~t.

mal m.ifro parte a ~uhi~tM(~r i!;li" . preze~l~1:i ft~Q1wjefur, iru'

:'~.,. 1 . f· ,'" ~J>.cwu~ e;e~ W,il~

"Ie r:nmU..lm~l'Ili!~JIJ:r

, .

lCul.ptu:(i1eJ: ~in p,IT[cud. S<1:\1 gr;:ilII!W::aM Hn. c.araeter: aRIDlIp-e..

'J

'fuln.w1 ~~inHiimpH:~IIJ!)~HTin ~l~~Cot.:lll~fiThtul s~,~lunefSe-

(de exel'll,pllli' I'll s;pateLe lJ~a()r ltn.~li .. 1'ua;gac1l1!l1), .el'ihHia

2: ,I

2

Fntogl'afia dooument41ra

j?Iaci lo( sefl:-l~bile Il~pcnnifaild liic;~ Cl'l)rire4! lnL$Ciliii \jim! ~11l:ii.e~::,t in f,a~a &hli~i,;Ii"tJ!lill_ 8Eeem1 cd il'lci.Btnmiu este ~~lfl p~o(llJl" de,,mi~~iU'e<l apc1~' tluviiJor. tl limplll "flfid. l111gelle Atg,~t i:':iid,eS\:"i"tf)r~c~ 011e<r:lr, ~rc:etarlll< -eEtre vor de:sClhid~ eale._, i n ~UI!Rtru'ieului t.:ebuiau sa se CtltHbme U[l cele ~mlrumd 'P~ltIet'fit I~'puncl H'umll aparat n::;ladvj1ilTl:abil. mull mai u~ur de,fulosit aecat earned Descopet"in k. in acest domeniu vor inl1ui profund aC'riIl,l~, tdl dacvmcltlItr'J, dcolll'iedep§,i1a atunci aGe,lSla se funlti:l. In subi l:'I[:te: ne;.lJliimate: peisaj urt>an, arlili:ec~ujiti S<Ul per"Sonaje cll!WffL fotogm:ful le (l<:rea StlP'\lzeze timp iftdelnJ:l'gi:ll (~ar pur'lretul trehuie tJ"daL :sepilJ;-at; prin'~e I'Jtt: le pernru dl. serea1ire<rtli iII t.'1:udi~), Fiin,:a: U'rn)imrit~l va ga;<;i 1~11n ~eIlejo,de sira~ 111 mij.1ucu1

. '

activltiJV!orsa!c ~i 'In scenele din 't1~:dm1:l. flliil.sll ~~arii ,uic:remof,.,ntn 1.>1

~hiaI f1irilSiti~~l de;;l SCillma eU este fotob'Tali art'i. dar fioeoota rididl. aH~

~ I _.- ~ • r' ~.

prol.'1Iemc.

l~l-Qr1a, f'lln.gl'£l iK\i c~ue aceeu ,3 unel ar[t: care s-a bow:,tllUir din

- .

gl:mlriJ.e m(~lerute de Ja ple:tutJ.,:natura. rnomt,a, nud, p0trrC(. peisaj.

Dar se poate ~IXHiIl~~llilcea 1.':11: ~ a,'LTt'Jlt din picsele omnpoJlltnte uu ITItre,g, Este oeea ee ,l]Tlt:ocruru m.ilne~ stn;et p}wtWjrl1plry (futo;grn't~a llti'1zii), u1fl gen cam i-a influ~nia(.ln IlIDduJ.s~1!l!'PC pictori.n ~f1Ed"", ~~ Hop~ef'. f-faTB pane a -rmr,cil.'lq.iai" ftllegrafj (;c ,are l[!tr .. ade;vllr ua ~em~ ledwri-ul slr'fuii~i t{lt~'e 'r.e·llltiimp1t'.1.<lid. In. f.raTl~al ~el dw;;pl'e care s~ SpllF!f;: lOA ap"'I+i;u~au JJne'i ~oH de i (J$pir<l~.e lIJllani~l1ica R oi)el;t QUlsherru, 'W.i,lly Ronis ~HlIrlS aureaJi!latmlllw din Unfl:ginil'e to.;: p~ stdi/!'ile Parisulai 'oUllaperi'fL'fia,ace!!tlJla, He[J:r1 UU1'ier-.Hresson TIt-.a CU!:rio;.arlt ~i el (It:l.').de timptn£lel11J1.~l'] 1\.;la; recent, Wi.lliam Klein. ,auimullUai ululro.r ~~11lJ de-spru rrle.tro]Ji{)k ea New YorK, Tokyo, Mosco,;,a san Noma a gft-su (::;lilltawr\'Ci snbiecteler sale 'lil stl'ad§': stilul ~r:iIi se deii,ne$b~ prm I:l'lflIlierd d:eosB1);tla de a aborda ~n M a iTll:~m ~Mii ~i lnIJ1~imile, Multe dfutfc st;'enelci:mon,a1i:L.:llte de Roben Fw:nk "are dsfiuesc villlillea $<1 ~'Up;r<l am r-it:anilur an t{}~1 reali~,:Hepe stmdii.: Onil <Jill 1~1{]ra.t "'l5up:rn. WmC] straz.ii ill c(ltidian; jfu::.a~ld sa trall:;;Pru1~ m,piiruul dinJ lor ceea c,e (ilQLga it curi os salJ Sm'!?I in ;-;atot ~ a~a cum ~ fi\c1i!t-o G:m[ Wi nogt;,afl(t Al~ii ~l-l unnl'irU tl

12

tm'L'F:~,l!n;ru:e eVb'1J.1:menwL Astd'el Weq~ee ~l~.a,OI".ueJ, ... acrat 0 m<ITc.pa:rte n tim.pti1ui, mal ales neaptea •. "i:l:coperirii" 4aptelQf Ul\'erse newyork:l;;le~ 'Tot la Ne\y )\01'](., d.~tr lIIlli recent, Lecmaro Freed ~J1so~e~te poLl~a in faidurUe 'ale ~l fotogt",dtaza. tot ceca ce 0 M:llkili't z.ilni.c, Di[J aces!tlt Jexp'eri~n:¢, adese:a. v i{)lent1. s-a, 11l:iSC.Ut 0 carte,

T~atnll Wazii

SU'[!Gi'a. ~Il.t; e3! oseena de teatru care it fasC'fneaz~ pe r:;pecUttorulfi>tograf li-l p,e care \;C Joadi 7i ~] IlClOl:!'lte tr!t fe:lulde'1Scc-nari-i., triste sau \,cse(e., m care se alD,estur!i.(OHell(1lue.perS{lfl~;ie. Be pare,~.a fi;;dosiJ;ea orlzonw[il a·cad.ruJ.ui :j;Pflfat:1UlJi, til spec~a] 'l1u forrn"lt 24,};3€i, pe.rrnilt:; op!.'OOca ell m[Jhi;t. u~lltintrJ, a unni ~~llpaj a <l:¢slCi r~i:llitli~i _ [fl isroria fotogrl1fid S1ralJ1a devine rero4'e Jim spa~i II (Wviie!,ota:L carese prctCaM conlpo1.i~iIOJ[, ce'Je ma], ,clh'~r$~.,.ca.s.icand ... i£[~t!..;mlQdami;i,. a~~ CU]l['l Sf: manifefiIID, e[JJ 1(1 O1'n~. nu ~n"atf1 giisi l pfia.:'1:Jlcum o !r.ll:1S[!Um::re potrl1."rli in pit:l:ur~, E"adi;¥fu<it Ci.'i p·il:;l6riijJI!nresiQ.lti~1j au iIlc~·rcaffsa '1:radlJca atmosfera l.Ii!'1;moa, .d;Ir 'ftlto~ful., prnl:zaml mOnre'llltu.l ~i jucanr1 pe Tliobititatea sa, flU :per cepe acmr Q forma SJJU IIIJl edificiu, c I t:ep:ne lll! aC6>1a.~t tiH'l:P 0 I'liluu,ie, 0]11 r'l.nli:FelJ1'trc p.el'sq[laje priu c:eea::cc aeeasta are' trediilQf ~1 ,aratli ceea c.~ .m::hitdui m;tiutl'enm ii M:ap~ dl'ld 'rne.rge pe stJ<'Id:5- Uile0l'ia(.:csle Ilut{.l.J'niri: au <lbwl l"<t1 RlIl mst regiz<lte, aUiJ sunj de e:X"1J[:tc_-A~a cum se Spline, relllim~ o'tpli$:~re dn nlull~ uri irn:agi J:l!a~ia.

nl"e'r5i·tatea. ilnagilllilol' stti'izii Henr] Cartit.'T~areswn C'!tpH~5:m prdrutfl mrtii sale 'Imagu1i in g.;:aM" ,",5 el incenrca pri n foiQginillu"~l org;il'll~!Z.t yj;z.u;iJ eeea ce are in faf;a o:chilor sau all1?e[ SlillJ~ ii:i. puna p'L1~il1~ ordm~ ~i sens intr~IHl un:ivcrs d'e illU lie eri haetio Dadi 'in llFa~ 1l1lii IQ't6gfilfl sunt i ntCl'e~a1i mal ,ales de m.l¥:8irea subiretelor IJmane ~-i de. $CHlnificatia mporturitUf ler, a.1tii sc ;[!OnSlIG'l'a .!;illlp:lei ctnuPQzipt aimaglnilo,r pDruind ~e. Ia Uni. e, JOi'hrele ~i fl'ialeri"il~}e a:rhitectunde, tie 1 .. urbanlam, tn ceea ce are'st3 .. ~ 'mai structurat sau dim~otrivWma] [J,f1~d'Iic. ~ n flnH • 30~ WalKer 'E\'WIS ,J t:{)nS:lnlit (!) vuiuhe.1I (;InlL~llJuf cm-c i~Jregre<l7.a"]in cOln~m"Itir{ Frtla:,-Lilil.or cle!'cwdlfiea ci ... iJi.:m.rt.et m!~dTtfne. Astfc] {l!l va ltl{J~~a Q mam parte. <l sILI1'iiecteIQr:Wllleru~ se vahr~llhuta lfiuerieaJ~a t::~:lfu,eIPPlmUla (v,~z.i pag. 2,5)-

2

23

S-a \fomit ml1ltp§na hl prezent dt];_;Plrc~tilntele urnauisle, despre disci.p'l1"ric ea googra:fia. is:lorir~, sal! etnc{ogia de care foto,gra:lia a:<fl'ils~ willi Ul1u!l sau mill pll!ill kga.tu., N1.1 e;st)).!ID!J.i pU~'in acte~"iin~'ca p:ciuili re;~CI~:J:'iIfi aU~(}~l0eu'et"1.tm:i 1]1 a:!n(c de 2 fi.'ill.t~ti ~i aecastade d:n d ~a tl1~ut c:U!10~cuta inY,ental'ea fotQgn~ll.lei ~il Iata Academ],"-l tie $tili1(e. Faptu:l eli, aceasta ·QOQ~aLTare,a'~DN'l:1.t [0;; iltr~I.Ui a.~ ~[el clie'loc fl n este e. mtfi1TIpl3re; r(:i~ograjfj ij im.:c8ird},m.!l±llr~ de j::(;,at~sli perfecv,~ )fiC!i"e e 'l~hnidi, ~ I? r o~rre.<;ul i'nacesl: tinrncn[u areca S~(\r aprofund11n.:a. Cnfi(Ja.~'~rli unui snhloet: f'o:~ogr<tfia ese .l!tan~ I.t;gllta Ide oh:;l{.1VII:1ie,. t~ Q!bsfrvalj a c..~l~ UL\a. djVt~ ba'TA.-1Li,!letr.!el'slillu i ~hin~i~1c. Acesl ]l:Ior'u a:.pare clar ill t':12.ul 11litEli eTll1£"cJ uleS:~fl~'ey ~i (:IJ attar FpttlgFll.i'i ~ ea Ei:l.wartl Muybridge. f;meapro,lpMn au;1a.5i timp.lasiaf!:;litul se.cQlu1Ui 'tn!'OUl. au deSC6m[lUS mi~c.arim (il:JfI'1,llui ~i aal1iJ:n<l]dtlr gp·tie secyelJ~l{J:r ee iJ:Uagir-.~ fnai1c}'Lpmpi<J!~1'~ limp, A~[i'iI losfJilimlrn;kli'l printrs altd.eel1ign'1a, gal<lpulIlI. i.:atuh!~ datmilli iJ.fv~nt:l:lii t1~ ditre M"I'e), a pu",.Li.i fOlcigrafice Icam rrermitea fi;\ilfea. ddalliiof (Ie care ut:'bitd lIU aju(;lll~s~ ~~.le:vildJi,pUl!a ahlln;,i i.1iI5~.eQllJ.] tlcl:~th~. In aoii"JH mllj'~lln'lll'1i mud si~tem '~mnp'teIlJ:ellt~ ~~l~JtItjJl(e dtmi1 am~illite dej 11, purl la pUller m demt;il.li.1l1111:iril de. \f·Mm ~i care proquoc 0 h].milill. rentrlut fO:.l'ite plltm ti TllP, wn~rkamil H~[lldd 5. Edgene:n aJunt,e sa. flxeze i ltL:lgi ilea U11.ei piCtitIaTi.·u~l.ap~e 'irr~ wntam ~,~ ~u~raf,r~;1 :apcsm1 liehid (1936). Dadi rnecanica tlbWr;itii .$icbilllia '5I1JpraJet'e:10l;' sensibife .reGlue ,coijsjdemhil :Ll1i!llpul de el$ pl1nLJ:r~, mtO@,fafu eli ~iPuf'i ttl i:Jm'neni III '~lpli('ll de nel nujloaGc care Je perm it ~erGcliLtea infmi Ll1ui ni1[ff'.., C'I !);i a 11'!Jitntnl1l1 LILk .. E i i~i ad:u.c asrfe-l: (!Ilnmbutla :io; itS'twflnm.Ta ~ '1'11 bi.o]ogie. ~Ilcdffi!!ul Len:nmt Niclsntl SllJdlaza i~ mooicin,a deja de mul\i ani ~~plmaFea fotogTIil'ic:a .::1 iaterromlui corpului iUliail. Spec.lflli¥tii .iclentiIic.a :tlt asesre ffilagilli fragmeme d~ QJgil!l1e.Pell¢riJ. ~61, cc nu ire P1'icell,e de1w; ~a mediclli~ aeestea nu sunt de4::&t forme abstmci ale dirrur clded sunt de UlU\loC Ot~ 1,1imitnalfC. Ch1ar fbdl fOlogj.;afll~,nu e~le iPI 'iru;u~i cercet at~pqtiinPflc ~1 m unca .~111 nu I:lK'Le; dii;\ec~ l~§a'tii de ~'1.iil':l ~a. metodele ca,,,t:' stau ta 1mza n:I~'i<li-TIei salenu sun .. in ge;l:lcml prea iudepa~i:lk de cele ttlte ·.;:e>rcdlilomlui: a obs 'tva. .8, m[eg,llitl;a, a clasa, Eugene Atget, ca s:itcVe!ll1m la el, ml flioea !lirll.lia

'8,ltce"<l, '

24

2

,

Proabil c;1 \ili S:tafete Unite se ~fla IC\.=l mal 1!l1l1~1 Jotogl'l}fi care se angaje:a;di p~ calea ~~H;:Uf~lLi~ s~,dill. La iI1Cep~ltu!" secpl~~li, Lewis Hi'He tEIJ;a~i~,ca2a, aO]llii'i, La ~JJC'~I.I, jar Jaco;b Aug1i!lst R'P1S' mirnt)rit1ltil.e, Mal i3Jles la ,Ip,i i d~ crizr.~ fologrnR.a hi "'!it g:tsl (1 ;tpJiC8i~ inleretl'anl:ii. 7\d.u)1nisIT'd:!ia Rpme'olcU cere sa se fac~ un bilAAi al de.tte]l;lr mmi depttS1Uln OC£l1)i?.IIuioe din anii '30 .. (:~re a. lII'11~at prntu.t1d Sli)teh~ lJrlit~., 10 jnvG~~i:g<l;i1e a~Uip:ra,0011~1.*I.101: de \'j~a'~din tadi, eel Q];J.i bun mijltl~ de. a. 'cme,g~ aeesre nmt:turil era bitlc!n.~&les AA seonx:urga l{l fpt.o.b'r.:ll'ie. Sociott!J;u.llns;hlOio].d CU ace"a.,,·~a nusnme, RQ;.Y E. ,~U:Y':@.lyCm:iiaD:irilti ru.<l;i mwrar MQgn±l~pdl1tre run: se numaTa~ WalkerEy.a!l~. ll~ S~illl]j, A.rthUf Roths.tein. D:uoo;d~ Lange ~.1 Russell ~!lHaca, un invent'lr prI¥.."is, tmJind searn.1t!e imptejllIilJri, Acea:o.;iJi. experien \B I~e l£l.E'affil S~urity AdIniillstration {F;SA) .- liJ arne dat de adtTili'nisuat!(I R(~Js~"ft['I:- 6~:U:. {I dai.9: de :ref~rill\ii in iS~C¥fi~, fotggrafici ~i .CGflstiiUtc una dintrecele m<ai importa'Dl[£ imsi\mi cu C;Ir:!C[er social. Ce1e dinalnte avuseserao vocillie mai rullltel:rlcilogk:1i snu o:lrhe~~logidi.. Din~ru men1~1r1i FSA se remardi in 5pOOiSil Wt)1ker Eva'1ll~ a catu.i oflcr.~ este mat mull: de:cat 0 srmpUi ndlrt:l1tica cUltsecin~]1T1' depl'esiun:ii, ill face tm Famet. eere nu l>l~le llumai SOl: I.:d '" a)'Americli hJ.r'bane~ij !1!l.ffile. V ~7,iul1ca sa astlpR't orn:sull,l.l, de J::i~ 11l!P~U, C{lITIpustl' elJ grij~ Ii'oll'lfal!l ~i: integ:dli[l(;] difel'ite1e. aUflltroJ.1Jln~· aleu rban~zitrli modcmc ~l de· ATIlC'ricii pmfunde, c:owtill!lie UI] model pen tru genera!iifc v:iitOMe. Fultlcgraflil nu m!ii !?,oalL! de aCI.JIlJl tDlalme stl,' igO,QTe '~eO:Ill~fe eY~'llltjei~l""il1!laV~i f1~,~Ji['1etAe,,, ufI(!!lc adesea anarhit:c.c"me se amesreca in ~!'blt~lll':t3;i~ trad,itionale O<l!!1r<:t:um bnnailzate,

~'C$U.l1w Eug;r,.Tlc Atget ca ~i tn 1lle1'11 ESA, im;l.~IIjle au gasflL asilizi ~IiUCl1!:l'111~i ilep'riiDire, 'aJ,trcl 'Spll~ rDoi 61.q:IlI;;wturi fo .tllilzee sau in ~dit1i[e e 1,1. ~(ij!;Jtie arli~uctL .Dar acesteil. au acoFilat mai p1l~inrl hnpori~I1:1!1i ,!('~!mrii dm:::urnen:hlft: a fotDE;r<tJiilvT. Dnei ]lit:l.lI~1 esen ~al le'gi1~C; !'I.e: S\llili~ Lui tltU(lI. ue lnleresul gcngrnfic,' arlt~oio.g!c Stall ~o"

2

l.:ioIogic, i se JS.tlDstituie 0 <1Ibordare: ~i un ;eomentarip,mai ~lagraht!i estctica; ~i[limd 81i: PUIlti in valoare foto!,,>mfiI.J ~i"pri vi:rea pe C"(i.te a,,;;~sta 3:. aruncht-o ,<iSUpIa 6\l1DetilloT; dec! aSl,lpra, lfirmekir ;fotograflcc, compo7il~ia ~f fuc.arum::ea prinrre alteltl, ~i i'ndi uu run 'termil1af tie lit:sC<lptu:h lfJrbgrafli pi:. care :leilproolem.;Petlttl.l: mdth'cfoar1le·diferi1.e. de ode ~ar,e.JlU dusla p.';Qtlucen::,a ler. mtam adCSei.ll5~ tn1.C'Ie:lI1:l~fli publicate '1l! mQT10~raf:me ,actua)e· aJl!t 1;mui HUqJ iii t\;J B nuJ}~t de eX'empl.u sau 'fj,gurapd In expnzitii ca ;reC'e~, a lui leiul~PliilipP6 Crurbmmicf de Ja Muzell]. de J\rlfa mMe.ml1 a OF~1!!I]ui '1:~aris,·de aeum cativa ouni.a:u fos.ll'e!tliza~ in aria '50 penttu re .. iist:a friMtc~4 ·'ReaHI<Cs" ~i gv;eau d~i. (I f uuct;~ liocumentariii (un IH de :reEJtl,f[Jj illdrepl'ftt ;idese!Jr Q£upra UTlliJl' .Siilbiee~ dhi vialai cotidian~ AAUfeit!tjV ri'l:ii$ntl@l.pe: c.a:re' televj:r.iune~ 1~ \'llcp~fllamai niRiu),,, Astov.i ·are.~ie ;revist.erlll, mai! e'x,lst~ ifutfrf"Oal~ rll!1m:mtiril~ lizlt!=!gl'aifilni- 'C,U;'lt au sttahl1nn llilileu: ~i IIlJ fast mru;l.od.Lrli~lerltl3io{ stldetii ell seoplil de a ll;'l Hustilit in OlIrIJcol1.1. Ei reCI1T10SC adesea im):iHrtall~ nlijloacd'Of cc iie emu incmlintalt; aruncl ..

Pnenll hGqucsPr'CVe,rl: ';Pll.T1C(fl clllildva despre B:lou<ll'u BQUhat d'i re~l[J 'LUI <'nlfu;e ool''il~lPQndent ~pl1r.;i" - ex:pre::;}c flIil1IZ;aTlli:l-'t1,eltflatll.:

Ace£t f~~(1~'1'af~<l 't~utlit'ttlt<-adet\',rtr. sa r~~1i i1J,tntdieauflJ imflgini aI~ pacii. bucuri.e1 ~i d!'ugosl'ei, ,e!lit.anil. 'sjxlem.dic cea rnai mica, ffi:Jl!!iFesWe vi clierlla 'SflU 'coofiid. ,N-I alt! forograflJt,ance7,jU1J praCcticat ~stfel 0 fbtograJrlellRHlcmu um.anisUt, (~,ecllre dintre ei pee teme ~peciJi.ce: Robert UOiMle'l"', \ViHy Rotlis.Tt:is ~i alth, .Pril'l ull1,lIIis,m L:otOl,nrafic I:reo(lie sa se jJil1,e~eagiri c~ omul se"aHa 'in centnu imagJnii ~'i D1 pn!m;U;~tiriJ l'>iUlQruh.ri. Prill aceasta se s;l~er:llt~lege, poate, Q c:reclintii hI vruowea Iuuuiui ~iin. caliralHe 5',1:11.), Urofllli-SUluJ se re,gj~e~te ~i 1$1 'fbto!,'laHa '&ltoJ~i BI100panet;;a !talia Sal! S:p1lJ1ia, 'in S~8M~ Ui1lite~ [(1. 1955, .fotogmful &IwaTa -8teic;he11 orgltnizeJlZit 0 U1 are e:tpozi!;i.e Ou tema "The Family uf Man" (Fa!!ll;Jia omutu i) Ia 'MHZeul de All.! mod~a d'il1.New Ym:k. care In paJ<JfItezll. fie SpllS se Interesa d~ja fcarte serios ac fotogfflflc. Fol:ogcallll. sen'e~tl:jll~a do multii vmme' dJe a...cmeileW pctltiUft fulati.~ll ril;zbuiut ~i ill generll.(

;rullI:ile -e",cfilin~nte iU~, I)j.t01:iei. .

26

2

2. F QTUJii[UtI'l'AUSTIC A

III t ~5JW::;;CfFclltbTl estre f{')tog"afu} (likial.(l'~ ri11hoiultd dirt Crimea In tilnpul tilibcirLdu,i de Secesiune, ]l.:I,flttiJltV>' Bra{.ly ~ A1exanoer C3arc.hle:r fltl'iibrlteau ,C'iUnpurife de ll:fptli ameri.cane .. 1 elm idle fotQg.:afic~ l1lU Ie perml(em.!·ilic~ saal'flic chillI' lllptejc"c'i tHnhai (,IC drrifintta Ia ren.iJ:!.lliu.clta wr,atroav«:.lewJfbtilnr S'\U 1;!Jl reg-itnent de elir.a in limpl!ll.tre.eenll:l1 rc!{v;[,a Sill.! loainteu lllftl1ul$rli_ Ooar p¥ b, 18 80,Pllli01'e.a La T'U!l~t.3 IDstrultaneLl.lui. fotngtialJc 1i'I pe.J:l1ni s rellirre<J: , \'lZilUli Il1<li dill,i]rur;(l, d,u:ii\ se peate spline a~-a, 8! e'YCllffi!l;.lltelor" Imii nlt"" u, t(ll dalotitii pwgl\esului fehoic ,ill iuarilor de ve,cie.n, I!ltf)'g.rnfllt:lg'~-I'[niiJ1 'E..!ic!J."s alpmo,n va da,o .ima.giFle orlgffla'l'i1 a j slorid: ~le'iTl saliJe unde se purtau discupi·secl'.t!te iune IDlIrii IOnldUicttQ.r.i'. ai'cpo'>ii, cei.ea:n:; st~f1ikJealJJ;{nltr~uI1 fellumca.illDl'eajlU.<lJl dQiU.':am!9oi· monilial, nimese i11M prill e;(traoroillflfa ~i :fnd!;lllIfUlflfea Opclll'tuITllui. C.JlI~d ~PJri1tele fotogt'<tfi:pe

d~lnl,il au a~eN~tnJt.. usor utililjl.hile ~ JanMll~a. pe pia!l1 de d'ltn:l· a·.~!]ar,atul,ui Leiea a pm'jdu.\fl.JCvoIu\le pM t~ma(ll1 i''iilmu.!tIJ 35 mm ll~ C~Jl:: ·iI. folosea .. r~01i);'oi1i(ll v¥. de¥cru, Ifepr.at IJIiJld dln .bJ:~l:ele privile;gri,ate ale rcponei.i lor flatori'l~ Il:ct~uni(e.rc<u:e ,perin;tag,illi '~~t;V;Lllo.asc, de senl:ap{ll1le tate: ma,iarlta1ca p,ubIicl1tui.

. . gl1idat1!> frit.ld. de lin lmzisl:i'bil il~stin,,;t a1 i;l~4i pe eare

HE,-nleill~a ~R fli sa-} 'eJ<ploateze abil Ast!\zi fotogC<lJLi p~!Ilip~ la cerrtlio~de c:u;e.<lu toe p pam;ant, FIe::, mare slil1lfl, aer; mal mntt ffiili plItiJ:l prnte:jaij~mai ,mUif':.au rnal rUI~ [·esnecia~i R~t a 1DP'fl1I1xa a"''iJGi.a~ia "Repurteri ffira f![·onti.e:te;'l p~n,iiu.a Je apl1ra

, . Mulfidln~re ci a~ ~~uriF in t.i'tnpu.l rbbt'laj:etor. P:1'~t!e ei

Jid'evaratir ~roi. a1 Li!lilP.U1'i10:r;: nRJdeme: cu. amerk.tll1\lJ Burww~ mort II:! Vi,.e::Ulam,S,il! fraIlce'l:nl Gwle::s,-{Cllr()in ~:i:splinit '''~'''''~~'. cd mal CllHlOOCUit dllrre ,eii esteffi{,a.1l1dotali Robert - canJia 1-<1 fost COll~ac[atl'i .0 blognlfic -(;;afe' s-aknp1JlS III ~eeprinn-o in.l.lg1ne dcacum Jegemlar:a ~j utliversa1 ClIDOSCtltfi. (J

, care prin ea. ilJ:;;!i~i -ar rutea defi'n:i. ideea de rep'~rtij: ea-

. ue [i1cnibm alll1'iii\1:ei din timplIl.,rnz.ooiuiui ci 1111 din rapus de uu gbml:e ffancniS'1 ~l.e.<;,re.n imagine att,~ de: perl~t Irlcfit :lde.s~a ii ccsfe Pll~~ Ja iudoia:l5 ;;!llte11~ki'lat~.

'27

.~sUD.j penrru ffilllt.i eameni adev5rata i'otogrMie esleIIO.toyaf1arepotl~j. Ea Joaca iin &hii, tumror un raj l;~rfd~nt tr<:tnsp~e[jt; e CQ11S1d~t1 tuiJ~. cIlia!" indispens:abilr1. dl;d ru:ntli ce;se-lntfiffilpl~ 'in IJ.iHI<!.,1J:ilil.c ~i rii,u, c~· clacacse ajunge in:totdeauna sii;1\e spo,il;lli. eli HU ll"itbll~@; arlltat LoW.!. 'Ftllugr.afia este un i.n.S'tl''lU":u;-nt ~\{~mplemel,lt<tr 1:11 JscdSui ui fa(!fin!J pdsibilil. ,;l~ti",'ha{'ca, j umalistidi, h a~y ~at cfi. e'a pllPPS~tB a8:'1rpra ililllj cl6CQI iii! ti1np '["(: l'ealh£[1~~, I1n pottrct ~_a\J iprdti,<;ea:a!. I) :!c~iulle. liar se ~,~ic de' asg.men~m·cli ,iJrllilboinoo,"tmeill~ai" fl. ea c,...,te in genera) aitlbigu'G; poate ave-a mat mult5 sensuri ~ Ld;-.IIirl\~ rec.lrge J.a. text, la legen~!.i. es lUI csre tib"lh.abi15 ell sjg;l!.rantii ftrllJ:he .dare';.u~(h:1r S;ii pl'Qfilrl G.I ,<lce~stli .arn~{gll~taI!= ~i.s~ tlillimur'Bltl pnn Iegende sensu] <lJ1lm.rut:Or imagini p~blicate", ahn~d ciind ;£IU all mo£lific.l,t e'ltirur -lmaglnik prin r~ru§url ~'IlM ffi;lu_aje~, S ~p,tfurjan:dnl Pl:1rjs: Match ~J-a bazat campanla puhilieItar.J. 1# ;s][mg'atlul '~utaWa euvi I:II,e:ld.r. ~(j((ul f.t)['l',graHiloc"!';afe llus trea~O,otnplin:fe:l'l:Ulrila'ttea !'!~crsmii "Mtre rnodnl de expre~ie vei,bal ~i ~1 vJJzUl}1. Ne--a~m ,gftndit ~Je<J, devIrelnt::,,d\ am intrat ',nti'"o civi lizape ~",cl\;lsj v I,rW:taJJi. De tapt. iIici'i !llai c:xist.'l W);;,nd sub im'll£,ine, a~a cum a -amtat de U1<IJ mult'6 dn R01aotl .Bal1he. .. I..ergt {ITa 'Prucile.TI";li.~xplidt St"il],sU!- maei IbtQgr<tl~i, 6aF ::I~"fl cum 'poate fi vQm:f ue gi'llfli!l.lle in 'af[lfa ell vifitdot, IlIU cxista plel,'cep1.1c a i'lCl'I.suh~i io'lzUa:i i~rlI, recll(~e:l'e la 0 arti~~Ia~h: ~OImunii celei a fimpajuluJ ;"·cr~a1. R'Nem'CuOC:azia ~Mderii zidu1.[Jfi 13erlinului ~ia reuni.Ctcilrii Ger:nl:1niei it-a I'tltU't verifjca I_mrllrtan~ rO[U]llj' .I.~ngi;m:le:l ~i at 1mpaewlL\1i ::JAM asupra 1~.L:tUTi:it imagffiii- 0 tevbt1f a repub'Hc<tl celebre .fptob'Tafl;ff <I eU:C'e.£lrii Re'ic~l$lag-u!ui m f945 de ditl'e un !widOlil al Armatei ~u~ii La ~cea '&ill;ili at:e-~1R;fotcr£ra£:1e era pri\'i!:i1 ca unlll dlutrc simbnhuile. tcnnlno1rH ceiui ilc-,ai d{)ilea. dti.bqi me nldln,J _ Ast.ari ell ili'str~ea;z~, ~ru;ep:utu! i.nilqLlotei ]l!uUi ooJrIluillste usupra Europei (Ie Est

2

D]l_ca, h.il,()j'l,lma![.sl!.11 dlllto,reiJ,zinnIl]t puner.ii: til> 1'Iun~t >Iap:aralele~ Leica. erez.'l£,Qll:artl~ ~cislel· practid IlJi!i sec POijtc~:isocj!l:, ~·apad1iia. l1'1ai lih:itl ~~I Sl"rrev~stcca}' 'tt:r4'~ ~fi Fra11la: ('192::;1) ,~j, "Life.'.'. . Unite O~36)~ cea Ae~ll::clfllHl fjiI.d ofici ~J inspir<lrtil de c;llre

'ji'c~ticlJaI!i .. 3i}. b, viUl illfltnL "Em(jgu;rfin: ,~t .~~l,jet/'ju!a;;' Qi.s!:nc,~ af'mna . i mpeu:tan\ll pc '~""T'lll ft(;'e~te ~~)l~ t~~]ij:ri atla'\l'ul~o· ill ,fotflgraile!i;,,":Modul fl!ll'l'I:~tion~rrii -redaG'fhm~le, ,Ir!li:ltjn~(a _.' .... J .... <Oil '<I plJ.nJ~rii ill p;:tg:lua· illdk:'p~.na.'rl:tlll::lt de f~viste ca

"/{usl};m{on ", _ijs~e \ft:Jrha d:epuhJ'il.::i:llU ~0m::c,putp. .i'J1,lnlrkgU1n011l

rot:o~nJid. Tr.ebblie re:m;lfcal rap..t~d cJi·diJOCili emJI~ha 'teh~i~~ ~ d~ 'veti.er!<I 1f1t~s lml W4G'ti:ci' -"utografl ce" a'bhl, lot 'lHGe:p~t:-ul llli s-a pus la plI!J~i nn proccdtHl de ruiPI'O~,tlcem me.canicl a . 'rip' de.ifna:g:ifl1i, utillzit de ctitte, lipogrflfi~r K-i:lUputul :1'stfel Ql.IJiIU<1I_U dOClnitn~!t!tele,; dar mal aJeN s-a .(>U:l:lll iilcepe Cnnlflllli1alfC:l

i:.d'U:;li lu:eSlora, Iifjn aeel filOlllellt a incepul sa e"i JOI;e mesena de' . cwrn (J t::q]I.\(:m~tem flSl~zi,

in ;peJ[i~)ada .interoclici'l fotof,'il'Ifia .'UIVUI. 0 peri oada: de inln~l'i.re 'it.:larelor ~,ilev lste1ur de <1ctu:alilrlti ~ i, J)e. asemcnea, ~1J1U' .cu Iotul diferi~ acela al medei: rnarea elmcli ""fliil1pe,r's " _';ii :a dffenw:lor editii Vogue. Presa e?teDogntii";')oi putemicrJi. 5~cialt ill StatCle Untie, Ua:t: ~i lill .Ii',al~ta. TilJuriJe suntnumemase,

aUlnl'emas,e c<'ltl3~)datli.il~, ~alillrr."u:r,a, 'inciit unH fotogr,al'1 se Rit ~e: ~8{)~ieze In ag'l1iulii pCIi9~~ a se apjra ~i a-~i visde , mai binc, Dl!IIp,1razhol, ill 1.'947. lRn~e[,1 Capa, ]"filpre!;ln.it CIl fotogm.fi creal:! ,<i\g~llfla M;;rgil:uu:l,l!.=m'c continua s.ri ewtt: ~1 azi, . cste 0 lI1lreprlm;f,~r~.cu atilt Iillai Ha-'eHar:l,!Cu dill t:O'ndi~ilc

YOl'·e\'aJllll ~i leU cat ~im;e'].e, nmf .aJi!:\i, \'or ad::::Ir de J:llfTU.1'UtU 1I£1]()ei:U't'a lC.le:vlIzillnil despre (;lax\!- Sdl t:I'C..GHt muWi vreme oil \'[1 filC~ dal'la. [Ill Ghkll· ... a fL1£e 'S1i • .d'i~,~lfl!~ pro:b:q'c~~v surmrl~iHe care imagi.nefffotngrnfic,l" Hs!~ adevar;oildi ii'.1~,eje [JIJ. mal an ..... ~ .. 'a''-· .. de ilJ'UWat~t$i di maim:i'tl1Le£l lor nu mad pot disp"l!l.l).e dC:':

3

.

O::m1iP<mia "Tillie-Dje" este gig~ntidi (aproximativ 1.00'0 d~ allgaj a~),. lar "aoo;pedrea" eveelmenteler a~ CQmnkl.it, ~oreswmlentoJl,l f}fSmiu.nell.\l se ana insta!i.,apr in Trec;l,re: co~ ,!~ lWlJ1ii ,~L Jit ,a~Sl grup apar1;inc u;\,tr:h;nl'l ¢",'i~Il1 ~pl.lrtlv~ "SPOf!t iUmlrf.d' " D;)f lIM:ul 'oo~ mai jmrnrta(!'L ~']r;JlTu f(nt},[r..afie rl"tn1olle desigu[ '~Lift "-

FGto~rUle celnr snnt pj'i"ezc~le tlt[::'l:i~ IIf: J Il p.rim--ele aurmae iar dln nnll '59 d~evil1 (I .i'e:§ulrt pehtru eopertr.

"j_ife" m;~re(.inl'll .. cea rn8il. bui.1~ .mltrtm1e foLog:nlif'icii a h.lm,ii moderne ~.i ap~jlip~rita;~i Amc.ridi., dar si a unor lmpa:5Ut1 ab;l m:;CSlCll;i., GlU.11r ar fi rlizboluI din Vietnam earui II! i se va ucorda U are.l~ie SlISiIDUta,

Spn:: Ii nc Ie mliilflr 'M presa se impa~iel1teaz;l :in m!i)Q jl-lsti Iic;.H dill cauza dez.volUilr]I te1~'Y'i:7ii unii.lt'l 11ctX:mbrie 1972 citra: de vanz;u:e ~~[ publicltatea-au oSdi:ml ini.T-a.tiita, 1lleal. "Lifo" inceteaz5! sa. O1ai aparA~ eel ~ntrn ~n nurnere saptifmf~nale_. Ti mp d~ ~inci ani ~i ~e .u~ ritm tI.e tlOlr~ numm;e pean ~i se pl'ezinr.1 dow: sub 'rOrmal.l!1r:l. cdl~1i $'pecial!.l, T:('lUn.iTiDd 'imrJJgii'li,1~ p,fincipatdol' e:"'eI'lJ!Wente ale nl0m~l1hllu] _ 'inpID:;7":T1 L "Lifa" <II delii'euit 0 p.1J1 hlh.a'tidu:narill ~i~t:~a.'iila J!J.o]jJ~ fOfllllUL'i eMe.·nllH,lnfei:imagjilllC;a unci li.nrid~ l'eluM:] f\ acr1viJfiy,1l fOI~).ju:rn3iliisllGe ~ ram Sl'i. se fil'eSlI'Atls,ln cursu] ttliirnilcnanl_

2 •. PARlSl\']AtCH

[11 F.ranta. "Paris Mctil1h,' a nvnt 0 .evolutie ¥~t.nli]OJlitUiam:; 111 1951 se nrf.~~an L8[H],{lO[) y)iJ;mplan; P(!l1ILru 1;11' a~e!ls~1'I dfd'i. sa SCi:ldill,l) mai pu~in .d~ un mlllontn momentu] in care, HUt!! " di~aterl din fO'maa eduiei .Ilip't:E.m:lmlle_ l8.xi5t~!tId "indl. -~im.illlte de 7,ab~li" revistaa fos,t m~deUliz';iJa in ! 949 de. 1~~1ire fon¢].atetu1 ei, lean Pmuvpst" ~] crnar dac1l ~,:tITi;ine Q dublilirtli: a mpdeltdUri american, 1I:c;uas.l;.lt. a [ell~i l ~i1 tCilneascli an nUill,<ii ,oonside[<fb·j] de iil~tOf:,'1;"'J'1fl. i.n:treprlnz~tod si curajosl.

S~a crezut-cu cat\'fi timp ill. nrm.ti, atl'ii ill St .. be]e Uf!itc, u;3l15i in Europ .... caeditlifoea de ciitm man!!:: eotidiene ill sll;p!.imel1te~Qr ~e Sffil'~it .de S<1;ptainful~~ dupa rnodelul d;!t !l~ "Sunday Times Magazine' - versiunoa C]1gIezl'i~ va da nn 8\lfl:U !lOU :l"~l}7'jil'ij de wp(n1ajt: fotogm:I'icc. Darnimic COrl\'lqgatCJr lUI pare a se coutuea, Cr~t de;':\l1l"e €w'ilidiene. numai "/.ib(3mhan" 111:1 Fr;l!1t,<l .atordi3: f(l't.ogtaflcii tin lee ~nTpor~·ITilL.

33:

'Ireeere in rcl"isti J 3

3. A(mN'fIA. l\'lu;NuM in I94 '7 e,ste mfIint",5 de ditJ;cR"bt.'11 ('.ap.a, GeQ!,ge RcKlgel",

oJ: I'" ' '" ., ".'" ",.J..

Davi~~ Seymuu\ ~~J HUR~" :>_AU'lLIer-iJreSSQB f1.ge'n~ .. ", ... ogmun 0(0"

f('J,\';; Acestam Il se vor alJttu<I rapid ciifD \';1 ,[lira1i:rt: (;ci mai 'bwmi. feto-

jurnilIi~Ji a~ lUolilil,eJ!ltu 1 ui _ ..

1:\'§fiU.~ .. 'M''l.b':llmO ~t': cOl1s;Ein.l!ie ea o Fefe:dnt'a in COI'lI;e~tahiHi us n .pu.tl~~d~ vede~~l cnli:t1Wi:arllive]ouve1llim[lnl.dQrki {aplei.or'sodale IDlpmtaI1te ,dJm.m1'll-eagil ]up1l1l" d£ci;fH::izeci tie anl lncoace.

Asenti~I' re!J.Ine/i:w pli;lf~mll;iliiit~' dliferite ca origin~,. :::;en8,jby,iM.c si C'uRl,lra,lt!;um ar If. K£ e Uurn, .Brt1<:i,e Davi~soll, Josef Kuudcl ka gOO GiJle~ Pete-ss.' Dar dincO)Q de [lceste dilim:~n~c, exist:i UG still'iJiI.&- 11 u m, Potc grat'j i r:;,Uliil L lill1tl i Il.dflp eadentl ~I Ii bed In aleger,ea ~ubi[ldchJl~, . .voca~i.a JQ:~ este IlJ.Jl pIII.Un actujllit!1tea imtcliatR, d tratarea in [arojun:Unl~ aj~k}l~e;i, la r~l de rjgl1n).llS~ pe, plan estetic"

d)l~t fIC.p1aIJttll:ciIJe·:>1.]ei ce [rnllSp.are din necM'C n:PQrtal .

. Se COllt[nU~ eu fOlotgl'tlifi:a a1h~~10~"1'U, Yn, vidufea ~mor t:raclirii fo~Tte pwfmn~ printre e;:.aroJ<: ~,j cele de €In:1in eric, de ,a dnmlna anMnibJu] pr,iI:)du:c~el foto~Jaftee.

