A Modern Synthesis
George M. Siouris
Air Force lnsriture of Technology Deporrment of Electrical and Computer Engineering WrighrPatterson Air Force Bare, Ohio
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Contents
Preface
xi
f
Introduction
1. I Organization of the Text
5
2 Coordinate Systems and Transformations
2.1 Coordinate Systems 7 2. I. 1 True Inertial Frame (I) 9 2.1.2 EarthCentered Inertial (ECI) Frame (i) 9 2.1.3 EarthCentered EarthFixed (ECEF) Frame (e) 10 2.1.4 Navigation Frame (n) 10 2.1.5 Body Frame (h) 10 2.1.6 WanderAzimuth Frame ( c ) 11 2.1.7 Platform, Accelerometer, and Gyroscope Frames 12 2.2 Coordinate Transformations 13 2.2.1 The Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) 14 2.2.2 The Direction Cosine Matrix Differential Equation 17 2.2.3 Euler's Angles 20 2.2.4 Transformation of Angular Velocities 24 2.2.5 Earth Sidereal Rotation Rate 26 2.2.6 EarthCentered Inertial (ECI) to EarthFixed 27 2.2.7 EarthFixed to Navigation 31 2.2.8 EarthFixed to Wander Azimuth 32
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
27
2 . 0 Navlgalion t'r;tnic to Wander A / ~ ~ i i ~ 1;1;11ne 11 ltIi 22.10 Body Fr;imc Na\igation I.r;~iii' 33 2.71 I Body 1;rariie to I ' i x c ~1.i1icolSiglit (1.l~)S) l Tr:lnsli)~malion 7 2.212 D o p p l c ~ Vclocitq T ~  ; ~ ~ , r l l , i  ~ i ~r11111 ~ ~ I' ; i t i o Aircri~t't Axe\ 1 ~ 1 I.oc;~lI.c\icIAxes 39 2.2.13 Cicodetic to E ~ ~ r l l ~  ( ' c ~ ~ t: c r c t l ~  l i x IF.C'k.t') k ~~r~ l ccl ('<>ordi~~;itc' r ~ i ~ i s i ( ~ r ~ ~ ~ : ~ t i ~ ~ ~ ~ 'l 40 o o r i c ~ i c I s INS 4 I i : i 1 1 1 1 t i i 41 2 3.1 NortliSlared Systeni 45 2 3 . 2 Llnipolar System 55 2 3 . 3 F r c c  A r i r n ~ ~ Systc~n i tll 23.4 W;lnder A7imntli Syclcln 46 Pla1l)rrn Misalignment 4 X Qu;~tcrliio~i Rcprcsc~ltatioti C'oordi~~;ltc ill T~;~nsfornii~~il,ns 51 The i:nivers;~l Transverse Mcrc;~tc)r( i r i i l Rcl'crcncc Systclii OX 26.1 [!.I'M (;Iid Zone Llcscriplioii 69 26.2 The l l T M I:qualioii\ 74 2 6 . 3 C'omputalion 1 1 C'(>~i\.crgcncc7" 1 Kolatlon Vecto~ 70 I<ekrciiccs X2
3 Inertial Sensors
3.1 Introduction 83 3.2 Thc K i n g Laser G ~ I  o 84 3.2.1 inlroductiolr 84 3.2.2 L.:lser G y r o lund;~nrentals Xh 3.2.3 Thcorctical Background X7 3.3 The R i n g I.;lscr G y r o l'rinciple 101 3.3.1 l.aser ( i y r o Error Sourccs 107 3.3.2 Multioscillatot R i n g Lascr Gyros 113 33.3 Altcrnalc RLCi Ilesigns: Passive Lnsrr Ciyrirs 3.4 FiberOptic (iyros 118 1.5 The R i n g Laser G ) r o Error Model I23 3.C Conclusion 130 Kel>renccs 1 2
117
4 Kinematic Compensation Equations
4.1 Introduction 135 4.2 Rotating Cooldin;ltc\; ( i c n c r i ~ lKclativc M o t i o n Ecluatii?~is 137 4.3 (icncral Nacigati(111E q l ~ ; l t i o l ~ c 140
4.4 Standard Mechanization Equations 155 4.4.1 LatitudeLongitude Mechanization 157 4.4.2 Wander Azimuth Mechanization 161 4.4.3 SpaceStabilized Mechanization 187 4.5 The Vertical Channel 197 4.5.1 Physics of the Atmosphere 199 4.5.2 The Central Air Data Computer (CADC) 4.5.3 Vertical Channel Damping 209 4.5.4 Altitude Divergence 223 4.5.5 Altitude Calibration 227 References 227
205
5: Error Analysis
5.1 lntroduction 229 5.2 Development of the Basic INS System Error Equations 5.3 General INS Error Equations 241 5.3.1 Position Error Equations 242 5.3.2 Velocity Error Equations 245 5.3.3 Attitude Error Equations 249 References 268 231
6 Externally Aided Inertial Navigation Systems
6.1 lntroduction 269 6.2 Navaid Sensor Subsystems 272 6.2.1 Radar 274 6.2.2 Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) 277 6.2.3 Long Raqge Navigation (Loran) 281 6.2.4 Omega 290 6.2.5 The NavstarGlobal Positioning System (GPS) 296 6.2.6 VeryHighFrequency Omnidirectional Ranging (VOR) 337 6.2.7 Distance Measurement Equipment (DME) 339 6.2.8 VOR/TACAN (VORTAC) 341 6.2.9 Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Relative Navigation (RelNav) 341 6.2.10 Visual Flyover 345 6.2.11 ForwardLooking Infrared (FLIR) Updates 346 (TERCOM) 348 6.2.12 Terrain Contour Match~ng 6.2.13 Star Sightings 357 6.2.14 Doppler Radar 360 6.2.1 5 Indicated Airspeed (IAS) 366
6.2.16 EMLog or Spccdlog 6.3 The Updating Proccss 369 References 373
368
7 Steering,
Special Navigation Systems, and Modern Avionics Systems
7.1 Introduction 375 7.2 Steering 376 7.2.1 Grcat Circle Steering 385 7.2.2 RhumbLine Navigation 399 7.3 Special Navigation Systems 406 7.3.1 DeadReckoning Navigation 406 7.3.2 Area Navigation 413 7.3.3 AttitudeandHeading Reference Systems 415 7.3.4 Electronic Combat Systcms and Tcchniqucs 422 7.4 Modern Avionics Systems 423 74.1 Flight lnstrumcnts and Displays 424 References 441
Appendix A: System Performance Criteria
A.I Circular Error Probablc 443 A.2 Spherical Error Probable 452 A 3 Radial Positio~iError 453 Rcfcrcnccs 456
Appendix B: The World Geodetic System
B. 1 Summary of Sclectcd Formulas Reference 460
459
Preface
The purpose of an inertial navigation and guidance system is to determine the geographical position of a vehicle (e.g., aircraft, spacecraft, ship, missile, or helicopter) and to guide the vehicle from one point to another. The basic difference between inertial navigation and other guidance systems, such as radar, sonar, and artificial satellites, is that inertial navigation is completely selfcontained and independent of the environment. By selfcontained we mean that the system measurement, correctional, and computational elements are an integral part of the system. Thus, the system is free of external influences such as weather, magnetic disturbances, electronic jamming, and distortion. Specifically, this freedom from external influences is achieved by utilizing precision gyroscopes and accelerometers to sense all motion of the vehicle, both linear and rotational, and by combining and operating on the accelerometer outputs with an onboard computer to determine velocity, position, attitude, and correctional data. This information is then delivered to a variety of electromechanical devices in the vehicle to accomplish changes in the vehicle's velocity, position, and attitude. For instance, each time an aircraft changes speed or the direction of flight, it experiences acceleration of some magnitude and in some direction. The function of the accelerometers is to sense and measure the specific force and to produce an acceleration signal for use by the onboard navigation computer. Consequently, the different values of accelerations are integrated with time to produce a continuously corrected velocity signal. The computer also processes the velocity signal to obtain earth reference information, distance traveled, and position data.
Many exccllznl texts have been written o n the subject ofincrtial navigasystems. This hook has cvolved from classroom Icctulc tion a n d guid;~ncc notes ( a s d o most tcxts) of a series of graduatc courses on inertial navigation systcms given by the author a t the Air Force Institute ofTechnolopy I A F I T ) . Department of Electrical a n d Computer Engineering. In the course o f this teaching. I have tried t o get a feeling of what students d o and d o not know and to incorporate improvements suggested hy Inany collcagucs a[ A F I T and in industry. In galhering material 1 have drawn on many sources, hut the organization and method of presentation arc my own. 1 have added original malerial, from my ninny ycars of experience (both in industry and government) in the field of inertial navigation and puidancc. and many ncw o r revised illustrations and plots. The largest amount of space is devoted to topics that I believe will he useful to most readers o r tliat are not adequately o r clearly treated elsewhere in the technical literalure. In this book I have tricd t o present a balanced combination of theory and uptodate pr;lctice and application. Above all. my intent is to serve n broad spectrum of uscis, from ser~iorundergraduate o r graduate students to experienced engineers and avionics systems specialists in industry. the airlines. and government. The book is organized into seven chapters and two appendices. Chapter I is a n introduction L inertial navigation. emphasizing rundaniental cono cepls and ideas while a t the same time motivating the reader to study thcsc systcms. Chapter 2 considers the various coordinate systems and transformations that arc necessary in the design and analysis of inertial navigation systems. In particular, this chapter discusses such coordinate systems a s the inertial frame, navigation frame, body frame, Eulel's angles, coordinate transformations, platforni misalignment. quatcrnions. thc universal transvcrsc mercator ( U T M ) grid reference system, and the rotation vector concept. Chitpter 3, titled "Inertial Sensors," briefly covers the theory and physics of the ring lascr gyro, the fiberoptic gyro, and thc ring laser gyro error model. T h e conventional inertial sensors (e.g.. spinning mass gyroscopes a n d accelerometers) have been omitted since the literature is replete with discussions of these sensors. Chaptcr 4 presents the basic kinematic equations, which li>rni the heart of all inertial navigation syslems. The a t t m tion here is focused on the general navigation cquations, standard niechaniratioli equations. wanderazimuth and spacestable niechaniriltion. a discussion of the vertical channel, and iiltitude divergencc. Chaptcr 5 may be considered a s a nalural extension of Chapter 4, dealing with the error analysis of inertial systcms. Chapter 6 dcals with externally aided i~icrtial navigation systems. The navigation aids ( o r navaids) considered here are the following: radar, TACAN. Loran, Omega, the N a v s t a r G P S system, VOR and DME. terrain contour matching ITERCOM). the joint tactical inform>!tion distribution system (JTIDSI, Doppler radar. EMLog, and star trackers. All these navaids ;Ire treated in soriie detail. In the last chapter. Chapter 7.
Karin. Dr. To Professor Cornelius T. San Luis Obispo. I am indebted for the many valuable suggestions in the content and organization of the text. and Dr. Finally. Also. and modern cockpit flight instruments. I would like to thank Dr. area navigation. the author expresses his appreciation for their unfailing cooperation and for the high standards that they have set and maintained. Of particular importance here are great circle and rhumbline navigation. in particular Messrs. Department of Aeronautical Engineering. for reading the manuscript and making many invaluable suggestions and corrections.the reader will find useful information on steering. In every instance. Biezad. Fort Worth. and its values. D'Azzo. Daniel J. while Appendix B summarizes the world geodetic system (WGS). Brian D. California Polytechnic State University. San Diego. It is a pleasure for the author to acknowledge his many colleagues and students who throughout the years have contributed directly or indirectly to this work. the author has received encouragement and complete cooperation. Andrea. deadreckoning navigation. a computer program listing is provided to facilitate the engineer's analysis of his or her particular system design. for giving me the opportunity to be associated with this fine institution of higher learning. and their daughter. References are provided at the end of each chapter. Head. and modern avionics systems. Where necessary. Brumback of General Dynamics Corporation. special navigation systems. Associate Professor. The hook concludes with two appendices. Randall N. hut perhaps most importantly. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Dean Irey and William LaDue. . In particular. its parameters. Paschall. the author wishes to acknowledge an invaluable debt of time to his supportive wife. Appendix A provides the reader with methods of evaluating system performance. Texas. To the editorial staff of Academic Press. I am grateful to Professor John J. Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at AFIT. Their patience throughout this endeavor is deeply appreciated. and for the friendship and encouragement that he provided me in all these years. Leondes of the University of California. Air Force Institute of Technology.
e. present position). or altitudes. the solution to the navigation problem requires greater and greater accuracy. In essence. Seen from a broad viewpoint. in celestial navigation the I observation consisted of the navigator measuring the star altitude with a ' " 'sextant. (2) How fast am I going? (i. With the advent of faster and more advanced aircraft. and (3) pilotinglandmarks or beacons and the visual pattern on the earth's surface are used. as for taking a ship into port. then. A vertical reference must be available for measuring the altitude.e. velocity). In order to calculate course and distance for the next leg of the trip. the solution to the navigation problem can be resolved by considering the following questions: (1) Where am I? (i. or by continuous computation of northsouth and eastwest components from heading and speed of the vehicle. three basically independent types of navigation exist: (1) Celestialpresent position is computed by measuring the elevation angles. Historically.. a time reference is required to correlate the observations with known information about the star. and since the earth rotates. going "from here to there" is the overall role of navigation. Celestial navigation supplements conventional dead reckoning by providing an accurate "fix" periodically to bring the dead reckoning up to date.. Traditionally. (2) dead reckoningcourse and distance traveled from the point of departure are maintained by plotting on a chart.'  The navigation problem has existed since humans fist began to travel. the navigator must d e t e r m m e present position either p e r i o ~ ~ t i n u ~ u s l ~ . (3) In which direction is my destination? . Navigation may be considered as the art of directing the movement of a vehicle from one place on the earth (or space) to another. of stars and noting the time of observation.
and arc capablc of operating for extended periods of time and in all weather conditions. the widening scope of INS applications has frequently resulted in the integration of pure inertial systems with additional nonincrtial navigation equipment o r sensors. such as gyroscope drift rates and accelelon~eter errors. position. the velocity. ~ a given point in time. these system error sources drivc the system errors.ing visual landmarks. These systems. and attitude.cfion (i. on the other hand. overcomes these difficulties. However.ition. and attitude of the carrying vcliicle in a convcnicnt coordinate systcni.e.e. Today. in aircraft o r ships operating over extended periods of time.e. and attitude errors. gyroscopes and ac6eleronieters) inaccuracies. As a Iesult. dircction. since it does not require any external device o r signal in order ti) computc solutions to the navigation problem.192 m (40. Thus. position. ground speed. dislancetogo (rcmaining)]. the inertial navigation system is provided with auxiliary information from noninertial external sensors (. Loran. are not exact for a number of reasons. in ordcr to avoid this system error growth. arc susceptible to wcather conditions and electromagnetic intcrfcrcnce. T h c primary rcason is the presence of inertial sensor (i. An incrtial riavigation system ( I N S ) . distancetogo. t but are predictable from an estimatc . the navigation system crrors become excessive for the majority of missions. Inertial navigation systcn~s have undergone a rcmarkablc evolution since the 1940s and early 1950s. and Omegil. the inertial navigation systcm is used tor a precise reference on a continuous basis with cxternal data being uscd to periodically update the system.. l h a t is. through selfcontained equipment. ineltial navigation systems are selfcont. autonomous) and are among the most accurate systems in the field of instrumentation. As nicntioncd above. Specifically. however.. INS errors grow with time in the socalled free inertial mode.rlso known .. progressing from simple deadreckot~ingend celestial methods to modern sophisticated tecliniqucs such as the glohal positioning system. and relative braring to the destination. however. stellar inertial.~ined(i.~vcragcvclocityinform.. The n purpose of a n inertial ~ ~ a v i g a t i osystem is tliercfore to provide. today's aircrali. causing unbounded velocity. Radio and radar navigation systems are uselhl ibr providing position. true heading. navigation was mainly accomplished using cclcstial tixes o r by Sollou. relative bearing): and (4) How far is i t 111 my destination? [LC.2 CHAPTER 1  lnfrod~. Within a short period of time. lowallitudc. require sornc other means of navigation. The requirement for aircraft inertial navigation systems with longrange flights and global capability has become commonplace for both commercial and military applications. llying at altitudcs in cxccss of 12. Doppler radar. Traditionally. The INS provides instantaneous outputs of present position. Another important rcason is the error due to gravity modeling. and . Consequcntly. thc earliest aircraft wcrc lowspccd. The system outputs o f velocity. position.000 ti) and a l speeds over Mach 2. fairweather vehicles.
a digital processor. the more accurate the navigation performance will be. and navigation algorithms.. Omega. Generally. and generates attitude error signals used to control the vehicle. Therefore. Modern inertial navigation systems for aircraft. with system performance being directly related to the ability of the gyroscope to provide a precision inertial reference frame. in which to reference the accelerometers used to measure the forces acting on the carrying vehicle. the errors in the noninertial sensors do not increase with time. velocity. marine applications. since the navigation system is dependent on its initial inputs (or initial conditions). or establishes a reference frame which precesses from the inertial frame at a known rate. The gyroscope input axes establish a coordinate frame on the platform. the typical stable platform consists of three singledegreeoffreedom gyroscopes. provides velocity. These gyroscopes detect . and velocity are required for the navigation system to determine the future orientation. initial position. Loran. and their associated electronics. accelerometers measure the components of specific force (acceleration plus gravity) in a reference frame defined by the gyroscopes. or two 2degreeoffreedomgyroscopes. and navigation satellites. which. In general. redundant) sensors and the mixing of information from these sensors with the INS information in order to obtain the combination of shortterm accuracy of the inertial instruments and the longterm accuracy of noninertial (NAVAID) sensors. or position. A priori knowledge of the gravitational field allows the navigator to deduce the kinematic inertial acceleration. helicopters. Thus. The initial orientation of the reference coordinate frame. the onboard navigation digital computer converts the incremental accelerometer outputs into actual velocity and position. system errors can be bounded and reduced by use of (1) highquality inertial sensors. Furthermore. Gimbaled inertial navigation systems use a stable platform with three or more gimbals. it follows that the more accurately the present position coordinates and heading are known and inserted in the onhoard navigation computer. as the vehicle moves from an initial position A to a position B. inertial navigation systems have the ability to maintain a reference frame in which the combined effects of inertial acceleration and gravity are resolved. A second integration determines the position of the vehicle. maintains a set of steering laws. More specifically. Moreover. when integrated once. which is kept either nonrotating with respect to an inertial frame. In essence. The gyroscope remains the heart of an inertial navigation system. missiles.Introduction 3 as NAVAIDs). and spacecraft applications consist of an inertial measurement unit (IMU). the accuracy of any inertial navigation system depends on how well the system is preconditioned and aligned. and (3) noninertial (i. such as Doppler radar. three linear accelerometers. star trackers. (2) a good gravity model.e. The modern concept of inertial navigation and guidance systems has been made possible by the development of the precision gyroscope.
the availability of multiple competitive sources. Thus. Smart and hrilliant weapons* systems currently being developed require new computer architectures in order to provide robust and efficient computing capability for use with nextgeneration languages. In the nottoodistant future. also tend to increase rapidly with technological advancements. human interface. In the field of communications. except at the mechanical gimbal resonant frequencies (typically 100 to 200 H7). The gimbals isolate the stable platform from vehicle rotations and tend to damp the vibrational environment to which the inertial sensors are exposed. If desired. Artificialintelligence techniques promise to aid this task considerably. an earthfixed reference frame can be maintained by providing either a bias signal to the gyroscope torque generators to maintain a known precession rate of the stable platform with respect to the inertial frame or additional gimbaled freedom to maintain both the inertial and earthfixed frames simultaneously. and Function) was initiated in response to Congressional casking in order to reduce the prolifcration of 'tor exarnplc. Furthermore. In thc mid1970s. Computer processing power and throughput has increased with every generation of equipment. and navigation information can easily be generated by performing computations in the instrumented coordinate frame. regardless of the vehicle orientation. Cost savings from a single procurement specification. Innoduction any angular deviation of the platform with respect to inertial space. and the advantages of volume production. Standardization of avionics subsystems between thc military serviccs has been the goal of the Departmcnt of Defense (DoD). computer. Strategic Oelcnsc Initiative ISIII) weapons systrrns . Furthermore. Commercial airlines standardize for the same reasons. and maintenance are obvious and have long been recognized. the vehicle orientation with respect to that coordinate frame can be determined by observing the angles formed between the various gimbals. embedded computers will provide vital intelligence for military weapons systems. navigation. The gyroscopc outputs are used to drive the gimbal torque motors in such a way as to maintain the platform in alignment with the inertial coordinate frame. the USAF Standardization Program (Form. these new weapons systems must have the capability for dealing elrectively with the complexities and uncertainties of vast amounts of information in the real world. weapons.4 CHAPTER 1 . logistics. the accelerometer outputs arc coordinatized in that frame. and intelligence. A gimbal readout system therefore gives the vehicle attitude with respect to the desired reference frame. The complete inertial measurement unit is generally mounted on a navigation base that further isolates vibrational inputs from the inertial sensors. f i r . electronic warfare. it is safe to say that requirements between elements of a system including the sensors. Standardization of inertial navigation systems is another important arca that is often addressed.
namely. 7 ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT The material of the book is divided into seven chapters and two appendices. flexibility. the idea behind the standardization was to improve reliability and reduce the acquisition and life cycle of inertial navigation systems. and faulttolerant systems will also play an important role in the next generation of inertial navigation system design. Current generation of INSs are of high quality and performance. Appendix A discusses system performance criteria. Chapter 3 presents an indepth discussion of such stateoftheart inertial sensors as the ring laser and fiberoptic gyros. the vertical channel. the circular error probable. spherical error probable. and radial position error. Modem. cost of procurement. Therefore. Veryhighspeed integrated circuits (VHSICs). and weight. After a short introduction of basic concepts. These are important . better gravity models. is devoted to steering and special navigation systems such as area navigation and attitude and heading reference systems. volume. 1 . Chapter 2 is devoted to the various coordinate systems and coordinate transformations that are available to the inertial system designer. stateoftheart as well as future flight instruments are also discussed. The next generation of precision INS will undoubtedly be highly accurate and more reliable and also will have shorter reaction times and reduced LCC. and lifecycle cost (LCC) are some of the driving factors influencing this trend. typically better than 1 km/h circular error probable (CEP) rate.1. and deals with the error analysis of inertial systems. Organization of the Texf 5 system types and derive maximum benefit from such systems. In addition. This will come about by the use of highly accurate inertial sensors such as ring laser gyros and fiberoptic gyros. standard mechanization equations. Since the literature is replete with the theory and design of mechanical gyroscopes and accelerometers. Chapter 7. Chapter 6. The last chapter. Chapter 1 discusses inertial navigation and its evolution from a simple deadreckoning system. Error analysis is an integral part of any design and/or analysis process. power. as well as a discussion of quaternions and the Universal Transverse Mercator grid system. parallel processing. and efficient navigation error models and mechanization algorithms. Chapter 4 is concerned with the inertial system kinematic equations. and altitude divergence." treats indepth the various aids available in augmenting and thence improving the performance of inertial systems. maintainability and reliability. Among the topics treated in this chapter are rotating coordinates. their treatment has been omitted here.1. entitled "Externally Aided Inertial Navigation Systems. Chapter 5 may be considered as a natural extension of Chapter 4. the general navigation equations.
1r~tioduct.rlysis. .on concepts in assessing a n d / o r evaluating the inertial navigation systcm's pcrformance.6 CHAPTER 1 .arid some fillniliarity with modern conlrol and estimi~tiontheory. Finally. l'he mathematical background expected o l Lhc reildcr is a year course in calculus. as well a s those erlpayed in the thcory and conceptual studies of aircrxfi and missile avionic systems. vector and matrix . this book is intended for engineers w h o need to design and analyze modcrn avionics systems. ordinary dilkrcntial equations. Appendix B presents thc World Geodetic Systmi (WGS84) parameters.~n. Also. The treatment of this hook is lit the seniorunderg~ldui~tc o r tirstyear graduate lcvcl.
however.1. Expressing acceleration. and position as vector quantities allows the use of vector operations to express relationships between system variables. unless expressed with respect to some preselected reference coordinate system. longitude h. The choice of a coordinate system for a specific mechanization depends on many considerations.and Transformations 2. it becomes necessary to relate the solution to the moving earth. and attitude.. ease of implementation. in many inertial navigation systems latitude 6. For example. velocity. position. and initial velocity are therefore required for the navigation system in order to determine any future orientation. on the mission requirements. The initial orientation of the reference coordinate frame. This can he accomplished by first defining a convenient inertial coordinate system. Thus. with respect to the earth. initial position. velocity. The choice of the appropriate coordinate frame will depend. COORDINATE SYSTEMS Several reference coordinate systems (or frames) are available to the inertial navigation system designer for use in navigation computations of position. and navigation equation complexity. and consequently the system should be mechanized to yield these outputs directly. or velocity. For example. and then determining the motions of both the vehicle and the earth with respect to this reference frame. There are generally six fundamental coordinate frames of interest for . computer storage and speed. the definition of a suitable inertial coordinate system requires a knowledge of the motion of the earth. and altitude h are the desired outputs. when determining a vehicle's motion. These vectors have no meaning. to a large degree.
(5) body. z = lnenlal I. yn. Unless spccifically defincd to the contrary. 2.8 CHAPTER 2 . the relative oricntation of the axes. ze nie< Earth's axis of rotation Vehicle \ position ( \ Equatorial plane I x.ons expressing motion relative to some frame of reference: ( I ) lrue inertial. and ( 6 ) wandcr azimuth frames. Cartesian frames and differ in the location of the origin. righthanded. 21 * Eanh's reference elliDsoid Polaris 2. and thc rclative motion between the frames. ( 3 ) earthcentered earthfixed. The interrelationship between the various coorditlatc systcms is illustrated in Fig. (2) earthcentered inertial. or w . Thc characteris~icsand relationship of thesc coordinate fiames will now hc detincd. thesc coordinate frames are orthogonal. (4) navigation. yc. t = wanderazimuth (or computational frame) FIGURE 21 Coordinatel'ri~mcgeometry.. y.. E. xe. y. D or xn. zn = geograph~c navigational frame) (or xc.=earth flxed N. ye. . Coordlnare Systems and Transformat.
7. and his laws of motion to he valid when referred to such a reference frame.. (2) monthly rotation of the earthmoon system about its common mass or barycenter. axes that are fixed to the earth are not inertial axes per se.1. Newton's laws are also valid in Galilean frames (i. computations of specific force are performed in this frame. The true inertial frame consists of a set of mutually perpendicular axes that neither accelerate nor rotate with respect to inertial space. Newton assumed that there was a frame of reference whose absolute motion was zero. the "fixed stars"). The true inertial frame is not a practical reference frame.2. Since Newton's time. At the start of the navigation mode. controversies regarding the existence of such a reference frame of absolute zero motion led to the formulation of the theories of relativity for which Newtonian mechanics is a special case. because of the various modes of motion that the earth exhibits relative to the "fixed space. Newton considered such an inertial frame (fixed relative to the stars) to be one of absolute zero motion. the inertial frame appears to an earthfixed observer to be rotating at a rate that is the combination of the earth's rotational rate (0)and the earth's position about the sun (Julian Day). Furthermore. As the earth rotates and moves about the sun. and ( 5 ) irregularities in the polar precession (or nutation). (3) precession of the earth's polar axis about a line fixed in space.e. However. axis typically defined toward a star and the z. axis is aligned with the earth's spin axis.. they too are impractical for use as practical reference frames. it is used only for visualization of other reference frames. EarthCentered Inertial (ECI) Frame ( i ) This basic frame has its origin at the earth's center of mass and is nonrotating relative to the inertial space (i. the x. True Inertial Frame (1) The true inertial frame is the only reference frame in which Newton's laws of motion are valid.7.y. This is a larger class than one whose absolute motion is zero. Theoretically. 2. axes of this frame lie in the earth's equatorial plane with the x.e." The most important of these noninertial influences are (1) daily rotation of the earth about its polar axis. The inertial frame is important in that Newton's laws are approximately correct in this frame. and that for vehicles navigating in the vicinity of the earth. those that do not rotate with respect to one another and which are uniformly translating in space). .2. Coordinate Svstems 9 2. this frame accelerates with respect to inertial space since it moves with the earth. it is also called earthcentered inertial (ECI) frame. (4) motion of the sun with respect to the galaxy. For this reason. however.1. It should he pointed out that this frame does not rotate with the earth.
1.axis down ( o r up) depending on tlic coordinate convention the system designer selects. where thc stable platform is constrained with two axes in the horizo~ital plane.~l li.. The body axis is typically used in strapdown ( o r . and the :I.. ..1. . Typically.y. EarthCentered EarthFixed (ECEF) Frame (e) T h e carth frame (also known a s thegrol~mrrir.3. T h e rotation of the earth with respect to the ECI kame. mainly due to the error compensation simplifications of maintaining constant platform alignment to the gravity vector. 3 i .rirnc~). different ways o r mechanizations have been devised for avoiding the singularity occurring in the polar regions. axis pointing down (the yaw axis). Coordinate Systems and Traransforn.lmc. while the i y.1. In the past. axis directed through the . the s. like a 5 tts origin a t the earth's center of mass. 2. The 2. many lNSs havc hccn built using the locallevel mechanization. is about the same axis and in the same sense 21s the . the convention is to choose the xt. axis will point north.. As we shall see in Sectio~i2. Navigation Frame (n) Thc navigation frame (also called the geogruphir.  .10 CHAPTER 2 .ations 2. and coincides with the inertial frarlie once cvcry 24 h (actually once every sidereal day). 2. and the J axis is directed through 90 ' cast longitudc. the yh axis out 10 the right wing (the pitch axis)... which is %At. Greenwich Meridian (0 latitude. the.5. since the vchiclc equations of motion are normally written in the hodyaxes coordinate frame..^. It should be pointed out that the largest class of inertial navigation systems is the locallevel type. Each mechanization corresponds to a diffcrcnl platform azimuth control. axis pointing along the . This is a locallevel frame with its x. the earth.f). however. axes are in the equatorial plane with the x. longitudc. 'Some i~u$onrrkr to thc n. Historically.g. rotates with .# . axih east. . This frame. axis is directcd north along the polar axis.rrigi~tion fr:mm c s the "vch~clec a r r l e i l ' ucrt~c..3. axes in a plane tangcnt to the reference ellipsoid (see Appcndix B) and the r. O longitnde).iircrirI't's longitudinal axis (the roll axis). aircraft.4. axis pcrpcndicular to that cllipsoid.. ship) center of mass. This is a convenient coordinate systcm for developing the equations of motion of a vehicle. the early locallevel lNSs were of the northslaved type.fiunie)* has its origin a t the location of the inertial navigation systcm. Body Frame ( b ) This coordinate frame has its origin at the vehicle (e. In aircraft applications. and the r.~nalytic)systems.. but use of this conventional geographic set of axes leads to both hardware and computational dificulties in opcration at thc polar regions. the inertial frame.
this system instruments the local geographic frame.) locallevel geodetic wanderazimuth frame lie in a plane tangent to the local vertical. has its origin at the system's location. geographic longitude h. Moreover. and the wander angle a is defined to be positive west of true north and measured in the geodetic horizon plane.2. 2.) axes will be aligned with the (x. and altitude h. Pilots and/or navigators most readily interpret positional information in terms of geographic latitude 4. and wander angle are zero.1. It should be pointed out that in most work in inertial navigation an ellipsoidal (ellipsoid of revolution) earth is assumed. be zero). longitude. also known as the computational frame. this frame will be aligned with the navigational (or geographic) frame. Specifically. with the other two axes being perpendicular to the first. defining the level plane. 2. Coordinate Systems 11 2. such as a ship... The locallevel terrestrial navigation reference frame was defined as one having one axis along the radial direction. and (3) the altitude h above the reference ellipsoid measured along the normal passing through the point of interest (in case of a surface vehicle. this frame is maintained "locally level" and is defined with respect to the earth frame by three successive Eulerian (see Section 2. and is coincident with the origin of the navigation frame. the (x. Furthermore. we have chosen to define this coordinate frame since many of the presentday inertial navigation systems are mechanized in this frame. of course. the vertical axis is precessed at a rate which keeps the . which is normal to the reference ellipsoid. WanderAzimuth Frame ( c ) This coordinate frame is a special case of the navigation frame. y .) axes of the earthfixed frame. Latitude is defined to be positive in the northern hemisphere.. For example. in this mechanization the inertial navigation unit's (INU) platform axes are commanded into alignment with a righthanded. Furthermore. If the wander angle a is zero. Also.y.6.2. the precessional rate about the vertical axis. local northeastdown (NED) coordinate system. h will. . it will be noted that when the geodetic latitude. 2.1. (2) the geodetic latitude is positive north measured from the reference equatorial plane to the ellipsoidal surface passing through the point of interest (usually present position). Geodetic coordinates are earthfixed parameters which are defined in terns of the earth reference ellipsoid as follows: (1) the geodetic longitude is positive east of the Greenwich Meridian ( h = O"). ye.3) angle rotations (longitude h. in a conventional NED mechanization. a set of geodetic (or geographic) coordinates must be defined.measured in the reference equatorial plane. is dependent on the particular navigation equation implementation and/or mechanization. and wander angle a). The precessional rate of the locallevel frame about two level axes is completely defined by the requirement that these axes remain at all times horizontal. geodetic latitude 4. The horizontal axes of this (x. Therefore. Because of its importance..
Accelerometer Frame (a) This frame is a nonorthogonal frame defined by the input or sensitive axes of the instruments mounted on the inertial platform. 2. Accelerometer. in which case the required vertical precessional rate becomes infinitely large. with its orientation in space being fixed. the input axes of the gyroscopes) and has its origin at the system location (INS). while another designer may select a coordinate frame in which the . The selcclion of one frame over another depends on such factors as onboard navigation computer storage and throughput. we have a strapdown system. this reference coordinate frame is a function of the configuration and mechanization of the particular inertial navigator under design. In subsequent sections we will be using these coordinate frames interchangeably. this means that the north~castnavigator is limited to latitudes at which the allowable precessional rate of its vertical axis will not be exceeded and. 2. As a practical matter. (2) acceleromctcr. Still another operaticnal system uses a coordinate frame with the z axis pointing north. therefore.12 CHAPTER 2 . Coordinate Systems and Transformations two level axes pointing north and east at all times.7. whereas if the platform frame coincides with the inertial frame.1. The transformations relating the various coordinate systems will be considered in Section 2. orthogonal coordinate frame is defined by the input axes of inertial sensors (typically. if the platform frame coincides with the body frame. etc. In spite of this fact. and Gyroscope Frames In addition to the preceding coordinatc frames. as we shall see in Section 2. this leads to a problem if one of the earth's poles is traversed. However. mission requirements. Moreover. it is very important to note that there is no uniformity among inertial navigation system designers in choosing one coordinate frame over another. Platform. and the z axis up.Y axis points north. does not have an allearth navigation capability. this type of locallevel system has been used in a great number of inertial navigalion systems. .7. In fact. the three classical mechanizations of an inertial navigation system (INS) arc based on the platform frame coinciding with one of the fundamental coordinate frames discussed above. At this point.1.2.4.2.7.3. the y axis east. These frames are then defined as follows. and as mentioned in Section 2. 2. three more coordinatc frames are often used for measurements made by the inertial instruments with regard to the above defined frames: ( 1 ) platform. and (3) gyroscope frames. Platform Frame (p) This righthanded. we have a spacestable system. one designer might choose a locallevel navigation frame with the x axis pointing north. and the z axis pointing up. and the x axis up.7.1. For example. t h e y axis pointing east. the y axis west.1. For example.
p. say.2. This section is concerned with several methods of describing FIGURE 22 Definition of Cartesian and rigidbody reference frames. 22.XR. a Cartesian frame. COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS The description of the position and orientation of a rigid body with respect to a righthanded Cartesian reference frame. Gyroscope Frame (g) This frame. Y R .x r . whose unit vectors lXE. which obey the orthogonality and unit length constraints. p. say. to describe the orientation of the rigid body. Consequently. For this reason. I. is a nonorthogonal frame defined by the input or sensitive axes of the instruments mounted on the inertial platform. ZR). approach utilizes nine parameters. the following apply: (1) the position of the rigid body is defined by a 3 x 1 position vector (OROE) = [ p . Y E . threeparameter representations are popular in engineering because they minimize the dimensionality of the rigidbody control problem.2. lYE.. . At any instant of time. in order to describe the motion of a rigid body. 2. describe the axes of the rigidbody frame. {E} = {OE. Here we assume that OrOn s p x = p y = p z = 0 The rotation matrix .]T of the origin OE of the rigid body and (2) the orientation of the rigid body is defined by a 3 x 3 rotation matrix. is attached to it as illustrated in Fig.7. Since a rigid body possesses three rotational degrees of freedom. like the accelerometer frame. {R) = {OR. Coordinate Transformations 13 2. zE). is the subject of kinematics.2.3. three independent parameters are sufficient to characterize completely and unambiguously its orientation.1.
 the orien1. There arc scvcral rnethods to perform a rcquircd transformation. the cosinc of 0 can be deterniincd . resolved in one frame. The Direction Cosine Matrix ( D C M ) T h e direction cosinc lnatrix ( D C M ) is widely used in acrospacc applications. (4) 4 x 4 irlholic method of rotation and displacement. the transli>rnrati. arranged a s an orthogonal malrix.ition of .2. the most commonly employed nietlrod li>rgenerating the coordinate 1r. The dircction cosinc matrix and the quaternions arc classified a s fourparameter transformations. the orientatio~i of.14 CHAPTER 2 Coordinate Systems and Traransforrnat. it can he shown that the projcclion of two unit vectors i h simply a scalar Lrigollomctric i'unctic~n< ~ i ' t halrgle (1.must use morc than one coordinatc tiame.on itom orrc frame to another can he accomplished tlrrougli an intermediate frame o r frames.is tlrreeparameter transformations. T l ~ e transk~rmation coordinate of axcs is . the angle between two vcctc~rsr . while the Euler angles and the rotation vector arc classified . while the fi~urparametertranslbrmalions have n o such limitations. consider two unit vcctors 1: and I:'. ( 2 ) Euler angles.I rigid body in space. and ( 5 ) quatcrnions. to T h e Iransformation hetwcen the various coordinate systctns Gin he expressed in terms of the relative angular velocity hctwccn tlrcm.inother way. which are the direction cosincs of one coordinatc framc with respect to the other. ( 3 ) rolation vector. Specificillly. between these two vectors.er. Thih is done by calculating the vector dot products hetwcen thc axes.ons . into the same vector's components resolved into the othcr frame.. In order to demonstrate this f. Morco\.in important aspect of inerlial navigation systctns. The significance of the thrcc versus four parameters is that all known threep~ramctcr transformations contain singularitics at certain orientations. From vector analysis. and plays an inlportant role in thc design of irrertial navigation systems. coordinate frames are related to each other by coordinate transformations. Mathematically. As a result. the following arc iiolcwortlry: ( I ) direction cosinc matrix. 2. the transformation of coordinate axcs is a n important necessity in resolving angular positic~ns and angular ratcs frorn one coordinate syslc~n another.tct. Among these rncthods.. From trigonometry.insSormation matrix is based on the computation of dilcction cosincs hclwcen each axis of one frame and ever) xis of another one. it is necessary o r advantageous to use morc than one transformation. In certain applications. and r2 c:irr he obtained from Ihc following diagram. Thus e Specifically.1. which ]naps the three cc~niponcntsof a vector. This becomes necessary in view of thc fact that in many applications the inertial system designel. Stated .i righthanded Cartesian coolciinnte I'rarnc with reference to another one is characterized by the coordinatc transfor~nation matrix.
on r2. the projection of r2 on r. .. or the projection of r.2. Coordinate Transformations 15 from the projection of r2 on I. Using the former definition. Next. divided by the magnitude of r2.+ . the ndimensional vector x can be expressed as IlxIl = ( x ~ x ) ' ~ ~ = ( x : + x :. say. . is given by the expression and the angle between the two vectors is Note that any point in space can be located by the position vector I = [ x y z]". thus. while its magnitude Jr/ given by is Finally. the transformation matrix between two frames. .2. we note that the scalar measure of length (or metric) is called a Euclidean or quadratic norm. divided by the magnitude of I . frames a and b.
