Mysteries of the Smith Chart

Transmission Lines, Impedance Matching,
and Little Known Facts

Stephen D. Stearns, K6OIK
Chief Technologist
TRW Firestorm Wireless Communication Products
stearns@ieee.org

VG – 1
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Outline
❏ Transmission Line Theory
➤ Historical development
➤ Heaviside’s rewrite of Maxwell’s theory, Telegrapher’s equations,
➤ Impedance, reflection coefficient, SWR, phase constant, and velocity

factor
➤ Special facts for λ/2, λ/4, and λ/8 lossless lines

❏ The Smith Chart
➤ Bilinear complex functions
➤ Impedance and admittance coordinates (circles, circles, and more

circles)

❏ Impedance Matching
➤ Why match? Impedance matching vs. conjugate impedance

matching
➤ Single frequency matching
➤ Multiple-frequency and broadband matching
VG – 2
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Part 1: Transmission Line Theory

VG – 3
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Key Dates in Electrical Transmission
1830s Magnetic telegraphs - Gauss, Henry
1839

Electromagnetic telegraph - Wheatstone & Cook

1844

Telegraph in America - Morse

1850s Thousands of miles of telegraph line U.S. and Europe
1851

40-mile cable under English Channel

1855

Distributed analysis of transmission line - Lord Kelvin

1858

Transatlantic cable, project delayed by civil war

1873

Theory of electrodynamics - Maxwell

1876

Invention of telephone - Bell

1880s Vectors, vector calculus, reformulation of Maxwell’s
theory, transmission line theory - Heaviside
1886

Experimental confirmation of Maxwell’s Theory - Hertz

1937

Early Smith Chart, published 1939 and 1944 - Smith

VG – 4
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Numbers to Remember!
1.4142135623...
1.7320508075…
1.6180339887...
3.1415926535...
2.718281828459045…
2.54
299,792,458
376.7303134...

VG – 5
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Heaviside’s Vector Formulation of Maxwell’s Theory

∂B
∇×E = −
∂t
∂D
∇×H = J+
∂t
∇⋅D = ρ
∇⋅B = 0
D = εE
B = µH
“And God said, Let there be light; and there was light.” Genesis 1:3

VG – 6
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Frequency Domain or Phasor Form

∇ × E = − jωµH
∇ × H = (σ + jωε )E
∇⋅E = 0
∇⋅H = 0

VG – 7
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Heaviside’s Telegrapher’s Equations

Uniform transmission line

Equivalent circuit of
infinitesimal segment

I(x)

R∆x

V(x)

L∆x

G∆x

C∆x

dV
= −( R + jωL) I ( x )
dx
dI
= −(G + jωC )V ( x )
dx

VG – 8
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Transmission Line Solution
TEM Waves

Traveling wave
V ( x ) = Vo eγx
V ( x)
I( x) =
Zo

Propagation constant
γ = α + jβ = ( R + jωL)(G + jωC )

Characteristic impedance
Zo =

VG – 9
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

R + jωL
G + jωC

Pacificon 2001

Notations
Real Parameters
R=

Series resistance per unit length (Ohms/meter)

L=

Series inductance per unit length (Henries/meter)

G=

Shunt conductance per unit length (Siemens/meter)

C=

Shunt capacitance per unit length (Farads/meter)

α=

Attenuation constant (nepers/meter)

β = Phase constant (radians/meter)
λ=

Wavelength (meters)

vf =

Velocity factor (dimensionless)

X=

Reactance (Ohms)

B=

Susceptance (Siemens)

s=

Standing wave radio (dimensionless)

VG – 10
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Notations (Cont’d)
Complex Parameters

Z = R + jX = impedance (Ohms)
ZL = Load impedance (Ohms)
Zi = Input impedance (Ohms)
Z0 = Characteristic impedance (Ohms)
z=

Z/Z0 = r + jx = normalized impedance (dimensionless)

Y = G + jB = admittance (Siemens)
y = Y/Y0 = g + jb = normalized admittance (dimensionless)
Γ = Γr + j Γi = complex reflection coefficient (dimensionless)
γ=

VG – 11
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

α + jβ = propagation constant (inverse meters)

Pacificon 2001

Transmission Line Parameters
Physical Dimensions and Material Properties
d

dielectric
(µ, ε, σ)

a

dielectric
(µ, ε, σ)

b

a

a

c

Parameter

Coax

µ

G S/m
C F/m
Where skin depth is
VG – 12
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

1
πaδσ c

1  1 1
+
2πδσ c  a b 

R Ω/m
L H/m

Twinlead

 b δ  1 1 
ln a + 2  a + b  

µδ
−1 d 
cosh
+
2 a 
π  2 a

2πσ
b
ln
a
2πε
b
ln
a

1
δ=
πfµσ c

πσ
cosh −1

d
2a

πε
cosh −1

For copper

d
2a

σ c = 5.8 × 10 7 S/m
 8.5 mm at 60 Hz
δ =
6.6 µm at 100 MHz

Pacificon 2001

Round Open-Wire Transmission Line Formulas

d
s
❏ Approximate formula
➤ Widely published by ARRL and others
➤ Accurate only for large spacings: s/d > 3

or large impedances: Z0 > several hundred

❏ Exact formula
➤ Accurate for all spacings and impedances

VG – 13
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Comparison of Impedance Formulas
Round Open-Wire Line

VG – 14
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

K6OIK Square Open-Wire Transmission Line Formula

w
s
❏ Excellent approximation in the range of practical interest
➤ Accurate for small spacings: 1 < s/w < 3

or small impedances: 0 < Z0 < several hundred

VG – 15
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Round vs Square Open-Wire Lines

VG – 16
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Optimal Characteristic Impedances
Coax

For minimum loss

Zo = 77Ω

For maximum breakdown voltage

Zo = 30Ω

For minimum temperature rise

Zo = 60Ω

Zo = 50Ω has no special significance

VG – 17
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Reflection Coefficient and Impedance Relation
at a Terminal Plane
Terminal
Plane

ΖO

Definition
ΖL
ΓL

Z L − Zo z − 1
Γ=
=
Z L + Zo z + 1
Inverse

1+ Γ
z=
1− Γ
❏ For every terminal plane, the complex load impedance and
complex reflection coefficient seen to the right give the same
information for that terminal plane
❏ Question: How do Γ and z change as the terminal plane
moves?
VG – 18
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Relations Between Two Terminal Planes
Input
Terminal
Plane

Output
Terminal
Plane

ΖL
ΓL

ΖO
Ζi
Γi

Impedance relation

z L + j tan βl
zi =
1 + jz L tan βl

Cross relations
− j 2 βl

1 + ΓL e
zi =
1 − ΓL e − j 2 βl

Reflection coefficient relation

Γi = ΓL e − j 2 βl

1 + Γi e j 2 βl
zL =
1 − Γi e j 2 βl
VG – 19
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Velocity Factor
Wavelength

λ free space =

λ actual =

c
f

v
f

Velocity factor

λ actual
v
vf = =
c λ free space

VG – 20
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

How To Measure Velocity Factor of a Line
(One Way To Do It)
Known length

Antenna
Analyzer

open
circuit

Same length

Antenna
Analyzer

short
circuit

2πfl
vf =
c

VG – 21
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

cot

−1

1
− Z open
Z short
Pacificon 2001

Phase Constant

β=


2πf
=
λ actual v f c

radians/meter

❏ Phase constant β and velocity factor vf give equivalent
information
❏ Both can be calculated from line dimensions and material
properties

β = Im ( R + jωL)(G + jωC )
❏ Best to measure!

VG – 22
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

How to Measure Complex Zo of A Line
(One Way to Do It)

Unknown or
arbitrary length

Antenna
Analyzer

open
circuit

Same length

Antenna
Analyzer

short
circuit

Zo =

Z open × Z short

❏ Geometric mean of two complex numbers
❏ Calculation is trivial in polar form on Smith Chart
VG – 23
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

What Special Lengths of Lossless Line Do

Half wavelength, l = _/2

Zi = Z L
Quarter wavelength, l = _/4

Z o2
Zi =
ZL
Eighth wavelength, l = _/8

Zi = Z o
VG – 24
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

if Z L and Zo are real (resistive)

Pacificon 2001

Standing Wave Ratio

Easy to remember from

VG – 25
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

1+ Γ
s=
1− Γ

1+ Γ
z=
1− Γ

s −1
Γ =
s +1

z −1
Γ=
z +1

Pacificon 2001

Part 2: The Smith Chart

VG – 26
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

0.4
0.39
0.38
0.37

0.36

0.12
0.13

5

-4

0.9

1.2

0.0
8

3

0.6

0.4

1.6

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0
-5

0.4
1

0.1

0.11
-100
-90

0.15

0.14
-80

0.35

0.4
2

0.0
9

-65

0.5

1.8

06
0.
-70

2.0

R
O
),
Zo
X/

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

-75

0.8

40
-1

0.4

0.0
7
-1
30
0.2

-110

44
0.