E~:e'n:il1i!1.renfeJe cotidlene s~mf p~.Iffltat<l tlB ,agei:tfii din ee m. ee t1"1a1 ti'l'1cru dirrlfC c~" cele mai tmP9.r.timte suat fimce;l.e; Gamma U ap,lb:ut ill 1967 in 'lmTla ,[i~~]oI1(icrii ap!lJI:nL :lb1ografip-rlnnee! In:gmi1~dUc~ se 5r n a)"mond lJ.ep;J,[dt:)I1~9 !'.;JineS. C~n. SygmfIJ <I. ~OSlllltel::m~:]a'ta d~ unal diu fond~.tQ'ru a:i!eD1~eiG~!mrna, HuhG'11 Hltutotte:, Aoe.srer dU,u<l. Jirm.e se ~1i In t'iO;;ltl111~ c(!llcourenta penttu s'l1J:[Ire.m3.~ape plat;), i m.emationiilU- De~i i~i di rl.l!:.r,~~ i rrfagillile i.ultmlen· :Iot.reaga, -adest~a ~i~;i;I~ di'{~r!o;i ncal i];l egala lTIl$.'ium ac~i 'ilit~~iJe 10 dlrectia mas.:;;-me(lla~ 'In prin.dpal pun lansarea ii~llnIlil, cu dli"~a aliii,. cu tnai mult san mil!

p!.!~iIl sucees, a p.rodlJc~iei Je,.repo1'l:aje: destinateteJevi:;o,iunii. 'I!l. acest~ ~!"~].l~il ;J[;nlobrr'.ifia alb-n~~'1"u a disfJiml aprnape ~onlp]et. Pe dc :.tIm r~I~: ltl ~"'fl[Jcjal pentru Syg,ma, acuper.irea actua}ita~~i nu nlHi r.ef)l'tlzint1i clecilt nn precent sc5zul din tot:iful dJh:i de, afaceri, res:wi rt'im5iJJ:fud in fh VOfU'e.a pOl'tretelo,r '~r re,&iUlt..ajelo~ d.lili~ale sIru:nrilof rata de c;}][e IT: vi~u;:lc p~:lil'llil ~lmi ir,~tel:es avid,

I

3 Tucefe lin ve.risti

Cele'laltQ ageupi·

Pillara maf~raace~t.c.iCOllJ,rl!Bll\ii comerci ale., ag:el1ti"" "Contai;:t Prell'S Images", versiunea .I11fiatt'tla a MOlIglltlrll "l,nentrm::p. <lbm:dare l)p£c~fii jurnati~llc~ ;J 111m:~ii~ 1"eaH:r:amf sublecli!: desnrl de bl11~ axare as,l.ipl:'l iictlJali(~lii. .

Sfll~;l~ll rlir.buiinll1i (;\Ill] Vi'¢UiillIl.l marcar cu'~,guta:fl~~,(1 colilur§ In! ro~a-jtlmalhti·ca. jal" d~.f~.ensiuollc une! .. g(l,n~ii precum Contact Press. Images fitl.H V ustau maJ'lutie: i:t1tl"e WlStirn.trtl;:i!:1!fl lustpe 'vj,I,!, stirea d· senzatle ~i':ich1"1ii\1i.i;LC3. aiIl. l~mca:"starud.WT .~hQw·lilui3'tm:.ss~J:ilui nu dmtlne dedit ca g(t:i1. U[I m~,c sprt:\:hl f1mlr)l re,ali'7,JJ.rel1 de rept~ttaje ample, blne dm~mtlent<l:1.C. dedJc:,t'Ut '.lladlJ;ll: ~l11l:iec~e ilIe )MorieL In eeea ee pri.~'e~te'jcoIJCL'irea J meil.mtii. a ,a'cll.1aJMW~ treJ'{uifJ me:nti0!lata ac~ivilate.a deoseblta c,le."fii~r,mii de ag~.nt:ij' c? AFF {Ag~nce France PffiisccJdilrFran~a. SflU UPl {1J~litep. PrcfiS lotenlatiomtH diu Sf'ltele Vni{e, cate nn S{lut..nul'Ilal ape'!1~"iir [O[o.,gliafic;;e d, !i-;i. a.§cl1~jj ale cart)!;' echijJam:elrte wmate.rle de 1lral1.li:tlns'ie St::llir extrem lie perfunnante.1Jie oe1.e rnA'! mults ori, lruaghtile -citfuz<I!e 1111' au 0 cal"rale doc~Tllel'ftarastl'fl,criCilaia: 1mei tliepe~e;'

o IMAGINE A REALULOI .

(}a,c~ ~li~Ra Bed-sajuSt:11lta,,~clcl>'.iz'lf~, rar~ a ~l;j,~~.presa VO[oill'i, lmtl'-'I111 CU)iaIi1. toate 'Ii.!nneie ma.,>s~medici, illtl'e(in f:;1P9~n. difer~te en acruahtatea ~i I) fl',ezilJl1i t1eeare hi s~Hu.J ,oi, ia~t~iUI1nl d ~d'c e.umplltlllUl r::olidkill nu calUa e.),[:iC'[ ace~I,,~,i ItI~ru. ":\1 i;~l ce "Jilm'~~le :ofririle tel~~!i1;ate~ E!'.tc vorba aici d e com:p@~tru'Il~n1e. obi $"rmii'lt:e ®> leGlt!r.1 diie:rile" tar .liC,estejij ferNlte n:~ 'fae 'Salle g~l1d'i rn Ia aportui d.etJse:h:1t ~ blla:gillii fm:.QPf:lfl~. la cr~C]iul p~ care ;i9-.e.~,,~.] ,!pwdu.ce, i[lll'l1dlJlv<I ,t)a11.'1l:izat .i11 z.ilele [J.n .. :-:l'J.'e sl muli .rn,:tti rU~1f1. speclacu1os, dqtal 11] trccst, P"t:in d(js~Qpel"~r:c{l. ffitPg-fa.t1~1 ;lInUT1!ata Jill Ac~-eilemi a d e ~tiin~eo tr:ebuiG Hot ~'edem un :~llreni rnen; de nclill. tcl:J.nic: 1uventa:T<ltII ,Jnui mod d!;.{"ep.re.z.e;_n'lar~. ~tru a: nn spi.l.m: ,de :repmdllil:e.re 'oJ. I Wl~i,

c.b..iitlt lPaif.lte:_de a·avea Ull mod (ll:: e;wnmare.. '

11.'1 aIr} tenneni, fila) apr.oliJ,}')& die sefn~nlogie, ace8i'st~, iJJ~:,eIt~e Iflalllgllre~i o alta rcbt-le. ell fJteflhll. Ne purem de· Edt~e1 lr:rtre~a C~ cupn.ndie exar;;t nQ~ilil1'le<l" cl.c real, in f~Rt+ fir tn:.tillt &.~ di~Lifig~r;n' 1'I~~"l'! ami 'i10thll1C, ceca de reulitate, :in li mp ce prima este cu 1011d ah~trl:l,C~'I.! e 'vO'rh;l! de Illme a;)fl. cum reil;isf!:l ea. in afara orie~d p.e,n;:cp~.n. ce~ d~" a d~jugl s,e)'l::,rc~i;i eu precizie ta. rot ct: face obiecrul und perc.ep~j.i'r~i in cnnse.c.iIl~ poa'(e fi repJ:ezelli!a:! (sp'ecilic:~m1 c·1l. ili11Iltolde.:aWUl tQ~ O~

es.!:e ~~Pl!tt p.(late ij r~.~rezent.1t pna i'otograf:ie). I

'fla~J1 rOUe ii'Ott1g-rafie ~i reati lfl(,e a"par j;Jife(e1J:~, nil~lcu .~ le mni Oidevi?lmt ,ea ae.eastti pmc~lc.~ se de:"INolta pkd.ncl ,}e 1~ elemenle cum ail' fi cadrul SOi.U peffipuCtlv.a, r..arrlase.flini131nent!ll nes;chim1:'l".ate:: llercellhilc asupra IK.npectitvei ~i {5onsl:rui~ea spa(iului t~gQt'at'rv pepl~iscserri in lrecUl ~Oin.eFeala punet a camerd obscure, n'lU~ ltd dupa'care S-!i'lT1spu;at lDfNllll Jfet OOJ)Mru'C1ia Ol.paratuiui de fbblgr:afim.

.. '1!

Vcr1tab~la rt)volutie 'ill. veni InsJl tie In c-bimi , rea care V1ji I~){J ~tt-

Ilililil-' Ttebllie.. ~~ 'Tit": ruluntinq ,ea etinwrogia CWifulit.ufui [mogJ.m.e semrufidi ".~';~a ~u:mt nii' ~i e~ £I~ctiy nu e:lti$tik i'otouafic .fi'iJr3. \lLIruJ.nfl, celpu~~ pan:1 inlHI peliDuatt~ nxe:n'll £I y'!,"Oluderi tetmo[ogiei ..

35

2

o ecJi:Jjpli. COnipl~t..1 4e. fnlogmf1 cltmau·avut muW ani revistele "Lijp"'S!ll1. "Paris MulCh)'. TotLl'!:1i, tocmai ;u;ea:. .. iJi:. sitnstle-a pcrrnis presei fornt;,>tl:tll~e siifS~ i,1c1;~'·olle. 111.Qrit:a;: uaz, se pare !;::a '~rI ami ·8(1 I'llIpm'lucilec1hru-~ pmi;a ~iS1l., n:;viR,tciehlu,s,tr<J,t:e' ~i 1(W~"\i'"izi!ll1e' !'i-au ec.hl11brat; tiecare gas,j[ldrii- ~~ fnIllcfia speciflc.1l: ~:i sfab1tirn,du-~l;l im fell de re leLi muLrt;. ere in IJTc'.lh.u::,t'fIie.ll mfl)rn1:il.~iea. Chia:r d.rliila 'ptuelle"Ol; telc~fz.~u1\H este I n tt:~m~stabl1 cea maimare, iar ir;a;m~ri:lqe lu.l'l~ \f,edt!ri' este eer mai u¥lt de f'O'l05it. ~UJl~ Inca situiil~ii dl.nd f01Ggraf!il ~(: :)flli sll1gUf pt.: un teren ulldc numai el po",!!: da. I) imagin~ adecvara a eve.nimcntlilill ill ilns,iJ:t'ribluh;all sau a.auumltor <l!:;p.el':l~ ale acestuia. Exi sl], lmrnirj, lle'care fiOOlllu1.Il e prune exprima; I a fel C1J:Ill CIl 'o'm1.clc all cfit.eOda4'a. t:I f01'ta Jpl!i mare decat ima~jIlca, Flet,are mod. de' e;{pnmare are Umi~ki sale ~l\ oahlat11t: sale ·S'peciti.c~.

Totlt1:i IU1u~~lCi'iL£ ~le aconi di lstoria marilorrcvi:-:;te fot.ogrilli(e .eu "Vu", fOlldata in 19;2.~" de L'u~i€:n Vogd, (lfiTe' la 'o't-e,nl~ .PiecTtv~l·al{,eill,(l~f.la,b aetiv ~i'eru:ca !1:vDstelQ[' "Gazelle du bem tm;" ",ftlrilin de,-.M(},des"" dOlla litlw:i ce YO~jllca un 1:01 J:mpoi'tfl:nt itl

. . fQtogr:1.l1ici de'llloqa;

,.nl',,,,,,,,,,,··n "'H)·'" ",,,,' .. "., ~ . - Ad' 1:X • l'. . ~I

. .' yU ''''~l''' mTa ~U::'I (ir HI. J~Kl'!d. prnna I,onn& dg

lniifeiltollre .. 3.. fnttJ-juQ'laItstkl1 ,IDOO#fle:, m ~en&u.l in care <li::e'a~la subleerece c\)mbillU: lel\tuJ cuimaginea if,jlr-~~ .a~etZOlJJe In ,~o11!~iaeta ill s~·iI fOlugrall;a ell ~~ ·tup1eea e~pl'imilrii binc clliat. dadl auw:rul ms ~tein((1i,~oarde ITsJ'!iI.Wlat

.. ¥u "este tt vt[ntabila-TC vic!:l']!j1 i! u'st,l'oti'J '{mml<'irul de lol'''''!Taru ereste 1>11 fiecare "llumii!l" lajungand panala iitevl1i'&\lte) ceo f.i~Il:! . . urcu tQt (:e se mliimp'1Ji ruil.l.,pm: unor ~.l1ri tarota L, Vogel r.nn"'''''·r!'i, nnmere speciale,

Vogef a ape~:alla unii dintre eel mal m.ari [OW!lr.l'f'i ai vremil ca ?po<i. Ma!1~[l Mankacs! sau Andr~ Ktn1esz, imel'~ap d!et-1Kica

dlYerse feluri. .

iNUEVISTA

, I I .

TORVA nTLURl DE PRESA

1lGENTliFOTOGRAFlCE

Fondatortlpt. re,.\ristcl "'I:.ifr", Heru:yLuce, .dim] a 'Ii da'~o.rlim ~a: re.'i'is:~t .. Tiffl:e ", m1lr~uri sr.:~:Le di: «1Fi:lra • Vtt 'i , LifrJ oil iilr II~

Jurlll:fa tiparului»,

decl 'liI:tlpli rrmdiei L1.1 mlRcez, prfmlilillumilr din "'.UJe"

1936, in 466,000 exemplaw_ '

mU:Ilili' se va du,bta·i1l.tl'-ufl 311~ iM in ~nii'60 re\'1ista va

sa fie cifirt'i, s1'iptlW:lana 1 d& apr~xinmfi v 40 dit lllUi. )aJlll d~.

3Q

31

Da~!1 [Jit:wra s-a i:ude,p;fumtfuc~~d iCU il1"l!t.u~ de 0' j::ir~!cl~d, IFiIgu!l'll:ll o/1li rnarc~lli de:Pl"Cdtil,p~r~ d~. ~rdii~ ~;e~l:;.t, ac'eils.til S~' d:jlI;(.)ii;j.~.u:Ji,~i rotD~lrifie;j t::am ,~l~.p· rOmUS is,' hlrcf(:lJi~~qfi nGeftst~ ISru:<;ui}i 'lsi S-.'l of~ut

c:- ~, ,t,· ~\ • ~ ~ '" - >" ..

!Cit 00 mod de l~pr,~[iH~nl,ar¥- mitisjgt:tf" ptin rapHl~ 'L::~ ;P.f£',,;;:.~~ilJ ern i::onsld~rat ~in. pl.l_R~ ,de' ';e,'fum ~[i]Jl~i 11c~TIT]j:Q~~5iI trei4ffti~ fit [m

mod de re . are IN:a~mal). Cee,'. rene i::lt~ t:1J in ~fil1l ,Iliid~ita

comuna m ]]tNl.gt~ eil m~{J;U"iaiLdlts~ de ofewS:[atie Ill] ~e

CClnt.eS(~, dl J"est HI! de q())c!lITl£l:!la~~l8, 'verid;lh:i~l.ea .fap~e~Qi, '·,AMOI s-a i.l1tfi:rnplat a~fI.';·' llriJ IQ1mul:a ~lm~~vata: ~im~rt~ $u~rn~ehlJsi\i:,.'{'e de ult.U partr,;,. J:a~a. (@tQgraf~J este.eu ade'!/ffi:a,t'fiJndmil de rri~~lTliIJ:J unel reprelieutfu']J anal£)£:~be (CI:l ",UllllLl] !Ula~~~gi~ fii.lid ff!t_pnmiutalt de Ill. .RomddH8irrh~s dim ·'l:.e ·M",soS~w·e ~h.NowaphifJJIle ")~, ·~t nlili poat~ fl arunei g(weratoatr~d:leGre(e de mi:J. Uti ~r.:;u!1iLlll ut B.l1uddalrC ~L~('!:pr[l ideii d~~ n{,;~)Jf:lp,aLiibi1ilate iI~t"re ,anti ~'I. Q,rioelucr,;lt-e de!'! ... il:~d! din ~(jjnra (aee<lsrdi,l nd~*1iJ;lt:ql.z[\1 fo;wg~aflei)c sejp.rdnllig'e~.te in: p.re.m:llt sub nltef:ClBn.e,V:O.m Wa:eap~];J ;1]] ui ib.o:paJ;[t:: ,t':UIU au S'IJiI'Hlontat aeeas t~ prl!l1:Th1e:JJ:J:[~ fotngl'ufN din ~~(:!col mf :alXilX~Jea. In sfar~]t, prelillz8ind sti Ill1 '~tim SJ rasplW'[delTIJ~i1nJj~h;JJ(c9i: CL;.1;~.~se plIJato disti:J1g~ 'I:,l'()t©gr;afi~ b1.Fn~ tGle' ·unJ pl'!Nlsra.? It'~£J:olJltm cl(;llr> 1!TL#lnH; este 0 alt:::1 !"lJ'1!.n iere de a·i h.Hl fU::l!Jl>Slteei. ane titl mill. 1111 sel'l8u] et:hno1og,ic, ill ell ",an ~Lill1i t.(1hlili(l1. tirepltll d!e~fI fi un nwd rl!e e)\:~,dl"mu:e '~e ·:;,i.l~e St.1fi!1:ful'; De {,lpi w<!t1!' aue~l'Ca liiI u, R>Unt deofrt pres1::1puN.eEi, .ideifi'{e, c<tre rih~l. s~ .c@nsld~[e d~Q I)TI!ill1 i@J;'"iimL::Liihi]a pracrica repmtajulHi ili't:pt tr marturie fundi!;lHtent:1ill. Clblect.llv;1, On IUt..,)gr:!lfia e~~t: mUI1l.~!nil!i muU (Icci'll 0 siimp1~. imrtgp~ a \.U~ujf[<l(glll!eHtd!t;l real ,6hiar dad an cazul IE]J'ul1<1ju:htt.l, tp;aJul, ·1'tm.i blne .zrs· re<lij.!:<Lte:a, IjUljre1;tel1rtanipulati\., fJ.I"l:mj:at.l.l1!l.S~ m ;:;t'.en~:c:a in c::~tl! KtllograHd ~e SHldio l!!nde paate II L'tll:!-'i>[rui l~~ll !',cC'mlstl"ni)tli ~ deJ;a:llp.

36

~tLlI'~presooJteti eXlStell;p.1.me:i f-of,o,gmfl i !;;!J adev.,'lJl~t <llIlgqjate, stu dim, amerlcttlliul W. Eu.ge.ne Snud),. a dill ~ eped'i oonstfrure a~[J.ll!mer{1l~i iot(lfg:ranun ~m.{'It!el i1rac;esHe!lS. 8mitli est:e' mai

deciit un s:tlnplu Juartlilr M ~Merle1. Ulti:(J.lId ~liIu mare r~port<ij •.

Jap01}1-a.iiI'$UPfe'fl;Wtt5.e£.rn:V61ot'polu.ti£li m~lii..smate iliOlo]¥lJ.1 .iI, se 't"0:rt~tlnd'e\ ~fiu-,@·~.edtlIbH~ <1cn2l'''ll~ ctlfiH~ tlO'Rs'J,briih~j ~efipecti\Ie'1 iI1trepli~lded. &1.' ;~rtJccl."\$i tln1tp "ell CI rare a iHOQn~tiell{d [IlG11Mfb~lI!llr pe plan ecoiGg~~. 8 "lim

mlOlgi:ne<l'iI1 sCi'rviehliofflil:ze.i el p.e o.<cre 0 i1(!l:lldi, ~~:u;& pUllet1!]1 lSe.rep[:'Il).~e<l2ia eli a~..ef(J.rmaH-ea]H1Ite". Da[<ceiaf tre~mi l'€1&l1tn ,~I".ur~:l'lO lui eg~e--cli aeesta m..l~~i co:n.€:~pe 'FO[~gr8flfl ,deo~t dupi£'i.!'!1 preiRe1:Utare, S:lruthstudj;~clJ; WJ~ :te"~.ull ~i :Sllbi~Hll

de [ij",~i· pune fibnu] tl.l apamt. In acesr sens, d va peml,ite Ilcfirlitivti, a d.istin:qiei in,tj[,e doUcac CffLOf,ruriii dCtCpflllmi, ct-; cnftccp fntt~grll:rm~ca n nota. d~ ~GnlJa!h~w, care caula ~a dii llTI1 ~~at11:l!!ilifllill; rupre,(:en lil!11iV~IlMtl aClllffl'l1ate, 1~; cd t:€ fudehH'Ig ~i'!n PWf\.uil'tiiIT1e aSUpL<l um:lll sulliedr, subi~t ce,

t-artl' $';m uri 'oontinellJ. S"'.[lj 'cl.'l'!l~tem'i prin du:rarl1 ij arfl [IaOOll~' unor telllSiiRifLi ·M.:M::la]e, peilltice. fe.li!.gi6~e saw eoonomi.~. seNlsLirui:~ Sa1gao~ es:te I!tl- ~s:t seliS~l1'IlI1 dilt ro.iiW~lt!!i:g;n:OOt De mai multi anl, aceSfil d~mll-tl ptJ h.mg:u~ '~ii-n latu]h;lfliulJtl proiect-ce abbr(je~ t<}ill1:lWlW(;!itQru1ut die. pe f..ml"l!i.ere san di:n inlt6pri[lcleri~' !!u:titlve:O'WF ~tlrig fi[op ~lludial' - Seh ... ",tjatln e:-;te de alLld !ll~ f{)rma~i ~ ,[!;~i:mf)mi st

3:7

4

in zileleU!l.Q.a~l:[C, Jtolh)brra1i ils care rra~l!C c:el mai m.n~ '~f& .~Unt f;:~le t~<l1izaie liltho ,r~~'anicfa t'U H11!1] .[l.ld~rn(:]l1~:l!ra." lnmod r>p?lltfl,:l~, (:!i~i. ~~m 4l~ tJi .lost me-ute de ilia an.lf!tQ1:w~d dt~ !l'trtih~pJru:'e 101 Incul eVeJlliJW~l tu:l.Il~. [l!70<l8it<1 ,C-!1Htme a d~cllmenf~lll1i: O<:.A!fHtr:ilbulnd oade~.f:.YJ ) .. 1 t1,ll~:itr~ru,efecrlill.ll1i cl(,l ima,g"I"Ee. "p11iri~:l~ lIi'l',~i Il~II:!r~l,In Fe] ftlrn.dt

4

4

nu se mairespe~tli' C~1~ ~'Vm,~~,arl<i~,\0t:~~"Ctl ~'vrm, s.i s,~;u~;'L Se va d;t a~U't;a~tefi\k im~g:l'f~~.ti1 rptQ,gt'.al:'i.e,:i . lin ~'~~f~Im:Hl~Lr :e:.,,~(t oidooata l1I.e-glij a.t.1 1[1 r4jiilon cu con~ i F1iU'l.u]:. c:a.tji Ht'1mlGal'tier - Bressen c:a~.ta ~nt:r{:;~ aee~t ~dli libtrH .~~ tffibn1e ~in~~ rnJt~1f! r~Jlimi1 ~i ()OIl~[II:U: 11~ lexl~~1\ er.J,e~iG1t' f:i,f.i ,00J~tln~t ~~j, iJl.'~;m~_Ma;rgi,nG£l sau eelnrl uael ~jl1f Sl:l]jlt,~JoS~I;n'ef.lf!:a SlruCllIr'U. Line! .I~. ~artJ 11!1 eJe un scrl~ giinJl~l cit: ,~:lUlm, Fiooare d.tlH4.ent a:ebul.e,d~~i @ilf\eOlSC;11~l<.:J:d Iii sensul 111 (c<W.I'U] ·c6aqm.zixiei, n1Rti. solidarOl:toit {"''l!1Ger~~ "I te eIF[ol'iente,

.~ ,< . .'. . . ..... I. I

eat ~l cu an{>,U'nbhll, 8i·a~ttel. fierni Cattia-E!i("Chi~tm ffi:wntd:burt ]a

i mplJli'Ier~~ (d.ejjca~l:llq~.:ifia (i;\;;lil: C~PK: sia flia~3j1'I:rfletnIl lui r;lH!~ I;Il.1tur. All.fiiilj~m~ L c:m; CSile "i'l1Jpl'Q:~ml:'lttrt:e.pllt de Q mruiielri m~j ,seIls i:bi~tl'~~ . ptull1!!Ll JrQli':!I.uei."~ee~t 11tfGli~~l\!:l, JP~rnil..la'Ilu!lldlll ,~G$'e roto.gJ.'<ifiJ sf~f~~fle :rr):n \;;1 8e:n:~(;a'8 clbn;:ah'W.I,e~ la)J.JfIle l1U J:'!:liIi "a~em" 0010[;, dupi1 ~um~r.rm~ ~ntant:llh)rltf~ '. ti1.ilill!P ~e~~[]Q"U ~cnri ~artieF-Bressoil slloIec.rul esJe illit@t~~I;;B1a ITIul.c~*Ul.l. ftM"i;iif1e~,

, I • ;E: ,1"

J.\ce;~t.il f~JTn.I.l1I!!TC c1>rcimr.ll'tl:mumlA rlCla He'lltl ~ill1:1er)Bress(m care, irn1~(j~l!cW te:?i;l pe care :L-a,~cri~ c;le:sp.re fD¢(l'gra~~e~ U:J::z\,;'oWLo 1 dee aSllpr~ rnptl'L1'i1ib f 'i:peCttl,Q W.f;;llre iac~a,,1&i ~tta.ilimrlep.ne:.cu llmplll: "'O~~hti'b'TaUier...1imzi:Flti1"pC1itru .tflJ.~le reclUl~;1ste.reo1: sim!il:t:j;m'i, mu~{) fra-c!Ji'ill1'e ~te s~'l!iI~lt, Pexl,e-!], pane OJ ~iil foeru,~!L':l~IlJ:~i .fEIJpt. pte ~ ;iUltp.aii!.e aorg;lllVzarii rigL.l:tol)4.~Qc:t~t}t1ReIQt:pe~~Xl1e v]zm~t~i dare' e,.\pr~rnil aeel rape' (pref~tti.' I:a "hlmg(f:S I~' f(;r ;,y{p~t'elt-t ", E~ precjz~a~a Tn· 1:el'!;t eX!gifmI itate,l: i'Qhlg:ratta]. ~j 11~parlicnlilrOi n.:pnrtil'j Ldui In UTIll4ilon] L~TTI]C[Ji; • 'No.~ lum:ru-N CIJ hkillri qare di~'Pat si ~ care .ehld :fL~1 dj~p~~.'ll~l~e:ste funposibil .;~ he U1,;,ti rei'rnv~i 1.,·.:1. Pemn, noi eeea ce ,l!IIs(.mre, dispar:e pe!nttu mtde\1liumt: ds aid Jlxu· 'i'n gri j-nn.ire.:l. ~i In adel'~i hrnp m:; gi nMh~l:ea ese4wial1i;'a meseriei 110:il~'~'~ Clil'latls,lIt'&t:i de I.]ii.ua ot. dedsivii, ifi'rSlt:n~"uli_n care.lil' un mome'~f l:IlIt ~i IY.U~ arund. f(no,~ttl, i!ipiiis~mj pf:l hUl~ nt &s:;ofleiOl t::E!vaperf~t et:lIiHb[<JJt din ~liJlfct 'LiE;, v~n;; I~~,u~lie ~f ;sell:lIl~tl.(;]<ltiv

Btat ' r i:r!l::.at Lntul par~ a[[ to~rregl:zi:lt.llrde r~t;a pa~, :~nP'Jl

esre iti se'lls}.l.l.in e~ fotogf<li'td e&te~I!"l!lurul c(!·:JJ. pereeplil

~i org:iJ;ri7,aflhviii':O.!ilJ]~l.!l st,;ewt(.l, ~a~a;C:'Ul'[ll ~~:l'i.at6,rt,if~ -ru~At<l'a~~e~t

40

_"Ll""I,,"""'.In fO:WY1lifi dife:L'i~in~ Mid .~li;i~i .J:UL"FI!I ~i tllil~ql.rm.e"za f~'], d~oa'ruDcl.r'il1 i1el~L! I;)r,ogtafic ilnervinat[lt exp.e.rreLr~fl @~ ~] IICJlS~IJil~;Mite~,si '~WllU:rZl--/l~Jre ~ll I>Uilt:!,H~apara~ f(ll!Q.gJ'~fillllZ! ~ f,lll1prii ~,ii.i'I.1ill f-i]f:lwe~i" paT' (:lina.c;;:tJ:¥:.~b:>oil1t decisi'Yti' ht.S~~8ilpel'iu'l.!. cyocat ~e, He~lrt.cfll1t~e[-J~res,~eu:a1m+Jl;i,q.1:i1d .... Qf:b~t~'4~pre . !;"!,ft}. d;j spar". Aln~l, ~p:!u¥'. ~c;h,ili'lilfu~, pI;! ri"e(;~1.°I.!f!~a.

~,n; .,n,f,;"nn .••. qji~l!):J:le ~o fQ~1~gn.1.r,cifl ]Tm~bri!l1ea ~~~.o~ d:& 'CEC:i:I1F!}

. wle~ .ijl:i ~~ relfrQtl,lfIcnldQ'd:~tlle.x'k~t ]~l lei.

Ro1at'J.G ~-<I!rthes, va G.ctli;i jll ]tll(1r:are~ '8:'1 d~(l~6blli1(' hI_ahmld?p~ , ."C;:Ulllm,-d~]I1:l:iJK~<lsii),f{ii. fH[f)gr4Jla,u."LC~) uilT~a ::!CC~:;:l, c~l~I.VJu va pl1l~a Tl?'Wt!t iii! '~S~fI~ niGif)dal~." e- ~i va dezvoIm '0 fiH'liizti. . perl.i[lent~ asul!l'i! aoestei tlt'.ll~, ~imp'"l.d1~1 yeJe de mel':SlIllul, aS~l:pn~ ollime!l!1Iof'1i-11!.i1(''IJ"'lIrib:$, U!:T!'Icle lWCc-TI] ~!l±lu lrtc(t~l!I.,t;J!Il Ft'J4t)gl\:i~~a ,s~ p~inta omulaiea LJfnH1lij'~oo .e.'{cevtio:nllr~ de:ti

• '''''''''"'' Ii." dyr!21.m.iu.· de a l'e~lst.! trecerii tilllPulul; UI!iI mij1oc, t;:(l

mai .: I ~ ret.i,q~n~ in nita Jl~iP:ill'ilre·i a 11l0l'~i± (yooatia-

. •. '. .. • .' .' ell deo~br~il ti6~nlle 1l111iw.lnU

. ~c~~lJni;: ~xi~.um\n:J. ,.

4

Se p,W1e m mod rnoViWhU [,lI;O:]JJm'D.<il' 'Vlaiori g L1nr;:fforogl'alil' de ceea IX ~c ofw.lk, ':'dtire~'l' ',ei, ilill priruul rand lu eaiulipnrtretului. Ce se 1ntfutlp~i,dacasubiettulllU este ul1guJr,a li, Isro:r:leic san (m aPanine unci lInumire soc;iefati, dadl: el este, un sbtip! U,1lliniJnim1' P'roDlema Qiil",ilie mai Stfulje.rti~l)~ cand predQi.lpfi:6'i]c csie.lice fl[e'f(llografr'~llu~ 'IlU itP<l(C<I fliHd e'se!l~ia'I~e., Nu """om pl;1l'e~ !.k.ui ~a fie mteresli.m Jr:cii't ~ earacterul ~nbJ~nudk~- al [eaU&~l'ii f01f)grafi,"~ iit masura ita eare t::n:aoterizeaz.:1 0 jnter .... 61~~1e. I .. ua lllo,mellL.'dut; mtr-tlll JoC' ~1 tntl-Iin context partlct~l8if"

{[II unna en mal mul'tL ani, ziarul "' Le M'(mae ", lu slIp.li men LuI' sau saprillnfin1tJ .. consacrat a,etumtt tli liitc;rliF\.l, PIl11l1J;<l.regukil 0 pagina dubl.\l,pE terna: "C\.l.tI1lucr~a?:,a scriito1'J,i"" Eta 0'" tentatl vii, die den]i~Hliicafe ~, metedeier de ~!;riert\ in serfstd dcmlmHDtHor noil ge.iler-a~i 1 de en tiJ;lj ~I ce.reere!tori De ee sa nu S~ llililtlilli !1liswnrl ce 1'hco'!lj oava compo'ttalnenud st:ritVl1,g]ni. l! ste!lsilelc 1 ui, lmuiiile, ea~ttg,urile sale? Un om care, ttl. (Cina: nu mill ate illruic din creatorul deg~ni.ll ~j inspi rat a~a cum era i.it~:agi'nat in el=loc<l romanlicl1. .~~ de

-'~ , . ' )" j ,

aLta farte, :n.~m e: 'il't:tm,a de l11jo~jn;m ronle1lt3l-,i u I ui, ll.')lit!'l"ID liter,ITtlQrii"ci

de a vn~~i ~~n de"s-Pl:e niul1e;t s:l'i ite' ~ '~ll :zj" <r scri{lm'uiu'i 'in termenl mfl'len,ali:" men\lollami!'de .!4{cnipl u rolul 'CJ'd9(lldlli, AI 'hilrtieL, ~l gumei d~ ~let1;, til mai,i.Qt.ii de scris ~i al birou]m.. a:s.~~ ee l1~f de ne_glijat in metoda pHJpri 6 fiecami mUQt"

Li eeea CII;-{} priv~re: fotograna n u a fci&t ~ncllu:j uri'tii d~acelea~:i pra",..:..lI.!(i_i. 'F'iind v,omi tie nn ac~ aceesibil UIlUlllli!TlW c.re~.d Je indlj".-iz:1. :t'Ji'e!b1l1ie~~Il:Lif ~~]'J motive ,L':ctm()micefara i:i;l.~cla'[,e; plJ.blk-i ~'te i n stri.UITe:l11;e~& t;i. N~," fii};.t pus1i ,dwi tL~c:iHi(a:t.1 pre5temar pl,Hlcirii apFOpo de Q (eJm]dl,.in M;~l1im:~, cum sl'i ro~ografiez;i. C~Hm M utilizelil, sl'i slapane,,~ti ustells.ilele, -s:t u111 ruaterialul ill fa\t();u-ea "sericrii", s,unt,de'altiel i'nlruhrtri mai deMcate, U'ndl:l ~t<l;gli din €udruJ r csti",al eriler fOUD flj,~llii I a afl area unoI' l'~S'P,~Jn:-;!iri ,. D'ar ea ,reguJa.

42

o uuagi:ne a r~aJulLd

metoda .estema!lQraitt.1f~tki.PJn~f1.i!t¢.C0Jl.ILadpiJill.t.clih~ sens 0 a'5ak,"TC ililtom-sl!l.T1'lli" (o~el.ic docml1o;mmlI'ii ~nal!!gl1mtj de @eill ~i: pl1o(h:.!:&a de CeIlII'[J] natronal Uti f()tQgra;ri:l~ • .arunru {)

ire llISUj:F<l aae~mj lip de ilQ'CUll1e,l1le extrase din arhivde. , Or ~i cHinc]] [.iitfl cUll: ei in~,i~f). 0 nmi11J.e£5 ,~,e -v-:"tz\.~<Lliliflre -a. d(: '!iip:(lcu]am ,it nne! rnetcde, Ea. se prezinta ddapt co 0 lmtt.ri rttIiiilli:U;1 reconStitulfl1:a prO£.iedecJ Or ~,~e[;!.ie, a; diferitelQf alegeri in fotog,rnfie: procedee esendnle, pro[)tii aceNLci prae:ticL bl tn ];J,lOmelJinl11i:lfuI.i d'e:im<1!gjn:i, p,rin:ra decupare a conlin [Ji'(~l~

,,- h· • .".,'.~"'>r".l~_~ l"f,;J]it5.lll" Se.l'ec.,ii pe ~la.l1~~ (Uflfe' este (iCa.!l·l3.l im-:l:~.-j[l~ I!are treliiuie 'cop.im~~t oare aban:do.lla1~'f): !l dlllla. m'[T~o :!~ ~a !2~m ll!QuD l:lle, ~I:!!cces_itnrnea i n:ragilliro[ - tl~e~ui!l~i in aceSllil~l1i:'; ,plafl~a. cslC c .... ~re~ a tluj'atei'c~uwii> Imennedlar re • .d.itate, l/-j)ru~i1lea sa definiti¥i1.ool,pU:~i,n; oJ,:a ap'r~ciat.ii (Ie ~a liind 'defh,tth'jl, eea l'btimuli pe nru ool1\tHe d. '

D~:[ i.Wlag'i)1~ PIJ:ate :v,al~Jf~.~n e:guta mll,;;tl{apDn ea"hS'fl~l cfi:~ $1 rclcai\i:1. d cu 'Hla'lul, '~l~tU1 ceea ce Slltf!Cf.timl'e din ~eaI: ]):tlra:ta cst!.: v.1zlI;rlizati1 I'ldnll"-(l \'a:ria~ie de pO'lifji suceesive fll d~ .i11i~c~lrel:i folograhrluj sau; daca aeesta ran'liine lmobil, difen.teleetap;e ale ,d~'Jil]as.TI:-i1, silbiet:tuI~.J,

Df:lefJ. fOfiogJ.,"aftd JnSlis.l'~. se dbstil1e:a~~. e tii f.l!dc~i st s;i,m Le

, spre ,perf~i~l1e, ~'Lll]; Ull,ear] prim<!ima£i:t:le. este cea mal.

., tate a 0 reMI iil'.e,m1;J desf:nd); e eeen (dfcop'ie.r~a. ddinitiv!'l '. lin 1il~'ideQ;~1i.(;~c:i plao~<t 1111 ~rmi.tl:i meretl p "clfIfe" preci!'i:~ ~l:Il013~Jl_U ur, APlj e~u1alie~ II e intreru p~m~~nd lee dm!'etii; m; ... '''.''',... .. ·, 11 fowgnll'.u~ll_l., ~ti '.lIne este (~ ~,l[hliJ'n'lli; VC"!ru~lIJ de a,

I . 'I b

ce nu a fost sdetta~. ~i seudmenml de dt:po,~ilitu.rd(t luceare,

putln amnel dud fotograflJJ larsA flceft~li1 npcratirl: iTl ~cama ceea .ce se intimpli destul de des 'In f;.H1.lll n~r(lrtajel:Qr presel,

Dar atu,lle>i a,etu1 f.dtQgJltl;l~ Itl:ste. iocotbpk::t; lli'n[llil:n cia (~ e~w iar' IOtQgrof.,<l rml'i1 ptn~J fi revendIcmtl: lrlrotalitat~ de

4J

4

klel'UJi.1J Henri Canler.Blf(j~~QJ1J, de'~x~m~lu, soarta'i'r.nidJg~ni] pare se jJU!calll:)']ld.e de teste :p~nert::[). ~F(j~ngr.ana este <lPl'O.fl:pe IRnne,m,)t1'i. 111 erice .t:$ 'c;$d-e t!'l~{jtlt5cle'o' e'Ofl~tie;ratilarl'C 'pulbnmrcil.

, ':, rOIDng;rod] r.m ,~utille lmffglf~i. liil'ulil"i,tpun f(p] :ill dmill"ea une! ee eOl"C&pl!1ncie ideii ,dilll n;ril.]fea~OI'/Cee;:ret: impfid, f[I[1I uu N:cIU teu I'll,arj,~~ Ue·~r- ~mE'Ci'it~:h~t.J red~lls.~, 'j;l~l1ti:tt~~i rr.Jplu~' 0:1 ~unt Pllitine l~crtl.fil de ,dllt:ii~al4 Rrihu;:;:Idf",reileste; C1:J. t);)lul

" s:.i,lilr:iit(;l~~ v~iI1lnn:nl!J! rletermill~nl2l cdfnpw:l@rc'lf d~fin;jtiv~ a ~~ iIilll:gjll¢.

rJ an~a: e~tnlil1tr'·unJ f~j C,) I'C7£l1i.1'a:l;nbl-cI(}t'ru,p.rmJuR!l dll~'rn. Ilflt:llri!i, de' 1!.,I:~de Bt", ,put~a . <!.~~l~8J (I iiua,gi[le . FategIDful <\1['e~~llpl .iJdee;c;J: :.! ""pri(l~"' oeva, dar IJ:.~ pmMte de.s(;~Fe!ci ~!:!. ekactit!JW ~rH J!trpii'M d'oR~l3:~mirJ_i.1'J r:j;~ uQbi;l('W an~~~lul~nag~f:iilt'r. rq.'PI~1i:sev6.rifkdi. inll:! a\ii~e .$J tq[ .,ac,QJ@ .se·· n;;l&Q fSltl'prlzek F0W.gfJ.'fuJ treouie: s~: 9~e im~ill.t. ce ~ ;lJrprii[l8" 1nt!CJ!Jc]. III 1;jbk)mt\1J:, '~l ~a'rJeVe]Clpa' dP i:nwl:A IliJ:ml!1l. Vq~[lri,_ !!iI~n!.l (;;I.l_ rJ~~,~a C lilltat;!li at miJilll 'Limp tlu~a h",~'l vt;dgri [Gr, ~ m.f\[iiiilj.l~ JCi}p:1t~ fi'I~lO'U)i (jim~u~fl1tle in spe~i!;ll.i1.l ceea ee pd¥~~te,rplitiiti1e fb1'f1w1fl'(e ('lUi ajlllJ_ge pe.;pri1oo1 ~J]<Jll, 1111 d§mim~mlH11 reliltieI dilln--e fowgr4tl~ .'J~ realal [errez~,ntat, ·d:b~ m:liFG aceaM'a, ~C: tOIer:!l~eaL~'fn'l1eul:1 (\1]tnce~L1L .. lJal'pdvittk ea atase, pran~a ~lt~ poYesli

n rull!llll:llte €<il:lHfi G Isrorie, Se'iLllillf:~~eaZo1'ClaJ)~~~~,,'e.n.1ii.scur!ti';.I\J v a!5i. ~~n~m<ltt.l,~,"a:fi c;:a, ale[:1in:~ pl:l1l1IL1Fl. di..ieRt~ e~' sc ~i:Ltii(:ct'd' ~~a.u aerului fJtiID~[lr~a d:11rnhnsiYlle ~€;mJ.iOl~J~1.\i. Rtatestra. de e:x~.lj]p'l!,l, .e~<lpele Ullel:phliJ]l:lil~i. ate p'ftei f;iilateFii:,.,a!l1jn~l'P;!Ie I1Ill j urnal il'l'hm ~i plln~

, lin, ftJirt[l{il~n{l jiJiCWhilna a.l!eElh:~ V[l fiJl~Qg(af s!u~l'mde. r~ti:p.J.¢ iei ~ co].a imJgiJ),i. fm;a lea ac-t:I;Jl sail S}ll iU!l'ifi n~alllrlPlt :~i ~O'1~e.ct nte-, Srw ewnl<~biri i1~ 1.1!] aIml_::!. ii1ruip~arl~a C!~k 1~j;;p.tCsia tlil,lui ~f{Jr[, iii. unei

tenSil1ll~ t:ap dlia~i&ubkc!..· .

i11;i"tu.Jl ni opme (e'm1~Ids1Al 'S,aUrl'();m.ediJarc) SB

,",' [JL'n.~·'''''' InJlliie1'a dea ~bh1&'T!:Ii~:ia, dm:l;J, GGlllp;onll111e me

l1.e.t;;s.rc 1:'l1ltailllU:fi asod~IT~ \1 i;mi e.a~aN"C[ p,a~LtCI\1~~t di!'if [llU:LC~ p~i I'mllag1:c.P:e de-e parl~" ~'ndiv]ili.i!l ca~ a€:r,if.!l)eazJ tn~ll:]te reflegw.,l~i. a~Hma Fi ~Qt!lile, se l~~;i h~·av~1'1!luii ~t,e}llc:u ]afe T1Uf[~R~uar..11 ~m1ilIi]efaptclor sale_ Ell ~c1n~rQdefe\flllnstl!ri~til:I~ t:on, ~'ldi [1e fupruld dinnumilrul rn~:r~ O!etlrla~hri 'va, gl):?i "',~l ml<i ee .flPate ·J1 ~~pln.aL:J !ii, tar dac~, 'FIlls;a (\i(il~,p8!rl_g.a lu~

, t-ar pUJea,adW!Cc n~LJl fie, SpOL1talleitareklIC(l-{:or:npliE;ka;i:i1 de~':[)Ti pornm:L p~ih(ll'qgic, ii penultl;:'s$i ~U.rind:lii.,ocaz.ii 1[l:81J~1~fi care,

. ',' I . ar t[¢tt.1llif.li..g1i.1(1; o1\lserv~, AcestJ" d:i~l~.linlli gamde..,:,L9.