For example.3) o r a s indicated by Ecl. Mathematically. '= (2. In other words. also known as a rotorion inurri.1 ) c. Furthermore.)'r= ci. the orthogonality property of a matrix is satisfied by the identity (c. [:: :. An important propcrty of the DCM is ~et(C?)= =l (c'!:/ Also..I and . . (2. as before. . Z ) .represents the direction cosines of the bsystem axes with respect to the asystem axes..2.16 CHAPTER 2 Coordhate Sysrems and Transforrnat.2) Specifically. we can write this equation in a more compact form as R" = ("' hR" where. these two coordinate systcins are related by the equation [4] [[ = ci: I[ (2.!. the matrix C".ncnces Ilst.1). the direction cosinc vector in R from one frame into another. the transformation fiom the ' inertial (iframe) to the earthcentered earthtixed (eframe) can he denoted mathematically by the relation [9)* (2. the D C M projccts the vectc~rRh into thc asystem.: R =C R ' ' Therefore.~.!)~ ((. the former coordinate is in frame . z ) and (X. results in an array o f nine <iircction cosines i ~ follows: s c:= c. The matrix CL. 'Hrackeled numbers correspond to etltries in Kcli. <>: matrix C": lransiorms ( o r ]rotates) a where C': is a 3 x 3 directi~>n cosiiie matrix that transforms a mathematical vector coordinatized in the cframe to the equivalent vector coordinatized in the eframe. Each element C..ons . consider two points having orthogonal coordinates ( s . Y the latter in frame b. in order to illustrate the transformation from one coordinatc framc to another. the clcments of ('i: arc the direction cosines and R is any vector. may be regarded as a coordinate transformation matrix that contains the relative orielitation bctwcen the two coordinate frames. 1. of thc DCM represents the cosine of the angle o r a projcction between the ith axis of the ifianie and t h e j t h axis of the eframe. for orthogonal systems. rcspectivcly.
a 3 x 3 matrix of direction cosines. being R ~ I P can be expressed as . Distributing RT inside the brackets and using the scalar property of projections. Consider now the relative rotational motion of the two righthanded Cartesian coordinate . let a vector R coordinatized in the reference frame a be denoted R". This may be done by propagating C.2.b. ATB=BTA. each ith component of Itbbecomes Therefore. the entire vector Rb assembled from its components is which is Eq. each R T l a is the scalar component of the vector R j. Figure 23 illustrates the coordinatization of the vector R in the bframe 191. projected (dot product) along the ith aframe coordinate direction. z ) as follows [9]: . the ith component of Rb.2.] is.j = x .2. y. each element of C:= [C. Now we can relate the unit vectors 1: to the unit vectors 1 (i.which gives rise to the name direction cosine matrix. Finally. These two vectors can then be expressed as where for i=x. (2. The Direction Cosine Matrix Differential Equation In navigation and tracking systems. let another vector R coordinatized in the bframe be denoted Rb. as we have seen above. Thus.2. A similar analogy exists for the Rb vector in the bframe. the cosine of the angle between the unit vectors 1: and l. The DCM is. it is necessary to maintain knowledge of the orientation of a rigid body relative to inertial space. the projection of each aframe unit vector onto each unit vector of the bframe.1). To this end. Next. z. by definition. y. 2. Coordinate Transformations 17 Let us now consider the geometric interpretation of the direction cosine matrix for two coordinate frames a and b.
During the next instant o f t i m c AI. by definition. ('. F o r the general rotatloll of the bframe (body frame) with respect to the aframe (the inertial tiamc) a t an angular velocity w:'.. of frames a and b discussed in the previous section.velocity matrix. frame b rotatcs t o a new orientation such that the DCM a t r + At is givcn by C. thc timc rate of changc of ('t:(/) is given by The DCM differential equation is a nonhomogeneous.(t) vrctor. the a. the rclative oricntatio~lof these twu frames can be described by the direction cosine matrix differential equation.:(I). forced by the angular velocity vector w in its skew sytnmcfric matrix form O:h=Rj:h[~:b(~)].Thus. Thus.18 CHAPTER 2  Coordinate Svstems and Transformations FIGURE 23 ( ' o o i d ~ n a t i ~ a u o n vcctor R in thc biramc.and bframes are related via thc DCM.:(/+ A t ) . the direction cosine matrix dilrcrential equation is related 111 the angulal. and can hr . linear matrix ditferential equation. T h a t is. a t time I.
namely. which can be represented by nine scalar. Furthermore. Consequently. +(A) = O . + w:)'/~ Equation (2. matrix differential equation. (2. W2 The designation R:b denotes the angular velocity of the bframe relative to the aframe.5) is a linear. and [a. In general. linear. for thc t < th AT. firstorder expansion. Eq. The matrix C(t) can also be updated at time intervals AT. Equation (2. Coordinate Transformafions 19 expressed mathematically as 13.5) can be solved by assuming a solution of the form Utilizing the CaleyHamilton* theorem [6] to solve for the Cmatrix as an explicit time function." that is. . the nine scalar differential equations can be written in the form [9] where the second subscript is modulo 3 (if j+ 1> 3. using a Taylor series in the form (secondorder expansion) + C(th+AT) = {I+R(lk)AT+ [C12(th) +h(th)] AT2/2}C(th) Note that for a simple.where the initial conditions represent the initial orientation of the aframe with respect to the bframe. +O. the matrix C(tk)can be updated by the expression C ( I ~ + A T= { I + n ( c ) AT}C(I*) ) *The CaleyHornillon rheorem: Associated with a matrix A is a characteristic equation. coupled differential equations. 91 where the skewsymmetric form of 0:b= is denoted by w3IT=0:. we have where I = identity matrix 0 = (0: + 0.2. forced by the scalar components of the angular velocity vector db. 4.7) is an important equation used in strapdown inertial navigation systems. coordinatized in the hframe. The CaleyHamilton theorem states that "any square matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation. then j + 1 = j + 1 .2.3. this equation is easily integrated with the initial conditions Ct(tn). similarly for j+ 2).) = d e t [ h I A] = O .
2.y. In order to determine the orientation of the body itsell: we now introduce Eulcr's angles (I). r). however. It should be pointed out. llnforlunately. yr). 0.3. the heading (yaw) of an aircraft is displayed to the pilot on a heading indicator. In thc Eulerian representation. 24. yr) correspond to thc convcntional roll pitch yaw angles. such as the heading situation indicator (HSI).y +. while the pitch and roll of the aircraft arc indicalcd o n an attitude indicator. 0. .r. z) body axes relative to thc inertial ( X . A point on a rigid body can be defined in terms of body axes (. Z ) t~xcs. since therr is a n inlinitr sct o f choices. The Euler angles (I). that the Euler angles are not uniquely defined.\. For cxamplc. Y . there are no FIGURE 24 Body axes dctincd rclalivc to incrtial axcs hy lluler's i~nglcs 0.v. as depicted in Fig. such as the attitude direction indicator (AT)[). .20 CHAPTER 2 Coordinate Systems and Transformations 2. which are three independent quantities capable o f dclining the position of the (. a series of thrcc ordered righthanded rotations is needed to coalesce the reference frame with the rigidbody frame. Euler's Angles One of the most used methods ofspecifj~ing angular orientation of one the coordinate system with respect to another is the usc of thc thrcc Euler ilngles.
Y. 131 We next allow a second rotation to be made by rotating the ( X ' . Z") system is then given by Finally. the yaw or heading angle. the rotation order selected and/or defined must be used consistently. moves the ( X " . a different Euler angle representation is defined. that is. Y . Y'. Coordinate Transformations 21 standardized definitions of the Euler angles. the roll or bank angle. Z ) system to the ( x . Y'. Y. the third rotation about the X " axis by the angle 4. Z')axis system to the new ( X " .2. The rotation about Z of yr results in a new set of axes ( X ' . or equivalently a position vector. a rotation is made of the ( X . Z ) system about the Z axis through an angle yr. The coordinate transformation from the (X'. The . For a particular choice of Euler angles. That is. 2 ) axes. in the new system can be expressed in terms of the original coordinates by using the rotation matrix 17. With the (x. y. As stated above. 2 ' ) as shown below. z ) axes coinciding with the ( X . Y'. if the order of rotation is interchanged.2. The coordinates of a point. the position of the body axes can be arrived at by a series of three ordered righthanded rotations. when looking down the axis of rotation toward the origin. y. Y . This rotation and the subsequent rotations are made in the positive. z ) system. the pitch angle. Z ' ) system about the Y' axis by an angle 8. anticlockwise sense.
12) i.22 CHAPTER 2  .~lly i~lstil~niented a set of hy gimbal anglcs in an inertial platform. Thus = I cos O cos qr cos y. the 0. we will have the occasion to denote the mattlx [ C ] as simply ('1:.ill terms of the angles j. (yaw. [ B ] . 8 . Ranges for the Euler anglcs arc s + n 2 s t I s r r : 2 . c$ + +I[. 1 r) system. sin j . V l . cos 0 sin y cosy.] (2. where the matrix [('I is the product of [ D l . wc have chosen the notlttion [('I . In the sequcl.In all transformations. The total rotation matrix for expressing the components of a vector in the hody system in terms of the components o f a vector of the inertial system call be formed hy substitution of the above rotations. the orientation o f the body o r (A.ons transformation equations are z Z" C X". to represent this Eulcr angle translbrni.aiid [A] i i i that ordci. CCIS I J cosy! sin 0 cos 41 i sin y. Z ) system by the Euler angles brings that system to . We will now illustrate the various coordinate transformations and their chi~ractcristics. The orientation of the rigid hody is thus completely spccificd hy the thrcc roll pitch yam angles 4.I ~ls guide: the inertial navigation systeni designer must sclect the coordin.lte frames which . pitch. sin 0 sin cos 0 cos j . 8 . In other words. cos ++sin q! sin tl sin sin "in O cos j cos qf sin . llic vehicle will he assumed to be . I$. v.rid + Thc Fulcr angles can hc physic.Ire best suited to the particular mission. roll). Y. when performed in the order y ~ .~lionmatiix. I:iguie 25 depicts tlic natural progrcssion o f Lhc coordinatefrarnc t r a r i s l i ~ r r n a t i ~ ~This. x Consequently. Coord~nateSystems and Transformat. rotation of the ( X . sin tl sin + s i n v cob j .. is iiitended only as .
z n n n  c.a b Ci FIGURE 25 Transformation sequence. I .INERTIAL FRAME ECI (iFRAME) X i' Y. e EARTH CENTERED ) EARTH FIXED FRAME (e FRAME) Xe 8 Ye. . I 2.Y . = e n c p b Ci CeCnCcCp .c I 4BODY FRAME + (b FRAME) 4 XP'YP'ZP JI +  PLATFORM FRAME 4 (p . Ze  r: n NAVIGATIONAL FRAME (n FRAME) x ..FRAME) x .* c c c WANDERAZIMUTH FRAME (e FRAME)  4 .Y .
has cotnponcnts p i l l the x direction.12). the values o f iv.I. q i n the 1 direction. (2. in the bodytixed coordinate . 2. @ i sthc magnitude of rir thilt lies along the % axis ot the earthfixed coordiniite system. and (J arc changing \bit11 time. If we symholi7e the ~ the components of #jJ in the (. so the transf(~rnm. wc may write these cqu. we the r direction.z) system . The values of thc components of #jJ arc (0. body axes ( x . That is. to . 0 . the :~ltitudch will be taken to hc zero (/1=0). In order to express qf.4. just as thc DCM orientation vary with time when an input angular velocity vcctor is applied between the two reference frames. Transformation of Angular Velocities Frequently we need to exprcss the al~gularvelocities w . w about the . ihc Eoler angles.is I h c vcctor 6 is defined in the ( X ' Y ' Z ' ) system where its components have the \ralues (0. T h e angular velocily vector w. r) in terms of Eulcr angles y . system. Thus. Thcrcforc. .~tion tlic bodytixed coordinate system is 0). llsing Eq.\. it is desirable to express the time derivatives of the Euler 21ngles in terms of the components ol'the angular velocity of the bodyCxvd axes. (0.2. 0. transfi~r~nation equations are [I31 . and consider each derivative of an Euler :ingle a\ thc magnitode of thc angular vclocity vector in thc coordinate system in which the angle is dcfincd. 0 . iv). Since an aircrali normally has some rotational motion.~lions follows: . i r ~ ) . !'. and r in in terms of ( 1 1 . r ) . I / .76 CHAPTER 2 Coordinare Svstems and Transformattons located on thc surfice of the earth: that is.. 0. 9. .is ( i i ~$. i.
are the (x.17) 4 or from Eq.1 1) The components of each of the derivatives of the Euler angles must add vectorially along a given axis of the bodyfixed coordinate system to the components of w in that system since [6] . the components of in the ( X " Y r Z " ) system have the values (+.=0cos 4 ez= e sin 4 where A.. 0. so that we make the transformation as 4 4= b [I =[Dl 0 ] (X" (2. (2. Finally.O).O. z ) components of 0. 0.2.2. (2.10) and (2. y. 0. Coordinate Transformations 25 given by or using Eqs.11).=0 0..
we can write the earth rotation rale in vcctor fimn as [ I I ] where . b. Let i. thc earth rate vector will bc derived ibr a north east up coordinate I ' E I ~ The dzrivation will bc carried out with reference ~. which is the subject of Section 2. 1 a s thc pitch angle O . Eqs. 2. which if not solvcd would obviously severely limit thc usefulness of any gimbalcd inertial navigation system.5.76 CHAPTER 2 Coord~nare Svstems and Transformat. be unit vectors along Lhc (. F o r example. Furthermore.rk write In order to express $. 26.21) also reveal a scrious difficulty in the use of Euler angles for expressing orientations.become undefined because of the terms (cos 0 ) ' and tan 0. k . Earth Sidereal Rotation Rate In certain coordinatc transformatioris.ons I in any coordinate systcm. respectivcly. i is the longitude and $ is the geographic latitude.we may solve (2.2. tlie cart11 sidereal rotation rate i\ uscd in these transforinations as well a s in thc n~echai~ization r error) equations. (2.~pproaches 9 0 . Thcsc are very useful relationships. the roll rate and yaw rate I$. we m. j. yielding 6 in lcrrns of (11.j. since the equations o f rotational motion o f the aircrafl arc more simply expressed in the bodytixed coordinate system than in the earthfixed coordinatc system However.21) relate thc components of the angular velocity in the aircraft referencc system to the rates of change of the Euler angles. TI. L Fig. An alternativc method o f specifying angular position and angular velocity that avoids tlie gimballock problem is the quaternion representation. (o Because of its importance. y. o In Fig. This is the socalled gimballock problem. 26. and using detcrminants.201 <v(l:cosO)(y sin $ + r cos $1 Equations (2. Therefore. 6.I) axes.5.r.
the inertial coordinate frame (xi. is the earth's sidereal rotation rate.j+Qi..2.sin+. zi) has the xi axis pointing toward the true equinox* of date at time t o .2..09 s) [ l l ] .2. where Q!. the coordinates appear to rotate at a rate of 360" per sidereal day (23 h. and Qi. is the magnitude of the earth rate vector. = Q . and the yi axis completes the righthanded Cartesian orthogonal system. 56 min. . y e . EarthCentered Inertial (ECI) to EarthFixed (2.y. Therefore *The "true" place of a star is defined with the sun at the origin and with respect to the "true equator" and "true equinox" at the instant of observation. 2. The earthfixed coordinate frame (x. . 4. zi axis along the earth's rotational axis. .6. That is. the earth rate vector consists of two components (the third component being zero) as follows: R . Thus. At. c o s ~ . axis of 4.22) Origin Both coordinate frames have their respective origin at the center of the earth. Coordhate Transformations 27 qesin $ Y 0 FIGURE 26 Definition of coordinate frames. Orientation At the current time of interest t . k 2.) is related to the inertial frame by a single positive rotation about the zi.
IJTC' uses thc alonric second a s its timc ha=.~intainsa UTI time sc.+le." a n d AI is the timc of year in hours. . Ephemeris FIGURE 27 Earthccnlcred inertial r u e. and is adjusted in epoch so as to remain close to UT2 ( U T 2 is obtained from an empirical correction added to UT1 to take into account thc annual changes in speed of rotation). 27): 11. this displacement is varying slowly (polar precession and nutation) s o that i t can he considered constant over a period of days o r weekb. stiindardized by the Inter( national Astronomical Union.AI is known as thc "sidereal hour angle. (this transformation is illustr:ltcd in Fig.~ctly along the geocentric polar axis of the reference ellipsoid.$lcon. Coordinated Universal Time is lhc mean solar time determined from the rotation of the earth hy using astronomical observations and is referred to a s U T I .7R CHAPTER 2 .T). The tirst is the C o o r d I n u l n l (i~~iuer. In addition to thc sidereal timc. Coord. Since thc raw observations of time arc rcferred l o as UTO. Strictly speaking. France. tiowevcr. they must be colrccted for thc polal. T h e other time basc is the Ephc~neris 'Timc (F.nate Systems and Traosformauons and A t = r r . m. two other time bases arc defined.motion of the carth in order to obtain UTI. thr cilrth's spin axis of' datc does not lie cx. 1JTC forms the basis fbr civil timc in most countries and is commonly referred to a s Greenwich Mean Time ( G M T ) ..!rthlincd coordirialc transform.sul TIPIP U T C ) . The Bureau International d e L'Hcure (HIH) in Paris.
. is satisfied. the inertial axes are conveniently chosen so that the x. where n is an integer chosen so that 0 5 A 52. (2. this can be expressed as a.q Time is obtained from the orbital motion of any planet or satellite. the vector R. 27 it can be seen that the iframe is related to the eframe by the earth rate and the time of the year (Julian Day). 0 sin Q. 0 0 or rC=C:r'..At sin 4 At .2. .. the moon is generally used to determine ET because of its rapid orbital motion. the angle A by which the earthfixed geocentric axes are separated from the inertial axes depends only on the time that has elapsed from the vernal Equinox and the earth's rotation rate Mathematically. Coordinate Transformations 2. 2 .2. axis points along the vernal Equinox (equinoctial coordinates). The vernal Equinox is the point of intersection of the earth's equator and the plane of the earth's motlon through which the sun crosses the equator from south to north.. y .. the inertial coordinates can be obtained by solving Eq. This relationship is defined by the sidereal hour angle cos a. also called the "first point of Aries" and denoted by the symbol Y. In astronomical work. is expressed with respect to the ECEF frame as From Fig. At cos R Ar . Consequently. For most applications and to within sufficient accuracy. In practice.23) for the ( x i . In this case. ) vector and taking the transpose of the transformation matrix and .
.I with the exception that the angle A must be added to the ) longitude h.30 substituting A for CHAPTER 2 .#uig.J.y. earthfixcd coordinates of a point I'(s.~ril?lixedlo loc:lllevel rr. k =present longitude (at time t )  present geodetlc latitude . (2. Thus (2.= Earth's sidereal rotation rate vector FIGURE 28 t. he found from the geocentric latitude and longitudc frolr~the rclation .S.) ma!. y. $ n.re = R cos 4 cos 7..Kcos$sini.25) A similar expression can he written for the incrtial coordinates of point P(.24) The rectangular.tltonfiamcc.At in the argument. Coordinare Systems and Transformarrons  a. .
is realized by two rotations: one through the angle h about the z. axis. z . N=north). 2. Ct. zi) axes to the local vertical ( U E N ) is desired. axis through the angle Q From these transformations we obtain cos $ cos h cos Q sin h cos h or where x. up (or down) directions. the y.2. Orientation The navigation axes (x. Rotation about the z. E=east. the coordinate transformation from the inertial (xi.=E. 28). y.7. except that the longitude h must be replaced by A=Ri.yi. In certain applications. . This transformation is exactly the same as the transformation from the earthfixed to the local vertical navigation frame.2.=U. and the z. I .) are commonly aligned with the north. east.. N (U=up. y.2. This transformation. we will assume that the x . EarthFixed t o Navigation Origin System location (INS). Coordinate Transformations 31 2. For the present transformation. axis through the angle h 2. axis points east. Rotation about they. axis points north (see Fig. and the other through the angle Q about the ye axis.) where Q is the earth's sidereal rate and ho is the .f + ( h a.. axis points in the up direction.
1 r~ Wander Anglc ~ II I 1 . Order of rotation: ( 1 ) a positivc rott~tion E. axis pointing east.c rotation of . axis... i t $ sin j~ x cos u cus i st11 $ sin u bin 4 silt i  . The wander angle is taken to he positive west o f true north. thc sequence of rot. cos ir wS$]['] cos 4 c The wander angle ( a ) . Ovientation The wander azimuth frame i r . . ): of the earthfixed frame. (2) a ncgati\.it. I.r. That is.) lsonietirncs referred to .1 i. and the z. As an example. Therefore.. the longitude will he replaced by A. 01r c. EarthFixed to WanderAzimuth Origin PPoit of ii~tcrest. 21.2.ttions is shown below. the I.... longitude (1).in s i n o c o i i.. z .. I. ) axcs are aligned with ( \ . . sin n sin i cos ir sin $ cos i.sit. axis is perpendicular to the surf.i r ~ Longitude i i ~ ~ olr. the (Y. consider a N E U coordinate system similar to those illustrated in Figs.0.ons longitude at time I = O . axis pointing u degrees from north.ace of thc reference ellipsoid (if 11 = 0). When the latitude ( 4 ) . axis. of 4 about the displaced x. 26 and 28. The unit vector represcntation o f this local vertical coordinate system is as follows: 2.8. . . Latitude o . <I c u b o S i l l >. and longitude ( h )are determined .. : a s the computational k a m e ) has its r .> . The horizontal axcs . I. . in the ahovc transforniation. Lhe z axis rotates a t a rate of 360 ' pcr sidereal day.32 CHAPTER 2  . Referring to Fig. + coa i. . sin $C.. and ( 3 ) a positive rotation of u about the displaced z.. latitude ($). and wander angle ( a ) arc zero. cos o sin 4 \in 7 .. bout I . are displaced from the cast and north axcs by thc wandcr arigle 11.. Coordinate Systenls and 7raransformar. .I.
yaw or heading (w). and yaw axes. pitch (@). These axes correspond to the vehicle roll. pitch. 1yn sin a u.) (2.2./C. respectively. and the zb axis nominally pointing down. when the xb and yb axes are nominally in the horizontal plane. The xb axis points in the forward (longitudinal) direction. This transformation relates the northeastup (NEU) localvertical northpointing frame to the ideal locallevel wander azimuth frame.2.2. Body Frame to Navigation Frame Origin Aircraft center of mass.10. It is a positive. Orientation This transformation involves three successive singleaxis rotaand tions through the ordinary Euler angles of roll (+).9. singleaxis rotation about the vertical (U. 2.31) 2. z ) axis through the wander angle a. Navigation Frame to WanderAzimuth Frame Origin System location. Coordinate Transformations 33 in terms of the direction cosine elements as follows: a = tan'(C. which yield the aircraft attitude.1. Furthermore.2. the sign convention will be taken to be such that the roll angle is defined to be positive when the right + . 2" 2. The aircraft body axes are defined as follows. Orientation The axes of these two coordinate frames is shown in Fig. the yb axis points out the right wing.
N = .tiip. = D Therefore.. ~ n d n.ons wing dips below the horizontal planc. this figure shows the order o r rotation from the navigation axes to the body axes. where I:.. Roll angle is the negative of thc rotation about . axis pointing north..n. positive clockwise of looking down).34 CHAPTER 2  Coorrlrnare Systems and Traransformat. and the projectio~i thc body axis on the horizontal plane.. Also. In this transformation. the pitch angle fl is defined positive when the nosc of the aircraft is elevated above the horirontal plane.ilioo coordinates... one can go from the navigation coordinates t o tlre body Pitch Axis b Yaw Axis D z" FIGURE 29 t<uler ..e.rcr = . Heading is the anglc between r.\~.] .[ Roll Axis h . and the 2 .yh into the horizo~ltalplanc.*. it will be assumed that the navigation frame is defined by the local earth axes with thc x.angio and lhc~r relritionih~pshelween hod? .. axis down. = F : z. The direction cosine matrix linking the body ( o r aircraft) coordinates and the navigation coordinatcs will be denoted by (':. the y.rhthat would bring . With this arrangement of navigation coordinates. Pitch angle is the angle betwcen the body axis and the hody axis pri~jectionon the liorirontal plane.[::.. . wc have a righthanded north east d o w n (NED) system. iixis east. and the yaw ( o r heading) angle I is defined positive when the + I aircraft nose is rotating from north to east (i. 29. . The geometric configuration of the aircraft body axes is illustrated in Fig....
+sin+siny. These rotations are shown below. axis called y:. Coordinate Transformations . 0 c+=[.?6 coordinates by successive rotations of V.=[ ] cos 8 0 sin 8 0 1 0 sin 6 0 cos 0 X"n 'b(Roll) Y".. 0 3 .sin+cosy. about the down (D) or "2.2.2." (2) the second rotation is through the angle 8 about the displaced y. and (3) the third rotation is through the angle about the new x. c o s 4 s i n 8 + 1 (2. C. sin 4 sin 0 sin I+I + cos cos y.cos 0 sin + 4 si:+] sin 41 Then C : can be defined as follows: (yaw) cos 8 cos y. The order of rotation is as follows: (I) the first rotation is through the angle y. cosy.axis. axis. which is in the desired aircraft or : body (b) frame. '(Pitch) >(Roll) sin 0 cos e sin y.= sin y. axis called x axis. sin 4 cos 8 cos+sin6siny. sin+sin@cosycos4sinqf cos+sinOcosy.35) . v y . and 4. + [c0. 8.
. Now. synchroi.cosOcosy. As a rcsiilt.l.~tesystem (u.~llitudcicfcrcnce hitbed o n thc gyroacopc outpulh. i ~ ~ l r r o m e t ouipuii in a computationid ieferznce frao~c. I N S pl..L O S .~rdnitvlgiilioo computer keeps tr.~cko r ihc vchlclc's attiliidr a i t h rcspccl al ~. thc sliihlc platl.~hllsh. C . sin 0 cos yr+sin sill y... = [< c (. s i n fl C 2 . or a ~ i r s ~ l friimc iostc.35). one can go from the platfor~n rotatioil of these angles.rlly in thc cumputcr Thus.nuitlion tiurn the gymscopcs. since the origin of the aircraft body coordinate system coincides with the origin of the platform coordinalc: system.lmiltion dlrectl) Furthrrmore. Moreover.. :. b 2 C (1. C1. rcaul~ rcis.:can he obtained by taking thc transpose of C: a s follows: (("')I= C"  [c..? <'. a . the direction cosinc linking these two coordinate system is exactly the Cfi : same as the direction cosine ('I. . and y. Ihr usual girnhals. r d) cos 0 7 L o (.. lhc cornpurcr is ahlc l o provide thc coordinalu ll:~nshrmaliunl~ccessaryt o coordil~alirc the .\in cos 41 (. hasccl on inl). sin 11 sin ty icos 4 cos qr C'?>= sir1 c$ cos O ( .:] ('::(i 'l Consequently. ~ n dclcctri>njcc:~sroci. .~lrd t h ghmhalcd hyrlcma w arc eliminated. Lhe elemcnts of the new matrix C. I. From Eq. . and y. It should bc pointcd out that the Euler anglcs 4. thc direction cosine elements arc as fi>llows:  + + + + + + 'A ~ l r a p d " ~ ~ referred lo as 'a~~slylic"lINS iilllrls f)ool thc convsntional glmbalcd INS (also ~n lhat the irlerlial sensors ( i c .) whose oricntation is fixed in spacc. Thcrcfore. thc tri~nsformal~ondone is ar>alyiic. pitch. ~ i r c n ~ lship. ... <'. .rm vTtlir gimb:~lcdsystem ia rcplaccd by I ~ cO n ~ p u l e r o fi~ncltons:( I ) csl. 0 . cr Thilt is.in . sliprings. z. denote respectively roll. p i c k o n .36  CHAPTER 2  Coordjnate Systems and Transformat~orls This transformation is vcry important in strapdown* inertial navigation system error analyis.ovldes vehtcle iate inli.. frame to the body frame hy successive and yaw. 8.tblc plicltornl Murc l.id of oft rhr st. e) ~ p ~ ~ i l i s the lonbu. (. of the aircraft are rncssured by thc INS with respect to the platform coordin. and (2) Iranstorrn the accelerometer outputs m i 0 ihc rcfmmce compotalional frallle. 2 <'?? (. C.=sin sin 0 cos y c o s sin y C1?= sin d.?= cos sin 0 sin . A strilpdowr. . loiqorrs. to some prcaclccled rcrercncc hame. gyroscopes and accclcrornctsrs) arc mounted dirccll! onto thc host vehicle's ( c g .. the I N S output attiludc anglcs 4. (2.] C~'.? = c a s 0 sin C . if y.
2. these elements become sin(yr + a ) and cos(yr + a). sin $ cos 0 . The transformation from the body axes to the LOS is realized by two rotations as follows: (1) a positive (or clockwise) rotation of the x axis about the z b axis through the azimuth angle of . Here. if one desires the transformaton from the wanderazimuth frame to the body frame. respectively. in general. a transformation matrix will result that exactly describes the orientation of one coordinate frame with respect to another. We have seen that the Euler angle method is based on the use of one rotation about each of three axes in an ordered sequence. and yaw axes. Therefore. Thus C2. if the rotations are made in an ordered sequence. Then rLOS = c.sin yr tanyr== CI1 cos 0 cos yr cos yr . 2. cos $ cos 0 cos $ or 4 =tan' (2) Cz2 cos H sin yr . This transformation can he accomplished by considering an arbitrary vector.2. Body Frame t o Fixed LineofSight (LOS) Transformation Origin Vehicle center of mass. that is.OSrb . say. r .11. However. down. the yb axis out to the right. we note that the Euler angles can be obtained from c:. magnitude yr and (2) a positive rotation of the new yb axis through the elevation angle 8. Figure 210 illustrates this transformation. the sine and cosine terms of the C. the xb axis is directed along the aircraft or missile longitudinal axis.sin $ tan$== ci. form a set of orthogonal axes. Coordinate Transformations 37 By examining the direction cosine matrix. pitch. Orientation The orientation of the body or vehicle axes for this transformation is similar to the navigation body coordinate transformation. These axes correspond to the vehicle roll. and the z axis t .sin H cos H or H =tan' In the general case. the ensemble LOS vectors do not. rotation matrix must include the wander angle a .2.
38 CHAPTER 2 . Mcasuremcnts can also hc made in spherical coordinates a s follo~\.). I . For this particular application. 17.~nglc 0 = elcvation angle . The above transfbriuation is useful in determining the pointing angle error for.?f)) Performing the indicated operation.s (see Fig. wc can therefore wrile cos 0 coy 111 sin qr s i n 11 cos 111 sin 0 0 ]rh cos 0 where (rh)"'=(. R cos A cos 11. a radar l:lser sensor mounted on a stable platform o r forwardlooking infrarcd ( F L I R ) sensor. = R sin 0 where R z s l a n t rangc identified a s (he LOS ( o r horesight) to the target o r point in question 111 =azimuth . Coordinate  Systems arid Tra.>rdin. ~ sin0 0 cos O cos (1 sin w cos q i sin 0 sin y.I.\I. 21 1 will be of interest. sin qr 91 (?. s a y . r.  ?I.OS co. Fig. = R cos O sin yr .~tc i r i ~ n s f o n ~ ~ s t i o n .~. 211): . where the transformation matrix cos O 11 ('kVs sin 11 is given by 11 i cos 111 (1 ] [ s / .!sformarions \ t =b Unit Sphere (or Boresight) FIGURE 210 Bodyfired to I.
. pitch ( O ) .2. the real platform axes and sensor axes will coincide. Orientation As we shall discuss later. Doppler velocity is measured in aircraft body axis coordinates ( V H . a digital simulation program can be used to investigate the effects of sensor measurement and platform errors for either an aircraft or missile offset aim point. Coordinate Transformations 39 PLATFORM (or SENSOR ) FIGURE 211 Sensor measurement coordinate transformation. The LOS coordinates find extensive use when considering GPS satellite positions with respect to the user. These platform pointing errors must be considered in any sensitivity error analysis. 2. no errors will be present in the pointing direction of the LOS. it must be pointed out that platform misalignment errors will cause the object or target location to deviate or be displaced. and the Doppler vertical velocity Vv is measured up along the zbbody axis.12. and yaw or heading (v) into locallevel northeastup coordinates. the majority of aircraft use Doppler radar as a source for reference velocity.2. Following the transformation procedure given in Section 2.10.2. However. In the ideal case. Doppler Velocity Transformation from Aircraft Axes t o LocalLevel Axes Origin Aircraft center of mass. Specifically. The Doppler heading velocity VHis measured along the aircraft longitudinal or xbbody axis.VD. With the above equations. Doppler radar measurements are used to provide velocity damping for aircraft inertial navigation systems.2. Vv). These components are transformed through roll (+). the Doppler drift velocity VDis measured out the right wing or along the ybbody axis. That is.
Geodetic t o EarthCentered EarthFixed (ECEF) Coordinate Transformation Origin Ovientation Vehicle center of mass. polar axis.Z and 2. the p o s i t i o ~ ~ vclocity states are mechairired and in the earthcentered earthfixed framc.c')Rj t I 111 sin 4 K j .5. f 1Yattcningl 11 allitude above the rcfcrencc ellipsoid and normal to the s ~ r f a c e =geodetic latitude k = geodetic longitude  + Thos.13.' sin '4)' ' R. the cframe is defined as before. cos J1 cos 0 wherc I / is the altitude ratc.2. axis is 90' to the right o f t h e axis. and rhe y. = equatorial radius of the ret'erencr ellipsoid >:'=rcferellce ellipsoid eccentliciiy squared 1 . z. the geodetic coordinates are dcfined by the parameters A. Therefore.. thc transformalion from thc geodetic coordinates t o the ECEF coordini~lescan he competed as follows: A. + h ) cos d. where / I # 0. Both the . @. I. 2.thc radius ofcurvalure in the cast wesr direction = R c / ( 1 . while attitude is defined as the crror in the tranformation between the body frame ( b ) and the eframe. c o s 9 sin o sin + sin 4 . wliile in the ECEF Cartesian coordinate system the r axis is directed along the ellipsoidal . That is.oS .sin 4 sin u. + 11) C D \ J1 sill 7.40 we havc cos 0 cos w qf CHAPTER 2  Coordhate Systems and 7ransfarmafions sin d. = (R. As we havc x e n in Sections 2. its orisin is at the center of tile World Cicodetic System (WGS84) .][d V. :~nd/I.h'. I .r. axes are in the equatorial plane. in typical applications.x. forming a righthanded rotation. cos E.= (R. sin sin 0 \in rlr ices @ cos rp s i n J1 cos 0 + c o s 4 sin O cos y ..1 5 . coordinatized in the eframe. axis passes ihrough the Greenwich Meridian..cos I ) sin u. and t h e y . r . . sin 0 cos yr . = [( 1 . in the general case..'ol= Zf [whcre [I =scmimi~jor(equatorial) axis of the ellipsoid: h=semiminor (polar) axis of thc ellipsoid. In these applications. thc .
Efficient algorithms have been developed for the transformation between the various coordinate systems. Coodnate Frames for INS Mechanization 47 reference ellipsoid. which therefore rotates uniformly with a constant angular velocity relative to the inertial system. a derivation of the . the designer must define from the onset a coordinate system where the velocity and position integrations must he performed. axis aligned with the earth's angular velocity vector. weapon delivery). with its z. the level axes of the platform coordinate system will lie in a plane tangent to the local vertical at the position defined by the direction cosines and longitude. plane and the Greenwich Meridian. Three types of INS configurations are commonly employed. flight control. the particular INS coordinate frame selected will be used in the onboard navigation computer in order to keep track of the vehicle velocity. That is.3. Locallevel mechanization Northslaved (or northpointing) Unipolar Free azimuth Wander azimuth 2. (2) spacestable.g. and (3) strapdown mechanizations. onboard computer complexity. In the ideal case. COORDINATE FRAMES FOR INS MECHANIZATION In Section 2.. Most of the coordinate systems in use are of the locallevel type.3. Strapdown (gimballess or analytic) mechanization . Specifically.1 it was stated that. position. depending on the application: (I) locallevel. The inertial navigation system computations of velocity. and attitude may be performed in any of the above frames. 101. and attitude estimates. the navigation system equations can be mechanized in any of these frames. and they. The criteria for the selection of the particular frame will depend on worldwide navigation capability. terrestrial measurements are usually made with respect to a coordinate system fixed in the earth. For convenience. Computationally. As we shall see in Chapter 4.2. 2. the earthfixed Cartesian coordinate system is faster than either the inertial coordinates or locallevel coordinates [5. position. The word "fixed" is generally used with reference to terrestrial objects to denote invariable position relative to the surface of the earth at the location considered. the x axis points in the direction of the intersection of the equatorial . axis completes the righthand set. the representative coordinate configurations are listed as follows: 1. Spacestabilized mechanization 3. in designing an inertial navigation system. In what follows. and interface with other avionic subsystems (e.
iries are in order. a s we have seen in Section 2. latitudc and consists of two components as follows [Eq.. T h e origin of the system coincides with the vehicle as it moves on the surface of the earth. T h e angular velocity m of the geographic frame in inertial space is the sum of the angular velocity p of the geographic frame with respect to the rotating earth plus the angular velocity a.j+Q. Before the various locallevel systems are derived. ( 2 . The distinction between the various locallevel ~nechanization categories is in the azimuth torque rate. Thus.of the earth . 113. various loc~~llevel systems will bc given. T h e earth rate vector. Specifically..42 :":I"l mF] SPACE . These systerns maintain t w o of the accelerometer input axes in the hori7ontal plane.cosg. axis points north. in ordel. axis points east.STABLE STRAPDOWN NORTH SLAVED FREE AZIMUTH WANDER AZIMUTH CHAPTER 2  Coordinate Systems and Transformat. position will he expressed in terms of latitudc I$) and longitude (A)..ons F I F I G U R E 212 C'oordini~tc systcm mechani. the accclcrometer platform is required to align with the unit vectors of a locallevel coordinate frame.ifilions. where the x . the r. Locallevel systems are nor~nallyexpressed in the navigation frame. and measured with respect to an earthcentered inertial ( E C I ) reference frame.klr the platform to remain locally Icvel. is a function of. the horizontal gyroscopes on the platform must be driven with the components along their inpul axes of the dcsired inertial angular velocity.2. certain prelimin..5.=n. and the I. axis points up. and lhc advantages and disadvantages of using one system o r the other will he summarized. 2 2 ) l : Q.. Thcrefhrc.sin@ k Now considcr thc geographic (latitude longitude) coordinate system of Fig. Figure 212 illustrates the various coordinate system mechanizations.
2.3. Coordinate Frames for INS Mechanization
43
EARTH'S AXIS OF ROTATION
=I
,
. _      .
A
EQUATORIAL PLANE
FIGURE 213
Definition of coordinate frames.
with respect to inertial space and can be expressed as
WE=
PE
WN=~N+RN=PN+Q,COS$ wZ=pz+n,=pz+Q,sin+ Furthermore, the components of p are given by
where U N and uE are the north and east velocity components with respect to the earth; Rmand R, are the radii of curvature of the reference ellipsoid in the northsouth (or constant longitude) and eastwest (or constant latitude) directions, respectively; and h is the altitude above the reference ellipsoid. In most inertial navigation system applications, the radii of curvature of the earth reference ellipsoid are taken to be
44
CHAPTER 2
.