0.6

(-j
CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

-12
0
CAP
AC
ITI
V
E
RE
AC
TA
NC
E

-35

-4
0

-70

4
0.3
6
0.1
3

1.0

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU

1.0

5

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

80

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

4.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4

0.6
8

0.2
9

0.0

0.8

1.0
5.0

0.28

5

0.2
20

10

0.0
4

5

14
0

0.0
5

(+
jX
/Z

0.4

20

0.22

0.4

0.6

0.4
6
15
0

0.6

0.3

-60

0.1

0.4

85

70

0.
44

0.5

0.
06

25

-20

0.3

0.2
1
-30

0.
31

7

8

0.2

20

-85

65

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

0.28

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

50

10

20

50

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN
D
E
G
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

6
0.4

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
0.49
AD <—
GEN
ARD LO
W
ERA
O
T
0.48
± 180
HS
TO
T
0.47
G
17
0
R—
-170
EN
L
E
0.47
>
AV
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

30

0.22

0.48

0.1

0.
19

0.3

0.3

0.2

-4
0

-30

0.2

0.1

60

2

35

0.3

)
/Yo
(+jB

0.3
4

1
0.2

9
0.2
30

0.

70

0.2

0.2

40

0.3

-20

0.

4

0.4
40

0.1

0.35

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

80

31
0.

4

R
,O
o)

CE
AN
PT
CE
US
S
VE
TI
CI
PA
A
C

3.0

3
0.4
0
13

0

0.36

19
0.

VG – 27
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001
0.

7
12

90

-15

2
0.4

110

0.37

4.0

0.0
1
0.4

0.13

0.38

5.0

8
0.0

0.4

0.12

-10

9
0.0

0.39
100

50

0.11

0.

0.1
0.14

0.15
0.1
6

3

7

2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

Pacificon 2001

Complex Functions
zi

wi
(x, y)

y
x

Complex Number

Complex Number

z = x + jy

w = u + jv

(u, v)

v

f( )

zr

u

wr

❏ Basic types of complex functions
➤ Global Properties

– Linear – lines map to lines
– Bilinear – circles map to circles
➤ Local Properties
– Conformal – right angles map to right angles

VG – 28
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Mathematical Basis of the Smith Chart

Γ=

u + jv =

z −1
z +1

A bilinear conformal
complex function

(r - 1) + jx
(r + 1) + jx
v

x

u

r

Right Half
Z Plane
VG – 29
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Interior Unit Circle
Γ Plane
Pacificon 2001

-90
5
-4

-5

0.9

-60

1.2

0.7

1.4

0.8

1.0

0

-70
6
0.1

0.15
4
0.3

0.39

0.4

0.38
0.37

0.11
-100
0.12
0.13

0.36

-55

-35

0.14
-80
-4
0
0.35

0.6

-65

44
0.

1.6

1.8
2.0

0.5

0.
31

7

06
0.
-70

-1

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

-75

R
,O
o)
/Z
jX

40

5

0.0

5

x=
-1

9

0.4

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
PT
CE
S
SU

1.0

8
0.

1

0.2

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

85

10

6
150

0.0
0.4

4

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

80

1.0

4.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.1
0.4
1
-110
0.0
9
0.4
2
0.0
1
8
2
0
CAP
0.4
AC
ITI
3
VE
0.0
R
EA
7
CT
-1
AN
30
CE
CO
M
PO
N
EN
T
(-

-85

20

6

r=1

0.2

0.4

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

0.8

5.0

0.28

0.4

(+
jX
/Z

14

0.0
5
0.4
5

20

0.22

0.
19

-60

0.1

0.4

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
0.49
AD <—
GEN
ARD LO
ERA
0.48
± 180
S TOW
H
TO
T
170
NG
R—
-170
ELE
V
0.47
>
WA
160

<
-90
90
-160

0

70

0.
44

0.5

0.
06

25

0.22

0.48

0.4

-20

0.6

0.47

65

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

10

20

50

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0

-30

0.3

r Series Resistance

50

0.3

-20
3.0

0.2

r=2
20

0.8

4

r=2

30

0.28

1.0

0.

r=1

0.1

0.2

-4

3

0.3

0.3

60

0.1

r=0

2

1.0

4

0.3

0.6

0.1

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

0.2

0.3

9

4

35

1

0.3

-30

0.

70

0.2

Capacitive
Reactance
(Negative)

0.35

0.2

0.1

40

30

Inductive
Reactance
(Positive)

4.0

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
PT
E
SC
SU

0.36

0.3

0.2

x=0

80

0.2

x=-1
0

0.13

40

VG – 30
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

x=0
VE
TI
CI
PA
CA

0.37

-15

7
0.0

90

31
0.

x=1

0
12

0.38

19
0.

x Series Reactance
R
,O
o)

2

1

110

0.12

5.0

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.39
100

-10

0.11

50

3
0.4
0
13

8

9

0.2

0.0

0.6

0.1

0.
8

0.0

1
x=

r=0

Smith Chart: Impedance Coordinates
Γi
0.14
0.15
6

3

7

2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10


Γr

Pacificon 2001

70

0.
44

0.
06

0.0
7

R
,O
o)

3
0.4
0
13
0.5

65

55

50

45

0.11

0.9

1.0

1.2

0.39
100

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

1.6

0.1

0.4

90

80

0.37

0.38
0.13

0.12

40

0.36

40
0.2
30
9

20

8

0.6

20

0.2

25

0.35

70

30

35

60

0.3

0.1
4

0.1

50

0.3

0.3

0.1
1.8

0.8

0.4
9
0.0
1
110
0.4
8
0.0
2
0.4
120
Yo)
jB/
E (+
NC
TA
EP
SC
SU
VE
TI
CI
PA
CA

0.

5.0

0.8

1.0
4.0

0.28

0.6

0.4

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

-20

0.28

0.22

0.3
1

0.2
9

0.2
1
-30

4

0.
31
0.

0

1

2.0

19
0.

0.0
5

0.4
5
14

(+
jX
/Z

0.2

150

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.48
0.0
D <—
0.49
GEN
RD LOA
E
TOWA
0.48
R
± 180
A
TO
THS
0.47
17
70
0
R
-1
ENG
—>
VEL
0.47
WA
0.0
160
<—
4
-90
90
-160
0.4
85
-85
6

80

0.2

4
0.0
0

1.0

b=

RE
AC
TA
75
N
C
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

0.3

6
0.4

IND
UCT
IVE

8

-15
0.1

0.2
20

50

10

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
O
C
E
N
F
F
O
I
I
C
T
I
C
E
E
0.27
N
L
T
F
E
IN DEG
R
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

5
0.0
-75

o)
-80
jB/Y
E (NC
TA
EP
SC
SU

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

0.

5
0.4

40

-1

0.23

-70
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

1.2

1.4
1.6

0.22

06
0.
R
,O
o)
/Z
jX

10

10

Shunt Conductance

0.3

0
-4

0.
19

b=
-1
0.2

44
0.

0
-65 .5

g=2

0.6

1.0
1.8
2.0

3.0

4.0
5.0

10

20
50

0.6

0.2

Capacitive
Susceptance
(Positive)

4

0.

Γr
0
g=1

-60

0.
31

0.7

0.4

0.2

-5 5
0.8

0.9

1.0

0

-5

5
-4

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

-10

2.0

0.1

0.4

b=-1

1.0

g=2
5.0

0.2

1
0.4

Pacificon 2001
VG – 31
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

20


g

4.0

-15

0

0.6

g=1
-20
3.0

0
8
0.1
0
-5

-70
.16

Inductive
Susceptance
(Negative)

b=1

0.8

b Shunt Susceptance

-25

g=
-30
2
0.3

-110

0.0

9

0.4
2
0.0
-12
8
0
CAP
0.4
AC
ITI
3
VE
0.0
RE
7
AC
-1
TA
30
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T
(7

-60
0.1

-35

0.3

3

4
0.3

0.39
0.38

0.1

0.4

0.11
-100

-90
0.15

0.37

0.36

0.12
0.13

0.14
-80
-4
0
0.35

b=0
50

b=0
g=0

Smith Chart: Admittance Coordinates

Γi

15

3.0

0.3
3

2

0.1
8

6

7

0.14
0.15

0.1
-90

0.4
0.38

0.39
0.37

0.11
-100
0.12

0.36

0.13

0.14
-80

0.35

0.4
2

0.0
9

-5
0.9

1.2

1.0

0

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

-110

0.4
1

-4

5
0

0.0
8

-35

-4
-70

6
0.1

0.15
4
0.3

0.0
7
30

0.4
3
0.6

1.6

1.8

2.0

31

-6 0

0.

-1

-12
0
CAP
AC
ITI
VE
R
EA
CT
AN
CE

0.5

-20

(-j

CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

19

-65

1.0

3

0.3

0.

-60

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

0.2

20

10

80

0.0
4
0.4
6
1 50

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

1.0
5.0

4

0.2

0.4
0.6
8
0.

0.28

0.6

o)
jB/Y
E (NC
TA
EP
4
C
4
-75
US
0.
40
ES
-1
06
IV
0.
CT
DU
IN
R
-70
O
),
Zo
X/

5

4.0

0.2
9

0.0

0.8

0.22

0.8

85

5

(+
jX
/Z

14
0

0.0
5

0.4

20

-20

0.3

0.2
1
-30

0

-30

-85

0.6

0.2

-4

0.2

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

0.6

0.2

6
0.4

0.
8

5
0.4

70

0.
44

65
0.5

0.
06

25

0.28

2

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

30

10

20

50

0.1

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0.4

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0

0.49
GEN
D LOAD <
ERA
OWAR
T
0.48
±
S
180
TO
GTH
170
70
N
R—
-1
E
VEL
0.47
>
A
W
1
0
6
<—
6
0
-90
90
-1

0.2

3
0.3

60

7
0.1

0.3
4

2
0.3

35

0.22

20

0.48

0.3

9
0.2
30

1.5

70

1
0.2

0.2

40

0.2

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.35

0.3

1.0

0.
4

0.4

40

0.1

0.36

-25

80

8
0.1
0
-5

90

31
0.

