ORGANIC CHEMISTRY REACTION SCHEME AN OVERVIEW ALKANES

Preparation of Alkanes 1. Hydrogenation of Alkenes CnH2n   H2 + Ni,  Pd or Pt  CnH2n+2  2. Reduction of Alkyl Halides a. Hydrolysis of Grignard Reagent RX + Mg   dry ethyl ether  RMgX   water  RH + Mg(OH)X   
*Note: RMgX is the Grignard reagent, alkylmagnesium halide. The alkyl group is covalently bonded to magnesium; and magnesium-halogen bond is ionic ie. [R:Mg]+[X]–. In the second step of the reaction, it is a displacement reaction in which water (the stronger acid) displacing the weaker acid (R–H) from its salt (RMgX).

b. Reduction by Metal and Acid RX   Zn + H   RH + Zn2+ + X–  Reactions of Alkanes 1. Halogenation [Free Radical Substitution] CnH2n+1H + X2   heat, or  UV  CnH2n+1X + HX  2. Combustion CnH2n+2 + excess O2   heat  nCO2 + (n+1)H2O 3. Pyrolysis Cracking 400-600  C    alkane   with or w/o catalyst  H2 + smaller alkanes + alkenes
+

ALKENES
Preparation of Alkenes 1. Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides H H

H
alcoholic KOH reflux

H C + H K X + H 2O

H

C H

C X

H  OH 

 

H

C

2. Dehydration of Alcohols H H

H H 
excess conc H2 SO4 , 170  C or Al2 O3 , 400  C or H3PO4 , 200-250  C

H C H+ H 2O

H

C H

C OH

  H

C

3. Dehalogenation of Vicinal Dihalides H H

H
Zn H    H

H C H+ Z n X
2

H

C X

C X

C

Reactions of Alkenes 1. Addition of Hydrogen. Catalytic Hydrogenation H + Ni, Pd or Pt  CnH2n   2  Heat    CnH2n+2

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2. Addition of Halogens [Electrophilic Addition using bromine/ethene] H H H H

H

C

C

H   dark, room/CCl4      X2 temperature  

H

C X

C X

H

3. Addition of Aqueous Halogen. Formation of Halohydrin H H H

H C OH H H C H H H C OH H H C OH H+ H 2S O
4

H

C

C

H   X2 /H2O  H 
Dark, room temp

C X

H+ H X

4. Addition of Hydrogen Halides H

H C
HX H    H

H

C

C X

H

5. Addition of Water. Hydration a) Industrial Method H H

H

C

C

H

H O(g)   conc2H3PO4   300C, 60atm

H

C H

H

b) Laboratory Method H H

H H C H

H C H
H2 O, heat  H → (hydrolysis)

H

C

C

H

  conccoldSO4   H2

C H

OS O 3 H

6. Oxidation a) Cold, alkaline KMnO4 Solution H H

H
alkaline KMnO4  H → cold

H C OH H H

H

C

C

H

C OH

b) Hot, acidic KMnO4 Solution H H

H

H

C

C

H

MnO4 /H2 SO4 → H hot

C

O

+

O

C

H

*Note: Terminal carbons will be oxidized into carbon dioxide. *Note: Under such oxidizing conditions, the aldehydes will be oxidized to carboxylic acid very quickly. To extract the aldehyde only, we must use immediate distillation.

7. Combustion

ARENES
Reactions of Benzenes 1. Nitration [Electrophilic Substitution in mononitration of benzene] NO2
conc. HNO3  → conc. H2 SO4

55oC

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2. Sulphonation
H2 SO 4 ( l )  → reflux

OSO 2H + H 2O

3. Halogenation

X + X
2
cold, dark  → FeX3 , or AlX3

+ HX

Or Fe 4. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation

R + RX
FeX3 , or AlX3  → Lewis Acid

+ HX

5. Friedel-Crafts Acylation

COR
Note: acyl group

+ R C O C l / [(R C O ) 2O ]

 →

FeX3 , or AlX3

+ HX
R C

O

H

6. Hydrogenation

+ 3H

2

Ni  → 150C

Preparation of Alkylbenzenes 1. Attachment of Alkyl Group. Friedal-Crafts Alkylation

