References/Bibliography Harvard Style

Based on Style manual for authors, editors and printers / revised by Snooks & Co. 2002

The “Harvard style” is a generic author-date style for citing and referencing information in assignments and publications. There are many styles which follow the author-date convention, including the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Chicago Manual of Style. This guide is based on an Australian style manual (AGPS style) now revised by Snooks & Co, 2002. Note: Before you create your list of references, check with your lecturer or tutor for the bibliographic style preferred by the School. There may be differences in the style recommended by the School.

What is referencing?
Referencing is a standardised way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used in your document.

Why reference?
Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and locate the cited author’s work.

Steps in referencing
• Keep a record of the full bibliographic details and relevant page numbers of all the sources from which information is taken. • Insert brief citations at the appropriate places in the text of your document. • Compile a reference list at the end of the document that includes full details of all references cited.

In-text citations
• In an author-date style, in-text citations usually require the name of the author(s) and the year of publication. • A page number is included if you have a direct quote, paraphrase a passage or you want to direct the reader to a specific page. Page numbers may also be included if the you are referring to a long work and the page numbers might be useful to the reader.

How to create a reference list/bibliography
• A reference list contains only the books, articles, and web pages etc that are cited in the text of the document. A bibliography includes all sources consulted for background or further reading. • A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title. • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication. • Each reference appears on a new line. • There is no indentation of the references. • There is no numbering of the references.

Referencing Software
The University of Queensland Library provides access to EndNote and RefWorks which assist in creating reference lists. If you are using EndNote, down load the Harvard Style (2002) from the Library EndNote Styles page (http://www.library.uq.edu.au/faqs/endnote/styles.html). If you are using RefWorks, select the Harvard (University of Queensland) style from the Bibliography options.

July 2010

Book Elements of the citation Author(s) of book – family name and initials Year of publication. Springfield. Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject. D. Jull. Book Book No author Book July 2010 . Book 4 or more authors Reid. Parsons. Sterling. London. Title of book – italicised. CW 1989. G. know. DH. OR In Be. Cengel. Fallah. know. OR Jull et al. S 2008. Treleaven. Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies. HarperPerennial. p. Place of publication. Charles C. pp. Insert alphabetically into the Reference List. 2008). J & O'Leary. 25) claimed that … OR Berkman (1994. RI 1994. New York. do: leadership the Army way (2004) there is an interesting example … Berkman. know. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Book Single author 2 authors 3 authors Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Berkman 1994) OR Berkman (1994. Churchill Livingstone. McGraw Hill. 30-35) agrees that … … from an engineering perspective (Cengel & Boles 1994) OR Cengel and Boles (1994) found … … as previously demonstrated (Reid. M. Be. do: leadership the Army way 2004). Thermodynamics: an engineering approach. Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application. Edition. do: leadership the Army way 2004. MB & Green. San Francisco. Edinburgh. Publisher. Thomas. (2008) have argued … … already mentioned (Be. 2nd edn. Jossey-Bass. YA & Boles. Parsons & Green 1989) … neck pain caused by whiplash (Jull et al. MA 1994.