VG – 32
PSA-00527—10/21/2001
4
0.

R
,O
o)

0.4

3
0.4
0
13

Yo)
jB/
E (+
NC
TA
EP
C
S
SU
VE
TI
CI
PA
A
C

0
12

3.0

2
0.4

110

0.37

4.0

7
0.0
1
0.4

0.13

0.38

-15

8
0.0

0.12

5.0

9
0.0

0.4

0.39
100

-10

0.11

50

0.1

19
0.

0.47

Smith Chart: Constant SWR Circles
Γi
0.14

0.15
0.1
6

0.3
3

0.1
7

0.3
2

50

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

Γr

Pacificon 2001

0.4

0.38
0.37

0.39

0.12
0.13
0.36

-

0.0
9

45

0.35

0.9

1.2

0.0
8

0.0
7
30

0.6

0.4
3

1.6

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0
-5

0.4
1
0.1

0.11
-100

-110
-70

0.14
-80
-4
0

-90

0.4
2

6
0.1

0.15

4
0.3

-1

1.8
2.0

-12
0
CAP
AC
IT
I
V
ER
EA
CT
AN
CE

0.
31

0.2

(-

CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

0.
19

-35

1.0

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

80

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

4.0

0.3

0
-65 .5

0.6

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
PT
CE
-75
US
0
S
4
E
-1
06
IV
0.
CT
DU
IN
R
-70
,O
)
o
/Z
jX
5
0.0

0.8

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4

0.6
8
0.

0.2
9

44
0.

0.2
20

10

0.0
4

5

0

14

0.0
5

(+
jX
/Z

0.4

20

1.0
5.0

0.28

0.3

0.2
1
-30

-20

0.4
6
150

0.6

0.22

0

-60

0.1

0.4

85

70

0.
44

65
0.5

0.
06

25

0.2

-4

-30

IND
UCT
IVE

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

2

-20

0.8

0.2

-85

30

10

20

50

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0.6

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

0.
8

6
0.4

0.2

0.22

20

5
0.4

60

7
0.1

35

3
0.3

0.3
4

-25

70

8
0.1
0
-5

40

0.28

1.0

0.
4

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.48
0.0
0.49
AD <—
GEN
ARD LO
ERA
0.48
± 180
S TOW
TO
GTH
170
0
N
R—
-17
E
VEL
0.47
>
A
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

0.3

9
0.2
30

0.2

0.35

2
0.3

0.36

1
0.2

0.1

1
80

0.2

4
0.

0.13

0.3

VG – 33
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

r
0.4

40

1
0.5
2
R
,O
o)

0.37

31
0.

x
0.5

0.4

3
0.4
0
13

Yo)
jB/
E (+
NC
TA
EP
SC
U
S
VE
TI
CI
PA
CA

120
90

3.0

2
0.4

110

0.38

4.0

7
0.0

1
0.4

0.12

-15

8
0.0
0.39
100

5.0

0.11

-10

9
0.0
0.4

50

0.1

19
0.

0.47

Smith Chart: Constant Impedance Magnitude Circles
Γi
0.14
0.15

0.1
6

0.3
3

0.1
7

50

0.3
2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

Γr

Pacificon 2001

-90

0.39

0.4
0.38

0.11
-100
0.12
0.13

0.37

0.36

-55

-4

5

0.9

1.2

1.0

0
-5

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-35

0.14
-80
-4
0

-70

6
0.1

0.15

4
0.3

0.6

1.6

1.8

2.0

0
-65 .5

31

0.35

-85

1.0

o)
jB/Y
5
E (0.0
NC
TA
EP
4
C
4
-75
US
0.
40
ES
-1
06
IV
0.
CT
DU
IN
R
-70
O
),
Zo
X/

0.

0.2

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

0.2

20

10

0.0
4
0.4
6
150

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

80

4.0

315°

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

85

IND
UCT
IVE

0.8
1.0
5.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4

0.6

8
0.

0.28

0
.1
0
.41
-110
0.0
9
0.4
2
0.0
-1
8
2
0
C
A
P
0.4
AC
ITI
3
VE
0.0
R
E
7
AC
-1
TA
30
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T
(-j

0.2

6
0.4

0.6

5
0.4

0.4

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
D <—
0.49
GEN
RD LOA
ERA
TOWA
0.48
±
S
180
H
TO
170
70
NGT
R—
-1
E
L
E
0.47
>
AV
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

0.
8

0.48

45°

0.3

9

0.
1

-60

0.47

(+
jX
/Z

14
0

5

0.0
5

0.4

20

0.2
9

-4
0

0.4

°

0.6

0.22

0.3

0.2
1
-30

0.6

45

70

0.
44

0.

2.0

65
0.5

06

25

-20

-20

90°

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

30

0.2

-30

0.1

270°

0.2

3
0.3

60

7
0.1

35

-25

0.3
4

10

20

50

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

4
0.

70

2
0.3

0.2

40

0.22

20

0.35

0.28

0.8

0.
4

0.3

1
0.2
9
0.2
30

0.1

0.36

8
0.1
0
-5

80

0.2

31

VG – 34
PSA-00527—10/21/2001
0.13

0.3


0.4

40

180°
0.37

31
0.

x
R
,O
o)

1.0

3
0.4
0
13

Yo)
jB/
E (+
NC
TA
EP
SC
U
S
VE
TI
CI
PA
CA

120

3.0

2
0.4

110

90

4.0

7
0.0
1
0.4

0.38

-15

8
0.0

0.4

0.12

5.0

9
0.0
0.39
100

-10

0.11

50

0.1

19
0.

13

22

Smith Chart: Constant Impedance Phase Angle Circles
Γi
0.14

0.15

0.1
6

0.3
3

0.1
7

0.3
2

50

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

Γr

Pacificon 2001

Smith Chart: Multiplication, Division, Squares, and
Square Roots
Unary Operators
squares
square roots
tangents
cotangents
inverse tangents
Inverse cotangents

a2

a
tan θ
cot θ
tan-1 a
cot-1 a

Binary Operators
multiplication X
division ÷
geometric mean

VG – 35
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

a•b
c/a

ab

Pacificon 2001

0.4

0.38
0.37

0.39
0.12

0.14
-80

-90

0.11
-100

0.1

0.4
1

5
-4

0.35

2

0.9

1.2

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0

-5

0

0.13

0.36

-110

0.0
9

0.4
-35

-4
-70

6
0.1

3

8

0.0
7
30

0.6

1.8

(-j

3
0.4

1.6

-60
7

0.15

4
0.3

0.0
0.3

-1

2.0

-12
0
CAP
AC
ITI
VE
R
EA
CT
AN
CE

-60

1.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4
0.6
8
0.

0

0.5

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

1.0

a=4

1.0
5.0

0.28

-65

4.0

0.3

31

0.2

0.2

0.8

0.22

CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

0

(+
jX
/Z

14

0.0
5

0.4
5

20

.29

0.6

15

3.0

-20

0.3

1
-30

-20

0.1

0.6

80

0.3

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

0.6

0.2

0.

-30

IND
UCT
IVE

0

70

44

0.

0.5

06

0.

25

10

20

50

0.1

0.4

0.2
20

10

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0.8

o)
jB/Y
E (NC
TA
EP
5
SC
44
-7
.
U
0
40
ES
-1
06
IV
0.
CT
DU
IN
R
-70
O
),
Zo
X/

5
0.0

0.
8

5
0.4

65

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.1

0.28

6

0.3

0.22

20

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

50

1

9

0.2
30

0.4

30

0.
19

0.1

0.2

2

60

0.3

35

0.2

-4
0

-√ 2

0.3
4

0.2

c=2

70

-25

40

0.2

0.2

√ c=1.414

0.35

0.3

1.0

0.
4

0.4
40

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
D <—
0.49
GEN
RD LOA
A
W
ERA
O
T
0.48
± 180
TO
THS
0.47
G
17
70
N
0
R—
-1
ELE
V
0.47
>
WA
0.0
1

0
60
<
4
-90
90
-16
0.4
85
-85
6

31

0.1

0.36
80

0.

b=0.5

0.13

19

VG – 36
PSA-00527—10/21/2001
4
0.

R
,O
o)

0
0.37

8
0.1
0
-5

3
0.4
0
13

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
PT
E
C
US
ES
IV
IT
AC
P
CA

12

0.4

2

3.0

0.4

110

90

4.0

7
0.0
1
0.4

0.38

-15

8
0.0
0.4

0.12

5.0

9
0.0

0.39
100

-10

0.11

50

0.1

0.