!i~;fl ac~io:niJ, ufi.TlJtJ.r~~I'e: pm §i c;onttifJ. IGilal' t;'Om't':!ri1Ql~nllLitl .l ~ poa:~~ ~a~l 'l~iardli, "e~ ~ Wfl~ru lf4gm[(FruI (:: 1;1 an.:;u]' Zeu. ti!'le d~en"J.edj]tJW!,cep~t:~c}~Q~i!1llear,;;ilr~&¥Y<l,m<1t~ri.ftJi~n foarte·s,clliCl"

o sl,l'lgl1ril:ijm:agiin~\'a:f! hrafll~ oare va.[~ c~a~unil.!

La el, i:OilJ.lppfwnl.eLlUI.~ !\~}L!Jgnd'i~ me:rge;,deswl"l m{illi!<[.w m§;n:~ . grij il1'll'~l file fO[ITl.l,. 0 fonnn cal'~ in ~~Zl.li~ pr~tkllt. e~t~ Tn bH'~~il,re,l sp~l1~a'l1!etultH inSlaT.ltarlG;uJ;ui, II vh'!,~dtatH totogf,afk .. r:]:m%ad~ '(;Vj;gt!;lct este sp<lt.i~l unde Sf: . ii"llfrl C,Uilt:] t:ati'v aceasta dife!reJI~, c;elp~~h~ peml~~e Li~ .. ~~tei·te!me;. Iiil este IUiI"!.H:1 mai mult M:lU m~:u pU~[JI a t(lh:.e)P~uOOC irru:.tginea, op~Fl.ti[lemlte!r1oJl'e. ace,~~e:i.::L lInl c;iorna rnfua:..,a {k fa 8c.rii~QJ' san !H;bi~epre'<LtTIfftnri i ale .unu! aetermluat care h!fm'm(!:~:.il ~!J.pr;:ltlll:ei manlere de IIlGttl_

4

45

4

4..5. [\;!unca .ffl16graftdui

Dar luemrile QLA se peJroc exact Iu acest tel.

:in rnii~lU'<l in j;_are ~cri i tond .... tt R\c:wmI ]~g _,cEmduc c.all:lare<l ~U[)~0 [lll.tl,lnd-o Hl: clil"t.:TItc su:auu.l. ei ~terg. revln ll~llpra ,~ ~ .t~ sCQ1<; ~i;i,U p1chlL; reiau, PM1'I ce verslauea qef.il1iii~ji~li11l1t~ o.mnplet dliferhele sehlte preglitftnare, ,(Jife:rit.de ~tl:lpt;: al):M;:iOl;lle] • .£ldri~gMdus~tI[lelere~h:l allele. Tai LolOgt'.d'i·e nu se l;e:vine,clJin punctde \'e~ere material aSLlpra line! hnagmi. Nu e vorba det;:ih:~le. ~UCCiBNtUnc' ~i nlcldecum de Sl!!Ipmplmel'e: nnmeu 1n limp ~i nu asupra suprafetel imaglnH. Retu~ul inlil:l;ur.i r(ltngrafi~i ccea oe are ca specific. TfJslant'lll~ul c.. s tc n:rn it san nu e delcc, Sepoate alllelior.l, lj,il,1! relua ell g,rtm, Qdat~ ItDaginea, ·~urprillsli. nrajel'~ dt;' fnc~rua:te sunt <l,semeneaei:ornei, dar la urm urrnei, ce I defifiitiv nu are Sc'Ilirtlbal ni mic L"Lil];lc.lli:mell·tm .fat~ de uegad\'. 111 'tinIlY ce ili1IDe prima li~I'rri,t:i a Illlei fi'aze ~rxeea~~te se tibla~ ,e. lo,tu 1: ttsle ;p(~sihil. ,A::ilhi1 il~l:'iffrii este, ·IilTi]]tr~;.11161<B: ~i ll~\l.n~Ur8Jmt)difi.cri.rii prG~Sil:':!il OJ. frm:ei.'IDl 8cj)]mb, tn fo:Logr.afie, scrierea~ dac.n P'll.W1U spnne a;i),ilc, elllW ll~,aplfr~rll!gati1 tie Jmne<1 de vedere.

40

5

Din puuetul nle vedere fli i:'t:l:i~ elor umtme. f:orogI\:::I.ff<l .... ,' .... "' ...... ,<, .. <1., . ill dife r ltele fnl]Ule,ce.nu fust. enuntare, poare fam,i~a' iutercfm.nie asupr'll1fapl;,tefo,f lstorioc'~i l'n generul, a.futa la evoJu\ici unei sodeta~i;:a mrel G'ivili".;lltii~ In ,acda.ii fe], I, tie "'emt fb<trlerepecl'e., 1;1 prcactidi t:ot() 1'Tlrtfidi miIjQTi±, rt\nm .. "",, ill mud u:ttl .. asl~p.ra Jjferlfilor indi vi zice sf: eonstirule it.

£.o~ial, cbs.ll, a~up1:,~ obicei~trihn tor\le \'ia'~. ill genera! a.\upril

1 1or. Un lummI:! Bertilion, JUl:..TIi.tor In. sf§!~ihd :'S'ecet111ni al la PoU~a elil"! P,<ltffi, s-a i(f~'l~ illo:~~'manter~' fbarte .~lii:L1tFfi:c.i ~f{i<to.i;ij'a.~le a incerca, s~ t.lc,~r.mWe. n1l:r1~~ncl 'i~ve,i'~~TUl m!fe.l!ot'j~~(l'intl]or 'cepClmi$e~erih1f:iil!tl k't; arheLiptl] 'i·~~j_oi.mj±iiei , Dar IT] ulti ftltGgr~t~ cau til si dr;;p'a~easdi'i vneathl sau fllne:!iol1alij a .poa.retli!lui .• re'pr~j(.~[1lta:J!eil unCI

-'-"'.";. __ .:' . ~hjal'~reuul1~a la per-801uilila~i pentru a. se Interesa

anouhne; l'1iril old o"ap:arteneurtl -1a vreo elas.1i' sal] S!ocialiL Genul evolu.e"lz~1",§i S<:: diversi.ficli. medu] de if ~i subje&tdc ~t:1-:Chimb.'t·,6xis.tll, bh1ein~!()s, metive rel'lnic~

dus la aeeste SdlI!Illifl.l;j, mal ales iiti'secollll ,:J] Xl~XA~a. de bJare a t1l'mgiuHtllf '$0 de Utlmll1iatl:! !'Ill [DOli sunt !fcmn rarvenecltioil£Lrt:a ~l ~~r <lre (I ~ncii(JGnti . iprl.l. 8J!'IlI:pm pmcticii al"tALic \ii.i.' 6otial,m ~.db;Hz(lren. ~I:I ~i' eha: lIU ro 1 si (!.11 diferitele liVli~'ltiipallbl i~ aleaceste] prsetioi, E:s(c vo~'ba a repreeenta uu irHih~i'd. Difr.se:plIIl apoj lll'ilIl~lQarde [l[i(:ibJem~;

l'epl·e2'e!1~al. de.ce ~i 1(;!,I!m1· •

geIiCr'41. fotografj:J ,I preluat ~Ir.a:reta de la p:ic.:hiT{1.; A ellberatfiguf.triT, permitil:f1dpit:!tOmlI.11 sh ~~ consacte de fo.rm~~~i m;lterie ~\i posi bile] 101' .a1:J..~lractiz;irL Pietutul

47

s

FWI1c1S Bacon a M~mnal tabkml"i in'litudate portrete, dar sllbiltctlil care se presupunea .a fi repr~zel,itat m~ era i.l.1;(:i:H un prelBx t pentru I) avenlLo1l":l ,lPrui<lll~ f:1l at.~st domen il111] tN~rrl'etnh"i" f{Jtqpa S~ jmpus dedsiv" III prettcnt, de, e,xemp.lu~ functia dIS: pictOf 0t;i~ia.1, al Ul1liJn reg;rn.t ~:.nl gmternl1~ rna] ~X~st~, 1m!' i'ntngmffi n",11'1ff;n~t l,rr~~n~i d'b: ei rCLlnl!;~:S~ Q relLlstaureze .. 'pal' pet'so.l'lalitill~i polirice, [e~ib<iw,cse l:!dst~ lncU, ~it Uti iii ee lnce ma.i 'IJ umeroase, '~i eer mereu, m ui muh sau nmi pu'~in direct sa fi~ imertelizate, nir;~orul nu ITIa.~ a,rc,fLc:esl rnl, C1 fQiografu]; chiar da:ca, dell,fUlI de rC'eeIl.J~ o IPk'lf2!l1i);'Ul.~ -ca' Wi'l'1.l1en Churchill consid~fil dt taibl(-'lul cste de p[e!f~I:,jjl ;maginlii f{Jtugl'llfi<:e pentru a-i imurllili1:a pUI~rc;i po!.itic;1i. eu Ina!e !ilC~S,fea. '5!!tT1l ill p'J[ezenl ~.i vBri'laibiH f'otogrdll utr.dali, E~ nu mal Slim Iega~1 tIt:: ltu sllh~~l in parli.cuL1J. <l.fia cem erau pictuJ;il Hll:fOC:Ut, p~}allc OU ex:~el1tia~(J~ui de fa 'Iilat.i ean, at Pap:ei Joan Paul a1 Jl-leu, ,~i ,m Lon;hdui SUQ,wdoon. at~.t'il:t [[mullei regale britanice, darfil1-eLe pgrt[elc ~ Cf[!);} a~e~lia le prm:llJic MlIHremlll!J<Sllr(l.fJe dt: clltre g,L1 ~'ern:aJ:l~.1 CfI, fi'hnl ~i Il:gme:le '~v;ll Wlilc'J. Esre ~i crfibll Jbcograilllui In sarcinat 'in J,il;niJn~$ili realil.e;r.e pertretul !c!L-e.'l~ln.{elui [eJ:iluhi~cii, mlliat'w ItllilC pr1ruailite: bOCj.i.les Henri Lartigue 1-::1 realil.alpe eel al lui Valery GiSG;ard tl '.ti:s1h'ung, hu 'Ji~leFrelllld pauel ilt lui fmlll,:-tli.silil1errandL ACL:~ltia s\.UlHoto~ra1'i despre care g.4ndim cit au at:Uftmtat ~tiin!ii'(ML;epe]:;e} ~~ cx:periellta, ,~ar care ITh11ufesm]1:I ('lceJa:si timp u niJlllra ~i idtd: ce Ie p;;:nl)il s_ c(!lndenSe1~ rOlf-a :i,magint: ~D l1looUca eRenta t:filit:ati]Q~ ~t fun(j~iilor ulrll~i persoane lnnp()rt.a[;t,e:, ltl' cazal ptc~C!dil1reh!i re,pUhl'll:lr, ~,y:oc .. ;rca mlcipel"SG[i'i1lDltr~i fi<i a mte" p()~iL\d: (Lr:~pe111~ $:1m oonstit-uia: d~corul J,:IOJ:I:retulul l'tl1 ValB(1Y' G.iSeoru:d d'E~llii:Mg nUijre. a~I<I8J~l s~ns, (;11 biblioteca ill fa~ ~ilreiJ este fulog-tflllat ,FF'"in(_(o);$ ~titt~J'Omd. UnH fOl.ografi coruemporani, eum ax Ii Yu<\;~f K,am.ll, f1lcl, SJ,Hlt pi]Jilreti~1I atr"~' J:~ C:!~Jffi'(lrlj]itallt san de 0 tat;! anume. dar 11JlagiTlile pe care 11: ptJR da marllor acfls:rei hmii all tm{l~i 0 \'aloan: feme gF('~lalti in masura if! case sulJieclii, apar nlerenimbclcflt1 ~i ell! 0 atitudlne Icoresplll1l.ili(oac.~ ttlhl.l'iIpf lor; fimc~iilnr 101', puren lor, eaee pe'm:lL( sa fie ide:nti!'iG.:j,~i:. tecWlCl-l,'Cula inaediiat,

, ,DM pertreml :fowgn1fic IHI se lintiteaz~"i la pets{)naiha~ile lumu. Inc~, ,I,] c,elf;n: care f;iC l~t(~ria,l1h ~i n f~rma man llU'~'icn ufmcnaW. ~i e ~ te :lOai~C pcrNnfLantti~i Ie" ind: ~k~J~ III de ~parle [:l!eJl ta lar i:~.] glJl"'~I.~~'I. ~··.f!l'reJ, ~t:li~t~i) ,s:~11g1tl1 ;,'>ilu cinenlalegr.m'J:e::L,. p~ 'l.CIlkl 111 prezent t'(ltogh4tfi,a p<ln~dltii la~~sHlt mi~eare g~er~1l1 d~ , a Ullurur 1.Itdivi£iJm: ~ .Ci1I)Ose ~i eel mai .niic. ~1~~S', e;s.te eea eare. generea<! a . aceas di pfo~ll]ctje rn,te}lsi'>;',a ~j , del1(lil1f.~te care ~unEde~~Qri "cap (~ a fis" ~lIl-a;Y'i~t¢IQr~

C(lDsidera ill prC7:'Bnt di acesl lip' de. imagine se ;"11100 ,fI'urit bif.ltl odce .all d{)ClH'TltUu,de ru;tul'Lli~atec ullJM ~,i. unul seuestionel, D,lca I~Qi·tfet.td ofid.d este !lollc~ln}.t COl 0 i mJlginec dej~l]i:tj;va ac individ., majurita'lca eclor CilI![e GH"sli~ui.e ~~Ilbi~l pentru ziarele '. suut lrnaglui HllJ1 efernere. fnillitiv~, fmgile ~i,u~oJ[e ca ~i stlhi~t:~i,l ~ ~r :pc care l~ rupFill".'i1'a til.. La n pane din a .. c'ea."Jttl, .... +,:! . .,;~,,¥H': , .pentr pl'esli, futQ,gr~fi:cs; In'IDg Penn sau liJ:jjQ['d

an ri~t im,jgimi, definif:i\'·e ale unor mari arti~ti, ca PafilQ sau Igor S'rI'"d.virJ.,l;k:j .. pol'trett: pu.blkate de tieeare dJli:l£:'IDd e

de!! erele lew, .

E~He evldenr c1.l fila. din PllIlCU:1~ de vedere c n Iltatlv ciit ~j '\I producfia de portrete dill secolal ;)1 XlX·~ea nu D!'Il-e , . ',.' din ziJelc mm~~rc, .. Ac:hil de TI:'ai~lant aI. :porlrerulu[ pret;losk! ~ll1j:Pliu '~i ]<l/ fi'gm~rul, .lareoo.aJtiile Cle fotogroal'i ere Y .. , ... ~;~;~ un pic eu pichml. Su;b.l ecriil pI.l7.eazti un II mp];ndc1ungat ~lInUlli~I~Ui' ~~i'ici ~~r ItU eSlc ~Il:Sj.g~tF aceea~D ea a fllmelor acruale a se mi~.c.1:, ttl lUmillih )iWruraJil.. It I generni sub un ge<!m tia IllJlmi.uare" llrtifi,eia]Jj lUI <J t'o1>t incti invc1h1[:l.l:i Darata

'il oblig1i. pe !>ubwgd. 'illlf'!-Un FW flira"'tjia [UD, s1i. se .d~sti.nd~.

, ' 0 atitndllie nelrUCitn~, nesimMQ;ta. ~i care \'(,1 Ii ae~i

ca [gil,ld nOlituwnt II] pf)mete~e reaJi:l',ate!J1ll NaJru:.~dhtftfdl j L1m~rnle ~ sct:A.llulug <oil X IX.1M .. aclar j-a forognll'lt pe ~1)(iIlen,li de se,mh>i dih hmne.fHU'(.e;lof, Ilw:rawrii st;fii'lle~h a s~

s

5

i

Po.rlrehd

d!itjn:lp.resia e,;.~.w afiU inpftZct!1a ~~T'll1;liU'!~L~inj ~yiirut'[) 'a~uhi&"tului, chi anlaco1 all' Ireh!.a~ ~f!l~e f~.dm de analize JOl.'ldaJt'e pe ctiutal'ea celor deu ~ VM.y'!1': n].tllil·itk:E$a ·f..l \1tlIididib1~a.

. l§~ ,ail.ie ~~1 mJl'i~;li ~ 1 ~~bi~cttllHi, clirt aeest p"Lun~r de

v(';dtfre, s~ :n[;t~ ~e!ja llilb. ~ C~\"'l Gep,()iltie.fljlef\;e~!~t dGar~TI

fo~.ogi~~e. Oh ,privd\>tli: I~ptCm!llatta. ~t)'FLlliJil es,~e m:ii ,!;fl'<:I,lljal!IT'. nla.i ~!ll,pietrif~' ~i ~f~Of], h !'JIrl f(dow:;oo aeeti~ f.lllda~, re;giz~t~. "d!eeo,a.M!i.'\ r;1b:Ficat~Locl pB.~in a~<tg vetl~m fijJi lH Itlteeem: f@tografnl n(ioptf[li1 !l'fiino1lJll· g~i:I m;lele obiccLuria!e p~eLoritt)r, uneln tjc,;u(i. Nt! UURMi. rel~ll III C;;:l~'e, p]Jsemdi. slIlniecHll, p()zi~ia. in Gare tJ a~ait;i1, ci~i t'i]ul in c:!il~ l~ pune in'~aJoare Iml~lll[s~UTIe, tl'll.lwtic.'mililH~a~ actesmi.i.~e, pe s(tnrlnls{mnm'l(:! ri1H:H.:~tci, fHiLe.rii ace~~uiiL Cine mp]{l<r~te Wo.retic. wc;.iet~e.o'l,djn.e'P6o;;a,respect:lva recU;llo-a~te }ipul dl!5 p~MIj~j Jit::-pt'Q.;.!i[..llt;ll. . ci ooLira~j::l. :lQti~tuia" Si !;lfudti V este ''CH1,l till:! mizele p~mtrettl~lIi" 0LlI-<L ~.J11. ~ ~tlcat.:m v{en~ea resptiL:di~ii" Legcn0.:l!ru~ 8{.utJ"i~l H;:I:n;:c;m:(l din F!avu:v ,:1' ;pi-ellJ[:at Till' 8~Ql ",,1 umrnV:e1I III [lena SQCWlal:ti i!i't ClllJ~ntI~ avntJ 'de':}tl.'ldiou~ NmHu;, .fo~tlgr:l!nii:lid, U.c.cx.l:m;lil~u., peT$mFllit .. 1:ti1e di n 1 rime;l c~ ~ einaw,g~an'e,h Clar a iristitnh 'uN. i;jl5:letn [Q:flfl'e c~tll'fi tc::Ji[ cle afitm~:iipefinLii ilurtl]lrIam, '~Tmtini lum:ea iJ];iIT~dfl].rlJliu'r' ~~·lirnj.,

U!lJ oo'teeilF~D.iricltri cre.;1Z<"i lilli 1850 eanea de. 'V~1:i(a f~)I:()grn:l.~di, 1J:n. Ff)eGdctl cC·i, :pcrmite ~a .ob~~a {)[Jt p<ll\1'ate jdeuti~e pe a~~ p]m:::lt·ceN"ce <[Il:llilte~tlt J~ "Ph(j[tlm:3!!~flll".ul acruaL Fllilma poltret\!llli CUlltilliua~ii. SI} e){tincl.1 (pf1mlevalt.li!<:u· tre,;b~lil dtm"~i &ti:e.~un: ()a~,a,[ care ,~uu'eaza tm'ID@¢:i~i cPQc~il, ue~)aiecc l'i!o.~ jlllven~e ~ fGt~\g:mfiei ~l'mi:te (l.tat :tebllile, ~at ,?ieco.llol1hi;c ~mui 1l1;111:mr Ibru:e de P4"T.7i!'J;m~ ~a ac~.iW~

la a.:e;j~ill ~fJ.ctic:~. Si'aceasta !ill este vmai:lil 'ml1!1 ~lF:';oancl(J

inlforiil)11l(l. ~a~ t::L')i1]~~·~QUI.C care aTmpn:t:il O!rl'i II p'i~tJm( .

Nl] JIllJillai ca pqLtI't!it,u~ fl:nografi,t: se gt:fw!l'!tI:iiJ.~a~~, el ;S~~i ~hve'T~ fidt: Walle re~e, el ~lill se mal lil1lheaza dOfl( In t1ncu~w:'11 tu I d~ ide~llit8!lC,Gt'Irlccp;ut i.lCI. DJMhlli. ~i OflCI$~I~ 1;l1ulll,ple; intreb~~nftiri ver dOl in rned J'LJ'ru].{I1 uastere.une] p:l:r,r~;~Cru::l; ~u..pra~·i,(,1tt!l~o~e· de aldd m:±~ nTu'lt "'~jU mai PU~1L1.S11 b diitirl~.e forme aei11aJe ... :evCl~ uiLfld futn:: f1l'[]:l.lLn[LL ~i, industric, ~ij i!.i n d In:±i n te ct'rt: [(late ~i fOJ·[te repede

so

tlenl[~(~lt;'f(le jf~rntidS!I:I.i1a as('eHstl!HH~ 8J foto·gr.aflei de 'arl'l~h ,r ~am Nil '~I1da.·cle-la .I1H;oer:uf,ul sec@hlhai. AstllzL wate aeeste

, .... 1e rn~1islm mlan d~dl'rl valoaw :d:~):[wl~e mltaP:lJr&]aE'i \':1:

Mall t c.{,mstdr~lre in .~;f.u]i <Iilo[]fte~:tl!hlr Ier, I'iaoii. W-at~, aeesre

51

5

.Pu rtrel~I,&

~i taptlII dI cl ,c{impuu, intr -0 m.mi!,:l'ra ,a".*lap~ tn .'lpfl.l9 Cp:.tliri le ,fl!~o.lihll~ ~i irngrell1l3. en ahe gers:onaje .. 0' ~lllill[;llif'! al'f:'siliilli pi ese CUIi~lilLUavli: ~I.ln~ - !l:'iH)!ghlea nu valol'eaz3, aic:i do,af prin ea in~il.~i ci rt1!ai dt:b'Tabl1 prin :fi:'I.a,~i~;~ (l .. ln::: ~') ,lntret1ll!ll ~tJi_u1r~-.:1g<L serie, [)ecj rotQ'fP1lfI~1 CoM&t.@,*. ~deve:llc"l e-;!!i sl.en~ L!lliJ¢i u,a~it~~i: 'i;bla~, ~~I,'e(jjlle. tI:}~i ,!Ji:f:i oamcJll ~['.w. a~c,l.tl }i l18il.llill in aeest fd. ReYeiJfk e en m.flt rnai pute,rnici cu5t.~,,~ fil,ra,I'eTlipuri. artlJlcii}iill:! IT~gii1JHt Persou.njl~ este o.prit de "'lim? fJ;ltDgraf tmr-un moment ~jnvj.ri, .. ! sa, la lrK!ul I!llldc.~i tlcs.m~n:::lra acrivitatea, ~ale:~,'a cllp,e dupl Qe f'Ologl>aftn J. fest [nafa. ne ima:giniil'l.1. tI:~or ca viata, munca, mej;lerll1 ~i ::Ill reluat arL'{J!iu':ilc In moOr! pa:radoxal.. :rotografm 1'lllne'tn ,relief. prin aceas:ta opd['e; preVt2lO1ie.a tmllmtui. <I tiSl'l'il1 Ulrii vief i. ITt np"erdhll de d]nai n te ~i eel de Jupa, asa cum tot ea, lflS~ sa ,ghidm Cit e lnafara cadrului, <I dimpuliui. \ii~,Q.:it ~'i Una diri t;aliHi:~irle,im~\g~llij .rologl'afieJ rezid~ exact in acerust1, puwre de g""~l£are. lnl 'f:;ip~Lll d:Th M!l~(;iI~ In cd Ce-O .lJriv~t.e d:orIl1f<l,de:' a-q.,i. ~~,li1giDa, de a ~con~.titll!iln1 m]n~1 rh:carH:l (II~ 'Ia\ti" iOI:1 area un~iia din tllmnetnei.e sale. nnsamJ];)lol naei T' ~eti.

, Trdmie admiN or:;;1, a. s eIllCIiI.t:::I cdorialre.dometlii ate fotogrflfiei.

l~i in c",,,_ul. pmtrdlillui: pri~gr~:>de lettnic~ ru:' flU~tJri!l;Ell q !o(lU~ praclic ~i ~ti pe:ntili~ in p,artloCular rott~gr.J.h,11,~i sa~' dcplas~ecu I:mnel'itL~d" sale, ~a lucreze rn lext'flr!or ~'l ,~i ill ij nteri or, pmvuc.frnd. pt:p r,i urrnar subiec~lor ~i mai Pl1~ derm:lj, matedal. ~imenlil,t.ca anmci ,(;fu'Id 11 se eerea .~~ vll,~~ ~n sm,'cI~o ,,JQ~ rl<llta ,~u;>e.ilsta fowgr,and e eel ce '1;' ine 1 ~ 1:.1, Jor:i uu irJ i,!,~TIi, do aJifel cu 0 inlien~e celi14, ~li:{el:~ mtllt de, ceil U ~JWJ1e:luJui: lrlicerc;u-ea ~ a ~uTIffi,l'I(l[J rapid u "ca1:1Hne, illteryeni,mJ c'ilit mal pu~iri asupra el, ~~l 'Q iferenta cil pertreri sku) dli alnghe~!,,;il ell subleetul pe[lUiLl a-I Intrerupe din activirate ~i. ,ili-1 IC~fe ~~p07:e .. e, I,lt:ca <':0, m priiilcip,iu; .reil!Jrter-uLI ilhl face nidodatti. D.1.r:illc:i Ulml, nici aJtll1 l1~l ime.rvln ill ffjlilcipil] a!';upra dcwrului • .a ¥;lna~id. Al:CliS! IXwruel'li. de a praetka !,'-Iortl'e1'L11 c:e se tnscriie In prelullgi(e;;1 re,f.l~)rt,~jul U I a fost 'in ,mod' Ilattlrru adoptatii de fotOg:L'<lil l~recu!n "Rerui C'lllierHl'el:l'>m1r. at cam!: '..ph:it ~i cqHvillte.ri ii tm:piug sa <If,me ~n('rul'He Q, 'CIl n sunt, ,e~,e ¥ilzllte\ 'aff)'i::l ~a ~ 1:Lf.~re,l.c tn VCUD lia!il:Llea ~Hl:Jie.c~g lor.m I a 1e tuRmrf,l rn.tlcl1:nitJt:e.u::e rw<n:e ~a·"i In.oolljnarc.

52

Portrehll

Pentm ei relatia dlntl'l~ pe.roormj,'i'l ~'l[}r eNl~ ,s.emnifioativa 1a:r lliTTIh .. ,.","l'i IOC~lhli nnui Qhiec~, Scau, a unei lUl':IJIl.1Jl ar onmri~ui la !l.elnlli 'f'ica~ci acesteia,

A]~i ~l 'eLi ~li ~a atllerkanu i R:k~ <ltJi A \'ed{;ul, I.Ili'tueaza 0 dIe

, ~' ,~,

t;onlra:rA, o~Ugal1.d lntr-un ii'li Lunil fel persol1,.ajele/.lli~e a, fi

. sa sead'lp1:e7~ dnrl,n~ej 1,0['4 regulilo/19!: c..<tlctiL.:r ,~i, dac~

spume, psibc ~ (Iglee, d'i.11tillld ~i el l1a dC~G(lpel'e o re.:,llitate, d~lf' manicril l.lifcrhllt. RidUlI:d A~"eU~m" cste eel oe a. men; cel1nat In l1tes:t. sens, De mul~1 ,ani, cl [Jractid'l11ltr~\lnFel: un pHdn~t 'earaeter • iLl op()i1:i~ie cu pe tretul social,. despuindin.cetu[ cu ibcen.d de ,rrci~c decor, re1:lunt11m;lla vrit:e efecl de ),',egi e :').i e~tetiL::i

o UnI1.:i d~ hnnin tj., fm.mb~ C.ate s.~ lmbrace chiJJUr:i lc, Subiectal ,apare pe: un 1'oml cQmpLet ailb ·e<'ite d~m~t:iLt, dez~,oJU, f>otngl;:o!fia oc~in 1Jj~~lli ''fate~h~~~'lCA!',. a '~F:ie~ ,coll~nllImri, 1~T'a ,oto~l~Llti :5;a~l

~ichiarbULI~allo: Lll~eon, care s~ 'ci~~le in .p-~;~vM $.i <lt1woini, caliva ani it1 nrrnil, ,<I re:~mri~~l III pe-pl1hLria deseori r(}ar[~ ~i s~iLlctitnam, ill ptirnnl Til ](lllJ'in prlslU<lleXCeserm ~e til. ~ ~ ~OI~SUlljlre..111me;1 mond~nti Ilew-yor~ell:ll. ];n favtil!ln:fl anoniml dill \t~sll1' Arn~rid1, 1najoriw\ea blt!ir,at~u;i" ~i ochiX!~ fotogruJ a plonjnt "prof~f!Jl. inli1untIU]' aoestor fiinteT ea 'ii. cum

vrut s;ii realizeze un portret i IHM()[ ~1 sa ,RI~Jnlut Ill-! CUll} s-ar fi HI pri IiIm. vederc, oil realltete a s~iet1i~ j americane, cl o l~'ltaw. rnuh ,mal ~l.Uiversarn;L aparnC!l(frr~a ta CI Li'je~j~m fl. la u blrll,. ill cele ~iAf lIrr.na niei UJI:] 11~>C d!e imp<'ll'trmllt. 'N'-a G~umtc s~i 'fllie

ci m1ii l1r.;gr.llib~ direct. s~l; tie din PlIfI'el lae vedere fntngmil;il l*. cal PQsibU. Galj~att.a ihj'm~ll~di. meHtiTjlltc 181 fi.emue u::e:t'tific~ acea.'ltaQbstru~le. AJbuli f(l'na:1J,lui pe care se ~lld)iec:i:U:1 ciS'le ahsolta, p:a.T!a. 1 a Jil,uilctul de: a se confunda u II 1iartici, :lJIill1li .impl:e!\ia de viet t"umill.a lUI 'ctejl~~1ilit:i tl mnorll.

... ~e·~ltUieffl~a ~1 nic,j nll rcquce "«0 lirfi<;atura salil \l'reuri lclfeL lmaginiD Icste RlaJl::lmii inriiif s.c pnalC 'Sll.ld1ar p~nojl!l:i;ur 111 mi () i detalii ;!J e I"e'~ci ~l C!<l.)d'pll~lli" Sf: pot phM:r\'~ t{)Ar.e haiQelor; lll:a:lu..Jl,I,;t:st:en mnffintesc de cnllc'~'p(ul suprnnmrisf

5

53

.-; I, .. n,l'."'''."<l''",,,",' se pomeJI;,;,_a, .imeCliat ;$i din lrlOU aoile lusttunH'l[lftl .in isterie lUQdm(; find ,coud i iaUe de realizare a I»!:lrnfiiilel!', dM~ ee ,e,M,t; 11l J)firl'J:ll~ fJnd ~ptibi!,lil ~ge[lel1al. 'eqe

cit oo:alli ell fm{]1'TaI11l, rm\locij,ri.lop"'Jr~ru~~,]U!j 'au il1~L ffilTrlIlOl[Q,[

'~ldhJ pG' de "ahsi' parte, pe"'-~r)~j{[ pe care ornUl] 0 are '8JCIu:m _""c,<",in,," il:l~ll~ia e\'ol\!<lt sernsjbil, j!1~' _fiJtOb1~iil,e lui N'ad,1lr ~i ale lui RJcbareJ A:ii1e(lcm; Iqaea' n::ti:illcfJI, iii 'StJlIS' milt~tifll €a~ ~] pe' futtnal, ,~·a ,sellim p,alj liILI~i ell Ii'illTllg 1l1ai, P!l~ n acJ:eviilr,8Jlc';i aw~ti rIl:aimlL11L ducat uri[Jlft1l al~~i, au, dmcrU'mstr:'icf admimhil eli e Pl'<LGJiplU ]~<1 pe:mtis tI'&:ere~1 ~PE C) ,nona eta,pti' '[I']

" 'dcci euneasterea tiiine.i u!,l1al1e", "

, . -

t[ej)tlie- 12p;ns!iderM <lIXl(~l tejluiC'j]{;It @12l¥a,]e i ni(lepeJ).de:!1t , fQ.tog[j),ftlillj. I~elii'enit ",1 n ce,' in ce ma"j "\~ll~utj;f': ~l$U'iil, est~ in z:ij~1~ .. noastt;e meJreat j:!e 0 isjprle '~Ta hTI[llilttflma linY-p ~enl) f:otogt[lf QJU s.~Q.hd [11 XJ[X~.lea,. ofl.Nadar PURl [ asimU8.! d~M ix:perieuta pidurli,. 'Este iU!contt)slilflU di p!Jflreli ~L1-'F m~ yc:i ~c ap pl'Heliea( :fLC~Sl,~'Ml~ oe~i,O]l:aJ,,} ci eei s-au 0(,n~~4t in J'iltre~llmc,":Jili. ~u:~dl;in~i um<tne ~ya:cc m~ fi pe tle-a-ntregullTh1s~n,,:";lj: (lj[lC(o}lo de f<~ptullj"l<'r~~;t.,fi?h,lgl",:""ija, eel I::(;! P pdve~'le :~i V 'Wn ~u~ffi, ~ mo(~1fic:lt,ffl1j[lj,era @e. aob~~H'a dill jlllnd llostmt se pare dl ea i[ttJ~r n~ chj;'l:(lH pfoprlul

eLJm~rl8imi::U[ 'GQtkli:aa, re.v,eJ;ftNltll lu F<lifti:CU]'!1' ,1];])[11 ,nmli decfft o pjdl,lra" m]ul im:&g;nli pc caH;ne-u 'darn mlll1a ifl~,irl.c, ~t)n~t~il'l~a ell ':}c:.0'Mi'llm:aJ,'im~~~ ~l pm:tte"cxacl de

putelll vGrhLde faimu~.$a {o;~;i117.a~e Ii ~mgi,'if (}V~Jc;,rle n\ai~UJ~~, pertret, F'Otogmfm:se preziL~m ea unmij:}GC de TIN'el'lflCt"d:m: ~] de , l:m&:bril1~a I:ll'lld irldilllid, .A Fie vedea stlb~H:a uti11zarna , 1]1 (1ampatiii~c JIMlO'G'flltl, Ceeacc eMe .~~ mati.- flllitlv1'irm ln

<l:ntopmr,r.etu.lu'i prilil care sllbieu1!1J] callit~ .';:1 se T!?C~moa'idi. , .. tn aoeiasi {imp ce40rJrud :?i sie l'lisu§l aflHl'!llte aspec,t:e ale . itfr~i~~al(l, ~-nndltt~.:mtb:iJ~I'tlil(l:t~ri eJliii]:~a er'l;laT-ea lind iaH'),g~r,li [far fie Llurgea !ill t:Sl~ [Ji~.i.tlH1:;it~. 10b1t., artlcviin.d transpare , mtr-l1n f~l §mfalfn!.[;:J fel cym Tc~ljda Cevil di~ 'lJlIt~iJl()r1Wlln altula. f~CI~~gl'afu] e;videntiaz1i 1<1 IJI\~la lil:md_ '0 .~,;:ule din.

~arOliCroml1 ~~il!UL~r:ri!:l ~nlii1'i:km sa [nvepq;!lrn.:at4 de "ar,rn~a'I(~arn£nli srtlb iPela~i \1 Ll,l:1ihi, :J:cGe~iliill:u.H;il1ii1·sal1'llt t1t\ek[~i tlpde de(:Q~ ~,1U :lh~e.ll~iJ. '0 e de~Qr, .~1 :;UfjU!l! 'l.mi!lrte~te ucedu 'llpll~e de tltlffon apn:lW~ d(! UteLlolt!lrti: "Still,d" es.n;: Onml".

16"

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57

lDoJldiale. O:acacru~it)ri ue modil ptec-um P'alllPo1retfi.lSe{jer~, rninunat ilus!tO:lili de deseaatoml Georges LecpaJFIc, eei ee t-au urmat, Coco Cba.LlJiel s,<JI1..I Cfuri~lialj Diur, ~j rnai tiirzru Yves ~hil1t Laurent, "a!..i c~~"In'1~l.;ul gratie .f,Qtogl';]ifieJ 0 nouii fQ~f11 ili, de' i"fl:pTWb"Tllam amedelelor 10:1', Pads1;1l <l f~stwl~m(;l ]rJ(le.lulTlgati1j [~b!.~ni5hare mai ,!?'lltW, dedt u~tll(l~.t:1 Il'liin::a GI'i1"ll~ta a Inodei'~i <i aneIor'tleeOl'ativf;, ldeile ~iJCL1I~ inlxe diferin;k ",uGuri a]'e ~[eatoril(!lr dQ mUd~".lirhlk(}(i10'.

. .

de.co.r<lterilol'} m §peci'iJ.l jilL]\: uclc dQlJrLr~boaie se Il'lSC proiecte cnmune .~i, ~@; :-:iml ~lI.nUltn~e l'el'li.llfil dinspre pict0'!ii ceo mll~lcnf!s, 'HpiriLul cubist Dil'll'llllCt de vedere praetic, o ~c.(.I'.ll,li asemcnca eelei a ILli Barehaas in Gennania ~ termenul ":jq)aJii" nebnie retluut intrnu gen~ mai 'J arg - particiua ru,:li Vl~l regrt.lp.$'efl aneler deeorative ~ i: la cdi:tl~a uf:id.esretid oernune, J'rilltre fotogri1fi1 I~e~~; polin ana if:i ~l'Vi:£ilJl mndei se OO~ §i george H:(lyningcll' !Jfucne. Me c~11 hllf1gIDi sunt fo::t~,r.epti;;i'.lJ11 Lativ,~ 1n ce: pliive~~~ l~ga1;JJw..e es{etice pe, care fotogralfifl le-a '1[t1Il~r'il'[tfetine'cu ~efe'ndie pr,ill1li(Li/:H~]s~i~e, il1,areflst~

pel'iomilJ'i cQnstl":.ingen~ Iil ctl;mc([Zi i ~LrIi[ pn~]p] . tantr.~ ~DtrL1

fu~og a]'. F.tir.i:lJ ifid@ial~ flindd'i mod, se ltmif'e lDIi:1 1,ti [[Ji.a~a

cl'QJt()rle~ de lux - cea ~ hainelor de gata cateu va aiceede i:}i VEl l[ll]llU1e Hr()Jlriil~ ~g Ulli comerclale fill h m01j sevete, R~l'e· \!uIba inainte de taate, pr1nrec.~lr-ge[[ea I~ 0 elltc'~idi coru~PlJu:l~loru'e. de a servi stilul umii creator, mat mult dedit dea Jriiia demliulunui madel. Niei {I ex~£enJi'I nu este [1:1' general 11~ITrlli~;tlii in IX.pO veste mijloac'ele vu.uale ce trcbuie pusc in aplieare, ell conditia ca fGlo!,,,,,!.i"i!:L1 sa mrumifes[e talent sl lllVe;uti vitate.

DOila rf:\!is e. (<Langine americans, vor mra!.1€ 'fil[tl\!;'Tai1~clc mod din lumea Thltrea~l; ··Vpguf ", OWiirutil la illce.pu'tLlf secolului sub ill!1pl.Il'~lll lui Q:milii Nast ,~i "Jl(1lper'.l'l1a.;;1ar~·~, arum.iUt den ron v~ctil.t) rod8.Ctorli:dflla "VQ?ue", C:an:?el S]1e,) .... , ,~i pIlK~~,in pa~'?:id A[e.xey Brodovitob. devflmt eelebru mctpIDi:i1 de 3lllilCf. ActlV]tate.1 r:el,'i~Lei "V ("gu.c" s-a dezvelrat In mod cunslderabil 'ill prirnul rJ:lld prill d!ifeliteie saie e~it-ii di n rrl1l'1.t:a. A li!gTia <!j~ .ltaJJa. ill prezear, tn aceesta din Umla :all r:;jmE;~, flli'lli rndoiaJ~ re,listele eelernai mvelltive,

58

Ai rta dC'coraUYIi.

mca itl ,,:ailoore Q 1'i.llugr;al'ie: ili} l)l~a ce au are doar, Uti Qu~~e:r , a.~:-l!, cum se intam:piri ill l-iFliIn\a ill pu1l:)liCilidl fare prell urn ca~ au marc~t Llmc:JJ1~r,. ~'lf Int~-o .1Th1Ili'¢1i'd Jii fcnl'5, Rev1s1"a

. r : .' "este n,ll J din ce;l~ e<:4nal. :J;(:jOl<,l~. lin vrez~tU e1C'.~l!u,1 de J11l Joe Ihh),~:rral!'iui uwentive.Dnr allL'orii i-nk."re'Hll1ti ce-i pujem 1<1 O)ceaSl.~, l'e\'i~!1i, p-feeui'n Pe'tel" Lindbe:t~b, £.Iunlplil;lrni. i~)f

lor tree pe Ia Wale I'edao~i,11l: FquTiJ'nr '~~"isle ilIe!nlXlli' ~iTl

Revisli;lle. "l":ogll€" ~i "Harper:» {l'QI:aar.". puseIn pagiMi elL: aetistici n: ~Llt:a ma i melt: valorizarea fOlllgnl fiei dtedlt iIr

lor it!lri se prezin:ti1 tirnpi:rullil:t.ungat ca slJpertie ·atllult)~.-ji de . lli care ~~ suceed pe_rsbruilit:;:ti ale ·ciir[)lr '8.tlll 9-i rrna:gitiatie

fOOrte vatiia(e. llJ~ilJel re;gi:.l ~e smdle H' 1Jtmi Ccui] Be:at(;~.tl. ce

·t11imi 11'c...,I!aVIDen, ill seH,>iblllmtea fa~till Leatn.!. se o.pi.lilt'!"de exentphl ~illiJor r~p.su]J;u:j~elo1" fH ffii4;cate ale, Jui. M:arun Munkacsi, un ~port~r SWrth' .. 1£1t[, .. un elan re1 a~i v de popu]ariz~.i;\ .~[)~nw.ifia, a ,iu~i ~ di\m ~tuaiQ pentru fl t:;t':!oorl pe, sJ:rada, jar lll<lJl,echittde 1izr.a:fi"ilte"d~n±re:~IIO:.ri ' dr.:,irn:ag'iTl'e: In.1!Rinlifi ile repo:rten sc ammiteca . LilJe:rtiueJ cesi-o i:!lll. foto~fJi este 1\1 unele cftzllIi

lllaretilMl vcstimentaria fin .1limlllie qeCftl un sirnplu fu-:etext. ~"""''''''''LJ.<t 0 h1)nlbllful~ pei1!UJi;I ,:i~~i det;vo1ta ~iintre\.i.ne id'cl

istorle a fQtOgji;afi.ei u:~ mm.1.·01 ~a cum a reu s] L ;;'-0 '1':31::1_ N;ancy HaU-Du,ncan~ pel'-niliil:C~iii' Ja]il1~ mal ~~uti[l repe:rarea a :sehlmbli.rit~ ir suevenite mstiluf creail(}'ril m- de 1ll~. r;;at re.nulehii fermelor .~iln!fpin.t.i~lfilw.graillo.i', Moda,pnin . IT all itu8trat..o., a ofe:rit mijlo:B.t-"e ne,ma1fl~rl'lenj_te creawri:Jor . a.l1S~r aport se :I!"dUi ell fiirrd 1a_fehlle iUI~)rtaol, da:c;i nlLi! mal Lmpol·tmlt ca eel al cdl,l,r I;."e!lractj~.a, fo~"g['[Jia: In afal':l,

i;;.omen~i;'Si I sa se supumloridirei c.ons.triillg,eli,

. . . . cW"e au iE'\iohmt ln CQJIh~!UU! {[cestui tip de

I ~i pentm ciareforogr;lficrea. v{}:stjme.nt,w,ei ~ ct:II1stimit ~I'l de; Icen:clarepiriviiegiat,. 'jnn~JiiumlL~. In"i~g r'~l:m ar;mre· ell

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59

6

1Cs.~P1I.~a·",. $~111 1]'1a1 mutt u~ atmosferti PfPPLL~~ debat :Y'fm~tab~k l)re:2)e'lllti'ilj' ,de \'c~Limenj'ltie, Pe!ntru 0 linl.lmi'til. pane a sl?'Licm~ii de .al:lfcl, ~'e~t:imeJfl:t:<ilia faceraai pl!l~f! flllllOGk!, !lle:<:~t ccea ce ,.LI{K~k'\ iHj.ie~'o,'f:lp8l('e.l1:~, ·~au (it 'i.mngfao" .. AOL:)"ttLlli stU ~e Inca II mal este re1.CtV1I!t lUI Slpaliu at s.~u; dar acesta Ol:pare dln

ee mal redus fat,'h:iler dit at' n pWlM sa fi~: J'lar~Hli:d~,llt~:!iJ dt~ .. reee '~iil~. ImpremU'i cu Indwotna lar au dar nre$tL"ru llDleci pie~e mult imponamu :Pti'1JLru <Ii pmea ac~pl;J. im.:reWntare.1 PIotflQvari,i

,v ...