Willmott 2004) Book by an organisation or institution Different Editions … in the case of an institution (Australian Government Publishing Service 1987) … the meaning of educational research (Pring 2004) Edited book … some findings (Sjostrand 1993) OR … optics defined (Pike & Sarkar 1986) Willmott. Frontiers in quantum optics.Multiple works by the same author … geology of Queensland’s national parks (Willmott 2004. M. Pike. Pring. Viking. River out of Eden. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list. Brisbane. The edition statement is placed after the title of the work.) 1993. Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland. Lecture notes in mathematics no. Brisbane. Philosophy of educational research. 2006). Geological Society of Australia. WF 2004. 2nd edn. Australian Government Publishing Service 1987. R 1996a. London.S. Notes of infinite permutation groups. Geological Society of Australia. Springer. 2nd edn. S (ed. Continuum.E. M 1998. This is not necessary for a first edition. Canberra. S (eds) 1986. Order chronologically from in the reference list. Willmott. Viking. ER & Sarkar. Queensland Division. 1996b) … rock formations (Dawkins 1996.P. WF 2004. R 1996b. published in the same year Two or more works by different authors … geographically speaking (Dawkins 1996a. Sharpe. Multiple works by the same author. Willmott. Dawkins. Climbing Mount Improbable. Sjostrand. Queensland Division. Dawkins. London. Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland. Commonwealth printing and publishing manual. Dawkins. Bristol.. Queensland Division.1698. New York. N.Y. R 1996. Brisbane. Adam Hilger. Geological Society of Australia. Armonk.G. London. Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland. WF 2006. R 2004. London. Phoenix. Bhattacharjee. Climbing Mount Improbable. Institutional change: theory and empirical findings. Book Book Book Book Book Edited book Book Series In defining permutation groups Bhattacharjee (1998) … Book July 2010 . A.

Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Child Psychology. Boca Raton. International Society for Child Psychology. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Book section Chapter in an edited book Bernstein (1995) explained intelligent traffic flows. Edition. ‘Title of paper – in single quotation marks’. 24-25 June. pp. ‘Transportation planning’. Georgia. Place of publication. Bowden. Title of published proceedings which may include place held and date(s) – italicised. FJ & Fairley. 231-61. in WF Chen (ed. Page numbers. ‘Title of chapter – in single quotation marks’. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Conference proceeding Published conference paper Bourassa (1999) emphasised … Unpublished conference paper … estimating partner change (Bowden and Fairley 1996) Bourassa. Bernstein. paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians. ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’. Atlanta. 44-6. (viewed date-in-full. Publisher. Publisher. URL – if accessed electronically). D 1995. Darwin. CK 1996. Place of Publication. Title of book – italicised. ‘Effects of child care on young children’. S 1999. pp. The civil engineering handbook. Conference paper Elements of the citation Author(s) of paper – family name and initials Year of publication.Chapter in a book Elements of the citation Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials Year of publication. Page number(s). in Editor(s) of book (eds). CRC Press. Conference paper July 2010 .).

Electronic journal article without page numbers … the discipline of art history (Donahue-Wallace & Chanda 2005) Electronic article in EndNote Journal article with Electronic type chosen in Refworks. Title of journal – italicised. pp. 'A case study in integrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and online teaching'.edu/articles/2005/1/01/index. pp. (viewed date-in-full. <http://proquest. 49-52.com/>. no. no. <http://imej. For an article retrieved from a database. ‘Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient’. vol. 2. 7. URL – if accessed electronically).Journal Article Elements of the citation Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials Year of publication. 1. … changes in resource management (Daniel 2009) Huffman. TT 2009. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning. LM 1996. Volume. K & Chanda. vol. no. Risk Management.asp>. vol. it is sufficient to give the URL of the database site. Food Technology. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Journal article Journal articles Electronic journal article with page numbers Huffman (1996) expanded on the theory … OR … uses for whey protein (Huffman 1996). 56. ‘Title of journal article – in single quotation marks’. Donahue-Wallace. 1. 'Learning from simpler times'. viewed 30 January 2009. 40-44. viewed 30 January 2009. 50. Issue or number. Daniel. July 2010 . Page number(s).wfu. J 2005.umi. Electronic article in EndNote Journal article with Electronic type chosen in Refworks.