0.48

Smith Chart: A Nomogram for Math Calculations
Γi
0.14
0.15

0.1
6

0.3
3

0.1
7

2

8

15

10

Γr

Pacificon 2001

Part 3: Impedance Matching

VG – 37
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Impedance Matching Categories
❏ Single frequency matching
➤ Manual synthesis using Smith Chart
➤ Eight canonical networks
➤ Lumped elements
➤ Series and parallel stubs
➤ Transmission line sections

❏ Multiple frequency matching
➤ Ladder networks
➤ Multiple stubs
➤ Multiple line sections

❏ Broadband matching
➤ Maximize SWR bandwidth
➤ Software for computer-aided manual design
➤ Software for network optimization
➤ Smith Chart used for visualization only
VG – 38
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Bandwidth Classifications
Fractional Bandwidth

VG – 39
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Narrowband

< 10%

Moderate band

10% to 50%

Broadband

> 50%

Pacificon 2001

Two Kinds of Matching
❏ Conjugate Matching

❏ Load Matching

ΖS
+

ΖL

ΖO

ΖL

-

Zs = ZL*

ZL = ZO

❏ Best use at source
(transmitter)

❏ Best used at ends of transmission
lines

❏ Maximizes power delivery to
the load

❏ Minimizes reflections

❏ Does not minimize reflections
unless Zs is real

❏ Does not maximize delivered
power unless Z0 is real

❏ Normally done by the
transmitter manufacturer at the
circuit design level
❏ Ideally Zs (ext) = 50 Ω
VG – 40
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Where Should Matching Network Go?
❏ Poor Setup

High to
Low SWR

High SWR

Antenna
Tuner

Tx

Long Transmission Line

❏ Good Setup
Perfect 1:1

Tx

❏ Best Setup

Low SWR

Antenna
Tuner

VG – 41
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Very Low-Loss Line

Matching
Network

Insertion Loss x dB

Low SWR

Tx

Low SWR

Low SWR

Matching
Network

Pacificon 2001

Necessary Test Equipment
❏ Antenna analyzer
➤ Autek
➤ CIA
➤ MFJ

❏ Noise bridge (less accurate)
❏ Network analyzer (more accurate)
➤ Hewlett-Packard

VG – 42
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Matching Network Design Recipe
1. Measure transmission line parameters Zo, vf
2. Measure antenna feedpoint impedance across band(s) of interest
3. Measure or calculate impedance across band(s) of interest at network
insertion point
4. Narrowband match:
➤ Select appropriate lossless L network, 2 or 4 choices
➤ Select lumped elements vs stubs
➤ Calculate component values
➤ Calculate SWR and SWR bandwidth
➤ Build and test

5. Broadband match:
➤ Use design software - winSMITH or equivalent
➤ Design n-stage lossless ladder network
➤ Select lumped elements vs stubs
➤ Calculate component values
➤ Calculate SWR and SWR bandwidth
VG – 43
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

How to Measure Antenna Feedpoint Impedance
❏ Measure impedance through known line
❏ Divide measure impedance by Zo
❏ Plot impedance point on Smith Chart
❏ Move counter clockwise on chart by electrical length of line
❏ Read coordinate values from chart
❏ Multiply result by Zo

VG – 44
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

-90

0.4
0.38

0.39

0.12

-55

5
-4

0.9

1.2

1.0

0
-5

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

6
0.1

0.15
4
0.3

-70

0.14
-80
-4
0

0.13

0.11
-100

0.6

1.6

1.8
2.0

0.5

0.1
0.4
1
-110
0.0
9
0.4
2
0.0
1
8
2
0
CAP
0.4
AC
I
3
T
IVE
0.0
RE
7
AC
-1
TA
30
NC
EC
O
M
PO
N
EN
T
(-j

-35

0.37
0.36

-65

9

0.6

1.0

o)
jB/Y
5
E (0.0
NC
TA
EP
5
SC
44
-7
.
U
0
40
ES
-1
06
IV
0.
CT
DU
IN
R
-70
O
),
Zo
X/

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

>

10

4

0.0
6
15
0

0.4

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

80

4.0

+b

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)
0.2

0.4

0.6

8
0.

0.2

0.
31

0.35

0

0.8

85

+x

1.0
5.0

0.28

0.2

-85

20

<

0.8

0.3

0.3

0.2

6

5

14
0

0.0
5

(+
jX
/Z

0.4

20

0.22

0.2

0.
19

-60

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

0.6

-20

0.3

0.2
1
-30

-4
0

-30

0.1

-x

0.6

0.4

0.3

.45

70

0.
44

65
0.5

0.
06

25

10

20

50

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0.4

> WAVELEN
GTHS
TOW
ARD
0.49
GEN
ERA
0.48
TO
170
R
0.47
160
90

0.
8

0.2

20

0.0

-b

0.28

0.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

0.22

± 180

50

9

0.49

30

1

D<
RD LOA
TOWA
THS
-170
ENG
VEL
WA
-90
-160

0.2

0.2

0.48

60

7

35

3

0.3
4

0.2
30

4
0.

70

0.3

0.2

40

0.2

1.0

0.
4

0.4

40

0.1

0.35

0.1

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
PT
E
SC
SU

0.36

2

80

0.3

VE
TI
CI
PA
CA

0.13

31
0.

VG – 45
PSA-00527—10/21/2001
R
,O
o)

120

0.4

2
0.37

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

0.4

-20
3.0

7
0.0
110

90

4.0

3
0.4
0
13

1
0.4

0.38

-15

8
0.0
0.4

0.12

5.0

9
0.0
0.39
100

-10

0.11

50

0.1

19
0.

0.47

Smith Chart: Effect of Adding Series Reactances or

Shunt Susceptances
Γi
0.14

0.15
0.1
6

0.3
3

7

0.1

2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

Γr

Pacificon 2001

0

0.1
-90

0.4

9

2
0.9

1.2

8
0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0
-5

5
-4

0.15
4

0.39
0.38
0.37

0.36

0.12
0.13

0.11
-100

0.4

.41

0.14
-80

0.35

0.0
-110

0
-70

0.0

-35

-4

0.3

0.4
0.6

1.6

1.8

0.2

-60

2.0

31

6

3
0.0
7
30

-1
-12
0
CAP
AC
ITI
VE
R
EA
CT
AN
CE

0.5

0.6

(-j

CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

0.

-65

1.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4

0.6
0.
8

0.2

19

0.1

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2
20

10

80

0.0
4

150

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

1.0

5.0

0.28

0.3

0.

-60

IND
UCT
IVE

4.0

0.22

9

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
PT
E
C
44
-75
US
0.
40
ES
-1
06
IV
0.
CT
U
D
IN
R
-70
O
),
Zo
/
X
5
0.0

0.8

-20

0.3

1
-30

-20

0.4
6

(+
jX
/Z

14

0.0
5
5

0.4

20

0.2

0.2

-4
0

-30

0.1

0.4

85

0.6

10

20

50

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DE
G
R
LE OF
E
ES
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0.6

5
0.4

8

-85

0.

0.2

20

6

0

70

0.

44

06

0.5

0.

25

0.28

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

65

2.0

1 .8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

30

0.22

0.4

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
0.49
GEN
LOAD <—
D
R
A
ERA
TOW
0.48
S
7
180
±
H
.4
TO
T
0
170
70
NG
R—
-1
E
L
VE
0.47
>
A
W
1
0
6
<—
6
0
-90
90
-1

0.2

3
0.3

60

7
0.1

35

1
0.2

9
0.2
30

0.2

4

0.2

Forbidden Area

0.1

2
0.3

)
/Yo
(+jB

0.3

0.3

0.8

0.
4

0.4
40

0.48

31

0.1

70

0.

(a)

R
,O
o)

E
IV
IT
AC
P
CA

E
NC
TA
EP
SC
SU

40

19

VG – 46
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Z

3
0.4
0
13

0.35

-25

7

80

0.

Z0
4
0.

1.0

0.0

120

0.4

2

90
0.36

8
0.1
0
-5

0

3.0

0.4

110

0.37

-15

1

0.4

0.13

0.38

4.0

.08

0.4

0.12

5.0

9
0.0

0.39
100

-10

0.11

50

0.1
0.14

0.15
6

0.3
3

0.1
7

0.3
2

0.1
8

50

3.0

15

10

Pacificon 2001

5

-4

0.9

1.2

1.0

0
-5

0
-4

0.39

0.6

1.4

0.7

1.6

1.8

0.2

0.4

0.38
0.37

0.11
-100
-90

0.8

-35

0.14
-80
0.15

4
0.3

-70

6
0.1

0.12

-55

-60

7
0.1

0.13

-60

2.0

31

3
0.3

0
-65 .5

0.

0.35

44
0.

06

19

0.36

-70

),
Zo
X/

40
-1

0.1
0.4
1
-110
0.0
9
0.4
2
0.0
-12
8
0
CAP
0.4
AC
IT
3
I
V
ER
0.0
EA
7
C
-1
T
AN
30
CE
CO
M
PO
N
EN
T
(-j

0.

0.6

1.0

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

0.1

0.4

0.2
20

10

80

15
0

6

4

0.0

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

1.0

5.0

0.2

0.4

0.6
0.
8

0.28

0.3

0.

-30

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
-75
SU
VE
TI
C
DU
IN
R
O
RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.22

5

4.0

0.2
9

0.0

0.8

-20

0.3

0.2
1
-30

5

8

0.4

5

14
0

0.0
5

(+
jX
/Z

0.4

20

10

20

50

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.2
4
0.26
0.23
0.27
LECTION COEFFICIEN
T
F
E
I
N
R
D
E
GREE
LE OF
S
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0.4

0.