. '. ul1Qr "an4tll", 1I'!oLcp-(!ndenta .feN'islefbr f::iltl die ,<!:Ue.1 shl

cstegre1il'liIeme-],l'~I1Ul in 'PtezeDlf,_,oetta c~ ~:X:f'I'id1,~~:mstl!iillg,edl1': a<;llpTa r{)~}'1,iillor', ceea Ct~..ci(pti~h I<lQIl~1I1 ei f~(U:1 c~ ini~eret~M:ru:t!tf!!J(! .aLII de~d: tendln~It de u S-C,collflmda ell pagini le :tisill1t replie,i I)]rill putin hlij1c ale acesrora !Dar a:;lli ~ de.ja, pO\'f!s.te ce nn mElt rnt(t'reRwil! fofogrillia.

-sigm"olTita-: ca unul cilinJtre tel mai tal [Jnl~~i drng,el1et<l'~i a sa, pful.>i. 1a mio~ un nive] ih~;lt Q I'l1are park: d!n op~1'<i sa f;e r~i1S<l!l')\(l ,'ill pre~t ~)!PLl.~tl in. nJlJI1:et:l, d(]'i,i~dtt. fupw~~~~ c:5:-'~ ttl CC,'I1intdille 1i,WI'!\,walf.'f III 1StOtl~ Fnnrm::4br fmO"l"llflt:'e- Ei ITIarcheal'~rhl1ipfeuila !.:u a1~H sffu'~-itu] unci pe1'i9id~ ~;an!uLSu,1 (\~ta a~l gLl~ PilJttlClJ~~r ~.~ ~(1toIliP3fu.ei~e mod(l. a [~)~t adll,lS ill f<1~a S(;eTl~1 ~, m l):Cl.at CI.-iI _:Jd~1 '~n glila~e, 'Elml 'Gil!'! pl3:r~ u1 esteticii pure. c.aL~i al aleg~iiI I"t1hiotlitm. l~agi n il(,~r. is;~II;_ I{ecmIOa~terea dimuuisnmlll j, '~Te~Jrv til fotografnlm (]e mmlii e,s~e dovetli lli. d1U punet de v,ed'r;;:fQ ~~lGi ill ~1 cuifltra~, in ~Hlji 'liO" pns i1l1spi:rl:'®fl eroului 'li~l fiJlTiullui Mh;hcllaIlge1o A1iltojlloni; "Blow LIp", ereul prl~~ci ;~] flint!. ctagl'ezullC1avid R~ ilc)' _ In:rp0'!.1J~fi dec! !'::ligllur~11ll 1lfI pre!7 •• snt tot ee a fost ,real'izat la ~llil moment dat m acc&l domeuiu, ~K:lJpnm::l IU1 ]m;;e"~~i~11n i~tor.ia to Qgr.J'fi:(),l, elltlt, e "caz;~!]" \1'1 ,tl!l~ epod pentfiu Mr~rotMU 1'e£l'Oital- CiU trc __ 'crrea Mllml~i, c .. nd-~mlig,lnl~e :par mat dc<~ate de con l,e;.:;b11 r(~r ~ffild ~l'l,~mlqTe d7, ~:esl:.it@~~taPIi ee-o tntt!j~~i":1i,. c;h~rvmn lH,U bme ,~a1d_aLC:8! pU:!l'e.(;l;l Ul scena sau pelfec~jlJne:li t~nuelo:r ': glll')~], sen~i,b!'lll!£lte~ ~'im;li~n:l:tia 1'00~granJo:r. Acru~a::J? uu s,emnifi~a n~p'w:al.d'i lJ!)17res~J ~rtC,l fQws:~~~fh ~a1~_ cu atatnlainl>iH3 t:Ltdtl vest1ment.1P9 ~"l'e I1cghJ,\tit. d<irWic~ ea'~~OImnll~ Sa eX6n::ite 0 S~Jletie lJlJ li.~np ee nce1!sta se ln1iLmpUi, esre Iloahl semuul d suntern i,~~ pre?e.l'1ta nne] Vt.lntahLlti creatH "~'ll~a.lf·

l;\i' lliIr gelleml rnaS~-m0tlja, sum suptfse'in mhd evident in ncastre 'puteri i ,l::comlmiG.e a pt'lblid[A~i, Lll1C(l,ticb:ia~' .waf 'mutt 8untsupu~c venJi,cfuI1l1:p1ilbIku.lui d'~d:i)r. Gde donA "stint de: tlltre elc, fie c~, e:- voiha i!le rele \'11]l.]ne SOlU de psesa :S9rls!f;, ....... ~,"''''' ~ ru:.ac~<l; cekYl' ee dsu all~l')~l!1viill! ~(}ttl dil'tdm: ee dd'intl:<;q; ItrD'. Cousedu"Me se ttl ih:tcl~lii in matt! domenii lc al'tei deco-

in speci.:'u in €~J al1~L~g:r-dfiei ~ubl.icillire, Bi,l~etlilh:, mvestlte

'.. m tras ~it(ll"ca pn'K!miulul Lor $i a lrnagilJll lor de,

~l.1Ilf rn.tfe] 1't)rTIHlte Ineat' a,gell~i:iIc Cit:' sl't~i1esc· ~i regI¢!lza d.cmcn;ll!J'1 pertnil1'Nowafift\r ~~ dis ]pun'j, cle, ~rliljlo~~ de 'expiimam. Dar nu Ie: var,oa <ie: a UZll d'g: (Datil '-'''~~'''l,."''-''':L''''' fotografi a. plJ1ljlicjtarlii, reteD 'i/i!.la:. a1tc d{ilmenii S!J 'pn:7;iTltll col B P'fflctircu 'm,lijoF4"clin pam::r de ea.-Ill] re(Jrez.i.nl~huda_~i I uc:!\I ~i din pnnet (Ie Vcli;rt:. vi]:\I<lIe,. 'C;:j]u~llrG!:>jl!-U il'ltre mard este al1j:Ltlc pWlJe:mfcii

, ~a!l apl'o'xirrlarek, riscurile ~il ex~eritr1 ~elc,. liiv~HtlJta, Ik:cel[l't<JlbiJle' iilI coca ql ~l:rh'e~te, str.ategia cc I:fehuie mJgptat'l

cQmtmi!.:lt:re:± ~il Vr.tl'bill'ea il:l1agil1il u:JH],i rJ't!iH:~l]S. Ae-e8!Sla eslc .sllldi'~Bl [Il!~ce] fTh:--d Illic iJelai i Iil. Ceice 0 coutep C(IIl!!< u,:tii sll!Eio1o~. di,,"er~l.specjari~'ti 10 EtllID1Worue $i aIle.. inSll-

61

OaeJi unele' redae:~ii rnai Im::earcll Sa faVOrD1J1,;Ze 0 DotogmtIe d IffGo:a creati,vili, ~rubtLie s.l:treC-tllloa~I:etrI:l !:tlluCJrul'ile s-an eam ~chi rI~ha1. lL::iei legile; iii~~il sunl I[q prez.em (ljfe ',~c '[l'I mqio[l'mre'a caj:,lllilnr di2;[aJiul, ,,'e. s tim-elJtOlr'~!'ltC ,,,,(;1111ai adesea lin.puln-planul f(ftogmfullli, i8fl:'lhar-j.asih d:e i~~f,c;J;vcn~i~~ p~rsoJlQ~.1; e~,l~ (1)lirt:'i<: .. I:{:.I puti,n e"<l mU::iilIcc-)!;p1~.amw. repeMa pana .','_ Eh;;~'1:. O:aC3. se rnaj rgdun~la~LC'lGd sfi1111 lIIn()J:JL, C mal P'il~Ul daron

- 'Xpritnfu:ii'l:m:g,J~i (;1 "~i o!'fgim:iliriil1Ii: HI\l ui ltni vel'S der~t gra~ic 1:.1~1 _. 3iJlumi(Q[ procooee tehllikc. lJ~ce:Ptme.. s€llinli'~r11a ~rsollall precurn Helmut i'!e"¥ttm, DdilltHh Tm;besiHe ~aUl Gu,y d'i&parot recent cJil1tree:notl ~JJa ciite\l'a Ilgij[i~ ttl,?:af ~ '~~~r :

Clli',e,.a a~QC~a,t slilWui 'lie&1in.1ell1"~iei till ~lJillil ifilaWW ~1 0 ;",'n;"n.li

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I:ul~ ~k ~~omlare a oJjilueipubHce. Ne·am put~a. garlal' ~~. se ~ine cour de d:eptilliderib.f ,~rt~i aIimize tfueia deja: cu ttei7.eCi ck ':1I'1,i Ii'! 'lIr~nii RoJiaudi B arthe~ iij rl.lnca b~lZi~lfe 'publiie~nd hn_r$'I.'"urea sa "RdOT'u;a bnflgi.ru.i.:p,ublkitare", ulnde deseria di.ftJrltelecodll1fl ale COIDllnidlri~ viznale' '~1 pUJIlea. m li.;lmina prinl::ip'ale.l-e" l:ilv.e!ul'f ale "'~eet'llril," 'hltu.rtaEid. lu timthlUafe, nIDi ll'l\ll'1;i cml)l)Hrlnn. ~h1U' ~C"1!lpat de deZi"t~lt<lre:.i ~liin:~itid a prir1'dptuiu.i acestei an<\liZe"hl~r·(j. pL~~Li\!!'I nu diliiUf $emiolo:gicii.. d :~i ~f)t:jtl ~tT,gh;a ,i p"sibdlo~idi, ocm$r~ ~Ll1nd aalie:l fi form~'~ ~tnn~ei apliic:aUi. in pl:lhlkillile,. E1:a:u fhslCO.llsulta~ tl~ t:al'IC agcni.tU pentru c~ns(lUdm;,eij ~i \"cnfic a,r,L.:8. il?ot~t':eIO"r ~.I, prolt;'_ctelof preien1;llc ti"lian ~~I(lr lOt', aslfd indlt, ~ pre1.eTl~ nici iUI 'nt!}saj nu mai e;.st~ lam,'tIt 111 im'fi:i"m111idll'C, datt Illnd impm1antll ~iste!l1uJrn.~:e prn:ticiW ta el'a~Qrarea cllimWU1iilor publi:c1.t1u'e ~i ,tutJ/.l ror P~~:lU~ii10J doe care snnt In'Gonjnm.te ac~s~. PtltJ'li[:italrt1 este un ~.t1CJ;'U lU!1I't pt1a ,';Cri~)K' pcn1rU' fI fi i!1e:reJint.<tm·CI'~1Ca[1Ui c.e,ilt}r. Ac:ca~l1I ail' explkade ell!' fotr."lgrai"uil Se.lrurtKluITn3. in tn111~e>caz,lliiilitr-lJJl mt! 7:;:II! atrnUiiUl §j_scmplll19$, ii[n~:o;c:ClLl[arrL iltS~'CiJ!fl'l: s1i. mate1J.'iiJJlze~ 111ll"-IO manierliclitffi<'1:i nelltr,f1. J3dk111i1l!ilaJlldn-~i ambi\iiJe pmpiij ~i gustul e:ii:~(l;ti~!]~J.;i~ oimagjne. conc;eplI.ta de "creatoriq" agu'QIplo;,; act~[ill aqtone"7.-11ar~.m1u~ 1crr t1uptiindk'll,t.me dnte ~e "com~rciatl'~ii" atrnll lUI [1umai l~ d[)lCli1I1~le dientilor ~oI', d<:i:!: si 1a ~rucru.risli~ilo W1ci p.iel~ ~j practi~:i l:e C{l:rv~1JlliTlatol'i1or. Vom inre1:ege ~81fe] eu u~uriTita de ce clmostin;fete 9l-!ltomle r~ care. s!i .s1?njinft mesaj,e~e I_:llJbUclta Bn.]ll[eexu'ern.de..re(hlsti~ I').l1<1gi.n eil puhliclt~i1<a. (jt:V~~lil <i:~tfe] 0: tUprnrCl colec[ivli., si ea s'ptUle mai Q"11.J]te; despre ~l s.c¥)icL:ne i:.Iecl:t de.spre C[! 'a c.t~manrJal-Q ,5i daeA astiiii fotogqd::u] ~R\ dln cc .1'1"\ c~ mai tendJ:linta ~li lucreY.:e in ~tllclj:Q. esie :Pellt1;U ,c~ JCQl0 se c(,)ntrele-aza mai ''''hIe teree 't:I:ebuie inl%'l'a'lFn.cou.lpufl,ere.a\,il-~]l.1i~'.1n special fnnctie ~,e lecul foaTk jrnporlant aJ textelor {mar.c-1i.,. mesa] arsumente) Cit intra 1n ii:<ldrni vizua]; d!~(')arOOL!;;.tl p(ll i'czrllva ell

. c::. .. ~ . . -

mare prB,Ci l.k ~i fli.t'J! sl):i1prize ne;pllicute de~at \l'! afal:;U' ..' ,

deseorl c~l1nple)\~p~e de -r.;ei cc c()tr.lru~d1ii imagl.nea, pll1 blkifarJ. acest fel s-a lfeCurs 1,l fotogr;lf pt1 ntm Q.)#Jpeten~eLe sale p1u1'kul re • spocializase de carear fidO:lrit $5 scape''j!icar'i!) !>-;i putui Iace si fti.rlI _ in rl'lll.terie de1luner,e in SCe:fu1. a pe.lfSom~f elm', a uirec~i:mlf1'ui~ I Limn

f.I decl~rulul a cra.ti.n i :lll'lbiail.lelore, folQslril otilorilor sall a '

~I el~t.elm'~peciatQ. C1ici im~giJ'iile publicitare sunr dill ce; In ce

, [Ilclun]]namarq~:mtaJelorce se s19l'ijin:a pe t.eilEl.ologia liiJ.a!ii de . s-au '!Xl 1 eborarorut Ioarte SElffM.J.c::il (;;Q; 'rntt.':ires(> .rc!i1~~mu:l !Ol' run £(~n..fra.!e .z u:;c-e.l'lll.w·a:za caraeterul ia.fI'ta.stic. $1 d~G!i. fotogra"fia ea 'j'h~a~i .Ill! r>Cl.U~e..'jote '8, smisf;;tfca <I<~pi.rntMle ~i J,,'iU:o;tliJ eslui ~m; il'ungillea pahli:citaJ'a,. se ' v. ~ utillza fltl~ll~l 'C'OlicnL:,'\lofi!.l

Q ajll~l::li. ~fec~ele ptulus(l de Iucru l pu 'lIDl ~m!1vQr ~ I'fu-~i a costa mai iefi'Fn cl~~al cll'in<l studiourilor, Ql.ateriajclc~i tll<'9:I.ut lucm .mod,lta l'ft ,gon~ll' ell luAri-hl de vederi;'

adesea, eu mal r,amfule Ilici UI1I m(O~iv ~illrl.l .a recurge la fowg-rahc,. tot a§l Cl1~~ afost 0 vreme 'clind f,Ofl'~gt3fIJ1, o realli l'lel:son<ihl:::tte ern paul, tl.q:mnt; ~'e CClmfll:!t4ipu:I.'lLi~iHlrlt. adt:\ aTat $i eli a~a\'ta "nil clecoral'i\.lh~ FezlJmri.,din. ce.ll] ce

63

6

rn;)ij 'm l1I]t 1a ~)pnjijl~a. w:bJ1lid1. ~t:e~ ce ~;k e,ill seH!Slli~ eli.m.eJ(;Ig_ic a] Gtlvllnlwlli. 'C~II ~lilllte, il:ces~eilcat1vil ",m~ti" "nat lu,c,lwfu in 1k.c~t Id~e'!):l~.~hdJuiii' ~:n]f .tipulIleidi "arlli" ,~)r.:u rosu;ec'U~(lmtijt lm:l:lferenl de ac'Cw:,lU, fIDlol~.re~ sillniui lQt', ill SenS]:bm'itafn~i ob~e&ifrh;,l[hn:. camrd iltmm:i!te' m...:9rci,au '{nIt ~~,se "l'8QC~e~,e. llTh~( ~ri'j'lJtr~(~ rn:iTlillCorWcxdus1vrfi, J permi~';i"'!lf:ri'jJc'aTita fapHllLtl ~a ulicttm,Mlha.te<l '~lrte:i ,imag1ru:e~te un ~hartc bun I f'lijIQC 'de a "cit_pM' atenlia",,,su siceptlbil!de j se m~mnta ell n~mt~tJ"

;'$'f 1!l aO'l!~t h>11 m1lll'~:i "eac.~:iii:U" :;.i-a ~l.<;i~,Urtil:illimp'.de. nm~ Lllllitl arli~efYit;il,[J lu] Sarah M{)()n,.(_;lla:l'l~lml).'dill~;Pe.al.~ lui(J~yF1'G,~il:!hll $11'l1ai (eQ@ljl "I,{Iu4 Vt1itt'Gli' m.:eeie a:Ie lui Jlemm L'jt;jvie~~ t'!1f1:[J~ti1li sunt colnb!(i',atodt' f;{e:i'T\jll nln,¥'I~c;";.;q,i.ll ~]' nl!lt;s~, ~(~ 1l1lamlpfflft:cll 1I,O£:'>lC> marc') tt~plXlt:i~IUi o:bie;~le (je lu>!; de 0 .tIlillru:,~' SiJ]Lta.te m~j ~egi;.rb:l d:ecril p.l'9,~,ll s,e Jd~Stl1111,te !':~lTM.lm~llui M![g, in ,~r;~~l limp mOllien pmte a 'f<iiWg'F~jl]Ot. rllm[hTI~ i'n aTIcm!nl.al .qilUU ~r; ifi[~mp]~ in ~~T1CFal de [l)lll[ lilllp tn pub1kHii:te; ~i pare :ulleoll'i r.:;Mar rl'~t:el;a'bU ~eM'tJi~ ei $5 nu-si r:eyend~Cle 1i"tatu~~'l/J dOl .;fL1iXH", tl.at:i1n u C:' verba de ce:a.'3. ~ plan j uridit &¥tt tlmncreis.L

T(fnl~ se hlt1h'!Llpl1'i,cQ.~] emu M.m~egi;a <ld!op~ata tJe III arc':! r~ecl!IrtI C!!cb<l!rel.J~mJF(bm~·atlYi:.l.i!lr~nl1Jc.,1;;k d.eS:~]I!£l~ unujj:llu:~H{f ctmsid:emt S-l.InCI~f.l:l de 'cI11ti"at ,p'e-.t:ltfU a [e(!,~noa~t.{l !,iii, <Lll[eci.<:l( .~ubtili1:iatjle hll~bil!llJJ,ril, .m;film,jj,!11e!l'wl e~.1ieJij (!~i ~'!im,:l!bif lola 1~ie.4Ji,; mc~WL~lnaren m~'nillG:Li v.:a,Cl) slilul de. ,f!ir~Qgh~fi~ c I pe:rc~l2e ~ a filIl~ llllcr'<m:OI ;t'Cel~fufi .n1Jtc@l.D~~amesaJJ!1""'iltl'11 estein 1'!rw.enJi!:Ila~ mll'H ~ajj mal f!l'1~11'! ~JabCi'~k f"!i: plan .c:~tdli r,;, d Ctl'l pn r~naWll rAnd C{1-IIQt"~ III dj;rle(f~iil '@ub~i0Iilll1i c~u,[a .1 se ?lGl'esy¥~,a des.tl'U'<lt;:l!l'~!wl, !.il~!i<J..~r flli'n letuiim o no~il,!lJ.e di!] "~e.tQTica hl:llll;g'ini ~ru.1lli~ilarc·; aJw F<Ql :l!\d BiH:1he~ «A Iin~~' scgri1{1n!h,L~ d~< pi{l(11 esre ~t'; 1\'ap~ ~0o!p1]1 cbeie ill c~l:nulli"fui (,:mbJtel,t£me :adlJlrue,®om:pa:mtiv Otl mesajul .aij~fl1orilil:l t]ie~~ut Q\f[e se

vJ:u]a· Ilru;v~~1j;.Jl. . '

7

65

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I

.lUqlik[a:'lI.rti~,ti!:a I 7

revendieare ~~',~. fps.~, I):le~e!,l ~~ g!Jst)Jl cf~lidl!].E epocii., precum B([1Jdela~rc', care se"s\rlfd,l,Iua s4 ~fi!lTUU dL el'll VQ~h<l: de 0 R!iW reee si Il1I'l(;:anic(t, fl];rasI1J]ii't, 'Ce 1m P4W8J. (1reV,CfC'~ llid oemQ~i e. ell ~o:a.te d'j istmda fcrLug;raHci. e~\.G[n.if-~n .[~ :cataCl~1'iz'jlr.~ de ~[M'4IriGl<l~l.Crea p[()gT(}.~lv;\ it unai mM cbex;pnrn:iT1:: M,li'SJti9~ di ~in~'5~.riltl;likJ!if~tl

~pcL:i:fk. ~1 .at, f.hlHil()iil~0..1;~m%lu~ ,tWjfl. eNci;c~!ii !lici; "este

ro~og;rnna. ()' ' ,I ~TLjl paJ'C s'm.~~~ nwi aile st;ais~l d~q:M,t;.~e: fot.l:lgra;lli

i~i all 1 ocul 1G[ ]nmMle:e,le de "111'1i. n:L{ld~mlt., u.m~riciIDeI Iii ~llfn{,'l~He, ilil Nam1.~ {;oieetiiror te!fl:illtiO~:~t i1IVI~gmmeh'" ,ex;pozitiih));, <ell toare at'csrea, jm~igi!rii~e Hll! se ckspr.illd]n ,m1;a:li[;f(rre de;, iun llCn~[I picw,~i, iL\[r~ clt~h.:pr1I1 ;fa1l1;1;l1 c'a.a.vem. t;eJ:ldintllJ ~ili. JI:.e <1ga! ~rn in perel:e ~~l sl m.hlouvicl~d",tij'ar (lad se ;desc{]p(,'t~ fi1,rn~nl progl:es.~V L~' "Llc orlee .fcittlgrafie. ~~lC frzibn.il~ i'[ill s;~"Oe:Ze;, f.nbl;.'nti t·t!! moetl!l1 se dez.'.'ilJJtl1, o fOWgTlil"iit: s~.rnl gBE.dh~ penfw c,xPQiir1i)

(i6

7

Expresi a ,ntistica

Primm gCIll.iritifl pe care fotog,raf1aie-,j;J, mo~tenil, nudul este W!Lu.I ~ar'e "tu noa.')te un IOu "ceS de.osdtit 111 eontexm t UlJ:e.i pracli ei pur m;tis:ti!,)~ ce pr]"ViIe-gr;lzJi furma ~n nl,pQt1. eu eeea C'{; ~.repl'eZe[lHll, FoloWo1fill ~ g~~jU~ ac~~( gcn m~ obiect ide:.ll . .IllJie;r,;:ac:t COrpLi1: el (i desc~perit ~e rfind nenurnara:tdc po_"jbilila,ti de a felosl hmuJilJI, d9m{j:n~t[:1nd ih acestfel ee materie pDYile,gim.ii esl€: pr:nlru arta SJi, Istorla acestui £I'lTI I3l-lLe eea a re1ffiloh:ii Gvasi.~ern'l:.w~n'Le u exp.:ticn~elo~ Cl',~tqaf.e ce pun TPlI leJ,!~~l1ra ~1~Sl.;'nLl~ ~1I fo.rmel~ corpllllli. lUl jm~ pi dl i i' eli lumma nfi;tJM'orH[ s<1uJium:in<la':ea arti I~d .. ]!t D~-~il_,; ~i P~[]i1 a spuue ell aeest g~t1ef1to, etern rl"e~um. pl:tlilru poetu' liric este s'LI~icc'Lut iu~ij'ii. IIU i~ane d~1ir lln_p,,!s U~Qr {6 factl(. Evolu(b tehnieii rofogt<!fi'flD (afl·:,tril.la noUo.r filme, btirrn fOlqgmfi:ce. pc-rfcc fi,onarea opticll, p(;}ced.eclr.l Il~i lumi narc, . rafinameuru! imrnmarii) 'pel1:ni~ s?i imp.nngern L'Jlel:~UI ·illia,il.l'te <I,~~')l~ ~[lcri.en\J,:" Aoe-stea amintesc UI:l cl.pBtic:n~eJ_e,.p1ctlllrii.: 0 jf.JLe{)clJ!pare comun i1 fa ~tI dt: lillia·cotpultli; mal 311·oi .• de l!l!data ce r !pogmi"ul aj~l,nge sti .stipfll]ea~cl i nL:iden:~a 1umi.ll.H fam, de velum, el se allltlIli preocupari I scuJpf;Omlui. Dar IlJU l'Ium::l'i. 1il. oeea ce :prlve~t1ji luarea Irnagmii 'it deckle callrsrea llcl1¢i rot;t~~,-<Ifl i n uil; Aparrate1e ·de c are- dls:pun:e ast:!z. til:tl,igr'aI.·ulifi Itrbm'a:tm ln momen m I ~pier:i i pcmi~t fj ni.!1fMca inl<rginii, explnatarea tuturor illl.ante'lor tnue [Ie,~ ~i ~b 111lFC:Wlitrare pe TlcgaLi ... , unele retll~u1'i ~i oo]o~liri.. f n accst d{)rnen iu, lrviu:8, Penn este l."!nul ~l n ~~i' ec a cxp_1oalJlt d.fiiId clov, OJ i:'ltfs<.Ivoi· I"airc ~i nnhl (*~, an Lq,mite p:rm:.ecl:ee de blipiciru ~~ i se ofereffil~, ivscr~ ndu-$:i TIl InditLa: 1..!1'lC i pUlre diut1:!ii ferniale, ah~(~lIJL ~!.)(og:ta:fiece: i~ aceste ~lll.agW. c~U'pul c ell tli'l ubil?!clt abstract, illndca e-m'l.Q] m: chipul ,11 u fLtyar;e delo(!, malara c.,drulu:i saLllniumbri'l, eeea cee:objt;;nujtl~ eest gen. IlI!1 C":\t¢~pri",iL deciii:pc.rttrU vll1~ltlle ~al£qli;:t~tit:e, ludiferell1 tlltC~ e eQnfoJ;Il1ir;~:t.e' ~ u carW:d!nde d~ r.J;li:nll~te la :mCKlli, SaJ:,lI'Ul4 este ~.il, accel<l'~] thop Hp'sitft~m"i(;':'Cl {l:Jt:ct t'!r\]titt T.rebu1e sa uoe'ric!i anum.it limp pim!tcei'.otog:mfu.l al:!o.J'de~".a ~i r.ralc[:I;dl.chi1l'uJ ImpR'li;.iJ C!J eorpul, :~ia",,"e~~ c v id@ll'ldin mntjve de pudoa~!)j meravuri; faro obi~llUU fotpgr-atia leste perccpiHa '-':!1 l~lnd nmi reali slii, "adevru-at.li" deGat pocLura, ch:illi' cilac:ri, im<l{;in.e1!,l "-:1; pre;(.1Ti1W :5.fllJ mi~cat~,

68

Se mill simie iTidi,~J.'CI.l!tate<l acestcijen,edn fo1.Qg('ai~a de amston fotografiei Insrarnance c1~~re-llir as,tfe~ practlca tUldu]ui in caw fotogmJul nu mal e abli:gat sri-~j ll'icrcl.iin[.c.ze

It: int.-un labefililm' (~'!iP';i p. 11,1{).

l.'nr.pul :nud;, fetcgraflat esre 11'~ mud tl"adi~ipl1fj1l anounu, <lji.J portrsml ~Ipllfe- Illl bracaL Cde iilou~ genuri fill aa. ninric ill prirnnl are Ytn..'p;l Qbiocl iJ forma flZi.cil, iar ail d'nilG3. on pCnioan1J. ac::c~lL:a"J:E~. qfi~t.va Mi, Lihe:rtite.iU.i[l.(lf'"dvuriIor [)~mll'n'!luind la fnil~luerek:lhtre. tdl:' ~~U!a g~Llri ,~¢ .sim't dl;n ce ~ (:e. mai

. Alit de bine fndt 1n ~c pm:,!.l~tt: unele imag_i:rii a'Cm~le,1l1!.l rnsi . if! ec calc-gor.l;e s~ le diJsifitam. Tilland !:!1I)h.lij ddaptul d1i 1I.1 de genml este R.fOpri1,lllngj an'Unllte fO[lt~ ,e modei:uit:;lt&. ,]asti~i;i ~ .ar~lesteo1t' ~ rntenJll ~ C. rpct9ri:;r.c~~dl d'l!:

gel'l.ltJ ,p'odrenll~'i~i uneo,r,i chi#l" eu cfec:lC t!h)tLC~, (,~d ue~.urr.

"UJ,l.Ll';O:U eli in pf~~cnl L.-n.~ti srnul, iii. dl versele lui forme .. C_!;ltG una "',afi!octi" ale fO'tografiei.'in ilomeJliul ~s.qi, de exemplu, la: aceasta -['I'OI:lt.e rna] ru~in l:L!CLU)U- penrru a <liJfage. .. ;t.en~;a ell nri ee n~a!lie. fl'il'fl.c.l a ~egiitlU"a ;,t:egica \ill.:xi ~tc; ne£l~t

cope-rtf[ rev lstel ~i CGH'i~~nutll! eL dar pome ~ P.eJI[JJL1 c-.a :w ge!lse.l!.lllllitn,t;ea este U p.l'l.lble:ltl·fj_ Qbsedama. a sociel'Jiilil.in acr:::~ l caz, ajunge sa de ... in;l~Qt.all tr,m.sparcntil. san sll se reduc~ . peecedee .i~lctit.c" loarte convenr1ollalf, $11biecM cslC de "uremic "im:dll lreb101ie lJitaffi t::cim;ua, ce~~: t;:t! att.ijnte~r,e de cl.ocmlleliltara.l}af eroti ~mIi.Ic~:t.c '!';:ic'l;ubieeHlI m1.0r t'erce,tilri De fapt a~GM nWHnl. ilIll are a~~a~i i1:l;\~eJ~5 lfl i"llUdici de . ile ~uci[l,.cU!rul.·f1le in care este ftil asi l; ~! pli~i.rt si\ Tm:elB ddi'Cat..>i d.isl1nqje illlIe er~.nl~m ,~i ponlogmfie:.

Istolia nudulu;i VlIllD in lapt problema fearte interesan ~~. a sti lului Pcnlrlt 'i:tnpful moti\" ciiacesl ~!m sc sprijiflu pe 0' p:rodlJctle de Fgrme lii!'1gin.ak, mai' {Jegraba ;dectit pe f'XIIUI;;~r't;"I .. CelCl1' di n .1 rrmc.a t:ealii .~.i ,~1! !!IeIl&U (. i rl"l;j;g~ni r ·eiitc rn,a.i

69

7

7

Expresiaa rtisti(ili,

rnult de ovdi 0 plastic dedit narariv, Difi;.renfele stint. in acestsens ev ideute" intrlt: primele rolog.ftfi i nud dJ n seculul at XIX.-Ic~l, .firill'Lre' care eele !I~c-l'tl~ Euge,)1e- Durie au ser"jt-dre'p~ model :liIlcWrilof precum Bugene Delacrnix (aer~La a ... frnd a~tld 'posihilil:3tca si1 ~>~l,Idicze 111. amrunlllt: inddenti]e ipOzi~ie[ fa~,li d'e uriutom13.MtpLcJui)J ~1 ceieale lui May Raj', d~mrlCi diuanii 'JO~i de, ]llspitatie suprare."Jlrstii prin fBPlul d aJ;l1'Opi aG~"1]I1l11 J~ m<l!tcri ulc precum rl1~bl.l't.fl unci' 1TlB:~i ni, 5aU de rule forille ru care nil suntem deloc Qb~~llHl~1 ~~h-l asoclem, Mai tlrliu vom reClJnO<l~le eu tt~urj.lfil~i1 ~tiI~l1 lui Bm.'Bmmlt ~ie 1.1 cl:l.r~ s-amspin .. H!li Uarr]fmp Sidf', fotografiile lui fiilld! re1:Jti ... euntr Sotarr(e. \'~mc si,i.b I1n:gnil.lri rllli :'j;l uneori rutin IJcfnnnjtlc prill utllizarea oelecttvelorcu :tJng.hl msre; ~i s!i runimim sl de fotografille nud ale llcili In; Ilg Penn, re;.ilil'lte ell cea ami. mare gr-~.ilf~. ~;p;~rl-i 'lalla tradltles "~foto.grafieil':mte" !:II dirci ini ~iatnr l± j'{k~~ EJ~ilard- 'WCS.Wll. Asoeierea un;ci]~]j;;(ii.r1 en an name au se face ~['itlH'-ml reflex: ilNe~ial !jot t'liGi eu li~\liri n ~a, t:;iiJ.d ~t~l ul d~. mi~l"'re 1 a 11 nli, \'o1Lrme, valori, lm:adri\rJ, tf.lsaIDaFf: l1n 'fonJ<l' destul de' subtile, dlfuze. Registrul de intcr~;elli~i~ 1i1 rotn~"1l,t~J l;J,i' ~l deci 'Illijloiaoole de a-~,j TIl ar cu Mil'1I1 in plan formal este evident mult mai timi tat deeM lid",a.! p.iclOrult1J_ 1.CaJ'e lr! U1us p<late .icmgla. ell 'dl:l1leJlsiuflIile ilmagloii, cu mmeriahll. ell pa'Sla (fG: euleare fi ill ~ptdw ppa~ j·rrtm,"l."(:ni diruc.L pHi'] gG~llil niail1ii,

3.l., OUlftm1 ~~b-negru

C~dO'Jrea a hice,l)ut 'S~ fie ell. adeili,l:inrt l~ti{i:zalll d~stlll de 1:t:celll (de aprnape jum5it!lcte ,6e.seco\1, Este eare ea sU,p.fi:iJjt..1i <l~a (;um, esl!! Mapfinit rrl.h-negruL jl1phm, strict w-bmit~tne r,lllcm punc problema; if) domeniul i:mprim.'liil lnmglliu, nlci nuul din djvers~]~ proceGec acraalc 1tJL1 pan .~ii·i /:iafjs:J1ilga pe deplin pe fOOOgI<J,ii PlHl~a1tlJ, parta, e&teculQarei'i C 11 ad~ 'l'arnL im neu mij l nc de: expru~,lc> difcfit de alb negru? Punel1'e.a Ia punct-a precedeulnl Ill: pID:ea d G.'OlItdbuie la .!tl~allgt.:.T~;l legil.wrii dintre 'fowgTafte. $1 l"eali~fil ~.i'de a face in consecir~~l1 trnmea, a,>ll!l:pn:l formclnrmai rLltin vl;r.ihil~_ Cum ~ 'in I.kunenhd reportajIill'll 'tu-c:atc ,uti li'lllIbfl.CUJ.Qdl s-.a,gene.ra]izru, Irnpu ~ dcfj ni Li V de rev.i&te-. ell ~xctptiJa ,catorY..a cmidiene ce l11ili '1ii:C)~dii Ii It loe .fotogtjlJ~~tl.i, IT! t.1IH]'~l1.!l11 pFe,S[;!i, -j\)ilogratia a~h.l'mgDJ.~t: 1'J:l ~l~ad

70

IDr!eile~!lt ell un HiCl>aj \l'1.ll]<ll diterit; ea mardn:al.a till m:uuai fotogrnfl'~I1~ Ia ,[} cstclidi" q;i ~ fLfh'ffi<)re!lllJmi pu~c:t de a un~'i ~iliJdiri •. ~fl,C(mtGlst CIJ 0 simpl1i.1Jln:Jlun~.- llev.Qibif!1o

de r.1l9sii'efl slste:I:nati~lf,a a.1 b-]lcgruh'li e [I ~impJliI femnmen ,I a (£l~a cwm apljlre de t:a~i va ant li:l reviStde- d~ 1Il1~Jda>. BI'onu~ i i~m)b'TjJi~c ::t-rn realltatea 8a~,mpli:i;e. 0 grclAtat~ leu :a~jt mal iMI~' GO cat lie sprijil1a pe aceasla ca[luntk <.lGea_~:ra a alb-negru) ui.

3.2_A n oolulist

in p.rezen~ se pare ;;;5, lQto1-'T".lri~l a~a-zis "ill'listidi", YlI'fi in ,alb-

say nu va: fi dctot:. Ceea ce pare pa11Ido~al, d::u.:::1ne ·gtuldi..tn ci\ , fO.iQgrafki, p1a~il 'ii!Jnllturilt~T)i eea a p[tlfesioni~~ilm:~ IJU,LU(;itu.'l;;'.r \'~ual;l 'in' ansamblu] el, p,l'e>&a ~i putJ11c?llatt':a .sdll( Yn H1aj'~a lor majolli'Jirale pe GJ,!J]n;;.rc' (nh"J i.udQiaLu apJol1'~ ~ia£~sta ][lcepand 'U ana ""]0. Care sum re~1(n1eri1 iII afara

de t~l a~~:m.JiaM:a,tnllln., ee-si ~nffCep ·~;u.hic(.;tclc d~ fu.aIb ....

C31\e SUlU f6tQgrofi i de 'ptlh hciud0 sau de mooa., cuex cert:i a precuim Pder .Liud~rg.b ~e hi "Marii:·Clai're", care ('ez!.sta: , penU'Y a nu spune imlk:rialism;u.h.l.i culorij u revls:L.c·!' ~:51eff ~'II I":iula];lc. hiJilelnte,les clel1n:ltlv'legat iIe alb-Ilegru

ar 1'1 ~ooanl ~1-1 vedem SelJll1~tllrli ,sub ~ fot0g,mne C(ll0f, E c1\' se mill in"~mpUi Jill oan9 ta ,cfil1'd COl ~e.vjstel(l du:.'\li'Jilal~ piJ,lbliGT~a.~i· i~LciSclll srt ;l1fl~f!ie pe b;pe:.lli-u :tolo,g.~<tfie a1bOaT lreaui¢: tlL1.h pll~in 'VtJ.7.II1l en aGea!lt§..,ar~gmt: se~lHd un f!l1 . 13 calit.iiVit~ pn')I'l-l;:ji a1b-ne®flllnl, 1il~IH illi~~].IldJ:: H'~.1cSplif.lde p; la 'Itll)d~, sau He ;:lcoo.n ,q,nl d·~Gtlm:rpriz..' f)'rin difel'erltll. cu cope'Na ill culori"M~.i: Ptlit.lu G1i.n,d trebnie ~cce.lllllala lswfic,1 a tlocumenrului prezentat. fil rev an~ii; ill mediile

in 'Ill uzee, galerii, lsmul ale totbw~Jlieic; :1 ~LcrAr.i Ie ce ilgureaz,,;l g'cllend 1)11 ~db""lGI.estil.l. c'[.mlraf lIliliz1'irilor cOl'J;le~da[e ale in aial.olce,."lul rcgisl!rl1, uici (1 problem ii. Acca;~hl JispuUi cTh l(}Lu~I, S'la [n."l1 clmnoli.r litH "jte,udl de ilO."f;l .;:Ilall~ieJ:iH:itoOIilfuL

I • ~

""", r . , '.[-[w.:·m.' Westoll, ~r~ ill It)~llmul din prim..il C'an::.$'-OJ ,;101,gllLjal

'40 In nlUlI1ea ::lpwfmlaat'h cfi C',lllfi~., ~tri a 1J1 t Y5j: ".Esle

71

7

7

rid:1c;:oT ~~ 'aflnul c5, calcarea v:n 'llC"!d~ alb-mi:f';rllL 8 [lJJ't df)lI~' mij~bace di.f~ite. al dlror seop este diferit, Nu se pot t\icidecl1l11 eoneurn rceiprnc" (clta~ run "ISlvitu .IbMgr:aj!ei."" Editura Barcl';:H;~ .• ell toafe aoestea, IILl1I ~i inca mal :culli\iider.Vci1. f.o~og;af.iaJ celor .'>c· ~pmpic prow. malt derea1ltate.~1i L}:1i;ill. ~~msl:cillta flU se peare (lsoc.la.dti '0 ve:r'irnbll::1 J't,nnl1 de eJ';pri mare Wit~stidi ~i l'ier8t~fi[!lm; m opo7.itie 'ell aUi-hegrul care se ct:m~liwic em un Iel de al5sirac~e si ~fe r rL prill aCtl31{t..:l. mull mal nU1Ufi l.i.be rta~" Dc rap!., "tlev(mlta pfQblemit se ttmi in aJ L."i. 'Parte ~i ,csle c!lmpfex.a, a~a. cum serir.: M"aulio H[1ls.atin, JlIWM nnei -1 rdi;:rC~lIj[Il gl "l"stbrli a cu{vri"WF ,> (12tli~i;:i PI mmt<lri'nn~ ~ 9~6)~ «Cldritt re!p.rbd,l.I$:.I t:'u ofitll2iitciltle viziunea Tn "ru b-ue gru'l' , ab(]lr~ijm '(,:1.1 aificl!b;lt~ ~i poeje ('L1 0 anumim reli~tellta inteI~ctualti vlzhmen

l . _

co]pr, in tl!nr ee instrl.lment€ opl.ic~c fabri,eate'lSipecJ!II1 j(entm aceastn

(tnbul catedic, rlc exernplu) produc di'll cOfblrti ~\pltvL.ii crornatiee iar cnleeile sru;. in. oehi.ca fi~g;Jd ne~Onf9llne ou ['e1l1itat.ea»,. E:fucu". tre buie ~~ thN~+l1~em dona vizimlJ f,CilOgraric~, uOll!a IT!nd~ri de gtmdi:t-e. de eX.Prlrr'lfLi'C, foarLe difellte.·Dardawputfapt!iltn dtlblpsimll culorii este de dma recentfl. (i~vcn~~arrnc.edelJ,1t'i modern ar~ dear ceva. u1ILi fiiflLlL d't; CiTlCj7.ecJ de ,3nO:, jst€li'icj.~ It-au avrut Iud tirnpul nL\C:~~lF~Qtl'll' a'l\l'isp:luiJe la umill'l." .~,dbitrebilre: oe;tns~Ula s~ 0.1

coIO"ns'L ill :r.il~te. mjm>ti~' .'