if accessed electronically). Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Thesis Thesis Exelby (1997) described the process … OR … processing gold (Exelby 1997) Exelby. West. Brisbane. <http://nces.Thesis Elements of the citation Author of thesis – family name and initials Year of preparation of thesis. July 2010 . Place of publication.italicised. M & Cox. NCES-2003-036. J & Hausken. Young children's access to computers in the home and at school in 1999 and 2000. M 1999. EG 2003. Report Elements of the citation Author(s) of report – (person or organisation) Year of Publication. The title is not italicised and is placed in quotation marks. URL . Location of institution. Institution issuing degree. Contaminants in mud crabs and sediments from the Maroochy River. Rathbun. Publisher/ Institution. Brisbane. Award. University of Queensland. West & Hausken 2003) Mortimer.gov/pubs2003/2003036. DC. Title of report . AH. PhD thesis. viewed 4 November 2003. Washington. (viewed date-in-full. ‘Aspects of gold and mineral liberation’. Report number (if available). Environment technical report no. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Report Print report … in Queensland waterways (Mortimer & Cox 1999) Electronic report … young children’s schooling (Rathbun. ‘Title of thesis – in single quotation marks’. National Center for Education Statistics.pdf>. 25. Queensland Department of the Environment.ed. HRA 1997.

.Newspaper and magazine article Elements of the citation Author(s) of article – family name and initials Year of publication. it is sufficient to give the URL of the database site. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Web page Web page with author … this agreement (Albanese 2009) Albanese. Fairer compensation for air travellers. Web page Elements of the citation Author(s) of page – (person or organisation) Year (page created or revised). 15 August. p.com/>. 17.au/aa/releases/2009/ January/AA007_2009. Transport. Regional Development and Local Government..gov. p. ‘Tasmania’s railway goes private’. C 2007.italicised. ‘Title of article – in single quotation marks’.factiva. viewed 30 January 2009. Porteous. name of the sponsor of the page (if applicable). Courier Mail. as seen in the move to privatise the railway (Simpson 1997) … government has been blamed for the water shortage (Porteous 2007). A 2009. viewed 27 February 2009. For an article retrieved from a database. July 2010 . Day month. media release. Page number(s). <http://www. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Newspaper article Newspaper article (print) Newspaper article (web) . Australian Financial Review. Simpson.infrastructure. Title of page .minister. 10. Minister for Infrastructure. ‘Rudd blamed for drought’. Title of newspaper – italicised. 13 October. viewed date-in-full. L 1997. description of document (if applicable). URL. 29 January. <http://global.htm>.

au/findits/findit. Standard Elements of the citation Corporate body issuing standard Year of publication.htm>. AH 1985. Geneva.php?title= Mechanical+Engineering>.library.. US Patent 4554399. Place of publication.d. Number of patent including country of issue.edu. Bliss. Steels classification . Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Patent Patent … gas insulated transmission systems (Cookson 1985) Cookson.part 1: classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based on chemical composition. International Organization for Standardization.) University of Queensland Library 2009.org/mgtpaper. Title of standard. Mechanical engineering subject guide. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems. Title of patent. Publisher of standard. July 2010 . Web page Web page Patent Elements of the citation Author(s) of patent – family name and initials Year of issue. viewed 10 February 2008. <http://eqi. University of Queensland Library. The effect of emotional intelligence on a modern organizational leader’s ability to make effective decisions. ISO 49481:1982.Web page with corporate or organisational author Web page with no date of publication … in this subject guide (University of Queensland Library 2009) … it has been argued that emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies (Bliss n.uq. Number of standard including identifier of issuing country or body.italicised.d. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Standard Standard … steels are classified (International Organization for Standardization 1982) International Organization for Standardization 1982. SE n. viewed 6 February 2009. <http://www.italicised.

Queensland 1996. Place of publication. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example Personal communication When interviewed on 15 June 1995. Title of map – italicised. Dr Peter Jones explained that … OR This was later verbally confirmed (P Jones 1995. but should NOT be included in the list of References. Australia 1:100 000 geological series.Map Elements of the citation Issuing body Year of publication. Queensland. comm. Queensland 1996) Department of Mines and Energy. Personal communication Elements of the citation Information obtained by interview. pers. Department of Mines and Energy. telephone call. letter or email should be documented in the text. Brisbane. 15 June). Do not include in the Reference List EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Personal communication July 2010 . Dotswood.. Publisher. Reference type In-text examples Reference list example EndNote and RefWorks (which reference type?) Map Map … reading this map (Department of Mines and Energy. Series (if available). sheet 8158.

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