Coordinate Systems and Transformations
'Ivell where R, is the equdtorial radius of thc cart11 and E is the eccentricity _L' hy =':i I h2!(? ( U is the semimajnr axis of the reference ellipsoid and h is the semiminor axis). Now assume that, a s the vehicle moves ovcr the surface of the earth. Lhe platfbrm coordinate system diverges by a n angle u, called the ~rander unxli., from the geographic o r navigation frzune. That is, the platfc~rm coordinate systcm is described by a rotation about thc z axis o f the geographic frame. Specifically. the divergence rate <I is due to the verticdl components of ( I ) the earth's rotation and (2) vchicle motion. Therefore. the analysis of tire locallevel system considers only this vertical component of the earth ratc and vehicle motion. Now let w,, he the total angular velocity of the geographic coordinate systcm with respect to inertial space. In this system. we will assume that the r , axis points eilst, they, axis north, and the 2 , axis up. T h e d o r e , it can be shown that w,, is given hy
w,=it(~L+a,,)cosd,.i+();.+~,,)sin$k
(2.42)
where i, j. k are unit vectors long the (x,,je, directions. respectively. z . ) and O,, is thc earth's sidereal rotation ratie. From Eq. (2.42) i t is seen tliat the vertic;ll component of the geographic frame is w,
=
( hi a,,) sin
4
(2.431
wherc 4 is the geographic latitude and h is the longitude. As we have seen above, the wander angle (I is the amount that the platform framc has rotated frame. This rotation is described by tllc relation out of the gcogr;~phic
I , , = (.:Ig
wherc cosn
<;=[siSI
sinu c;(.
j
0
(2.44)
T h c ratc of change
tor a
is defined as f(~llows:
it = a):,, 
where w,, describes the motion of the pli)tfortn relativz to the geographic 1 coordinate system. Furthermore, the platform motion o, is equivalent to the commanded rate m., (u~,,=w,,). That is,, w,, results from the input torque applied t o the platform by the system. I t is the azimuth gyroscope cornmanded precession ratc. Consequently. the value of a):, deternmines which of thc four systems is being used. Having done the preliminary analysih, these four locallevel mechanizations will now he described.
2.3. Coordinate Frames for INS Mechanization
46
1
2.3. f . NorthSlaved System
The vertical platform axis of this system is torqued to maintain alignment with the geographic (navigation) axes. That is, the platform must stay aligned with the geographic axes. In order for this to be true, the wander angle a must he zero (i.e., no rotation out of the geographic axes) as the vehicle moves over the surface of the earth. Thus a=O=w,o, (2.45)
a,
Therefore,
= w,,
o,=n,,sin++isin+=(i+n,)
sin4
(2.46)
2.3.2. Unipolar System
In this system, the platform vertical axis is torqued to maintain the wander angle equal to the longitude angle. Therefore, the platform must he torqued to (I) cancel the precession caused by the earth rate and vehicle rate and (2) maintain the wander angle equal to the longitude. Mathematically, this is expressed as
where Therefore
The double sign indicates that the direction of the wander angle is reversed with respect to the longitude rate when crossing the equator. Specifically, above the equator, the negative sign is used. This is necessary in order to eliminate the sin8ularity at the North Pole (i.e., heading is undefined at the pole and/or the h sin term as mentioned in Section 2.3.4).
2.3.3. FreeAzimuth System
The vertical platform axis in this system is not torqued. That is, it is inertially nonrotating along the vertical or z axis, which in effect eliminates the torquing error associated with vertical gyroscope. Therefore, o,,=O. As a
46
CHAPTER 2
.
Coordinafe Systems and Transformstions
result, the platform axes then diverge in a7imuth from the geographic irxes in accordance with
and since
= 0,
thcn
T h e fhct that the vertical gyroscope is not torqued call be considered as an advantage, since normally the vertical gyroscope cxhihits pooler drift rate characteristics than either of the horiront;il gyroscopes. Freeazimuth coordinates would ordinarily hc used in ailcraft ine~tial navigation systems where high platform angular rates ahout tlic vertical tixis are required.
2.3.4. WanderAzimuth System
In the w a n d c r a r i m u t h system, the vcrtical pl;~ttbrm axis is torqued to compensate only tbr the vertical component ol'the earth rate
and not the vertical component of the aircraft transport rate. That is, no attempt is made to maintain Lllc level axcs in a preferred azimuth direction. such as north: the level axcs are allowed to rotate freely about the vertical axis. As is the case with all locallevel systcrns, the inertial platform is initially aligned by first driving it with torquers until the outputs of the twolcvcl . accelerometers are ~ e r oThis wncept will he discussed in more detail in thc section on alignment and gyrocornpassing. Thib system finds extensive use in many of today's aircraft navigation system ~nechaoizations.sincc n1, singularity exists a t the pole:
u==Q,, sin
4i
ni
. 4 sill
(2.52)
Thus
ri = A sin @
F o r cach of the tbur locallevcl n~echanizationsderived. the arimuth gyro commanded precession rate o,,and wander azimuth angle rate h are sutnmarired in Table 21 Table 22 lists the advantages of thesc locallrvel systems. and strapdown (analytic) Next, wc shall discuss briefly the sp~cestable coordinate configurations. In the spacestable configuration, the intertial platform maintains a constant orientation with respect to the inertial space. Moreover. in specestahlc systcrns, the p l a t h r m framc coincides with the inertial framc. Spacestable mechanizations. like locallevel mechanizations, are associated with spacestablc navigation. The primary input to thr space
2.3. Coordinate Frames for INS Mechanization
47
TABLE 21
LocalLevel Systems
Commanded
System Northslaved Unipolar Free azimuth Wander azimuth
was
Parametel
h
(n,. isin $ + ) (n.+i)sin+*i 0 R. sin O
0
*i
(ni.+i) sin $ h sin
+
stable navigation is sensed acceleration in inertial reference (spacestable) coordinates. That is, the velocity increment data when divided by the computation interval can be viewed as an equivalent average sensed acceleration. In this system, the Z axis is parallel to the earth's polar axis, while the Y axis is defined as being parallel to east at the start of navigation. This coordinate frame is used as the reference for the inertial integrations. Therefore, the resulting values of (X, Y, Z) are the coordinates of vehicle position relative to the center of the earth. The acceleration due to vehicle motion with respect to inertial space is integrated twice in inertial reference coordinates. Consequently, the output of the first integrator is inertial relative velocity, while the output of the second integrator yields position relative to the center of the earth in Cartesian coordinates. Standard position outputs, such as geodetic latitude and longitude, are derived by performing inverse trigonometric functions on the inertial Cartesian components. These angles are also used for the transformation, which relate the locallevel north coordinates to the inertial reference coordinates. We have noted earlier that inertial
TABLE 22
Mechanization Advantages

Northslaved Unipolar Free azimuth Wander azimuth
Latitude and longitude coordinates can be read directly from the platform azimuth gimbal Platform azimuth is maintained equal to longitude; can obtain azimuth and longitude with a single computation Needs no accurate torque electronics for the vertical or 1gyroscope No singularity at the poles; the coordinate transformations are simplified considerably
48
CHAPTER 2
.
Coord,nate Systems and Transformations
navigation depends on the integration of acceleration with rcspcct to a Newtonian relercnce frame. These conventional systems physiciilly maintain such ti reference frame by means of three o r more gimbals. In st]apdown configurations. the inertial sensors are mounted directly on the host vehicle so that the transformation rrom the sensor axes to the incrtial reference frame is computed rather then mechanized. Therefore. for 1 1 practical purposes, in a strapdown system thc platform Sramc coincides 11 with the hody frame. Consequently, the accelerometers rotate (with rcspect t o thc inertial space) in the same way a s the vehicle. We can summarize the results of Section 2.3 by noting that the largest el,ass of inertial navigation systems are of the locallcvel typc, wherc (he .. stahlc platform is constrained with two axes in the horizontal plane. Scveral Ihousands of incrtial navigation systems have been built ovcr the yciirs using locallevel mechanization because o f t h e crror compensation simplitications of nxaintaining constant platform alignment to the gravity vector. Historically, the tirst locallevel inertial navigation systems were of the northslaved typc, but as wc have seen earlicr, use of this conventional geographic set of axcs l a d s t o both hardware and con1put:itional difficulties whcn operating a t o r in the vicinity of the pol;tr rcgions. Naturally, ditiercnt designers havc devised ditfercnt ways of avoiding the si~~gularitics occurring in the polar regions. T h e distinction between the various categories discussed is in the azimuth torque rate. Moreover. different inertit11navigation systcm designers favor dilferent platform azimuth drive implemenvations. F o r example, the free azimuth requires n o accurate torque electronics for the =gyroscope. T h c wander azimuth design ( o r mechanization) eliminates variation of platform a7imulh with lime, simplitying the necessary coordinate tlansformations. T h c northslaved design is not used much. since ttlre h sin 6 term has singularities a t both the North and South Poles. Finally. the unipolar system design is computationally economic, as the platforlii azimuth is maintained equal 111 longitude (with a n arbitrary initial condition). and thus a single coniputation scrvfs Sor both azimuth and longitude drives. Mechaniration of the unipolar systcm is relatively simple. As a singularity in aziniuith rate still exists a t one pole. the direction of the azimuth drive with rcspect lo longitudc is reversed ;II the equator.
2.4. PLATFORM MISALIGNMENT
ManuFaclurin$ imperfections in mounting the accelerometer orthogonal triad onto a stable platform will inadvertently crcate axis misalignment. That is, the sensitive axes o f the accclcrometcr triad will not be perfectly aligned with the platforni axes. Platform o r instrument misalignment causes the ;iccelcrometers to sense :I specific force component due to gravity. This axis
2.4. Platform Mlsallgnmenr
49
FIGURE 214
Platformaccelerometer misalignment angles.
misalignment must be compensated mathematically. In order to get a physical insight into this misalignment, consider Fig. 214. Let the platform coordinates consist of an orthogonal triad defined by the unit vectors I,,, I,, I,,, and the accelerometer triad defined by the unit vectors I,., I,,, I,,. Since the misalignment angles are usually small, it will be assumed that sin 0 = 0 and cos 0 1. The order of rotation will be taken as follows:
=
1st rotation: rotate 0 about 1 , 2nd rotation: rotate $I about I,, 3rd rotation: rotate v about 1, Following the above rotation convention, we have
50
CHAPTER 2
.
Coordrnate Svstems and Transformatrons
Therefore, the malrix that relates the two triads can bc written ah (i~llows:
or in compact form
[i :I [," " ;$I [:I
=
(2.54)
0
1
I.,,
I,, = <':!I,,
(2.55)
In the case of interest. the tnisalignnient orientation matrix has main diagonal elements, which are near unity, and oftdiagonal elements, which are small compared with unity. This nieans that the two coordinate frames are in near coincidence. In general. transfbrrnation between two frames can he accomplished by use of the direction cosine matrix as indicated by Eq. (2.55). Now consider the transformation from the platform frame pinto the navigation frame n. Specifically, let (';: he the estimated direction cosinc matrix. This matrix, as we shall see later, is used by the incrtial navigation system to convert the specific force measurements from the platfbrm frame into the navigation frame. Since this direction cosine matrix is only an estimate, it contains crrors that manifest themsclvcs as attitude errors. Furthermore, since these misalignment crrors are usually small, they can be treated as vectors. That is, small angles can hc c~lnsidered;IS vectors 151. Therefore, the estimated direction cosinc matrix is related to the true direction cosine matrix (; by the equation [3] :
(,
?= ;
(I[,VIP";C;
(2.56)
where I is the unit matrix and [MI'"' is the skew symmetric ( o r antisymmetric) matrix given by [MI1'"=
[ r I.;:
(' M~ M ,
(2.57)
'%f>
which consists of six independent angles. The angles M,, M,, and M are, in in general. very small and arc dcfi~led a conventional manner; that is, they yr. will normally correspond to the angles 0, @, : ~ n d Equation (2.57) constitutes an orthogonal transform:ition, that is [P"] ' = (1.r= (." I P ,, t,~l[Ml""~ Therefore, the estimalcd ( o r computed) transformation errors caused hy (2.58)
(': will
contain
1. Initial misalignment. 2. Errors in the measured angles
6. 6. and
Q which include such errors as
2.5. Quaternion Re~resentationin Coordinate Transformations
51
synchro errors, analogtodigital converter noise, and platform orientation errors. 3. Elastic deformation of the aircraft such as bending and twisting. The matrix [MIPnconsists of the errors above listed. Equation (2.56) is also valid if the misalignment between the platform and inertial coordinate system is desired. In preprocessing of INS data, the accelerometerderived velocity increments must be compensated for bias, scale factor, and nonorthogonality calibration values and transformed to inertial reference coordinates. In aircraft applications using gimbaled inertial platforms, aircraft attitude is computed from inertial platform gimbal angle data. As we shall see later, a resolver mounted on each gimbal axis encodes the angular position of each gimbal about its respective axis. Calibration terms are normally applied to correct for resolver zero biases and inertial measurement unit (IMU) misalignments. As alignment corrections are applied to the platform during ground alignment, the crosscoupling effects due to the initial physical misalignments are reduced. Now consider the platformsensor arrangement discussed in Section 2.2.11 and illustrated in Fig. 21 1. To a firstorder approximation, the transformation from an ideal platform to the actual platform can be realized by X=RIcosOcos++E,sin8cos+E,sin+]p, Y = R[E=cos 8 cos
+ + sin 8 cos + + E x sin +]p,
Z = R[E, cos 8 cos  E, sin 9 cos +sin +]p,
where
+
+
AR, A@, A+ =sensor measurement error
E x , E, , Ex = platform pointing error p,, p,, p,= ideal platform unit vectors
2.5. QUA TERNION REPRESENTA ZION I N COORDINA 7E TRANSFORMATIONS
As mentioned in Section 2.2, the orientation of a righthanded Cartesian coordinate frame with reference to another one is characterized by the coordinate transformation matrix that maps the three components of a vector resolved in one frame into the same vector's components resolved into the other coordinate frame. The coordinate transformation matrix can be represented by three Euler angles or by a fourparameter quaternion. The Euler angles are a set of three rotations taken in a specified order to generate the desired orientation. The same orientation can be uniquely described by means of the nine direction cosines that exist between the unit vectors of the two frames. Whereas there is no redundancy in the Euler angle description,
since i.. in order to describe the inertial coordinate frame with respect to a body l'ramc. and multiplication of a quaternion by a scalar are done in the same manner as in vector algebra: . the sums of the squares of elements in a single row o r column equal unity). quaternion algebra includes scalar and vcctor algebra. Addition. a s a threedimensional vcctor That is. k ) forms a basis for a quaternion vector space. the coordinate framc rates must first be transformed froln carthreference coordinates to bodyaxes coordinates. A quaternion It)] is a quadruplc of ]real numbers. and the set ( I . Moreover. q3 arc real numbers. More specifically. In this section we will discuss the quatcrnion method and its associated algcbra. y. Thus. Coordrnate Systems and Transformaoons there a!e six constrailits on the directio~i cosi~ies (e. in certain applications it is morc etlicient t o propagate four quaternion parameters instead of nine direction cosines. i. which are in body axis coordinates. Specifically. subtraction. Essentially. The "inertial" rcSerencc frame in the strapdow~l computer must b c rotated a t appropriate rates in order to yield a n "earth" referencc frame in the computer. a set of three direction cosine elements is cniployed to deternminc the orientation of each inertial axis with respect lo the three axes of the body frame. written in a definite ordcr.g. 161 where yo. qi~aternionsspan the space of real a n d imaginary numbers and. a quaternion is a mcans of describing angular orientation with four parameters. k can serve as an orthogonal basis. the niinimum redundancy that removes the indeterminate points of threeparameter (Eulcr angles) descriptions. . Quatcrnion algebra is a n extension o f threedimensional algebra developed a s a "new kind of algebraic formalism" by Sir William Rowan Hamilton in 1843.52 CHAPTER 2 . Hamilton's quaternion is defined 21s a hypercomplex number of t h ~ .form [2. q .. the gyroscopes in a strapdown inertial navigation system measure angular increments of the vehicle body with respect to inertial spacc If it is desired to obtain thc attitude of thc vehicle with respect lo a n earthrefercnced coordinate frame. in order to ctTect a proper subtraction from the body angular increments. The quaternion is thc basis for all of the fourparameter transformations. I'hus. three to define the axis of rotation and the fourth to specify the amount of rotation. Because of the amount of computation involved with highcrorder intrgration methods. . For example. a rotation of one coordinate frame relativc to another can be expressed uniquely in terms of four parameters. and then calculate the matrix entries algebraically. j. a set of nine direction cosine elements is employed to specify the orientation of the three incrtial axes with rrspcct to the body framc. then thc angular increments that the reference coordinate frame makcs with respect to inertial space must be subtracted from the body angular increments. T h e quatcrnion will have its tensor equal to unity.j.
h[Ql=hqo + hqli + hq2j + hq3k Quaternion multiplication is defined by using the distributive law on the elements as in ordinary algebra..4252 .2. j . . that is. which satisfy the relationships i2_j2=k2=1 and by cyclic symmetry . the norm (or length) of a quaternion N ( Q ) is a scalar defined as the product of a quaternion and its conjugate. The bases i.. . Quafernion Re~resenfation Coordinate Transformations in 53 Addition The sum of two quaternions [Q]and [ S ] is as follows: Subtraction Quaternion subtraction is merely the addition of a negative quaternion : [Ql=(l)[Ql or IQI[Sl=Q+(l)S=(qoso.=ji=k Conjugate The conjugate [Ql* of a quaternion is defined as follows: Moreover.S q2~2.q3s3)+(q0s1 +qlsO +q2. Thus. [ Q ] [ S l + S ] [ Q ]Multiplication by a scalar h yields [ .y3q3s2)i + (qor2ql~3+q2so+q3~~)j + (qos. k are generalizations of fi. quaternion multiplication is not commutative. except that the order of the unit vectors must be preserved. Multiplication The product of two quaternions [Q]and [ S ]is [Ql[Sl= q 0 + q ~ i + q ~ j + q 3 k ) ( s ~ + s ~ i + s 2 j + ~ 3 k ) ( = (40~041s) . + q1~2 q2s1 In general. ~ I .5.63~3) I.
~ n d zero bectnr: 2. .ir .kternion is delined Thus ... ~ l s o write lQllQl 1dcntitie.] is a quaternion with zero sci11. .~r lization procedure used in conjunction with thc direction cosinr ~xop.v The equality of two qualcrnions ( Q l and [ S ] is defined u.lgations. Hence N ( Q S ) = NO).se NQ. By mathematical induction. the quatcrnioii paronictcrs satisfy a singlc constrztint ecluatio~l. Thus. Thc c o n straint equ. we can .s '[QI[QI*.itionally.~ Q I .)= IVQINQ.N ( S ) and conscqucntly. ([Q[[S]/ = [ Q ] 1 I [ S l I.I normalizing y:+q:)' k ~ c t o for each parameter.(Q][Q]*= N(Q) = [Q]*(Ql.'(V)=lQl '[QII I . thc product of 11 qualcrnion f i c t o r s is  N ( Q I Q 2 .IS any quaternin11 wliosc norm is 1 Since (here is a single redundancy in a foulparamctcr description of coordinate rotations.is opposed to sis for the direction cosines. Q. Convcntionelly. Coordinate Systems and Transformations Using the isomorpliism we havc [Q][Q]*:det(Q). The norm of the product of two qunternions is equal to the product of their norms. A i c r o quaternion [Q. Invcr.hcn ihcilscalars arc equal and thcir vectols are equal. so we have [Q][Q]*= N ( Q ) Similarly. Thus. [Q]*[Q] N(Q). (yi+yi+ ' can be used as . we obtain [Q] '[Q]*'N!Q) where N ( Q ) #O.~ ~1 Q I = Using thc norm concept. denoted hy N(Q). det(Q) is celled the rrornl. This is nnitlogous lo the periodic urthogon.I unit quatcr~iionthen is Comput. Equu1it.~tionon . ( Q ] IS] i f mid only if .54 CHAPTER 2 . 01. A unit qn..'?. then the inverse quaternion [Q] ' is defined as [ Q I ~ Q I . if[(I] i s n o t 7ero.
For example. we will discuss how the quaternions are used in coordinate transformations. Figure 215 depicts the spatial orientation of a quaternion. Consider Fig. k) as the orthogonal basis for the realvector space R 3 . the unit quaternion can now be defined in a similarity transformation in which a vector R in the inertial coordinate frame is transformed into the body frame as [2] Now consider {i. . As in the case of vectors. 216. Similarly. the quaternion that describes the rotation of coordinate system a into coordinate system b will be denoted by Q. any vector x = x l i +x2j+x3k in R 3 can be expressed in quaternion form with a zero scalar term. Furthermore. there are equivalence classes of quaternions. Y'. a quaternion [Q] represents a transformation [2] Let us now recapitulate some of the previous results. Quaternion Representation in Coordinate Transformations 55 From the preceding discussion.2.5. Z ) and b(X'. j. Z'). illustrating two arbitrary coordinate frames a(X. from our previous definition of a quaternion. Then. FIGURE 215 Spatial representation of the quaternion. Y.b. Next. any quaternion can be expressed as the sum of a scalar and a vector ([Q] = qo+ q).
% [ y ~ .~lion &xis ol "vcclol' ahout which svhlcm S?SLC"l it I\ iolitlcd III ordci l o coordiniilr u ~ l h I. Coordinate Systems and Transformatio.62) Pcrforming the indicated operation.Y[2q1y.61).~ Axis of rotation FIGURE 216 Kol..q.+Zr/.2r/.. wc have rrirjr/lkj(Xi+ ~+lk)(q. (Narc.y.+ q  +Z[?y.q.y ~ i+} y ] + k l. t 2 y l y ] t Z [ 2 y l y . wc can expand this equalion into P'= i ( ~ [ y ~ + ~ / i . k slatcd earlier.k)=p' Using the multiplicalivc rulcs of i. ) Similar to Fq.j.y ~ .56 CHAPTER 2 .: l f N ( Q ) = I . wc can write [QI*P[C?I =P' (2.rfi]) i.2q.]+ Y[2y. .i+q2j+r/.y0l + ~[r/:q.li +i (.?yoyl] ..r/. (2.y.. .Y[2yi.y ii l + Y[Zq.+2qlr/.k(/. tllen [ Q l l = [ Q ] ..
.4:4: + 43 (263b) From the preceding discussion.. (2. q2. q.63a) 2(48424340) Y:u:+u:u: 2(q243 + 4041) 2(qlq3+40q2) X' ( 4 4+ Y O ] [ ] 4. Therefore.35) to show the equivalence. 43) and the direction cosine elements. are the real components..=cosecos~ =qt+q:q:q: C 1 2 = ~ ~ ~ e s i n ~ =2(qlq2qr3q3) C13=sin 8 =2(41q3 + 4042) C2!=sin 4 sin e cos v . From the above discussion.. use will be made of Fig. it is clear that a rotating matrix using quaternion elements can be defined that is similar to the one using direction cosines. we see that there exists an equivalence between the elements of the quaternion (yo. ql . we have the following nine equations: C. (2.q . by equating the corresponding elements of the matrix Eq. From Eq.q2 + q0q3) C22=sin~sin~sinyr+cos~cosv=q~q:+q:q: . the quaternion can be written in the form [Ql=(q0+~1i+qzj+q3k) The quaternion can also be expressed as a 4 x 4 matrix.cos 4 sin v = 2(q.63b) with the corresponding direction cosine matrix [C] of Eq. (2. as before. q . Toward this end.q 2(q2434041) 2(qlq3qoqz) q o +q 4t4:4:+ 4: ) (2.q042) 2(4340+4142) ~ q . 29 and Eq.35) we can write C12 c 3 1 Also. q2. Thus 40 41 42 43 43 q2 where. Quaternion Reoresentation in Coordinate Transformations 57 In matrix form this equation becomes 4:+4:4:4: q q 2(qoq2+ 4143) 4i+q:4:4: 24lq2+u043) 2(q1q.2.35).5. q. (2. .
respcctivcly. another tratisformation matrix will he delived that will aid in the development of the ditl'crential equations o f t h e Sour quaternion par.%I. . Z ) axes. ( I . which makes angles u. Z ' ) is tnavis i ~ i g some arbitrary manner: however. Now let thc quaternion that describes the rotation of system a into systcm b be denotcd by Q.58 CHAPTER 2 Coordmare Systems and Transformar. .. y . 21 6.~. u. y will1 the ( X ' . Keferritrg to Fig. (. 7. Consider the two coordinate syscc~ns illustrated in Fig. it will be assumed that the coordinate systcm ( X . and y a r e the . Z ' ) axes.ons . + 11. a s indicated above. 216. if. Y .:.h4al (1. . both coordinate systems havc the in same origin. is the amount of rotation about that vector. 4.y~.imcters. q.. The process of finding thc quaternion components as Sunctions o f the Euler angles is quite straightforward.~/~. and y with the ( X .I = cos (b cos 0 1111 sin $1 (b sit1 111 ?(</><I) ~ . detinc a vector in space and y. 0. Using Eulcr's theorem... Y ' . whereas the direction cosine method reqoircs nine. 1  sin 2 cox li sin  cos !> .. we citn dcllote it hy Q!~=(~~. sincc the quaternion is co~nposcd of four clcmcnts. From the fourparameter system (&I. = sin I' y. 11 is the amount of rotation and I. [3. tlic ( X ' .. ) ~ > . sin ib cos O ('.q~I=~/. while the coordinate systeln ( X ' .=cos @ sin O sin C .l+~i~i+~/~j+~/~k ( 4 0 . Y.. Note that this axis of rotation makes the same angles u. Y. also.1 . P.=COS4 sin 0 CI)S (~'. A primary advantage in using quaternions lies in the fact that only four difrcrcntial equations are ncccssary Ibr linding the new transformation lnatrix. Furtherlnorc.I{ I ~ O ) 2(~/. L') coordi~iate systcm is rovated through the :iriglc p ahout some fixed axis.) fixed in spacc. y ) .1/~r sin 4 cos $1 = 2 ( q 2 q 3i ( / . Y'. Consequently. thcn the elements of the quatelnion which describe this rotation asc by definition yo c o s It 7 c o b 11 (2. Y. it is clear that the axis o f rotation o r vector n is the axis about wl~icllsystem it is rotated in ordcr lo coincidc with system b. ql Conceptually. Y'.tngles between the axis of Iovation and thc coordinatc systeln ( X . 13.
  Specifically. The vector n is given by It is apparent that the rotation p is smaller than the algebraic sum of the Euler angles $. Quaternion Representation in Coordinate Transformations 59 or in vector form  P cos 2 P sin .cos y 2 .cos u 2 sin CI cos p 2  [Ql = P sin .2. we have [Ql=qo+q1i+q2j+q3k where cos 61. It can be shown that the correspondence between [C] and [QI is . +J and that the angle p is the shortest angular path between I the two coordinate systems. let [C] be a general rotation matrix and [Q] the equivalent quaternion. we note that the vector n is the invariant Euler axis of rotation and CI is the rotation about that axis that takes system a into system b in the least angle sense. 0.5. From these equations and the definition of the quaternion. As before.
(2. Then.. %) is an earthtixed coordinate system.60 CHAPTER 2 .y. we note that the trace of Eq. we can obtain the equations for thc quaternion elemenls in terms of the direction cosine elements.64'1). First. the orthogonality of [('I allows us to use thc transpose of [C] instead of the invcrse.y.~te\ is given by [i] = lil [. Y. we have </<>cos = (:) \? Starting with this equation. That is. if (z. Coordinafe Svstems and Transformations Therefore. Using Eq.63a). (2.msformation from earthfixed t o hodytixcd coordin. we can write .I where [ C ] '=[('I ". then and thc inverse tr. and after some algebraic manipulation. from Eq.631) is tr()qy. z ) is s hodytixed coordinate system and ( X . (2. 5 .
tr(C) = C I I+ C22+ C23. we have Consequently. as opposed to six for the direction cosines. the quaternion parameters satisfy a single constraint equation (orthogonality of quaternions) [ 151: 4~+q:+q:+q:=1 (2. are given by 0 .2. Since there is a single redundancy in a fourparameter description of coordinate rotations. 0.v.2. Equation (2.66).74~) 2 2 2 2 2 2 +. in terms of the diagonal terms. In order to start the procedure.o. and it can he shown that qo.cos2 2 2 . that is. when the elements are programmed on a computer. q l . 3) to start the computation and use the positive square root in Eq. the above equations readily yield the solution for the quaternion elements. Quaternion Representation in Coordinate Transformations 67 where tr is the trace of the matrix [C]. q. (2. q2.5.66) can also he written in the form 4qi=l+tr(C) The other quaternion elements are obtained from the relations Similarly.73) In terms of the Euler angles w. w 0 w q2=sincoscos2 2 2 + 0 s4m sln.+ qo=coscoscossinsmsm(2. select either qn or one of the qj (i= 1.
63b) can also be written in the fbrm I 12 .2 sin' 2 sinZB 2(sin2 cos p ccos y .  /i I . rhc components of which arc direct outputs i)tthe gyroscopes and are measured uritc . It should be pointed out. " sin' 2 12 sin " m s cos [3) 1 2 I ' " ] 2 cos 13 cos y sit. o products of those functions sufler fioln potential numerical inaccuracies on a shortwordlength computer. In additin11 L requiring sinc aud cosinc evaluations. 2 sin.74a) (2. .sin cos cos 2 2 2 &oS ?(sin' I.74d) determinc uniquely the cluaternion components Ihr any given set of Euler angles. k is the angular velocity ( o r Darbous) vector.I more compact in the moving sues.~lequations firr thc quaternion clcments are given in the iorm whcre w = 1t1. i + m .. Finally. From the i~hove. 7 P 7 +sin P . (2. that although these relations detine the quaternion parameters. . 2 cos " COT ct 2 .P s111 u 2 I: 2(cos rr cos y sin. . the rotation that yielded Eq. the triple 'I .cos 'I cos ' 1 . i sin' 2 sin' 'The associated dilrcrcnti.ltlon.we ci111I I ~ W . j to. they arc not convenient for initi. 1'lz. T h e iaversc relationship (the Eoler angles a s functions of the quaternion components) can be obtained directly from thesc equations.62 CHAPTER 2  Coordinate Svstems and Transformations Equations (2. however. ' '' ' cos .
pitch (8).) and the forcing function o(t).+q~w. and 4.) An example will be used to illustrate the relationship between the direction cosines and quaternions. and roll (4). + Q2= QZ+ Q. they do not obey the commutative law of multiplication. (2. Quaternion Representation in Coordinate T~ansformations 63 I differential equation in the form where In terns of the scalar components. as we have seen earlier. however. In strapdown (analytic) navigation systems. but.77). the above properties may be indicated as follows: Associative addition: (Q. (2. say. . Quaternions follow the rules of matrix algebra. one must use numerical methods. they obey the associative and commutative laws of addition and the associative and distributive laws of multiplication. Q2.78d) These are linear differential equations that can be integrated easily.2. the aframe and bframe.=r[qow.63a). they are never exact. in order to solve Eq. That is. and Q3. + QZ)+ Q3 = QI + (Qz + Q3) Commutative addition: Q. It should be pointed out here. and the output 0. the attitude matrlx is immediately given by the Euler fourparameter matrix Eq. Then. given the initial conditions Q(1. once Q is obtained. For this example. Associative multiplication: (QlQ2)Q3 Ql(Q2Q3) = Distributive multiplication: Ql(Q2+ Q3) = QlQ2+ QlQ3 (Note: For the commutative multiplication. the input data is q ~ .5. Let three quaternions be designated as Q. That is. given ordered rotations (Euler angles) of yaw (yr). . Therefore. that since the outputs of the gyroscopes are physical quantities.qzod (2. we have I P. which is the relative angular velocity between the two coordinate frames in question. QlQ2# Q2Ql. we will write a computer program to compute the coordinate transformation matrix between.
..69) will also change.deltatr : real.b.ons data is c'...y. .... (* (* Given ordered rotation (Euler angles) of *) yav (xi).. (2. n = 3... procedure formdcm. begin x y z := := := (* torm direction cosine matrix *) xi*pi/lKO..f. vriteln..... done.. ch : char...e.. allowing an input of rlr....x....l... + (': PROGRAM OUATERNION (INPUT.....a. the signs in Eqs. the program will compute the corrcspondfor ing quaternion y ..q i ...qlequalzero : boolean..1415927.... vrite('enter xi = ').. and to yield and Qj' as output. readln(theta). procedure readindata... theta. 0.02.n... pitch (theta).. + ( k i + q 3 j + q 4 k ) ) as output.xi....... *) = = const pi type DCU 3...q3. var .. C : DCH...67) (2... (* (* (* (* (* . (Note: xi here is psi ( IL )) (* read in all the Euler angles * ) begin vrite1n.!:.. The computer program will he interactive..z : real... vriteln end ..c.I n particular.. ( 2 6 3 b ) ... (2. ql. readln(xi)... readln(phi)..phi...35). write('enter theta = ')... 0. ITollowingis a program listing for thc exi~mple written in PASCAL..... 'The direction cosine matrix c'!: used is the same as that given hy Fq. q 2 ..writeln...q2. *) this program will compute the coordinate *) transformation matrix between the aframe *) and bframe.... theta*pi/lKO phi*pi/l80.. qq ( [ Q ] = ( q .. and 4. vriteln....tr.Q3.Q4 as output.. .64 CHAPTER 2  Coordmate Systems and 7raransformat.d... By inputing vali~cs ty.... and for the transformation matrix for the quaternion 0' we will use Eq... a=ray(l. s Note that the signs of the offdiagonal terms change: consequently.. Then it will take the *) transformation matrix as input and gives *) the quaternion Q1.... vrite('enter phi = ').n] of real.. we will write a program that takes ('::as the inpul and gives the quaternion as the output...OUTPUT).q4.......... and roll (phi)....
q4 := (CI1.3])/(4*ql). C[2.2. vriteln('this method won't work with tr = 1 or 01 = 0) ' end .' ). c := cos(y). ve 're o. ~ [ 2 . CI1.writeln. C13.11 + C12.  . deltatr := tr + 1. (* compute the quaternion *) begin tr := CI1.. e := cos(z).k *) begin q1 := sqrt(1 + tr)/Z. C13. 93 := (CI3.1] . j : integer.2] := .21 := £*a + e*d*b. 42 := (C(2.11 := f*b + e*d*a..q2:5:6).q3:5:6). writeln('03 '. vriteln('04 r '.xi:4:6).' '). b := sin(x). CI1. if (deltatr < 0. vriteln('Quaternion from input OCn ').2) + CI3.b %.2])/(4*ql). for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do vrite(CIi. vriteln<'roll(~hi) = '.because').writeln. writeln('O2 '. end.ql:5:6).. procedure computeq.5.ll := a*c. qlequalzero := false. Ouaternion Represenfation in Coordinafe Transformations 65 a := cos(x). d := sin(y). writeln('yav(xi) = '.jl:3:6..C[1.1])/(4*ql) end end .11 := e*b + f*d*a.writeln. writeln end.q4:5:6). cI1.vriteln.21 := c*b. f := sin(z).C[2. if qlequalzero then divider = 0 *) helrin ~ ~ . else (* ve're 0 k *) begin writeln.theta:4:6). 3 ]:= f * ~ .obi:4:6): writeln('Direction Cosine Matrix .00001) and (deltatr > 0.31 . writeln.3] := e*c end . writeln('pitch(tbeta) = '.0001) then (* tr qlequalzero := true else (* <> 0.c[3. (*vrite out direction cosine matrix and quaternion*) var i .ZI . = 1 *) procedure print.3). ] C12. begin writeln. vriteln('01 '. C[3. writeln('We can not compute quaternion for you.
(* main program * ) begin while not done do begin readindata.. X pix EE534. if ch O 'n' then done : true else done := talse end.p Execution begins .vriteln. print end end. Coordinate Systems and liarisformations wri teln. readln(ch).. computeq.66 CHAPTER 2 . . formdcm. ( * redo the problem * ) write('are you done ? [y/nl ' ) . Quaternion from input DCn are you done ? l y / n ] n enter xi 55 enter theta 90 enter phi = 15 .. enter xi = 45 enter theta = 75 enter phi = 25 Direction Cosine Matrix.
and quaternions) as shown in Table 23. Ouaternion Representat. which are required for initial calculations Computational burden Initial calculations using Euler angles required if coordinate systems do not coincide at 1=0 Quaternions No singularities. direction cosines.on in Coordinate Transformations 67 Quaternion from input DCH are you done [y/nl y Bxecution terminated. TABLE 23 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Three Transformation Methods Euler angles Only three differential equations are needed Direct initialization from 40. avoids the gimballock problem associated with the Euler angles Computationally simple Euler angles are not readily available Transformation matrix not directly available . and vo Direction cosines Differential equations are linear No singularities Transformation matrix can bc calculated directly Only four linear coupled differential equations are needed DiRerential equations are nonlinear Singularity occurs as the angles approach 1 9 0 ' Transformation matrix is not directly available Order of rotation is important Nine linear differential equations (reducible to sir) Euler angles are not directly available.22 seconds cpu time.5. Oo. 188 statements executed in 0. X This section can he summarized by listing the advantages and disadvantages of each of the three transformation methods (Euler angles.2.
l a b l c 24 summarizes the various algebraic properties ill' the uuaternions.6. 2. THE UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM T h c Ul~iversal Transvcrse Mercator ( U T M ) grid rcfcrence system is a coordinate sysleni mainly used by the military :IS thc standard position reference bctween the latitudc of 84' north and 80' south. whereby thc earth is modeled by a sphere.the i~itcrsection o f the great circle with the equator forms tllc origin of the "northing" and "casting" cooldinates. tlie UTM projection is a mcrcator projection. . Furthcr~nore. this system virtually eliminates the convergence between meridians and largcscale variutiolis of conventional latitude longitude coordinates. More importantly. In cshrncc.68 TABLE 24 CHAPTER 2 Coord/nate Systems and Transforn?alions Basic Algebraic Propertics of Quaternions Multiplication by a scalar Unit vcctoia l b i l \ e i l Finally. Thc U T M systcrn is also suitable for grcat circle navigation.ITM projection is tangent to tlie spherical carth a t a great circlc passing through the poles [ I ] . The cylinder used in the I.
2. on the other hand. Thus. which are 6" wide. Conversion for latitudelongitude to UTM presents no difficulties. which was developed for use with the UTM and UPS grids.2. which is 12" high). The Air Force. The columns. Some systems provide common grids directly. the columns are numbered 1 through 60. . each of which is given a unique identification called the grid zone designation (GZD). U T M Grid Zone Description As stated above. However. when the French superimposed a military grid on maps of small areas in order to control artillery fire [I]. the distance between successive grid lines represents 1000 meters (m) at the scale of the map. The northsouth grid lines are known as northings and the castwest grid lines as eastings. the earth is divided in quadrilaterals or "grid zones" 6" eastwest by 8" northsouth between the latitudes of 84"N and 80"s. Primarily. consecutively. which can be converted by a computer operation to a standard military grid. commonly by an alphanumeric (letters and numbers) representation. That is. The rows. the rows are lettered alphabetically C through X.6. are identified by the UTM zone numbers. After the end of that war. uses the UTM system for the latitudes between 80"s and 8 P N . starting with the 180" meridian and proceeding easterly. Starting from 80"s and proceeding northerly to 84"N. Historically.6. a number of nations adapted military grid systems for their own military forces. certain military applications of Loran C/D require that the receiver locations he given in UTM coordinates as well as geodetic latitude and longitude. The Universal Transverse Mercator Grid Reference System 69 Since the UTM is based on the transverse mercator projection applied to maps on the earth's surface. and the Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS) system from 84"N and 80"s to the respective poles. the use of military grid systems can be traced to World War I. For example.1. between 72"N and 84"N these quadrilaterals do not always measure 6"wide. 8" high (except for the last. are identified by letters.000 and larger. The navigation computer continuously computes and displays present position via the CDU (Control and Display Unit) in geodetic latitudelongitude or alphanumeric representation. Presentday inertial navigation systems are capable of operating completely and continuously in the UTM coordinate system by solving a minimal number of algorithms in the navigation computer. a military grid is composed of two series of equally spaced parallel lines perpendicular to each other. with the letters I and 0 omitted. Another position reference system is the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS). Figure 217 illustrates the UTM grid designation 111. a position reference system is any coordinate system that permits the designation of a point or an area on the earth's surface. On military maps of scale 1: 75. the globe is divided into quadrilaterals or grid zones 6" eastwest by 8" northsouth between 84"N and 80"s latitudes.
i t can he seen that the numericdl coordinates of a point arc based on two mcasurcmcnts: ( I ) the distance from the cquatnr and ( 2 ) Lhc distance from Lhc central meridian in each grid column.idingfirst L the right (column designittion). 118). of 100. an object on the 1. the grid zone designation o f any quadrilateral is detelmined by ~re. 218. From Fig.~tionsysten~. as is each row of squares (scc Fig.ITM m a p c a n bc located down to Im square (thal is. and then up (rou. Each c o l u ~ n n squares. Im resolution). Furthermole.000 rn east.~blished 500. Reference I gives a conlplcte brcakdoun of this identific. each 6 ' x 8' area between 84 N and X O S is subdivided into squares based on the UTM grid for that zone. designao tion).000 m on a side is identitied by a letter. The ccntral meridian is arbitrarily csl. and the equator is "zcro as . By further subdivision.70 CHAPTER 2  Coordtnale Systems and Traransfurniafions F I G U R E 217 Destgil:tliot> o l l h c I I ' M glid ones [ I ) Next.