Ame~iCatUll Bc~.noTlt Na,';;'h<i1J fuscrie hl tucrm:eSl, sa "Mona j'ot,(Jgto.jki" P' "Uil rej1FXie a lui Euo;"':'ard We:-:tQT!~ "MI.I)te dintre fotogl'afU - ca ~i diT11J~, ijiC·1}r1r! ~ SHUl doar irnagi.nJ tn 1iil b-negru toamru liA~a;ll'iicat 0 culoare. Prcjudecata f()t.owafi~or~ fJ~J de ClJ~O~U'e YJn~ ,d~ Ia ~aph:ll ~ii:ei m10 ccmsldetti eapc po ~~mn'ilt",

Astfel de aurm a~i i preen III ce.Jti eitaee mal sus, dateaza dim . ~l_'oilJ:n t exnase.dlerr-un tcu. despre f@ttlgr<l'fi<l modema, Trebule ~il gflntiim L-:a 3!lt."iZ ~ 1l!crul'J1e au Jlla! ~"'il~II;l!L Dar e ITH.lli n pooha bil , lilml-vifotogmJi.si:l: I:' Irecy'tae la alb.l1l:egro l;icuJoa:re tilirl]il:-~imt)(lil'i flJi.m;1;ml~Llt~., COl&t~[lrtl:ln~entlll. ~'~nrili r'epq.rterl ~[u(,~.refld.1 qu eoft)1" a~a ,(_~I) I'll .0 ffi~useiia pfina al.UIl~i hitl,1b1-D1egn~; t?i -au . SC1111ll1l)tII :pur §1 simp'lu j'ihinit 'tim- apanll. CllJ?a.rCl:I mIL aJhcu alUTill;i s~ial DORr- m~"i rm.lll re<llism in~1g1nti, mill ml.1,tr~ asellli1irt!lii'Q SCen~_ N;:l.t:um ]I.lf.omlatid ~I"l ~iT1e IlU ~~f~ cu n iiil.lic cQndj~lpum~

, eulerii , J)rj Qfm,,~ lu~in 1.1:1 eom·;iclcraru. i_~tuci<l pid.m-irL. (:~ apli-crutnl culQ!"i i .. ro~d del iii 'i:tlQep\Qt, d!t{,erm:irlHIiiI de nrup:.lf'4I'elol'. de llrue, de coatarul figtiti.lnr.,la I1rJl,;Til ulilu~i de ilSUP't3 r-e.ditac!iiit1 a.lh-ne,gw. Pracnca cli!:re~r~ 8C~:t C,"e in a~(::lit d0111.ellill~ lO(l].l1 IOC:I~ ~a. c~radJeriil;ij!t m\~lt.l Vfe;Il1¢ pietura], R'ed~sopperimded, intr,,~urfd t.Jri.fcwJGTicnc>1'SellJ,)ilml!:O.r,

fotogmf.ie. hl~r"'!) prima etlp:il euloarea rful1fule. depenclcliJla 00 lu alb-neg_fu. eiIefilill[l] liumla.me'TiIUITlf dill punctde lte6Bte

~;i csletic. l\,plJi. 'ttepl;rt - -l'.inood] cont tic fimpullll;(;eSjlr" en !;;.t~5rii . d.at:-li d[l- dil~clltmtile tebniee intiUuitte • liih i] f!J~o!:,'Tljil,!lie 'de 'COin:!; lTtlJfl geti]e ;.I'c~~tei viz.iml1i In .t1;b .-'f1eg I'll. c~ IUegtc61 .... raportnl um'JjrMurni [I.~, prtrnttu .a se interes:l; n~<1 cum. ~l

::I JaCUl-l.l la v;rernea' Jut de cllllQatl'ea in s:h!lc. A 1'1 e,olnJist bineln~d~ ~ii 'atJurzi l:LJlmji lIlilll..!llulnclfal.,·exidl1sf'll.itRt~a. !oipec.jal ·ti gfl.n'd.e$ti In IZU!Or.\, Ra rcaclionez:! la eleme:ntcle '. i.t,l. mJclI ~ml~ ~i p~r c(}io:.ral"e,; Esle; conce{)"~:iI ~Llilci imagii1l~ p.o.ate e.x.is:th ~i care INlrC s:,,!:IS (iedtt inc ct1I~:orL Iil. aeest . ca'i nu este un ele.ln.e·nt complementar sau '-!uplimcntlf. ea esre

prim1i ar ]rnaginii. ii da~icestehl tliimensiune, indit'erem dadi este naturnlistil 0( ru'flll"1 ee .,.~dc ,m:m ulj ~ SOlllufl p1"educs ru lntre;',t,_ .. uleri ee exil'tti doai!' iII imagine - ehiar -sa:u ;aD~t:r.\U: 11i_ 8i~ur lii ml illlt'(',I~ilenuriiL -este u~or' l'rUlllir;:r:t!( !tltre cd. ce fac JQtog,mfie' 'Gol!:}l'~i~i ee j;K'IC H colOl'i~I:L .A:.~21 !.lUij"lC in geimlnll ~it'i.cil: Sii,dislkigl1.n:1rt! cd ce

rn ...... t·'· .. ,,~icej ce- sum rotografi. .

ee-i poi v~t'ef ~~pri!rii i .V'O"fll voi@i de ir.J5Inlnl~l:!lc ,~l 'Leltl'niGJ:i, ceilaltl e ~~l"[;fl. de un rntxl de e);i~ljJlmr,)t ~i' ~o ~]ec,esit"u,e, ell uf~'in1?l ijl.ll!tfe'~i ce fado[,og:r{ltl~ lli al~'"'l'legrtJ 1$) eel

color se·l::I:dtl.nc~~~, Hi nu vorbesc m:;ee.~i 'Iimbri, nu gam_ksl:,1 fel, fill se apleaca a<llupra aGc1ot::iI~i subiecre, pe scurt, ttru.e-Be ... nl.Wlr>1I" 1I. ~~ CQIlf1fmli acmu r';phd dl sliiu 1. iil fo!tl,gat:i e I],l] M cl:om' ~.::£O tlh6stlul'le de forma. ell tennefm~ [Ill Jt::~ecr1J1ne:J!;;;~ . de-al pri vi • ·dle'] privire"a e~T.e- YIlU] clJ:tnlcte-Ie com tifo(ngrariei -.; mai InllJt dedit odcatC .al!l!i adi1c. fot.ografil:l \'ie~~i. ,aGnnu~iilm, a ~ell:l<ltjj]()1" ~i a oN;esii.lor ~ Iar fo.rnlllla deJa d lalii; "."10[11 1,1] I\lstel~.u:mi1I'. se \'ad'e~te

72

7'

:~i mat a~e'1l'an,fW- Fnlogral"iut Edouard Houbat se mlllWllle':)te liA fKlj"estc~c:ii ace~lirL istorloara: Iu Ump\lll.ll1ei~mi~iu1]i [d~".il:~lle pe tema .Gekl'\;'ei.llci ,i}'i'T]I1lLlTi la care 'I!raill""~ta{1 i se PJo~)\lse~e 8~ il~tmchlirt5~C\~fChi~t1, Lacare el arnspuns'c1\ d,Ulttirii;rmalu~ rOlogratia Il:tl este 'clem'" d ehestiane de ~~1l i _ t\Ct:~tapu~@fi fi c1o.1Ji mm1 dimre s]mttJriieo~1 tl:ewTIniYn:1Ll stil dcdllil1$e2ei:tn,~hJe'l!

4.1. Piclorialisi1ilul

Totul lT1~~ oQ<Jt,'j en Peter l'krrlry I5mur.;.Qn c;tlI$!,-pe parcursul de-a dOl]i'ljttlljr[l~i a ~ecgJ\l]:ui al ,XIX-Lea "se ridicil: 111'1p(,~'iva ee [epn:id~1 eli: en prAl:c] t.l ~ W tee apar'e tu ,ciimpli:l

, ,. (cimt de J'[;lall A_ J'l;iei'lil illL iucr,flrea~a .,' I stsri« $:i ceea ,be~,1 nuima 'Ct'i'~ eviden! ide!t,fl'die OJ. dvalil..l! cu ru:"L:l , pf'ctlUrii, cl~· 11 rec'~I]I!IG1£C~U ill cailtrite doe t:reat~ ~r Ia iloe"l<li~l ell flid.omt Acest complux' oi l;#il!e p,e fotografii ejpoeii s:a nu ~ , dedit fa ,trWi-cil folografialla rMlgul de .ni~, inspinlndill-se IDQoelltl picturil lJitaml'l11$a cii' poate ea me ce ... a cu. lutlli

~'i astfel se a~l.lnge sil: pre;[;i:rlle inleres dom;efe.ctiJeimagilllii . ~i nil actul fmografi;c pmpriu-zis, Ceea ee-i d~tcrrnilllli:<;,;1 a,~urra imil~tru1 in motneIl.bU] t:npierii. l!!l'fllmtd procedec sa 0 retuseze pcnlru 'u-i' reda ~e\'.1 ee liuealitafe'~ul[;x.j~l~:

cum €Clm;idem:u di doar gesnH mii]uij"'preiln~giil',e ~;Sf}i:diuJlli, in ~l e:rnQ1ia 'eS(claca_ 'j n fim[l'ce imerestil foW~r,afid t~l~ exact de R peITlll tc ellbeg;arearuili:sU1J.tii (Ie ICl'F;!CC con ~lrallgere i:mmuaHi. pri.Y'e~te fai:iricarua i.rtl~}o;inji ~unIlare a pr~cedeJlor npfite ~", , ~l ceneentraeea III LIe~jj sale,e'lli:frgii doar as.upr ... siilbiectl;llllli;

~i forrnelor, '

'" u .. seas , ~f into"u:ccre in:J:('loi ill nmp: dup~Lcllm tr dcscric 'Oi Rete , pieloriali:srnLd este 0 mi§cru-e (lel..;jiclC:IlIliL«Seil~"e!lto;:az1i 11.01 1-.,1 cu 'l,it1lttlnll i!ll'!~l'ase; ~Ilcea,rc~" realizarea nnei CJl'e,~~ se apmpie tot mal mld~,jjJe pictura in, tile]" dedesen, utJ thuglri!.fj,e sa!] ~ ,,]te, tebnici ttl n J,mleruu] l*h)rH, l~rrpriiflcill·,!i, comta J1l1i'l.lr)!l;lItilX!l 1k;uT,<J!~etil ,clbieeriv1Jfu~. ell , F'orogil'afti ICIl..'i!e:lLl~:{ (k~u 0 rtGtii ... Lrlistidl bLLTItri lor lim . ceea ~C' caraeteri [l:earii imaginea [OLf!:f:,'T':.tfoca" d arItatea diL I,'bt,ografia parea lUI. SrubSLttut al pic-tu.ii, en ,fllfiJ IIlfhi muh neaviza; 0 c IIlsidera mal ; illt.sudl" (din "Fotogrqfia ~i. "). A\:eastaitendllI(.lI. ~\a.arocla ill pa;rhcular arta iPmtre~~til!)F deja'o iilllJmitli lIBrfec~[Ie; Glsele Freund cUJl~I"lii , meseriei i (IT ~flnl sf'lir~it1lJ18e~Elh11111. Mi ~c!lrcii pi.Gt:o'ci'<lii~fa.

,_""r1'1.",u,,, \nll)~e .tarlie uade f@wgrafia era practicam. Wl.eriti'i R o~ei~ De.ID1lfu.y ~ Cmn:mihlllt PIl1Yo. fi£m;J, p-roef.l1!.l ri~'Ji U;

Js.tmiia fQtQgjlJl~i r~~illc 11 I;: fecti \' tnLruchlpatij cflo Ml,r;:ces I lin c de stllur], blll~wtele::;,ct3, c9m1Hia ~lc a. 11LL considera, ~,Ul~1 ca fiind amprenta 'lIi'h;lnhi.l :l!Siupra uuel forme, t l'e-yine alium;! is,torieuhll dlficil'l pH}h]~ma de a repera tot ee ,relev:a dln lit\il, f'ari1 a dwca in e;(tremii::l,e a nu yedea dear aC'ellstll: illet-I) imagi,n.e. '1in, mod .egal rrel:mie dis.tiIJlS.llP!Jl:W1 rm'priu~.tll inu'lviJuhti Ia ceea ce U(1Jnsp'IIl'e dicrl fL(!t!UJileiJ, lJllJ;!igmp ,'it uliici, ~1Ji~crni ,Si:lJl\ a unei ~Cdn, ~~IT:5pi:lihn unci ,ero~i. n ~ar'L::mll'~ nu ~uru putinb~lPOm.''1tlt<l r,;e IlIli trel)uit: {lCr,lwti:i de nici ~n pruieCt i.swr,jg. f~.M:lUlJ:llre£\ unei m·te:1mpr~urile, 1~1I1burhri le nu s,uni iljtotd~Jlllillta. Ul'mll,rea t1ict,iunil Lriiluiimllvid, acpunea, ~n,pului pOlite in m~lli oWl-1 cQIlLribu.i la acestea,

FiiF'd a W;iri s~ Ltlml1\:Lm l(Jei definitive, ~ pare, ell 'Ijil:nccputuril ei, fotogmfia ,evQlueazlt 'I~~t pe plan ~l;hliic rJil ~i estetlc ~g.(ati indl v,iz.iJ,o"l' llilal de,graM i z()l uti un il de al\i.i.in i.imp ~,in sj~Ol~lu;Est ~j caw l primHflt invenratoei: cl!ac:a In Ii][<lnlar, Dagucrre 't:oIlt~nll, illtrllc~t\'~ opera iill!t[e'l>fill!s~ de Mlepce, dl1p~ ce ':1 luat c Ifl:w~tln~adl: .acest:fi, e'l:]gl~z~J. Talbot hH.re~p;a ltpwapt:!ill aooea~i per'ioada m ,C1~tii 're;Jl"oIf]V d~feriit:. itl .a d'Clua jmutn~ue l'l seCQ111,!lHi al<XIX-l!.l~. fot:QgtOl!t"i prcl1Ium Narlar, ,.Garjal, Discl6rl Sll!] Li;J -{jra)!', ;dC,~t c:o:.cn:i[ ltl~i at:cca~i m~seri~ die l=tQl1t:elist itlf'ran\a. n u in ~'j 11 Inicj un fel de reMic:, Trehuie, a~teptat sfilr~itu~ ~eCQ l:uhli, \,::&1;u1 fJJat1i cu j'ormarell UlIOl' dul:mri sat! SOc1e-tnO de LhlUgmu, mai ales in F!L]<'Inra ~i Mglia be fQllne<l7..a. gn,IpnrllCl~,,~'i aip~rl'i ideUeeste~ke OOml,![Ifl ~.ss \~o;n!;li lui tIl cele din Ilrrna lIttr"o mi~ca!e aI drei nume estc revelator; pk lociali'smuL

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('IE' .1:1 PhQtll.C!.ub din PM'isul i!lCepUf\.l~!ll de seccil.~~t~~e proot]se irnagili1il,Ol pl:in l'ratlill:ca aplic~lliimpcim,runi: t;UfI!11fitJ01lte.-Xlul vrumili l'Inpresieru&te ce se ge,iler41it!j..~c in pic'lltf::L iij'mci,i_

lernrc:di'iu'l expo7j,tjHor ~i al [\eVi~l;l::is,.}]e,. pictLirn ~j fotQgnuia Ciu c~. dac! pict!.lr,ci lS~ imscriepe ealea model',tlM~ii,' fowgroJi 11' S~O urmeze, dar "I~a a, 0 c(;pi a, '.'Sf;l'ajght, pfu.e~ogroph~/' NM se , ca p simplfl sctlirnb:Jl'e. a prmeiof' imagi,n~j, 11'1 ~u"J:de;fa

.-rlbJi[l~(}r:ec se.,stliCool ill ca~kul aj verselor mi~cfu:t ale abst.rncti:dhi i. , . m\lil ~e.g11i1:ili "otI.m do afinnar:~;.i unel I\oi c( mcq;.~~ in ee ~·r,., .,'<;"',. fotqgr<1;fic.

Grape ,cuno:wterii d:lils[1el1 iJe .comr1'd+t "ri tl.ct$$1irii d~ epoea i'mlpc-e.L1 II ll., is~m:ie:ri S unt de p!ireFI! 61 C~ s-a p:mdus. d'l1p:i pictorialism nu este !:lee:!!!. o (',eact1e [.1~a d'e mate' 'lfOt'edeele. -ce au denalural fm~,g.mfia ~i au lfn~' )a d~(;'~t~n~ l11:. IRtc )O:1L aTtCt,~i ,1M! litld(~i alii. ell i81011 ~ ifi ,R-e1Jer'.J.l1, ,~~k Illi:ml.ll. tltntT-C) \iuc6e,~i nne, 'tiL'! fj;mGlIll.~ ce B-1: mantrc~li~. reac~r, a b!tllei l'(li~c~t. f~~ de cea ce-e ,pr«ede', ~I Sf: pare d.a:ce:i'!~ta se "'ernie':!, ~llm c'l~ul fO~ogJ,<lfiei.

D~dpij.;mr.~smul·a m:\tl.llOlit 0 a4erlune tnl~n.11io~a. re,lc\i<l elJOLt"Ma nti va Iintm.ia. s~ a]3a1'f;. vellino pellilfil lllCep,ut din .pilrtea unui om, AIJrre~ Stieghl:l (.'en p,.7:5). Ace:sta,. im:pr,emili, en g,rupli1 die tiltngral.1i !DB sfi' lo'Of ~1t'~gti 1'(1 j urul.tul la New Yerk, se delimileazl de !:pirilul t:~ ~"~mnc:.dn duhuh le p,ic'tQtial..is[~ fli~ '\'.re.trill .. M rrebul OIl cl s~ rearninlim til. r11i:illlt, roolrt:>pole,.cul.tW'a:lfe emu ~a. in.ceputulsecolllJu l, in moil. re.b_'Y.llih teatrul tLdllro:r h::1 m'ilo1 d~ J'I.~~iun~ uOll.dtl ~e de ani t i, aJctiuni mai rn u1t~t1 O1ai IlLt~n spt<:Clacldar¢ ce vizau s!1le cOJlc,retize1Cl \i.c:e~llH"a :ll;lgaj arl1a.::ntdc :tuclke. ipfiil.}t..area Sah:lil:t11 .'fui!e.pe:pdel~~lor. ;bPbti~, de e;l:emplu.11i .anu.n~a~ ap:ll:ri~i3 ~l'Id picl~lri .Spre, ~.lar~1tu] ~~()hdlJi Lr'~el.it *1 ill"lc~pUHd seco]llhU . rel1lrliru)Jm U serie ~ c.:q),!u,iJ,.ii t:aIT' fae mare za,f.v,l1~ fHIl·d manifeste artisnce: sunt'in fapt eV~J'!'iine!1te CC ~aract~ri;t~<:il div.ers~!.or mi~crtri av,mgardl1il.i:" unele de anverf,.rU.va ir.l pr&C~lln f~!tI.!:rh;mIlL Alfmi $:Ljcgliwl. inl£rYlni,: Tn uccs:_ rnornell~ ef~;rvf;scelltiJ: ~i prniJaMl ~di :plcimi(;IJismul 'u [I(larell' COl hnidl1ll s~ll aparUnefi secelnlui treeut ~i ,considenl eli a~a4eis;ml.lt I'm

fOlOg.mfifi !p104.1j sse trebula ~·Jstl1mJf.lD, acest spl1rif., e 1 " .'

e:>:.,f,luzi\ii, i.rlai apoi cl(:St;h:id~ o galel"ie ~i fondeaza nj{)rk" (vaztp- .. ~5), ludtc acesie Illfulifestitri ~i pl1l·b.~li,1 iOat.il.cQil'tl:It'IJU~ de rafli Ia p;rcCl.lli'ca [),:~pHll.,'=i,a j,l:lei" ~ak de "stra1gnl (tmdtl.$li prill fotQgnt~"j" ctiTe~Hi), tim- ~i "a punetului sau de ,",sup:ra ulilei "in g""!lf."!TaL Est£;.1.nk'TC:~:J,lll d ... unI~Mil CHm, repull:frml di~C:1J~ie pmblema pi{::~nrrali~mul,I.l~, nUl. eZlrA Sii1 G(1Hfml:lle,

AJfrud Stiegri'l:r. j:,ons:iciefl!t foto~r:iln'll ca pe Ull ,1IiCf sptlntan ~i in

drrecti:i cu realltarea, El se arm 1itT ,cailltai:ea 8,' ccva esen!]al, efun.iRfil:J[i ret .oe abe(lst~ :amlli <I'!{]J s:e~ ~ulP"~~iltrial, faibricatt. a, mal rnult ca On di!'ld, se va inspka ~in Viili[, IF'ara (rucaje .... " .... t,,""" spedale de l'Uil.t IDIl:I:girii, tar,a, ret!J~,lJti la cl~!?iere.

be redace deei ],,:1 manipulare<:l JMlerialelor ~i us,t~nsi.ldur {j'f'.Ia.1 J~r1Zl{1.m:crea llnCli efOCte .. in CI.U·5liJi i.l.ltm1iJor ani ill. OJ: lXJX~J~a. !\lfreJ ~¢i,e,gJ.it:Z pr,:l:ct.i!!l~ :[,';tngrilIila in exterior

IJJil R1!ateria~ l'fl;tet (upam¢ul porll.:lihU Gml'ie:i) 'ce-l :pt::l:Jfl ire ~ili ..... ' ... '" ,,,"",' ·'·Cl.l-!l~l1ijn~1:i. ,o\ce.asHi'I"tI,UIIeii'a tie lnsru dliet: la t~ re a prl v irii dare linSOf,tt1i ~i (fe ,ml1titUf'e81;ent:ru ~ te ~ubi~d:e cele tr,l1a{e ·pfutaili.:Ulffi do fC:ltogril'fl,~ \~j ap;tiru~_ diDg~nllrile '. In 1907 d rilGe'o ir,l:Iagj!1e..~eare lntr-I,i.ll fel valoare de "The 8.h':e~agte·'. pe plillllitea l.Unllvapn., I\iani<t,,~ de

• compo.zi~]a. folJegerua suDie(.:'lulu1. mat(l;,umnm,J\,-po;ttajul ee VOl il1cepe GlJlCmfl's'a_se W;~Yl2lJte. ~'i fgn ,at pc rJlinciipiul

...... '", .. HH. m::C8t p.Wll::ipju: aool;jilfurognil'iiJIll tijn:i:rulllli Jacques resnzare t:.:J:m il~ at; ··a;~1 ,epoGl:i_ Amau:(,fni plJactica ~) Splll1'HlipfL, eu imagil1i (l.irecI diLll Xb~ll, CLJ di:l::ere&l[1l: cit cste ~1 va trihil1aJl~ rr!l::r~M nu arna tor, s piti t n~liv, s~mr! u ~ full. umnehl ~a ciOn~iIlrL vree ,llll!a]tt;l peiu.ali\-'a- in. Llmp ce esre WUllt rn:ai, con ~fiefit ,de ceea. ce face, fino-un fe~ mai

din p U:1lC.t de ~'eclef~ ai'list~c ]11 !Qare :::i:(.Jh~.1e sale. '~J~O'doV:cd~~w t;~-~~ llii uteue~l ~ ,lj, ,exp!ice verbsJ flOl!,[ shu [!~lIlel'S ~i ill lWlJi1il3 aeestor e!x!'l:U9a\ii. se ptf!;:.epe tilt itnaginUe ln~ilt"'Catc [Ie aoeasta 11l~~Il~.ie c~!:eti~~J ill principal in alel:WJ'ea !?l ill maoiera ~ it gfu~ill c(lmpo.Li~i'l.

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Prill '''su'aig:ln ptlUlOgl'aplily", Alfr&d S'lieglllz u deschi» calea !"p~ mod~mil ak.~_ Relx'lJilerjlm,cwn H~n.ri Canier-iB;r<c:;SiJll ~l Robe rt FH!r1k. r": dl:.-el p.llrte, dOlT' ~i l't~l()llmfi cy [11 ~ n i h::,~ U'( o teudi Ilf,il m.~i l~ ~pil! rOt'1uaUsmc~, EU\Ji:~i.r(l Weston· ~i r;j!lL~ Sld:i~td.fj:ec;lrn· in f~ lllJ tu i, vor contl ima,!l&:cloit U mnr, Ar mai I reblii.cil:oqi ~i Aildlr6 KdlCSl!, lyValikel Evans, ale dlIOt' die'menjmi JiJ~ra. seasibi] (~:Jr care ,dato~"l7.~, mull adi"vl~a~i..i lul S,tieglit/ ..

'Ieoria "·dt;pd decisive", ''''i'U. cum 0 rQfL1lnlea;:r,a Henri Cartier-

~ .

fires!ilCf[i, 11'1 pt~ra~<L dfi\ii (~\l1 ~ "lnHligi!:l:i In gr.ab~r' ("l~mlge5 ~l ia

~~lalr'clLc"'~ ],952). ~ate ti c.ollsiclerm."i, ell 0 Jro:zvollfiire·aC::Olwepllillui til:: ; ~stralght ph !ltq~J.plIy" ,

Dar He:m:i Carrier-E "eS~On merge mar (kp.:1l1c afl sen~1I1C'a pun" act~!1'lLd tl·e, im[lnrt;i,ru~a a.c.e!:l,l.i lllOnm~n t:fi.nd se deh;a[\~~t:al~ obi~tivl~i, mumen~ tre ml 1l@1lw'IT aiel tn~fuili<ll, uiei d:eY<lnsat, ~I t:'jreilliibr,ii.::~ In cQm:edTl~ti caraeterul d~\nl!l:ln~lt, kreib1l.ie s·ft ~lii ~li illl dcci.2iiil de OJ. f<l.~~ J(}t('j~rafia cantJ t:utJIPQ\loi~ia se eclli"l.iluctll.n eiernellwtc ei drl!/in~mnifi'c<lli!'!c:. Di:r~ a.c.east5 perfu:c~il.me intl':e .~D f(md (lpentru Cil;rtict~H{es~on ufla m! mltrgi!l: f;il'ii (.;ea;laHa,) valearea ,~~ irucresul iat5 dej-bt.qgf;f!fie.1~J1 rotiil ~nidm::e Ia r i magirvii" Pr,ecnm StiiegHb: §i Cmrie.r- BresJ.cm, Gt'llldHlilm5 tfW:;::rjU I llleJnipuHiriJe ca rolli~tll san rellHlillJmrea, 'fot 1l~d,i·W trebule 5 afle pEi nt:g:nh': eopierea nu tre.b1l1~ llici '811 B.da~lgc njd s1l . ~(X~\;fL. tn acesr dnmcnlu. ('anjer~R.r~~~I.j;n a Iost el tnsu~i un mood

~I~ (;"C'·1 ·pri.v-e~i:e·~ Rnhert I.7rmik, el este rna] pll·lin ·'~fiJ.cU ~Dmp~>!l\llle. sale 1"L1!1l JrI tljl«l'en(ii.mai puHrt gJf1dl:te., maii . ~tbilihrj~e, uneori diiflI' dez,ordof!!ik. Ce ,wmeaz]i, da€il 0 scena I?etr~. In;boic sl[ e siuprin7.11Tidiferetlt cum! lalii: ee-pare sa folQg"m.l'ia lui ~.a:..re 11.$(e h\ai "st~jghr, rria~ v~e, m.ai brulalii, SI)9nt1ulfi ded1[ ~ea a lui Stieglit:r," Earll ~Jldotalt. di RtlOcn . (Jus 1;; 'I rna] dcp<'ll'r.e eXner! elltarcP'O].'t<UnllJi~ Ll11I :lJl p,t(nri !£lUJJ b:l±Qs"piinIt 1<1 flQnS~il~. Cartea '5<1 ·'j\mcri~.HniU" ,j,'~.s Amerie::Il1 .115'8). es:lelTumilestarea, pent-foil a :I:li.l spune uIm1I ifeslql, aeest,e[ Jill lowl rnoderue prln timn:J.slt (til S'el'ls rla~tic) ~i(:lt~me[:s[]l ei (in .Gridcl. S'cJ8iiwfUI Jac¥..·Keroll<lc s-a ;Ji~~)citd Iotogr,:dlU!lj pcrnru

~~1.il1lnl~a ar.;llpt:l ~m.'iet@tii ~l;n~ricam::, (;aei'nl{x1emiWte;1 1'I~1 d1J'<l:r estede:t, fo.rmal1i., ea die p.er,l.:eptibil:! ~i printr-o ~o.lkcp~.Jc a :p_rq,icctullli d08Ume[ltar..

Dc aJ Ll,ci, "~;Lr'J:j gliit ptkJt~gl~,t[.' h;i". )It,).Plli 111 f(m;l,lld.~,bil;l ~(;n"'Hi a <! 4',el'mis ~ i ¢)lpei"iell!i! f1ltli ro.n'i'laJ.i:<.t<t, prh;ure; t;i1rf; sicde alit ,"r'<m.,nh,· Palll$t~'iilld in. 19.1(:j,. acest~ reaHz·eazli. o fotpgI;afle" While Fur,loo" (R'lI:icni i\ lha) pe Cfll1:1 i sl~JriC'it' () con si der~( d~ep~ ae chd,c c'e,I'ilan.:hc:a:,;ti tl;l.lphJ1~a dc:l:illU'li,hl1 eu ·r(;i~.lju~· en caracter1:lieazii ,de f~(R uri demets;estet1!; nou, ce cof!tsH1, muerea inrei Iumi re<lle, t1 forrnelorde obieej ell te,11dil1.ta

~i caf~ SjJ.IIl.l[1 ¢untinliar£ pusc ~Ii! liak)aff: !:il .ari:lr~~tL! Yo. a~tfel illCflt ~pijr c·a Jiind abstracre, *i c,()nmlet'det\l~ate ~l~ ~ ~, B~mr\.t~;r.n )du~ti. de uaNUd Be fp1~)g(a:I],e ,extd,j, I~sen ~i1 dife1'it~f pcin ceea ee camrlA fre(l;S t,LegH~. ;~{I tOfl~ ac~~;e~ illlfrtlem·.i I~' Stiesli~prin f<ll(md cAml ru,iffl dec.~1f ceea , ill ~IU tr.i~~~ ,eLI it)logl"afi>t, trt;canJ drepr uJ;llll din cci milLi . . <l1'l"lril~:ri 'll {Qtegrafiei "Pll$<',~ru- ~rin maniera de a privi, izolu, im.;acl~ .. a ~i c~')mpiJrrt~, acli~[j, pnl'l 'lr.tlalili\B. f{}l.o!},graI1c~ a ~ .el:obn"n.e ;lIce1e f'ornle'llhn~loare:, i,'l\}de; .HuH ~.i vaJod · ell e~. cnnct:r(iu f~~t~grtl,j~.ct ca pri~'irtl ~').fi,!p'flll.ta u~uptlt. i~i capata il1treg sensul, Spredeoslthit'ei de ph"toI'ial.is;lllu,I'c~i'{::

· :11111, doar la precedeul "otQL~rafic, Iar euvfintul "[mr" ·~iLdl,;.'ca tie '"'P~lrdl, dlfzv~:liL'

· rnai (arzin, lIft,a1t, mn~rk,'nn - da~ii l~t!)rl~ foro.g,rafiei it ill h'IUl~,a, ea fm.uo t'h.lll. Hcti \I ufSt~llc:le UIll~e-Ul:hvru:d We,slon~ ;. . pec,de,~. u nei fqttou~,ffi si ;LI.tli p:~rlQ(i:at:e, EI pdve~te ~}al de aproap~fi~ se t'rureabttflsUiprl:! malC,riei lor ~i in mce~ liungc abst~a0tut dC;llUl nalurii~ moartc, dac.a mat trebaic si;i Ill .. aeeasta rerminolegie, nu mOil are nimidl1 C(~lnllll ell ce ,1iI1<Ictic,at iu piC'!Udl, Thlata cu fomg_,,rafia, \'o.h.!lmuJ unui

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a(d~~(C(La fau ulL c)hi{tc:lu~ uaei ~eri1 jll~i±~w:e cele IlKli CUI1DSCI]~e siIlrl! arii~ ; 3tl}, Vii1l:1lh:r!:r~l;.m phnrrfo<1ne aproiPifJ(,Nl.P.atk'i In} :l1!S~~ol'pecar~ 11 tl ~,~lt t~q]1l (,l~t,i. "l!f1cepe sa se:m:Me CUi eeva vj,u, itl liepn V~~lC lumihlL re:gJam. de f{)~oy~f,ea. 5(1 f;J,liniau. nmlen:J!_ 'Folngm:ll a <lpm:~ d!;lci en Ufl. IWU iHstrunnetlt, ;t!ap.ao]] ~~a "creeze" ~ C~w~iJ.nuI U"ebui{} III at ill se:nsul lui geM:enl!l- f!l:lltlntsete ~!eca]1d dro ]~ nhject~ ~lbi~tluitc, Fnj,I'Ilu'se~e, di]T Iln(fnri. ~i mi~IIGr fit anlui¥uiw,te" La iIl:C~Pll'~Jilli:HL:lr ';l(l, Edward We.stoIHll1in1.1 tle~tetfurtl\:; lmnl groV"de .~(dQgt·t(l~ CiIj-~1 ian :nl!fllleFe ~e "f/'16W': .foroftmlll cltt~b!,U1CiJlA~itla lIla! mi en ~leschidel1l: 6. Jlacf~g~tr~i ("'Ii L;l~"~\ ul ~~, m{]Tl1)<'tt i~ apamthl (Ie fWt(l~Jt _~i eare, ,1]];1 Pi.Il1~t de veEl.er:e tdru~c, pe.r~j ieS/l opIii f,l. i {na1~n [l !:If ~ar-.e I i!GLlFd~e~l: I;\~te: lam~xi mum, C«!1I ~ FinplilJfi .l':edarea Sllijk~~~Lll UJ 111 c~le: rii1i'1 mrigi detalii. hs,e:J .Ad<l~ns, meilltiru ~J grnplJ1.ui "'1'/104", $upU11e:;¢i~aililacdu~a!j thtil:~~~'L. Prnfl!imriim,eil:.rtUe:fu1, lumina.

. 'gun:~ pkl:(Jed [{!ldal;a.; d;;!;,,,r<:eaMil/g:riJ'* 'eX:acerbata pej1~L1

,~~le ]1'I~iUurli.~~1t !dial n1lslend lmagill'i:i.

C!.lItiQt~ .~ces:ta. fok~~ol'3f1.ile 1!J.t At~l".11:1 Atli[!ms' ;:ji-l!o!1 g,ll,Sl m.!.!1I! t :ad:nfil\"J.\(td~iarmliQ~,hl [l.~i~a,gi&lVOI fii:tfiJ.iLlm ~e. multi. aJtii; 111 SpCci8l in $~1lile:U ni tel. Pe de nha. Jit<me"cl ao~, fucrMle,s;;Ll1;. ~1lI1'1[ p:ril'l~rcG'do mal scu m.pe 'i'h preze(U ~,p~ala arki,csLC f:1rJi illd~)iaUi tiin(lc;;la ~tJ ul sii s~L~ze.:ID~poortru~]alijtlllt;i] d.c~I!l;'i'L,lt:±te':pemtJ'!;l ~aI~OI:fe,a'fieCJljni:l o:in peisa:j0t(;': .~a:l(t, mllllldimilH!\:l®as;:jI, vjzihi[ii ,p:re'CIJUl. kt !l1np.ietoJ ~11 ~ailld .. ~1 f;'iti int~l fal'~ d~ care public~ l e;5[<1 ing.ener,al, tp.idirt~ ~\c'1l si btl.

f nD,.ep~ndc~l .$Ireg]itil se contllull:8Jzallioci dnit1r mi,~#'~!il esterice: priraa, t(l,\!:ilmi li [iii pn'virea ~i ill stwntaneul ~i tare se.·Yil,reperelli:l itt ~pedal <l8U~r'" l1eportaj.u]lli A dO<lw Y.fl:~[lcifie{lO rnLu'i)C!:ii:m::lJ~ ,i"<.H'malil,; :l'owgrafu~, ests will putill, depel~de[lL de tlrl1]1 jarJg~nurile <It!i~se nu Sl1,nt Jil:tapti:raL fotngrs,J'i c:C;. l'!Iah.Lrldi. lTIO<lt't:.5: ~i peis'l"j ul, M<LfelJ.'i~.lek f nlh~i l~ ·diffr:[,a -':ii 'C:le. i)i helnte]e"S, die kl! cal. ~.fl eU2:: ll~tit d~ [nili:!lu it pen tn.] [el~or!'aJ ,. rn,fll s@t!'i$tic~ue .~l1!trti nalLltlra m milia s~,u ~peI8~j, ;rcr'it:JjnLa MPro ·'fblJ:n.ill~~rI1, gus~,,"l peofiTI getJlnxeljll}ir.;~u~e in re,latie ~u tlelY'dH,wea lswrh:::ti: 8Ul~stMdLth,J1i ~n , tr:ii, pnllfr -Will stil precmli' calli §rnu~ ~l_n:lrLi~ljpliiie lLli !ev~1l a\iJ: ce _ rn:ITrcn:eaz~ ;p;ro:fufitil SI~~!['lld~ :itl;uSLtG~ .a~c mume!'lt~] tJi, NUl'J:'fifll..a,si fbtogmfl v(J.ratitm .rm II (jomp'~li~itJe lCD! '!l;,lt sUIlil de rensIbili. IJl 'ace'tf.1.~ vi~ilLllik, ilg',~1e in 1dmn;e[llul DeocetKi'ltQl: lor persGnak. sau 1~ ~. Eli] artei cfe-oo :afive. .PfGi::tlm l1ltoW.l,fl a ~mIl<(L~.

SO

II C'tl,mtm WrJrk" ~_~t:6 aL:t .faiH p..OO,ltsul t~ne:i epod iJ1![lJlt1t1i !l'es,ce~l~.a.,. -<t~i1, Gl,lInjlo~[~. di suut df' eElltfe 1] ln~tc; j;l~p.pade:;~ed~ t1: ~ll n ~cdl '[]:l .1IU;U] ,E~~w~<l V;I. lJ.:; !11L~[i;W ~"'p'r,e,sjG1~s.mtilui ; Pk~:;,n ~:j graq irlc .~ iudl'Ft'!~tflC .!j:p.re;, i1bsitr<lJct .N1Mfrls.~G (pnme foat:t(t[ibe~e ifi deseu ~i culQ<lre.

oe.pij\;~~te ffo~Qgrafia. ea .5e ~ru~~ fl'!j~iJ:TiJ: .~id:oiiJHsl\'!

E~ III ptP1'I~:':!mfu de '';QomTili~'' a fi:Jw ct1~ld}lldh;)'l", priIJJtre ~~]!,1; !1l!!,i, , s1iTnN:ele i1e Itt VitillR ~~ Paris m carese pUJ!tJpl'flhie1P.<l kEmn!leiofQt@~ttrut1ed'· 1:11 ]lm1ei1.l)1~i. 'Fnl!nc~;O!lIl Ghm'les'Bm.HJelalre ...;0;"" .• " ... , Rl1gtr;:",u~. Pewr H4'I!T¥ E~!]e1'sQ,Urilitearcf. sa.gfrsrtil.~ua

7

i:."CI,;U ee ar putea ~. propri:l1 lIc~{imi nou mod <de exprlliu;fl',e,: PUye \, i Dern t1,cny COil sideraca te1'l.I;)area echi v;a1e:a:/..i1 cU a r aLo{: ana ruiEi man dUIll1rafi ~sLlul proc"~sui ni,ecani'c, J.le,!;nTy,Pe~cl1Jtablnson re,:'llize~zA mont,ij,e ~i ne<l~;-. a st.fel t,~tre:l. d' fot~ Ig.rai"ii HI:! 11m fla~l~i ,amnj L!7. • ~L1hiec~.le riFE~I,Il,m 0 ·i~ai.! ploil"urii~ ~lJbit,c~e' ce im:uh'igi:'lturi.le iii I! ple[,urll; p~i~aj', fHld'~~m:rul'a moml:a., Se nmdereJ!z1i:·OOll!tras[ele pentru a rD~asi dlfuzia de lU.IJlin,i, din mhIQuril:e Irnpresinnistc; Foln,l,,'T',J:fi:1 este pali(li1, SrlrLl.~i:j; ~i irnpc.Tht)llalri"i1l mnrnentul iil.C:Elt'~.SAt IlthlIM~IC eu ana fitoQrt.Jlri, eu F.ill~cfirUe de HYhngatdia; aceastfi: IntiUni..re, la care pactidpll Alfred :S,riegl.itz,v<I elibem .IlO~ ene:Igu im;··"Odlnel'tl Work" este, in cenfrul acestel eVII']utii estcUre.e.