0.2

85

0.6

0.28

-85

70

0.

44

06

2.0

0.5

0.

25

0.22

20

6

65

1.8

50

1

9

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

0.2

0.2
30

0.4

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
0.49
AD <—
GEN
ARD LO
W
ERA
O
T
0.48
± 180
HS
TO
T
0.47
G
17
0
R—
-170
EN
L
E
0.47
>
AV
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

30

0.2

-4
0

8

0.2

0.1

60

2

35

0.3

0.3
4

0.2

0.2

70

0.3

4
0.
-20

0.
4

0.4
40

0.48

31

0.1

40

0.

Forbidden Area

0.35

19

VG – 47
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Z

R
,O
o)

0

80

0.

Z0
3
0.4
0
13

0.8

0

1.0

.07
Yo)
jB/
E (+
NC
A
T
EP
SC
SU
VE
TI
I
C
PA
CA

12

0.36

0
-5
-25

2

0.4

0.0

3.0

0.4

110

90

4 .0

1

0.4

0.37

-15

8

0.4

0.13

0.38

5.0

9

0.6

0.0

0.39
100

0.12

-10

0.11

50

0.1

0.14
0.15

0.1
6

0.3
3

7

0.1

2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

(b)
Pacificon 2001

0.39

0.4

0.38

0.11
-100

0.37

-4

5

0.9

1.2

0.7

1.4

0.8

1.0

0
-5

0
-4

0.12

-55

-35

-90

0.15

4
0.3

-70

6
0.1

0.14
-80
0.35

-60

1.6

-60

7
0.1

0.13

0.36

0.6

44
06

0.

-70

),
Zo
X/

40
-1

1.8
2.0

0
-65 .5

0.1
0.4
1
-110
0.0
9
0.4
2
0.0
-12
8
0
CAP
0.4
AC
IT
3
I
V
ER
0.0
EA
7
C
-1
T
AN
30
CE
CO
M
PO
N
EN
T
(-j

0.

-20

0.3

0.2

5

1.0

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
-75
SU
VE
TI
C
DU
IN
R
O

0.6

0.0

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

80

150

6

4

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

1.0
5.0

Forbidden Area

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)
0.2

0.4

0.6

8
0.

0.28

5

4.0

0.22

0.4

0.8

0.2
9

3

0.1

0.4

0.2
20

10

0.0

5

14
0

0.0
5

(+
jX
/Z

0.4

20

-20

0.3

0.2
1
-30

31

0.

0.3

0.6

0.4

0.6

10

20

50

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.2
4
0.26
0.23
0.27
FLECTION COEFFICIENT
E
I
N
R
D
E
GREE
LE OF
S
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

19

0.

-30

0.
8

0.2

85

70

44

0.

2.0

0.5

06

0.

25

0.28

-85

65

1.8

50

0.22

20

6

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.1

1

9

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

0.3

0.2

0.2
30

0.4

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
D <—
0.49
GEN
RD LOA
A
W
ERA
O
0.48
± 180
HS T
TO
T
0.47
G
17
0
R—
-170
EN
L
E
0.47
>
AV
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

30

0.2

-4
0

8

0.2

0.1

60

2

35

0.2

4
0.

0.3
4

0.3

0.8

0.
4

0.4

40

0.48

31

0.2

70

0.

0.1

40

19

VG – 48
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Z

R
,O
o)

0.35

0.

Z0
3
0.4
0
13

1.0

0
.07
Yo)
jB/
E (+
NC
A
T
EP
SC
SU
VE
TI
I
C
PA
CA

120

80

0.3

2

0.36

0
-5
-25

0.0

0.4

0.4

110

3.0

1

0.4

90

4.0

8
0.4

0.37

-15

9

0.13

0.38

5.0

0.0

0.39
100

0.12

-10

0.11

50

0.1

0.14
0.15

0.1
6

0.3
3

7

0.1

2

8

3.0

15

10

(c)
Pacificon 2001

0.4
0.39
0.38
0.37

0.36

5

-4

0.4

9

2

0.9

1.2

8

0.6

0.4

1.6

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0
-5

1
0.4

0.1
-90

0.11
-100
0.12
0.13

0.35

0.14
-80

0.15
0.3

4

0.0
-110

0.0

-35

-4
0
-70

6
0.1
3

3

0
-65 .5

0.0
7
-1
30

1.8

2.0

-12
0
CAP
AC
ITI
V
E
RE
AC
TA
NC
E

0.2

-70

R
O
),
Zo
/
X

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

-75

0.8

40

1.0

-1

(-j
CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

06
0.

0.6

44

9

0.

1.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.6

Forbidden Area

0.
8

0.2

1

0.
3

0.3

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

80

15
0

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

1.0

5.0

0.28

0.
19

-60

IND
UCT
IVE

4.0

0.3

-30

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU

0.8

0.22

5

0.6

0.1

0.4

0.2
20

0.0
4

(+
jX
/Z

14

5

0.0
5

0.4

20

-20

0.3

1
-30

0.0

8

0.4
6

0.3

85

0.6

0.2

5
0.4

0.

0.2

20

-85

0

70

44

0.

0.5

06

0.

25

0.28

6

65

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

0.22

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

50

10

20

50

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
EFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN
R
D
E
G
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0.4

30

0.2

0

-4

7

0.2

0.1

60

2
0.3

35

1
0.2

9
0.2
30

0.4

4

0.2

0.2

70

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
0.49
AD <—
GEN
ARD LO
W
ERA
O
T
0.48
± 180
HS
TO
T
0.47
G
17
N
0
R—
-170
ELE
V
0.47
>
A
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

0.4
40

0.48

31

0.1

40

0.

0.
4

R
,O
o)

0.35

19

VG – 49
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Z

3
0.4
0
13

80

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

7

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU
VE
TI
I
C
PA
CA

120
0.36

0.

Z0
4
0.
-20

0.0

0.4

2
110

3.0

0.4

100

90

4.0

1

0.4

0.37

-15

8
0.0

0.4

0.13

0.38

5.0

9
0.12

-10

0.0
0.39

10

0.11

50

0.1
0.14

0.15

0.3

0.1
6

0.3
3

7

0.1

2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

(d)
Pacificon 2001

0.4
0.39
0.38
0.37

0.36

5

-4

0.4

9

2

0.9

1.2

8

0.6

0.4

1.6

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0
-5

1
0.4

0.1
-90

0.11
-100
0.12
0.13

0.35

0.14
-80

0.15
0.3

4

0.0
-110

0.0

-35

-4
0
-70

6
0.1

0
-65 .5

1.8

2.0

1

0.
3

0.3

3
0.0
7
-1
30

-12
0
CAP
AC
ITI
V
E
RE
AC
TA
NC
E

0.2

-70

R
O
),
Zo
/
X

(-j
CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

-75

0.8

40

1.0

-1

0.6

06
0.

9

44

1.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4

0.6
0.
8

0.2

0.

Forbidden Area

0.3

0.
19

-60

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

80

15
0

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

4.0

1.0

5.0

0.28

0.2

0

-4

-30

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU

0.8

0.22

5

(+
jX
/Z

14

5

0.0
5

0.4

20

-20

0.3

1
-30

0.0

0.6

0.1

0.4

0.2
20

10

0.0
4

0.6

0.2

5
0.4

8

0.2

20

0.

0.4
6

0.3

85

0

70

44

0.

0.5

06

0.

25

0.28

-85

65

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

10

20

50

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
EFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN
R
D
E
G
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

6

50

0.22

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

30

1
0.2

9
0.2
30

0.4

0.2

3

60

7

35

0.1

4

0.2

0.2

70

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
0.49
AD <—
GEN
ARD LO
W
ERA
O
T
0.48
± 180
HS
TO
T
0.47
G
17
N
0
R—
-170
ELE
V
0.47
>
A
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

0.4
40

0.48

31

0.1

40

0.

0.
4

R
,O
o)

0.35

19

VG – 50
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Z

3
0.4
0
13

80

2
0.3

7

0.36

0.

Z0
4
0.
-20

0.0

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU
VE
TI
I
C
PA
CA

120
110

90

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

2

0.4

0.4

100

3.0

1

0.4

0.37

4.0

8
0.0

0.4

0.13

0.38

-15

9
0.12

5.0

0.0
0.39

-10

0.11

50

0.1
0.14

0.15

0.3

0.1
6

0.3
3

7

0.1

2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

(e)
Pacificon 2001

0.4
0.39
0.38
0.37

0.36

5

-4

0.4

9

2

0.9

1.2

8

0.6

0.4

1.6

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0
-5

1
0.4

0.1
-90

0.11
-100
0.12
0.13

0.35

0.14
-80

0.15
0.3

4

0.0
-110

0.0

-35

-4
0
-70

6
0.1

3

0
-65 .5

0.0
7
-1
30

1.8

2.0

-12
0
CAP
AC
ITI
V
E
RE
AC
TA
NC
E

0.2

-70

R
O
),
Zo
/
X

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

-75

0.8

40

1.0

-1

(-j
CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

06
0.

0.6

44

9

0.

1.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4

0.6
0.
8

0.2

1

0.
3

0.3

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

80

15
0

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

1.0

5.0

0.28

0.3

0.
19

-60

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU

4.0

0.22

5

0.8

-20

0.3

1
-30

0.0

0.6

0.1

0.4

0.2
20

10

0.0
4

(+
jX
/Z

14

5

0.0
5

0.4

20

0.2

5
0.4

8

0.2

20

0.