R + HX

+ RX

FeX3 , or AlX3  → Lewis Acid

2. Conversion of side chain R

H C O
Zn(Hg), HCl, heat  → or N2H4 , base, heat

H R
N2 + H X + H2 O

C
Or H2/Pd, ethanol

*Note: This is known as the Clemmensen or Wolff-Kishner Reduction

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Reactions of Alkylbenzenes 1. Hydrogenation

R + 3H
2
Ni, Pt, Pd  → 150C

R

2. Oxidation a. Mild Oxidation

R
MnO2  → oxidation

CHO

b. Strong Oxidation

R
MnO4 /H2 SO4  → or acidified K 2 Cr2 O7

COOH w h ite c r y s ta ls

3. Free Radical Aliphatic Halogenation RCH3  →
X2 UV, light or heat

RCH2X

*Note: Reaction above is only a generic reaction. Actual position of the halogen is dependent on the stability of the carbocation intermediate.

4. Electrophillic Aromatic Halogenation by Electrophillic Addition R R

R

X
X2  → FeX3 , FeX5

+

X
5. Electrophillic Aromatic Nitration by Electrophillic Addition R R

R NO2

conc HNO3  → conc H2 SO4

+

30 C

o

NO2
6. Electrophillic Aromatic Friedal-Crafts Alkylation by Electrophillic Addition R R R

R1
R1X  → AlX3

+

R1
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7. Electrophillic Aromatic Sulphonation by Electrophillic Addition R R

R

OSO 2H
H2 SO4 ( l )  →

+

OSO 2H
8. Electrophillic Aromatic Friedal-Crafts Acylation by Electrophillic Addition R R

R COR1

+ R 1C O C l / [(R 1C O )2O ]

FeX3 , or AlX3  →

+

COR1
Alkylbenzenes clearly offers two main areas to attack by halogens: the ring and the side chain. We can control the position of the attack simply by choosing the proper reaction conditions. Refer to Appendix for more details.

HALOGEN DERIVATIVES
Preparation of Halogenoalkanes 1. Substitution in Alcohols a. Using HX (suitable for 3° alcohols) dry HX, ZnX2 (catalyst)  R–OH → R–X + H2O Reflux b. Using PX3/PX5 (suitable for 1°, 2° alcohols) PX3 /PX 5 → R–OH  R–X + POX3 + HX Reflux c. Using SOCl2 (sulphonyl chloride) SOCl2 , Pyridine(C5H5N) → R–OH  R–Cl + SO2 + HCl Reflux
*Note: This is the best method because it is very clean. SO2 can be bubbled off and HCl, being an acid, will react with pyridine.

2. Electrophillic Addition to Alkenes a) Addition of Hydrogen Halides H H

H
HX  H → H

H C H H H C X H H

H

C

C

C X

b) Addition of Halogens H H

H

C

C

X2 /CCl4 H  → dark, room temperature

H

C X

3. Free Radical Substitution of Alkanes heat, or UV CnH2n+1H + X2  CnH2n+1X + HX →

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Reactions of Halogenoalkanes 1. Alkaline Hydrolysis of Alcohols [Nucleophilic Substitution] aqueous KOH  R–X + OH–    reflux   R–OH + X–
*Note: Mechanism is SN2 for 1° halogenoalkane and SN1 for 3° halogenoalkane

2. Nitrile Synthesis
aqueous ethanol  R–X + NaCN    reflux    R–C≡N + NaBr

*Note: Nitriles are useful because they can be used to synthesize 1o amines and carboxylic acids. Reduction to Amine: LiAlH4 , dry ether   R–C≡N   or 2H2 , Ni, heat  RCH2NH2 Acidic Hydrolysis:
HCl ( aq )  R–C≡N   reflux   RCOOH + NH4+

Basic Hydrolysis:
NaOH ( aq )  R–C≡N   reflux   RCOO–Na+ + NH3

3. Formation of Amines
ethanol, reflux NH3   R–X + excess conc NH3   sealed tube  [H3N---R---X]     RNH2 + NH4+X–
δ+ δ–

*Note: NH3 acts as the nucleophile and the base. *Note: In the presence of excess RX, there will be polyalkylation of the halogenoalkane and 1°, 2°, 3° and even 4° ammonium salt will be formed. NH3   RX  RNH2   RX  R2NH   RX  R3N   RX  R4N+X–
Conc 4. Williamson Synthesis (Formation of Ether) H SO , 140 C – R–X + R'O Na+    R–O–R' + NaX
2 4 o