.
The tirst ( 5 ) identities the interval ensting beyond which point S lills..nare Systems and Transformar/ons ~iorthing"for thc northern hcmisphcrc. Coord.5.IYYl IX I . it is :l simple procedure fbr locating a point in the UTM grid system.. but this nccd not he thc case.err mclci? mc.tlc delin~tlon.. With refere~rceto 1. thzsc definitions are illustrated in Fig. 219. KA: Identitics the 100.rthlng reullu. This rcfcrence point can he explained a s follows: 2P: ldentilics the 6' x 8' grid zone in u.hlcIi the point is located. .c.cr. mcterr ". The sccond digit ( 5 ) is estimated. N<.ig 218. 25: T h c numbers 2 #nd 5 are both northing figures and arc both read up. I IIXI 11.000m ( IOOkm) square.cn mrters FIGURE 219 IJ I M cooidtn. in which point X is located.X Ill me. T h e second digit ( 5 ) is estimated: it represents thc value of tire imaginaly 1000m ( I . For ex. it defincs the 1000m estimated northing requircd to complete thc are:! dimelisions o f t h e reference point in thc example.72 CHAPTER 2 .lrnple." Ili. let us locate the point whose standard rekrcnce is 2PKA552. Thc first (2) idcntities the interval bcyond which thc point falls. ( N o t e that the last two digits o r 100 m and 10 tn o f both e:lsting and northing resolution are indicated a s zcro. which includes the point.) F T .k m ) casting column. In diagram form. 55: T h c numbcrs 5 and 5 are hoth casting figures and are holh read to the right.
The Universal Transverse Mercaror Grid Reference System 73 A point of interest within a zone is defined by two numbers: ( I ) a northing and (2) an easting coordinate. Consequently. Moreover. the easting values at a boundary can be expressed as 500 + X for the eastern boundary and 500 . .000 km. since any point that lies on a grid boundary is equidistant to the central meridian in both zones.98h m3. the hemisphere must also be indicated. since the same northing coordinates appear in either the northern or southern hemisphere.20 originate.6.2. 2. the following calculation will make it clear. Both northing and easting are always positive numbers and increase in their respective directions. = 6382 km (a spherical earth model has been assumed).99Lm I+d 4 6 ' FIGURE 220 Numerical coordinates for the northern hemisphere. Let the equatorial radius & take . These are distances on a grid given in meters (m) or kilometers (km) from the origin. In order to see where the numbers in Fig.m *m EQUATOR €47. The origin is established as being the intersection of the equator with the central meridian. the value R.X for the western boundary. 220. NORTH POLE 16s. modified by a "false easting" of 500 km and a "false northing" of 10. These concepts are illustrated in Fig.. where X equals the distance to the central meridian.
Falsc northing is 0 m for the 11orther11 hemisphere and 10. I'rojection is Transverse Mercator (Ci. .ongitudc of origin is the central mcridian of e. 7. In summary. we have East b o ~ ~ n d a =y500 t ! ( 6 0 7 . where $ is the latitude and K = 133.2.74 'Then CHAPTER 2 . Mathematicillly.ich zone. I the east a n d west hound. 2. The U T M Equations The l i T M grid refcrcncc system may hc derived l i o m several ellipsoidal models of the earth. Thc spheroid modcl varies depending on geographic location. Tlic lenglh unit is the meter.99 km r ) Wcst houndary  500i(667.rbove. Lntiludc lirnits o f lhc system are 80 S to R4'N. Coordinate Systems and Transformanons ( cil = ZrrK.~ries can he explessed as follows: East boundary Wcst boundary  500 + K c o s 4 500 . kni Therefore Width of a 6 grid column a t thc cqu.983 kni Using the definitions of the east boundary and west boundar) of a grid colunin at thc c q u a t o ~ described .rtions [I41 : I . 720 it is obvious that the width of a grid column decrease:.99 km..07X. 9 ~= 833.itc)r.(. 2. 4. while a Mcrcator projection must be based on latitude longitude coordinates o r an eqi~ivalentset of spherical coordinates.6.~tci n this coordinate system since there is n o restriction in operation from zone lo zone.. (Constants such a s ellipticity and polar equatorial radii are normally stored in the navigation computer for various earth models. Falsc casting is 500. this decrease is K c o s 6 . 8. a s a function of the cosinc of latitude in the east west column. 6.) 3.')~)  I 66. the UTM grid has the following spccific.')(.  h2X(618?) = 40.russ~Kruegertype) in rones h widc by 8' high. 1.01 km F r o m Fig. Latitude of origin is the equator ( 0 ) .K cos 4 An i~ircrait inertial navigation system can opcr. = 667. Therefore.000. 60 :.000 n1. 5 .000 m folthe southcrn hemisphere. which are defined in terms of the particular spheroid used.
e2)/(1 . 14 as follows: N = (I) + ( 1 1 ) ~+ (111)~ .b2)/a2 e" = ( a 2b2)/b2= e2/(1 e2) p=radius of curvature in the meridian or constant longitude (northsouth) = a(l . 500. also defined as the normal to the spheroid terminating at the minor axis = a/(l .e2 sin2 +)'I2 = p(l + ef2cos2 4) S= true meridional distance on the spheroid from the equator ko=central scale factor. in units of seconds Ah = difference of longitude from the central meridian = h . for the UTM.79) (2. (2.79) and (2.2. Scale factor at the central meridian is 0. ko=0.000 .E' when the point is west of the central meridian N = grid northing p=0. The Universal Transverse Mercaror Grid Reference System 75 9.h in the western hemisphere a = semimajor axis of the spheroid b = semiminor axis of the spheroid f = flattening (or ellipticity) = ( a . 217.ha in the eastern hemisphere = b . northing N and easting E'..81) .6. (2.000001E' The equation for the Roman numerals appearing in Eqs. starting at a longitude of 180". in units of seconds ho = longitude of the origin (the central meridian) of the projection.80) are as follows: (I) = Sko (2. from geographic coordinates (latitudelongitude) are given in Ref. where 4 =latitude h = longitude. The equations used in the computation of the UTM grid coordinates. 10.b)/a e Z =eccentricity squared = (a2 .0001 Ah q = 0. as shown in Fig. Zones are numbered 1 through 60 eastward around the globe.+A.9996.9996 FN = false northing FE = false easting E ' = grid distance from the central meridian (always positive) E = grid easting = E'+ 500.80) E' = (1V)p + ( v ) ~+ B.000 when a point is east of the meridian. an arbitrary reduction applied to all geodetic lengths to reduce the maximum scale distortion of the projection.e2 sin2 4))j2 v = radius of curvature in the prime vertical or constant latitude (eastwest) .
XX) Computation (or conversion) of geographic coordinates from UTM grid coordinates is similar to the above procedure and can hc realized using thc following equations [ l 4 ] : ~ = + ~ .10" (2.89) A?~=(IX)~(X)~~~+E.76 v sin sin" CHAPTER 2 .6p" sin' 24v sln I " 3e'4 cosJ 4 ..x ko 4 10 .85) . (2. 10"' ~~ .( 5 + 3 tan' + t 6 e T 2 cos' $ .s ill)( 111) = + cos + sin2 I " 2 I"\. k. =/.10' ( v )= sin' ~ A.( V I I ) ~ / ~ + i v ~ l l ) ~ ~ . .v c o s 4 s i n I " .24 4 (5tan2++9r"cos'+ (2./. .~ 120 + 14r" cos' .c (2.87) South of the equator. .58e" sin' +) kli .o.. I ~ cos' $ ( I t a n ' $4c"cos' "v ~ 6 ~ 4) . Coordjnate Systems and Trmsforrnat. ~~~ .)sin" I"v sin + cos' 4 Ihl 58 720 tan2++tan"+ sini l"v cos' (518 t a n 2 + + t a n 4 + R.u ~(2.82) sin 4 cos' . + + (2.84) t 4eT4 cosl +) k ..s ~ n " I k' Ian 4' ( V I I I ) .. .I<. nhn.90) +'=latitude of the foot of the perpendicular from the point to thc central !meridian y = 0. ~~ k.83) (2.ye"' cos' + (2.00000E' Roman numerals (VII) through ( X ) ale glven by (VII)= tan 4' 1 71 ( I +c"cos2+) .~.10'' ( I V I . the northing N becomes N=107[(l~+iIl)~~2+(111)~~~i~~46] (2. lo1? 7v.92) + sin' 4) x '.
. . The Universal Transverse Mercator Grid Reference System 77 sec 4' 1 ( I X ) = y . Lines parallel to this meridian throughout a grid column represent grid north. Eqs. grid north will coincide with true north only at the central meridian. The meridian convergence must be calculated for the initial starting point and .79) and (2.2. The updated values of northing and easting are as follows: where 2 6 3 Computation of Convergence .10AL cos + km (2. and (6) Australian National. sin (1 + 2 tan2 ++e" cos24 ) . (5) Everest.50Ah2..80) are possible. Convergence is defined as the difference between grid north (GN) and true north (TN) for any given position. but is not limited to. When a grid boundary is crossed. (2. Since the meridians converge at the poles. The update routine first calculates the gradients of the UTM conversion as a function of changes in latitude and longitude and then uses these gradients along with the continuous values of A+ and Ah to provide values of AN and AE for use between each of the full solutions. 1 k : 10" (2.. the grid convergence angle must be changed to indicate convergence relative to a new central meridian. Choosing parameters from the International spheroid model.10++ [1596.6. The UTM grid system can be updated using a straightforward routine. Table BI.96) where Q and Ah are in radians. after some algebra. . in a simpler form: N = 6365. 10' v sin 1" ko sec Q' (X)=6v. Simplifcations to Eqs. the following six model spheroids: (I) Clarke 1866. (2.94) The UTM to latitudelongitude conversion can accept.241 sin 24 E'=6386. (2) Clarke 1880. (4) International. (3) Bessel. Spheroid constants used in the models are given in Appendix B.79) and (2.80) can be written.16.95) (2. The central meridian in each grid strip is established in the grid system as grid north.
the angle a t P between true north and gr~dn o r t h F E A P FIGURE 221 Meridian corii..t a n ' $) . .98) (XV) .62.tnd 11 has been defined in Section 2.ttion o f the c o n v c r g e ~ ~ c e from geogr:iphic coordinatcs is [I41 where ( X I I ) ~=si11 10' (XIII) = sin2 1" sin 4.10" v sln I " h . . cos' 3 ~~~ +. P = t h e point under consideration F = the toot of the perpendicular from P to the central rnerld~an 0 = the orlgln 0 Z = t h e central mer~dian L P = the parallel of the latitude of P Z P = the merldlan Of P 0 L = k . ~.'  cOsl $) ." co? d. 10" c 5 ~sin'.78 CHAPTER 2 .. .. S . t h e gild d l s t a n c e irom t h e central rnertdian G N = yrld north C = t h e convergence of t h e rner~dians:le. rcspectively. The equation ihr convergence from U T M coordinatcs is given in the form 1141 C(XVIy where Ian 6' I . (2. 10''' IS . .  (XVI)L/'+I. ~ .11 ronc crossings. the grld northing F P = E'. Figurc 221 illustrates the concepl of convergence. T h e equation for the comput. + 2?. t h e rneridlonal arc from the equator L F = t h e ordinate of curvature 0 F = N.lrgcncc 11. 4 ( 1 + 3<. I " / \ ~~ sin 4 c0s4 6 ( 2 . Coordfnare Systems and Trsnsformafions . This convergence n ~ u s bc in each case rcfzrred t lo the mcan meridian of the initial starting poilit.
2. z") and (xb. One must be careful.) Therefore. the nframe. it is convenient to express the aforementioned rotation as a vector 4. Consider now two Cartesian reference frames. y).7.["=.. In the literature. there exists a singleaxis rotation that would carry another frame. arbitrarily oriented with respect to it.. this vector is called the rotation vector (It should be noted at the outset that the rotation vector is not related to the Euler angle 4... which is directed along the axis of rotation and having a magnitude equal to the rotation angle in radians. loz0 15v5sin 1" ku and q has been defined previously 2. not to assign all vector properties to the rotation vector (e. n and b. ROTATION VECTOR As discussed earlier. For three general rotation angles (a. cos a The rotation vector has the property such that it is an eigenvector of the direction cosine matrix (DCM). y". Rotation Vector 79 (XVI) = tan 4' (1 + tan2 4 3v3 sin I " cos2 4 .2d4COS' 1 4) . to its present orientation.7. fixed axis. . b . 1018 ki ~. Usually. by a rotation around a single. We note that there are three eigenvalues of the DCM. a coordinate frame can be carried into another frame. 0.2. however.=q' 1 tan c$' (2+5tan2++3tan4+). into coincidence with the bframe. The kinetic equation of the rotation vector can he defined as +. and define the orthogonal basis sets for the two reference frame as (x". the rotation vector assumes the form [9] I:. the result of two successive rotations about . it is noted that the transformation of any vector v from the bframe to the nframe may be thought of as describing how v would look to an observer sitting on a coordinate frame originally coincident with + . the roll angle of an aircraft.g. + = 4% where 4 is the angle of rotation and 1 is the column vector representing the . no matter what was the motion history that carried. associated with the unity eigenvalue. the other two eigenvalues are purely imaginary and represent the rotation magnitude or phase rotation. axis of rotation. y From Section 2.noncollinear axes is not represented by the sum of the two rotation vectors). say. z"). the hframe.
~ticaloperations to transf<irm v" inlo v". Coordinate Sysfems and Transformations "'1 0 A direct transformation using the rotalion vector is [Y] Furthermore. In fhct.ition (if vh into v" is where 4 is thc magnitude of$. and @is of the form the usual skcw symnletric matrix The rotation vector transformation operates on the v" \'ector in rhr same manner as thc DCM. which rotates through 4 and ends at n. the direction cosine matrix 1ransfcirm.:@~=v. b. thc D C M C'E is ohtained in thc fbrm sin @ () 1 ('. In general.and pcrforniing the matrix times vector multiplication. the DCM c:ln be written in thc for111 ~'. However.80 CHAPTER 2 .The rotation vector can bc used either directly in the mathern.=cOS (b[+ dJ +1c ~ ~ o s4 @' ~ ++'~ (2. the fired v appears to that observer to have rotated through +I$. wlierc 11$11= [ 4 6 " 7 @r and the related kinematic equation is . having 6.101) Thc coetficicnts . That is. or by forming the D C M ('".
in terms of the two coordinate frames n and b. This differential equation is nonlinear in +. which is similar to Eq. a related transformation operator that does not contain singularities is the quaternion.) The last two terms in Eq.104a) are referred to as noncommutative rate vectors. it can he effectivelyused to improve the accuracy of strapdown attitude algorithms. it contains a singularity at 2nn..=I+@ + 4 + . From the preceding discussion. Thus.7.@*+ 1 4 sin 2cos. (2.) + ] (@'s]~:.104a). Therefore + + sin + }I+ (4 = ~kb)~ I . Rotation Vector Rl as + 0. since the rotation vector is a threeparameter transformation operator. coning) rate is obviously contained in the rotation vector differential equation. (Note that the o can be identified as a gyroscope output vector. the rotation vector can be obtained from a solution to the differential equation given that the relative angular velocity between the two frames is a forcing function wkb. In designing and/or selecting strapdown algorithms. it is customary to let he small.103) These relationships are useful in the analysis of strapdown inertial navigation system algorithms. As discussed in Section 2. (2.104a) can be approximated by the equation [8] += + . the rotation vector differential equation can be written in the form [8.5. Since the noncommntativity (i. i I+. Finally. 91 where represents the rotation vector with magnitude += (+T+)'/Zand o represents the angular velocity vector. are welldefined for small 4. (2. Eq.e.2. An alternate form of this transformation is sin c. 1cos + (@k)z +tJ2 Another direct transformation form of the vector vb into the vector v" is sin+ v" = cos +vb+  + + X v + Icos+ (2. In general.
L I ) ~ . 5 . I ~ c . 1978.nate Systems and Transfor. i i i / rii (rioi/irnc<. I l i ~ l l h a n R. 4th on cd.r. I X I 1x3. liang. Mi~rs.N. 0cp. 1962 ti..\. IC1X2...li)6?.&'.. 10. I Y h ol 7. X. 14.ir.ll... AddisollWcslc).iltoo S>\tc~n." I)eni!rlmcnl o f tllc Aimv l'ccliriicitl Manu..drl~i. C'smbridgc linhieisity Prcir. Air Forcc ln\lilute o f 'Itchnolop?..t~ltl 1. II . Ucu Y o r k .>o. 1~164.: ( ' l i r i ~ i ~ Mc. Wilc).\ . 15. McC~irawHI]].~mi .i. Rcading.. thc N a i ) .i. Sr (eel.): I.. . 2 R A. n i ~ r .. 787 789. 6.H.Coord.is a Funciion of t. S l r < r ~ .. M. Mash. O .St ~ s.i.r the C'nrnpu1.ll Equi~tion. Y . ieal . York.sorAnubcii. C'ilrlson.irth Ccnlcrerl tiirttil'lrcd C'ooldcnalc< : l / ...\. . Coord~ni~li. 1. ltirrinil jV. N . Orhitul h/. "Uni?ersal ~l'!i~nsvcrsc Mercalor (.s Wile?lnle~sc~cncc. I'lX1. "Ail. T M 52418.s SolEENC~.ido.ince . . "On the Rotalion Vector Diliercn1i.i.i.V t l l I.ice~. 'I. H i S a i Hi. R.~"rgol~. November I>ccemhe~I')XS. Brlliing. Reading.il~onilSthc (.tcr.i Sr. VanHmnklirrrst..and Navig. Adcliu>iiWesley. "A Ncw Algorithm (r.Yo1 AIS27(1)." /I.A.ioixolio. pp.i.534.i. Ncw Y o l k .iarncnlals 01' Aciospscr.~S$.it. I L. Wllc).rnson. A G A R 0 Lectorc Sciics N o 95. . I1j4X. . I ' l i l Ncw 4. l9X11.roi...iiiil .: A Tr~ori.'' A b M 5140 ( N A V A I K !)OXO\~~4'1).huni<. Cioldsic~n." <'oorse No1i. Hroncncyer. Adaro l l l l g c j L t d . Pitpci l\l.upi1sh.i.ric.tmd T<. Oclohcr. IVi8.. 'Th.ioi <ii. u.v.ibc.1. Puliiilc.ons   I .\ (io~il.. ?. Nsu Y o i k .ivigtjli. Vc. E .tnuar> I~J'II.trlrnrnti o S ihc 4 1 Foici. 328 117 e.~a~. .id i)y?iar. J. li. July 7 .ucrn i i i . 2.iiih ri.3I 3~22.sc i12c Anuliiicol D.i~rii$..1 : h . Hr~biol.. r r i a l.ir:i i!/ P<iiiiiIi. i z u . Ncw Y w k .ocb 15.Sv\. W. l A . pp.i/i<..r ) ~ r n ~ i I.end Control C ~ n l i ~ c n c Augobl l l 13. 7 . .n.. . T .&ASO1771C1'.i iirid Rivid &. "Tast (icodclic ('oord~iliilc I ~ ~ a n s S ~ .~t~ I ? n ~ . Y.( > t i l m l . lii\trutt~cnts . r 1)~nurrii~v. pp. 13. Ih. lclh4. Pitn~a\. and 1. . L. 4 lrwanto\vtc. Whtttakcr.m. H .S1. X(h1. I r ~ i ~ ~ l ~ ~r . I<." in .v. Fon.82 REFERENCES CHAPTER 2 . h : "Strandown Sybtcmb Atmlvsii. P.. C . K.8. F.lid.>.+/< s f 1 1 I S~~iici. 1962.. r z i ~ i i l i o l i s ' Al. 1980. .ii'r. Wilcy. l i i i i i . & .
The essential feature of the laser gyro is a resonant optical cavity containing two oppositely directed traveling light waves generated by stimulated emission of radiation. however. weight. spinningmass gyroscopes bear a high cost of ownership and have inherent error sources that limit their operational capabilities.1. Conventional spinningmass gyroscopes perform best when operating on gimbaled platforms. they suffer performance degradation when employed in the strapdown mode. this chapter will be devoted exclusively to the theory and applications of the ring laser and fiberoptic gyros since they represent the latest state of the art in inertial sensor technology. and reliability that strapdown systems offer.3. Also. therefore. power. This characteristic precludes taking advantage of the improvements in size. the literature is replete with the treatment of the conventional spinningmass gyroscope and linear accelerometers. Instead. The laser approach avoids many of the error sources that Limit the performance of the conventional gyroscope. It has an inherent capability to operate in the strapdown mode . Sagnac demonstrated that two light waves acquired a phase difference by propagating in opposite directions around a loop interferometer. these inertial sensors will not be treated here. whereas the conventional spinningmass gyroscope operation is based on the storage of mechanical energy. As stated in Chapter I. maintainability. Specifically. INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a discussion of the ring laser and fiberoptic gyros. Detection of rotation with light was demonstrated by Sagnac in 1913. The ring laser gyro (RLG) operates on the principles of general relativity.
As a rcsult. In 1958. an alternate and convenient method for increasing the sensitivity o l passive Sagnac systems was dcmonstr. iriertlal Sensors hccause of its scale tictor linearity ovcr the f'ull dynamic range a n d is easily interfaced with digital systems. In the sections that f<)llow.2. Townes (discussed in Rcf. whcrc it is now routinely uscd in many aircraft missile inertial navigation a n d l o r inertial reference systems. As its name implies. with two small plane mirrolh . with each succccding passage the wave would grow in intensity until it was strong enough to burst through one of ihc ]mirrors a s a flash ol'cohcrcnt light. tinies the wi~vclcngthof light.2.lung cach othcr and separated by a length L. into which ammonia atoms : wcrc energized. Such . In recent years.5 krn. However.these two sensors will be discussed in detail. THE RING LASER GYRO 3. H. The R L G has made the transition from ]research a n d developmcnl into produelion.1.84 . 21 photon traveling within the mirrorcd dcvice would interact with other energized atoms lo clnit other photons. Its ruggedness and functional simplicity make it rspccially attractive folstrapduwn applications. Consequently.. the rotation induces a fringe shift in the interference pattern proportioni~lto the ii~talionratc. A. in practice the Sagnac dcvice was limited in sensitivity.h rotation of the earth.Introduction The initial etfbrt that gave impeti~sL the developmcnt of the R L G was o performed in 191 1 by the French physicist G . Sagnac [IO]. CHAPTER 3 ." in which a heamspliller divided an incident b e a n so that one component beam traversed the perimeter of a rectangle in a clockwise direction and the other in a counterclockwise direction prior to recombination. I. Therefore.llc experiment marked the beginning of this activity. . ('onsequently. optical rotation sensors fi~nction by detecting a differentiill shift in optical path length between two beams propagating in opposite directions around a closed path. in his original experiment. Michelson and Gale in 1925 [7] had to extend the intcrfcrorncter dimensions to about 0. Lhcy uscd a rcflecling box. 4) proposed a method (~fconstructing maser (microwave amplification by stirnua latcd emission of radiation) for optical wavelengths hy using a resonant cavity whose dimcnslons were milliotts of. Specifically. Tlios. in order to detect the 15de9. That is. photons traveling perpendicular to the plane of the mirrors would strikc the mirror and be reflccled hack toward the other mirrol.~ted: this is the fiberoptic gyro ( F O G ) . 3.. used the "Sagnac interferometer. it can be said that the Michelson Ci. the F O G ilscs an optical fiber. Sagnac. 111 the optical maser. Schawlow and C. which may he wrapped many times around a small cylirlder to increase thc phase difference produccd by rotation.
in February 1961. heading. Rotation then induces a difference in the generation frequencies for the two traveling waves that propagate in opposite directions around the ring (closed path). Subsequently. attitude. present position.05% chromium. time. Maiman of the Hughes Aircraft Company succeeded in developing an optical laser using a ruby crystal. in proportions of 90% and 10°/o. at a pressure of 12 mm Hg. Rosenthal [9] in 1962 proposed a configuration whose high sensitivity would be derived from the extraordinary coherence properties of laser radiation. 1 m long. and directional coherence. accelerometers. In Maiman's laser. A photon emitted by stimulation of another photon is in phase with the first. and before the end of 1960.3. and 767 commercial . and more than 15 years of research. respectively. and testing. This mixture produced five coherent infrared emissions. T. Next in the evolution of the gas laser was the development of a heliumneon device that could continuously emit a beam of visible coherent light at a wavelength of 6328 A (0. The Boeing Company has selected the Honeywell R L G for use in an IRS configuration for its new 737300. and flight guidance. the emitted beam has space. The device. five materials had been successfully tested in different laboratories.6328 pm). the use of the R L G as an inertial angular rate sensor has gone into operational use in both civil and military applications. Although structurally much different from the solidstate laser. the basic principles are the same. The onboard navigation computer calculates coordinate rotations. and power supplies with extensive input/output functions and operations. computers. and aircraft steering commands. since the frequency of both is the same. A number of airlines are now flying RLGs in an inertial reference system (IRS) configuration. provides the same data as the conventional gimbaled systems. as we shall see later. processors. typically a square or a triangle. giving the crystal a lightpink hue. Each aircraft carries three inertial platforms with three laser gyros and three accelerometers.2. 757.530 A* units (1. Furthermore. the strongest at 11. After its initial demonstration by Macek and Davis [6] in 1963. used a mixture of gases as an active medium. The first laser used neon and helium gases. navigation. scientists at Bell Telephone Laboratories announced the achievement of a continuously operating gaseous optical laser. attitude references.153 pm). A RLG inertial navigation system (INS). The R i m Laser Gvro 85 a system is called a FubryPerof resonutor or FubryPirof interferometer. the INS combines laser rate sensors. development. H. specifically: acceleration. the ruby contained about 0. This was accomplished by combining the opticalgeneration and rotationsensing functions in a laser oscillator with a ringshaped cavity. and because they travel in the same direction. In July 1960. velocity. flight guidance.
~tion(~foltrehighquality mirrors. 3. RI." because. in viirious configuralic~ns. A thoro~lgliL I I I L ~ ~ I . hccausc of their inherent nlechanical simplicity.In 'optical m.tis arc highly dcsir. guidance. In this section. Tlic armed services. and lravel the same path ill opposite directions around a closed ring.ty be made of a solid material such as .rs all outgrowth of research conducted on rnicrowavc frequency dcbices. the cornmoll RL(i uses . Lasers nr. it has great potential tbr widespread applicalion. they require less intcrfdcc hardhare.othcr by industrial tirnis. as in the cotivcntional gyroscopes. has been activcly purhued ns a viable incrtial se11so1. one clockwise a n d the othcr anticlockwisc.86 CHAPTER 3 lnarrial Sensorc 1r. Moreover. most notably Litton (. hclicc~ptcrs. Dasically.I key clcmenc of .lrlier.ible angular rate sensors fol. Ring l. lhc most c(~tntnonis triangular o r square in shape with Icflecting optics irt the corners. since the R L G is basically a solidstate sensor. The optical energy is contined hy the utiliz. 1owownershipcost strapdown navigation. Intritisically.inerti. after many years of testing and evaluation.. Therefore. T h e word "laser" is a n acronym f < ~ r fication by stimulated c~nissioriof r~ldiation. and attitude and heading refcrcncc systenis ( A H K S ) are requircd for many applications. especially in military applications.~sereyros have a digitill output that sitnplities their interficc with microprocessors a n d navigation cornputels: that is. it detects and nicasures differential angular rotations by measuring the frequency dilference hetween the two contrarotating beams. Also.LII onderstanding of quantum rncclianics and optical physics. while the manufacturer of the A310 and . The RLC.G designs.missiles.uidancc Cotrtrol Systems. Therefore.ll sensing capwhility.~llcd .iscr gyro works and the differences hctween "lieht atnpllthe various configurations.use in such systems.i mixture o f He N e gas to generdte coherent monochromatic radiation in two directions. very high dynamic inputs can be tolerated.aircraft. Mirlor technolc~gy. is considered 10 hc .2. R L G s arc ideal strapdown instruments.I spinning mass. Ilrc :)rigin. thcrcfore. a n d s1iipho. NorthropElcclronics [)ivision. Reflectivity and scattering of these mirrors must be highly controllcd in order to achieve desired performance.il rescarch \+. instead of using .in attempt will he made to cxpl~tinin basic terms how a 1. . it Mas c. .2. Laser Gyro Fundamentals The RLCi is n unique nttc integrating inertial sensor. standing o f how a laser gyro works requires . the ring clin he any geometric shape.rrd firecontrol system applications. with n o moving parts to achiev~.iscr.I hyrrtlrctic ruby or .I gas ruch as a rnixlilrc o l heliutn :ind neon." Originally. whereby two distinct laser beams o f the same frequency are cniitted from a gas discharge tube. are heginning to use R L G ineltial navigation systems fol. Specifically. as was noted e. Iloncywcll.tll R1. systeln.lnsports.4320 Airbus selected the Litton RLC. irnd the Autonctics GroupRockwell Inlernati(1na1.
The Ring Laser Gyro 87 3.2.1.3. as shown in Fig. and with respect to inertial space. thereby forming two beams. Let X he the inertial space distance between points A and B.2. Therefore. let the positive sign (+) refer to the beam traveling in the direction of rotation and the negative sign () refer to the beam traveling opposite to the direction of rotation. . Both beams are recombined at the original beamsplitter. a source of monochromatic light. one traveling clockwise and the other counterclockwise.2. and a detector about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the optical path. Here we will assume that the speed of light remains FIGURE 31 Ideal rotating Sagnac interferometer. the light moving in the direction of rotation must travel a longer distance than the light traveling in the opposite direction. the transit times of the two beams to return to the beamsplitter will differ for each beam. As a result. Theoretical Background 3.3. where the light is constrained to travel along the circumference. 31. Furthermore. since the beamsplitter is also rotating. the transit time for the light to travel the complete path is the same for both beams and is given by [ 2 ] t = 2 n R / c . moving to a new location B during the interval of time it takes the light to complete its circuit. after passing once around the circular ring. In the absence of rotation.The Passive Sagnac Interferometer Sagnac's experiment consisted of rotating a square interferometer that included mirrors. Now consider an ideal circular interferometer. Light is introduced in the interferometer at point A and is split by the beamsplitter. the two transit times will differ from the case where there is no rotation. where c is the speed of light and R is the radius of the circular path.3. if the interferometer is rotated at a constant angular velocity a. Now.
" is considered . ) ' + . Thus.(. the total closedpath transit for the light is given hy 12.'c)(RC>/c)[l t ( R O .5). gives Next.' we have Using the billomial series tor (RC1.. T h e nct transit time can be written as o r solving Eq. ? ) + ( R C ~ ! ( . /nert. it is necessary to find the transit time At.)rcsulls in Ar= (4nR. Dividing the numerator and d c n o m ~ n i ~ t o r by (.1) where X . Thu:. The optical path difircncc Al.2) to I.. (3. = ?nR i X r (3. = RRl.IS the basis of the R I G I I I ] . in order to find the optical path dityerence A L hctween the two beams.88 CHAPTER 3 . is equi~l c Ar: therefore. ci~lledthe "Sagnac elTect. thc lo . 51 <I. .1 wherc l o a first approximation in ( R R ' ? I Equation (3.a/ Sensors invariant. .
even with a large area. Ideally. Specifically. ( 3 . therefore. The fractional difference between these two frequencies corresponds to the fractional difference in optical path lengths traveled by each wave and. there must be enough gain in the medium to overcome losses in the cavity.3. Sensitivity can he improved by replacing the beamsplitter with a mirror to form a resonant circuital optical cavity supporting travelingwave modes for the counterrotating beams.2. The Active Ring Laser Interferometer The passive Sagnac interferometer discussed in the previous section is not practical for measuring very low angular input rates. Rosenthal suggested that these modes could be made selfsustaining by placing the lasing medium in the cavity [ 9 ] . is the optical path length of each beam. it lacks sensitivity because the path difference for light traveling in the two directions is much less than a wavelength. The two oppositely traveling waves form a standing wave within the cavity. The Ring Laser Gyro 89 basic equation for the optical path difference of the rotating interferometer is where A is the area enclosed by the circular optical path ( A = n R 2 ) . Note that Eq. 6 ) is general and applies to any geometric closed path. in order to sustain oscillation. and each beam must have an integral number of wavelengths around the ring. That is. the improvement in sensitivity arises from the fact that the laser frequency is dependent on the cavity length. Therefore. N is a large integer (typically 105 to lo6).2. . 3. Now. is proportional to the angular velocity.7) where L. the condition for oscillation is Nh* = L. One problem arising here is that the path difference is small. (3.2. It should be pointed out that the cavity geometry determines the wavelengths of a given mode. since the ratio of the total area enclosed to the wavelength must be very large.3. and h* is the wavelength. That is. the two oppositely directed traveling waves oscillate independently. each with its own frequency and amplitude. and the amplitudes and frequencies are constrained to be equal.
thc relation hetwccn Av \ I .90 Cavity l~newidth . 'fhc 1. Therefore.o\cr $yio\ c:in iiiv. he lilt? gyros i f one ohsrivrs t h e frcqucnc) o l l h c phaii.G eclwation. 32. illustrated in Fig. solving Eq. ( 3 . Since ?. si This heat f'rcqucncy is scnsed a s a rotation rate of the intekrencc frinpc patterns past a photodetector. 8 ) stales that small pathlength changes lead to small frcqucncy changes.I2.lscr gyro is a ratc intcgri~ling pyro* that gives N counts whcn turned tillough iln angle *L. and substituting Eq. L = total optical path length (or simply cavity length) ( c m l Cl=inerli. LA. is  Equation ( 3 .9) is thc idcdl R1. Equation (3. [S). = I.mplycavlly m<xlc\ thc fractional frequency shift A v i v equals the rractional path Icnpth AI. . gives the rcsultant beat frequency between the two waves as where A\. s h f l . (3. 1.I MHz  CHAPTER 3 . T h e quantity ( 4 A . The line width of the as empty cavity is d u e to cavity losses.~ d .and A/.:v. I n e r f ~ aSensors l A 1G C t Mode spacing J+cIL~ i * "N 1 U~ "N +l Optical frequency (u) FIGURE 32 b.. .6) for AL. 8 ) Tor Av. Adjacent longitudinal rcsunant modes of the empty cavity arc scparlitrd in frequency by <. = heat frequency ( H z ) A =area cncloscd by the cavity (em') A = u~avclcngtho r the laser lipllt ( m ) .I.il rotation ratc ( I .) is the gcomctric o r ideal scale factor S.=c.
the approximate integration of the instantaneous rate leads to angular random walk.9). integrating both sides of Eq.6328 um Therefore.85 x rad/s 7. attitude is created by appropriately accumulating or summing the angle increments so obtained. the measurable beat frequency is At this point.717 cm A = 2 x :bh= (3. Therefore.6195)(6. Furthermore.2687) = 22. as given by Eq.3. (3. provides an instantaneous angular rate at the specific instant at which it is sampled. The "rate" gyro.: : Avdt=S where Rdt N = total phase shift or beats (pulses) counted during the measurement time 8 =total inertial angle of rotation In order to get an idea of the magnitude of the measurable beat frequency Av. However.6895 cm2 0.9) over the interval time t yields i 1. This represents the angle change over a given interval of time. As a result. causing attitude drift and other navigation errors. when a rate gyro is subject to wideband random vibration.2687 cm L = 21. Moreover. on the other hand. (3. it should be noted that a "rate integrating" gyro provides an incremental angle as an output. the instrument has a digital .239 cm 6.2. the angular displacement over a certain interval must be determined by assuming that the observed instantaneous rate holds over the entire interval. The Ring Laser Gyro 91 8. consider an equilateral triangular RLG with the following characteristics: One side of the triangle: Height of the triangle: Total optical path length: Area of the triangle: Transition : Frequency: Input angular velocity: R = 1 deg/h=4.
41. 3 . Sometimes. Thcn.. each hide ih L. The typical gel. the scale t i c t o r is expressed in counts .' 20. .~na triangular onc. the units o f S will comrnc~nlyhc given by counts per radian. <I= L 3. Sensitivity can also he improved in a fiberoptic ring circuit by providing a long optical path. where I count is cquivalcnt to I pulse. Therefore.al Sor?sors output quantized in incremental input :%xisrotation. i h e itrw of the equilateral trianglc is A = ( I ?)112 sin 60 ( n ' .some common geometric ibrms are as follows: Equilatrval tvianple Lct each side he of length u.re Square:  r+ 1 L14 Cmevalfirvrn S = ( l 'X)(diameter of inscribed circle). Sc.G is proportional to thc a r m cncloscd by thc path and invcrscly proportional to the path length. Thcrcli.  Equilateral Triangle: Syuuvc I'or a square.1. The arca is . thus having greater potential accuracy.~lc factor sensitivity can hc increased by increasing thc cncloscd area . s input.A = L' 10. Also. r i square laser gyro encloses a greater area tor a given path length th.785. The accuracy of RL.it thc same lilnc decreasing the wavelength 3. t:or example.4.92 CHAPTER 3 Inert.A while .metric scale ljctors fol.I square configuration can be packaged into a smallersired inertial navigation unit. o r the optical path length I. The scale factor given above relates counts Is outpot to radians.
=hv.3. where Ni is the population of atoms in the excited state." in which an atom in an excited state E. The Rlng Laser Gyro 93 per arcsecond or arcsecond per count. we are all familiar with the process of "spontaneous emission. Since each node of the standing wave occurs with a separation of h/2 along the beam. the scale factor will also change.000 counts/radian). a resonant optical standing wave is formed by the two counternotating traveling waves.. is known as stimulated emission. Therefore.2. thereby dropping into a lower energy state E. the wavelength h can take discrete values only in a resonant ring.N. is given by Nt=2N. A remarkable feature of this process is that the emitted photon is in phase with. N. the Sperry SLG15 laser gyro has a scale factor of 3. In particular. (3. For example. Einstein pointed out that an excited atom can revert to a lower state through photon emission via two distinctive mechanisms: (1) in one instance the atom emits energy spontaneously.147 arcsec/pulse (or 65. Figure 33 depicts three RLG geometric configurations. according to the relation [I31 ElE. The rate of these stimulated jumps is proportional to the energy density u(vf) of the radiation and to the population difference. as we stated above. only one value is associated at any time with the sustained oscillation that is within the laser bandwidth. the equivalent circular ring laser can be shown to be the inscribed circle. and the phenomenon that makes the laser possible is that of "stimulated emission of radiation. the triangular path represents the actual optical path. In the ideal scale factor case. which is the key to the operation of the laser.62 x ergs) and hv is one photon (or "light quantum"). Moreover. 3. the equivalent circular ring laser is the one that gives the same ideal scale factor as the actual polygonal ring laser. Consequently. and if there is no bias mechanism present. with a resultant spatially isotropic rate of emission of power NjAnhv. a more useful form in system applications. Each of these two waves must satisfy the condition of an integer number of wavelengths N around the ring.3.5 arcsec/pulse.. The "Lasing" Action The operation of a laser is based on quantum physics. In the case of an equilateral triangle. the total number of nodes N. In 1917. if h changes by a discrete value. has the polarization of.2. can emit a quantum of radiation of frequency v.3. For example. or ( 2 ) it is triggered into emission by the presence of electromagnetic radiation of the proper frequency. between the upper and lower energy states.11) where h is Planck's constant (=6. while the Honeywell GG1328 laser gyro has a scale factor of 3.. These jumps occur at a rate A." From physics. this figure illustrates the concept of the equivalent circular ring laser. The latter process. If the triangular ring is stationary. and propagates in the same direction .
lul 1ri.7iR 2 Circle of r a d i u s f i l l : A .G consists of n tube filled with .lt givcs rise to thc amplification and dilectional properties of lasels.~n sralc I l ~ c l o ~ ~ rckttionsbtps.qoiv.quili~lt.xnd r.4rrR FIGURE 33 I. Lct us now scc what happens in thc lasing medium.lvc [XI.First.I mixture of helium .?TR 2 Circle of radius ZR: A . two conditions must be fulfilled [S]. In ordcr to obtain lasing action. 1nerr.ingic ring . a gain ( o r a~nplification) medium lo overcome the losses must he present.al Sensors 2 Circle of radius R: A . as the stimulating w. The gain rnediuni used in the modern KI.ilcnl circultcr ring i o r ilclclmii~. This thcn is thc proccss 111.~li.94 CHAPTER 3 .