0.4
6

0.6

0.28

85

0

70

44

0.

0.5

06

0.

25

0.22

-85

65

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

10

20

50

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
EFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN
R
D
E
G
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

6

50

1
0.2

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

30

0.2

0

-4

-30

0.3

Forbidden Area
9
0.2
30

0.4

0.2

3

60

7

35

0.1

4

0.2

0.2

70

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
0.49
AD <—
GEN
ARD LO
W
ERA
O
T
0.48
± 180
HS
TO
T
0.47
G
17
N
0
R—
-170
ELE
V
0.47
>
A
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

0.4
40

0.48

31

0.1

40

0.

0.
4

R
,O
o)

0.35

19

VG – 51
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Z

3
0.4
0
13

80

2
0.3

7

0.36

0.

Z0
4
0.
-20

0.0

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU
VE
TI
I
C
PA
CA

120
110

90

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

2

0.4

0.4

100

3.0

1

0.4

0.37

4.0

8
0.0

0.4

0.13

0.38

-15

9
0.12

5.0

0.0
0.39

-10

0.11

50

0.1
0.14

0.15

0.3

0.1
6

0.3
3

7

0.1

2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

(f)
Pacificon 2001

0.4
0.39
0.38
0.37

0.36

5

-4

0.4

9

2

0.9

1.2

8

0.6

0.4

1.6

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0
-5

1
0.4

0.1
-90

0.11
-100
0.12
0.13

0.35

0.14
-80

0.15
0.3

4

0.0
-110

0.0

-35

-4
0
-70

6
0.1

0
-65 .5

1.8

2.0

1

0.
3

0.3

3
0.0
7
-1
30

-12
0
CAP
AC
ITI
V
E
RE
AC
TA
NC
E

0.2

-70

R
O
),
Zo
/
X

(-j
CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

-75

0.8

40

1.0

-1

0.6

06
0.

9

44

1.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4

0.6
0.
8

0.2

0.

Forbidden Area

0.3

0.
19

-60

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

80

15
0

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

4.0

1.0

5.0

0.28

0.2

0

-4

-30

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU

0.8

0.22

5

(+
jX
/Z

14

5

0.0
5

0.4

20

-20

0.3

1
-30

0.0

0.6

0.1

0.4

0.2
20

10

0.0
4

0.6

0.2

5
0.4

8

0.2

20

0.

0.4
6

0.3

85

0

70

44

0.

0.5

06

0.

25

0.28

-85

65

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

10

20

50

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
EFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN
R
D
E
G
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

6

50

0.22

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

30

1
0.2

9
0.2
30

0.4

0.2

3

60

7

35

0.1

4

0.2

0.2

70

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
0.49
AD <—
GEN
ARD LO
W
ERA
O
T
0.48
± 180
HS
TO
T
0.47
G
17
N
0
R—
-170
ELE
V
0.47
>
A
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

0.4
40

0.48

31

0.1

40

0.

0.
4

R
,O
o)

0.35

19

VG – 52
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Z

3
0.4
0
13

80

2
0.3

7

0.36

0.

Z0
4
0.
-20

0.0

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU
VE
TI
I
C
PA
CA

120
110

90

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

2

0.4

0.4

100

3.0

1

0.4

0.37

4.0

8
0.0

0.4

0.13

0.38

-15

9
0.12

5.0

0.0
0.39

-10

0.11

50

0.1
0.14

0.15

0.3

0.1
6

0.3
3

7

0.1

2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

(g)
Pacificon 2001

0.4
0.39
0.38
0.37

0.36

5

-4

0.4

9

2

0.9

1.2

8

0.6

0.4

1.6

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0
-5

1
0.4

0.1
-90

0.11
-100
0.12
0.13

0.35

0.14
-80

0.15
0.3

4

0.0
-110

0.0

-35

-4
0
-70

6
0.1

3

0
-65 .5

0.0
7
-1
30

1.8

2.0

-12
0
CAP
AC
ITI
V
E
RE
AC
TA
NC
E

1

0.
3

0.3

-70

R
O
),
Zo
/
X

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

-75

0.8

40

1.0

-1

(-j
CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

06
0.

0.6

44

9

0.

1.0

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4

0.6
0.
8

0.2

0.
19

-60

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

80

15
0

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

1.0

5.0

0.28

0.3

-30

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU

4.0

0.22

5

0.8

-20

0.3

1
-30

0.0

0.6

0.1

0.4

0.2
20

10

0.0
4

(+
jX
/Z

14

5

0.0
5

0.4

20

0.2

5
0.4

8

0.2

20

0.

0.4
6

0.6

0.28

85

0

70

44

0.

0.5

06

0.

25

0.22

-85

65

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

10

20

50

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
EFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN
R
D
E
G
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

6

50

1
0.2

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

30

0.2

0

-4

0.2

0.3

Forbidden Area
9
0.2
30

0.4

0.2

3

60

7

35

0.1

4

0.2

0.2

70

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
0.49
AD <—
GEN
ARD LO
W
ERA
O
T
0.48
± 180
HS
TO
T
0.47
G
17
N
0
R—
-170
ELE
V
0.47
>
A
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

0.4
40

0.48

31

0.1

40

0.

0.
4

R
,O
o)

0.35

19

VG – 53
PSA-00527 — 10/21/2001

Z

3
0.4
0
13

80

2
0.3

7

0.36

0.

Z0
4
0.
-20

0.0

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
T
EP
SC
SU
VE
TI
I
C
PA
CA

120
110

90

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

2

0.4

0.4

100

3.0

1

0.4

0.37

4.0

8
0.0

0.4

0.13

0.38

-15

9
0.12

5.0

0.0
0.39

-10

0.11

50

0.1
0.14

0.15

0.3

0.1
6

0.3
3

7

0.1

2

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

(h)
Pacificon 2001

-90

0.4
0.38

0.39
0.12
0.13

0.37

0.36
0.35

-4

0.0

2
0.4
9

0.9

1.2

0.0
7
30

0.6

0.4
3

1.6

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

50

5

-

1
0.4

0.1

0.11
-100
0.14
-80

-110

0
-4
-70
6
0.1

0.15
4
0.3

8
0.0

-35

0
-65 .5

1.8

5

-85

2.0

0.0

1.0

10

<

o)
jB/Y
E (NC
TA
EP
C
4
4
-75
US
0.
40
ES
-1
06
IV
0.
CT
DU
IN
R
-70
O
),
Zo
X/

5

0.6

-1

0.4

0.8

(-j

CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

-12
0
CAP
AC
I
T
IVE
RE
AC
TA
NC
E
0.2

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

20

6
0.4

80

>

0.0
4
0.4
6
15
0

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

4.0

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

85

0.8

0.3

-60

0.2

> WAVELEN
GTHS
TOW
ARD
0.49
GEN
ERA
0.48
TO
170
R
0.47
160
90

(+
jX
/Z

14

5

0.0
5

0.4

20

Finish

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)
0.2

0.4

0.6
8

0.2
9

0.
31

7

0.1

0.4

0.0

0.6

0.2

0.0

0.6

1.0

5.0

0.28

0.3

0.2
1
-30

-30

8

± 180

0

70

0.4

0.22

1.0

4
0.

0.49

0.
44

65
0.5

0.
06

25

0.
19

3

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.3

0.28

D<
RD LOA
TOWA
THS
-170
ENG
VEL
WA
-90
-160

30

-20

0

0.1

60

0.3

Start

0.1

10

20

50

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0.

4

0.22

20

0.48

0.3

9
0.2
30

0.2

35

2
0.3

0.2

70

1
0.2

0.1

40

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
PT
CE
S
SU

0.35

0.2

-4

0.4

VE
TI
CI
PA
CA

80

0.2

4

0

0.36

0.3

0.

R
,O
o)

12

-20
3.0

3
0.4
0
13

2
0.13

4.0

0.4

0.37

-15

7
0.0
110

90

5.0

1

0.4

-10

8
0.0
0.4

0.38

40

VG – 54
PSA-00527—10/21/2001
9

0.12

31
0.

ZL

0.0

0.39
100

50

0.11

0.

ZL
0.1

19
0.

0.47

Matching: Four L-Networks Using Lumped Elements
Γi
0.14
0.15

0.3

0.1
6

7

ZL

3

0.3
2

50

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

Γr

ZL
Pacificon 2001

0.4
0.38

0.39
0.12
0.13

0.37

0.36

0.35

0

0.0
9

5
-4

0.9

1.2

1.6

-60

0.7

1.4

0.8

-55

1.0

0
-5

0.4
1
0.1

0.11
-100
-90

0.14
-80

-110

-4
0
-70

6
0.1

0.15

.42

3

0.6

0.4

0
-65 .5

1.8
2.0

0.0

5

1.0

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
PT
CE
-75
US
0
0.
S
4
E
-1
06
IV
0.
CT
DU
IN
R
-70
,O
)
Zo
X/

-12
0
CAP
A
C
ITI
VE
RE
AC
TA
NC
E

31

4
0.3

8

44

0.