*Note: The sodium or potassium alkoxide (anion of alcohol) is prepared by dissolving sodium and potassium in appropriate alcohol. ROH + Na    RO–Na+ + ½H2

5. Dehydrohalogenation (Elimination) H H

H C

H C H + K X + H 2O

H

C H

C X

− alcoholic KOH → H H + OH (aq )  reflux

Preparation of Halogenoarenes (Aryl Halides) 1. Electrophilic Aromatic Halogenation by Substitution

X + HX

+ X

2

cold, dark  → FeX3 , or AlX3

Reactions of Halogenoarenes 1. Industrial Hydrolysis (Replacement of Halogen Atom, difficult due to strong C–X bond) + X O Na
2NaOH  → 350C, 150atm

+ N aX

+ H 2O

+ O Na
H ( aq )  →
+

-

OH + Na
+

2. Williamson Synthesis (Formation of Ether) → R–X + ArO–Na+  R–O–Ar + NaX
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HYDROXY COMPOUNDS
Preparation of Alcohols 1. Alkene Hydration. Addition of Water. H H

H C H

H C H
H2 O, heat  H → (hydrolysis)

H C H

H C OH H+ H 2S O
4

H

C

C

H

conc H2 SO4  → cold

H

OS O 3 H

2. Alkaline Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes aqueous KOH → R–X + OH–  R–OH + X– reflux 3. Reduction of Carboxylic Acids, Aldehydes and Ketones a. Carboxylic Acids and Aldehydes are reduced to their primary alcohols. H R

C HO R

O

+

4 [H ]

1. LiAlH4 (ethoxyethane), reflux 2.H /H2 0  → or H2 , Ni

+

R

C H

OH

+ H 2O

H C O

+

4 [H ]

1. LiAlH4 (ethoxyethane), reflux 2.H /H2 0  → or H2 , Ni

+

R

C H R

OH

H
b. Ketones are reduced to their secondary alcohols. R

C R1

O

+

4 [H ]

1. LiAlH4 (ethoxyethane), reflux 2.H /H2 0  → or H2 , Ni

+

R1

C H

OH

*Note: Lithium aluminium hydride (or Lithium tetrahydridoaluminate(III)), LiAlH4, is one of the few reagents that can reduce an acid to an alcohol; the initial product is an alkoxide which the alcohol is liberated by hydrolysis. The –H ion acts as a nucleophile, and can attack the carbon atom of the carbonyl group. The intermediate then reacts with water to give the alcohol. OH R O H3C H3C H 2O C C O C H H – H H H H Carboxylic Acid: 4RCOOH + 3LiAlH4    4H2 + 2LiAlO2 + (RCH2O)4AlLi   H2O  4RCH2OH Ketones: 4R2C=O + LiAlH4    (R2CHO)4AlLi   H2O  4R2CHOH + LiOH + Al(OH)3

Reactions of Alcohols 1. Substitution in Alcohols a. Using HX (suitable for 3° alcohols) dry HX, ZnX2 (catalyst)  R–OH     Reflux     R–X + H2O b. Using PX3/PX5 (suitable for 1°, 2° alcohols) PX3 /PX  R–OH   Reflux 5  R–X + POX3 + HX c. Using SOCl2 (sulphonyl chloride) SOCl , Pyridine(C H N)  R–OH    2  Reflux  5  5   R–Cl + SO2 + HCl
*Note: This is the best method because it is very clean. SO2 can be bubbled off and HCl, being an acid, will react with pyridine.

2. Reaction with Sodium/Potassium H

H
Sodium/Potassium  H →

H

C H

O

H

C H

O Na

-

+

+

1 H 2

2

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3. Oxidation to Carbonyl Compounds and Carboxylic Acids a. Primary Alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes first, then carboxylic acids. R R R OH K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO4 K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO4 C O C  → C  → immediate or KMnO4 /H2 SO4 distillation H H HO H
*Note: MnO2 is also a milder oxidizing agent.