2. that is. producing an orange glow discharge. which in turn depends on the change in orbit of the electron. Equation (3. the atom must have at least three energy levels. stimulating the release of new photons that. The wavelength of the photon depends on the amount of energy released. If N is the number of atoms. The Ring Laser Gyro 95 and neon gases at a very low pressure of about 3%7 torr* and operating at the visible region of 6328 A. e x p [ . we need a larger population of atoms in the E. Each orbit is associated with a specific energy level that increases as a function of distance from the nucleus. N2> N .( E .13) where k is Boltzmann's constant (=1.12) From the cascade of photons metioned above and in Eq. and E2 we obtain [I31 ElE2=hv (3. Level E. Also. However. it is the level in which most of the population of neon atoms must be inverted before laser action is possible.0132 x 10' newtons/m2. a population inversion must be generated.3. ) / k T ] = No exp[ (AE)/kT] (3. For two energy levels E. Population inversion requires that. which leads to an inverse radial dependence of gain. thereby transferring energy to the neon atoms and raising them temporarily to higher energy levels. As we shall see below. in order to obtain population inversion.3804 x 10'%rg/deg) and T is the absolute temperature. expressing the thermal equilibrium of the population. in turn.793 rnb (millibars). Now. 36. . (3. that is. in order for the gain medium to supply a gain. other mixtures of gases are being investigated. From Fig. in addition to keeping the upper levels populated. the voltage ionizes the gas. In order to obtain light amplification.13) is known as Boltzmann's equation. These photons strike other excited neon atoms. I atm=760 tor?= 1013. This is effected primarily through collisions o f the neon atoms with the cavity walls. the lower levels he kept depopulated. When a voltage is applied across a metallic anode (source) and a cathode (sink). excited helium atoms collide with neon atoms. accumulate in the longlived 2 ' s and 2's states. *The sealevel pressure is by definition 1. after dropping down from several upper levels. A more detailed account of what is happening in the various energy levels can be obtained by referring to Fig. A few neon atoms spontaneously emit a photon as t h ~ y back fall to a normal energy level. E . . 36 [ 4 ] . do the same. energy level. However. A cascade of photons is thus produced in all directions. 34 takes the form N=N. we note that many helium atoms. is metastable.12) we can write Atom in E l level + photon (hv) *excited atom Figure 34 shows the physical interpretations of these concepts. the equation for the curve in Fig. Figure 35 shows this effect.
17.lted emission.96 CHAPTER 3 . and 11 chain reaction hegins.~ states. The excited He atoms inelastically collide with the transfer energy to the groundstate Ne atoms. Same population n E. and E. a s wc have seen. raising them in turn to the 3 . FIGURE 34 I::ncrgy distrihutioll . T<OK < N. Spontitncous photons initiate stimul. ~ 2and 2s: states.r2and 2. Thc .and populili~oninveisloo. arc nietastablc states from which there are no allowcd radiative transitions. . N. These arc the uppcr laser levels and there then exists a population inversion with respect to thc lower 3. F I G U R E 35 linergy d i i t r i b u t ~ o n ~ l i c rinlcnsc pornping. Thcse. Inertial Sensors Boitrmann distribution N 2 Inverted dstrlbulion N> > N.
These cavity resonances are approximately transverse electric and magnetic or TEM. TEMwq+. Also. for each transverse mode (m. transverse mode is ideally Gaussian over the beam's cross section and has the following characteristics: (1) there are no phase shifts in the electric field. In addition to the longitudinal or axial modes of oscillation.. the plasma tube diameter inversely affects the gain and is. so that 1s atoms return to the ground state after losing energy to the walls of the cavity.3. For this reason. modes. the . The 1s level is metastable. The m and n subscripts represent the integer number of transverse nodal lines in the x and y directions. n ) .2. lowestorder transverse mode that will oscillate is the TEMoomode.. where q is the longitudinal mode number.8 nm in the visible spectrum. which correspond to standing waves set up along the cavity z axis.2 nm in the infrared. The lowestorder modes that will oscillate are TEMw...+2. there can be many longitudinal q modes. the form TEM. .3 and 3391. therefore.. the flux density of the TEM. thus remaining uncrowded themselves and thereby continuously sustaining the inversion. The p states drain off into the 1s state. Thus. and TEMw. The Ring Laser Gyro 97 0 Ground state  FIGURE 36 Heliumneon energy levels [4]. dominant laser transitions correspond to 1152. transverse modes can be sustained as well. Above all. an important design parameter. which is perhaps the one most widely used. and 632. A complete specification of each node has. accordingly.
( 2 ) optical pumping (dielcctric solids. Population inversion can be achieved by thc following methods: ( I ) spatial separation ol'excilcd molcculcs (ammonia maser). liquids. gases.jscr mode nt>n~cnclaturc: ) c. Figurc 37 illustrates thcsc ideas. and ( 6 ) rapid expansion of hotgas mixlurcs. ~nerrjal Sensors and s o i t is spatially coherent: ( 2 ) the bcanr's zingular divergcncc is tllc srnallcst: and ( 3 ) il c a l l he rocused lo lhc srnallestsired spot.iin incciiom (h pioperllcb lrlilicilllng l l i e oscilialin&r illode.!ftcrlis: (211 I.98 CHAPTER 3 . (4) chernical reactions (gases). .. 3 ) clec( lric discharges (gases). arid licld p. sen~iconducti)rs). ( 5 ) electron holc pair production (doped scrniconductor). Frequency (1))  FIGURE 37 Characteristic irequcncic.
which. As mentioned earlier. while the third mirror allows partial transmission of less than 0. which are usually of the hardcoated multilayerdielectric (MLD) type. The only reason for choosing a triangular configuration for the closed path is because of the ease of alignment. that the laser principle works for any closed path. Two of the mirrors possess 100% reflectivity. L. Photons traveling parallel to the cavity will he reflected back and forth many times. This is easily explained by considering the FahryPerot etalon. in order to sustain laser oscillation (as contrasted to singlepass amplification). two of the mirrors will be flat while the third is normally concave spherical. however. is the simplest resonant cavity. while providing the optical feedback necessary for low gain transitions. The Ring Laser Gyro 99 A resonant cavity is required to fulfill the second condition. as we have seen.1% for signal detection.3. become the end of a resonant cavity. To understand the mechanics of what is happening in the cavity. Also. producing a positive feedback necessary to sustain oscillation. This interferometer provides a practical means of obtaining mode separation necessary to produce oscillation in one or a few modes at optical frequencies. Mirrors are placed at each end of a triangular cavity.2. Then . let us look at the resonant modes. The mirrors. Conditions for resonance then exist according to the following equations: where n is a large integer (approximately lo5). the axial mode spacing in a laser with Im separation (Av=c/2L= 150 MHz) is in excess of the natural linewidth and enables five or six dominant modes across the full linewidth in a cavity without conducting walls. The structure of the electromagnetic field E within the space defined by the mirrors is determined by the boundary condition E = 0 at x = 0. For example. It must be pointed out. optical feedback must he used to obtain an optical resonator.
which allows partial transmission. of storing system and is delined by .In ideal cohcrcnt source and its waretield can hc expressed by . which is rsscntially a sirrglc frequency. Typical values for L) arc in the order of l o X10".111d mode conversion due t o imperfect imaging by the niirrors. 3. Stated another ~ ~ i theyratio of the complex wavc ~ . does not change with time. an clectromagnetic wave is suhjcct 10 a number of cavity losses. Mathematically. The emission is the lascr radiation.I c:i\.I figure of merit of an energy whele P is the dissipated power.I unique harmonic fiuiction o f time and position.in instanlaneous wave amplitude that can be expressed by . tlic Iadiation builds up to a steadystate value and is emitted through the mirror.4. o r Q. The length o f tlic cavity is inany thousands t of times the optical wavelength.700 CHAPTER 3 .2. n o matter how far apart.3.ity is . hut most of these frcqucncies d o not receive sutticient gain t o oscillate. . its wavetield is characterized by . C:onscquently. however. and ( 5 ) losses . (2) scatter in^ by optical inhomogencitics :ind surface imperfection. When any modc ( o r resonant frequency) rcccives a gain greater than its losscs. Inertial Sensors  Finally. the quality factor. Definition of Coherence If a light sourcc is coherent. amplitude a t two points in the wavetield. Whilc propagating in a resonan( cavity. Tablc 31 gives some the properties of stimulalcd cmission of the lascr hcarn. among which the following are typical: ( 1 ) transmission and absorption. ( 4 ) i~t absorptio~iin tlic amplifying medium. the cavity is resonant i ~ a largc number o f frequencies. pcriod of oscillation: C) takes the tinel forln A high Q mcans low dissipation and narrow li~iewidth. (3) difffi~ctic~n the extremes of ihc laser cavity. r: is the avcragc eliergy s t o ~ r d and T i s the .
the lasing medium is external to the cavity.3.3. then one speaks of a passive laser gyro. Such a combination can oscillate a traveling wave going around the ring in a clockwise (CW) direction and a traveling wave going around in a counterclockwise (CCW) direction. The beams. and k is the propagation constant (kx is in units of radians). t) = 2E0 sin kx cos Rt where Eo is the amplitude. active laser gyro. the RLG is a triangular or square cavity filled with gas.1 Equivalence between Stimulated Emission and Laser Beams Properties of Stimulated emission In phase Same frequency Same direction Laser beam Coherence Monochromatic Directional Same polarization where k = 2n/h.3. The profile of this wave does not move through space. If. R is the rotation rate (or angular frequency in rad/s). in which two oppositely traveling light waves are generated by stimulated emission of radiation. Since the light heams have the same frequency. on the other hand.3. and associated electronics for detection of the two counterrotating heams. Both clockwise and counterclockwise heams occupy the same space at the same time and oscillate at the same frequency when no input rate is present. THE RING LASER GYRO PRINCIPLE Commonly. This standingwave pattern is characterized by the equation E(x. 3.2. three or four mirrors used to form a closed optical circuit (ring resonator). travel around the enclosed area in both directions simultaneously. A is the amplitude. The Ring Laser Gyro Principle 101 TABLE 3. The laser gyro combines the properties of an optical oscillator and general relativity to produce the function of the conventional mechanical gyroscopes. The laser beam takes a . as in the fiberoptic gyro. the simplest ideal RLG consists of a HeNe plasma cavity or medium with gain. and r is the radius from the source to the wavefront.3. one speaks of a twomode. continuous wave (cw). Specifically. w=2nf. In this case. they form a standingwave pattern. formed by the lasing action described in Section 3.
001 dcg/h ( o r 0.~r o rulg I a i c r g. \ aRead0. This is pulscs.~uscstlic frcquenc) of the heam traveling in thc d i r c c t i i ) ~ ~ r o t . \ I \# I .That is. the t \ + ~ will have a frequency di5ercnic Av7vl \'. The signal thus detected has a high sign. M o r e hpccifically. The output is [he integral o f lhc input ratc. which is proportional to thc input rate. l'hc n ~ ~ n ~olthcsc pulscs is pn. the prccisc frequency of each beam depends on hoth the lascr gain ~ n c d i u ~ r ~ thc and length o f the closed path. A typicitl tria~~gulai.. I'reqoency dilkrenccs detcclcd by the laser gyro a r c in Lhe order of less than 0. Rotillion of thc h a \ ~ on which the laser cavity and the mirrors a]e mounted c. Inertial Sorsors linitc amount of time to make one trip around the ring. Thus.lu ".L 1ri.1 t l r . 38..III intcgrxting nrode..i . .sensitivc device. ~.102  CHAPTER 3 .is shown in 1ig.~ltonoise ratio.gyro is operalcd i n .t prjsrn \ \. This dilfercncc is detected hy hclcrodyi~ingthe two hcitlns on a photi. .ln~ul..portion.0001 ci~rtllratc). Tllc ring cavily pathlength dill'elence A L hctwcen the clockwise and c1111nte1clockwise h u m s will vary a s L :a Interferencefringes f \ Photodlode readout detector \ . in practice ihc lascl. ~ n dthc frehcams quency o f thc oppositely dircclcd bcam to incrcasc. Today's laser gyros arc capable ofscnsing rotalion rates down 10 0. ~ l i uto ~ of ~ dccrcasc . in which each cycle o f thc dillerence frequency IS counted a s a unit of angular displacement. I Zeradur glass block )\ actuator Cathode F I G U R E 38 Schemalic r c p r c r e n t n l ~ .ll her kept on track by counti~lg to the intcgratcd .~ngle.
Laser Gyro Block Material In this section.3. In other words. the major components are (1) the block material. The longer wavelength provides greater gain for a given length of gain medium. These components will now be described in more detail. Electrodes are then installed and the entire cavity is filled with the laser gain medium. The Rino Laser Gvro Princi~le 1n. The slope of the line relating the two quantities is found from Eq. low cost. (3. both forms of glass. (2) mirrors. Since the fractional frequency shift (Av/v) of the resonant modes of the laser equals the fractional pathlength change (ALIL). and (5) associated electronics. CerVit and Zerodur. machined blocks of ultralowtemperature coefficientofexpansion glass. (3.9). (3) the gain medium. greater accuracy. This is the ideal RLG equation.9) as Av= (4AILh)n (3. The heliumneon R L G is capable of operating at two wavelengths: 0. by measuring Av.8). Only the two materials. Most R L G designs have monolithic bodies.3. The shorter wavelength has greater resolution and. (3. more accurate laser gyros and vice versa. Two common block materials used are the CerVit (ceramic vitreous) manufactured by OwensIllinois. One is a very low coefficient of expansion to reduce the amount of movement required of the piezoelectric pathlength control device. Simply. possess the first two attributes. and other factors are also desirable. optical rotation sensors function by detecting a differential shift in optical path length between two beams propagating in opposite directions around a closed path. we will consider the triangular RLG. therefore. the shorter wavelength is more desirable for larger. one obtains the angular velocity Q.18) where L is the cavity length and h is the wavelength.7 where A is the projected area of the optical ring orthogonal to the angular velocity Q and c is the speed of light in vacuum. The specific frequency is governed by the mirrors and the path length. as given by Eq. (4) the readout mechanism. and Zerodur manufactured by the Schott Optical Con~pany.15 pm. the frequency difference of the counterrotating beams is given by Eq. That is. Flat surfaces are machined at the correct angle for mounting the mirrors. a separate lasing tube versus . one solid block of material is drilled to provide a path for the laser beams. Thus. Ease of fabrication. In the design and fabrication of a RLG. Another property of monolithic laser gyros is imperviousness to helium. Regardless of the block material used. but they are not impervious to helium. in an ideal RLG.The material used for the laser gyro body must have special properties. In an alternate R L G design. the output rate (or beat frequency) is proportional to the input rate. and to reduce temperature sensitivity.6328 and 1. Other forms of ultralowexpansion glass are available.
In a monolithic block. Each mirror causes the loss of a portion of the laser encrgy through absorption o r transmission. The mirrors and ~ t h c r optical components must often be replaced o r adjusted during assembly and test. the light is reflected from each surface o f t h c multilayer stack. which will be the topic otdiscussion in Section 3 3 . F o r example. The common triangular twomode ( o r twofrequency) laser gyros use three mirrors. stable hermetic seal. tlicrehy reducing the lockin band. the gain ~ n c d i u r lib contained ~ in a scparate gain tube that fits between two mirrors in the laser body. Another advantage is that the entire body need not he sealed to prevent the loss of helium. usually four. the g a i ~ iregion extends around approximately onehalf of the path. a portion o r thc cncrgy is hackscattered.104 CHAPTER 3 . An advantage of the modular dcsign is ease of fabrication and repair. The liunibcr o f rliirrors used is dctcrmined by design tradeoffs. Moreover. Fabrication of laser gyro mirrors is evidently an art. arc durability and resistance to contamination and deterioration by the He N e plasma. Mirrors used by most manufacturers arc of the M L D type. Mirrors The mirrors are the most important components of a R1. the thickness of each layer must be tailored to both the wavelength of thc laser beam and to the anglc of incidence. That is. A portion 01. This rneans that modular R I G S are generally larger than monolithic laser gyros of comparable accuracy. it omcrs greater stability and ruggedness. . the milrors are comnionlq placed in optical contact with the block. Specifically. multioscill. A disadvantage o f the modular design is the short gain region. possible. Depending on the particular manufacturer design. The rest passes through to the tiext layer where a portion is again reflected.~toro r fourmode laser gyros must use an even number of mirrors. 1 Backscattering results from surface roughness and optical index variations in the coatings. T h e mirrors must be extremely smooth and free of defects in order to reduce backscatter a s much a:. and the backscattering of light a t the mirror surfaces adversely atfects the lockband error. Multilayer dielectric mirrors are niadc by depositing layers of alternately high and low index of refraction on a highly polished substrate. In thc modular design.ichicvcd with M L D coatings such as silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide. In a monolithic design. Thc high reflectance (>YY'%.G. Since the monolithic R L G is constructed in the form of a solid block. Inertial Sensors a totally machined block is utilized. R L G s use three o r four mirrors. Regardless of the design. The advantage o l these material:. Also. forming a stresst?ec. it is limited t o a distance less than that between two adjacent mirrors. the Laser gain medium will be lost. resulting in lockin. The thickncss of each layer is such that light entering the t o p surface at a specific anglc of incidence travels oncquarter wavelength before arriving a t thc bottom surface.) required for laser gyro operation is cornrnolily . the reflectance and the angular orientation of the mirrors affect the laser gain.
but less backscatter from each surface. a whole number of half waves form around the ring. since the ring is a resonant cavity.) A mirror containing a layer of magnetic material under the reflective surface advances or retards the phase of a reflected light beam. They use the polar magnetoKerr effect required for use with circularly polarized light. false rotation information. Magnetic mirrors used in the twofrequency laser gyros must have an alternating magnetic field applied. Consequently. Magnetic mirrors are. it is better to use only three. as in a triangular ring laser gyro. generally. except that they have a layer of magnetic material between the substrate and the dielectric stack. The magnetic layer is composed of a mixture of manganese and bismuth. The magnetic layer is composed of a garnet material similar to that used for bubble memories. If mirrors are expensive and of low quality. fourmirror laser gyros become more desirable. the gain is kept sufficiently low that only one mode. Use of Faraday cells has been noted to exhibit strain birefringence. The precise frequency within the band is determined by the path length around the ring. resulting in mode coupling. As mirror cost decreases and quality increases. The path length is usually controlled so that the frequency remains in the center of the curve of gain versus frequency. Magnetic mirrors used in multioscillator laser gyros have a constant magnetic field applied. is propagated in each direction. Ring laser gyro performance can be strongly affected by backscattered light. the medium is capable of supplying gain at the desired cavity resonance. the effect of atoms within the gain medium. (A Faraday cell is a piece of crystal that changes the phase of a light wave traveling through it as a function of an applied magnetic field. which generates pathlength differences and. Thus. Gain Medium The gain medium is capable of producing laser action over a finite band of frequencies due principally to Doppler broadening.3. Since a magnetic mirror reduces the backscatter and (emperature sensitivity problems associated with a Faraday cell. will experience greater backscatter than one with an angle of incidence of 45". Use of only three mirrors limits the magnitude of these problems. Normally. the effect is nonreciprocal. a specified number of half wavelengths. the magnetoKerr effect is the reflective analog of the Faraday effect. a laser beam striking a mirror at an angle of incidence of 60". a fourmirror laser gyro will have more scattering surfaces. hence. depending on the direction of the incident and reflected beams. Specifically. if the gain . Consequently. as mentioned above. A variant of the multilayer dielectric process is to use magnetic mirrors. a tradeoff design at the system level will he required. identical to other multilayer dielectric mirrors. Therefore. As mentioned above. it has nearly supplanted the Faraday cell in current usage.3. he Ring Laser ~ y r o principle 7 05 Backscatter is maximum in the direction normal to the plane of the mirror and decreases at smaller angles. For example. They use the transverse magnetoKerr effect required for linearly polarized light.
7 06
CHAPTER 3
.
Inemal Scnsors
supplicd by thi' active medium to a resonant mode is greater than the cavity Io\ses, oscillation will occur. Howcver, llie resonant modes ;I]econsidcrahly narrower in frequency that1 the bandwidth oltlic nortnal spont;inrousatomic transition. These modes will he the one> thal arc suslilincd in the cavity: a\ ;I rcsult the emcrging heam is restricted to a region close to those fiecluencies. The gain medium used in most R L G s is a highpurity lril~arymixture ) at of hclium ( ' ~ e and two isotopes of neon ("'Nc and " ~ e ) a ratio o f Hc N e approximalcly 13: 1 and a t thc propcr pressure. In one design. this mixture is made up of Y E " 'He with the balance consisting of the two neon '"Nc and 48'70 "Ne, respectively. I n a n isotopes with the pcrccntagcs of 52'X~ alternate design. a 1 : 1 (i.c., SO'%,each) mixture is uscd for the two neon isotopes. T h e helium is rcquircd to absorb a portion of the energy in thc icon atoms to bring then1 to the proper energy slate to provide a n output at the propcr frequency. T h e two neon isotopes have peak gains at slightly ditferent I'rcqucncies. Each counterrotating beam favors one isotope. Without the two isotopes, the two beams will compete for the same population of atoms. Thus, only one beam will result. On the other hand, if the prcssurc is increased, heyond the proper value. mode competition will appear even in a lascr that has a I : I mixture o f "'Ne and "Ne. This is likely to happen because the holes burned in the gain curve will become wider with increasing pressure.
Readout Mechanism In order t o sense the ditfcrrtice in frequencies between the two counterrotating laser beams, one of the mirrors is made partially transmissive. typically less the 0. I'X,. T h e two laser beams, after emerging lrom the mirror, are combined by use of a corner prism so that they are nearly parallel. rrsulting in a fringe pattern thal is detccted by a set of photodetectors ( o r photodiodes). As the lascr gyro rotates, the fringes appear to move across the photodetectors. The photodetectors then sc~isc the beaL frequency by heterodyning the two optical frequencies, that is, hy counting the fringes. The fringe pattern will shift in a direction determined by the relative magnitude of the frequencies of the two laser beams. Whcn the ring is rotated clockwise tlic fringe pattern niovcs in one direction. while the pattcrn will reverse when the direction of the ring is reversed. l'he number of fringes is a measure of angular displacement, and the fringe repetition rate corresponds to the rotation rate of the ring. That is, each fringe pattcrn moves a t a rate that is directly proportional L the frequency dilTercnce o between the two counterrot;iting heams. This is then converted into a digital output. As a result, the output pulse rate is proportional to the input rate, a n d the cumulative pulse coullt is a measure of the change in the gyro orientation with respect to some reference point. Laser Gyro Electronics The R L G electronics consist o f the following circuits: discharge current control. pathlength control, dither drive (if dither
3.3. The Ring Laser Gyro Principle
107
is used), and readout amplifiers and direction logic. The triangular RLG is designed with two anodes and a cathode, so that the discharge is initiated by applying two balanced high dc voltages between the anodes and a common cathode. The value of this voltage will vary from one laser gyro design to another. Typically, this voltage is twice the operating potential required to sustain the discharge or continuous operation. After discharge is initiated, it is immediately regulated by the current control circuit. Pathlength control is accomplished by a control circuit, which operates on the intensity of the laser beam. A piezoelectric transducer is attached to one of the mirrors in order to keep the cavity length of the ring constant during environmental changes. Any changes in path length manifest themselves as changes in scale factor and null stability, which reduce the sensor's overall accuracy. In closedloop operation, the pathlength control circuit operates as a nullseeking system to stabilize the cavity length at the maximum intensity. Ring laser gyros using dithering techniques can improve the performance by introducing a rotational bias so that the gyro operates outside the lockin band or region. In essence, the bias consists of sinusoidally oscillating the gyro block at a dither frequency between 100 and 500Hz, depending on the design. The bias averages to zero over each cycle, and as a result, operation occurs mostly in the linear region. The frequency and amplitude of the dither are such that the laser gyro now becomes responsive to very low angular input rates. The bias thus introduced is then subtracted from the output signal. The dither must be symmetric, or errors will be introduced. The two counterrotating laser beams are optically combined outside the cavity into a fringe pattern. The motion of the fringe pattern, as we have seen, is determined by a dual photodetector, amplified and converted into a pulse rate. In addition, a logic circuit operates the output pulses that are proportional to clockwise rotation and those proportional to the counterclockwise rotation.
3.3.1. Laser Gyro Error Sources
In the previous sections we described how the relativistic properties of electromagnetic radiation, in this case monochromatic laser light, can be used to construct an angular rate motion sensor. As we have seen, the laser gyro operating principle is based on the property that two counterrotating light beams will interact to produce an interference pattern that can be detected by a photodetector. Theoretically, without instrument imperfections, the laser gyro should be an ideal singledegreeoffreedom incremental rateintegrating inertial sensor. In practice, however, inherent electromagnetic properties, optical instrument imperfections, properties of materials used to construct the instrument, and detector limitations become sources of error. Any effect that causes the input/output relationship to deviate from the ideal case is an error source. Ideally, the RLG displays a frequency difference as
7 08
;I
CHAPTER 3
.
/nerr,a/ Sensors
linear function of input rate passiug through thc origin. In the design 01' a RLG, the errors that arc crucial to its opcratioll may he grouped into thrcc typcs: ( I ) null shift, ( 2 ) lockin, and (3) niode pulling. References 2 and 4 give a detlrilcd account of these errors. These error sourccs arc illustrated in Fig. 39. Such errors cause the laser gyro to deviate fronl the ideal straight linc. Early i~lvestigationsof RLGs revealed that the linear relationship of Eq. (3.9) was not obeyed at low rotation rates, where the frequency difference remained locked L zero. These error sourccs will now he discusscd. o
NullShift A laser gyro can exhihit a null shift, i.e.. a nonrero healnote for a zeroinput rotation. Null shift arises when the optical path is anisotropic for the oppositely directed waves. Causes may be attributed to a nonreciprocal index of refraction tbr the two beams, noise in the bias uscd to eliminate lc~ckin.drift, nonsylnmetry of a n applied bias ( t o avoid lockin), active medium Row (e.g., Langmuir Row), tube temperature gradients,
13
NULL SHIFT
(,ad's)
OUTPUT FREQUENCY
AAV
/
R
 12
(OUTPUT ATLOW INPUT RATES)
a.
("PUT RoTAnon RATE
R
(,ads)
(b)
FIGURE 39
IJnhiuscd twomode ring iziser gyro c r r o l h sllicting the ,,utpur: (;)Inull lih~l'l.( h ) lockin; modc polli~tp.
(iJ
3.3. The Ring Laser Gyro Principle
109
and current differentials. The Langmuir flow bias is associated with gasflow effects in a plasma discharge, which produces a frequency difference not related to rotational motion. Also, the Langmuir flow of neon atoms is caused by a negatively charged cavity wall. A symmetric discharge utilizing two anodes and one cathode allows balancing the oppositely directed anode currents, which reduce the Langmuir flow effects. Null shifts can occur due to anisotropic anomalous dispersion effects and atomic transition. Anisotropy is caused by the wellknown "FresnelFizeau effect." Further, null shifts caused by nonreciprocal saturation effects in the active gain medium can arise from any element in the cavity causing nonreciprocal loss for the two waves: anisotropic scattering effects and magnetic interactions.
Lockin The error that receives the most attention is the lockin phenomenon. Lockin is a fundamental physical phenomenon associated with all oscillating devices. Laser gyros exhibit the same phenomenon. The most important result of the lockin phenomenon is that the scale factor S becomes a function of the rotation rate R. In laser gyros, the coupling mechanism is the reflection of light from one laser beam back along the path where it interacts with the oppositely traveling beam. This, as we have seen, is called backscatter and is caused primarily by imperfect mirrors. More specifically, backscattering, localized losses, and polarization anisotropies cause the mode frequencies to lock at low rotation rates. This results in a zero beatnote for a nonzero rotation [I, 41. That is, the lockin is the deadzone, in which there is zero output for input angular rates of less than RL. Mathematically, the difference in frequency Av can he expressed as
A"={
0 for Ci2<nt ( ~ A I L X ) for n 2 > O ? ~
(3.19);
Equation (3.19) approaches the ideal linear behavior of Eq. (4.56) only in the limit of high angular rates (see Fig. 396), Therefore, the laser gyro beat frequency is unresponsive until an angular input rate greater than the lockin threshold (*!&) is sensed. A bias must he applied such that with a zero or low input rate there is enough of a frequency difference between the two beams to avoid the lockin region. Going one step further, Eq. (3.19) can also he written in the form
*Equation (319) says that the gyro sees an output beat frequency if Q>fb. Consequently, there are small nonlinear effects, and if n~ varies, so will the output. If R < R L .the two beams are frequency locked.
17n
CHAPTER 3
.
Inert,al Se,,sors
whcrc CL, iz the bias ihr zero input rats. We note that from Fig. 3Oh, the bias CI,, is identical to the dithcr rate CL,, . Lockin typically occurs at rotation rates of approximately 0.1 degls. Thcrc are many different sclicrnes fbr tivoiding the previously discussed lockin problem. In the twofrequency laser gyro, biasing methods are commotlly uscd to k w p the gyro out of the lockin rcgion: ( I ) the magnetooptic (nonreciprocal phase bl~iftintroduced between the countcrrotaling beams) bias o r Kerr cll'ecl. which includes the Faraday eliiect and magnetic mirror, and ( 2 ) mechanical dither. Here we will brielly consider only the niechanical dither. The mechanical dither i h a sinusoidal, symmetric signal, alternating rile bias about the zcroinput r;ite. In this method, the entire lascr gyro block is rotated sinusoidally ; ~ peak t rates o f 50 250 dcg;'s. Typical values of dithcl frcquelrcy arc on the order o f 100 500 Hz and atnplitudes are between 1 1 0 0 and 500 arcsec. depending on the lascr gyro design. Somc authors (e.g.. 131) give the value of the dither frequency a s wr,=400 f l r and the amplitude Rl,= 100 kHr. respcctivcly. As we have noted earlier. the R1.C; is inherently an integrating rate gyro. with a digital output. A simplified expression tor the output. considering the lockin elkct, is givcn by [ I . ?]
R
, si~lIv+(l)
u~1ie1eI is the instantaneous phase dilkrcncc between the two countcr!, rolatirig bcarns (v includcs input and null shifts). R is t l ~ cinput rotation r;ltc. R, is the lockin ratc, and P is the s f i c t of hackscltttering phase shif s. F o r a sinusoidal oscillating bias. the mathcmatical model of the 1:lscr gyro. which include> the dithering cfects. can he writtcri i l l thc form (21
v z R  n , s i n ( y i 0)i R,, sin (u,,t
where is the beat ficqucncy, (I,, is the bias magnitude, and (I),, is the dither ~ratc.It should be pointed out that in ally alternating hias metlii~d.thc hias must he perfectly symmetric. One of thc casicst methods to implement. 21s mcntioncd above, is 10 rotate the laser gyro about its axis a t a constant rate ahovc the lockin thresholcl and suhtrltct this ratc from the gyro output. The prohletn is to :~ccuratelycontrol this constant bias. To bc uscd, for example. in a fighter aircraft. thc laser gyro must be able to measure rotation rates of 400 deg:s with an accuracy 010.01 dcg,'h. N o constant rotation ratc c a n he controlled to this degree of accuracy. A refinement i l l this technique is to periodically rcvclsc the direction of r(11ation. If the 1n;lgnitude and duration of rotatioll in hoth directions ;ire the same, they cancel each othcr out. This peliodic reversal is normally accomplished by rnca~lsol. a torsional splillg and it pic7.oclectric driver which produces :I sinusoidal rotation rate called. a s we have sccn. rircchmnii~rl(J;li,hcr. Figure 310 depicts rile mechtmical dithcr.
4
3.3. The Ring Laser Gyro Principle
AU (HZ)
111
Sf
Output beam
(Not to scale)
c+
/ '
, I
nL
t Q,,
(deglh)
I 1
I
I
I
Frequency: w,,,. Amplitude:
= 100500 Hz = f10C500
arcsec
Qd#,her
I
I
>
Dither sine wave
t
f
FIGURE 310
Lockin avoidance scheme re@an of operation.
The bias averages to zero over each cycle and operation occurs mostly in the linear region. The dither eliminates, so to speak, the deadhand and nonlinearity associated with lockin and replaces it with a measurement uncertainty about the ideal input/outpnt curve, as illustrated in Fig. 31 1 This uncertainty is commonly called the randomwalk* error. The S i n this
*Random walk (also known as "Brownian motion" and the "Wiener process") is one of the must fundamental of stochastic processes and is obtained by passing white noise through an integrator, Mathematically, random walk is expressed by the differential equation
where w(r) is a zeromean white noise process. Random walk can also be expressed by the "difference equation" x.+,=x.+w.
xo=O
n = O , 1, . . .
112
CHAPTER 3
Inerrtal Sensors
FIGURE 311
Input output rclatlorlshtp o l ; i dithercd Itscr pylci
figure represents the ideal scale factor. Dithering is currently the lnost corn. mon m a n s of lockin compensation. Tlicre arc two advantages to this schemc. One ir illat thc rotation ratc periodically passcs through zero whcrc lockin occurs. This results in a randomwalk angular position error. The othcr is that the vibration of the gyio body may aKect other colnponents o r the gyro ]nay he affcctcd by other vibration sources. The laser gym, a s ~ v c shall see in the next section, need not be inechanically dithered. Thc samc rcsult may be achieved by the fourwave tcchnique.
Mode Pulling Since the laser radiation is generated in a medium with dispersive propcrtics, thc scale factor S will vary as thc frcqoency of the modc of oscillation varies with positiolr on the gain curve. Variations it1 thc scale factor can he caused by modc pulling and pushing. In considering the effects of saturation on the dispersion properties o f t h e active medium, thcrc is a mode pushing correction to the oscillation frcqucllcics due to thc holc burning correction in the dispersion curve. That is. one beam "pushcs" on the other. If there is a loss difference between thc two beams, caused. for
3.3. The Ring Laser Gyro Principle
7 13
TABLE 32
R i g Laxr Gyro Error Budget Parameters
Parameter Bias error Bias repeatability Bias stability Random walk Scale factor Stability Asymmetry Nonlinearity Input axis alignment Error value Stability Axistoaxis orthogonality Rate range Temperature range Shock (10 ms, t sine) Vibration Life Operating Storage Pulse weight (resolution) Input power Value 0.001 deg/h ( l o ) 0.005 deg/h ( l o ) I0.05 degfh r axis] 0.004 deg/& ( l o ) 10.04 deg/h I axis]
 P P ( ~o ) 3 l <I P P (10) ~ (5 P P (10) ~
+I milliradian maximum 10 microradians maximum <2 arcsec 0 to +400 deg/s each axis  5 4 C to +71"C
2og
5~
50,000 h >5 years 1 2 arcsec 5 W (watts)
example, by anisotropic or other effects, a differential loss null shift will result. As the anisotropic effects change with temperature, so will the null shift. Thus, for each beam there is a linear pulling, that is, the detuning of the oscillation frequency from the cavity frequency. This depends on the plasma dispersion and the amount by which the oscillation frequency differs from the atomic resonance frequency [2]. Furthermore, this pulling also depends on the beam loss. Normally, this type of pulling can he related to a shift in the scale factor. Table 32 lists the desired RLG performance parameters that will meet a 1.852km/h navigation system CEP rate or better.
3 3 2 Muhioscillator Ring Laser Gyros ...
As we have seen in the previous section, twofrequency RLGs tend to lock in at low input rates, causing drift errors. Currently, these laser gyros are mechanically dithered or rate biased in order to avoid the lockin region. However, it can be shown that the lockin problem can also be circumvented by producing four lasing modes instead of two (called multioscillating), thus eliminating the need for moving parts.
114
CHAPTER 3
.
lnrrvai Sensors
The tnultioscillator RLG consists oT two indcpendcnl. twofrcquc~ic> loser gyros sharing the same cavity and haviug : common optical path, but I hiased in opposite senses (i.e., having dill'erent polari7ations). These two modes must oscillalc indcpcndcntly in order lo acculatcly measure rotation. Cc~nscquently.in the diffcrcntial output of tlrcse two laser gyros the hias c:incels out. si, that any signals generated as ; result oS ;In input rotatii)n I would add. Furthelmore, the gyro output nzver passes thn)i~ghthe lockin region since the bias need not be dithered. Thus, multioscillatoi lascr gyros produce four laser beams at four separate frcqucncics rather than the two laser beams of the twomode lascr gyros to avoid lockin. T w o of the beams, one traveling in cach direction, are left circularly p(11arizcd. while thc other two arc right circularly polarized. The laser gyro is configured first by crcating a fburmirror (one of the mirrors is the output o r transmissive mirror) square cavity path in a twofrequency gyro ils shown in Fig. 312a. and as in the twomode laser gyro, nearly equal amounts of " " ~ arid "NC are used e to reduce mode competition. A crystalline quartr element is then placcd in
ICI
+T
FIGURE 312
Mult~oscillator lilser gyru principle: ( a ) iuurmirror laser g y o : (h) l a c r gyro cllowi~rglhc ring two pol;trir;$lioo~, ) laser gyro showing additmn of;^ Faradit? rofnlor. (c
But more important. Specifically. the addition of a Faraday polarization rotator (or cell) introduces a reciprocal (directionindependent) polarization auisotropy. 312b. which polarizes the light passing through it into only two distinct polarizations.3. such that orthogonally polarized modes propagating in the same direction experience slightly different optical path lengths during traversal of the same optical path.V I ) =( 2 s ) n From the preceding discussion.AvL = iv4 . four resonant travelingwave frequencies are generated. both circular (lefthand and righthand). the individual laser gyro equations are [4] AvL= v2.v3) . The polarization rotator splits the frequencies of the resulting RHCP and LHCP modes. The Ring Laser Gyro Principle 115 one of the paths as illustrated in Fig. This device imparts rotation to the polarization of the light beams and acts equally on both the clockwise and counterclockwise beams. The difference of these two quantities is therefore 2 S 0 with no bias contribution. the mechanical . 313). with the crystal and a fixed magnetic field applied. hence the description "reciprocal. the beam of the lefthand circular polarization (LHCP) and the beam of the righthand circular polarization (RHCP) see nominally different path lengths and consequently different optical lasing frequencies. in which no polarization constraints are made. the bias is normally chosen to he positive and at the same time much greater than ISOI.v3= S R + Faraday bias where S is the ideal scale factor. =SO + Faraday bias AvR= v4. Figure 3l2c shows the addition of a magnetic field device." This differs from the twofrequency laser gyro.(v2 . More specifically. it will be noted that a number of advantages are apparent in the multioscillator approach.v. the frequency degeneracy between the CW and CCW traveling beams is eliminated) and a Faraday bias is added. due to the orientation of the quartz. Combining these frequency shifts differentially. This frequency difference can be made large enough to avoid mode coupling. By assigning frequencies as indicated in Fig. which further splits the beams (that is.3. of magnetic field intensity H. the quartz crystal is a reciprocal polarization rotator. 312c. In practice. we note that the measured beat frequency is Av = AvR. First. As a result. This device has what is called rotary birefringence. so that the gyro operates far from the lockin region (see Fig.
or nonplanar cavity. 313. that is. :\ INPUT +i? ( A N G U L A R ROTATION E1  FIGURE 313 Mullt~~c~ll. a changc in thc ficquency separation between oppositely polarized pairs will not dircctly alfect the output. Uonplanar rings belong to thc hroader class of nonorthogonal optical systems.~tor rcsponse 10 rotallon in ~nurlliilbrace dither i h eliminated. Thcrcl'urr dithering is not required and tlielc is n o periodic passing through the lockin region. systems that d o . Thus. I<athcr than using a crystal to separate tlic frequencies of opposite polariz. lr>errial Semsors Av A v L = V 2.!cy and reliability through the elimination of mechanical moving parts. the lockin problcm is clirninatcd All of these factors contribute to the advantages of a slrapdown incrtii~lnavigation system. Moreover. thc same ell'ect may he acl~ievedhy usc of outollplane geometrv. particuliilly rcduccd size and power.V . A changc in tlie frequency separation within one pair of like polarizatio~iis the same ah that of the other. and the sensitivity is twice ah great as in the twofrcqucncy R L G (Av=2SCL). thc output is insensitive to bias drifts (through buhtraction of tlic heat liequencies). and high accuracy. Likewise. Also. by using passive bias technique\. high resolution.116 OUTPUT CHAPTER 3 . whosc segments d o not lie all in a single plauc. (TWO MODE BEAT NOTE ) .ltion. thus reducing tlie noise and errors because no lockin region is entered a s seen in Fig. and increased accur. A nonplanar ring resonator is a closed polygonal ring. multioscillalor R L G s are well suited for applications requiring rapid positioti update. because of their intrinsic low noise.