A.lfred SLleglij'~;t: csie l~uJ unul c,mig;t"dI"~l gc.rrn.$!(l. ajuli~ bogut ~i cullivfll, idl 1. 8&2 el se cltl ce Ia Bedit] pentn, a 8:tlld~i a fot;Qc~imlOl., To'! acole \,ff face ~i primth.: fnlowaiii SUpl:I . sc mai tilr-,(,ll! Rpwpi1:tri,~ unal juriu ~lllkzpre:t.iJ~l de' Peter llttlll'Y Bmerseaeele "'J remarcapeurru spontaueirarea It!r~ Este cunoscut n ihd jll.C(!t de Germani 11 ~i in special de Bcrlirrin inflrrsirea artei tl:lMenlej,,~i de~ pl'e,g~tma lui. Alrrcd ~lti:egItfZ; este tehnica. fiirilindoiala c·a el a ~imtit tlceas\a il1flmiru llJ'tOl'S Ia New Yl)!"~ m ~89l!, el cUJ1liTlua eu fOlllgro:l'i,;i {o pr.tcti!;,:a in genera} in exterior, foJnsludt un a pru'<ltleje.].J" tfar :iceWii~1J, ~nll-j {I iun • l1en1;rll a frilL 'IJlcr~a7.ii dcei' inlr~t' ifl[1'l:;pripl1(::nl. de h'c'liobr(a\i~ri1i Ilif rtu;li' ap~)L gnl~ie cmfu~l il1~Mn(sate ttespre ~QtQgiafie '~k ~ptltf.l'e creaz m TeeV'Ist<l (rklllest-i'.i.alll ~ "(:.n:Llel"<l Notes" o.!;,gan ,II Cam,e"" Clu,b dill New YIDr~ ~ & ~an: partici f,)a.ln cal i ~l!tL! 61.: ',," it:l,;p.;rc,~eJulte, Nepilll~.t"I(:!. prd n ~iltertnedj li~ aces,i:(i! fl'l bl.ic<t;li s:i.?l exprhne id ~~le Q eSpfrt.!J!( )[O!;!Jflll'tle. idei ce mergeas centra tendinrelor membrilor OluP'i>!llIi, .el . illl 19m (lea)l',ia de Ii 01: gan i za 0 ex pOI,iti c tI.a f"offlgr.a'l1td:a' I A11& Club din New yqrk: dlre:i,dl datklul de "An Exhibition Pho'tograpiIy Ar.f8n-ged b:¥ the Photo·Seces!olilln" (0 elllpozile f<·'tn~rafie,orgml}Zl:l.ti IlzPh(iu)-Sectit-;sitml', I~[mt'rlul ~·Stlc~~i'l.fnL:" lili in~pmrn':ut.fu d~ Ia un itl'L:ip de pkwd tlln Murre-hell, 11"1 .1'9'W v o g01n~za 'si la liItdililp 0:(1} dou~ mOire ,expozitie lbto,&,'Taij'ciiJ ce-i em}. '~) t~ da tffim.t.::r~uiil~ nri [I rcctHiC )a.'llt\I1:!',[[ [lc,eM!:'! :Yte, ~i!iGil :rmu.c

'-~""'I""~ ~ clncizeci din lu cra:r..ile ex,plfse, cmisti1 ui n d asuel Pl:im..1l

. e nnblidi de t·b'logallc,. in partdd cu HlLlilC<! d~ dLspfuldirc ,,"1 Iml'fifi:ei prin expo71t"1i,. 1u muzee ~i in p'.0p-Gl i lc O~k.rii 20 I, el ~j der.\'(lW1. "Cr!m~ rtf U~o.rk" Can: fa l1pilndde.iJe bl i si cele ale. cl;~1 iI1Ct)i-ljo.artL. 1flrill'il:llt'lJ 1{41dlEdward Slei Ctl{:lfl. o::a.l:l!\1n d b-al.e eeea ce fQitogi'ml!fi pJ;l.<lte fi ~1UH1 ei caiuJ.F!clunl !\.Cu.It.ICp~~ Da(;~ per.e,ri!i] galL:ri"e.'i .sak ~. in pagiuile dill "('rlm-

WnT-t" futl~gntJia se JLm~stec1i en nlle.a.rte, nn esre pen1:irl!1 a,~"iin estetlce, cl pemns :ca ea 1>;1 se ridicc la nivdlll. lot prin rvouarea partic:l.lhuitarilo1f ei, di fcren Iclnr ci, prin punerea ill <I p;ropriiih~rc:.l1im~i. "(~ .. :'amen)"1 l'Vo'r*" este p,rlm~ revlsW .. ce :Ii.)logni.il [:I un modi de. e~pl"lmare de sil1e-st~Jflltor; <l!l1l~nLit'. ,. "PQt@grotfllofflu tre'buie &~ le.maill~ ru~il'iccand fotograf.ifle suntt.:nn~ii1C'I"aLu n~lar ca Ihh~gI'flfii", d.e£J.rui!. Sti.eg'Jitz.

ill W@2: Alfred Sth~g1itz mqpe tn;egiHi r.e:g. FluM icari irc'yistel Work". in ce privqlli ftlLupil,'ia; 'Pare urmeaza ,s.1 fie 'apti]'aUi"se iflc~ruc"l Prelumgir'\!JI;eV!i!1li men H11 ui • 'Photo", dar IILl em '>'orb" d(),lnie un l:lalale~g'" COIl,~ep~iat gmfw~

In pagina iTi oolc mat mid. deteiil .. caHKltea rel~rodm:eriln:r ~i f(ltognwllrjjOl'. suntde eea rnai mare impurtfU,'l~~, Edw'arQ, de_ .... (_!l1caJ.~ JngD.tipLll.~i CCipli"fta 5i. imervine in pmNcmdc

£c£imle' la elinfil1el1fa. stilrd'ui noii mie. Rev1Sla va, r~rllri nmjO'li't<l'te<l ,illlptiJ¥late ~rl<in Ile]h)gra.' Llt"J. A]j£OO Sti~gl Hl . trima."llwti; si;i a·pn:ecoet.e ~i s~ *-~pkl'.ate(2)e cal ilitifile aeestui - re. Ldl:rtfue' s~~]a1ii, Repm(lueetiJe 'r.ea1i zill~ iilt G~n.llilru<l.. '''''' __ ~'-'-. snm de'-u thle I ihlw ~1!;cr::r~l()na.ta a~U'~ri!.ldttm~ IJ]I{loi;u~t limpul lInc]cxpt);Q~i urgaitl!Zm:li la Bruxelles llil 1 ~U4

"Phofo-sucession". III fiec<ll,'e IJVlm'5f ,,,1 n~\,j!;>lt:i" AJireri .reze:r;lfa.O paginfit penh" e:xp],icanta. rtriricipalelo;~ f-I,[Glc~l1ee,. la elm; a recurs- :ilh-nc,gru! las:i dil~ cllnd in dlr]!11m: ~li !.'i altar rehnic iprecum s.ifililigraVUI<I. RepJo~Gcrile sunt Jlpitt tl:l fleeare dlu eele 'I OtN:.f die exemplare legate. la New York,

, r ~~l~ tic 21 :;:: 2. gem, Firoam mJlll~l' pOO<ZiRtif n &1...:irla: ,J~

7

8J

7

i'nto~t[. c~te ltllfj pe pllgin1i ~i re:lJi M,t1;l de -nnnl sen doi ~rli-?u, Separal, rigu~li t,e~ critlce, tuanifeSk CSkti~e.,[:!le cJ\rom; ,mtorl nil Sl.'Iut neapfu'at rQ~ogt'afi:, AJ'I~lII'itlbll:ll ~Qmpie,tat de".p~lbllcil!lltC. insUl:fiI1wr.a ll"] jll'l'-d~ 5Q de p~i[li. f'J::irmd [lumar a fosf "al1dut I!:U pr~] de .2 dubri - I'll ai;~.f epGli:lJ' ml m1:QndWI.' jj,e la uzjne 1 ~ Ford '~ili'~ig,l ~ ,(kdill'~ j;)e,:ZiL Apart! j,:lli !'IY::utir:: '1903.

,

5.4. Pt'im.ele'apcllifii

,

'in li11HllOr~,1 acestui pri uti nurniir apar sase t'otogl7lfli scmnate Gmjlr:tJld K ~i':'j.e1"11e,r pl"lHu'6 £<I:ru i ~ ptu1n;tll I !ilenz\laLei Miss:Ni, Despre Gertrud K:l:l~chper" f\ T1l--e-cl Slieslitz_ SGfle ca eli ruaI17~i'\li 0, f:otog:mLi (! <libStllut "snaight", :Latif ni ci J,')- n,nrrill de retus, Parti'fitull ui, RtJdm' n,k ul de lidw::J!rd SteiC'jh~1l OJ,pillIe in .ilu.mmllll, lmprel10li C1J an "t1.~Qportml pictat ~~ nuduri de in~pi.!,a~i.e. pjctQriallst11l aleaacll1ia~j fUi()grnf. ce vorramane e"e se impQ~t~IHe al @ np~l,~j ~,de, Th tl~ pri y t: ~U~ 1I101W.r.l:allsm.ul, cillpa~ til rtrll'nEit~l .'5 prll:! pcr,~t~an;all.li 'Roben Dem i,l,Cl:!y; imaglui ll:il ale in c uti ~ch: ~atJfeJ9r d'e billet ~i CfrLe\1 a 'pL.is:;:I;je. N mnarul. l!Llllcriu, hl~se' n!JInillat de ill.tcri oa:rde die cetedrale ale Iul FJ;'Ed~rjk :Evans" OOlllu]"",lm:! II 'Lcndint,.1 a fotGgiQIii!];! ee, va dues III C:~NIilHifile lul POlUJ Sfmnd. il,l:'a,fi!illlul cste nl.Ptiyu]ese,lI~ktl. ill hn,.<:lg'wii', ml}U <r,nrilh11U~l i4:c.iit dOCI.Hl'ienrul. UI.\ (ext al,j'rlall(lez.ulL!l G~ltgC Bernard Shawv;jne'pe .~lt\l \Jc oomcntariu <11 acesto:dCiltog['uli'j. A1atul'i de £l:::xtck~cmnafe de fotegr .. efi ~h":m::: au ell: ohicei valoare de manifest, ea tela ale .1 ui Alfred Stl glitz" sum gaMuite' ~i ~r:icJ,li. ale imer atIlnmi di.\q~r~j f1ecOlu filooof(JI.Nietl.dlC, criticill de <IifIa,Oertrtul Stein (in 1912, ''('(lm~H~ Wn,r:k"' 1,t rllb.Li~\ prunul ~);,1)'" HbTf,}ti,~tlll Maurice Mj.I.~terlinck,( '1:'d6a,~ ,~i ';W'l.ili~Hl!lda"'.'ca!l'iclit~dst:Ldi\;tari!l~ de ZliyfLlI ~i.l'ium{iFl)fi.t alti arfi~rfp.rll1rret3l;(! HMn Ma:rj8~e, ManRs), sa1:!,'_f,J";]n"(;is Pkabi:;:L fJ literal:!l.dl il1te.l'Ua,la)laf~, Gl,!jil];,1U!>il d,in teste nligiUla4~ ~i reedLtliri. scrieri l(>,~m:.Hce, ;l.Jilg"jate:, reeem!ii lile ey>~~j],mbnle:~nr :l'rfj's1Lce ee m?isoai'1tI"~tl.c~la p;ufuH,~:aJ~tl,i fap'! de ,!I,,'a.ngan:lh, Chi1l!i' cli:ic.Jir~vi.sla se tntoaree. uneeri ~i in trecut Iptili1icalld Camereu, HiU $i Adaril~mn), ea tOl)lSfitu.ie un catal:i:.t.1I.LOf ttl. bat1iliilor dusc pentr!i! .aeceptarea aeesrel avangarde, in fotogra!le ,~1 jill arill in gener-at

in 1906 "Con-Wf'tl Work'.' pul:iJk!.llm snplimem special t::onSacnt!! . Steichen. Destinulcelor d1Ji oameni este eomun. Ski dum liere.~z1i lui StiegJ,iu- ideea de a {"fu~chlde'tl ~,!]erie, Ptegramule ell sumsru l din. (, C a,"u:!~'l~ Wm41'''" ~ S'rrieg;l'i ~ tmp ],e:~~~

dO'lill actll;'i'r!1n I}lina la rUT!l_~tri~ ill. care ,~ju!l:§e sn consja,e,re ,tI gal"iri~; {. "'came,'a' Work'" este lin iabataIor. 0 stane rtrj'RlFmt,.H, ~i tretluie p.tivita ua ogalerie de arl1l".-ifi ~cm;'1.11 tlhi~lll1i[ ..... ;~· .. ,.I .• ~' ,ill lirf!,p w csl'B 1 a Paris: Ste1chen ~ rrimite pe Rodin" pcM.atls1<'e,c[i ale c~l'Qr ]m;1'~l'1, 291 - L9u;tl:lit~ inainle' "ii'HIJi; of the :PhnW ... ~e.ce~jQn" (mka gmeria it Plmt®-Sece.5'siQIl~, oog~ml~rie 1905 ~i largh.HIl WQ:1, cu !;!ru"esa 5,1. AV!iJ11L1C

J - va Q,rgan1f:a prlmele ~xpol'i~]i amfitlr.:li'$lc, Acli.um:m. de: cei doi, este fuanc imlrll;r;neata. l'>1at.i~!!e eS'W/ foart:e primlt, dai!'l ~t~um 'rre-ar ;rjrea fqarte' ~~lfprnlza15r. Th cursnl 19D5" g"HleriOj Ii va ·pre-zenta [Ie Rodin, C¢Zfi;.I"U'ie Picasso. ~i Sueglftz iJ cxpunc ~i ~ H'rB:lleu~i, c5:t ~j Olrta !1eag,ril rue, di[ei .aSl..lpn~ Ic.uhi;<;mu)u.i sunr cunsocute. C(nuloca de li7'.3Te care ¥Ol fi'l.~l.uflit~. illtt-o m~ie,fa,1l1ai 'iZificialKde: marea de If! MlI1,illY Show, illQme61t delt.'1Jjlif,JJa!Fit in, ]~IQda :J.r,lc~ .americane, Stieg~iL:.!. um:lli!lti1i "[1 oil' me7<t!lll J~a]eyi'e diD . rf'ol'"k" pic'hlTa ~i f()tugrati~. TflJ.~inil~ 1uiRdwa:rd Stelehen mod l'e,gIlJat. fie ea,este<;eiebrlllln!ld de insp:int1ie pjctoriali!O~a.

Liule RQbl.lld M:iIl"O(" ( }glllllaa mic(. ~OtlHl'th1). B<ll~;ac·u] lui SalJI seria despre Steeple (]lilS;e, fil~1Jm.la Pads.

7

7

Expr~!fi3lartisnc.a

~coahi i'l)i fa~e; apari~hl lar 1?1Jrj;"W] lid~"{a.!'d~VIiiS'W1] Vii h~cel'!Gll~a·i dezvoltc prindpidle. Dar in momentul in care "Ca.mera Wm:k" se desehide di;trg~ eel ee 'b:'Elhllie ~Q'n.~,;clexai[DndaWw! unu] [101.1 s~i.l. eel c.c: dcs~per.!li raporturi j:onttgte 11Qi,ITllre pr~l~ra (fIt .c:o:nu::x~~ clIhi ~mu,lun ~l fqulg(.aIie, 'In 111UT[lC'r.ltuI U:J Cill"C revssta a~uC0 lma,gllll nai, revoluti n(tart':, d e!l]tI~¥.;ilrrltiil1 ctL eo'), 1:1·11 i.ncetat ~.l1 [!\i.ol1:lejl':~ ~l1b impl.l!\)ul r~dI<lc~oru.\lIi el ~ef, nil .all, r~Hfic~ decal' de ahofla~ 1

Sun Lcti~ i.il J 917. A \'~riU1fa ~ {lU(;,jt 14" ani: N i mvru nu pare s~ ~ijbi1 iJee;:t de a .~jma i't:y{s~a sth~i (.:tHl'ti:m~e :wafl.\Hl. in ",iJct(~ noastrc un exemplar ~li n ., Cumem W(;rK" face.: 0 allC):.t~" tar li<lcut ,ci; in isK.lnll {'owQ.l'af!ei B~l~ itilesdn~ahtL AC;tiVlt.01if!tl. lui Affre.d'S.Ii'egHtz !i1:stc recll~m:t:LL~a 1([ just .. ei valoare rh lumea artelor. 'l'!ilem:u! l>{)litar ~.u~~le mereu s.iJ: ~lr< b'<1~fIr. s-a tl:m'oolUi~h~li:Icf1ml<\ In i~Lorie,

c~ prusedeu!:u lodam de fa~ricaro a imll!,br1 Jl iJo r- se ,~lic eum sJ1!Ji1

" . 'Clb~~tla~i1 (}e tot, ce ot';lJltJdcm - penrute '~;!i j(~ljglezi Oli!

.... .' . ie,u;~Cll totul Iii f~rit:l de(;ilUn R:i:ctur,j,. F~t9gf:@:fLl

(oarle "aproi!pe de rell:ll"'!i~. dar jfo.me rMnijne dear, 0 iluzic Sr-npoj"c::i"i,;r;: preteqtj la'.m~lllluH1.rr, nmnt~e~ lruc;:;aje, n 8,Stl;~c ~ a 'q'i:1'l1lgmf~1 Ill::tO [C1 lh\n'ilU~ll'e, car;!:] ar plile(1, foitr[e, bi~l('\ diu 'ii!)lc. F'utografll,l Man Rl;!.y i'j,clllt15 in Q:;1ll!1Jll,-"t!1T~H' , ·experleJi;~[!. ~(l~,rre 'I!,'ru:iali::".Ela la..<t:tE itn01lgtni cl\~~prc\ ~~lre aID ~pUilt! eli sunt ell 19[~11 rahr~oillre, "I',fIZOgHll1lclc" de ~xeulpllfl mele dJteal:~ din 19~~', i.\lb1inu~f; l1rin 'Cantaomt .direet .. l p!; ~uflrafata hMie; r~'logliofiC'e,i n~u:st!t {) liuarn:. de \!'ed~re" , pe care inn~elege~u ih mod nbi~nllit. Mall Ray semneaza ~i care prin fll:u~mse~ea ~i .puritaten .Ior. sunt printrc "~!?le" mal elin Itlflga idoric a ,1(;e8tui gen fotDgratlt!, (41f 9l cd~nnai WUdl""." ".1. poat€'; tt.de fflai provocetoare . Gel rutin pentru aeea ~]Jt)ca. fotogr<Jfwe.';;(e pen mol sLlprareal:L~li ~i tm jn~t:I'li_fireJlt N:I "~~~H'iui rrl"

·i._.51 aJ revolutlei- cer~. do[ui'":ltiludini !slim PCf:l'lf~ e.] l'egale.

iii prima }umat.lliB asecolnlni,;11 XX-lea. ,11[i!~ lrc diferitctc m:l$cfu-i I:Irrisllc~ cure s-au dezv.nl ~lil se afH'nma aSi~r:rn" dincia trebo ie- ~a 11 t: ap l~ctim ri:::ntri1 t:ri. a itlt.re~i nut ~::iport(]'ri pri dlegi'ate 6L1 ['owgr:1fia. este hinc1T1tL::lesSl!l:m.lruallsmlJ.l.ln pri:l1i:l1.t mud pemru en SUIJf:l.ruaLi I si-au ~Nlt"j~ de .lit inrepL'lt l~ltres{ll tJelJthl ace~stJ <l1lS;. au in~g.mL () in csdrul c'c'iuiliri'lut lor, .maDH"ei.lfuil;o;r ~L tnlhlica~mor Inr I este J.c exemplu ~11i·C:.ocllt.1ll1 "N<ldjll", rOHl':mnuflLll AmlIe-fl.I'.t;ii.{)I1 ~i Llumerd~ Te\li s~e.i " iff irl(~taunl.e). S¢riilo;ltreo mi1eri~~i1~ , , . va Il'l.erge pflllla la a scrie ("in ::ilnii '700) en. :::'u{irnre~hsn1U1 o"'nhilnlti fomgra"i']c". Sllnt mal mulle I'l.lotii,,i(; pentru ac~aHtti eO;l1Tp:lit:i

aceast:) fi'l!degere 1n1.l.1: ~~prn:reaH~(i l}ii"nlOgl'hH,. !!:hiaT daci OJ, '

asta ru ]!ll:ileapamdo;!i.al, cercetin-ea i[KOll~tienlll~L\i nea\'find mai W tomlLn eu precedeul 'ilL} ~~pl.:OOLI!J.:eJrc;u reaotiulti~.1mqldesalf~ '·iSupl'aJealif:.;mt~l, 1111 mcetcalZa sa fJell curte iLcddm~laluJIl1". Cl Srl1.get'eaziii" Susun ,oif:mtag," 'l1.und el ]'mpiirLrt~e,~t~ unele .preocnp.~ril[~ 'i"w~rfl'fu1nl cntliaf1r1 cfrtu<}rem., pl'intre ~]te:]a, ::t_ ". v i zu ale l1eaSl~pt.~11:; ~i. ere.lll~r"l} pec::rre 11lt'"earc;J sa.Ie suqm no;} ~~ S fi;x.Clll d}liiF III c!ipa.i[l (;.U-c M: praGue, HaUQlJll2"e.care i'>]]pralfl;'~h ~ll it'. pla(.;.e ~ci··l cultive, j.qaca. un !i:'o! de1~ 4~ l'It:g~ij~t III I~llof?mh~; ceea ee-l inteJ".;:.s.eafl.~mrll. tll;l!!pi'lllh:cll.tl.1J mulL ,~I, apsre oetmai c

Dnu;il, mi ~d'M., 1IIUKLtlri ~'ipi1 .mol i[l: general ~i:liH.a folo,g:t<lfia Jo], \:'(!l' rnarca 8u"c~~si'l' .~i t6.mriementa~ r.sIo:riK1 Ele sunt ill G~Jrm;jllia:., dar i~ei~e lltif se pJi'Opagi p'fina \11 ~tlObtete -Unite ..

Mal I)'u;iH~ mi ~c1l1F1 de, ~v<m,gaH:I.\i:Hl in s cit it " debut Id de' ~~~91,

~I;ld mat ales picture; tlar Iii Ii t.eratura~j ansam h 1ul I'l'acti.ciJor Rllcsb, IlalJ.a ~i Fran~:fl In!lU reatrul !,ifU~Slur il,~',mgmd e, deseori , pFin puhl iC\i.i[e~ teJrtelor manifest Feteg;F".rl'ff;!! NC In}i(;r!e I e ad;", i la~ilor acestor ~til:]'l uri, ~prinu'e" oan:: ii reti ne . sipe :S~1 rfare~di~,li, -5i il~, Gf,ra"l<Il:'Ua,. l'OllJgr,:j:j~a '6"0] glllii r

e~utfu:i1e, a.rLi:r>tjl!e. -du se €It: CLtCHluri ce III crea;za lmpmUirJil lie rcgrup~'l.z1i Wmru a e,pUIi~7 in ;PJdm-plflli ,se,ailll ~!;'[nl)l 'ce .lSG cl:gsG'hide.:.ill 1919 III iW~ill1ZlT sn b ifnI1 u I S'n:m] un ui WaUerQ[copius. rrenru::nul d~ ·f~,e;Qalii·' g~ illl~dQg!i! In pr~ent sena pe(jagog~~ di;L~i. cN"tetjc. ffOfesin eel LTi r:e!Q cl<llldtl ce tJ mp

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dc(:fr~i'lV;t ani se ret1~'ct;l, ill p'[il1.~lpmefllndaruei1ita~e ale II fi!111lwtl S ee vbr fie'lmJ]~1te., A'fhit~lHrtl este ~ilmf>1:jJe:~~nldl ni.IHl\')a~i1 rnajllrr.111l! Jl1wl't;tiJeH:l gffl\\' beui! ccd L:I ul lkl, ali'~~: pJ !i~lte(;: pmt:ctim 'pi'c~ Lira. sca:!lptura tiI{l,~i ]Xji~WJria. Marlle ~pjri~t ][I~,n1IT!d curllL:l's@iiu] lie'gel. .au fQ(5t r1~Cre'Li i!Gn oak ~ ~ I: ];t..;,i fi c~e,~i S'a i:e1"Rbii'leoze:tlne1e"l:lilwha~m C:i!J1G: ,n var",iune m,,*mti a "Icestei' coatdiQiiilii PQ'tq:g:rhll.m: e:;te. ~U reiaril.l ~1~~Hbjt¢t:tir<:r, iP~~um a ml);p~~lB ]ii~6n'.i (lj ill alxsl~~li" m pnmbllritnd in se1'l:s: dOt:Hmt:::IJ,:Lli't" E:1 recpJ'odt'lCle din jj~b,u[Jjdelil~ i:eilliZ:fi:rih: d®wf]lo:rtriTi act'NtdOincni LJ. p:ar ~t~ ~iillsplrati.i iit'e ~lruiljtele estetk:e ee m:,lH:~eazf. cmlSt!rllCl~JLe epO(;jjlol~ri,i'l'~iu'iile ~i ronl1d~ J@~1fW g.ecm:Ul:rr4'C'e, H;ti,i[l:J,UG Ill'''k n ~~):i.lij, flU treb~ie, Sfl J.l it:lirfL ceea ce ~l1bin~[Jk~"C 'v(~int!i de cili~W:e. clC experiJnt'JJ~tflife.,FEm~gl'flllfl M[i~li1m tL~ 11,\ BauhtuillR e:~li@ 'luaU; me¥lIilb:11 praces exp.~1'imemaL ~j asU"el imag"i~iteproJluse de ,gm~tll de la :Jlai:lhau!>i ~lLn t ~i:li: t[firi:!J Qt:rccH1ri u1~ 'rHl~iJor ~jllgl}]IJlfI d.ef.ologw1~w., iU£ pl1loed~lnr dc: cOfl'i~re IJ1~1bi~J:!lJJite, ale :f~tomOluajelt!f ~Ii~illlcl Kal~ (,l~U",1 bin ~xl ilof1mirazlile1,'e. de substruIlte. ale ~inn~iri.ii,ge~~ucilC1:1: FGJ:!l1<1 ca] a]j:I,lh~rt~ 11l()arie.,A -Sp\lne c~ Wille ~1,U;Sk cx:pmj~n~e _~lll~t C;U tnt!}J oIiginale, ests prea m~l1,t,

Ele se in8cl::h~ m Q~m~exf\1Jt;gem::m~,fl!' f{JtOg;OlfiiEl dcavangm4~ ]aL nLLlor'9i ~~ numesc ;)lQG1'CMk:Q 1\¢J;~'6sz. Mtatl,RJI')! sau O~[@ S,t~illert. care au luL<iRlnIlJOlce;~tii forll:li~ilbila perlo.adii ill'eittivli dinne rfuiboale In ell :plilie~~eBITlii h.iltls, c;autili; ,~ii iHc-~t[aje"i.:]n Il;1Jru1 '~*.r:r~ rullfii

f:ok~grafic ~or:area de uol forme, mai UUll'L d~al d!l: subicctc [lO~

~i !'lcest~ i 08;pira;h: din.ce Sf! fuMn~p1~ i!~ sr?eoial III ,pic'rud "I

~r;a,l~R~J.:1f'j Ell] fnn-un C~J]renl @~le~k ~()Ill un, in III mp ,~f,l lJill, S Il:;rte~e

Ul'iij~ ell iljl~wnd tlnor~.,efH,orj~Jire~fUIIlr'!ilLi~glltz ~l <g'~runf1, :k1c}l:ngr,;l,Il~ 00 va J~f;~~'oha ml~QI1C1J:N1, fil ]lUtlJ. urmf~L·tb~taroi ItHtli!. ~rlfj;i ~pcuiFice .Ge se Tni,'ii1:11plti ]~l Glm'l~ania ~1I!1I]rr F;r<ln_~[i e~t'e ~11f'C!]'lt AL1~lte sum illti m .1.rn,esteefltl;': iUlre ele. U]];,l. eli I'l inovatiil'e.e&en~i'lle "l~k]3,auhiilJJS e~~ffil'a ]:loulo,iaHi: ;tlS(l(L':il:ma ~t~,t.em,a~icn, aa!1e~ cu di versele sale llpJIDatu, pfjsilii le, l~e e1e;, d!]ruJTIIe'ntar.:e, aeC'tfmt,i'i'tf S.<fl:l I,m blicitare, A1tZl ~1 al!Lttd£~o~H;ive1ie illse'1lltl fu aceea~i evobl~e ~, esre lin fenomt.n il'oarle'lpen::cptiM In P~tis~il atlH@~ • JQ'; {lrt,r~l>H Gil n 1ial:j;!t~ll rIceld C;POL' j lrehuic ~i1 fj ,fus~ m.lmxl~i de Batihtl[r~_ P,,~riPunrtiik:vemile'dl.~]a all ~) rei':nn1l:nfIT l'i1:1!:ldef.ll~ ee.nu va I:i tnul W",rt:me:h dC'F'JIll de .gJ:nn:l1iit- afHifa Tn ~IDl,~ a'lCCrtRlum:" 'f,Hmlfu;ca ~~nab i~i \"a pnrtUe m Hl33,

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.urlagJlll speciale penrru a pule':;! fi viii.lJitc ira il'om!.:a[ mare. de r.an1U1llln:~ uistan ta "~i, llg)l{afe sub Inrnln ji e silll]c7:!el m: gnkri ilor sau 11'_ ~i asdcli,fedrelu din ce 111 ce rum des expuse fottlgralii. ale

~ubjefllE: supllrtti mariTi: i'rrnpur1arue.$ii, alre ~bi<II S'lll'l.t,giilldiI01n ~eIl1)- Pri,T'IlJrtpri:ml i t1i:n:: al.1 Imrepi',~J;i.S deJi'ler~J:!!fi il~ bnmairea d.cl' perete, se ~Ifia ~,i Ro~rL ~1 ap'P l'Glhurpc ~~i l{efu:ni:rt N ewh..it:rntlnl flfllJ7t1(611JI,(' ~sllpmjlIi'ilgil~ii C(JTptll'u.i·uman_.A0L:~lca .... ,."'".,,., ... - e;qoJiTljllare l1nioc Sau i.l rH,l!~ib·li.mimt, d\e.oa:F!e~e c<}n~tliuic p~rf"lrmallt0rc [llai:JU~ ldUDidi copie'rii iat COStl11 d[!

este f,?<t1ie ~i9icat.

. Hoi,. {;ilJ(l!d copUlor oril\li1:mI'~

~---------------

OdnUi forografia ,ifltra~a rltpi;.t~a srtel, fOlqgf~lfi u t.:a_plll cnn~liin!±i IJCL:f',f,iIri{ii vruoridirii un""; opiee4; eopletea, eeea ce rnGd.il'it::aI ~crftsjh~l splritul rllhItCl;lluj, t~ncxul tdnsNi ill 11 'ctml6id~tll lm E1 ginea ~~ntu.I,,'T'.ar.Clli tol;pro;l:hrctibilii l,a i'llt'inlliar' ~:I(:;f,jrrL~''I!'lll J~C&:IIJ ace IfI;'ll.m1 en ~i matJice;.! p~nlru gra"l'lJlil, On gii cum 'suhl i n ia7.aAmL: I i\i:taml';, 1I(~gativ'Ul poate til asemuit ~"~ I} parlitm'l'it jar (;~p:lelea ell P intcrprctare a aeestel Pll~fiUI_j,:i ce pO;llC !'led CllllQa~te tot willI d~ varinnre, t\ceas'l.a ml;;..lafnr:i mU;!lh,:a'la expril'uil. {apl;ul di t~ricc.; (OpiCI ~$lc 'hI.IlidiJ:i ded prevjGa'&~, ill realita4: 'G(Jpie['f~lm ,~e;lJt't.t~te face d~ douil gr1, la ,G::I ,in. mt s ura tn C~l'e mana-intervine if'! ~1t:easlt~ oper<Llk l\cf!:l.<Ja J;nn~'Lic.lilLiz.llfe tl fota~rafijqr tit :1. cdu1i 1]1;( dihfti?fu:1Za anu desehide ppslhililta~l cl'n:nencrue, serteste 1<1 :;h'Qil'i~a ill: cole :~i II imHEl4fftl',ea faimom;~i ~i;lnv'clltii .a '·Um.ittldi''': cOp'~~rlf'l !I~!:I~:d ori,gi n::ilr~ f.¥aJiiz,atri d~ <In,rOlf q'¥~Jll.e dL1pti lHarta imag.i~li1" care cl:Ipalll Q \'aloan:'prj.l~ cl<lritate.':l:sJiIJ SUl.! pri'll n:dati.,.a eDlirl:llm~~i diferentierc 1<1 copian'-Lf irn 'lScrje efecul,ita in laherator, Dar n:spoolivcle illlflgillii puse pe piD t,ij~] llgat .. dc pc pcre~i ~i:ferafouite !lutin tl~ cele impri marne in reviste, Deseorl sunt 'inddnli!l:i.:. lar !l~est ;;:lIJt OIl ~)[iginalIlIJl.ii vine in conijfadi clie C·!;! alta Care 'R l'O);! i il,>eilt.ata~1eltt.l'JJ ,iI- Fi _mpn;Jus~ . V\,t 3J trer Me ~jamin, Intr-un Ie» l deja uitat,. sQde d~~l1ne f[looSI'~rfie c "tli!h~l~~l tl'1 de pffii.€luC&f}! pune 111 moJ direct b~ie le(ll~idi de reprmlucerc., pc ,can;" 0 impune", £1, pFeCl7iIF:l7:1' chiar t:.a,"(1 ln plac f()tgg~'aficti ~c pO,ale cepla I.1n m.ll1l<1r ~aredc cxcllilplare ~i ill," fi ab surd sii' ne il<ltreNim C;ioc.C,S['U q!l.alueml¢". ~hjmero::.;i m~ ruina~ cci e co nHml:~ slGl"e.adll cl~ rt~tob'l~I'i'3!·aJt: vat8Jitl es{e cen ililr 00 V1~ ~Ire'i,li ~llC, di uurnai lrl aceste condll.ii c PIlOO\11 ,aprt.:da pe ,dcJ'l!h~ 1)<i dtrn fht nu cstc nici () ,(Iifefen~a fl)lldalll~]rll:.:fli:1 !llf~ de t:flLl\lnulintre asa-ztsul "original" :!:Oi n t:upie ordj.nar:i. san lInagil1e l.ipn1,-jti'f_ E:s~' ~l eroare, cl aca nu lin 1l01l!'1enS s~l man::.~li in mod ~lrul(rar, shm llSIm1 ~ apni in trogaleric i1gi;i~at.de ml~el:;ew-sul;i ~{id!~, 'un document Itt:a lost mnl ITll.fri cemecput pentm afl J;I'rezefll,ai1~ dhrn:n~iltrLl, reduse sl P-l'h:lu de apro1!pe" inrr-un fc'l de lnthnttate, iil aceasr.a cOllftl:l),l~ in. care se amest{tdi if! ruuzee ~i ~akr:ii imnginl de moelil ~i de lieptntaj ce au fOM compuse pemm paginlk rev~Nlc'lor {I},j suut 'ffstie1 derumnre de '10 funqiH Ior oHp'jn.uil],·f~l'I~~gl,-:a:m :tL1 in:lelcs jjlill ferleire. c~l, tre[1I1raU

Eij,t,e '] nteresan l de t'lJIIMatfd, t~ aC'e~,ti creaton 'prc!:'I1'1lll David .y .suru la, erigine pi~ltfn. cee';1, C.c i:h)\"cde~liJ: eli fWlluere:Je cde dou51;1t'm;ii'ci s~~m t:Klt)mpal pmgresiv. CJizul, ametlC(lnl13ui

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iVJ M~~t conte);)!. ~l-n .a@~S1 spirit'fl~"ill1Je.a'Zi1i f'btegral'iil din zrlele ,1'IOastre :ri,dm Cle.1il oe~J.jJll'lhlluTr(j f;t{,l~I\'\h jnY~·l;!..ea~~ s,lW!l!ii •. .JDUI'l in 'sc~na 'r~·rf;()T:'Iajc,r.::®nstnJiii:se deQ.orllJl"j ~i reopl'g la f~li(l,gfafie ptmrttc"" .£lrilit.n3e fllln:--.:U1zat.flac[ in tre.cut, j~lca~ r.!:llld 'de'a~e;>ifi, jnt,er't'eJl1 nd ca o )';~Hi. lllrna II ;ilctl vi w:~i'l ururi creaLOr irl. fltez{mllil'iiv(tr'~l!lriT:~

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cons.muhe; dle. fOlfl1,"!'aii (c~l{ttri.; l'll.;lter]i, 'fQTil:l~, ~lJ.nlliti. sublecte i?l st:~nl!lr~ i) ~ un t in s,peclmi con@ep,lL!l-e r~11~tm ]Uiil~i lie,:. de i ma\!;l n e. Se. p;:u:..e cii S~· lZonlu:rerur4i l(J~ 1l!1loM dar una din tentLin~e~e 'In:ajD~e ale [otn.gtlfl:I'id oOnrerfD.pffl'ane: ar~l~tii? c~;ci a~a'i;wel;u;t~le Imull~f:tl; dorese ~~1 t?abrice;dir,l toah;l. pie~e]e~md univeffiC\e le e r~{'j,pfiuh~®.i tr'l\iill doca~ .s;H oo.mPtl~ F:i!>ttIiflq lie ~ 11 ~nIitaW. Un t}l.li 'feis . ae lHI!r ft e~i ~tm d:aCi1c ~] unl -;:Ui fi Cl't"Zi!. .~; imot'l¢;1t "cleseOR ull !;1[l camcter 8Upr;l[e<J]]~~ sau fallJlliSl i~,.DualJ:iil :Miich:als e.~[1C il~~ul (lief:] Ilnroii' r{,~ugr-ari ,tC iIllst".emi~ rt~e~~~1t:m11!1tl1, ~u nwlt1i:,l:ucl:*j~t,e.c Ope.rasa. esteile !(Ul~!lt 'Li-mp eClJl~ti.itlil( din pUlJJtHi iJ:J ~c efrl~ ~ut])lfinz.li;itctare, i~l, care .s~ ~u;fi"C~l:ecij in1i.i'~ntivj)(>fi![@, frov.oqaft;t i!J unr,:~ "tic Gb1i,r[ \Jro~)i:al', Un i\!e~!dl s<tl~\ este CGI ;¥] ¥ill,~llJi,a1. hrul!ldl~~ti~i, PUJtlrllrldJ m ~.a;[1 i'Ji: J~n[Ji~l(:]n(:l, lr!liricn~e-; afl1l.te.llilforo n;;a] ~i i{u;-;ie •. iIlI1'r>e vlzlbil ~~ i:!tlVJ?lbll, ~un~ fL':llomen(;;1 dil ~H~cte "C~ SUiI:)t ~e .ff~(;ilim da:~ .l1fe?~lBll<l1l'e sub If'-ilfWl.a secveu~,e~()r rUiLt:'4tl"e.PrQ~:;Ji esre re,gim;t~ prio mal it"l'I:dle im:.<fgini; riec\lJ[e·~u oLfiJ;[IC;1k setnn.f]lE:aJt~va." fO<J:ne p'~~sa .. Deane Mluhil1s- CW' a. s tfel in:i~s~a C5 ~re{I sa doyeJfl!L<;ca lii;lrii:elc J"oLograXilri, fflimimd ac¢<:!sm.leh.n;idi; lrltr-uT1 t'().¥ a priQri neOldechn. C~ci foroglll!:fiJ, in rrtDfi !l;Qrm<!l, 1l1fillifi:f1i ,~tectllce .6;.~frc vi 7.1.h"i'I., pr::l'llm .[;1 lUI -spi;nle r~;JJ ;}!1 e lm<1;gi.nel fi~ti nu '<lfjJ!!lt.e.1 Te(ia ~ aqil]Oe liIesf~um:tti In thup. Duane Michal.!) a [t;ist.fl.stfeJ unul d.lhtrt p'ri,lTIili ~ 'a dl;:1pl'j;~ a t f:Qw~rM[<l in maca. spil:l~i ml ~i e:i oThlii~ll1,!lt tle in"¥estl~.Me ~i a itf.l:!lgi!11.n (lcIT'i!ili LJCC; 11~ ~~jQ~nteflj~ ~ rpal.i!lai:c. ei ve WC~l~~tit;u\f.ej\', u~11,J,i lI!1l1i'lo'ers; PPplill.lt de {tb~.&~~~ ~i f~nt.a:.sRl~ pe...rsonal " Sj1ilJl num(!:rn~i azi ~ci a ,ctlrO[ fotogf.r<lne se ~prijina ~ ~$t prfm::f,plu, ;ft.lt 1n'Fl'Mta d.i:[ §i 111cSHile]e Unite; . Bernard .FIijlIlCOn, Ci1)iJy Shcim:an, i9L'!J, 'V)~.I:er \Vi~kjl1, lJetJ1!fi1l Il l"l1c cit:a deQ:U 9 palte ~intir!!;l el,

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_ S.i.ll1lpl:ihl.lca. mijlaacelyr nlJosite ¢aIT1GI!!rl7.e1l11li nce$~. tip de

'~crm::~' IDt(lgI'lIfic &~, ilil primdl ~,fuitl. fapM,I] d \'.W~.m!!a 1umii propuse :e~te in rtlm d€ll~berm sWlbiec:~i<V:5., U ni i "Dr, l'ih..1'lfe pm:ia. hi [I 'inlmt1uc;e ~i:l iI~~~~ffi ocfllzico' rll.l~ Uillea d~\afLtobiiOh'lf,a:fie. Si tex>UII seri s1u persoal'ia un1il ~l Ca~B HlcS(]~e~te uncori tmllginiLe - -1Ja10! cele a~e hli .R2wmomf' D:ep,flrdon - li I1Qe :sf FrilXirca!~t~ ~we;as.tJi i u t~Fi O'riz <11'1':- a ac ~Ili I' ui

foio ~mj=j~. . -

~ ~rl1tr~I:I]1'llt r~gisfi1l, Deni~ Roebe lIrr!iiiro~t.e'Ie.:1.l:iutrea unei opere m care f~ee¥[l p!e~a se p'(Ciltntii. mproape si~tcmab~ OJ 0 [JiUfI!!:;rtl(1:1l :!Iccna <l 1:lli lusu~1 in eadrul c'.1I!lt(Jri i]l)ri;fe-crue le cfecl'tie<lza,

Eilltoil'te acesrea, njl'ptuem 1tlll"l:lbalhl~.i(; forografi 81, din THlOlnentul In care tlll.'k rnai. sprijini1 pc (] pimerc.ijU~~na, ~·nn.,~nificitl .. , IUl are m~il Q I1awtti "amubtQl·¥roflt1t~] ~lli fil l1d1tta ea-l.[rlpHc~ un plln~l iJ~ yoo& '~aLi esre expre~ili.lIltei (lriviiti. J-<'i~(Zilre foto~l'afilc ¢!tlT!st.!tuie 0 Ibuc.lt;· de i:ll.llqbmgrane:, Si. e:s>tc !>ufi,c.ient 811 (In,.'~l1iizezj opera ~i leetura e:l pc:. b~zall filii t.nodel' ern~KI-;logir;, It!roea ce' IlU tl rQart,~ dllRedt dot.: pti11clp'i'nl alb ulnllLlll cleam:Jt-tlr, pentru ca totul sa rub:i _~en~j' pen.tl'lt1 em of{~.tOgl;mW Sa devi~1fet:eclh' [} seriere a \'ic~il1 povestire ~ l.mej isroru" aC6e;1 OJ. autond ui,

A u)ud cam] !.l_merio.fLni.i iJJu pliS. LtL ptLll.d ~8~ npll ~ttl-J;(:\de\1 fmQgral'ic (E~win Land! a rnClilt pllb~l!e: primui 'sln.1mu[lc:~Pobrolclln 1:947J nu l'I6-am oot p¢ttit !i!~'fIl1a ill1ed.iat eli el.reprezerua mai IilmU t1eciil n simpl1i' n:\tt)] utifl dII1. 'plJ)fi~l iJr:: \'e(iJ~~ p~ rfG, 1;!i JlU tlumai cu Il~nra ~:iin~ f~tQgl;f1fu]U] an~i1tq't, Q!lei, l::l1iClilst-a s-.nugliucl.iil inprh:mll faIltl: POla:rold 4.ls~e I'lli;a nici 0 ]I!doiata una din (;''eh;l mai itnpml:allte r'efL1i:t:.ari dinfr-o serie de perfectiorli1n teh met: .i:flHUglIr'.lte de aparat.u 1~ Kod$~,!l!n~Il'L 1 a $f.fu',~ind ~er.x}h:dll,i h'ecu~ de Ge01"g;e E"I$lm~m '~i f1~ db;u~ pelo,!lnu slugm eitat dej~l: ." Ap,ha~i ve buton, noi ne veru {~lhlll<1, de rc::stu]:" ,[l;Sigl.lr1l pnnno'U" (luhlicil:ldi; Aeest "Iloil'" desemna l.aoo.ratG:uClc :'fi onmenii; U jQJm5,HlJe de secol m~li tl'irziu, se rafe(:ii fa c!,tiol'lie ~sooml~ elI LUll mecflJ;ti"Sm M"!btil ~. 1l1ini:l!llirilal~ Shual Tn! imel'iond apararuJul iiu ftnogritlht Dar d(wdclpru:ea !'I]Niilmmee- S-a riispfmdit !,iii it pierdut inuit d:iIl vraja el, 'toU a~l, mOll ~uh ell dt in

9"1

7

pru.zent este d'Biluhlata de vj~l!. Ocruner.l )Video, a ~1i[ei otil.izare, s-a gene;,Jli'Zat, pean1w r(t$,l:imi~, pe Un ocITill. de 'telc'v:lllor<l unci imaginl doarla cfi~e- .... a minute dup-a Ulregitttra-o:ca ttl. 'Ii ;rorba de Ill] fllm Beranut va gli2lclUi irur-im vlltor foarte trpmpial .tma;gini fill~, di gi ~all:mte- pe di~rch(;'!1:C de ulul;paJi<:!l de fotogmH:J'l a dim! cQI1(:tp~~[e wMnolG{!;ic:wt~w eu l'OtiElI [lOl!lt1..~,l-v.iiI :Floovof>a O:!.')1tl eurn ~1 PoJaroid. a facu!.-o, ~ Ibi_~illlillte dlve-~~'Jl), a[{[t ~nffll am a'I.orlcat ~ii praf-es.101l i~li.