O

b. Secondary Alcohols are oxidized to ketones. R R OH K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO4 C C  → or KMnO4 /H2 SO4 R1 R1 H c. Tertiary alcohols are not readily oxidized.

O

4. Dehydration to Alkenes a. Excess conc H2SO4 H H

H
excess conc H2 SO4 , 170 ° C H  H → or Al2 O3 , 400 ° C or H3PO4 , 200-250 ° C

H C H+ H 2O

H

C H

C OH

C

b. Excess alcohol 140° C R–CH2OH + conc H2SO4 → R–CH2–O– CH2–R excess alcohol 5. Esterification

O O R1
ˆ ˆˆconc H2SO4 ˆˆ ‡ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆ† ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ heat

R C OH

+

O H

C R O

R1

+

(can use acid or alkaline as catalyst)

H 2O

6. Acylation a. Acid Chloride

Note: acyl group

R

C O

Cl

+

R1

OH

 →
room temperature

R

C O

O

R1

+ HCl
R C

O

H

b. Acid Anhydride

R

C O

O

C O

R

+ R1 OH

room temperature  →

R

C O

O

R1

+

R

C O

OH

7. Tri-Iodomethane (Iodoform) Formation
*Note: Reaction is only positive for alcohol containing a methyl group and a hydrogen atom attached to the carbon at which the hydroxyl group is also attached.
H R C CH3 OH
I2 , NaOH ( aq )  → warm

H H C CH3 OH

CHI3

a. Step 1: Oxidation of Alcohol to the corresponding carbonyl compound by iodine.

R

CH CH3

OH

+

I 2 + 2 HO

-

R

C CH3

O

+ 2 H2 O

+ 2 I

-

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b. Step 2: Further oxidation to carboxylate salt and formation of iodoform

R

C CH3
c.

O

+ 3 I2 + 4 HO

-

R

C O
-

O

+ CHI3 + 3 I

-

+ 3 H 2O

H C

Overall Equation:

R

OH + 4 I 2 + 6 HO

-

R

C O
-

O

+ CHI3 + 5 I

-

+ 5 H 2O

CH3
Preparations of Phenols 1. Replacement of OH– group in diazonium salts N

O
-

NH2

+ N O

S O

OH

OH

 →
NaNO2 , H2 SO 4

water, H , heat  →

+

Reactions of Phenols 1. Reaction with Reactive Metals (e.g. Na or Mg)

OH

O Na

-

+

+

Na

+

1 H 2 2

2. Reaction with NaOH

OH

O Na

-

+

+ NaOH
*Note: Phenols have no reactions with carbonates

+

1 H O 2 2

3. Esterifications

OH
NaOH  →

O Na

-

+
RCOCl →

O C R

O

*Note: Phenols do not react with carboxylic acids but their acid chlorides to form phenyl esters. *Note: Esterification is particularly effective in NaOH(aq) as the alkali first reacts with phenol to form phenoxide ion which is a stronger nucleophile than phenol.

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4. Halogenation a. With bromine(aq)

OH Br
3Br2 ( aq )  →

OH

Br

+ 3HBr

Br
*Note: 2,4,6-tribromophenol is a white ppt.

b. With bromine(CCl4) OH
Br2 (CCl4 )  →

OH

OH

+
Br Br

5. Nitration a. With conc nitric acid

OH O 2N
conc HNO3  →

OH NO2

NO2
b. With dilute nitric acid OH
dil HNO3  →

OH

OH

+
NO2 O 2N

6. Reaction with FeCl3(aq)
*Note: This is a test for phenol. Violet complex upon adding iron(III) chloride will confirm presence of phenol. Colour may vary depending on the substitution on the ring.
3 --

OH
Fe  →
3+

O Fe
6

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CARBONYL COMPOUNDS
Preparation of Aldehydes 1. Oxidation of Primary Alcohols R OH K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO4  → C immediate distillation H H

R C H O

+

H 2O

Preparations of Ketones 1. Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols R R OH K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO4 C C  → or KMnO4 /H2 SO4 R1 R1 H 2. Oxidative Cleavage of Alkenes R2 R3

O

+ H 2O

R2
MnO4 /H2 SO4 → hot

R3 + O O C R4

C R1

C R4

C R1

Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds 1. Addition of Cyanide. Cyanohydrin formation. [Nucleophilic Addition of Hydrogen Cyanide to Aldehyde and Ketone] H H H C HCN, small amount of base + CN  H C CN →