In 1982. and accurate pointing and tracking applications was immediately recognized with contracts for further development awarded by the U. Litton further refined the instrument. showing some promise. A multioscillator research program was also initiated in 1974 by LittonGuidance and Control Systems. independent investigations of nonplanar rings have been demonstrated to be inherently advantageous for multioscillator laser gyros. when active research and development was started by the United Aircraft Corporation's Research Division. the original research on the multioscillator R L G principle can he traced to the mid1960s. Raytheon demonstrated a 55cm pathlength multioscillator with a bias error of 0. The Ring Laser Gyro Principle 117 not possess meridional planes of symmetry.001 deg/h. Historically. The multioscillator's potential for high accuracy.3. Consequently. Toward the end of the 1970%United Aircraft decided to discontinue further research and development of the DILAG. and that a nonplanar ring is a singleaxis rotation sensor. in 1974. Two years later. filing for a patent in 1972. the phase shift phenomenon can he recreated. Using the geometry of nonplanar cavity instead of a Faraday rotator. In the early 1970s. such systems are difficult to analyze because the principal axes for the phase fronts and intensities are seldom orthogonal. excellent bias stability.3. However. even though it is a multiplane instrument. However. The DILAG consisted essentially of two laser gyros sharing the same cavity and taking advantage of the properties of light polarization. This approach provides a greatly improved means of achieving the polarization frequency splitting without the use of the quartz polarization rotator. and demonstrated its applicability in highaccuracy strapdown inertial navigation systems. In 1968. this approach is still in the research stage. and stability. Alternate RLG Designs: Passive Laser Gyros The use of the "Sagnac Effect" as a means of rotation measurements has been treated extensively in the literature. achieving. Air Force and NASA.S. which is positive for CW lefthand circularly polarized (LHCP) and CCW (RHCP) light and negative for the other two modes. The Faraday rotator results in frequency splitting directly attributable to a rotation or phase shift of the plane of polarization. Litton bought the rights to Raytheon's multioscillator technology. among other things. A passive laser gyro is one that . a patent was filed by United Aircraft on this technology in what came to be known as the "differential laser gyro" (DILAG). the Raytheon Company started research and development of the multioscillator laser gyro. and in 1985.3. rapid alignment. Raytheon decided to discontinue work on the multioscillator laser gyro. 3. It should he pointed out that the sensing properties of such rings are simple extensions of the conventional planar rings. excellent scale factor linearity. Over the years.3.
traday clfcct in the fihcr may hc rcduccd substantially by magnetic shielding. Any nolireciprocity that may arisc from nonlinear index cliangcs caused by ulieqi~alintensities directions is clTcctivcly handled by using a bro.L mcans of measuring rotation rate. The amount by which thr liequency is changed is . the FOG is . Nonreciprocity c. the paths of thc clockwise. like the conventional R1.G. the passive KLG is very sensitive t o environmental fluctu. The fiberoptic gyro. such a s a superluminescent diode. Fiberoptic gyros use optical fiber as the light path. the Sagnac cffect is ihe differential phase shift induced by rotating a n . In essence. the path length is ad. a linear laser produces a beam that is split into two bealns that are intloduced into the rcsollant cavity where they travel in opposite directions.I function of tlic rotation rate. in contrast to RLGs in which light is beamed .~uscdby exterrlal liiagnetic tields due to residual b. Since the heanis traveled thc same path (although i n oppocitc directions) and assuming the fiberoptic is isotropic.iustcd to compensate for the apparent pathlength changes discussed eallie]. section ( 3 . As stated in the previous sections. which tr. Ideal behavior of the F O G assume:. l i k e the active R I G . Tlie greatest disadvantage> of the passive R L G appear to he into larger size and a greater number of optic. Rotation is nicasurcd by analyzing tllc ptiasc shift of light caused hy tlie S.~nsl.rl components. th:~t is.l rotation rate o r angular "rate' sensor thal uses optical fiber as tlie propagatioli lnedium for light \Laves. lnert?al Sensur.rround a cavity.and countcrclockwisetraveling beams arc identical.ttc higher cost.4.ltions because alignment of the cavity mirrors must bc precisely maintained during Lhc time of operation.rgnac ellect. As the passive laser gyro rotates. Howrver. T h e passive laser gyro concept does not have a lockin problem since both laser beams arc derived from onc constantfrequcncy source. the only possihlc sourcc of the phase ditrelence is inertial rotation of tlie fiber.rdin the countcrpropagati~lg band source. 3 ) . (3.in thi:. The frcqumcy of the other heam is changed by means o f an acoustooptic modulator so that the beam is rcsonant a t thc altered pi~tli length. therefore. Tlie path length of the rcsonilnt cavil). Instead. FIBEROPTIC GYROS The development of the fiberoptic gyro ( F O G ) dates to the mid1970s. the relative shifi of !resonant frequencies associated with thc countcrpropagating waves is given by tlie Sagnnc equation for liiscr gyro operation [Eq. perfect reciprocity.~djustedso thal it is an integral number of half wavelengths for one of the two beams. Here the laser output frequency is held constant. is . 3. T l ~ cprecisioli with which tlic frequency ditference Av can be measured depends on the c:tvity linewidth.~ does not have the gain lnedium within the resonant cavity. rnakcs iisc of the "Sagnac clTect" a s .118 CHAPTER 3 .9)].
the length of the optical fiber can be anywhere from about 50 m long to 1 km long. the FOG measures rotation rates about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the fiberoptic coil by means of ring iuterferometry.. The two beams are recombined or superimposed when they exit the fiber. Therefore. 314) consists of four components in the following order: (1) a semiconductor laser diode that acts as the light source. and (4) a photodetector. Fiberoptic Gvros 719 optical system in which light travels clockwise and counterclockwise around the system. One of these beams is passed clockwise through the fiber coil. phase and frequency). . The basic fiber ring interferometer design (see Fig.4. Light from the laser diode is divided or split into two beams of almost equal intensity (i. The rigid mount provides a defined Fringe Pattern I ] Photodetector L~ght source Wavelength Light velocity Rotation rate Fiber length Coil radius I 4 Beamsplltter Phase shift FIGURE 314 Principle of the fiberoptic gyrg. these types of gyros are commonly referred to as interferometricfiberopticgyros (IFOG). whereby the necessary closed light path is provided by a coil of optical fiber. (3) the coil of optical fiber to transmit the laser beams.] Depending on the application.e. ( 2 ) a beamsplitter. thus it can be wound into a coil of low volume. and the other beam counterclockwise. and the resulting interference is monitored.3. [For this reason.
resulting in reduced intensity at the detector.IS mentioned above. Inerr. transit times of the light in both directions around the liber ring are identical. one can dctcl~iiine the Sagnac phase shift. This equation states that hy measuring the output of thc photodetector.words. . rotation results in a dilTerence of propagation time between the clockwise and counterclockwise beams. 1)igit. which is manifested as a relative phase shift hctwecn the beams.itcd i n othel. the relative phase shift is expressed as wllcre I. the light traveling in the direction of rotation has a longer propagation time than the other beam.used ibr scaling and output handling ol' the gyro signal and for scale factor stahili/ati~rn. i5 the libcr length. Collsequently. the accuracy/scnsitivity ratio increases as a function 01' the nomher o l (urns of tiber in the sensing coil. St.ire different. Ihc phasc shift is directly proportional to the area '1. the transit times . Howcvcr. A simplechip microproccsso~. the phasc dilr'erence causes the interfkrencc of the two beams to changc in intensity. thc phasc shift result5 in a change in the intensity o f the interference signal. More specitically.ini7. as the coil is rotated about an axis perpendicular l o the plane of the tiberoptic coil. T h e amplitude of the phase shift is proportional to the coil's angular velocity. which is converted into an electrical signal by ihc photodetector. K is the coil radius. the basic observable for scnsing rotation. in addition to being :I function of thc area cncloscd hy the coil. When there is n o tiher ring rotation. In other words. is the liecspace vclocity of light. small so a s to preclude any loss of data in computing angular displacement is from angular rate samples. Consequently.al Sensors reference plane for the gyro axis. h is the diode lasel. The applied input rotation rate is translbrmed by the tiber coil into n phasc difference hetwccn thc countcrrotating beams of light. In ccrti~in dcsiglis of FOCis. That is. Q is thc inertial rotation ratc. every r seconds. and the direction o f the phasc shift is indicative of the direction of rotation. so that special techniques must he introduced in order t o enhancc the resolution. A+. . Digital electronics process this analog signal into a digital signal proportional to the rotation rate. r is chosen sufficiently Irate. and hence reduced intensity a t the detector.ltion is possihlc hy analogtodigital conversion of the photodetector intensity every r scconds. proportional to the inertial rate 0.wavelength. arld r. s o that the sensitivity can be improved by increasing the nutnbcr of turns of the fiber coil. it should be noted that in real systems the changc in intel~sityis very small for useful roiation rates. With fibcr ring rotation. Matlreniatically.ll mech. thus. The resulting output is a digital word cqu21l to the angular r o t a t i o ~ ~ Q. Specilically.120 CHAPTER 3 . T h e p h a x dilTcrencc will produce 21 changc in the intensity of the fri~ige pattern a n d is. due to the Sagnac effect.
From the preceding discussion. it should be pointed out that. the ring laser gyro is a resonator that supports a standing wave for an indefinite period of time. Fiberoptic Gyros 121 an extension of the above discussion can account for a multiple turn solenoid of the single loop.4. Fiberoptic gyros. which is a rateintegrating gyro. (3. on the other hand. the frequency shift or difference can be obtained from the expression where n is the index of refraction of the fiber. Eq. the IFOG is a rate gyroscope in contrast to the RLG. The quantity in the parentheses can be combined into a constant K. the FOG can use cheaper. achieve optimum performance using a broadband light source dominated by spontaneous rather than stimulated emission. it does not suffer from the lockin phenomenon.3. which is the sensor's scale factor. is given by L=2nRN.22) takes the form where A is the area enclosed by the fiber loop. the Sagnac phase shift can be compensated for by means of a change in frequency of one of the beams. Therefore. For a solenoid of N turns. Also.the fiber L. Thus. In particular. The scale factor can be raised by simply adding more turns of fiber and increasing the mean area enclosed by each. these concepts form a natural breakdown for consideration of processing techniques. However. more rugged solidstate light sources such as a superradiant diode. whereas the IFOG stores the light waves only for one transit time. Therefore. For a fiber of length L. and the area A=lrR2. the gain medium does not amplify any effects from backscatter which would couple the CW and CWW beams. The major difference between RLGs and FOGS is that RLGs depend on the necessary conditions and characteristics of a laser. the length of. Although mathematically equivalent. it is apparent that the Sagnac effect can be viewed in terms of either a time delay or as a phase shift. Because in IFOGs the light source is normally placed outside the sensing cavity. Note that the phase shift in an IFOG is analogous to the frequency shift that is used as an indication of motion in an RLG. The IFOG also has the potential to achieve a large . which is limited by the size of the instrument. signal losses in the fiber impose a practical limit to the fiber coil's length. The fiberoptic gyro offers a possible solution to two of the major design limitations of the RLG: the lockin and the scale factor. Since the phase of the interference pattern is directly dependent on the frequency of the interfering beams.
the solidstate gyroscope. Recently. Ilowever.rs hccn driven by the rccjuircrncnts for longdistancc ct~mmunicationlinks and ha5 rcsoltccl in singlemode optical waveguides with losses that are approv~rnatcly the theoretical at limit. T h c dcvclopmcnl of tihcr optics h. thcrehy exhibiting the desired ootput cliaractcristics suitable for navigation iipplications.I great resenihl.~sed simply by adding mi. This largcscale integration of optic components translates into lowcost. a n integrated optics chip. the!e is oftell .in . (7) n o preventive maintenance. I t was hoped that hecause the scale Fdctor could he ~ncre. ( 3 ) high rclii~bility. packilging flexibility. ( 6 ) wide dynamic range. and cost. sniallcr di. (4) n o gscnsitivity.rL.including hher coil. Some typical F O G ch:~racteristicsare listed helocv. liher tcchnology has advanccd to tlie point thaL losscs arc now deter~nilied by the fi~~ndamental thermodynamic limits set by the optical interaction with elemenvary excilalions c1ftlic fiber materials. ( 8 ) long shelf lik.01 deg. assembly. coils to tlie fiber ring. All indications are that the present state o f the art in gyroscope tcchnology is cvolving toward interferometric fiberoptic gyros.unctcrs could hc uscd w ~ t h o u tsacrificing scnsitivity. Thcrc arc sonic problerns that need to he overcome.~d%mlagcto filtering o r oversampling and averaging its output. This is a departure from the historical point of view that the IFOG is strictly a rate gyro. ( 2 ) instant turnon.~l chip.~nccto the ring laser gyro. the [ F O G bears .122 CHAPTER 3 . tulid reliable gyroscope> the sire o f a corlvcntional computer chip. and (91 low cost. and a single solidstate laser source. ( 5 ) rcsistancc to high shock a n d vibration. po\rcr. While RLCi tcchnology for hlgli. into an integrated oplic. Inerval Sensors advantage in terms of size. has n o moving parts and colisists primarily of a spool of fihcr optics. The advnntagcs of the F O G are ( I ) n o moving parts. Relatively poor fibers have losscs that a!c dctcr~iiincdby inipurity i~hsorplionand scittlcring by surklcc and volume irrcgularitics. it has hccn determined that the I F O G can also he colifigured a s a rate integrating gyroscope. h 1000 10 ppni 500 1 17 1400 to *hOO ~ 1 c g . the rate inkgrating characteristic holds only if thc gyro is sampled and accuniulated every transit t i m e In essence then. Modcrn advanccd tcchnology makes i t poshihlr to dcsign an FOG to include all the compi~nents. howcvcr. like the K L G . Power dissipation: Bias (drift) ulicert~~inty: Scale factor error: Uandwidtli : Rilligc: Operating temperature: Characteristic path length: 15 W 10 0.~ccuracyinertial navigation . s 4 0 to +70 C' 50 m 5 km Recently. Sincc ~ l i c I F O G o u t p i ~ tis generally noisy. In fact. weight. accurate.
square. Typical fiberoptic gyro applications include the following: (1) commercial/ military aircraft navigation and flightcontrol systems. the IFOG is improving and will achieve high accuracy levels in the nottoodistant future.15003600 V d c d ~ ~ ~ ? RW .. where the errors associated with mass properties have been removed.05 cm Triangle.0 deg/h) IFOGs for tactical applications are available at the present time. this error model can he expressed as [I21 . modular Silicon photodetector systems is quite mature.5. 12 mA CerVit or Zeradur Monolithic. (4) antenna and gun stabilization. and (5) civil applications such as robotics and trafic management control. THE RING LASER GYRO ERROR MODEL The general analytical model for the RLG parallels that for a singledegreeoffreedom spinningmass gyroscope. 0. As a result. rectangle 2frequency or 4frequency 5 torr He/Ne 13:l "Ne/"Ne 1 : 1 0. (2) guided missiles. (3) attitude and heading reference systems. The Ring Laser Gyro Error Model 123 TABLE 33 Typical RLG Characteristics Path length Bore sve Beam diameter Geometrical shape of the block Mode of operation Gas (total pressure) Gas mixture Operating wavelength (transition) Excitation voltage Power Discharge current Laser block material Block construction Readout device Mirror curvature Lockin threshold Resolution (oulse weieht) 6 5 0 cm 0. . Mediumaccuracy (e.3.g. .5. Table 33 presents some typical RLG characteristics.6328 pm 1 1523 11m ~ . while Table 34 compares the performance characteristics of the twomode RLG and the fiberoptic gyro.11.2~03 cm 0.. 3.
a111 l t n g l h Scale f h c l u i I ppm O 500 dcg 's Dyn. = gyro input rate 12. [...124 TABLE 34 I'erformanre Compdrislm King l a w r gyro  CHAPTER 3 .~rnlcrange 1.~symnietric components) H. =random hius crror with unbounded integral value* 111=random hias error with houndcd integral viiluz  . Inertial Sensors Analog tiberoptic gyro Frcqueocy proportional 1 0 r.= "fixed" scale ihcior crror . <2.k~icg<l~g.~tion l ~ ~ ~ l w!~?.inralcoo conlrol Pack:<ging... l ) =symmetrical (rclalivc lo positive and ncgativc input Iales) linearity error g(R.ockln compcllsatton ( r i l i c i ~ IS\OS l 08 Vell. 12. .n..cgc p i o p o r t i o n i i l l o r. / '(lQ. laser gyro output sigllill = gyro bias error I: = gyro scalc factor erl01I). y... .itc coilills per lbrrllirlr ... C~CCIIU~C p1accrnc111..: angular rotation rates o f thc gyro case no1m:11 t l ~ c to input axis (.llu ill lil 5 k i n  I.r.lnpic ~ ' i ~ : ~ r ~ ~ c l c r i s ! i c h 50 c."lixcd" hias crrol11. = rnisalignmenls of thc gyro iilsing plane relative 111 Ihc nominal gyro input axis ti.)=generalized linearity crror (col~tainingsymrnctric and ... p . i l l i ~ l m g t hcontrol 10' Ill p p m 11 300 dcg s Reducttoo in s c a t t c r i ~ ~ g pi11. t i ~ e c r n c ~ l~ ~ ~ ~ :i11d coii~pens. i..
That is. and it is of primary importance in evaluating laser gyro performance. the mean and standard deviation errors are computed. the number of gyro output pulses are recorded for each revolution. Shortterm bias stability is measured with sampling intervals between 1 and 100 s.g. With regard to Eq. In the laboratory. Scale factor is defined as the ratio that relates the inertialframe rotation about the gyro's input axis to the gyro output expressed in arcseconds per pulse. it is convenient to record scale factor data in terms of the number of gyro output pulses for one input revolution.000 s. the laser gyro bias is defined as the gyro output for zero input angular rate. White noise is not correlated in time. The number of gyro output pulses that are accumulated during the sampling interval AT are recorded. Finally. It is the change in bias that produces system error. let us examine bias and scale factor errors in some detail. Or more simply stated. Bias is defined as the average output angular pulse rate after the inertialrate inputs have been removed and is expressed in degrees per hour.25). the laser gyro scale factor relates the number of output pulses to a corresponding gyro rotation angle about its input axis. the standard deviation of a set of n ( n 220) consecutive measurements is calculated. . (3. by fonvardscattering effects caused by laser cavity interference with the laser (i. This is repeated several times (e. while for longterm bias stability the sampling interval would normally range between 100 and 10.. 10 times or more) at each rotation rate for both CW and CCW directions. and by residual errors introduced by the lockin compensation device. In order to determine the bias stability. the laser gyro is commonly mounted to a fixed. Statistically.5.3. the magnitude of noise signal at one instant of time does not indicate the magnitude of noise signal present at any other instant of time. The *A white noise is a noise which has a constant amount ofpower content across all frequencies. Stated more simply. The average bias over the sampling interval is then calculated after the component of the earth rate along the gyro input axis has been removed. however. GainMediumDependent Bias Errors The Bo "fixed" bias term is caused mainly by circulation flow phenomena in the lasing cavity that cause differential optical pathlength variations between the clockwise and counterclockwise laser beams. The standard deviation about the scale factor mean is used to describe the scale factor nonlinearity. Consequently. stable mount. The Ring Laser Gyro Error Model 125 Bias and scale factor are two key parameters that define the performance of a ring laser gyro. random walk or some other process is predominant for longer intervals. The scale factor data can be obtained by mounting the laser gyro on a precision rate table with its input axis parallel to the table's axis of rotation. beam interactions with imperfect mirror surfaces that produce differential phase shifts between the laser beams). Finally.e. white noise* describes the best bias runs for sampling intervals of up to about 400 s ..
In goicral.. the velocity of the plasm... The n .iused mainly by fluctuations in thc gain ~nediump. n2 is caused by scale factor uncertainties in the applied electrooptical bias. The syrnrnetrical c u l c factor crror term.lngniair f l o ~ and t c n ~ p c ~ . 1. . error is a w h i t e o r colorednoise eHecl gcncrated within the lasing cavity. Scale Factor Errors T h e prcscncc of ..I given input rate is proportional to the degree to which the biased gyro input is removcd from the lockin region dividcd by thc input rate being sensed. and are controll. is c. This c ~ u s e s the prism speclra of white light and is know^^ 21s "dispersion effect. thermal. The "tixcd" scale Factor erlor cocllicient E.iusc misalignments in tlie input axis position.rlignmcnts are causcd by the diil'crcncc between the inferred and thc actual input axis orientation. . crror is typically measured in terms OC thc rnis (root mean square) value of its integral over . 1nert. As is the cc~sc with classical zeromean randoninoise processes.126  CHAPTER 3 . is caused by random instabilities in the bias producing mcchanisnis in the lasing cavity.~te the lockin compensation bias from tlie crulput i ~ f laser gyros employing alternaling bias. thz average magnitude of ~hc square o f t l ~ cintegral of 11.~within the G I ~ ily). thc magnitude of the scalc factor linearity crror t'or . which will be detected as . The errors duc to inpul axis mis. noisc process correlation time.." The 11. This source of crror is duc to thc dependence of the rncdium refractive indcx on thc frequency v of the transmitted light. terms in the a~ialyticalmodel are mcasurahle and predictable to a large extent for purposes ofcompcnsation.. F o r laser gyros employing alternating clcctrooptical hi:rs for lockin compensation.a ) lure gradients.ai Sensors  circulation flow phenomena (i. the B.e." For the KLCi.~bleonly through gyro dcsign a n d manufacturing practices crtablislicd to satisfy application requirements.) term is the residual eHect of lockin ior h s e r gyros incorporating nonnicchanical lockin compensation. In general.In angular input rate. Mechanical. and 7 .I specitied time period. hou~ided noisc term is causcd by scalc factor errors in the mechanism used to climin. In general. which is long compared to t h e n . A classical cause o f t h c mechanically dithcrcd laser gyros is the random a ~ ~ gelmor introduced each tinre the gyro le input rate is cycled through the lockin region (twice each dither cycle). will rcsult in a constant frequency shift hctweetl the two counterrotating light beams.. This is d u e to the "Fizcau eti'ect.tramclcrs and variations in the cavity perimctcr.. Thc n. f'(lCl. I . . this means that the optical cavity length L and thus its scale factolare functions of frequcncy.l) is the residual eii'cct of lockin for laser gyros employing mecha~ricaldither c<~nipcnsation. o r other phenomena that contribute to bending o r distortion of the gyro will c. builds lincarly with lime. a low scalc ii~ctor linearity error . Since the widlh of the lockin region is proportional to the lockin rate. 'The g(S1. E . caused by the highvoltage electrical field (L.L gain medium inside the laser cavity causcs tlie value of the ideal scale k c t o r S to deviate by the factor ( I t c ) . T h e remaining errors arc generally unpredictable.
h (3.= B + EQ~. this error model takes the form no.= bias error due to temperature difference from nominal AT= temperature change from nominal B.3.DN=randomwalk contribution due to the dither noise (this term will be zero for an undithered laser gyro) N.26a) where S is the ideal scale factor.. Mathematically. We will now examine these error terms individually. scale factor.aN= quantum noise contribution to random walk due to spontaneous emission in the laser gyro . where + BAT+ Bv..M+ B.= rotation rate about an input axis perpendicular to the input axis of the gyro y = input axis misalignment In Eq. = fixed bias error term in the gyro B.27) B. and input axis misalignment errors...5. n + Qbia (3.. and input axis misalignment can be further decomposed into components that include temperature gradients and magnetic field effects. = input rotation rate Q. Another commonly used RLG error model consists of three basic types of errors: bias.26b).28) NKW. the bias.= bias error due to an acceleration along the input axis A =acceleration along the input axis NRW(f) =random component consisting of angular random walk and bias random walk V T = temperature gradient Theoretically. + yoa where (3.A + NRw(t). The bias error term may be written in the form B= B.QN N (3. In its simplest form. a model ring laser gyro output can be written as Qout =s Q .= bias error due to temperature gradients B.VT+ B.w. the randomwalk contribution to the bias consists of two terms as follows: NRW(~) = where ~ D +N~w.26b) Q. (3. The Ring Laser Gyro Error Model 127 is achieved with a high ratio of applied bias to lockin rate. scale factor.= total laser gyro output error B= bias error E = scale factor error Q. = bias error due to magnetic fields M=magnetic field strength B.
and cavity alignment.. Furthermore. lockin rate ( d c g h ) t 501s (degrees per second) C 20ris 0 200 400 600 BOO 1000 L o c k m rate ('Ih) FIGURE 315 K. cven if a stnall amount of random noise is prehcnt. 2rmr. ~ n d d u e to mirror impcrtections. it will bc sutlicierit to alkct . randomwalk (integrated whitc noise) process. can be charlrcterized by a onedirnensional.peak dither rate (deg.G is dithercd by a sinusoidal signal. which is several orders of rn:~gnitodc greater than the lockin Lhrcshold.Inertial Sensors The tixed bias o r bias repeatability term is a filnction of the plasma's stability. whilc accelerations can cause misalignment of the cavity hy bending the laser gyro block. The random term is caused m.s)I 1 3 ~ = d c g ) ( h ( 1 .!rid dxlhcr . 'The random walk process is &' by thc equation nl. temperalure gradients cause an asymmetric flow of the gases.. A magnetic field will change the properties of light that is not linearly polarizcd. the sinusoidal dither signal remains the same from cyclc to cyclc..~inlyby hackscatter in is the cavity ..inrnliloil~'.'h=:~~cscc.tvcn Lhc laser gyro's input : o u t p ~ ~ t relationship. gasflow conditions. Ilowevcr.!ndnrn u. . The error generillcd when a KI.h ) (3..128 CHAPTER 3 . This pressure change causes gain changes in the cavity path. i (deg . In the ideal case. and consequently in the laser intensity. = / s  2.\v. Temperature changes cause a hias error by changing the pressure within the cavity.dk i c r r u l o c k ~ l n .29) I S = ideal scale Pdctor (arcsec 'count) (coont = pulse) CL.
O/(PI*OD))*OL OD = 100.= scale factor error due to temperature gradients VT= temperature gradient E.0*3600.0**2 RW4= SQRT(l.29) that the magnitude of the randomwalk error is a function of the dither amplitude and the lockin rate.= scale factor error due to the input rate change W= input rate change Nnw(t) =random component modeled as a randomwalk process .RWl ENDDO END ! Lockin [deg/hl ! Dither = 50 dez/s ! Dither ! Dither ! Dither .W+NRW(~) where EO= (3. ~(arcsec) .0*3600.O/(PI*OD))*OL OD = 200. the meanvalue error is zero.0**2 RW1= SORT(l.AT+EV.RW3.'(5F10.RW4 The scale factor term can be expressed mathematically in the form E=Eo+E.001 0.O/(PI*OD))*OL VRITE (*.10 OL = QLOAT(I)*lOO.30) where t is the time in seconds. (3. It is evident from Eq. (3.4)') OL.A+ E.M+ €. a random walk of 0. b ~ .35 The Ring Laser Gyro Error Model 129 For such a random process. (3.0**2 RW3= SQRT(l..0*3600..0**2 RWZ= SQRT(l.O OD = 50.005 deg/& or better can be achieved. 315.(t) = rms error(1) = ~ ~ ~ .O/(PI*OD))*OL OD = 150. The figure was obtained by programming Eq.0*3600. With current technology.29) using FORTRAN 77. scale factor error due to magnetic fields = M = magnetic field strength E.= scale factor error due to acceleration A =acceleration E. This relationship is depicted in Fig. A program listing for the random walk is presented here: C Calculate Random Walk (RWx) vs Lockin (OL) for set values of C Dither Amplitude (OD) PROGRAM RW PI = ACOS(1. while the rms error is expressed as ~.31) fixed (or nominal) scale factor error scale factor error due to the temperature difference from the nominal AT= temperature change from nominal EV.VT+ E.0) DO I = 0..
3.In ide. ) It must be pointcd out. plasma homhnrdment. an asymmetric scale ljctor can he causcd asymmetric lockin. we can express thc input axis tnisalignment equ:rtion as follows: I V ~ ~ J P y. however. For the aforcmcntioncd rcasons.IS a l'unction of I ? . flight control.= input axis misalignment due to magnclic fields M = tnaglietic field strength y. . and wc:lpon delivery capability under high dynamic conditions. that othcr crror sourccs. The ]sing laser gyro presents a technological opportunity 10 overcome costofow.\.temperature gradient y. in a R L G navigation system the random drift IS nearly . Thus. All remaining terms arc due to same crror source5 a s thr bias and scale f:ictor errors. Lastly. extensive Right test5 hy tllc mililary services demonstrated that the R L G is . a function ol. hy a loss in one of the c o u n t c r r o t a t i ~ ~ g beams In a similar manner. ( I n a conventional gimhaled INS thc dominant longterm position crror propagation is d u e to the : o r verticalaxis ramp drili.fixed ( o r nominal) input axis misalignment y.llk  The input axis misalignment term is duc to the ditrrrencr bctwecn where thc input axis is mathematically modeled and whcre the input axis really is.fflight testing. will increasc Lhc convmtic)nal narig.~linertixl rille Tensor suitable o r strapdown inertial n. such a s Markov riurdoln drift..I pure white noise.ltion error. = input axis misalignme~~t to acceleration due A accclc~ltion Kll. Anything that bends o r distorts the laser gyro will cause a misalignment in the input axis position. which builds up .=input axis misalignment due to the temperature ditfcrence from the nomint11 A T = temperature change from the nominal y. Thcsc losses arc caused by current changes. including n ~ ~ m e r o u s studics.=input axis misalignment due to temperature gradient V T . CONCLUSION M o r c than 20 years c.I fimction of longtclm losscs i l l tllc cavity.(r) = random componcnl modeled a s input xxis random w. thc lockin phenomenon. which builds up as .~vigalion systems..130 CHAPTER 3 .6.IS we have sccn.Inertial Serrsuis The scalc factor tixed term is . and laser misalignment.. h:~ve confirmed that the dominant R L G ineltial navigation system position crror propagation is that due to whitenoise random drift..nersIrip.rrity is.. 'The scalc faclor 1ine./. .
each laser gyro outputs seven "health" signals that can provide an indication of performance degradation long before a fa~lure occurs. Specifically. RLGs provide body rate information for aircraft flight control systems. thus obviating the need for separate angular rate sensors. In addition.5 arcmin minimum (rms) 3. and malfunction isolation. aircraft flight control. Furthermore. each laser gyro has its own programmable readonly memory (PROM) containing known error coefficients (from the error models given above) that are read into the computer memory at system turnon. the laser gyros can be replaced readily without the need to perform systemlevel recalibration.18521. arcsec resolution over the full range Wide dynamic range . 400 degfs each axis (military applications) 108 each axis <5 mi" >SO00 h MTBF" BIT (includine sensors) Acceleration capability Reaction time (54 to +7IcC) Reliability Test ~rovisions "Mean time between failures reliability. central processor. power supplies. which are not part of the navigation system. strapdown inertial navigation systems provide all the information and outputs normally provided by a gimbaled INS. and interface functions. Conclusion 131 TABLE 35 Typical Ring Laser Gyro INS Performance Rcquirements Position accuracy Velocity accuracy Atlitude accuracy Heading accuracy Rate capability 0.852 kmfh CEP rate <0. and performance deficiencies encountered with conventional inertial navigation systems. timing and control. 36). and other applications are summarized below: Digital output High angular rate capability High accuracy. The inherent digital output of the laser gyro has made possible extensive use of the builtin test (BIT) for performance monitoring.3. (Note that flight control uses for the RLG presume adequate redundancy and proper positioning. BIT signals are brought out for the accelerometers. The RLG attributes that make it an ideal angular rate sensor for strapdown inertial navigation systems. For example. obviating the need for costly and sophisticated ground test equipment in the field and/or the high cost of depot maintenance.6. As shown earlier (p.) Table 35 summarizes a typical R L G inertial navigation system's performance.800 m/s ( l o ) per axis 2. As a result. failure detection.0 arcmin minimum ( m s ) 100 degfs each axis (for commercial transports).
.~ssoci:~ted with thc phase locking.G. the laser gyro requires a high starting (lasing) voltage. Also. prior to entering the navigation modc o r tlight for an unaided system. V.vcl Mull~osc~ll. This is because backscattered r a d i a t i o ~causes these ~ two oscillators to become synchronous and they are pulled to .G is encountered in ground gyrocompassing. the gyro imposes mechanical dithcr reaction torques on the inertial platform.rl t o rotate further away t'rom null with increasing input rate. As wc have seen earlicr.ocking in 'I'M<IMoIIc l.ire more complex than those of the convcntionnl mechanical gyroscopes.I common frequency of oscillation. REFERENCES I .. rcliability. power. and improve the o\. iind Scull?. The problem in gyrocompassing is that for low rotation rates.$lor : p p r m i c b to i h c Problcm o f l. The RLC. while thc conventional gyroscope requires relatively low voltage for the spin motor. and (2) Lhc input axis alignmcot is stable and con~plelelq independent of the input rate. Andcrhon. in thc dithcrcd version. Cliuw.erall system performance.. since therc is n o gin1b.tges.tnt systern advantages could hc listed:( l ) thc scale Ciclor is fixed by the geometry selected by the dcsigner so that i t remains constant. Consequcntly. this is 1101 . fburn ~ o d e rate biasing) have been developed to minimize this etkct." 4 i ~ / ~ l lOip r i c i ~ i i 18. Thcsc tech.import. and long shclf life ( o r storage) N o nced for rccalihration o r field mnintenancc In addition. W. 911 042. D. that is.. when compared against cost of ownership. also. A disadvantage 01. dithcr. has certain disadvantages. niques attempt to ovcrcome the deviations l?om the ideal RLG .~er Ring Gyros: TI.~tiotl Low cost o f ownership Kcduction of the overall I N S cost. W. CHAPTER 3 . maintenance. and weight Iligh reliability. Inerual Setisors  Fast reaction time N o moving parts N o irihcrcnt . 0 "N. M.32 ..7 . However. a s we shall see later. For example. two othel.limitation of the R1. 197U. the two counterrotating beams have n o frequency difference in . Sanders.I surprising rcsult and Ihe elrect will always be present since hackscattering cannot be cotnplctely eliminated from a structure that confines thc beams to some geonictric pilltern. l o r ~ g operating lil'c. several biasing techniques (c. sire. a n d lifespan. .. and its housekeeping electronics . thc laser gyro's advanlagcs outwcigh its disadvan1.yscnsitivity No frictional motion o r inherent vibratio~lsensitivity Low thermal sensitivity Adaptability to BIT and h u l l is(>l.I R1.g.
" AGARD Lecture Series No. 39(2). E. (e ~~nc. f 10. 3rd Printing. Sagnac. 12. I. G . A.: "Strapdown Sensors. 52. : Comples Rendus. and Scully..: "Sagnac Effect. :"Multioscillator Laser Gyros. 2.. Ross (ed. 4 . M. M .: ' A Survey of New Inertial Sensor Technology. 21 246. Siouris. A. M... QE16(9). T ." IEEE Journal ofQuanrum Electronics. April 1967. Hambenne. 346353. 8. 5. Savage. Sagnac." Reviews in Modern Physics. 4. 475 493.: "Regenerative Circulatory Multiple Beam Interferometry for the Study of Light Propagation Effects. J. Killpatrick. Sanders. and Gale. 13. H.: "Rotation Rate Sensing with TravelingWave Ring Lasers. Chow. Ser." in h e r Applications. 7. 1913.). A. Aronowitz. E. D. 11431 148. M. and Davis. Amdemic Press.. A. 4455." Zeirschrq~ Flugwissenfir rchafren und W e l t r a ~ ~ ~ ~ o r l~ 5 )/ (Cologne). B. 157." Applied Physio Letters. October 1967. : Journal de Physique. Michclson. 95. 1962.: Oprics. W. H. 11. and Zajac. G . I. 6.. Vol.. Reading. February 1963. V. SeptemberOctober 1977. W. M. E. W. 137 140. P. Mass. StrapDown Inerlial Systems. F. 177. p. 1978. I. G . AddisonWesley. Sargent. G .." Journal o Oplieal Society of America. 4(10). Macek. . 61.. 1914. 1971. Rosenthal." Astrophysics Journol. I. September 1980.. 1976.References 133 2. Jr." IEEE Spectrum. pp. 3. 6768. T. M.: "The Laser Gyro. : "The Effect of the Earth's Rotation on the Velocity of Light. 9. 0 . 5. New Yark. Hutchings. Hecht. 919935. Post.: "The Laser Gyro. April 1925.
on the other hand. INTRODUCTION Navigation is the science of directing a vehicle to a destination by determining its position from observation of landmarks.4. celestial bodies. Inertial navigation. with measured specific force as an input. The analysis of inertial navigation errors is conceptually fairly straightforward. in general. Specifically. As we shall see in the next section. the fundamental concept of inertial navigation is that vehicle velocity and position are determined through realtime integration of the governing differential equations. The two most common constraints are (1) the position of the body is calculated from acceleration computations made in a coordinate frame in which Newton's law of motion applies and that is rotating at a rate that. gravitational and nongravitational acceleration are separated in the mathematical formulation of the problem. the mathematical relations of inertial navigation are a little more than the standard kinematic equations for the acceleration of a rigid body. The selfcontained determination of the instantaneous position and other parameters of motion of a vehicle is accomplished in inertial navigation systems by measuring specific force. and time in a previously selected coordinate system. accomplishes this task without the aforementioned observations.1. and (2) the accelerometers are insensitive to the gravitational (mass attraction) acceleration. whereby the constraints of the problem tend to force the form of the equations of motion. angular velocity. differs from the angular rotation rate of the body. which acts on both the case and proof mass of the accelerometers. or radio beams. The former is obtained from calculations using an a priori gravity model. while the latter .
Furthrrmo~e.Ire sensed hy the nccclerometcrs. The accelerations o r specilic forccs .I long time interval. The sensitivc eletncnrs of thc gyrostahilizcd platfolrn are three singledegreeoffreedom gyroscopes o r two 2dcgl.136 CHAPTER I  Kinematic Corn~e. and. as compared to tlie strapdown mechanization. and (4) sensor crrors such .~sstion Eauations is obtained k o m corrected measurcments. However. a sirnplc ir~ertialnavigi~tionsystcni \\. and c x t c r ~ ~ a l n. IS the gyroscope has a low drift rate.IS we noted previously.I threeaxis gyrostahilizcd platform. llie gimhi~ls pio\. 3. aircraft a n d ' o r ship incrtial navigi~tion systcrns with global capability . l n c ~ ~ t i .eeoffreedom gyroscopes whose angular inomenla . Today. hias crrors in ll~c accclcrorneters induce tlie c l e s s i ~ ~ l Schuler sinusoids with a n increasing cnvelope. the error equ.navigation is acconl~l plished by double integration of accelerations that are cornpensated for by the earth's gravitational attraction. with the corrcc(cd accelerometer o u t p ~ i t signals going into the corresponding integrators. and the knowledge orcontrol of'thccoordinalc reference frame is maintained by the gyroscope\.ivigalion aids when used.~xcs stabilization. which irlcludc onhoard digital compatcrs. .~lrcady indicated in the previous chaptrr. Typically.idc n dynami~llly benign environment for the inertial senhors.rtive to thc stars. thC angular deflection of the pl~iliormfrotn the inertial coordinate system will ren~ain stnall after .I t'lrnction ofmechanizalion. A platform with three orthogonally pli~cednccclcromcters for mcasurinp specific force along the horizontal and vettical axes. gyroscopes.s will exhibit a srnall drift 1ate. moulited on . the gyr(~sti~hilized platform o f thc incrtial system is intended to maintitirr a 'reference" coordinate syslcm. 4 s of . (2) gravitational inass attraction compensation errors. while bias crrors in the gyroscopes integrate into ramping errors many sensor crlors a]c excited by thc in navigated position. dynamic crlvironrncnt o f the vehicle.ltions hecornc somcwhal complicated hecausc of the dill'erent coordinak f ~ n m c sinvolved a r ~ dthc many error sources inherent in thc instru~nents. C'oriolis and centripetal accelerations may hc subtracted from the outpirl signals of the accclcrometcrs. which is fixed rcl. The platform is miiintained in 21 gcogri~phic coordir~atc syslcm by bcrvomechanisms. Consequently.IS accelerometers.I clock. . thc gyrostahilized platform . Errors in the incrtial navigation systeni arc a fimction of ( I ) initial condition crrors.Ire oriented perpendicular to the .Generally. 2. in the presence ofdisturh. which rniriiltains constant orienti~lion relative to thc fixed stiirs.ill possess thc follo\ving charnc1c1istics: I.lncc t ~ ~ r q u e ~ h o u tthe gyroscope precession axes. ( 3 ) coordinate frame transformation errors. ~ n dmission time of 10 h o r more llave hccome cotnmonplacc for . That is. error excitation is . . ~ n d other i~vio~ics.