0.0

(-j

CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

19

-35

20

10

80

4

0.0
6
15
0

0.4

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

4.0

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

0.8

0.3

0.0
7
-1
30

5
0.4

9

0.6

>

0

(+
jX
/Z

14

0.0
5
0.4
5

20

Finish

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

0.4

0.6
8

0.2

-20

85

0.6

1.0
5.0

0.28

0.3

1
-30

0.2

-85

70

0.
44

65
0.5

0.
06

25

0.2

0.

-60

0.2

<

0.4

0.22

0.8

0.2

6

0.6

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

8

0.4

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

0.1

-20

0

-30

0.1

0.4

> WAVELEN
GTHS
TOW
ARD
0.49
GEN
ERA
0.48
TO
170
R
0.47
160
90

0.

0.0

0.3

10

20

50

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

1.0

4
0.

0.0

50

0.22

20

± 180

30

0.28

0.49

0.3

9

0.48
D<
RD LOA
TOWA
THS
-170
ENG
VEL
A
W
-90
-160

0.1

1

-4

7

Start

0.1

0.2

0.3

3

0.3
4

0.3

60

2

35

0.3

70

0.2

0.

0.35

0.2

30

0.2

40

0.2

0.1

0.36

0.2

0.4

0
80

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

Yo)
jB/
E (+
NC
TA
EP
C
S
SU
VE
TI
CI
PA
CA

12
0.13

0.3

4

R
,O
o)

2

3.0

0.4

0.37

4.0

0
13

3
0.4

40

VG – 55
PSA-00527—10/21/2001
0.

7
0.4

90

-15

0.0
8
110

0.38

5.0

0.0

1
0.4

0.12

31
0.

ZL

9
0.0
0.39
100

-10

0.11

50

ZL
0.1

19
0.

0.47

Matching: Four L-Networks Using Stubs
Γi
0.14

0.15

0.1
6
7

ZL

3

2

8

3.0

15

10

Γr

ZL

Pacificon 2001

Reactance & Susceptance of Lumped Elements
Inductors

X L = 2πfL

−1
BL =
2πfL

−1
XC =
2πfC

BC = 2πfC

Capacitors

VG – 56
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

Reactance & Susceptance of Stubs
❏ Assuming Zo is real, then
❏ Shorted Stubs

Xshorted

 2πlf 
= Zo tan

 vf c 

Bshorted

−1
=
 2πlf 
Zo tan

v
c
 f 

❏ Open Stubs

Xopen

VG – 57
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

− Zo
=
 2πlf 
tan

v
c
 f 

Bopen

 2πlf 
1
=
tan

Zo
 vf c 

Pacificon 2001

Broadband Matching Network Design Recipe

Using 4-Element π-Resonant and T-Resonant Networks
❏ Putting network insertion point close to load (antenna) gives
greatest SWR bandwidth
❏ Step 1: Using an L-network, move the midband impedance
point to prime point A or B. Bandwidth will be maximized if
the minimum reactance or susceptance L-network is chosen
in this step.
❏ Step 2: Wrap the impedance locus into the SWR circle by
adding a series or parallel resonant circuit as required to
complete the π-resonant or T-resonant network

VG – 58
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

Pacificon 2001

∏-Resonant

and T-Resonant Network

For Moderate and Broadband Matching
Γi

0.
0
44

70

0.

0

4.0

15

45
1.0

50

0.9

55

1.0

5.0

SWR = 1.5

10

8

0.6

fmid

0.2

0.1

0.4

B

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

A

10

20

0.2

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

Γr

50

0.2

50

0.1

ZL

20

IND
UCT
IVE

0.28

1.0

0.

80

0.3

0.8

0.22

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

0.4

5

(+
jX
/Z

5

14

4

0.0

0.

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)
0.2

20

0.4

10

1.0

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

1.0

0.8

2.0
1.8

1.6
0.35

1.2

1.4
0.15

-4

0

0.14
-80
0.36

1.0

-70

0.9

6

5
-4

4

0

0.1

-5

-35
0.3

0.7

-60

0.8

3

7

-90

0.12

0.13

0.38

0.37

0.11
-100
0.39

-55

0.1
0.3

0.6

2

-110
0.1
0.4

0.0

1

-75

6

-70

-1

40
0
0.

0.0
7
30

3

8
0

9

0.4

-1

0.4

0.0

5

R
O
),
Zo
X/

-12
0
CAP
AC
I
T
IVE
RE
AC
TA
NC
E

0.2

-30

-60

0.3

(-j

0.5

1

-65

0.
3

4

9

4
0.

CO
M
PO
N
EN
T

0.4

0.
1

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

0.0

0.6

-20

-85

E
NC
TA
EP
SC
SU

4.0
3.0

0.3

0

5.0

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

0.2
9

0.2
1
-30

0.2

4

0

0.

ZL

0.28

fu

0.3

-4

.45

8

0.22

0.47

0.

-20

0.2

-15

)
/Yo
(-jB

0.6

-10

0.0
4

20
3.0

0.6

9
0.2
30

0.4
6
15
0

25

1
0.2

85

fl
0.4

0.2

6
0.4

0.1
8

0.3
2

50

0.3

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.48
0.0

0.49
GEN
D LOAD <
ERA
OWAR
0.48
± 180
HS T
TO
170
0
NGT
R—
-17
E
L
E
0.47
>
AV
W
160
<—
-90
90
-160

7

3

40

.42

VG – 59
PSA-00527—10/21/2001

0.3

30

1

ZL

60

0.2

0.1

ZL

35

3
0.

VE
TI
CI
PA
CA

0.1

9

ZL

R
,O
o)

6

4

1
0.

65
0.5

0

6

13

Yo)
jB/
E (+
NC
TA
EP
SC
SU

0.3

2.0

0

0.1

70

1.6

12

ZL

0.15
0.35

40

1.8

2

0.14
0.36
80

1.4

0.4

110
0.8

.08

0.6 60

0

1
0.4

7
0.0

3
0.4

9

90

0.7

0.0

0.37

0.38

0.39
100

0.4

1.2

0.1

0.13

0.12

0.11

ZL

ZL

Pacificon 2001

-4

5

0.9

1.2

1.0

0

-5

-4
0

0.4

0.38
0.37

0.39

0.12

0.11
-100
-90

1.4

0.8

-35

0.14
-80
0.15
4
0.3

0.7

1.6

-60

-70
6
0.1
3
0.3

1.8
2.0

0.5

31

0.13

-55

0.6

-65

0.

0.36

44
0.
06

0.

19

0.35

-60

-30

-70

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

-75

R
O
),
Zo
X/

40

-1

)
/Yo
(-jB
CE
AN
PT
CE
S
SU

1.0

105

50

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

IND
UCT
IVE

0.2
20

10

80

0.0
4

1.0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

4.0

0.3

0.2

0.1
0.4
1
-110
0.0
9
0.4
2
0.0
-12
8
0
CAP
0.4
AC
I
3
T
IVE
0.0
RE
7
A
C
-1
TA
30
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T
(-j

0.4

5
0.0

0.8

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)
0.2

0.4
0.6
8
0.

0.2
9

100
0.2

0.

7
0.1

0.6

0.4
6
150

(+
jX
/Z

14
0

0.0
5
0.4
5

20

1.0

5.0

0.28

110
-4
0

2

1.0

85

0.6

0.22

5
0.4

0.6

0.2

-85

0.
8

4
0.0
0
-15 -80

70

44

0.

2.0

65
0.5

06

0.

25

-20

6
0.4

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

30

0.3

0.2

8
0.1
0
-5
-25

60

0.28

4
0.
0.2
1
-30

120

35

10

20

50

0.1

0.25
0.26
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

130

0.3
4

0.22

20

0.4

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0
D <—
0.49
GEN
RD LOA
ERA
TOWA
0.48
±
S
180
H
TO
170
70
NGT
R—
-1
E
L
VE
0.47
>
A
W
1
0
6
<—
6
0
-90
90
-1

0.3

9
0.2
30

0.3

70

1
0.2

140

40

0.2

0.2

0.35

0.3

150

3.0

0.
4

0.4
40

0.48

31

160

0.36

0.

0.1

80

19

VG – 60
PSA-00527—10/21/2001
R
,O
o)

0

90

-20

3
0.4
0
13

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
T
P
CE
US
ES
IV
IT
C
PA
CA

12

0.8

2
0.4

110

0.37

4.0

7
0.0

1
0.4

0.13

0.38

-15

8
0.0

0.4

0.12

5.0

9
0.0

0.39
100

-10

0.11

50

0.1

0.

0.47

Caron’s Example 10: VHF Folded Blade Antenna
0.14
0.15
0.1
6

0.3
3

0.1
7

0.3
2

50

0.1
8

3.0

15

10

Pacificon 2001

-5

5
-4

0.15

0.39

0.4

0.38
0.37
0.36

-90

0.11
-100

0.12
0.13

-55

0.9

-60

1.2

0.7

1.4

0.8

1.0

0

-70

4
0.3
6
0.1
3
0.3

-35
7
0.1

0.14
-80
-4
0

0.35

0.6

-65

1.6

1.8

2.0

0.5

0.
31

-60

-70

-1

E
IV
CT
DU
IN

-75

R
O
),
Zo
X/

40

1.0

o)
jB/Y
E (NC
TA
P
E
SC
SU

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

1.0

4.0

50

80

15

0

RE
AC
TA
75
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T

0.8

20

10

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.8

IND
UCT
IVE

0

(+
jX
/Z

14

0.0
5
0.4
5

20

0.3

0.
19

0.2

0.1
0.4
1
-110
0.0
9
0.4
2
0
.
-12
0
8
0
CAP
0.4
AC
I
3
T
IVE
0.0
RE
7
AC
-1
T
A
30
NC
EC
OM
PO
N
EN
T
(-j

06
0.