Un, nou ~m~nr4'ment to.togral?-c

, "

D.U1U;uh tie ace<lst~ simplif}cm-e 1:~'hniG1i a aetullil fot~:gFafip

adl1sa- ~c Pota;rpld .~i pc' care, ell !:iigll.nl1:1~, alte t~1n-lologii eO Yilt readut:(: in dh.clJI;!ie i~ vliter; olloiarpdn faptul cil intervalu! !lie r.daJ~la47:;.Ijn:i:.a; imagrnu se r~Ju~e., {;fl se 'rJ:\:fIi:i.CflZa '~ ... 'a!j.i .; I'l~trul!t-<ln~u $bca j1ulI.::m [listfe! m,ol)l-tra. '~Qate.e.fe:cLl::lc unei s'Chim~biiri ~ parciln;:Ll~ lu'iirii de yedeIi, apar :nti1ppsi bi1iHi:ii de (:"[eit~~ pc c~ al1i\lti-i, ,~1 mni des' p.tclerH ((apt ~e'mrnij,j'ica:~ \Q 1,e~.ll.ln ~~vA2ut $1 ~;)(pi1oat\lt, Ib'l'icl Haikrlcy, ptinn-e- ce;i mah.:1:.in'ioi;'cutl, dosumllJ d,r1 firirmli ~(lJ.uj~i. '

A Iucra C:IA Polaroid !<1eam~1i;i 111Ui m~dl eu l,1iCt:;Il.ill. dedit 'eU !p:rac<ti ea .("oIog.flfiei tmdil ~iQil,flk,· A,~~~ i vHll.H~a c.re,at(la'l'tr nu 111 at cs te inlnmtpti'i:,. S~i&~Jiflt~"jntre 'l"lJom(J,n;I'Li.llu~IIii; imagiLrii ~. m.[lr.cv;iaJiz_a!,~ d. - in ncest sens itnaginea vide-o este inl:r-wl~l fe:1 ~ptri,l. ,dliltmm9gtafie eeea C~ Pe111'IJid es bC[fIel1t1'lf 'folugmfrn traditi nil al,a. Ceeao ee ~~l'~t.e, ditl€Oj: ~11 se<\c(ial'leze' cu mal 'i:imftil' a'po'1l~lll:1ie,itIT~e.i'11 :pl'all pJas1;i~ ~i se-inn.i(1CittlY,sa se .cXpel'mle:d~.e iHrrl a I:I1.OIt caku~a ~]..sa, avanseze luc;nilffiraarnai rt.iOt1t:ge la Jlte~biliflliztl!"earutlliltate1pr ce constituie "tn m~d llbl~~uir'U[l;.lc di!l tm:nple~iti1tne fow~rafj,tli, l'(!ial"oiCi excli:itl.,dlln fqtuib..raf.e prO:blemlolJ ;1C[j,z'l)lH1Jll ~"(.'iapiel'iit m,antpulru:ea :;Ubista11t¢lt)r .chinrice; ~i (Jptlcl! dill CJnnem tlca~, "1,1 mcc':, ce perrrrite .... erificarea a ~a ee fus6se gfu~tlilln. studIo. OJ tumror acdaI" operatU cu c,<trefotog[Jilni" t:3J.,e au s.Uin~ nC'~ritl'<Iq~wJ~~i()ni~d, in 8erusllJ tehnie al .ue.Olle);l!J.]L11, nu dQ~st: Xle;1p5~,i ~~ ric collfIi1.II,i$~i. Prdced~1.d a recentrai 'It'lto:grati.a fl'I$ 150n[llnltul. iTlHlginll., c1elnm£i.'lfl' fOtQgr,afllll;de b ]ltCOclJ~alj 'ce. pn V~S(l mat.cri a'LitateJ.1;- ~a- E;.~ po.ate aper<!.1n d~p]mii ~i:bertai,tHm du-tc ~,u~o.in~TC subied ~ll"Mpl'eUlltarea J~a~ii1' ser;Qmp~a.c~ ,<lstfd -id s,uifl'c!zJl NilLl din, CQIH~ ir'i delJep~l~, ~if eonst,'\te pien:lerile .sau d\~l;~m;'i~[i If! seml'lii"iicatic, sa· BQte·ZC direfenvel~ iJ~ culoar,e, de

95

7

hl'111iI1a,p.ri!lll. Ia plll.nctl1.j 1n Ca1if\, tn. ~'~z~il p.m·u·,e~urul, iSii-l poaMi ~OI11pl!l.le p$i~{]lQgic. !i:1l, rear;~iile mooetuhti. ra~~!l faf~,Gu ;~a;!!lin~<l :SiJ c1t'jt.vi111;!jt~ rnstanlli1;tOeu.

.96

P:~,mlgif,ijfii1Te 1l)li H;l;rve~ uuibert. om de; ljt~if'~ d¥~i fntOgliif, Tii~pUij~, 1lI<1! ales in ulTIma p.me a vibtli saMe., ,il~est~i voiinte, apestJe~ II eqesj;t:;1tl I1jndiu-]e· sens # f~.f.I;a.,

U.ldl ;iT! Fr,1l,!l!!<l ~-,,,, !'!~);"iI.!t fty!;0grOl'fia ~~lnt <;LG'olo .~,"au u;m:lrt::lJl primcl~ rn.ailJ~lgllli:ri alLtl,k~ori6~ .1.bJ,~lei arre,'fiIl;~ iil!lfQitali'i: .c,~ inSUtele U nJ.re ill] JOSlt puse b~e ~Qmel:tu1.uJ ei Ac~t 911 vhot nu trebulll: inte'le<s a6ar1rrse;nl:\ e~:OIl@mic.'da., rnai geillel\~l:rI1: ~en~l;Il M:hjrphU:lui ~j ~l ~iff;[Ihwie~ t:u.lftlil'l'.\le; a ·ima'gjniim;,· La N~W·'fUTI4, in i::.adrul n:tbLi;CU~liii de arm. IntHil()[f;!il, !tlJapl'indI1tftttli ,rima data: lh a1ili. ',3(l id~il de J ~~J~m fGto~fiel UI1'S]lJfi~ e;tJllo:z:i~G!:la"l ~i i.JJe c(jle.c!.ic, Mat ;]nrdl~nk'<i !l~ amintim ~,1i. Allred SrJieg:!'i~ ct:.f!u,.~sc; In incep'b1.t!,If s.e,"oJl.I.lui, de ~ll<lii multe od, in ,n sa- C;alM4e 29ft. hlPmriie caW1v,l. fotogr.al~, TetIa Neli\~ Yort, lFlgaleria J'uli(,lJ'lL;vy..I;;'nUiJ~ub H~uri, Ci:lU'lie.r-:Br,esson J~,i e~pun.il prima daH!. IUI{!r*iJ.e (1931').Oio aeeste mot.ive, l'liata fow£nlfi~i s-a ;de,Z'i;!Q]t(j( m aeest lee rnai ml;il'L dDfi!iRin ~mie~all {}F;lli~_I~1!a din Ne:"w ¥~,~[~a Glp,a:tal in pl\~leJ'lT d.il'[u~nsllUd (lQlIl,lJill'd@ile o~ ~~~ ;/Ile wffifci phu~rjj - simlcle phlC!ij(!';are, fill f;ahl e de ~ ki'W;~i~ pJjbl~t:;a. ()<dc~!l$;· i:ur !:Ie~~~;om<!ini (;:nl&;~h~!lari ,"~"uH ~i gm"i ,ci! giisescjaqgtni1eCe.M .i.lllereSe8!Z:l:, .$1 t.G'tI:1Sl, pfirn.at:ul·a$~e&eI!Ol" c.n:~. OOOm]\}l1f!, ;)~M15~dpj:l~ae'!ite mai va8~ Be~atoult pigctu:il" P~uhl~m~'1I c;c ~e pune tn ,fu~'.'i Ycoltlt;~~onaTI'I_or' pntl ~r~~:eifut ~~'~d.]a~tjBmt1:ifii, fotognJi1ei, a~uer.i~ au ~d~ts:i-i illvemezeXlI~Jrrn.eeiliu., -'lH1mta];m.:". (!!aJ~ se ""':::I Is:!"'li (ja.la ~li rn~i mll]t ileciJ QIiI!llii!~ lOr'.llf:l p;:u:t.c; cOpjer.e fl1lli'-' UI:"! ]1Um~' lirnitm de ~x.e.ll:lpl~,efe{;~uatJi dhi¥O.e; amortd fmografiei (veri p, 1n.,. :A:oe.ISkI n\etooa pe'J'lmtt_oaulb1,llrea 'GiJ a a!lI;;lT!l~ill. [ig{!@~ ~ '!.!;l1()J;:il p:l~"[lh,lT 'IiIl1c'lllil'l ~iir,C:!,.l~Ol!ti~, DaJ',@a aTE'; ~t.lln 'rJcajnl'l S1 0 ICQPt~re pWIiISt1'i, .tM.ftEti tile alJi({).rul. ILUirii de in~agi ~~.~ "acosta mar mult d~1it '@ oople'l;e m.od~nla~ reaJ.iz.qta, c~], ~djh de un spe~ial~st p~ d>e alta pa~~: ~~~ r)frn::I{I;1~I!j]:, prwum r<1:z®grama NIU! if'!'l~[,nl1{)IlLaJ~lI, ue pernru vwtlu.,~cr~a eJli(:i{l~ttarcl()f un ice ww I] si~ldn8Jlie Villoriiflicate.

, _;ilC·· .,," '- A ~~ .. " - 1 'I' "I'·' ..

P1'inilf:Se Clr_g,tll.l!zea:tliJM aOtl @CU.'lhiJleV<U>ltmJUi'I.t ~lI!gt;rl! g~

~i licJI:a~ii1'~ :puib like, rll 19t'Mi!.Lee Wjfkj~ i"~hidu. la N cwo York .~riI.U!!l gal.~tf~impDttal~Nl.' c(lnncr{iwrn ,"xd 1I,~Jvihite 'Come{ciaLinrii

97

fomgraflei. Doru:illl'!.l7;;) este uITu;:rlla Pa~ri;; de caQe A:gatha.Gaillard~ CC'lltnll ("Ter{lgel') P~;nnDidQu);e' desehide pLltin mal taniil1,~i'iJlrrlli(~e In c1l"drulmuz'J;":t1I11i NfLthmall:H!eanammlernaun.cl.ep.u.ltfLillel.1t ctim;,a"Tal'. fnt.Q,g:r..dl~u (~i, cll'l.em<ltogmt1e.iJ).

O:eoJ. c.~je ~i UIl ,~iclu ill] ~xpozir~rI~Hac ap.1ritia. Uar ~n Frcanta tr~hu ie a~teptaT:h!lnu ' ~O perur~. ca t~ vcci~<!biUl. 'pia(J ,1): foto.grafiei s~, S(l dC~~~tl1~ ~l ca prlmele vfulzadpub]tce ill iillwginlf;! ctlll)",(.;rate acesteia s!'i aiha. 'Inc. Aproape in aeeeasi ~el'i()aJliH)i'jma "hma: .a fow£ra'fiei' ~tl La Pillis va rcuni ·Curtc mjmeni;t~~. p"O.blite ~j p.r~va.te~ ee VciHMu.,;a, pe sL'lm:a mai a~rg}i: acensti1 art~,tJ:l lirnp"Ge l'<I'iFokj'p, ee va tleschidc Cl;>1I!Ii:ul Il'ltiomll a] Foto,grafiei, in pro~'inci(!, :1:rLY.)l\i 'Ieulcuse ~i Arles, priIDd~I(;I~ j ~'curi unde sunt ~teSm$l.li'fll~, de ('I hUJ:la huci.lill de VJ:elue :ITc~i viH1tH fOlflgt.:11~Jt;, avm 'e~e4Cl flll!..d~li-e, Q gaierie sau UE J.cst.iyaL ~I'!ar;~tj: ani 'SO, ,nSS$(~ Ja adcva,l~ e"p]gzie. a fotografi~ice deville un prnd~ clllUu:;al. de H:Cieia~llli\!eJ cu literatura, m LD':iG'l 5\I1l til tluJl, PQt~a et$ Cli."[DQ};cutii ~r nLi fecu.n:socuta co M~.fua,O ~'te,mci ~nd'l1ii ~~:p:tlt~a ~m,agma SrO vedern pC' pCre~]i unei g.ale.rli •. Ia fel precnm l;1Jbloul"ilc.Lu!iI!l RotogmUei prez;imli <lsitfcl '~lIle d¢ e;>jp~l'z.jtli la fl eeare doi anl, III luna n,oic.nlbrie~ 11lJ.I3C!care an, "fmil1n:llUe,de ~[1 Arle~"m~Jbm"$a~l reate 'fig.urife, Imponame din ILJ:ITIta [ot(lgr~I'ie:~ p'lPof:esionale ~i de arnaten rriju~Lll I;XPOil'itruor pl'ezemate.1n,t6t ortl$ul ,~i,rJJ n1uUiplelor sen de proi~tie. hi acc~li: ultimi WlJD, mai ID.!Jl te fesrl"'Jlll.rI tematil...."e~ au im::u]:)ut ~;1 se dez\Colte, deexemplu, l'eliva:! ul J(J r-ep{)!1:Olj de ~Il Perpignan, sau l:c:1 ,;H fl:1tAgra:llei ~ !nuda ~ aces} festi "at este otgani.l.at If:l fi~ilre an mtr-

;lI1t~ enpi'r:ahl cl1rup~a!lii. . . .

in eiuda ace$t:ej .efer~'escen.te .~][Lu-ale ~i m~{(rotizMir. p:ia~a fotografie::.i '!iIU ~ung~ sa se ridice iur PI·a.-1tfl In in.1ih'imea t::ele3 dil.li Sratele Uuile.'/§.n:iiitilc,< publi"T." chiOlf cla~ii recent .~11 de\'~l;IiI nt~i IrtlC\I'ente, tIlfi~e,az~va.t()risl:lb eele de la N·w.' 'lurk:. E adevfu:atd si f(n~graJl.ile pnjp~r>e IHI sttnI delO(~ acde;fL~i.. In Fr.mi!a Sllflt fome puril.le pres.ele ce lrl l!.Ul"1SLl.l an'uh,li 191U an depa~lt bm'jel'£L de (H';I;I.tu

_ de roo i d~. fralld. Cele mal. bli!ruu.:~ ~imlhi~i yEtndri &e stabiles€. in stEmm! l'l'llT& tiuu.w.eci ~i cindzeci de mil de francl.; ar mulw a1te iranzaetii se fae stlb '.::cCc mii de frafl!;~',

9S

7

D.'u obic~i 'prc~~llr.ue, cele mal ridicate sunt atirm:: de d~tiemti:plDri1e din seooluJ a! XI:X='~ea (piese unice dlJpii cum se, ~ti~) '''iJ:ll d.e .[i:jw'gnlfl"II:;, mOlJ:tOlje eare, pritl n£J.tul',ali!.l"f. n~, slmt dm::lat inU-ull SJllgl]J[ ~J\Clnpi.flr. in acest sens ~1 Polaroid ar trebui salflrmeze aceeasi evo!ll!ie. dm: fill> alLjuns indl atilt de sus. to ce pri \,r;~ttll maestrii ctm.~icr,;ii fotogw<)f1ei .rrtc.~rn: l'lIlJrtt Kert.e~f, ,StlO Iienn 'Cru1ier-Hn~~~oll" ne ~n am in. fi~i;!! UIlO'1' fl'lild d~~ai~;!:i[duri i.nure tnpille modeme ee se I1cgac4az.li:rl jur de (;incisprez'ece. nrllii d l:rand in galcdl (Henri, CmrJer.H:(ltsS:;R 11U se pllll~jn t.;reulatle cli!c~t prm (.~~Jpii Ie t~'I'. seti llj .~i 'llimiMirile" ce rml atiM;g~ diil if.~ce orrOlctl.~l p're~. UIlL:h~'c'Qpii mm:iel'.n:e' .tll::.'fotoW~:fi~ lorl 1.\1 Robert Doisueatl, precmn ''''S;i.mtul cI'e.la pnmhrle" I'ac Qbie(.;W~ 'U~nd. cereri fl.larete 0101,11. tn. ce-I Drivc~te pi! 'c(lrtlemponlTIi• se TTlt:L"l/'C 'ill Jijru! ".r.alor]i t'I~ douli' mij i dt::. ffatlCi '~ij prevcl1 1111. ~lfc.."i f1iicioomfi· rnai sus.

in Statele Ulli~ tr.;nd1ntele pie-le:i surtt {k:sl1d de diferire, E <,im;wl de mcv:e~lt ~a i~'l1\.Ltle~ti ,CI'J.;tuor~ cnn lcmpo:r.mi in ~i!l.leri1 pre.cum. Pn'C.e M~ Gj~] I a 'Ne\~' Yoik, care nu sum spe1:iallza~j :In r"Ot~graHe';,rl[l mi~~ruaseluiin lh(]~se cJeioTle;.''l'l~t.~i if! F.rillil{iJ., eli Bxceppar.:ii &l£rtele Unite sunt mai':r:mlin d{;::~h:l'se arfi~lil~.r stloi:uni dedit F, a .I:Tila, eel pc oare i1 wgsltsim t'[1 ae~~e g~J~.rii s]:;mr 'm.)ji;i ~tlP .. une.icalll, 1 .. 1"cl ~:i 1a lidl1fl.tiile puhlirce .. Pre~filc sunt 10' gel'icl'ill f.oatte nd.kat:e._Lfisffir~iM amdui 1991., Ja Sotheby' s sl C1l rii!>[]~' s din New York m1Ipo'ftret aII1..Il Mari]\ltl MO,.nl.l~ faam de R~9h~ A:'II'~~lII aat1m ap.hmpe do.ui:l sute d,etnli de fraud, lUI Man .Ray m.ai mul~~ de t~ Rtlle dernii, Ufl We:sloll ill.aii mull de patru sule di~ mli, un S:te~rihfolll mai 1llIul te de trei sll.ted e mi i, ua SU";~nd 'apl'Oape: ~nl>1llsure de filii ~llllJl S llegfit~ mal mult (.li dQl(l,1'j sute 'Iire"izeci ~k tuB de hand. FCI't"O'grafi.n ·am{.1'i(:(lfl ~ de. Ltl mceputl.i.l s~}lulu:i it auns c~llt:le,cete I,naif ridkat.e, cu ex.cqJ~ia unor 'l:OtogJ"llfi.l'n:blm A vetJ\."!l1.. Penn s,a!.! Ma'PpkthoT{le ee ~i-au: ganditcu pl'ecJzi~, rnunea (·c.llifak~~()p.ierii:, [ijJrmalJ;ll) lIi. fllnqie de .pi.;'l~a anei .. in paralel eu lli;t~a \I~z$rilor ]i'>tibJice, fOLdt.af]<l f)i~a~mt"f:[pii1'hi<l in r;:atlnll tal:gunlor de aria cOrlleaipoIlma, cum·af Fi, Fiac Ja Paris. 'C(;;l .egl.1l'Pe.aiti~;ele. m.aiimpotfaule gatc:::rii . .actJJa]:e, Dflf m~lJu"land rivo,l.li:t.2L ell picl1l1f&. 'ea ~i.a 'eilut:at repcdc;, fiind (bll~ volw.i'uiL ~l cr:liiHlte:ll tlTIltlz:.·lc~illor Ct" lUI a1t1m; cC Ii. ,conVE:n~a .hili mU,It. ~ (:~oIl:l.plu lin

pg

7

cadml: s.al'fmldui ''Des0Uf\flrir1i· ,~Ies(i oat tinerUor cwalori i~i lucf,HJii.lnr '~e se negodirui· Ml~1Qprzed de n!.ij d e"frn.rR:.i, a{>esta a j uas il11 J 992_1~ o a dor..l~ cdi..tie, J!:i ~pJ;Q.;1pe sigur ~~ ill umliiJQri:i ani pinta ,f'Q1ugratJ ~l va evoiufl: tn acel<l~i seus eLl,'piat,1 picmri11, dar b~l1etll~N~~ c.1l<1 d a"lta !SeaI'll; :~e va conS'b!idll tn.jl1rul p(Heri:lid~~l' valori din l~eClJl. B.~ctUW~(;l!l~ ul:i\'ie.I,~a1 ,$i t~U ~taJt !mU !<Irl;! ell ~.fu"aU~j ~rii eperelor ;,,~w fi di.!;1pall)T[ deja, in ce-i Ilri\i~[" 116 contesnporani, It va fi gren sili $E i.ttlp.Lltlli; IaNs~'11c spec.(Jcu]ea..~c rue tlneri 1m artj~ti a¥'l IJ.Ull] s-an cunoseut rl1ti-~oll{l'etlilt; iH ,aOl'll~llill~ pi c:hrdll>lu ,q{j 'WOf repl;l)JU'~'e Cill i\igtlIq~*~ ~; lh fotogJ'fffi'e_ in general, aC'~.l~1l1 p1E1~ '!ia(;ln'J.o1ne FI"J3.fLc Ii mi tat.1, duptl. ~A e1IlpluJ edi [ifcii .cill'rilor de autor (pI'itt !..:l1.r1) Ile-a.utor. trebui~' illiJ.teh~l.se cdc: liJ cfulo;rtirgul1lent dedsh pernru plLolir.;i!re ~s(e· sern.nittlo[r~, rnai lll!llJ[ dccat sub1eCllJ!, .tratal,~i asta ~HU .peptrtl cdi11lr em ~'i pentru (;iLi'l~or). FDlugra:liile~i Cl:"i:r~le deJspN ~Fotngrafi uu-i mobjli~'~a deeat' p~c p~1:Siol!1a~i :S.i:Ll!i. ]!e' coleclionafl. dect 0 diemeJa redl'~l, relal].\" fa~ -de: d~i ... pltat~<l actU3m 11 f(1)TOg-rnfici, C<1! i:enOillcn cultural, Nu IlHIi~ pn~ cO]"j:l de num1l:n.d 'ex:poli~l:ilt)[ de, io(ogr"4i"ie ce se ~]r1 ih p.L'e~cr\L, flil. free:aro .al) il'l Fr.m~a~

'10:0

F- O'.··T·· O' ·'G.:..·D A.. Fl" .~ •

.'".,' " _,..,.....a ~,.

SINGULARIT'A'TE SI PLURAL,ITA TE

- . - '. -. ,

, ,

FbWgrOifin e~~e in $jeun li:l'llib.a1.da:r <lCoesl J.imba;f see mai malre fbnne ~f ·w:ii nndt eapliCc1:p.i. Iar acea.<;o,a f.liversit.a.tc este aPfoape a~~cli;':ii ca ill' C;P:llJ \~crhl:lliu l.r(tn:: ''i'\;Oe.r.lle unuj jurnaf st si cere ale, nnni !1oet gi'isim aoeea~.; tii fereJll\,~ ea r~nre fato,gnlfia ulll!1ireP"2r1,e(~ mart:or~lt:~'1 ,aia:clualit~Wi, si cea fl ill'11Mu]ui ce cOr)l(}pe~te ~ o nudlll

ftltu,gratk ferrueie ,COijpUl11i: ' .

Nu doar .praI}Jjc~ lor ~te dft:eiitii - ei nu tra~¢~~~. de]Q~. !lr,::ee~1ii r.calitate, sau mal exacl 11\1 tmteazii. ~1l1 :;H.:eea.~i maniel;i'l n;alitmea ~,iI .. r ~j statutul lor sm::if:lI ~i 1.11 cOJls:eCiu~a cd ~anHa ll foe ai\l'~Ii~azJt FotiO$mf ul diu sm€lil"JtJ':ilie~te '~I ~ illCreaz~,iElllr -"0 litiallit."fii C(l fond sLrn,im'l' de cea a. reporle_!.'uini., Liflllljul fOln~~afidll; ~~ -tnsli (loci aborrh:u rn multiplt: tel uri. ha <i(.lr;asta I)ol:lstti ~lra~li II ~i pas ii.Jnea ,mafl:z:i!i] Jut S] ~ast.1 rlh'-er.silflte·o reg,I£tm.mai mtth Ijll~toria flCt"is:llii atte dedit ill prol~unzim~ im a~i.lli!i. in a ram faptu lilli Ica. ]magl neade .f1G!U;;l1itat¢.. sflune; mal pUT;lDle d~l:spl;e repo.rile. ~ecfL dt::spre i:s.lonc!;ll dii voo::;ati:aJ al'ti~ILu] Ul esl:e d~ ,dezv.1ll1i,; ll\iata.p.rel'£:ntat~ SPC{;,I.aro.ndui., fbtografia se ofeJici .cjifedte1or leetnd cese .:st]pra~II111,.se Ct~TljlJ£«l ~i nu sunt intOtdea~lm.a urmpdte de 'clln,e a!l.lOr, OJali1-el.iberam de 'c.onrr,oh.il e);;ltft:ttaJt a5ujJra 01-, ~i fil: gei1.G'1ral de conlltxM eforigiiI'ia:r. ;fCltCi~ralla, e (lrioe,operii I iteraJ'~ sau pictUl'flla c. ·te desuhl sa pml ~pld T rn.terpcto.lrL U riei imagini cerespunde ,t' r]Ul'£l:li.l.at~- de al'lrrdlih,,<)§.3 ell rn :s;ub nUl~nel~ de rol'Ografi~ ~Galinjllza rotiie[lI] de practi:d fQ'.ill1e di\'e-TS~,

D-enselJilile suntfuarte IItipoOrtrnlte inciJ;t're .ajim.1i1,ge oj se. pi~rdii diu vedere si'lil~dlarimiC<:!:.lo~o~nlfili.i ,migiflfll i lz"iliea 5<1.I;l:T IJ IHuet'O'a.-ill1e, ~chi l'l~l:mEi~]'fI1:n;; (~togm:[ic ~i ~f{dlJl(a, in ,~pecI~iI Tin ziJ.eJe ijU;;! sire, nu sun! d~rw:tlilra. s.1.taml.lre<1sC1ll.ucmrile', Da<ca ]11u]m vreme f1:),t~)g[<d1i au iO$~ ob~tl:iti de, Pi.C;t~ri: a~e!!ti.a ~~Jl·I.U'I.illi3U 'ljll~~ s~ j~\'~e n:~llLe de ]~ fotogra:fi:c: d~<\;oo.mpl:i1G1erra Jeln. Tmficii a. ml~d't.rn I acuta de

1m

,8

[?otogndiia: singlliaritate 1t plurita~

Etiel'Llile.]ule-s Marey, ccainsplnlif lucr.mle ~lli Mated Duchlllmp ~i 111 &p!)~i:~1 <11 sal!. <>Nnd cobora1Jild seara", este Uri ,ex,enlp]u celehrn, Torul eslt! a~a de 'comhinat din PUllC,t. .dc vedeze is:tnnc lrlC:lt av~:m t,gndij.nl,a. !l~, oollsioor:iTfi plcmra ~1 fuLogrflfia eli rm;l.i~ipap.(! impreLl.n.li la ace'ia~i ebn eremor, l~ aceeasl cantiH! lie oroin Vit;~L~1. tswria fOl'nielor ·.sm a ideilor aT:~ij.;lklt ale 'actslui ~c(lo]m..1 ID<lP(1)l eu la fel de mlAl'~ liT1t~nsit'a~~, piiClll!fa, lfotoguria ~l cineIllatug:ru1n. Pallia ia un ll'iA punet mdit Chris.rnin, fig tlan$k:i. ~e p~7:'nl! in zilele 1'1L{!a.~Ll'e d rept ua ~ferlJr L',C I1lifizeaza f()lHgnma. Cum ~~at J1ll't:ea \!0iI'{! ea In 8:ct!r>1:C C!.lmli~i' iSa~,eV~feXtn a dh.,j,t<l 8.p~.cll'ldtatea h.ll:'6grafiei? Cum Sf: poatl!: tMpunde la 6b, ~dallla mtre:b.a~ [l1'1vind s;ingLl~m;ltITtea 'a~Stel

al;le? Care cu toate itQesf,e'l e1i:iS'~l, . '

C~dea Iul Rojaoil Bar..h.es· "C!l;,rner"a, ll1mintli!I'3J~'. C,{)_~stl.~ile Q ~seopedle 'ferieim a annmlsor c:iTacLel'iSlld fnarlf: d~tts'efll~ c~, n~ fi~llieala niei tn cu,,"in~ek scri~l'O'filQr. !l~i£inl materialele flcmrn c~ tll; ad~~e 'fotog:J:,<lfiei. ,%1 asigtw1 jDtC']egcr,e~ neoer;;arrtJot" ~\,mt 11.1!.lW~~ pe CMf' f'. tA 19rafia sue sa le 1.Irai.c:dar poe c.1I~ pi.cmra sa!J.fllmru m\ ~tlU ~L,I. nu pot, r;ifI1e. expdmB. Arm m.he as.p&:te ale vie(.n i, an u:llnle realililti

ale ]"umU 11"lconj 1!J.1latoare. • ,. __

, ]n ~rim.lll irlInd fohlgrifia 'ale acel ceva Cj;l-I apart,ule l~ Iilxdustvitate ~i ,care are itarul de a [)pd t]mpul. sugel'flflU oeseor, l.Uameniele'W:: Uii[uUn.te:~] a:irrti.:ace3st~,"cl~pa cle:r:is~va:'. emf: fixea7.ii. un mt;m.ent, un gesE. () E':r1.vill'e ce 'pO;I~ Ii ecb.i'~'alcllluJ t.mei lLJ:lliui blr-un peisaj, dcs.coper11l.~cl in re:di111aH~ lUI" edtilibm. 0 ~ljil':rirltm.i~ .,(;11 ,greu 1J~l'"Ctlplmb]~!i, ceva c:e~i ne, dupll 0 e~~~.ie ~~ ]aril,de un t~li" Je P~[" Re11 ~este sa. [luna m valoare un de!nliu ;~e~~I<~i "S?\l boma:l: ~l ftlllctie de c:in;Ulmstante l)e cam n u Ie pute.ro 1I1Wldeaun3 e.xpli COl. Rulu(ltl Harilie6 iZ(lle~za]J1 UI~le i;nlJl,gini eeea ce el nU1l'le~te '"punctum", aGiidi eeen ce se 'vede - ~ peeere dear el in vcc:le, - 011 dhs~~ 11f\~ie: un liie:taliu' d~ care nu se 1?9atG de(a~a (;li pli: ~car,e-] m(l'mai'ea~a l n b:d(1~ticrLl,. f.fdl i1-~~ putea I.lJl.:-p.lica. ,die ce, ~i m. .. al est:e:(Ol aceaemnllC p~car,e~oru inl<lgllJe'Al' poate prOOllfe amnd can d I'enlel~m~ta sau n dispan1t. Para lutloia1l muddi iu ruiJ-rma n()3strf"l fotQgnrt!lla este 'm,_til ITI'U 11 salt inai p~tl.in a.'j.{/e:lida ldeii d<e illfYaIt'e:.

fCitl:lgrafi.<j, ara,t~ deCi Itlcm~1 poe:, (JaJ:~ dO~:f e.;,i.1:,;~ . ~a~ .~~a~, :e pfui:i.nu1,c1! n ana ueosebWl., astld t leat. se allT.i!W:, ~Ne·atfk 11'0SII III

'[02

8

subli"lit:ii'p desartc pent!1J a clcr,::ide dad fot(lgrnflfl dte~<lu nne :1ltl1. dar nu l'le.aID pus udodntrebaru,a· J;u,;n chiar aceast~ i.l"lVlilnUe [Ill, tran~f(Ul'lui caracterul genera] U!1 ilrtd'" (Vr{alle:l' Banjamin). Nu c!$te oare acolo un mlllcllir rnai impQflanl dlecat to all~lla.rte. (I~ [enb~eoe. CI;> seapl1 UIilc! amd.ize ra~i;']]ale, ~rii1:l'~' coo1111li, 'Cijj;aatenll tt!JOlti~ SpI;m:I.<llllal a+:PJl Ulirolografic' ,~ltge[and oruprilzemru:e m~i bnllalii a rea.Lil~!~ii" am spU.l:lU m~j !lat:u;r,aJ~? Cu toa1.e' a.~:t~<l, .:Mf ~.~ f,lce Ia. ird.amplclt: II 't'atQgl.'afl[! fru1'!a: fotogru:I'it;1 ~]J, sllaf!a de. 0hic~iurj)e culttu ... de nncadlra!"'e<1, de eX~lTip~ 1,1) iil!l'.e:.'{pori~nta lor condll ee tnll1fHl n~~ar i <lI ed'ificaf.iL:a mOLi lllub .sa!.! mat Plltw (Jml.'~t"ieU!li!l a un !:Ii sistem de pe:nxP~f\ :~i de lEpre.lentare_ Sa!.! f{ltograj;a -este privilii ca n ;t.venhU',tltp't,'TIn:me-m!l ja, a~e,')t slstem c~te gl~mo doarpentril'a iIlLcgr~, $i eli:,p]t ,ita mai bil"ll;'l Hlultipleh: l' i'ntiHniri, rna] ~nl1U SilUL nl,{li Rt] ~~ fe:ri:chl';., ce alditll'iesc ace:.asHi. avelltllrd." (l1;i fmogr;}fuI cOfistrulel:lte un univers if' tnM.itale pFcroe.cii-at to ~e od~ lfikn;~altie est{l Hliml~io& o<tku]at:!t Imilel"em:lenl~dc tlric~;rdel',in: hi un g@;fi t'n!:il mtiU [kdlt la lill: altul" aventura se culu,,!l, .rc strada san 'Ill ineinta unui stl'itlio_ I'ar mm:ih':~:l de 0lI coneepc h~grafta este, liI.(I ,al.I{[ smlJ,ii,. f,!ut.ill la tel ~a eea 1"' earese ,eomp~flie 'Cia C:.:!I.'lstem;!,

Ceea ce ijjlS~am(]!'iM cit daca lntog.J.:jq.a.,e."tc ~i]lg,uJMl ~~ <lj:l.lflge "sa. modific • flJim.!naq;itia'li.Iotiunea iIt ,art[", C1Im~ ~pun.ea Paul Vale-I)" I ci t~~ de, WaJ.lcr HanjmlliO, dura exemphl:1~)fit",fu:ei pradki mtiS[icc, ea ~~tli: !';uan s legum. dl;. un mod de V10l,l'ii Vl'Cllpri,u Iieeal['ui creator_ .

103

l'ABL' O· U C'· R' ·0'- N' (JLO';r'I:C1

...... ' ... 1,'_'.1;:. '_:._,_,,_.,_,. __ 'U11

"~l'R.it,FirF~lu~r.~I'i,b,[lO;o;~!bi, c!r'I .... ) .

AAmSI U]:ERr:\~

1839 OilIW .. 'Ue; fil1Qgralii:ale bUle\'i\nJe[or,p.'Iti:lielfle

1840 Pl"inml studio ue po~trr~~ lnN'ew¥Qt'K

184 L ';U~loot: "17'10:1 ~i't~il4 ,\'I1~"iI"p'tp~~

UI51 Mi,.i:u"~,, 11",1 i"srifi;o-J

I inf'rlilll;L

lIIi.SSp,:~lon: ~M)rof;'l!)jClm'gff!~~ I )fu r.h.l'IQ~ 1~ Crime.l;:l

\l1E~lCA,

fie )'i'~)ORAf!Ic:::J,

fNtqgrntic

Ilj39 .... 1:.1gl,'l ~mm.tli ~wei1','Il-:ea d'lIgm~!:WtjlM!.ltl j

'1I'l[l!l,~t~d~lli:: "t~fifu'\!Ilf!ii'l'.a dirJ p,mlJ1,fJ ..

J !144.' tk:liIlmflJ':: "!ntr~Il:C~ oJIllL"i<l\iloTtm [:jJJ1"'~tfl[apl1l~'11

11:1iU WR I"hxran~nt;~ul'!fC'Ja: ~'~nc~n.tiJRIDI

I

1847 M e:~Mf'i1JI' "l!"I.'1 Hl'SO h~d~ul 'Cll C;l!CHiiJj ~lllllld DiMi,!ri:\~rri!ll';:ad!iW ~ vjili~' fot{lgr!lifi~

1 ~ ' ... imllX.t! "Madilllle UnJ.\!2I}'"

I:fi:il.l N!lQar. ll!'illl[ fO[i)O.,illfte J:SSS Gnma bio,:jOI11~ri~

rij naer ptJlliu copierea III N~ iii"

U!60 DI~~llE1: SCfLe,F lo&'Il[ nl<ukl

1863 C'1~i.ut ptlrudoi.r! lui'

Doo.Jdu.l~ ,

, 186J'Millie'{:

I "'&,r:jlf~pf;'i~.,/Jtf'

"I'I!J!NICX FOl'OGRAFlCA

189:.=l IFmlji'Li1mi~e:u..l(cll- Uli,l!i(=IlM~

Iillii= ~i~I'i1f[d "Feme: imr4/mJ'a",~ ~

llWli Mi11ili1m16: "P'u!'{ij" 1902 IkI)llsS'~: ., PII!/eru yi ,\.felis@lura ~

lS6'J iCI:i,lOOJ~ d:ll !if().~r:Ujj i jl.r:IX~qj liirn:Jlll

]:~~ G~rugeE1a~tJllilll: primul ap<IFatKOl'!;]J]{

H'7~ I"oiropil!lli ale ('()IIII1~ei 'IHn~ris

1~3IIilnincll,~,dat:in~1 'bn:mllllr;'j de ~Ii!,t

liM A:ira[:!:Il~ [~pl'rmc( D [n~f~m~hJr

161il ~;~y:pq~" IOLO!,'TII.fIC;<l

~1i84 film,jpol; SI.)iI'l'¥i djlJ~eMwd

18!t;l 'i3~:dnQn: l'W~lleie fi~e 'lrniru,prolil~~~

I 1.81lf. 6J.nel;s[Jn: m~O"$odl~ piiIWria1h~

1800 Rij~" d<:>t'tt~I1~ SJ:Jt;ja'~ ,a.~111l1';)fNew l'O'lk.lil!rrl (t'S1~"1

.JIii94 Cre<1rea ,pilow .. t.]wb bP1rl.

~!!9J.&lhDIi' 1i1nltil perfo,!'lll Ik ,3~ rum

1 ~112 t,Lc:mdg;~ til: djl~ Sfje~IJI;l a g!1i!J.!uluti -l'Imro~~~i~'

A~TESl:

Ulljfl:A rimA

! lin rumbll!nd:~

", C(.lrflbkl:b.~{lth"

, 1888VlmGoglii "Ftoasea ~(!(lJ'elMi-

I,I:I,!I~ R~lJvnirl "F""lC'k irnb.ofiIJ,;tu.Jl'"

Ui9<l1i!'lbl~~tt; '-CIil1'~(lmltI,dijj )';':V~'tn"

IO;

I

'I \ltri S[iegltt<.: "The s,~mr.!l<!'~(fffil)!lr.Wie}'

1"'11 H:im:r~Hnjd....""'1pre o,;~pii i;1Iu.,"Ti.I , i~Riigm:: '·Iiule-.;md~l ~ms' de 1I01L1Qh'J]c" ({OfOgAltic)

l!ugAgf[j~ll!lr

1916 S!lThll0l1!l-Giilcf[ile l!lol

106

19iJ07 fm\Ii l..ulpre:n:; pulJ~ea; li'!'llqlilL'1 ~ !Ill!OCl'Otunll!Li

'190j' P.i<:I!'~: '1);:jJ:llili~n:'I~ din ~o\ .. Ig.II~'

ThOO9 i'l[:i3I1!;ia {ilRun;llMM ~\Uil KalL(litl~Jc1:: Prim" ;'It$ill'eliil.illoslt'~tl

1'91! l)!b~s~·t

''1'r~l1!4btllff dIISNl'aJ1lia,a ,,"lmiji'~1Q ~

191::'1. PmuHI.; !¢lllUI I

Ii~lum.dill ~(f1; "'~tiim'e" rimp"llfJ" pie;rtiQI"

l~ LaJ1~~iI'~'N1 pi~~ D .a;pllltarulw t.elcl);(ptiliz~ ~hnJ,lI tk 3 ~ mill)

i9i6, Grlt'fi(h, "IlIWJ'aantil' "

19 S Ml)l'e,·iI;i:"G.!~Jj tim ~ fond alll'

1919, ilttc=nLe'i~"-II' h~i llaUh~

!!J:l1 c.b.~"lia': 'f'd'qtiru[~ 1.912.Jojlle:. "Uli.~e~ 192'3fJuo:tlOO'»lx:."Mirmllr.! I ,.f; r"".r.'<j~lh!l.Ilr.i ~i"

l'924N~cro:3 sUpl'=lll;;]'j'f~11!1

1925 tt:u'l'ka:

~I Vu )' .. r.uri~ !!.Ii9·Ex:po7.~~ia ~,F~1ru und ]'{)~!}.'. :'>r!1UlttgIl~i

1932 :i!1tci:1:l.e:i.=Bru.J)dlLli .'\fJDilf', S~il fl1l.1Jd..,o

):!)<].' Bf<lS~~'i: '''I''«lr(w~ '1100fJ1,:;U" (t",rt~) ,

MLUk~: [QioJ,'I"af,j (!Q Ji'looil cflClpl;rjl

'If~.~ ClIJ;l'E "lJci~ de Iid:ll~iDn

Hl'1alliQI", '

Apa[~fji'l.re\'isteli "Lifii", gtatele Un~t~

'~·.t17 FnmliJreU rCSA, 1iltatcJjc Uni:Le

F.XJ)~ilia J;e fnlr;gTlIlii~ 1.a MClinn, N'ey", \'Ini'l;'

193') Hem1fte)lJ:: ti1tOflWjjL[j im[li1tri;o,~, Lu:ilfltk.,.!c~~lOZi~e)

I • ,

ill94l~ n.;;5Jd~cl~rel! unut dl:'pBJ1NI)llni. M,m~a

t~ Nm'o,'vodt

1.9411 ];l'i'~tl.s: "SiH1J;r:hi'1~Jl'j 1J<~"So)'mlitifti[e ": (Oil!! U~ !o"C¥ lJ11!,?wuuil ~p. Ag~~l

W.JNrt;:,.\ 'I~JT(){"'".l,,.\flCA

ARTE~I LITR!t~\Tl_1RA

l!l3f1 ~sooJkdrea Ild'crnctt11],lJi

19JiIIl:'riI'llu.1 ~lXItai HI cetl.¢"l itJoWcli::c:tfMl

I !J;j~, 1,1 J2dll.llJlrm~ t)iitrul ~ledml!i€' pmiilbil

1919 JIIl!I!I~..Itrm,~ M~!t!~, New 'l:1l1'l;

1~.1 !li1ll:lld:,

t4lol! CI1TI!Cc "Vidt<l''!I' r: t~ , I, ,dlli mJapte ~

, I

1;)~!pu..J.1ie

J]'l*,~ G. Phi.1jf"' J~)il'l.:<i itt. "Ctr!(~U"7" de' A Ca.mu~

107

I ~?49 ]!)!Ji~~1!;1: 1'\5lilt.t.!trliiil~ I'm-M;,,/ur" {lAlfte 5Cli~\!i iffip=lTIU cu Ci!lI!ll_rm-,;,)

1,9!US'l1tith; repct!tlj ilill [~lt S:1iI.~[)ijQl

1m C~-'~ressm1.:

), l'lIdgim' in W!Jba"' (m~~

l~5..:'iB:l!paq~~a ""1-:11:1= liwruil~ .u:rM~ll,". "lorna

19li6 ~n!J;4I:f"'" 'l'ork,(r:iJlte)

1965NnSS~11J; "AcMl'di~ ~1'Il"{~lTel

1%'7 N~WnlBm~ puliireM :~1J!i

, J;tnlo¥ip~ki .