O
*Note: Cyanohydrins can be hydrolysed to form 2-hydroxy acids. Acidic Hydrolysis
R C OH R C OH H CN
water, HCl (aq) →  heat

OH

H

COOH

+ NH4Cl

Basic Hydrolysis
H

R C OH CN
water, NaOH ( aq )  H → heat

R C OH COO Na
+

+

NH3

*Note: Cyanohydrins can undergo reduction.
R C OH R CN
LiAlH4 in dry ether → or H2 , Ni, heat

H

H

C OH

CH2NH2

R2

2. Reaction with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (Brady’s Reagent). Condensation Reaction. R2
C O + H2N NH NO2 R1 O 2N O 2N
*Note: 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones formed are orange or yellow crystalline solids with characteristic melting points. They are useful for identifying individual aldehydes and ketones.

C

N

NH

NO2 +

H2O

R1

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3. Oxidation Reactions
*Note: Aldehydes are easily oxidized to carboxylic acids. Ketone are not.

a. Oxidation of Aldehydes using hot, acidified potassium dichromate(VI)
*Note: K2Cr2O7 turned from orange to green if test is positive.

R

H

R
K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO 4  → heat

OH C O

C O O C R C O H R1

O
K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO 4  → heat

C OH

K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO4  N o R e a c t i o n → heat

b. Oxidation of Aldehydes using hot, acidified potassium manganate(VII)
*Note: KMnO4 turned from purple to colourless if test is positive.

R

H

R
 →
K 2MnO4 /H2 SO 4 heat

OH C O

C O O C H
c.

O
K 2MnO4 /H2 SO 4  → heat

C OH
-

Oxidation of Aliphatic Aldehydes using Fehling’s Solution (Fehling’s Test)

R C O

H
Fehling's Solution  → warm

R C O O C H

O

+

Cu2O (s)

Fehling's Solution  → N o R e a c tio n warm

R C O

R1
Fehling's Solution  N o R e a c t i o n → warm

*Note: Aliphatic aldehydes reduce the copper(II) in Fehling’s solution to the reddish-brown copper(I) oxide. R–CHO + 2Cu2+ + 5OH–    R–COO– + Cu2O (s) + 3H2O *Note: Methanal (strongest aldehyde reducing agent) produces metallic copper as well as copper(I) oxide. HCHO + Cu2O + OH–    HCOO– + 2Cu (s) + H2O

d. Oxidation of Aldehydes using Tollen’s Reagent (Silver Mirror Test)

R C O

H
Tollen's Reagent  → warm

R C O

O

-

+

Ag (s) O

O C H
Tollen's Reagent  → warm

C O
-

+ Ag (s)

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d. Oxidation of Aldehydes using Tollen’s Reagent (Silver Mirror Test) (Cont’d) R R1 Tollen's Reagent C  → N o R e a c tio n
warm

O
*Note: Aldehydes redyce the Ag(I) in Tollen’s reagent to Ag, forming a silver mirror. RCHO + 2[NH3→Ag←NH3]+ + 3OH–   heat  RCOO– + 2Ag (s) + 4NH3 + 2H2O

4. Reduction Reactions a. Reduction of Aldehydes to Primary Alcohols LiAlH4 in dry ether  R–CHO + 2[H]   or NaBH4  ( aq )  R–CH2OH
Ni catalyst  R–CHO + H2   heat   R–CH2OH b. Reduction of Ketones to Secondary Alcohols

R C O R C O

R1

H C OH H R1

+
R1

H2

  LiAlHNaBH4  ( aq )   4 in dry ether  or

R

+

H2

Ni catalyst heat

 

R

C OH

R1

5. Reaction with Alkaline Aqueous Iodine (Tri-Iodomethane (Iodoform) Formation)
*Note: Reaction is only positive for alcohol containing a methyl group attached to the carbon at which the carbonyl group is also attached i.e. methyl carbonyl compounds. For aldehydes, only ethanal will form iodoform. All methyl ketones will form iodoform. NaOH, warm R C O + CHI3 + 3I + 3H2O R C O + 3 I 2 + 4 HO  →

H

C CH3

O

CH3
6. Chlorination using Phosphorus Pentachloride (PCl5)

O

-

*Note: Aldehydes and ketones react with phosphorus pentachloride to give geminal-dichloro (cf. vicinal) compounds. The oxygen atom in the carbonyl group is replaced by two chlorine atoms.