The motivation for the integrated system approach is to take advantage of size. ROTATING COORDINATES.Then [ = X I + YJ+ZK (4.B multiplex bus (MUX BUS) for communication between subsystems. assume that the rigid body is fixed at point 0 of a fixed Cartesian coordinate system (X. Z).2. 41. 4. . Rotating Coordinates. Standardization of inertial nevigation systems is therefore the driving factor in all military navigation and guidance systems. continuous reference velocity has long been used to damp the Schuler frequencies. position information obtained from Loran or Omega may be used to damp the inherent 24h oscillations. The accuracy and stability of an inertial navigation system is generally improved by supplementing the inertial system with independent or external reference information. and power savings offered by this approach. we will discuss in this section the relative motion equations of a rigid body in Cartesian coordinates. with origin at 0. GENERAL RELATIVE MOTION EQUATIONS Before developing the general navigation equations. Commonly. an integrated approach to avionics subsystems is desirable. Furthermore. the Iframe. testing of hardware and flight software are required to interface with other elements of the avionics system via the MILSTD1553 MUX BUS.2. General Relative Morion Equations 137 both commercial and military applications. In order to standardize the interfaces used in avionics systems. weight. With the proliferation of inertial navigation systems in commercial as well as military applications. Finally. most systems today are being designed with a MILSTDI553A. standardization becomes an important factor in the procurement of these systems.la) RFRAME 4 z FIGURE 41 Definition of reference axes. With reference to Fig. For example. Y. Also. let a typical point in the body have a position r and velocity i relative to the origin 0.4.
78 3 CHAPTER 4 . . the Rframe. let P . (4. y = ~ = nn.~ngular velocity vector g i ~ e l t hg in the fixed coordinatc system. where (I. all angular displaccnlent A+ can he approxirnalc~i by the expressiori (01 r if A/ is a slnall tiliie interval. with unit vcctors (i.2). K.~tion thtough the fixed point is called the " ~ n s t a n t : ~ n e oaxiss of rotation. C'onseqoently. we obtain where in component i'orm U . we note that the velocity oS any other point Q in t l ~ c hody with rrspcct to the space axes a t 0 is givcn by (61 where rr. respectively. fiquation (4.~nglcs can hc reprcscnted a s vectors. Since small . relative velocity of Q with respect l o I' is.ne.2) whcre w is tlic . r . Next. wc also know Ih.natic Compe. rcspectivcly. (4.?sation Equarions . Thus. : T h e tixedpoint restriction assumed above can now he Icniovcd.2) we have Carrying out ihc vector operation indicatctl in Fcl. 1 . hc any point in the body and 0 the origin of the space axes. z axes. The lin~itingposition of the axis of rol.tce." atid ~~ cr) ha\ the clirection of thc instantaneous xis [IS]. Introduce now a sccolld Cartesian system (x. K ) a r e unit vectors along the X .j. Y. thc .2) represents the sitnplcst motion. For a rigid hody with a tixcd point. is the relative distance of Q with respect to f'. o r pure rotation ahout a lined axis in sp.tt i=w 6r (4. F o r the general rigid body. k ) illotig the r . z ) . % axch. hy definition . I. in Fq.i Y .
k) in the fixed system are given by where w is now the angular velocity of the coordinate axes. Y. z ) with origin at P i s moving with an angular velocity w . respectively. Furthermore. Now suppose that the two moving points. That is. 41). while the body axes based at point P are used to compute w x r ~ . From the foregoing discussion. Y. let the coordinate system ( X . Y.y. z ) system. .denoted t o p. z and (X. Notice that. where w is the angular velocity of the ( X .2. The vector function A ( t ) can be given in the two different coordinate systems (x. Rotating Coordinates: General Relative Motion Equations 139 The space axes may be used to compute v p . Thus where o is the angular velocity of the (x. z ) coordinate system relative to the (X. y. Consequently. and the derivatives as A rotating rigid body has an angular velocity w. y. from a kinematic point of view. j. except for a term proportional to the vector and to the rate of rotation of one system with respect to the other. with respect to the fixed point 0.7). The derivatives of the unit vectors (i. P and Q. Let the relative position vector of point Q with respect to point P be. . while the coordinate system (x. the relative motion equations are r = R + p. Z ) : ) Y.4. a fundamental result relating the frame derivatives of any vector function A ( t ) described in two coordinate systems that are in relative rotation may be obtained. Using Eq. it makes no difference which system is considered as fixed and which as rotating. have positions R and r. The frame derivatives of a vector in two coordinate systems are equal. Z ) coordinate system. (4. Z ) with origin at 0 be fixed. This is a very important equation for the discussion of the next section. t = R + p (see Fig.y. the derivative of the relative . 2 ) system relative to the (x. i = R + p.
namcd af er its discovcrei 4.140 CHAPTER 4 .1 111) (4.: rlt lip lir +wxp t4Xi Having a representation of p in moving coordini~tcs. /IR [It + 6p t w x p 61 d'r ~ ~~ (It (1% rI2R 6p ' (. N u u i p t i o n rnech~miznti. K.~n refers to thc cquations and procedurcs uscd with a particular inertial navigation system in 01derto generate . (4.6lP &P ~. GENERAL NAVIGATION EQUATIONS i n this section we will discuss and develop sevcral unda~npcdnavigation mechanizations. 61 <I'll t c i u x p t w x ( ~ x p t) 2 w x 6 ~ + S2p 1 61' dl ill Thc signilicancc of the viirious terms I i q (4.hi wp'j (4./2 ' wxicuxp): hxp: 2w x SP. r12p.c Cumnpe.9) ~n thc form =w.1 1 ) is .sat/on Equations position vcctor p in the moving c o o r d i n a ~ e system is eivcn by 'lp P .nat. .3.&jI t w x p I t FI '  + 6 (OJXp)+wx(lFP 61 ~ 6? ~ '.~tion Represents the tangential component of i~cccleriltioi~ due to lhc angul:~raccclcratlon vector ilt Coriolis accclcr.rtion.171: 1/'p I t'  t/p ..1 lcl . l l h) (4.Ll) 6'p 61' Scu +: X p + Z u ~&P~ + W x ( u ) x p i x ' ht nr Since i i w ~ ' 6 r = ~ / w ~ ~ I r we can wlitc F q (4.e.wc now can compute its relative acceleralion a s follows 1 1 1.r.. +2wx: iwxpiu~x(wxp) / I Sf' 01 (4IO) T h e complctc rclativc motion equations are sun1mari7ed helow: r=K+p rlr I .IS follows: Linear accclcration Lcrnis C'entripetal acceler.
Writing Eq. to the altitude channel of an unaided inertial navigation system. strapdown). and the stars has been neglected. spacestable. An inertial frame must be considered since this is the *As we have seen in Chapter 2. locallevel. (4. as we shall see later. contain undamped oscillatory dynamics at both the Schuler (84. Damping. The fact that the earth is rotating. We will derive the necessary mathematical relationships. considered positive toward the center of the earth In Eq. it is the nonfield contact force per unit mass exerted on the instmment set) g. For inertial orientation.3..4. General Navioarion Equations 747 position and velocity information. since this acceleration is very small.(R) =gravitational acceleration due to mass attraction. The term [d2R/dt2I1 represents the inertial acceleration with respect to the center of the nonrotating earth. which allow a completely selfcontained inertial navigation system implementation..12). V:]' A = nongravitational specific force (acceleration due to all nongravitational causes) (this is the acceleration sensed or measured by an accelerometer.4min period) and earth (24h period) rates. All terrestrial inertial navigation systems. R = geocentric position vector V = velocity of the vehicle relative to the inertial frame .13] where = [ K v. the results can be easily extended to an ellipsoidal earth model. a spherical earth model will be assumed. regardless of the nominal platform orientation (e. such as from a barometric or radar altimeter. However. We begin our discussion by noting that the differential equation of motion of inertial navigation of a vehicle relative to an inertial frame* can be written in vector form as [12.12) in the form this equation states that the specific force (accelerometer output) A is proportional to the inertial acceleration of the system due to all forces except gravity. For convenience. an inertial reference frame.g.. the sun. This is mostly the case with slow moving vehicles. that is. (4. is provided by using externally measured altitude reference. we use the distant stars. is of no consequence to navigation in inertial coordinates. an inertial frame is nonrotating and nonaccelerating relative to inertial space. however. the gravitational acceleration due to the moon.
the dill'crcnce bctweelt thc inertial i~ccelrrationand gr. Now w e wish to cxpress the earthcenlcrcd inertial accclclarion in terms of ihc specilic force and thc gravitational acceleration. or more specifically.(R)] (4. FIGURE 42 n . a transformation is necessary in order to relate mc.14) Consequently. Moreover.13) where R' is the incrtially referenced .13h) can hc written in the form A:= c~'. aP g:. for the earthccntered inertial system.iws of ~ n o t i c ~are valid. Therefore.. in an earthcentcrcd incrtial (EC'I) h m c . As we noted earlicl. (4. (4. Eq.~ccclcrnmetcrsmounted on a platfornr ( P I . 13) . Figure 42 illustralzs ity and position by the onboard ni~vigation t q . Kinematic Comi?ensation Equations only liamc in which Newton's 1. that is.anit posltc. velocity.anal"iic s>sleol li.Is fbllou~s: R' = (.tl coorditialcs .12b) dcnulcs that the rilte of chtinge is rcl:itivc to the incrtiill fratlie. F o r this reason.I 5. since the earth is rotating and tnoving will1 respect to inertial spacc..Ire used as sensors in an environment such as that of a large rotating central attracting body like tlic earth.[k'  S/.r coo.14) in block diagram f o r m F o r navigation at o r near the surfi~ce llie earth. This can he done by rearrdngin$ Eq.ciorcfy .~cceleration. (4. (4. an ideal accelerumcter measures the specilic furcc.142 CHAPTER 4 . Equation (4. This is necessary if inertial instruments .12) n therclbre represents the motion of the vchicle in inertial coordinates.rn ill inult.(R) + (4.~surcmcntstakcn in incrtial spacc l o ohscrvations o f position. inertial navigation is based on solving this equation fur veloccomputer. and accclelation in a moving vehicle.lvitetinnal .~ccelerationvector and i ' y is the transIrrmation matrix from inertial to platlbrnm coordinates. we nccd to rct'cr the of position and velocity of the vchicle to an earthfixed coordinate syslcln. The subscript I in Eq. consider the vector output of an ideal set ot .puiiny \.
(4. Differentiation and/or integration of these components is. carried out with respect to the platform axes. therefore. substituting Eq.15) into Eq.4. which is also referred to as the spatiul rate. Substituting Eq. ECI) and earthfixed velocities is given by where R is the angular rate of the earth relative to the inertial frame (or sidereal rate vector) and V is the true velocity of the vehicle with respect to the earth.. we have Substituting [dR/dt].15) with respect to the inertial coordinates.12b) gives the expression [I61 Since the centripetal acceleration of the earth term R x (R x R ) is a function . Consequently. (4.3.16) yields As we noted earlier. General Navigation Equations 143 which rotates with the earth.19) into Eq. Differentiating Eq.18) into Eq. (4. with respect to the moving coordinate frame (such as the earth's surface). the derivative of the velocity V with respect to the platform axes is an essential quantity and can he related to the derivative with respect to inertial space by the expression where w is the angular rate of the platform with respect to inertial space.17) results in Finally. the output of the accelerometer gives quantities that are measured along the platform (or system axes). (4. the expression relating inertial (viz. It should be noted that Coriolis acceleration is present when a vehicle is moving with some velocity [dR/dt]. (4. From the Law of Coriolis. (4. from Eq. (4. and since dR/dt=O.
T h e parameter p is . results in [ 7 ] This is the genrrali7ed navigation equation l i ~ r vehicle. z axes in thc i.of such systems (i.~n.21) into Eq. (4. respectively..tl unit vector5 along the moving axes (Y. Schuler oscilletions in the lioriz<1ntal channels and strong instability in the vcrtical ch.e.tte frame. it can he combined with thc ~massattlaction eravity tcrm to give the apparcnt ( o r local plumbhob) gravity vector a s .where R is thc dist.~. . k ) represent orthopon. substituting Eq. PerSorming the vector operation ( p i 2O) x V in Eq. Again. Malliematically.x( K ) ~ . (4.144 CHAPTER 4 Kir7.1. j.23) into Eq. (4.z ) .il\o k n o a n as tlre ir. (4. it docs not refer to a n y parlicular type of system coord1n.c Compensat. Thcrefhre. The term g ( R ) is pcrtlaps thc dominant l c d b a c k tcrm in inertial navigation systcms and is responsible Cur the principal modes ol'hehavior.ui!.icmat.~lizedrncchanizatiolr equitlion: that is. gcncrnlizcd equation can hc cnprcsscd itlong the platform Y.oti Equations (1f position on the earth only. this can be stated :IS Substituting Eel. (4.22).24).20) fivcs the cxprcssion This is a gencr. = Schuler angular frequency .R j . [w. v . a n d re:irranging terms. expressed in thc a platform ( P ) .itl?)rm coordinate frame used in this systcin results in the spatial rate heinp thc sum of the earth rate and vehicle (or platform) i~ngularrille p with respect lo tllc carthfixcd frame. we havc 141 wherc ( i . o r computational frame.mcc from Ihe center o f t h e carlh to thc vehicle. The locall) level pl..~nnel). t l ~ c .)llowing I l ~ r n l : .ir ~ i i t . which i h referenced to the c a r t l ~ ..
can he neglected without compromising system performance or accuracy. axis located at the intersection of the Greenwich meridional plane and the equatorial plane.. Moreover. The remaining terms of the infinite series account for the fact that the earth is not a spherically symmetric body. i$). General Navigarion Equations 145 In general.+) in an earthfixed. is the simplified gravitational potential of the earth and is due to a spherically mass symmetric body. which is the mean value. this derivation assumes that the earth's mass distribution is symmetric about the polar axis (z. 4)./R) J. is at a distance R from the center of the earth (assumed to be independent of longitude). For certain inertial navigation system applications.re axis. axis along the earth's polar axis. or "normal" potential U(R. The spherical or zonal harmonics that depend on the geocentric latitude only. p/R. the gravitational model is based on a spherical harmonic expansion of the gravitational potential U(R.3. 2. These are I.=coefficients of zonal harmonics of the earth potential function (constants determined from observations of orbit perturbations of artificial satellites) P. the gravitational potential U ( R .(sin +)=associated Legendre polynomials of the first kind as functions of and degree n + + The first term on the righthand side of this equation. There are two commonly used expansions of the gravitational potential. Therefore. can be expressed in terms of spherical harmonics in the following form: where p = the earth's gravitational constant a =mean equatorial radius of the earth (or semimajor axis) R = [x: +y: + z:]'/~ is the magnitude of the geocentric position vector =geocentric latitude (sin i$ = z. righthanded orthogonal coordinate system with the positive x. Tesseral and sectoral harmonics that depend on both latitude and longitude. and the yc axis positive 90" east of the . which indicate deviations from rotational symmetry. the contributions of the Tesseral and sectoral harmonics. axis). earthcentered. and that the external gravitational potential due to mass attraction. the positive z. The derivation of the gravitational potential is based on the reference ellipsoid.4. .
positive in the ~iownward ilircction. 1 x I t ' a n d J 5 = . \tc will assume that the direction o f the gravity vector g coincides with the "normal. = 2 .lrent gravity Y vector along the platform . 0 1 x 10 ". then all the odd harmontcs in the infinite series vanish. and p. the x. a Inore accurate model for g ( R ) will he required lhr ptecise navigation. g ( R ) = R ' . q ~ ] ' and R [0 0 71'. 0 0 0 . .this c.. More ] specihc:~lly. I<. flattened ill the pole\.01 x I0 ''.) In the ani~lysisthat li)llows. T11c foul111 harnmonic coefficient . l 3 + 0 . y axes can hc neglected because their magnitude is <lO'p . .63ll J. I T syrnmetly with respect to the equal<)rinl planc is assumed.. the second h a r r n o ~ ~ i c term in the infinite series . that is. i. In this frame.' gravity vector.~lly. colresponds to a tendency toward a triangular shape.rt the altitude considered.0 . g(R)[O 0 . 5 1 t 0. That IS. note that since R is very Ii~rgc. 1 3 + 0 . thc mcridional crohs section hcing a n ellipse sather than a circle. approximates . and is generally asymmclric.in.~theniatic.I. y axes in the cquatorial plane with the x axis defined by the intersection of the reference meridian and the plane of the mean astronotnic cquator. and is dcfitted to hc perpendicular Lo the rcfcrcncc cilipsid.0. (Some selccted v:~lues for the c o n s t .tll tcrtlls within thc hrt~ckctsare small comparcd with unity. rcsults from l l ~ ccarth'h flattening. t tlic componcnts p . = J . Specifically. Statcd another way. and R = [ r I . 9) 11. Kinematic Cornpensation Equations hut is hulged a t the equalor.I square. ~ ~ l t s are .I. J . vanish: that is.01 x I0 ". the components of the app.746 CHAPTER 4  . . T h e third harmonic coclficient . which is symmetric in latitude and independent of longitude.. and the .s North Polar axis. J . 0.IS I'ollows: J:.since g ( R ) is acting clitirely along R in a sphcrical e ~ r t l model. the z axis is assumed to h c directcd along the 2arth..illy. Moreover. as thc dominant characlcristic of the gravitational field is that o f an oblate spheroid.ln he st. g ( R ) is not acting quite along R. 1101 quite toward the center of the earth. ' . M. s o that ti(/<. I .I.~tcdas  For a spherical earth model. 1 l . T h e gravitation vector is given as the gradient of the potentiill as where The ahovc equations can he expressed in a rather simple form if a particular choice is made of the ECI coordinate frame.10XZ. Howcvcr.
the equations of motion must account for the rotation of the coordinate frame. Retaining only the first three terms of the expansion of U ( R .3. completing a righthanded ECI orthogonal system. In a spheroidal earth model. From the above discussion we can see that navigation in ECI coordinates involves integration of a simple set of differential equations driven by the measured specific force A. the local plumbhob (or geodetic) vertical does not go through the earth's center. This is accomplished. by using the Law of Coriolis. As mentioned earlier. leading to the use of geodetic (or geographic) latitude concept. Assume now a northeastup (NEU) coordinate . the inertial platform's vertical axis and the geodetic vertical do not coincide. In this coordinate frame. as we have seen. Thus.+). General Navigation Equations 147 y axis 90"east of the x axis. it is more convenient to refer the position and velocity of the vehicle to an earthfixed Cartesian coordinate frame.4. for most terrestrial applications. we have for a spheroidal earth model [3] =cos h cos c$ X R R= where c$ is the geographic latitude. which rotates with the earth.
( ~ 2Cl.C l cos d) C1= ll. frame a s shown in Fig.'. (h  Lo) .~xcs. N.)V. CIi FIGURE 43 I ) c l ~ n ~ l ~ 01' o f h c coordin.+2(1.l I (4.=SLb=O R .kl. = A . (4. + I.i(p.)V. (427. Kinematic ConlpensaNon Equations  4 . = CLN . rcspcctively. k cl. IJ.A. In this system.25) takcs the simpler form v A ( R ) l I (p +2l1. t. L . j. 43. j i R s i l l $ .27h) (4. k are unit vectors i~lolipE.148 CHAPTER 4 . the components of the earth ralc arc given by R=O.V. i+llcosit. Then Eq.)V.)1.t(p.2711) P . T h e radii of curvature of a constant longitude (north south) line and ol' n constant . .rtc .+?C1. Consider an aircraft flying at an altitude h above the cnrth.  R sin 4 whcrc i.
3. + h or.c2 sin ' Ro(l . the east. & is the meridional radius of curvature for northsouth motion. h is the altitude above the oblate spheroid. In other words. is the normal radius of curvature for eastwest motion. north. respectively. and c is the eccentricity. f 'Both radii of curvature can be simplified using the binomial expansion. are given in the form [I I] P U . and up components of the angular rate of a locally level platform p with respect to the earthfixed frame.c2) + 4)3/Z respectively. 13. Thus.( I . . a is the semimajor axis and b is the semiminor axis of the reference ellipsoid). by letting n be i and i.h / a . Note that both & and Rh are derived at the surface of the earth (h=O) for an ellipsoidal earth. General Navigation Equations 149 latitude (eastwest) line on the surface of an ellipsoidal earth are functions of geographic latitude and are given by [5] R .4. From Ref. i c . and R.. (Ix)~"= n(n l+nx+x'+. 4 is the geographic latitude. the radii of curvature* of the reference ellipsoid can be approximated with sufficient accuracy as where f is the flattening ( f = 1 . in terms of the earth's flattering (or ellipticity).R. where Ro is the equatorial radius of the earth.+ I) 2! .~ N tan $=(A) tan + .
F o r this aircraft. The inverse trans. the currcnt coordinates in :In earthcentered earthfixcd (ECEF) systeni can hc computed by a tr.... that is.. Thus 151 r.~tcsa t the currcnt time a t the midpoint of the integration interval. ) arc the coordin.=p.~tion from geodetic to earthfixed coordinates. (I  i ' t h ] sin l) $ F o r thc aircraft under consideration.w.=p..=p.~nsform.npensanon Equarjons p~ = VI.+n. can he accomplished as li)llows: . tan $ + R sin $ Note that thcsc are the cralt (transport) wtc coniponents of thc gyroscope torquing rate ( w = p + Q ) . = [ R .+O_ V .. formation. I I I 4+ 4 Ro i then + f v n 7$ + S1ncew. Kjnernatic Co. = ( R i + h ) cos $ cos A ?.= ( Rit /I) cos $ sin A r..iC1.dnd(u = p +62 w.. (a.~. ECEF coordinates to geodetic i:~titude $. R. I + f sin' VF tan R. z .150 CHAPTER 4 . longitude 7 and altitude /I..
An iterative process must be used in order to solve for these parameters.4.24). Referring once again to Eq.N E E] cos 4 sin A cos A s i n 4 sin A cos 4 :][:I si?]E] 0 x where the longitude A = (h . RN= 0 cos have +. (4. then in component form we tan 4 . The longitude ho may be assumed to be zero. Referring to Fig. then the sidereal hour angle Rt must be divided by rr.~ sin + cos A sin A cos 4 cos A sin I\ s i n 4 cos A =C u :. the transformation that converts the ECI(x. VN . if the longitude h is in units of degrees/l80. General Navigation Equations 151 where a is the semimajor axis and b is the semiminor axis of the ellipsoid. is the longitude at t =O. The geodetic latitude and altitude cannot be solved in closed form. Finally.Lo) + Rt and L.4 0 c:. y. the part (p+2S2)V can be written in matrix form as and since RE= 0.zn sin 4 . Qu =R sin 4. z ) coordinates to the local level (LL) UEN frame is obtained from cos 4 El=[sp. 43.l[sa.3.
is the velocity vector at (r . the cenlripctal acceleration tcrm R x (R x R ) can he neglected since the error contribution is small.19) d ' R = ~ v ( l ) + M . v.7 52 CHAPTER 4  Kjnernatlc Cornpensatjon Epuat.. 11) + .ons M. where V is thc velocity vector a t time t and V. thc total acceleration can be expresscd in the form of Eq. dr' . I n certain applications. ical (I)components of the rates of change of velocity measured with respect to the earthfixed coordinates are as follows: LA +j Rir.). Al ) in which case we have substituted ( d V . .. t~ r h ) . l + lM .A t ) .I. Then. In terms of thcse equations.. t IR.'AI. d r ) p = ( V V..= v.. (4. l . Rx+h +2f1 sin g . + M N l k i R x ( R x R j . the east(\)./ ' v. n o r t h ( ~ 1 and vert.. .
and vertical or up) velocities as follows: VN= v ~ ( 0 + ) il' VN df From the preceding discussion. A = A. ho) represent the initial position of the platform in geographic coordinates at time zero.43. General Nav. then the mass attraction component of g(R) is governed by the inverse square law as follows: wlrere gmO(R)=massattraction gravity at the surface of the earth Ro= equatorial radius of the earth R = radial distance from the center of the earth to the vehicle l R unit vector positive in the R direction = R j R = . so that the present position of the platform in terms of (+. 5: (R. (4. so that the latitude and longitude rates are h= .27~) can be integrated by the inertial navigation system's onhoard navigation computer to calculate continuously the north). V~dt fh cos 4) respectively.53 Assuming t = 0.aation Eauations 1. h) may therefore be computed as follows: where ho. east). h. Equations (4.21) is assumed (for error modeling purposes) to act entirely in the radial direction.27a)(4. we note that if the plumbbob gravity vector defined in Eq.
Relbrc the start of a flight. in a conventional north eastdown ( N E D ) mechaniration.(R) will he considered positive towilrd the carth's center at the point R . which results from vehicle translational motion. This is commonly accomplished hy torquing the platform gyroscopes until the plotform axes coincide with the computational reference axcs. Froni basic kinematic considerations. R and p. It should he poir~lcd here that a "locallcvel" coordinate frame is one which out two axcs o f thc frame are always normal to g(U1. due to the earth's angular velocity 0. a n alignment procedure must he carried out s o that the accelerometer triad is coincident with the computational reference frame. Therefore. (4. = precessional rate applied about the vertical axis. = a unit vector in the radial direction R . tlie precessional rate about thc vertical axis is dependent on the particular navigation equation implementation. the expansion yields Carrying thesc results one step further. we note that the angular rate vector p defines the rate a t which the locallevel reference frame is precessing relative to an earthfixed sct of axes. wc liote that the vertical component of the centripetal acceleration call he found from the triple vector product 11x ( a x U ) in scitlar form. g. rate The precessi~~nal of the locallevel frame.154 CHAPTER 4 Kinematic Compensation Equations In the present discussion. Thus. Next. Subsequent alignment can be obtained by continuous torquing of the yyroscopes. Ignoring higherorder terms. ah we shall see later. thc vertical axis is precessed a t a rate that keeps the two levcl axis pointing nortli and east a t all times. The precessional ratc of thc locallevcl frame about the two levcl axcs is conipletely defined by the requirement that thesc axes remain at all times horizontal. T h e centripetal xcclzration has a maximuin value of approximately 0. tlie locallevel frame is dcfined as having one axis along the radial direction. These torquiny rates consist of the earth's rotational ratc and the  . Furthermore. is explicitly defined by the transformatioti matrix relating the locallevel frame a n d a n carthreferenced frame.28) in a Taylor series. the vertical component of the centripetal acccleration is R'R cos' where is the geographic latitude and C is the ! earth's rotational ratc. Spccitically. The mass attraction gravity component at moderate altitudes / I can be accuratcly approximated by expanding Eq. for instance. with the other two axes perpendicular to the tirst and defining the level plane.003g. the vector p may hc expressed as +. the inertial coordinates of uehiclc position relative to the earth must he entered into the onboard navigation computer. + where I. For example.
1. the geographic implementation of the inertial navigation position rate equations calculates latitude and longitude rate directly as functions of computed vehicle north and east velocity components.4 STANDARD MECHANIZATION EQUATIONS In this section we will discuss the various navigation system implementation equations that are available to the inertial navigation system designer. there are several common choices available to the designer for the "P" or platform frame. Standard Mechanization Equations 155 rotational rate of the computational frame resulting from vehicle motion with respect to the earth. The first two methods differ only in the azimuth or heading orientation of the navigation frame's horizontal axes relative to north. 4. fixed stars.4. The inertial coordinates are also designated as spacestable or spacestable with respect to inertial space. As demonstrated in Ref. In particular. the horizontal plane formed by the two . as we saw in Section 2. which are commonly expressed and calculated in a locally level navigation coordinate frame. This system is attractive for simulation purposes. . The signals that are applied to the platform gyroscopes are p + R . . regardless of the physical mechanization or internal navigation variables. Earthfixed This is a Cartesian coordinate system that is closely related to the inertial coordinates.. the homogeneous or unforced part of these differential equations is identical for any arbitrarily configured terrestrial inertial navigation system. Local level The two horizontal coordinate axes are always normal to the gravity vector g(R). Furthermore. However. under certain assumptions. 3. As we shall see in the next section. this system requires a considerable amount of computation related to the inertial coordinates. (This is the coordinate frame in which the gyroscopes and accelerometers are fixed. and (3) spacestable. That is. however. and pz+ R. nonrotating with respect to the distant.4. The earthfixed coordinate system also requires a considerable amount of computations. p + Q y . (2) wanderazimuth. Actually. we will investigate the inertial navigation system position and velocity equations. . These signals are then continuously integrated to calculate current latitude and longitude. Three of the most commonly used navigation coordinate frame implementations are (I) geographic (or latitudelongitude). the basic error differential equations for any inertial navigation system may be written in standard coordinates.) Listed below are some of the coordinate frames which are used in connection with the system mechanizations: Inertial A Cartesian coordinate system.
c Compensatjon Equatmns axes is tangent to the reference ellipsoid. and ease of implementation of the navigation system equations and algoritlims. lmprovcmcnts in computer memory and speed enhance the feasibility of techniques that implement optimal adaptive guidancc algorithnis onbuard the vehicle. because of inertial navigation system errors.~l:icceleiomctcr input axes.inie is spcciticd by the navigation systeni outputs of position and velocity. the system designer must account fol.~daptation changing mission demands to and environments. and reliability.ltforni frame's axes arc plrallcl to thr nomin.IS measured by autonomy. It is safe to say that the burden will he o n the flight algorithn~s o help meet thesc requirements. llowever. mainly because thcsc systems havc the potential advantages of lower cost. In this book. sclf st. and west . system complexity. as Computer The computcr frame is d e f i ~ ~ e d the frame in which the navigation equation mechaniration actually occurs. Also. Strapdown The coordinate axes arc tixcd to the vehicle.lrne corresponds to the ideal o r crrorfree oricntalioi~ of the inertial platform . the third o r vertical axis is 11ormal to the reference ellipsoid. Tvucfvumc This li. For vehicles operaling in a nearcarth environment. simplicity. T u n ~ m plane This is a locallevel systcni wliicli is tixed a t one point on t the earth only.rm T h e pl. CHAPTER 4  K.~rting. this reference fr. instruments available. robust. however. these algorithms will L be designed l o provide autoniatic . hut an inclividual choice can be made by the inertial n:t\. T h e locally Icbel systcnl includcb thc northslavcd ( o r northpointing) itnd \vil~idel. on the basis of fictors such as mission r e q i ~ i r c m e ~ ~ t s . strapdown systems appear to be gaining in acceptance by navigation systeni dcsip~crs. accuracy. h Plutfi. such a s north east down. Moreover. hystem environmental constraints. It should be pointed out. mission flexibility. a n d reliability. platform framc. that hccausc of system errors. This h n i e is mechanirationclcpendent.smallangle misalignments hetwecn these framcs. In addilion. We note that the true irame. Over the years. onboard navigation computer computation speed and storagc cilpacity. There is n o single bcst choice. inlliglit ad. there has been considerable discussion concerning what constitutes the "bcst" choice k)r system mechani~ation. and computer framc itre usually coincident.: ~ ~ i m i t tsystenis.nemat. Moreover.and capable of functioning autonomously.igntioii system designer. Future navigation and guidancc systems will be required to perform increasingly c(~niplcxtasks. east north up. T h e onboard algorithms must maximize system performance .it the vchicle's :ictual position. this framc will not he the same 21s the true framc in which thc equations arc nominally mechanized. thesealgolithms must becomputationally ctticient.156 .lptabilitq. we will usc different itrlangcrnents of the locallevel axes.
represents the platform azimuth rate required to maintain the desired platform orientation to north. The gyroscope torquing or precession rates w. 44. will have unbounded latitude and longitude errors in response to the same drift. thus maintaining the platform fixed in inertial space. a locally level system allows the two horizontal gyroscopes to maintain their output axes vertical and their input axes in the horizontal plane. a clock would be necessary to transf o m ~ an earthfixed frame). and as a result is virtually absent for the horizontal gyroscopes in this mechanization. since the y accelerometer points north. we need the craft rate equations. o . In this arrangement. and the z axis up as shown in Fig. the x axis east. In inertial mechanizations. In addition. In this arrangement. while at the same time provide the student with some expertise in dealing with different systems. with respect . The transformation to any other desired frame. A locallevel system will have a bounded oscillatory latitude error and a growing longitude error in response to a constant gyroscope drift. at a rate determined by the earth rate and the vehicle velocity. and my represent the level angular rates of the platform required to maintain the platform level. LatitudeLongitude Mechanization Let the vehicle position be defined by a coordinate system such that the y axis points north. As already mentioned. w. In addition. an ellipsoidal earth model will be assumed. such as an ECEF frame is accomplished by constructing the desired transformation from known dependence of the desired coordinate frame (e. while w. in an inertial frame. defines a northpointing system mechanization.4. and w. the gyroscopes to will "tumble" in the gravity field. the gyroscopes sense rotations with respect to inertial space. on the other hand.4. it senses northsouth acceleration. Note that the vertical gyroscope is also subject to gsensitive drift. to inertial space are [3] The two rates w.g. as follows: .4. Next. An inertial system.1. gyroscope driftinduced position errors for this mechanization are caused predominantly by the horizontal gyroscopes.on Equarions 157 northup. so that the navigation system designer can select the one that best fulfills the objective. Standard Mechanirar. the gsensitive drift is due mainly to the mass unbalance about the output axis of the gyroscope.. Moreover. that is. 4..
A .34) From Eq. + o . .22).158 CHAPTER 4 .~llon p = p~ tan + (4.32~) Consequently.( ( ~ ) sin+)^. Kjnemattc Cornpensar.75) (4.on Equar. the level and vcrticill velocity cqualions lake the ti~rnm " I . = A . .v o~. in order t o maintain the platform levcl. 11) ~ (4.ons  =t Equator \ FIGURE 44 Cooldinalc axes f o r latttudr iongltudc mechani.(O)U + {I cos 6 )V: + (10. PY cos 9 4) IfN (4.. the latit~ldc longiancl tude gimbal axe5 must he drivcn with rhc following sates: i=.371 .y. (4.C'~+((~)~+~Icos(/I)i~.36) V . . .+K7(/l. i CI sin (4..
one obtains For the longitude we can write Therefore. Eqs.40) and (4.with respect to inertial space are .38) where hs is the barometric altitude.c + R cos $ I The latitude and longitude are obtained by integrating Eqs. As before.41). The various terms and or coefficients appearing in the vertical velocity channel will be treated in more detail in the next subsection.31a)(4.h) (4. The gyroscope torquing rates o x . That is. integrating Eq.a .4. . in order to maintain the platform level. etc.4. we note that use was made of g(R) = g . Now consider a spherical earth model. VN(0). All the preceding equations must be initialized before the start of the program. the initialization is accomplished by placing VE(0). (4. l . and o.31~)can he written as . Now. (4. Standard Mechanization Eauations 159 with h= V=+K. Also.(h.40). the latitude and longitude gimbal axes must be driven with the rates i = ~ = ( 2 j . (4.
44) Next. 4 6 ~ as ) . 14.47a) ( 4 . A ~ )i n+ + (4.7 60  CHAPTER 4 Khernatic Cornpensation Equations (1): = '+ R 0. Substituting Eqs.. (4.1) Q = = Qsin $10) +( so that the platl'i. the components ol'thc carth rate are given by 0 14.46~) The gravity components arc taken to be where y. (4.rm ( o r craft) ralcs relative t o the earth arc [ (4.45.42). one obtains ) Finally. 4 7 ~ into Eq.4ha) ( 4 . the magnitude of Lhe vector w call be obtained from Eqs.24). is the accelcr~tionof gravity at the earth's surfncc. we note that in tcrms of Kc). (4.
and mi becomes unbounded. WanderAzimuth Mechanization A number of allearth navigation methods have been proposed that circumvent the problem of si~lgularitiesat the poles described in the latitudelongitude. Locallevel. (4. 70" or less. equal to or less than 60". say. northpointing mechanization of the previous section. vary with time and vehicle position by the wander angle a. (4. therefore. In a wanderazimuth. wanderazimuth implementation allows a true worldwide capability and is utilized in many major inertial navigation systems. (2) if the platform axes are kept aligned with the axes of the navigation frame. and heading angles of the vehicle.2. Latitude and longitude are weakly coupled to the vertical channel. in practice torques are applied to the vertical (or altitude) channel in order to cancel the gyroscope bias error. the platform is aligned so that it is perpendicular to the local geodetic vertical.42) is. Consequently. (4.41) results in a singularity. pitch. wanderazimuth navigation . so that the system becomes discontinuous. the angles between the various adjacent gimbals are equal to the conventionally defined roll. 4. a navigation system mechanized in latitudelongitude (northpointing) is limited to latitudes at which the maximum allowable precessional rate of its vertical axis will not be exceeded and. locallevel mechanization. Thus. Also.4.4. Mathematically. as we shall see later. the gyroscope that senses rotation about the vertical is left untorqued and will not maintain a particular terrestrial heading reference.49) cannot he solved in closed form since most of the coefficients are timedependent. such as a barometric altimeter. That is. a locallevel northpointing navigation system is limited to latitudes of. A completely general solution of the allearth navigation problem can he achieved. there are a number of advantages in using this mechanization: (I) it requires less computation time than other mechanizations. On the other hand. does not have a worldwide navigation capability. Consequently. locallevel. Standard Mechanization Eooaiions 161 Equation (4.46~). / R ) t 1560". However. say. the computation of longitude rate as given by Eq.The required rotational rate of the computation frame becomes infinite in the azimuth as indicated by Eq. A disadvantage of the latitudelongitude mechanization arises when navigating at or near the polar regions where the vehicle latitude approaches i90". vertical channel navigation is often decoupled and performed in conjunction with the combined outputs of the vertical accelerometer and an altitudeindicating sensor.4. However. one can obtain an idea of the magnitude of this equation by assuming that the absolute value of Eq. by the socalled wanderazimuth mechanization. and (3) it turns out that two accelerometers suffice for this mechanization. I+(O) + ( V . among other mechanizations. therefore. Orientation with respect to north will. This choice is motivated by the fact that a locallevel.
Kmemalic Compensatmn Equations systems are therefore used when navigating a t latitudes ahovc 70'. axes. 3 3 ) The velocity . axes form a plane that is locally level. Moreover. the locallevel axes arc precessed a t a generalized angular ratc p. T h e YF axis is in the direction of the earth's angular velocity vector (North Pole). and is given by P. while the precessional rate about the vertical axis is completely arbitrary in this iniplcmcnlalion concept..inize the system (see Section 2 . a "double precision" (or twoword) wander angle value is commonly used in order to minimize the "wanderangle drift.u. directed along the geodetic latitude. in the derivation of the equations that follow. = j y .0 is north. resulting i n lcss hardware needed to mech. it is common to have the vertical component of p equal and opposite to the vcrlical component of 0. y. and the X . relative to the earthrefcrcnce axes. respectively. the wander angle (r will he defined to positive counterclockwise from north. the vertical component of p is comtnonly chosen to be zero). The level components of p maintain tlic level axes perpendicular to the grevity vector.162 .is "free azimuth. axis is in the equatorial plane through the Greenwich Meridian. formine the gyroscope . the Z. a n d the transformation between the two sets of axes is numerically established on a continuous hasis by solving the direction cosine differential equation [I 81 ('=Cl . i (4. x kz. P 1I (4.50) where / p 1 is a skew symmetric matrix representing the angular velocity of the platform frame with respect to the earthfixed frame expressed in the platform frame coordinates. T h e n a v i g a t i o ~computations make use of the ~ direction cosine matrix (. The positive direction of the r axis is up. In this method. In navigation systems whcrc a higher accuracy is required. thc shape o f the earth will h e assumed to he lliat of iln oblate spheroid. Unless otherwise specified. CHAPTER 4 . In platform systems. (In strapdown navigation systems.\ and I.'. 1. (4. and the positive direction of t h e y axis for a . 45). T h e analysis of the wander azimuth mechanization will be carried out for a localvertical. axis is in the equatorial plane completing the triad ( i x . This is commonly referrcd to . [!.51) That is. we will take the (. while the s." The twoword wander angle is taken as the sum of the values u (most significant part) and Au ( a least significant part). Also." which has the advantage that the vertical axis of the platform need not hc physically preccsscd. geodetic frame (see Fig. the direction cosine matrix C' is updated using a firstorder approximate solution of Eq. 2)frame to coincidc with the coinputtational aud platform frames.in the mechanization of transformation from the platform frame to the earthfixed frame.I.50).
requires the magnitude of the local gravity. Computation of the vertical velocity component V.4. The computed horizontal velocity is resolved through the wander angle R into east and north components. Standard Mechanization Equations 163 $ geodetic latitude $c = geocentric latitude FIGURE 45 Coordinate ares for wanderazimuth mechanization.4. The computed horizontal velocity is used in the computation of the angular rate p of the . increments AV sensed by the accelerometers and resolved along the platform frame axes are combined with the V / R terms and with the Coriolis correction terms.