0.8

44
0.

0.2

0

-4

0.4

-80

1.0

5
0.0

8

4
0.0
0

0.6

1.0
5.0

0.1

0.4

120

RESISTANCE COMPONENT (R/Zo), OR CONDUCTANCE COMPONENT (G/Yo)

0.2

140

0.6
0.
8

0.28

-15

70

0.
44

0.5

0.
06

25

0.2
9

5
0.4

65

2.0

1.8

1.6

55

1.2

45

50

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

0.7

0.6 60

30

0.22

10

6
0.4

0.

0.2

0.0 —> WAVELE
0.49
NGTH
S TOW
ARD
0.0

0.49
GEN
D LOAD <
ERA
OWAR
T
0.48
±
S
180
TO
TH
G
17
70
N
0
R—
-1
ELE
V
0.47
>
WA
0.0
1

60
<
4
-90
90
-160
0.4
85
-85
6

0.3

0.48

0.1
7

-20

0.3

0.2
1
-30

4
0.

0.3
3

10

20

50

0.25
0.2
6
0.24
0.27
0.23
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.23
0.27
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT IN DEG
REES
LE OF
ANG
ISSION COEFFICIENT IN
TRANSM
DEGR
LE OF
EES
ANG

0.2

130

-30

0.2

2
0.3

0.4

60

-25

0.1

35

0.28

150

0.3
4

0.22

20

105

70

1
0.2

9
0.2
30

100

40

0.2

160

0.35

0.3

0.6

0.
4

0.4

40

110

0.36

8
0.1
0
-5

)
/Yo
(+jB
CE
AN
PT
E
SC
SU

-20
3.0

E
IV
IT
AC
P
CA

80

-15

7
0.0

90

4.0

0

0.37

31
0.

VG – 61
PSA-00527—10/21/2001
R
,O
o)

12

0.13

0.38

5.0

2
0.4

110

0.12

-10

3
0.4
0
13

1
0.4

20

8
0.0

0.4

0.2

9
0.0

0.39
100

50

0.11

0.6

0.1

19
0.

0.47

Caron’s Matching Solution
0.14

0.15
0.1
6

0.1
8

Max VSWR=1.67

0.3
2

50

3.0

15

10

Pacificon 2001

WinSmith Display

Max VSWR=1.59

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ARRL Radio Designer

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ARRL Radio Designer

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Caron’s Example 11: Long Wire Receiving Antenna

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Caron’s Solution

Max VSWR=6.2

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Caron’s Solution
Max VSWR=6.2

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Eagleware’s Solution 1

Max VSWR=5.05

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Eagleware’s Solution 2

Max VSWR=4.77

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Eagleware’s Solution 3

Max VSWR=6.59

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Eagleware’s Solution 4: Fano Limit

Max VSWR=3.42

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GM3HAT 4-Band Dipole of Delight

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GM3HAT Feedpoint Impedance
At Five Harmonic Frequencies

VSWR=11.02

VSWR=1.62

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K6OIK 80m Suboctave Band Matching Network

150Ω
89°@ 3.5 MHz

5.9 µH
25Ω
91°@ 3.5 MHz

VG – 74
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18.8 µH
Zant

Pacificon 2001

K6OIK’s Multiband Match Performance

VSWR=1.46

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Software for Smith Charting and Network Design
❏ Smith Chart Analysis & Display
➤ MicroSmith 2.3, ARRL, 1992, $39
A primitive DOS program.

➤ winSMITH 2.0, Noble Publishing, 1995, $79
Written by Eagleware. Easy to use. Restricted to ladder networks.
Doesn’t have series stubs. Lacks an optimizer.

❏ Matching Network Optimization & Synthesis
➤ ARRL Radio Designer 1.5, ARRL, 1995, $150
No longer sold. ARD’s optimizer works with Serenade netlists and
handles more variables than Serenade SV’s optimizer.

➤ Serenade SV (student version), Ansoft, 2000, $0 (free)
Download (about 20 Mbytes) from:
http://www.ansoft.com/about/academics/sersv/index.cfm

➤ Advanced Automated Smith Chart 3.0, Artech House, 1998, $395
➤ =MATCH=, Eagleware, $699 (requires GENESYS Basic, $1997)
➤ Harmonica Linear Design Suite, Ansoft, 2000, $6900

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References: Articles
❏ Robert L. Thomas, “Broadband Impedance Matching in High-Q
Networks,” EDN, pp. 62–69, December 20, 1973.
❏ Neal C. Silence, “The Smith Chart and Its Usage in RF Design,”
RF Design, pp. 85–88, April 1992.
❏ Thomas R. Cuthbert, Jr., “Broadband Impedance Matching Methods,”
RF Design, pp. 64–91, August 1994.
❏ Thomas R. Cuthbert, Jr., “Broadband Impedance Matching - Fast and
Simple,” RF Design, pp. 38–50, November 1994.
❏ William E. Sabin, “Broadband HF Matching with ARRL Radio
Designer,” QST, pp. 33–36, August 1995.
❏ William E. Sabin, “ARRL Radio Designer and the Circles Utility, Part 1:
Smith Chart Basics,” QEX, pp. 3–9, Sept/Oct 1998.
❏ William E. Sabin, “ARRL Radio Designer and the Circles Utility, Part 2:
Small-Signal Amplifier Design,” QEX, pp. 3–11, Nov/Dec 1998.

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References: Articles (Cont’d)
❏ Steve Sparks, “A Practical Amateur Application of the Smith Chart,”
Communications Quarterly, pp. 102–106, Summer 1999.
➤ This article contains serious Smith charting errors. See the comments by Garry

Shapiro, NI6T, Communications Quarterly, p. 3, Fall 1999.

❏ K.C. Chan and A. Harter, “Impedance Matching and the Smith Chart –
The Fundamentals,” RF Design, pp. 52–66, July 2000.

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References: Books
❏ Robert A. Chipman, Transmission Lines, Schaum Outline Series,
McGraw-Hill, 1968.
➤ Basic, mathematical. A classic, but out-of-print.

❏ Robert L. Thomas, A Practical Introduction to Impedance Matching,
Artech House, 1976, ISBN 0890060509.
➤ Intermediate, mathematical. A nice treatment of 4-element networks for wideband

matching.

❏ Pieter L. D. Abrie, The Design of Impedance-Matching Networks for
Radio-Frequency and Microwave Amplifiers, Artech House, 1985,
ISBN 0890061726.
➤ Advanced, mathematical.

❏ Wilfred Caron, Antenna Impedance Matching, ARRL, 1989,
ISBN 0872592200.
➤ Intermediate, non-mathematical. Caron illustrates manual Smith chart methods at

their best, but which nonetheless have been completely replaced by computeraided network design.

❏ Brian C. Wadell, Transmission Line Design Handbook, Artech House,
1991, ISBN 0890064369.
➤ Analysis and formulas for many transmission lines. Comparable to M.A.R. Gunston

or K.C. Gupta, et al., below.
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References: Books (Cont’d)
❏ Phillip H. Smith, Electronic Applications of the Smith Chart in
Waveguide Circuit, and Component Analysis, 2nd edition, Noble
Publishing, 1995, ISBN 1884932398.
➤ Originally published by McGraw-Hill, 1969, and reprinted by Krieger, 1983.

Intermediate, mathematical.

❏ K.C. Gupta, R. Garg, I. Bahl, and P. Bhartia, Microstrip Lines and
Slotlines, 2nd ed., Artech House, 1996, ISBN 089006766X.
➤ Analysis and formulas for many transmission lines.

❏ M.A.R. Gunston, Microwave Transmission-Line Impedance Data,
Noble Publishing, 1997, ISBN 1884932576.
➤ Originally published by Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1972. Analysis and formulas

for many transmission lines. Comparable to B. Wadell above.

❏ ARRL Antenna Book, 18th edition, chapters 24-28, ARRL, 1997,
ISBN 0872596133.
➤ Elementary, non-mathematical.

❏ M. Walter Maxwell, W2DU, Reflections II: Transmission Lines and
Antennas, 2nd ed., Worldradio Books, 2001, ISBN 0970520603.
➤ A non-mathematical treatment of transmission lines and matching that

examines and corrects common misunderstandings.
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References: Application Notes, Videos, and Web Sites
❏ Application Notes
➤ Times Microwave’s Complete Coaxial Cable Catalog & Handbook
Download from:
http://www.timesmicrowave.com/products/military/TL14/TL14.htm

❏ Videos
➤ Glenn Parker, Introduction to the Smith Chart, Noble Publishing,

1996. 50 minutes, $99.

❏ Useful Web Sites
➤ http://www.timesmicrowave.com/calculators/index.htm
➤ http://www.sss-mag.com/smith.html
➤ http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/D.Jefferies/smith.html
➤ http://www.scott-inc.com/html/smith.htm

❏ This Presentation is at
➤ http://www.fars.k6ya.org/docs/smithchart.html

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