CH3CHO + PCl5  CH3CHCl2 + POCl3 → CH3COCH3 + PCl5  CH3CCl2CH3 + POCl3 →

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES
Preparation of Carboxylic Acids 1. Oxidation a. Oxidation of Primary Alcohols and Aldehydes R R R OH K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO4 K 2 Cr2 O7 /H2 SO4 C O C  → C  → immediate or KMnO4 /H2 SO4 distillation H H HO H b. Oxidative Cleavage of Alkenes H H

O

H C OH

O

O

H C OH

C H

C H

KMnO4 /H2 SO4 , heat  →

+

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c.

Oxidation of an Alkylbenzene (Formation of Benzoic Acid)

O C

CH3 + 3 [O ]
KMnO4/H2 SO 4 , heat  →

OH

+ H 2O

2. Hydrolysis a. Hydrolysis of Nitriles (R–C≡N)
Acidic Hydrolysis
HCl ( aq )  R–C≡N   reflux   RCOOH + NH4+

Basic Hydrolysis
NaOH ( aq )  R–C≡N   reflux   RCOO–Na+ + NH3 b. Hydrolysis of Esters (RCOOR’)

Acidic Hydrolysis
HCl aq ), reflux ˆ ˆˆ (ˆˆˆˆ ˆ RCOOR’ + H2O ‡ ˆˆ ˆˆ2SO4 ˆˆ RCOOH + R’OH ˆˆ † conc H

Basic Hydrolysis
NaOH ( aq )  RCOOR’ + H2O   reflux   RCOO–Na+ + R’OH H  RCOO–Na+   reflux  RCOOH
+

Reactions of Carboxylic Acids 1. Salt Formation a. Reaction with Metal RCOOH + Na    RCOO–Na+ + ½H2 b. Reaction with Bases RCOOH + NaOH    RCOO–Na+ + H2O c. Reaction with Carbonates 2RCOOH + Na2CO3    2RCOO–Na+ + H2O + CO2 2. Esterification

O R1
ˆ ˆˆconc H2SO4 ˆˆ ‡ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆ† ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ heat

R C OH

O

+

O H

C R O

R1

+

(can use acid or alkaline as catalyst)

H 2O

3. Conversion into Acyl Chlorides (RCOCl) RCOOH + PCl5    RCOCl + POCl3 + HCl 3RCOOH + PCl3    3RCOCl + H3PO3 RCOOH + SOCl2    RCOCl + HCl + SO2 4. Reduction to Alcohols
1. LiAlH in dry ether   RCOOH + 4[H]   2. H24 SO4 ( aq )   RCH2OH + H2O

Preparation of Acyl Chlorides 1. From Carboxylic Acid RCOOH + PCl5    RCOCl + POCl3 + HCl 3RCOOH + PCl3    3RCOCl + H3PO3 RCOOH + SOCl2    RCOCl + HCl + SO2

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Reactions of Acyl Chlorides 1. Conversion into Acid. Hydrolysis RCOCl + H2O    RCOOH + HCl ArCOCl + H2O    ArCOOH + HCl
*Note: Benzoyl chloride reacts much slower than acyl chlorides because of the reduce in the positive nature of the carbonyl carbon caused by resonance.

2. Ester Formation. Alcoholysis. RCOCl + R’OH   room temperature  RCOOR’ + HCl    
*Note: Reaction is slow when phenol is directly reacted with acyl chloride. RCOCl + ArOH   slow  RCOOAr + HCl  *Note: Because phenol is a weaker nucleophile (lone pair of electron delocalizes into the ring), it is converted to phenoxide to increase nucleophilic strength. ArOH + NaOH    ArO–Na+ + H2O RCOCl + ArO–    RCOOAr + Cl–