I lnrDl]]lwre~ 8geJj~ii:l ~rn~

J'il70 Mki~:JH: ~ S~I:l'~~J~ ~ : l<:.UI1.el

L'

.~ 947~hndr:ren lu

P<Lri~ ;'Ml1~il1ui N~.,runi!l ,1Ieltilt:l mmkmii.

1·'50~cr:. 't::arm'irmiu ~h.'r4a."

l~~'Camli"~i<x. "Ca(!~, trljlm'iioa7'e fl' ,Ulm-W~i"

, Wi\!,5:;:GRTIlum:

''CM..''fiz.at'

UI.51,11'1rcdll.: ~1\'!;o;:tlsJu[lllaluj i\IIIDro I Jj pnate ri opnui.'"

19(.0 In~t<PlJllln!e a!;ltir 1'0~inSUA

1961 S';,lj.~li.tLP: ",0 ,~i di',I"~'~'*1 Mj lllllll FJeni.~,wici;' •

']~'liI7 Gilfdil MaJ.1]uez:: ",0 .rJ.!ta ~ mlj;1~ ~i:~glfr.rllat~\· AP.1rlti3 I and Art 1970: MORru Roilt~ [I.~!"CN~

10,8

Th bel enlluilogh~

::1.975 Smlilh: i~~il!!,Jin ~~ll!1:imat.l

19'1I'1A:veOOIl: '·P'll1:tre.I:r!:'

!«IrfC~ ,

I li9B4,f'elli!: rr=tm_o;pc,cfi.-Jl la i'l,fuimla

Pirlljl1j3: 1l1h~i~D~fi D;rtar 1 wj~; A,\i\!l>i'jon; "h~ the A7.lt4I,(l\d'J W:e,!'l" (cru,e)

ImkI ,(j:uli).in;:'(.I.u1ltuJuj The SC:Jtlwl fi:P~1J\:::{' r.CWl~t

I

TElml'tA

I fO"fOOR.!\Plf(:X

11)1,1'1 P,ol~r()itI S K i(~ G';";'a;relI,priill\!l~i llUWI f!lC~;;:oll1p.1r~.Q~ul1'iru

j!»ll ::;on:l' [JUJi~ I~ punct;prnm.tipl2l !jnlJl aplffiltdilltlm.!lk

19ML~ ,lIUrofoc.&tQn.!lui relk.~

AKT~ST IJ.llili,A TI JRA

1972 B~: ~ ~!ri!'1}jM ~~. "oop/~"

1971 Mhare Pie.!!.';.""

1.9'74 Ch!i~t(): ;WttlllJil.l" 1m!"" ",- O~lifoflli~' "

1~!I'RetnilS;plXtiv[LD~1i '

I~'ii'af'is' ,

1!l1:IQI 8;;",,: ·'.r.'li'm~r~· [rlJ.llrk:iflt~ll'rH'" ':OIII'lICl'lL~i 1i'r.MIl>4'~~

lO9

1. Studii i~t()r.ice ~i. te.ordi'Ce

OJ, BA:RTHBS Ru]m1tl: .

. _ "'Mll~eul t!}lO~l'at1c\\ ~e ... I~HI. "Cr~mmUljjI'"QUlmS-'+ lW_ ,~,~1}6L Raluat m ~L 'ObVl€ ct [dbtu~;··(Etc·!.lrI oritice 1:1]) cd]!ia Semil .Paris. .I 982.

_ "R~'J~lriCIl imIlgirJi'i", Ji41~.iStll·'''(Jmm!fr!i~:(I.(i(:lft.!i'' nr, 4, eJi~i~(SeuH, I":Irlis;, .! [)('14 _

_ "Cmm~!'ia 1r~J'lJUIlOO~a. Nose mupm_iotogrq[U'i ", {-;[-ricr.;; du cmcm.alGll,mln~:Wl

Semil, ~ari~, millO. ..

PrlIn.cle uo.tlii lucr'".rn.dcscl"lidicaiCa dire 0: wnniulQgllJ II fOlogl"llliJlt:2lf.

I"tirl1ld IJ.rtk~l se literl if! :spoe~iat ·!a ffttl.)grcafi;;l' fie r 'e.s§., All. daile"a 5e. pclipa de.;UlaJ.it~imagi,niipU:i:lljei;~- ~I(;amera lllI1!lillpastl··,:p.r~unc ,0 pD"in: f(larte .tlerti tielflt~ aSU111'a t"ot{lllff!ltiei tlrli -a :a~~ 0 tel'ltl Spec:1 al. tw.retlc~~. Esre probabil U1la dill .r::elemaiilltc.ligenrereflcc~lfacul:Casuprn.lI~SIUJ.·SIII:JH:(;t.

* BOURDiEU .PieJ.Te, "(;) arM. dc11Ifj{m, ENe-:U despj""e' rntr~ubi~lMriksiXiur'e

(lfeJQt~g~a.fid", .c~li!i~l Miro~d~, Paris. ] 9"6:5" .

E~te: ~inlgll~ Im::rar"e !le· ,a.oe·~1 gen 11 Oil ate~t1:i ,ir;l'1portan~i1 .. "'·ferJt.h Q~1!l.!;t!iU!lij ptlJ'lli"].i rrn~L<Xllli ~ociolQg"idi ~m~in ~pli~it.re.. ~lli~r J~d ,.!nte.1~ inrd'frej

sunt !)J:;J!i veehi,

'" IJU.BOIS: Pllilir~ "tk~!41fi:II()Srn~flt\"",-Ne!U!lif! 'Urti .... ei'!:i~ At!f:, P-~!<i.!~)_ . ,_ :L1l~l'aI"ea,eu Cllraoter tooi:e~ic., hazadi pe .!latium de iIi:S~iiitW1.:SClluolqglca. lJilul din pt(lgRsdc tI~[lH:d", .~cJc mal ~QIiLle dj~ (I11melli~ •.

*' DrrRJi!:ND Regie~; PI"' i;~'!reo!l gil.mtlroore", (]cli'liaDiffCre!loc~ faris: lc).&8~

A tllorw 1 A<:rhi.(! Ji:Jbq~nlfic. ililsplrtli ~k:, Rtlttlildi B<lr1h.c~ I n.lI p~Lln~-I!· ~~ :r~on ... e detll1nliV ]trL) ,1emllil.~hl!'ro~E.iiill:e c~ se pun 11~ eeeace imve~te acetl.~~i1 .1ltliq. E mai degmbli vm"tm de urr c~eu .a.sQ.!pra ~;>IP~.e]fJE will.cmpor'-~pie ale Cl'e:rtlei fOl.(i'g;ratju p,-e C<1oJ:e ()~ltorulle cU!!IO~~.fe t'4iJo.i1r~ hi ae,

110

~ fiR,flUNllil GisNe," FOW8rafi!1_~i ,y.odewrua·'. eli i~tfJ Semil, P.ttri~.1974_

o hUliliL hl.lCQ La.ol in accst secol autoarea 3. ~u!i't fot0(eJWrter'~ i ponte ii,'ilhll l'll:Ii [m~ltQ.r.scrti:ro.l'i.: in hierare i~i hnp.art:rsc~~ re.I'leto"f,iilc~Sllpm unei i.stoni $i m~CIji, !mnfirid ~CCt!11tlLrl' fl(Japimad~, tellIi:id ~j p,c,"]'soilaHd1i pe Cilli.':. eu hU1r~

llrcpl:;ll~', .lc<J;:"nsideJ'llii:mpC'lJ1.~i1Ite_ .

,

t

!i"'HAL~ DUNCAN NlIll~J, "l:f~ol'iaJflt(Jgntji(fj ·df! n~tj~~l".! 'e'd\(it1 Clle!l~. Piil'If-:, .l9i~~ . .

lis.·" 01 hterare flo\!f<l!t i!!I:s'rat~ ~>\: pune if.! ~uIliljri1i ~I'i:l')ad~c ,e]leie (lill

evulutia fi)f!)gtatlci;~ Il!l!J(,lapfinll in allii'J:O". . , '

Amlilitia, est~ t il esctl~ isliOrk~, chiar daclt sunt IlJl!~C llne[1: 1ntl'eb1l.ri. de. 6.Rr:l1l e~te:tic di!urt:' ('.:nr-e tlil.e!laservesc,iJn;pl t.ncer,mt .p6ntnJ"dIfc:ri Ie· clipitol'e! t.:l sNlr~tu1 c~rliJ t1tllrca~ f:liografii. ~Jellrlncip1ililor fut0;VfIi'fi d-e tuudii de la illPeilUlw. .5€wluh:ii p~l1i in aecl momimt

"'" KEIM ~~e~'II'I._, "if1r()~,la jr)rl'gmjki", r'fJJI~J HJis~re?"- er, 1417, P:U.f,. "~ri~, J!no"

ll.Cle:ll!<::li1.1IlcfillX are n:t~tiUll .sol re.zUJ"'te eu ctari1s'le m;adl1fl.~[ape Ilin i~tf.lrli! fotogJ(l'lld ~i rm'\m:.i.p~lit rre~JOri,

. [II ~ . .ml'riltllll'1tidl'l" d~(l::ctl]1 de.a ~Jlltelha pfeil rnu It; J.~f4ruJ: de iii riarte f!1u'lte

nume,

~ K.RAI)SSRmaljillQ.. t,rVINGSTONlHlme ~iADES D<1\\>oI],. '·'};'rrtogmji"1!l ~·i m{mHer.disrn", Centre €l,cergt:;s Pomri"·oruillillan, Paris, 1985,_

o Iucrarc fnatte irutT!dasi, ~bl.ll1rl'~I!l irus~mf;.;'i" d~ tomtil pri!lue aI~ unu'lit. dill. co'i'lici1 ;;Ie ,Ii["tj'cei mal. .I'eflll~ilt.i 'Ii socolU!lui aI XX':I;::11 ill Shltele Unite. Rosalind Krau:,~, .Stlllt ~l'1lIliz~f~ rril1cipaiele .. speC'll: ai~ 'imall1ilii dirllre (IJtog_I'.:iilie ~lumldin 'l:lrcnteJ,e~de rnaiill1fl@u1ail edin ,I:r.lp,r.ia.llrlei ~coolulu:l al XX-lta"la fd C'l .~i o.pera luiMau R.ay eare figure.;ldi In;celll:rul aeastei m!fflniri. Vom ~lW Q bi{)grnfj~ ~i 0 hil.iii.og;rfifle ,s. mt~fi~o.r re~rw::cti.~·i. em ~~i 1!I0'1 illde;;.;

fe,mIte I.k\a!iat .

'''Llq .L!~.III!LP1"1<l_!l1L·a 'OOi'ldilS3: de·I:eSp[lil~bilu.l: C\I i'<:.!iO'gmtiahl.B iNitJteo'l ElIl~~Q!l"nL';~~'I~a~it"Clll:Illd.e Le magny, 1:Il.:l!I C"Ul~oSe.~(or :alllKiilernitilii iar Andri ~IJ .. ;~,"'1"~L lrIl>Cooll.l1 ai, Xc I x..Jea. MlIlie i'iltoImal:ii pi'elii:fJta~t:. me~lic Icluri·c.iior cstet)I!@. in leW'ltlj(R.C,I!I'evtlrut~a

H1

~ N!E">~'1:IALL l1e!lumIJ]1[, "lsJ{.m'aIVltlf:frtffii:i .lilt! !~39 ptiPii In p'I'-e;r,ellt", Se:ker- alla ~V ailmrg, 1,.il:ifIdr,~, ~~{{~L

U[I'a din ~lele iMQr.i i ale forogr'lo'tfiei. ai;Ift'<'d(>ilmll~IlUlli dar rn-~i""l ~~gUIJ(;[ cte~\ia 9,m~I;r.';;aIl1i t'ati1:dc C\'!l1j.:Llropea1l3, e..·U,-·YIH~st€ trn.d.lJisJi li.l. frallootil.

'" NOJU Chull:k. "Fow'g"\fji"rJ.fhwcc~~t4 ar {(" al~gil'ii ,_tmi!i ;'t"I.l'r~zerrt"" *J~~ia

ConlCEjom, P,:rti'S'; 11 97:{. [~eedit~btR ~i iLC(UJQn!;l_~t~,M j~9,R8. '

Sjrig.u,m lucrace de acc~l. g!;[1 Villiti in prez;em ce ofut.:fo vj7.jlllle cle1litsamblu

~Ilpra al1:est.tri slllbi:c~;l., ..., . . .

TC[lMfti ~'a ~lrigiI18.1'ti de. cl::l.~fK;are ],!WIiI~itl~1Ua; (l'rIl:e relllilltlc~· ~~ iWfn~.

~. RDCHE D!:nl~, ' f)i''!iJillrilia llcwdcilQr" (~"!IJ(;fliJ tJSIfPtft acrnlij~I(}I~glYjfi"t')" Btoi:t!J-, l\lri~, 19HZ.

Ji..uc;rarea nn.!ll.q!e prinxele ~ilIJe~;>;:lC ~i con~'llr~~rl dj!sl!uC iUtuw~'I;i e, Fotograf ~i lcoreticiilll, tl-es:l'rujo;rra.t1in C(': Iii ~~ mai a€t[v'~ mum;.t:i,I)i'iitula-lli ~i fowtc cim~la,Pe eele nou1l. plmudpw.fJ. ~a [Ilooctu1 in eare ,i:lccsl<:a se sUllfaplllt,

*J "SONTAG ,s.uSRIII. "F{_1l'(E81"iji{) ", S(lmi~, Par.is. 197$". ,

[.uc.ntr,ea reLlf"l'eslc' d:ivcr.scle:de critic~ lflil(Jre8.ll fbt®gt~liei ViilMic:ne ill SmteJ,e Uu(re i.nanii' 'iO,Ref1~til foarte illteresalltc.pi1iiltre altele asapra .j'otojurnali sod i, s,l'l:prnrcllih:Sl'nulllj ~ i f:l[l'Ortmi:IBr sale CIl! f(i[;Q~rafia, ~i. ll.supr,tl mOiZoflilllui Wane!' lJe;f1!1amhl.

1l VlI.Nl .. IER Hcnn, ·"Filfl!;:(";jja,for/JRr.q/ie,l, taiett11~fiffografiei" - ACC.P. 1983"

iII atc.rdtm::il.Ii'lI,mJ.citlw]~ it ffliOgraflCJ, M.m~;uI inililn~pr,il'1",tI-elllltele eonceple

fiiozo[)frce!j_i ;semiolCUgice"

'" ".D'e:f(''[lp~/!irea ~.d p!',iviri" ~ IK39'-! in S)i • edilitl. RGtlIliI}11 deS. Mme~s Nal1i~DauK. Pari!>, L989.

'" "DescfJ,peri 1"1';'(,1. jill ~'I il rte" - QClltrul Geor 'g,es P(liupidou/Adilll:i Hit'D, Par.i~,

1';.189. , . r

C'U ocazilll OJ,:le:hdltii g:, 150d.e ani de III ~le~op¢nre.a fblogwficl. dOl.!1l h.!t:oo rm.port&!nte {~~ 1lIlJl.cel~~ rfmp q~fl1ilog!l:t[:ik ~jO'J'.d.~ cO'qID".;ilii1, reun ~Ild nlJmeru.ase-fe~.fe ~j ilmtmP.i, tree 111 n::"iS!u ~""i![Ii;>;~a;rJH>!l:lriaaceSitej art.e ~i plindT,alele el riep.eL'i~. Prima. tbl'IJ)i"llUlll]i .lleJtlial'li L'l-l(llflol, Fl"allH·)~~e.He:ilbrun ~ l'hi:ltppc .N'!i;~gul. c~l1.i aiekit\li,ti1 din opt p(l~ $! s.tu:dj4:litlit !:rrjncipaliipai;anwtri! 'r.dl"ili!.:i ,~i il"loagil1ild f.(ltogrnfid ~i ttalan:a fh,!I J;!I!i\ij~(tcit Cca dc-~ dnll:J., 'sub mndllcere.a lui Jc.an,('ial.!dieL":mBg-llY :~:i, Alaiin Sayag cste c!:msa.el'al:li: secolului al XX·lea.

~ Vo)'ous voir {s.~ vedem), de l',iefi'e Borhan. L"I'emi,s. Pans" 198fl'.

'" li:c.r}tUel '~I()ir (Asc1U.I.I!.<i:~i, sa vedf;~ jI, ;N"QU:1'1 ~t)')"'\Jdliri ( I ~~4,- 1918"'1, ,]" Parriek

R(legi ers. Parj.~~ Aw:diGl,i1t~II¢I, 19~9. .

* /!'tlme ":'Ii~~'iI (inlr.c.,.,,'edeJrt), de .lcIr:Hi..!o; H@rv:al" Nathan, Pa tis, 1991t

.~t!c.:>t~ ~ r ~ucrjrj ,~e; @::Llm::sq:wrl!v~~id cllliq~Qg.mfl' ,1liq~J:il ~ IlJCllt~![lO~~e d'e@ar'<'!li~ pun !i1I1 I\l'll.i-n3..asp:ekl'eJuttrtc ;tfl"e~'I~' aJl~ :prai:Lidi futogmlkt:.

[11 Magpunl, . 5f),de 1111/ ~ltfi,tfJgrafij~ ~ 'NH~han. P"Jj[i!>.19R~r

Ot;ill m\1.i oof1s~~ta Ji ntn,: ag~Il~i;U le d,;;; [otogllafi.

. !Ea ~e'q:K:rolt:~je ace-.li{'l)FlH:IlrepWU~ rilJerulcl:Hotak'1 a crealid ~i ad.l.m~ Iii 5~lU]; ei "'i~il:l,,i I'e cole IHa! !ltilicc ~i rm:i;ligcllte ale !Ill:} w:!ntll]~~i IIS.lIipr:l. IJlm i i ~i th.Yerse~or sale :I~ptx::I.C. Ana.l i ~,1iS~'OIr!! ilei Si a ool!ltel:I'l,Ihni :in Fal~ ~ ~ctlvll~ este c(1]]dlJ.~<'l: ~U:[lcOJ:l'1j ~u~ de Jean ~ .il~oLl~;e!'1rti1lll1ctllhl ~i Will~~1l1l;:hIIld~~c.~rer.

2. l) seler,fit: II mono,gr:l.fiib:u· princlphli10r 'f6rog,mfj dt..'1lli

, . ,

* A11GE'J :l:lugclle: 'The Work lJlj,4.rgel·) (Opt:Ta ll!li )U~lt- 4 vo1Ilme-. 19:8;.~ _

~ o;p~5 •• ~djtia·'Mu~l1rlli de ~.!\tlit 1IoIo;rlef;'!lli. New York. . ,',

. .' ~\~:;I. stllJill ~ep}l treblli!;: oco~t esie dalOf-at [I,,1l:1rici MOJ'rj~ IIllimbmng . D D paeate.. ifll;\_ !.lstc tF4,hl.!;l ill fl":aJiCe:l:li",

* AVl::tJON. Ridllart1: •

- "Potretc" :, Chellc, Piari.~, 19~6;

- "baheAmi'irlea)j West" ([II Vii=:;hi:hme:ril~:-m), CJ1~~H:. p,m:Is. ]~,~.).

!)0tia Im:rMi ilifexIte 11'l f~me!He de ~ll~leNllJ !nl'tat p.r:i!T1'[['~~~~~· OOIl~~cv,~~ji fig:uiilor de ~~,a]e ~dciWi~ij ~~, a '~~lua. d:i I~ c!1rIlrJi. AmericU,tibIZlliuite. (.'~Elul pClI'trelutu.i. esre iru.~ tolod!~a~lla 'ab9riliLl '41 aL-.elfl~i slil .~i CI!I ai:;ecll~i ngoare,

"':nOtlBA'Il" ll'.dolQaril.,

- "P{,u~:.e", Cl!lIltrej.olJr.,aris, 1981.

MlIn:l~ "Pflel'" III ~htogr~Jiej 1'l'Oli'll;!e-iiC preziiltlifi a~oo~t~ IY,",,!il'c~' selecti e.

a c~II)I mai: j !Ylp,",-s~Qlaam¢ .i1Il.agi'1i, '

""(APA Robcn

. ;'HfoIb~('il't C(lit(1,/otogtaJrJV, SY'lvic MBs~il1ger, Fat;i's. I~K ,

.. Oi.mw]rt'j!ll1ilrern~'iPictifa a muaell S:Jll~, ~,;prinlEllfll' ~i ultimdor fiaJ~ IOl(;Jgntfi:t.deli't:pOlrt'dj t8f;:tHC'U'li ~lt!l~1(i:ltro. eol~IDri"ale.tumi i. MilHl rtcrstlll' rer~o:nojill aoeea5i miisll!i:1l 111'1 ref [l11L d~ (I b.i.ogMlic SC1bliat~Riduud 'Wlli~la.l1 (Muafine, I>arj_~, 1985).

.~ CARTIER- BRESSQ H~lti: , .

_ "lfef!ii Cr~d~u-BrlJ,~Ml:Jf)tow'aJfd" -Dalpire, Paris, I?B I, • i,[tO,'Opol'tte'e -; GalliIllllJtl.. l?iiFi~, 'r()~S

_ "A.ml!'ricB. J102 tlst:nn.l'·' - Scmil.Peris, W91

• ,', Ptimtle !otogn1l,l1i" - A r(,h" Itt, P~'I'i s, ~ '1)91 .., .

j?ti 11111 ¢flfte(eSle'llna dln retrospectivelc cd.e·IIHU ru~~~l&fllt) o[!lere1 s,~k datorat~ fiii!l.eJulli~ ,sltl!l cdiro .. a tI~na e consj:t~mffi tWl11~lI sale Il!.e 1~~tIrEl~"~t. i.1I~~ dC!ipre ,,\ lner!~ a 1[0.;;[ ~U:rot~ !JJ, celaborarc c~ ~ill~s_ GlJIll>~ PW:l,1 i1t~ im~mi i llel1ite irlteresant6. ~pmtanln~1 dR~J.~LN. ;u1:~b ~~ ~ pn m~iftl' f?'roR'':lti~ esl.e scmnara dC!r:EtcrGafus:;.m. E,!l fa~~ refei'jn'~1Iacarlier~Rf,I~ssQnplctotlJl $,1

d:cSCIllittirul

'" DEPAl~I)ON [ta:(mrlTltb . . ...

" C&l't;p~ IJew- yl\ili'.!::e£~" • Ul5smtion, ~di~j a .f;tt,j]e:, p'nri~; 'I ~~~I. , . ••

·ex· ,allllei ci;6Iiici~Dnalc:d~ohIJill~I1I~ (;~idi~!!U1·:L;heratl.Otr·:

'inc:wrc so coinbirlll, te>'tte :t\ijl\mgi Iii, lm"fi\it\1 de Ill! ~tIldll1 al lilII AI,a~~ B tlr'f~.~!: ~l Cl:u:isli:m. CalljoUe dC~p're £",~(lllro;fle, Iii general" ~i acem;1!a rmmca 111 spcculi ..

1; DOtSN,eA.U J'~OBE[t1:

"'{rei seCI~Ndede' etem[i'wtt: • - COiii~rej(}1]. P<aris, 1979.

Nu mID tincm s'o~tiJl~'llibl mali()~!it:i ilpr cdl!li ca~e poate- ~s~ iioto~1 fiancez ",el mai Cll.rhL}SQu.t.I'l~rel'uj 'pu'll.lic. Fam a namara rocoOtlllflll."hll;;r"'Ii1:lJf j[m~ .,·"d'ii !.l!;sp,re·P:l.r~~ &1 sllhurnill0111i malizate improi.mrLC~' ~,,-dilori ~a~I~!~e Celll.lr;:m,_ 6 '~'orhil ai d de prima r£l1o;spect,lvIl impq:i\tantii care ";1\ fi d<.: rrtm I'flull[

I[l~i!roodltnlt.

~ E\~ ANS Will ;~t:; • .'. . . .' .. _ "First and ir:Mf, ~:Prjml1l ~i UItI1UlIJ}, SekeI.a:n~ \Valburg,Lu,ni.!ni' 1918. _ ";Ami'rictl .. fu/(jf;rofil ain~miii ,cri~('t' " S~b.lIlILerIMl[)sel, ~1JiI'l~ilei1: I ~~~1,

Fa:toQ,l'aifu! ameriean ClII£,. pm YWl!llI.e~. sa ill (f{ul'tem1!l1 pel~~~lullll1~~:m, 'a e~re.ita,t ,C~ .~!guratl~;!i cca mai pu:[~'11ricii ilI,n"elli,&a ~~ut)ra ge'l1ern\:1 Llill'l' ce I-au

urmai,

Nu' ~il'CbMk: ~il~i..J:imillim, 0p~'fi:llf.l,'loli vit:lle:l din,domeniul ESA (I).

£ fRANK. Robel'l:

_ ";4 'r.let.jc':\,mii", l:>elpll1e, ParLs, 1.'9U!i. .' . . •.

SPiritAli'u1 de'g&Ullel~ie allul Henri O~:!Jf[i~t-~resso\ .. , Rob:e:(.~ I",n.l!i);:.'~' op.tme comlX":zip;i mal libcrc.:;i fUlirtc ~w.u~am~~RJe~l~a~ gn~llnlU~~,~U:S.~111:!l[Dn. 'ofhdu!Ilca sa a.~up;ra AmqReii.~lo l~(,:Li II ~~.a ~radlll~ p'rlDtr;.,1a1l Hr,mec!.tle: carte

·fual,t~ or.iflJ.mrl ~a is-a {IIs,ooit-lh:;riilIQl'tGl J ack l<~ropac. •

114

"'rUNEI~wb

I~ri,~ Ai.Qdi.ovi zual, Parj!:>, J 99c).

C:;"I!lc.'<1.:d'l:i,~, ide~ tiJl;:,pr,c h:npo.rtllilta i:!oBWilO'fltclor felllizate li'I'lJ:ii,i:Ie la lIu::epl1nd sC{:f:fTilllu] 'i!1iI Smfcl~ U[lite (1c:ca~ L1llilil aUltr~ p'Iin;JH fCllllgrafl "itnplieat]", Doclifi)l~!llil;!le se.lef4Et.U~.III!IJI1l;:~llcmig,t;a~i~i ~i:aml1fi(.;ii. in ~fJ~'i1f1 I;le~~ a coI),1 ilur ..

~'lrJOYNrN(iEN-HtifiNE Geriro.~:

<fHa;w~lil:8e.I!-ffugn(', E/I!;~!m;aa;;lJ.rw 'aoq• 'DeU'@ei.'f'a.ris:, 198'6,.

(j fj~":1ra i .• ~·lpurumt~. a ~~1(.)tl€i fut'\JIgoorel: de motlti;i!!tl U[J!liItlifm de maril'~ CilIICIli;e a:!1'is(i:ce tJ:1~ epuc~i ~a:l.e,

* HOCJ;.N:ISY· DA VID,

"David Iloci:.m::y ~ f{.~l(i!ll'afllr' .. Ccntro.! (r.evr!l:c.s.p(l["p{~(l,u/Herwhcr. I:larls, 1932,

fi!:.lto.r~ d~~na~o.r, fnWgil'af~ ~11M tk ge.LI i:u ii.~ tirnjlliJui ~~jg. M£mtajdc. sale :futd!Jmlice;se'lw~~ iii! mjl.wpme pe '~iJ~oOofuatfe Iil:ic:r en .reglllil~pe:loPe:..1ivci:

I

'" HORS'!' J':{QRS'l' P;

"~~ru'e ·dec';;;l Ii .ae.fnlogn:ljii ", ,~Mlii.m!r/M{JM:l, ~1tlll~hlID. 199',. .

Hiev a~ lui Hi:lynlli '·::i.l\JHtlin'!,.'~i d:~slli.~oarii lu!'!g:lI 6a~~~ d€ ~(;t()g"u de mo.d!i1 ell rigoare(l ~i i1l sm rl~wI waC'l,el1'l1>i 'ocloi' I: folre cele dO~lllmZbQaie.

_ It I • -:

* KARSH. 'Y1!:liuf:

"Nar!§h,i - Fi.liI)tI(;clii, l~iln5! 1'9'83.

Ce:t mal "oficial" r(lur'l>tls{' al ,~pocii rroastre, I'" fl:!w~rafia. !.m[[;~ p~r.mmili:l!i:till: I!(;estelhami.

10 K'ER';]fESZ'Allilre'; :

'·I"t:qrtp.l mea;' - Mal'lufll~hJlI11.relMiil'1i~tcfiJl.Ctilt,mii" ]i!a:I·r~. Hl~().JJlia dill Illcrlllile recente ceolc mat rei.!!jitc rles;pte Kc1tnf!.l!!l., Di 'l':cr¢le Il.sp~~ al B .('mlnd.i ~Ilic fi'k:llte,ln Frallta sunt :liulizate de cflii'Va. mal'i spcclal.i~tl ai [ut'pgfafiei:

SilIldm PIa.i1~ws., M iidL:d fi'ri>:nl ~i leal1-C~allJe t..tt~\lIgnL '

It> p~~ lrvu ng:

',' in tr{'<:t~rf.·~', Nath~l!:l. Par.i 1, [\)9r] ,

rmm.o~ii tellrospea:ti \'ll a'ru:e.;;re;:i epcre, cOll'loinffiml pri n lre ~lLi~Ie,'ft)li:Jgrntii de IlwdU, pu b1 i dl~rc, pOf1 rete ~i llia1~mi mO;Il)t~: LlI:cra 'fa .i 'f4:1S:1 ;coHc.~,Piilll ~ ·,:k ilislll'!i fO(:j)grarul care este i;i eunrcntarcrul imagi.llill"l.f sa!ri.

lI5

*·SA.I.JJADO SBB,ASrnO:

"0 itlnl.rn'inl 'gi'"(~Jiil!" - Natlt;liII, .r.:ll'ili, .1 99n ..

~itdkmdoill.l~,f<J[J.j~w'ti([Jl.'(8,~, ill:pf,e.Z",nt,e~teQ.t.! mtt:1 .. J.[>r6ape'dfr,~pid!~l Ilh:i W! E!u~e'l:je18lttlth, hI ~~clls~ll ful'eiiro chs'e !I:IplmI0n·:I/~~~pl'llm.:l!Jn]o:r slll1i~It:

UI)!1aTIC. ,aQmdfunl [n ~ceJii:$; l~IlIP Q lmll(lJ1tanP. ,&X~(e:nj.:ti, fu~mei. ill tucrare ~;gllrcfl;rA ~i Un f(U~dlQ f!I1IlPI1;mt ~I~tlj I'lred r{~tcht!l ;Il;1Jpm aCIl!tei.opqr.c.

'Ii S.ANDER.·.Atlgll.~.t

"rkn:mrryji ~e(rd~l'J"Lt gl,\7X-Jga",'Ol~T1e,l~ar,h~1 1980. , A irif~iJLS o;u~1Fi. IiIltlmu:(t{iIll tlJ:~ <tl!)plti. t:ljir;eI'l1~IQ'I' g;{1]l'1u~j de.. me~..eri i ru:~ S(!oCietRtii get'm~ne. r,:tI.'r!(rurnt:Ujj rnasce!lfiiulle:rllia~~nn.ihli, 1ilb1~1!~rt.LlI MJ~ fot't \;:o&I7.llfjl, . .dar d'iil·terLdre·s"a [Iurum reeO"ti);r.imi t1ulW raiboi,

i+' smEll l{:aalQu'Jjll: ,

"i.i\lliiitl<'l dmp~l ~tlfi m.ai b.ii!~.rtlJl'''- 19~El,,]9'91) • eOl'ltrr:juUI. N~9t f"otqftllfo.<l;motffi; pll~lk1:~I~,Porttelist,.P1'l.cti%Q."''!;~f!.tflr\\;;l;~tW~ gei1!lri nu loa hn:piedkatsi1~~i,il!J[,<lasc!i tlllI<StW pC1'~:e.n~Uifi iiiJ;b-n.;.:~li' ~e i-1L .. IIliU'e,~~ ep~Cla.Crum::mcaru el m..~'[j ~.I:i~~are (Jill, ~~-e~nlHe (l~i ~omJMo. 'i tl~l~I';IriIlL

."". '~r;deldetoto!§rf!tJirfJ" .ACef', ,

Acea~~~i~J~ de~te te()Jct!lOtl1~~I~r.lliHci;.animatii dc Gill~sMor;a :p~iJin.!1: ntilill~r£wmacml" .tEttI.\'l,lo[ "..gnlstiuutivcjI1iMi~~Ii~iL!il. ftilog~'1i;1]i!l~,.fl1 'lJU~~h(~ ~u stl1dit ~le<,~.reioI rn:i1t'jI.(Jr fQ"}(Ji.gr~H.Il~!t!:ll t'ei!nlr~C;a"ie~"BI;~ss.en, .. ~oQel1t Franks:3:U RaJ)ph'Gib~l)n.

~ ·'tWrwrli JJ1M'11C1ti(m'q[~' .-'.r~L'i.s.,

~k\'i~tiHrrimcSltriaIa de alta fQ J)gIj!ifit:'li aa~oocdfl un ~t:Qc ~~e:nti<tl ~~~tMll ·flle~rii_.!i.i pllnerii mp~giri~.llr lucriljj'l'I'()'~ reJ~iMu:!le, pl'Opullfuld! IIll1mere~"imr1.l:i~e .de~p~e ti1Jr:i' (Gr;e.cia, Italia, Sp"1I1,~a. Ji'in!J:amh). filltQgmfi (\\<', EUg\:~~ Sm~u:.) S"kll

~gl>TI~ii(t:rtiLgl.Uill)~ "

1.16

~ E'Jddop~dje int.ero.t1#mf(!tii ~[jiltognr.fUOT ,Ii! it:! 1839 p{J'1Ji1 tn pret!!nt., de M:jehiHe~j Mi~hd Ftnc., Cam,C-rl,1. ab~~lli'a, 1'982_

tlk~.aI.~I' naeste fuacrte- oo~11pl~l, Eaciclopedia cste lilullt m;~i GLmipllt;l~ ~i f:i~caJeartjco~ e8!,e r~le:n1:~I,~".ad in ~t;.eG~lj<i m[jjJ]h~rii_ .Mj~~e ~il iill!1Y il, .

I .

.", Rnato Copies. CNPZM ini~~tel'll~ Culturii

Mea-;:OoolB;;:~~ j:m\"lillA!ii. iII ~In~manfikll cat&".\lI m:ot1Qgrafii ("6 l!..l~" de J~,c~Ju;c~"Heltr~ L:rrti1g;uie, "Eli' ~I S" d~ J'osef KQi!d~:]lill~, iuctrnrl feve~1 ~nd t@~,gl1:!'fiei 'ii] Sl!;l,9ii.'"pel~liIlcprocml! "EomgfOlne/;$CliInpt!J<!'li.", "i{l!,m:tittW'~, sau "rrim(illl '1uaei 11l:l1~c;lri".

'f PhotQ P;Oi1Ni!','CNPMillis;t@rul (Jlltl!lrii !(FQll'tg~~11~"de o1Izim.af").

0.o-1ec~ie-dla~,tUnatll !m;:!relwip:(Iblic ~i~l ~.fute~pi:ind;Piu. efi~ p~~eh~.1t,ll iln £h::e~rei3:pari~8 a opel'elurr!!li fOEo;g!,r.~r. Au ~!'Jj~: ~¥ja ~ii .IDull de' '5(hr,olll:!nf.; pdnt~~~~ fe,giii!liim niffi'.ilc fi,l1iLlri d'ttslce fU eo:tlremp!or;]t'!e, e~J1Iier-Br"SSDn, L~,i~ue,lJO!i5J_H3aru\~ie~e" ~,tget, fi'r-<!tl!k, ~1lruf .~millh, MichaI~IKeI1.e~z, W 1t~1Il ,_- Dar ~~ ~u~~an e(}l~d[~"C dcspre iF$:A S,alJl.["1llVfSm"C{1*nt Wvm ""i die et'~Inlplu, saa oi;DI~resantli milegllij'e de ~e.x:te ~~dI~hllt:, d~prL;l, foto[!:pfie (1"1,. ,A;rngo~ C. 1l~:w.lIelaia.'t:,. W, 'Ek:n:i~min, R, S:u1c~r" __ ) il.lit;ltil~at;1 "Dc~rr;: bUM ~1:ti'l:i7Jll!Fe a, t;()hI!grafiei '~I'!r_ 27}.

'~'~et1l.%'em~~a fomgmfici1". :Pad\S, A",,,uo'i'isy~I.

KQmluSil dG; And~ Reru1i! a.Qe:lst~ ~c>'1~i\!iAle !e]::~eis!;oIiiQe.~ ~rit~t1e ~~JlUI!i.r WIl!lle~4esvrere,gi~!fe]~[-e1 ~dir-mie preeli'mJaJ?9nia~!lI t'cit0ilrali~ de f;anli]i~_

AbbQU t! ereaice (1 ®9 8-1 ~9 i ) Uoul:r.lf Edt~ 1.1 arid (191::l)

Statele :Ulli:~e fral]~a'

Adinms Al,ls{:] (i902~] ~(4) Rtu.!~~ilill OU]I C19n·1991)

Sr"1t~~eUnite f'r,<L[]!;1

A.~get Eugene {1 S 5 6 -1921} Bmdywl,atl:iew (I 8c~J~ [896 ~

F"[ml~!l :s tJitele UHit~

A"ed~n RichaTd (1923) l3rc:n(ltBm (1904'-198"3)

,

BeFt~Uon A ]pj]H~ 8~ (I ;8~'jc3·· 19 f4) f':raiI'~a.

C:J:lIlja.t lS(ielilllle. (] 828- L9t)'6~ f"Tlin~:dJ

Car~ifi Hill:es {]9~f)-197tQ Fbil!a

]1h'i,~.~QI1 L~Yll]S. 1:'i ,Augu.ste (f8 i 4~ 1 8 7~if( 1 g~6-19:P_rU

Frant~ Ca:rtlc r'~ BEl~~:so.nYHe IJJr~

b'l ... . E' • d .~. .'.. '~]_ 0,0.8"

.H'a. an~lntrt·~:rVcOl,t'. l~pl.n~' t?· 1

Desl.l1t~ (lS:Oi!-U.tt) lFm~lta C:b3thon.r.i~er: j,e~h-Philip:pe

001 .~ J 91],) Frlin~:it

t~f1lton:sli:~ qlri:Hian (194~

,

119

Unite

Daguerre Louis ~ Jacques Mande ( 1787 -1 KH) l,',an ~a

D.3i\itfl·;;(U! Brut; e ~ I, '133)

SMe;ie :Unite

Den~3Chy 'Ftdben . I S:59-191.t1J Fmlilta

lll~~;i!riIlon RaFllwrid{ 19:421 F"m~lI

1JiisodJd (18] 9· 1 889') Fnmta. DnisneUI Rub~'Vl n 9 t 2), ,f'ran~

no C',Utlp Mni.ri'ic r J 822· li S9~> :Fro;l[lf<l '

Dmcieu Eugene (u:on .. l 874} F1iaI*1

Eid,gO.ttOH Peter Heill)! (19fl3 .• 1990)r·Slal,e\e: Unite

En1i::·r~olil. Pete.r Uel1i[Y (I8:'it6- 1936) 51 t;ttele u'll Lt~/M area Brttanie

Evans, Frederik II. n .8'53· :~ ~43) M~lRlli.B['[u:mJ.e

Evans Walkier (l9o.3-1915~ StaJteJc Unite

F3!il.SOU B emard ([ ~40) ¥r:mllfl ', .... Ul~ Robert (,192;1') Elve~i·aJ, Stal:ele. U1):ittt

Gisel.e .0908)

Germani alFlI"aLllt<l

Gard!flet ./.1, h:~,!n(;ler (Ul2J- 1882) Sta.w'le \Jnjte

Goldin Nau (IQ'35) StfltceJ,e

, .'

IJtDi~f;

Gnibel"t Hlirve (J95G-19~n ").'£![]~ ,

lIa.rcn!!i\'!!ri SHl.:llo (I, ~34) hafi{a

JJ',eart:fiirJd J ablli fl 391· 19&~}

, .

G~nn;JDla

Oil' Ii'i Id 0 J" , .'.I~ ~i.lln, .:,LCtuiVl.U.~. ~l

A.danS(IP Ro'belt tL8G:2- I .87ri) n!o:21:-L848) i'I\.·lru\ea Brir,1trild

Hint: :rAlI!ais tni74. H)4ij_) $t,atele Unite

BOclilley D::'lVi d (1937) 1\'laI,ea Brltanie

Ha:rm:lngen,.n: lJ.ilh~ Gecuge ('j,900.196.8) Rmbnhaleic IIJn1tt:

his (]!J 11.1980) Fran~a Ka,tsh. YustJf Cal;lada (19081, Kli:"Iel)llt!i' Genrudl (] ~52'-1 ~J4)' Sla[.cl§ Unite

K,ertes~ 411dl1e ( 894. I ~::l,5) Ullgiida

Kpl'ldclka J usef 05t~HIl

Cehoslovaeia

Long Doroth~a, ( ! 8:9:i-19q 5) Statele Unite

.~ _'yish!re Jean ~] 9.4(}) ffllUla [_,arliigue Jacques-He:nd (1SQ4-19R4) frml~l'

Lte· ,R:l,H;8eU ,( 1901~ 19'30) S~ate::lG. tJ nite

Le Gr.l~' Gasta ve ([ ::120·1 R80) Fntir~

Lc Se,q Me)ll:i (1818-18l:12} fF'H~:lll

Lwdberg ~chn ~ Gennaula Ll!lllnifli'li.! Auguste ,~~ Louis {]Jl6;l", 1954), '] 8M·.~ 9JiH Pranta

VblH Ray (I ~9n· j 976) Starele Unr~e

M~applethorpe Robert (I 946- 1989j Starele U!l!i~

.1 1

Mare)' Etiel1i~le~JI:I~,es (18JO~

19(4) Frnlia '

ManriUe Chari s (18l6- ~,878) FmnWt

M~u.'bridge E!ilw!1nl 0.830- 19(4) Mwea Brlt.an~e

~ (Ga$,paTU Felix:

Four ~ achon) (1 & 10·, I, 9 Wi fr,mt<l:

Nel;lnl Cha:l'les (1820-1880) FrJI1~Il

Nawmall Arnold {Wi 8)

Statele LJn;i ee

N~1m Helmut O_9~n)

Genut'tniaIFr'anW: ,

Niepce N it:cpl:lOl:e (17'65- 1 t'j·3A), (;enmrni ~f'li" a nt'l

NiJ~.son Lennart ( i ~22J:Sllil'ldia fen.D. Irving (l9'U) Slt!l.lcle Ufiilj;

P~rll~s Gilles '(1946) S~leJe Unite

,Plty.o COJl:I~Rll1diM'L €u~tOLnt (l H5'1·~ 953) Fran~a

Ri; Jacob OS4~. J 914) nfme.marc3!SHuele UCl~ \(0

i{ocbe PenIs, (t93 7}- Fr,::m ~ Rodger George, (190.8) Mai[e<l BriJ;tnie

Michels DolittH~ (l~.s!) SIla.I!eleRodtchenkoAlex:all.dte (] 891·

Unite li956) lJR~S

Moon is a.r.a~h (1938) FranW Ro\'is WiT1y !f 19,10) Franf['l

l\'11u~klac.'l1 M artia (1896.]903) Rothstein Arthu r (l915 )

U ngari31tS c:ateil~ U nie

1"21

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