3. Amide Formation. Ammonolysis. RCOCl + NH3    RCONH2 + HCl RCOCl + R’NH2    RCONHR’ + HCl RCOCl + R’R’’NH    RCONR’R’’ + HCl 4. Reduction to Aldehyde, then Alcohol LiAlH in dry ether LiAlH in dry ether   RCOCl    4     RCHO   H24SO4 ( aq )   RCH2OH Preparations of Esters 1. Condensation Reaction of Acid and Alcohol a. Ethyl Ethanoate

O C R O R1

R C OH

O

R1

+

O H

ˆ ˆˆconc H2SO4 ˆˆ ‡ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆ† ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ heat
(can use acid or alkaline as catalyst)

+

H 2O

b. Phenyl Benzoate ArOH + NaOH    ArO–Na+ + H2O ArCOCl + ArO–Na+    ArCOOAr + NaCl Reaction of Esters 1. Hydrolysis a. Acidic Hydrolysis
HCl aq ), reflux ˆ ˆˆ (ˆˆˆˆ ˆ RCOOR’ + H2O ‡ ˆˆ ˆˆ2SO4 ˆˆ RCOOH + R’OH ˆˆ † conc H

b. Basic Hydrolysis
NaOH ( aq )  RCOOR’ + H2O   reflux   RCOO–Na+ + R’OH

2. Reduction to Primary Alcohols
LiAlH in dry ether   RCOOR’   H24SO4 ( aq )   RCH2OH

Preparation of Polyesters 1. Condensation Reaction acid  nHOOCRCOOH + nHOR’OH   reflux  ( OCRCOOR’O )

n

+ 2nH2O

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NITROGEN COMPOUNDS
Preparation of Amines 1. Reaction of Halides with Ammonia or Amines. Ammonolysis δ+ δ– ethanol, reflux NH3   R–X + excess conc NH3   sealed tube  [H3N---R---X]     RNH2 + NH4+X– NH3   RX  RNH2   RX  R2NH   RX  R3N   RX  R4N+X– 2. Reduction a. Reduction of Amide b. Reduction of Nitrile R–C≡N  c. Reductive Amination
 LiAlH42,,dry ether     or 2H Ni, heat

LiAlH4 in dry ether   RCONH2   H2 / Ni or Pt   RCH22 2 RNHNH

RCH2NH2

H C H
Reactions of Amines 1. Salt Formation

H O

H C NH imine
H2 , Ni  H → or NaBH3 CN

+ NH3  →
H

C H

NH2

RNH2 + HCl  RNH3+ Cl– → RNH2 + R’COOH  RNH3+ –OOCR’ →

NH2

NH3 Cl

+

-

+

HCl

 →

*Note: Phenylamine is not soluble in water but dissolves in acid.

2. Formation of Amides. Acylation. RNH2 RR'NH
R'COCl  R'CONHR + HCl → ArSO2 Cl  ArSO 2NHR + HCl → R''COCl  R''CONRR' + HCl → ArSO2 Cl  ArSO 2NRR' + HCl → R'''COCl  no reaction → ArSO2 Cl  no reaction →

RR'R''N

*Note: Since HCl is formed, some of the ammonia/amine will be protonated and cannot act as a nucleophile. Hence, at least double the amount of ammonia / amine must be used. *Note: Acylation of 1° and 2° amines leads to the formation of substituted amides. 3° do not undergo acylation because they do not have any replaceable H atoms. CH3CH2NH2 + CH2COCl    CH3CH2NHCOCH3 + HCl ArNH2 + Ar’COCl    ArNHCOAr’ + HCl ArNH2 +RCOCl    ArNHCOR + HCl

3. Ring Substitution Reactions of Aromatic Amines a. Halogenation NH2

NH2 Br Br (s)

+

3Br2 (aq)

 →

+ 3HBr

White ppt

Br
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*Note: To get monosubstituted compounds, react phenylamine with ethanoyl chloride to reduce the ‘strongly activating’ nature of the amino group to form phenylacetamide.
NH2 NHCOCH3

+

→ CH3COCl 

*Note: NHCOCH3 is also 2,4-directing but moderately activating. Halogenation of ArNHCOCH3 will give N-(2bromophenyl)acetamide or N-(4-bromophenyl)acetamide. Reacting this with aqueous NaOH and heating will give 2-bromophenylamine or 4-bromophenylamine.

b. Nitration

NH2 O 2N conc HNO3 → + conc H SO  2 4

NH2 NO2

NO 2 *Note: The same steps as above can be taken if we want monosubstituted nitrophenylamine.
Preparations of Amides 1. Ammonolysis of Acid Derivatives RCOCl + NH3  RCONH2 + HCl → RCOCl + R’NH2  RCONHR’ + HCl → RCOCl + R’R’’NH  RCONR’R’’ + HCl → 2. Reaction between Amine and Acid Chloride R'COCl  R'CONHR + HCl → RNH2 ArSO2 Cl  ArSO 2NHR + HCl → RR'NH Reactions of Amides 1. Acidic Hydrolysis
HCl, H2 O → RCONH2  R–COOH + NH4+ heat R''COCl  R''CONRR' + HCl → ArSO2 Cl  ArSO 2NRR' + HCl →

2. Basic Hydrolysis
NaOH, H2 O → RCONH2  R–COO– + NH3 heat

Preparations of Amino Acids 1. Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky Reaction H

H C Br
excess conc NH3  → COOH H2N R

H C R COOH

C H R COOH

Br2 , PBr3  → heat

Reactions of Amino Acids 1. Salt Formation a. Reaction with H+. Cationic + H3N–CH2–COO–(aq) + H+(aq)  +H3N–CH2–COOH (aq) → b. Reaction with OH–. Anionic + H3N–CH2–COO–(aq) + OH– (aq)  H2N–CH2–COO– (aq) + H2O(l) →
*Note: The above two equations explains the buffering capability of amino acids.

2. Acylation (Formation of Amides) CH3COCl + H2N–CH2–COOH  CH3–CO–NH–CH2COOH + HCl →
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3. Esterification
HCl ˆ ˆˆˆ † H2N–CH2–COOH + ROH ‡ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ +

H3N–CH2–COOR + H2O

4. Peptide Formation
*Note: A peptide is any polymer of amino acids linked by amide bonds between the amino grup of each amino acid and the carboxyl group of the neighbouring amino acid. The –CO–NH– (amide) linkage between the amino acids is known as a peptide bond.

H2N

CH R

C O

OH

+ H2N

CH R1

C O

OH

H2N

CH R

C O

N H

CH R1

C O

OH

+ H2 O

5. Hydrolysis of Peptides a. Acidic Hydrolysis H O H

H
H2 SO4 ( aq ) → ------  -----heat

O C OH

H

------

C R

C

N H

C R1

C R

+

H3N

+

C R1

------

H -----C R

b. Basic Hydrolysis O H

H C R

O C O
-

H

C

N H

C R1

NaOH ( aq ) → ------  -----heat

+

H2N

C R1

------

*Note: A peptide bond can be cleaved by hydrolysis in the presence of a suitable enzyme (trypsin, pepsin etc) or by heating in acidic or alkaline medium.

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APPENDIX
Halogenation of Alkylbenzenes: Ring vs Side chain Alkylbenzenes clearly offer two main areas to attack by halogens: the ring and the side chain. We can control the position of attack simply by choosing the proper reaction conditions. Halogenation of alkanes requires conditions under which halogen atoms are formed, that is, high temperature or light. Halogenation of benzene, on the other hand, involves transfer of positive halogen, which is promoted by acid catalysts like ferric chloride (FeCl3). heat or light CH4 + Cl2  CH3Cl + HCl → + Cl2
FeCl3 , cold  →
Cl

+ HCl

We might expect, then, that the position of attack in, for example, methylbenzene would be governed by which the attack particle is involved, and therefore by the conditions employed. This is so: if chlorine is bubbled into boiling methylbenzene that is exposed to ultraviolet light, substitution occurs almost exclusively in the side chain; in the absence of light and in the presence of ferric chloride, substitution occurs mostly in the ring.

CH3

Cl●

Atom: Attacks side chain

Cl+

Ion: Attacks ring

Markovnikov’s Rule In the ionic addition of an acid to the carbon-carbon double bond of an alkene, the hydrogen of the acid attaches itself to the carbon atom that already holds the greater number of hydrogens. Saytzeff’s Rule For elimination reactions, the preferred product is the alkene with the most alkyl groups attached to the doubly bonded carbon atoms i.e. the most substituted product.

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