In order to uniquely define the orientation of the locallevel frame in a wander azimuth implementation... the locallevel lYame will have an azimuth rotation 11rclativc to north. before wc proceed with the earthcentered earthfixed ( E C E F ) coordinate 11ansformation. As stated ahovc. 0 O cos h 0 sin i. 'I'hcrcforc. In general. sin ir sin X c o s (1 sin 4 cos ? .salion Equations platfor~nframe with respect to the earthfixcd frame. This . cos 4 cos 1 I (4.. Following thc procedures described in Chaptcr 2. ..164 CHAPTER 4  Kinenlatic Cornper.angle.PO][sii cc. varies as the vehicle moves over the earth from its initial position.I[: 0 [ I cos Rr 0 sin Qt 0 s i l l Qi cos Q r I 0 I . and wander :~ngle a!e computed from the ('matrix terms. a set of direction cosines relating the platfblm locallevel axes to the earthfixed axcs is utilizcd.. precision is nolmally Double uscd in solving this cquation T h e latitude. IHowevcr. .52) . Y.ltrix is uscd t o update the direction cosine matrix tr>uisformation between the platform and carthfixed frames. Symrnclry about the Y. axis. ( N o t e that for a northpointing system.~nglc. Figure 45 illustralcs thc dctinition o f the wanderazimuth axcs ibr an oblate spheloid eal~th. Wander Anglc  ] Latitudc + Longitude cos u cos i. thc updaling is based on the solution of thc dilfcrcntial cquation i ' = ~ [ ~ : .sin ir sin 4 cos i. scmiminor axis is assumed.which we definrd as the wandel. the transformation matrix (':' that transl'orms the earthfixed coordinates into the platform courdinates is obtained by a series of rotations.( 2 ) a negative rotation of 4 ahuut the rotated X F axis. iZ. it is necessary to transli>rm the earthcentered inertial frame ( E C I ) into the E C E F f r a m c These two coordinate frames art: related by the simple transformation matrix = ' . Thc ( p j 1n. and ( 3 ) a positive rotation of u about the ]rotated Z. longitude. the transformation matrix takes the form 1 '  [ cos u ?in sin u .sin u sin 4 sin h s i n rr cos h c o s ir sin 4 sin h cos 4 sin h sin u cos I $ cos a cos I$ sin 4 cos u sin h . the wander angle u=O). . T h e order a n d direction of rotations is a s tbllows: ( 1 ) a positive rotation of h about Y.
sin a sin sin h C.= sin a cos h c o s a sin 4 sin h C. (2. the wander angle is governed by .=cosacos+ Cyz sin = Czx = cos a sin h ..52)] can also be written in the form where = cos a cos h .= V cosa+ V sina E ..4.sin a sin cos h CZV=sinasinhcos a s i n 4 c o s h C. VY=VEsina+ VNcosa The aircraft ground velocity is given by From Section 2.4 Eq. h = tan' [Cxz/(Cnx .] 4.4.53) (4. longitude h.54) (4.3. and (4.38).=cos $I sin h CYx sin a cos $I = C. (4. the latitude wander angle a can be calculated from the relations + = s i n 1C . Standard Mechanization Equations 165 The elements of the transformation matrix [Eq.CYx CYy Cm)I a = tan' [C.=cos+cos h Cfi + + + In terms of the direction cosine elements./C.55) The vehicle north and east velocity components are obtained by a transformation of the x and y velocity components as follows: and V.
66  CHAPTER 4 . the level crall rdte components p.. resulting in 141 where 1 R. Approximations to Eqs. but ihc gyroscope torquing rate is w . u'e substitute IEqs.=O.64) arc thc cxact level cl. Galrying the aho\.64) can be obtained by substituting thc rcspectivc g values for K. Kinematic Corrrpensario. . and 0. Equations Therefore. :lnd can be ohtained using Fig.56) and (4. and R+ and c x p a ~ ~ d i nthr Icsults ink) a firstorder scrirs. = p.59) p cos . (4.56).c rcsults one step T~~rthcr.57) into Eqs. _ cos' u R. (4. in terms of thc above vclocil? components. 14. = n sin 4. ir (4.. cos u + pl sin u p. with respect to the earth (4. p .7 . wc obtallr N o t e that for tllc wander azimuth mechanization p.63) and (4.60) Substituting the values for p. the uendcr angle can also bc written as Likewise.+h + sin' tr R.61) and (4. 45.lft rilte equations for a vehicle llying at a n altitude h ahovc the reference ellipsoid. sin 11 t (1.63) and (4.p. = .t/i cos (1 sin 11 Equations (4. defined previously.
66) where Q is the equatorial radius of the earth and f is the flattening.. R . sin a cos 4 .4. are the unit vectors along the respective platform axes. the craft rate can be written in vector notation from Fig. (4.4.3. In general. sin@+& I sin24 1 =isin$+& (4. the vertical gyroscope torquing rate is oz=p.(2/sin a cos a cos' $1 R. As we noted in Section 2.(2/sin a cos a cos2 4) . we obtain the approximate level craft rates as follows (41 : 5 f sin a cos a cos2 $1 [2 R. Standard Mechanization EOuafions 167 Performing these operations. but takes the form cos 4 + p. the value of pi will depend on the type of mechanization selected. I. is not zero..+C2sin4=(i+C2) s i n + + & (4.65) VY + . for the wanderazimuth mechanization I V.[I h /(I R. in the general case.69) Thus.3 cos' a cos" .3 cos2 4 sin2 acosi 6 cos2a ) ]+ ~.?. 45 as where I. Therefore.sin2 o cosQl . it should be pointed out that. 0 However. the vertical component of the craft rate p. 1.70) .[ 2f sin a cos a cos2 $1 Rc (4.
Let i = X . will. the general direction cosinc ( o r position) dilfcrcntial equathe tions can he ohtaincd. ~ ~~ c$ Thus.168 CHAPTER 4 . Once it is known. %. p. thCrefore. T l ~ c n dircctiol~cosinc ralcs wre ohtaincd as i'ollows: Thesc results can hc repeated in a cyclical order by letting i.L LOs' + I I (4.71) I'he value of p .(2/sin <I co.s i n 24.68) will contain a p component: /(I 3 sln2 o C O S + c o y ' a COS? 4111 + v.Y. %. (4. . for the general rncchaniation casc. Y. Y'. sin (x cos I . + p. and dependin* what value o f (r is chohen. Kinematrc Compensation Equations whcrc / = . but only six arc needed for navigatio~io r fliglit c(lrilrol): . resulting in the following equations ( n o w that the nine direction cosinc ratc equations result from this process. cos u cos 4. depcnd on the type of mechanization uscd. Eq.
( 2 0 ~ ~ V. + v.= Vy.. = V. Standard Mechanization Equations 169 For the wanderazimuth mechanization under consideration. + (p.. ) V . is the corrected incremental velocity change in the x.4. they can be written in the form V. therefore.. .+AVY .= V. + ~ ~ C ~ . + ( ~ ~ C . ) V . + pxAt+SV.= V. Specifically. the processing is performed each time the inertial platform alignment function computes the level velocity corrections V. where S V . p==O.. the direction cosine rate differential equations simplify to The processing of the direction cosine rates and direction cosines depends on the particular application.74) vy= A.) v:... V .. Vy.AI+SV. some systems use processing rates of about 50 ms..75) For the purposes of processing the level velocities. For example. y axes and At is the time increment.4. + 2ncy. ( ~ . :) (4. The direction cosine differential equations can now be updated as follows: The level velocity differential equations can now be given in terms of the direction cosine as V ~ = A .(4.+ AV.
= V~ + < AI i~ Vz S where 6V= is the incremental zaxis velocity corrected for the vehicle nonorthogonality coordinates. very littlc has been said bout the vertical channel.0 x 10 ' s I. s i n 2 @ 1 :g..% ~ ' . + ( ~ .0 x 10 " s ') (these coelficients are dctennined from specifications on the loop damping ratio and timi: constant) K4=gravity model coefficient = 5.[I .SKl(hl. howevel.K. From Eq. A/?= V.. As in the case of the direction cosines. and AV. .. if the accelelation of gravity up component . is reduced to a firstordcr approximation. the simplest relationship bctwcen the vertical velocity and altitude can be expressed as V:=lz.computed altitude . .(2h..)h + Tlic second tcrm on thc righthand sidc or the equation is the potential positive feedback t e r m which will result in a n cxponcntially diverging altitude error..2888 x I 0 ' ( t h e value of this coefficient is for gravity given in fiis') fil. KiI .] K . h V K .1 70 CHAPTER 4 .) t K . ( 4 ..=cocfficients used in the altitude channel haroincrtial whrrc loop ( K . 6. ) (2. the vertical velocity V may be zero.2%) hecause this equation is basically unstable.. Note that in certain applications. the level velocities arc processed every 50 ms.0 x 1 0 .cannot bc obtained from Eq.l r i i L i (4.( .R.a barometric altimeter is used a s an external altitude reference to stabilize the vertical (altitude) channel. 2 5 ~ )the complctc vertical velocity equation .[l(217. K..+ ' K ~" . .I later scction. Con~nionly.==fi. + ~ R c I . (4.~bovc reference ellipsoid in the the vertical channel /I. Kinematic Comoensation Eouations where AV. K. .y. K2=3. the vertical vclocity V. are the velocity corrections. From t.76) q ) A nritl. except for a fcw times during the mission. fn practice.76). (4.17) R.=rnagnitudc of gravity a t the rquator and at sea lcvcl &ri=cstimated vertical acceleration 1..q.q. Moreover.= han)nlclric altitude K. So far. we have K: 2 R . R.KI Ah ... ) v . A dctailed dcscliption of thc vertical channcl will he deferred lor . can bc obtaincd from 191 ~ ~ A .=earth's equatorial radius The system altitude can also bc processxi every 50 ms according to the expression V:. 3. A h = h h.
t h e y axis east. Performing these rotations.e. and the z axis down. For example. Standard Mechanization Equations 171 As mentioned earlier. let us now select another arrangement for the platform axes as shown in Fig.. we will take the x axis in the north direction.and (3) a negative rotation about the new Z axis which is vertical and opposite to the z axis through the angle a.4. (2) a negative rotation about the E axis through the angle 6. Also. 46. we will take the wander angle a to be a negative (i.4. . In this frame. to the right of north). there are various coordinate frames available to the inertial system designer. The order of rotation for this design is as follows: ( I ) a rotation about the Yaxis through the angle h. we have Wander Angle + Latitude + Longitude FIGURE 46 Wanderazimuth coordinate definition for the example.
Klnernarlc Cornpensarion Equar. the direction cosines are C'. 2. longitude.]I:. C7.c o s Q cos i~ The latitude. . I .[ ["". ) . =cos h cos ~ r + s i n+ sin i sin u . . a cos a cos 41 0 . c o s Q sin a n ('.cos ('. .. Angular rate of platforni with ]respect 10 thc incrtial space w (spatial o r gyroscope torquing rate) : where p is the vcctor of the angular rate of the platform with respect to e t the earthiixcd framc (craft rate c o ~ n p o ~ ~ofngyroscope torquing rate) and C l is the angular rate of the cartlifixed framc with ]respect to the inertial frame. sin u s i n + cos h c11s ( x ) sin ... Angular rate of the earthfixcd framc with respect to the inertial i'ran~e: R= [:. = c r .=cos + sin ).. = C'. (1 C.172 CHAPTER 4 ... In summary form: . Q] a.o!~s Therefore. Total gravity vector: 3.sin Y . Thus Using the previously derived results and conccpts.= cos Q sin (Il . wc havc the ibllowlnp. and wiinder anfle can be expressed as functions of thc direction ulsincs. =cos $ cos = 11 ( . = s i n l. sill 11sin )..= i n ? cos ir +sin cb cos s .
Latitude and longitude angular velocities in terms of the vehicle velocity: h= (Rx h) cos $ + V g VF= V.cosaV. V.+(~.71): Finally. Angular rate of the platform with respect to the earthfixed frame: p=&~+i~+6z =&(sin a .+n.=V~sin a + V R c o su The platform angular rate p can now be put into vector form as in Eq.)v. (4. Standard Mechanization Equations 173 4.(~. the vehicle velocity in component form is v~=~. vy=~. Nsin $ .sina V = VN cos a + VF sin a .+n.z+6z+~ x cos $(sin a .+(~. y)+i(cos $ .+g. c o s a V.+n. x + c o s u .4.)~.)vz(ol+n. y +cos u .4.i cos $ sin a 6 .+(oy+ny)~.i sin + I  5.)v.(w.+n.)vx vz=~. z ) + a . z =$sina~x&~osa~~~sin$.sin a + V .=V. . x) & 4 sin u + i cos $ cos a cos a .
L : Navigation Cartesian coordinate k a m e I . latitude.ation of thcsc cqi~ations yields the velocities as follows: As an example." .I.. Icl us consider a software implenicntation of the unipolar nominal mechanization equations to computc Lhc velocity. :. Kir~ematicCompensation Equations 1nteg1.a = headng angle h = Lo + (aO rr) longitude for unlpolar navgation  X. . Earthfixed ('artesian coordinates . Y. Ic~ngi . ?.1 74 CHAPTER 4 .
Lt.4. Air Force Reserves . P Z Let the navigation frame unipolar position direction cosines be denoted by Then px = cos 4 cos u p= . Section 2. PY. cos 6 sin a pz=sin 6 (Note: p:+p$+p$= 1 is an additional redundant parameter. *The program was written by Dr. and heading angle as a function of time. The program* written in FORTRAN uses the fourthorder RungeKutta integration method.4. Cano. Gerald G . Col. with the integration step size fixed at the start (see Chapter 2. Direction Cosines PX.) Direction Cosine Propagation ~x=PrPzpzP~ PY=PZPXPXP~ PZ=PXP~PYPX Platform Angular Rates (with Respect t o the Earth) Platform Torquing wx = Px + wcpx WY=PY+W~PY wz = Pz + wep. Standard Mechanization Equations 175 tude.3 for the unipolar equations). U S .
4) G(3) A(3) altitude eccentricity o r flattening of earth: about I 300 depending on where used angular rate in 3 directions.ltes incrtial acceleration in 3 cooldinatcs height above surface of earth . ~ r ] derivalivc of V(i.i) : dVdt(3.j): dI'osdti3.j) with rcspcct to time.j) dPdtll.4) Pos(3. Variables E: rhoj Pi3.ariables and constants in tlrc cquations describing the system. where .4) V(3.176 Velocity Propagation CHAPTER 4   Kinematic Compensation Equalions Gravity Mass Attraction Components Implementation of Equations The follo\ving lists define symbols for \. = [ l .n] derivative of P(i.[l.Y.fr] : j derivative of Posii. 3 coordiniltcs: 4 estimates per ilcration velocity in 3 coordinates: . J. < ) I r can he substitutcd for j direction cosines in 3 coordinate\: 1.1) uitli rcspcct to time: 3 coordinate\: 4 estimates per iteralion position in 3 coordini~tes: [l.i) with respcct to tinlc: 3 coordinalcs: 4 estirnatcs pcr iteration gravitational accclcration in 3 coordin.
Nslope) Pz = Phld(3) + DELTeq*dPdt(3.Nslope) Vz = Vhld(3) + DELTeqtdVdt(3.PyeVx)/(Rew +altitude)*(Pz+ 1) + . This entails first approximating four values for each computer of direction cosines. Note that the time rate of change of position is just velocity. Approximation of Direction Cosines Px = Phld(1) + DELTeq*dPdt(l. and three position components are computed for use in the fourthorder RK method.Nslope) Approximations of Angular Rate rhox = .n] longitude in radians. function Components of gravitational acceleration are first computed.c o n ~ * P ~ * ( P x * V x Py*Vy) . j= [l.4.4. velocity. The equations are shown below.n] interval used in RungeKutta (RK) total integration interval Note convention for first subscript of a double subscript variable: 1 = >X coordinate.Nslope) Approximation of Velocity Vx = Vhld(1) + DELTeq*dVdt(l.Nslope) Py = Phld(2) + DELTeq*dPdt(2. Next. These are constant for the duration of integration period. 3 = >Z coordinate.Vy/(Rew + altitude) rhoy =conK*Py*(Px*Vy Py*Vx) +Vx/(Rns+ altitude) rhoz= (Px*Vy . and angular rate. followed by Rew. Rns. j=[l.n] navigation heading angle. 2 = > Y coordinate. and K. j = [l.Nslope) Vy = Vhld(2) + DELTeq*dVdt(2. Nslope goes from one to four: DELTeq is a function of the value of Nslope. derivatives with respect to time for three direction cosines. Standard Mechanization Equations 177 Phi(j) Lamhda(j) Alpha(j) delta timint latitude in radians. Constants RADeq GM H2 H4 We conK equatorial radius of earth gravitational constant constant used to compute gravitational acceleration (zonal harmonic) constant used to compute gravitational acceleration (zonal harmonic) earth's rotational rate in rad/s constant used in computing p values. three velocity components. an implementation acceptable to the sponsor.
and navigation heading angle a]e computed from thcsc using the appropriale identities.  + Approximations for Derivatives of Position Ih is latitude. the fourth ordel.Nslope) A(I)+G(l)+(rhoz+2*~e*Pz)*~y (rtioy+?*We*I'y)*V7 dVdt(2.Nslope) = A(2) +Ci(2) + (rhox+2*We*Px)*Vr ( r h ~+2*Wc*P7)*Vx ~ r dVdt(3. and position. This is done in the following (10 loop from the program: For 1 . longitude.on Eouaiions 1 Approximations for Derivatives of Direction Cosines Approximations for Derivatives of Velocity dVdt( l .Nslope) = A(3) tG(3) + (rhoy 2 * W e * P y ) * V x ( r h o x + 2*We*Px)*V!.1 .rpplied to direction cosines. velocity. 3 : Finally.7 78 CHAPTER 4 . Once thesc ate computed. Kinernaric Comoensar. 1unrhdu is longitude and Alpli(~is navigation heading 'i angle. latitude. .RK method is .
longitude (lambda). and navigation heading angle (all in degrees) are returned as a function of time into the problem.... * PROGRAM: 1NS... The user is then given the option to enter new initial conditions or use the last computed values as the initial conditions..4....FOR VERSION: I * CREATED: 14 NOVEMBER 1989 ... only output values for wholenumber multiples of the specified step size are returned.. If..... but only multiples of 10 s are returned. at the beginning of the simulation session...... At the discretion of the user. the integration is done in steps of one second. CCCC C C CCCC C C C * * * PURPOSE: Compute velocity and position for an INS from UNIPOLAR NOMINAL MECHANIZATION equations. beginning at time zero.... The program is interactive... POSITION...... The period for simulation divided by the step size should be less than or equal to 1024. At the end of the run..... INPUTS: DURATION of integration interval in seconds Integration STEP size in seconds Initial conditions: POSITION COSINES.... if the integration step size is 10 s. The program actually takes the step size and divides it by ten for a finer integration.. other initial conditions are displayed at time zero seconds into the problem.4.. however. merely strike "/" and a carriage return when queried...... T o use the last computed values (or any conditions previously entered). Standard Mechanization Equations 179 Program Use Source code for the program (INSFOR) follows this section... the program queries the user to determine if another run is desired... allowing the user to supply initial conditions. a solution may also be directed to a file that also retains initial conditions (altitude and three components of acceleration)... Output information is returned to the screen in the form of a table: three velocity components (meters/second). VELOCITY.. the option to output to file was selected... Integration is done with a 4th order RungeKutta method and fixed steps... NAVIGATION HEADING ANGLE ........ additional runs are appended to the same file.. latitude (phi).. The user is also requested to supply the period for the simulation in seconds (Enter integnrtion time interval in second) and the integration step size (Enter output step size). For instance....
7 coo~dinates.. Pi /3. .IFVI~( I .j) = velocity in 3 coordinates.. j=ll.nl C dVdt(3.) . v I ! I J l. Phi(?) = latitude in radians.l. ( L ) I J I ~ I F ~ I rt>.eccentricity or tlattening of earth. C 3 coordinates. GM /398600S Ei8/. I d l !I :I.nl C dPdt(3.j) = direction cosines in 3 coordinates. 1II1It < ) . J I ' l l ) .( I :I.~n. C C C DEFINITION OF CONSTANTS RADeq = equatorial radius of the earth GM gravitational constant HZ = constant ~lsed to compute the graviratiolial acceleration (zonal harmonic) H4 constant used to compute the gravitational acceleration (zonal harmonic) We = earth's totational rate in rad/s conK = constailr used in computing i h o values. ?. 3 => %coordinate CCCC C C C C C C > Xcoordinate. HZ 1 /6.4)derivative of Pos(i. I ~ t l l c i ( T I I. .452177656 E+21/ 1 1 We /7.. CHARACTER*l TOFILE.. ~ . j=[l.j) with respect to time.4).j) with respect to i : time. .4)= derivative of V(i. I .AGAIN CHARACTER*64 FNAME DATA RADeq /6378137/.30 C C rho(3) = angular rate in 3 diiectiorls C P(3. 4 estimates per iteration C V(3. 4 estimates per iteration C Pos(3.~. f 4 /2. ~ I A I .I.14168/ . j=[l. function of RADeq  1MPI.lll(: ! l .uns .180 CHAPTER 4 . KNiematjc Compensation Equat. j=[l.292115 ES/.606185379 E+10/.'.#ll.nJ C dPosdt(?.n] Alpha(j) = navigation heading angle.nl delta interval used in RungeKutta method timint = total integration interval  CCCC Note convention far 1st subscript: 1 C 2 => Ycoordinate. vt .. CCCC DEFINITION OF VARIABLES: C E . I. j=[l.derivative of P ( i .. j=[l. ( . 1/298.nl Lambda(j)= longitude in radians.4 estimates per iteration G(3) = gravitational acceleration in 3 coordinates A(3) = inertial acceleration in 3 coordinates Altitude = heiaht above the surface ot the earth . j ) with respect to time: C 3 coordinater.j) = position in 3 coordinates.ICTT REAL..I ? ..
OR.6001) FNAME OPEN(l.4.STATUS='NEW') GOT0 1 CCCC C C C C C C Query for user supplied inputs: 1) Latitude (Phi) and longitude (Lambda) 2) Initial velocity 3) Acceleration 4) Altitude 5) Delta (fixed) for integration 6) Time period of integration INTVAL = 1 .TOFILE.EQ.6003) TOFILE IF(TOFILE.4.1998) READ(*.FILE=FNAME.1997) WRITE(*. Standard Mechanization Equations 787 WRITE(*.EQ.'N'.'n') WRITE(*6000) READ(*.
2030) WRITE(*.182 WRITE(*.*) delta CCCC C o n v e r t input longitude and latitude from degrees to radians CCCC CCCC C o m p u t e components f o r gravitational mass attraction Also compute initial positions in three coordinates .2031) READ(*.*) altitude CHAPTER 4 . Kinematic Cornpensanon Equations READ(*.
IF(Nslope.5*delta/lO. delta/lO.GT. Phi is the aircraft's latitude Rns = RADeq*(l.4. . and conK. INTVAL+l CCCC Compute all necessary derivatives for fourth order C RungeKutta method DO 301 J = 1.EQ.4.EQ. Standard Mechanization Equations 183 CCCC Compute Rew. (E**z)*(SIN(Phi(l)))**Z) conK= (E**Z)*Rns/((Rew + altitude)*(Rns + altitude)* 1 (1. Rns. 1 **2))**3 )  Rew = RADeqlSQRT(1. .E**2)) C C Note: Rns and Rew will remain constant in the rho equations though they involve Phi.10 DO 300 Nslope = 1.1024) intval = 1024 CCCC Initialize hold values 288 CONTINUE DO 1000 Itimes = 2. CCCC Direction Cosines CCCC Compute velocity and position far the required interval intval = IFIX(timint/delta) IF(intval.4 DELTeq= .4) DELTeq = = 0 .1) DELTeq IF(Nslope.
Pos(l.Vy/(Rew + altitude) conK*Py*(Px*Vy .Y.Itimes) contain X. ? CCCC C C 600 CONTINUE 601 301 CONTINUE CONTINUE CCCC Latitude (Phi) and longitude (Lambda) are now computed using C identities commented in gravitational component computations. Pos(Z.on Equalioru  conK*Py*(Px*Vx + Py*Vy) . velocity. K.Nslope) = I (rhox r 2*We*Px)*Vy  (rho2 (rhox (rhoy 300 CONTINUE At this point. DO 600 I = I .Py*Vx)/(Rew + altitude)*(Pz + 1) dVdt(1.Nslope) = 1 (rhoy + 2*We*Py)*Vz dVdt(2.Itimes).Nslope) 1 (rhoz r Z*We*Pz)*Vx dVdt(3.7 84 rhox rhoy rhoz = = CHAPTER 4 .c Cornpensat. Direction cosines. . all necessary de~ivativeapproximations have been romputed.Py*Vx) + Vx/(Rns + altitude) (Px*Vy .Z C C The navigational heading angle is computed using a direction C cosine and the computed value for Phi.nernar. and position are now computed with a fot~rthorder RongeKutta method.Itimes). and Pos(3.
2060\ A3 () VRITE(1.2064) A 1 .2063) ALTITUDE WRITE(1. if less than 1024 C continue in computing loop. Phi(I). V(l.1).2062) Idel.4. 1000 CONTINUE CCCC Output velocity and position data to the screen. Standard Mechanization Equations 185 CCCC Computations are complete for current point. () () WRITEf1. 1 Lambda(I). 1200 CONTINUE CCCC WRITE DATA TO FILE WRITE(1.4.I). CCCC OPTION GIVEN TO CONTINUE OR END . Alpha(1) 1201 CONTINUE V(2.1). A 2 . CCCC Convert latitude and longitude from radians to degrees. V(3.
2X.4. ' V ~ ' .5.F9. FORMAT ( ' Do you want output t o file (Y/N)?. ~ X .>r CLOSE(I) STOP FORMAT ( ' Default output to s c l e e n .F9. ' V Z ' . ~ X . ZX.5.2X.F5.1)  : FORMAT ( ' Enter Eccentricity (1/798.~. ZX.1X.F5.5X.1.5) ~.'degrees'. I ~ .2X.'.4.5X. K.F9.4X. ~ X . ) FORMAT ( ' Enter output step size: ' .'.'m/sec'.1. ' V ~ ' .'Alpha') FORMAT ( ' sec'. ) FORMAT ( ' ERROR! Cannot camprrte Phi (ASIN > I). ) FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT KIRMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT ( ( ' Latitude > ' ) ( ' Longitude > ' ) ( ' Navigation heading angle ( Initialize coordinates in degrees:'.'. ) > ') a/sec:'.'. ~ X . ) FORMAT ( ' In one run. F2X. integration interval <=1074. ZX. ' . Xconlponent of acceleration > ' ) Ycomponent oE acceleration > ' ) Zcomponent of acceleration > ' ) ) FORMAT ( ' Enter altitude in meters: FORMAT ( ' Altitude > ' ) '.at/o.'m/ser'. 'Az = '. ' . ( ( ' Initialize velocities ( ' 3 coordinates) in Xcomponent of velocity > ' ) Ycomponent of velocity > ' ) Zcomponent of velocity > ' ) ) FORMAT ( FORMAT ' FORMAT ( ' FORMAT ( ' Initialize accel (3 ~oardinates) in m/sec**2:'.4. ) FORMAT ( ' You have the aptiorr lo continue . FORMAT ('Initial altitude:'2X.'meters') FORMAT ('Tnitial acceleration in m/sec/ser:'.F5. ~ X . ' P ~ ~ ' . ' L ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' 7X.5X.'s/sec'.CHAPTER 4 . ) FORMAT ( ' T I M E ' . ) FORMAT ( ' You may reset the initial conditions or continue with the latest values.P9.2X. ) FORMAT ( ' Step size > ' ) FORMAT ( ' Enter integration tlmr interval in seconds: FORMAT ( ' lnteival > ' ) '. ) FORMAT ( ' Do you wish to cantirrne (Y/N)'? ' ) .'Ax '. 5X.30) as decimal > ' .'deerees') F O R M A T ~ ( I X . ~ X .'Ay '.c Cornoensation Eoi. ) FORMAT ( ' Errter nev value or "/<CR>" tor next pronlpt.riernar.F9.F9.
As a result. an inertial rather than a geographic reference frame is used for the navigation computations. the accelerometer triad is held in an earthcentered nonrotating inertial frame by a threeaxis gyroscopic stabilized platform. the inertial platform is uncommanded. Theoretically. (2) the local (geodetic) vertical north frame. since the platform rotation is very small. the error equations for a spacestabilized configuration are simpler than those of the localvertical system. so within the limits imposed by the gyroscope drift. which is equal to zero (w:=O). four gimbals are normally required to isolate the inertial platform from vehicle angular motion. Also. for a spacestabilized platform mounted in a vehicle.4. it will be assumed here that the Iframe is being instrumented [lo]. the gyroscopes are untorqued. the accelerometers attached to the platform will measure accelerations in a coordinate system fixed in inertial space.3. As in every "all attitude" gimbaled inertial navigation system. Stated in another way. Specifically. That is. we have seen in Chapter 2 that the gyroscope and platform axes are nonorthogonal and are related by a smallangle transformation. SpaceStabilized Mechanization The essential difference between a localvertical and spacestabilized platform configuration is the absence of platform torquing on the spacestabilized case. Moreover. in the spacestabilized mechanization. Standard Mechanization Equations 187 6000 FORMAT ( ' Enter file name to s t o r e o u t p u t : ' ) 6001 FORMAT (A64) 6003 FORMAT (A) END 4. the platform will remain inertially nonrotating. the platform axes could be aligned with the axes of any inertially nonrotating frame. Thus. Spacestable navigation systems have been used since the early 1950s. In the navigate mode.4. wr. spacestable navigation systems are used in some terrestrial aircraft and marine navigation applications. SPN/GEANS employs four primary coordinate frames for the navigation and attitude computations: (1) the inertial reference frame. the commanded platform inertial angular velocity is equal to the desired platform angular velocity. it can be said that the angular velocity of the gyroscope frame is equal to the angular velocity of the platform. w?=wp. or at most they are torqued at a very low level in order to compensate for the known gyroscope drift rates. In the spacestable mechanization. Furthermore. since in these applications no geographic navigation information is needed. Spacestabilized systems are mostly used in spacecraft and missile platform mechanizations.4. which is the computational frame. Honeywell's Standard Precision Navigator/Gimbaled Electrically Suspended Gyro Airborne Navigation System (SPN/GEANS) is one example of an allattitude terrestrial spacestabilized aircraft INS mechanization. (3) the body or vehicle . Therefore.
78) u. Consequently. is the earthtonavigational l o r computational) frame tr:~nslbrnmtion. Therefore where A = ( h . 4?).I= [R cos cos (.c note that since it contains the sidereal hour angle term RI. ~ I< sin 4 .+. which uses R ' to compute geographic latitude and longitude.+CL/) R .. When the plalfornm axes . 43. (4... R' is the incrtially referenced acceleration. Moreover. The computation done by thc computer can be easily undcrstood if' it is noted that where C .. thc position vector is also sent to the navigation computer.. 1 This equation statcs that for a spherical carth modcl. For a spherical earth nlodcl. and gA is the gravitational field acceleration.is expressed by [. thc geographic longitude can be obtained from where h. the Iframe and the Eframe coincide at thc time 10. Fronl Eq.I) R'= K. a s we have noted. the o u t p i ~ t s the three platform mounted :rccelerometcrs with thcir s c n s i t i ~ e of axes aligned with the platfolrn axes would he the three component\ (11' where C? is a coordinate transformation matrix that relates the inertial axes to the accelerometer axes A .I time . and A* is the specitic force. is the longitude cast of thc Greenwich Meridian a t t 0. n complex cxprcssion for the gravilationi~lpotential..188 CHAPTER 4 Krnematic Compcnsafion Eqi~atlons fri~tnc. The position vector components arc sent to the gravitation computer (see Fig. with coordinate axes arrangement i ~ s indicalcd in Fig. and ( 4 ) the platform spaccstahilizcd frame (the platfol~nreference axcs have a tixcd orientation with respect to the computational t'ri~mc axis). R c o s 6 sin(?. the earth's geocentric position vecto!.ire aligned with the axcs of thc lfiame. which computes g' a s a function of R' using.hi))+ (21. it clrn be seen that the spaccstabilized system's cotnpillcr must contain .
Standard Mechanization Equations 189 reference. the relationship between the locallevelnorth coordinates and the inertial coordinates can be obtained as follows: (1) a rotation about the Z. Position and velocity corrections are accepted from the filter upon processing of the 0 b s e ~ a t i o n residuals. axes through the sidereal hour angle .79).. position relative to the center of the earth. performing the computations in inertial Cartesian coordinates. sin b = IF1/ From Eq. ZI are the coordinates of vehicle Y. The velocity increment data when divided by the computation interval can be viewed as an equivalent average sensed acceleration. axis is parallel to the earth's North Polar axis. Moreover. The primary input to the space navigation is velocity increment data in inertial reference (spacestable) coordinates. Assuming that the wander angle a=O. (4. consider now the coordinate frame illustrated in Fig. these angles are also used for a transformation relating locallevel north coordinates to inertial reference coordinates. The geocentric latitude can be obtained from R. while the YI axis is defined as being parallel to east at the start of the navigation mode. The function of the Kalman filter will be explained more fully in a later chapter. 48. the resulting values of the X I . Standard position outputs. this velocity is subject to singularities at the earth's poles. geodetic latitude and longitude. Consequently. However. are derived by performing inverse trigonometric functions on the inertial Cartesian position components. The Z. but recovers after the vehicle moves away from the pole because the basic Schuler loop is mechanized in inertial Cartesian coordinates.4. we can write the geographic latitude in terms of the deviation of the normal S as where 6 =f sin 2+. It may he noted that position and velocity data that are furnished to the Kalman filter module are compared with the reference position and velocity data to generate an observation residual during airborne alignment and aided navigation. that is. For the spacestable navigation. singularities (internal to the Schuler loop) at the earth's poles are avoided. 47. Stated another way. this transformation is used in deriving earthrelative velocity in locallevel north coordinates. Consequently. A simplified block diagram for spacestable navigation is shown in Fig.. This coordinate frame is used as the reference for the inertial integrations.4.
ll components of inertial pohitio~l XI and Y . A = i. n r .on1 the start of navigation and (2) a negative rotation about the Y .lcestahlr n a v l f i l t ~ o nhlock <liiipn!m rotation of the earth ( a t ) plus the change in longitude ( h . At r = 0.u) . Kinernark Compensation Equalions (+.______________INERTIAL ACCEL. I ALTITUDE I _____ SPACE STABLE NAVIGATION ____ I (EARTH REL) ___ .8 VELOCITY & POSlTlON CORRECTIONS VELOCITY 6 POSITION KALMAN FILTER AIR ALIGN AIDED NAY FIGURE 47 Simplified sp. north cooldinate set.TRINS. INS DATA PREPROCESSING PLAT TOINERT.77).h o ) fi. + which is simil:~rto Eq.)+ Qr. east.. Thus =[Y($)l[Z(L ho+Qt)l cos 6 sin A sin cos A 0 sin Q sit1 ). The feodetic longitt~de thcrcforc he cor~lcan puted from .e. A is givcn by =[ c A sin. (4. s i n Q cos A c Q][l'] Z. cos 4 where A is thc change in celestial longitude given hy A = ( h h.1911 AlTITUDE ANGLES CHAPTER 4 . axis through ihc geodetic latitude angle ($) to obtain 21 vertical. In terms of the cquatori. .
4 = inertial reference frame YE. we note that for a spacestable inertial navigation system using a local vertical wanderazimuth computational (or navigational) frame. the platform frame is .4.4. . Z.)+nt =Ah+nt n t = sidereal hour angle FIGURE 48 Coordinates for spacestable navigation. Next. = earth~fixed N. h = longitude n=(hh. E. The geodetic latitude $ is computed from I where E is the eccentricity of the meridional ellipse. Standard Mechanization Equations 191 R Earth's axis of rotation Reference frames: x. Y.. XI. U = local geodetic t = geodetic latitude .
tlre incremcntal vclocitics AVP accumulated over one sample iliterval in thc spacestable platform frame are prcmultiplicd successively by each of the three individual rotation matrices C'i. ('l and C::' to obtain A V ' . say.~tionof these matrices is in order.( c . Thc spacestable navigation module of Fig. The gravity vector (i. Also ~ 1 is.c. (4. present no problem if numeric precision is sufficient. 47 will now bc expanded a s shown in Fig. constant in the navigate mode. Krnematic Com~ensar. Howcvcr.. duc to vehicle motion with respect to inertial space. is etfectively integrated twice in inertial referencc coordinatcs. fixed gains with feedback inputs to acceleration and velocity.on EquaUo~ls relatcd to the computational frame by a transformation that is eupresscd . O n the othcr hand.cc .rame transformation Cb is constant sincc we havc considered thc platli~rrn lo bc nondrifting. M. which also includes the cficct of known o r estimated gravity deflections. 49. In effect. the earth's mass attraction) is computed by tlie gravity cotnputcr. the cffect of thc mass attraction of the cartli is subtracted from the senscd acceleration. . A. lbr the rotation of the earth from the start of navigation until the start of the present navigation colnputation cyclc.IS thc product of thrcc rotation matrices. Ncxt. is pcrformed using a baroaltinieter as a reference. Thc position thus ohtained is used in calculating the mass attraction for the next computation cycle. thc transformation from thc inertial to the carthfixcd framc CI' is rcali~ed by a singlcaxis rotation Z(Q0 This accounts. as we have seen earlier. d a m p the ~ ~ i i s t a b l e that is..lvigation systems 181. higher rates.this can hc writtcn in thc form 1101 . the basic computation cycle for the navigation equations is usually 8 H7. the platform to ilicrti. As a result. the transformation from thc carthfixed frame to the computational frame (' I is t h e transpose of the direction cosine matrix computed in the local vertical wander azimuth algorithm. particularly in the prcsence of mild vchicle dynamics.192 CHAPTER 4 . in inertial referencc coordinates enters the inertial integrations block.~thematically. this forliis the basic Schulcr loop commonly associated with all inertial 11.13)). while the output of thc second integration is position relative to the center of the earth in Cartesian coordinates. Conventional vertical loop damping.  I A n explan. lower iteration rates on the order of 4 Hz arc also used. Thc remaining acceleration. Second.il position damping module furnishes compensation terms in order to vertical channel. In order to lnininiire the computations rcqi~ircd. Therefore. The position and velocity .. I6 Hz. Third.~lvalue depends on thc alignment method that is mechanized. The output of the first integrator is inertial relative velocity. and liom the basic equation of motion [Eq. for example. Its inlti. tlie vcrtic. First.. ( $ 1 . In spacestable navigation. Compensatcd sensed acceleration data A X . explaining in more dctilil the various computations that take place in spacestable navigation.~l f. A . AV'= C6AV". its initial value is I.
is also computed in the local vertical velocity module.4.4. the INS data preprocessing module provides the input Ax. The spacestabilized system has the following disadvantages: I. Errors resulting from the gyroscopes torque generator are avoided. The gravitational field must be computed explicitly. The discussion presented above can also be followed by referring to Fig. components from the inertial integration module are used by the local vertical position and velocity modules to compute the output navigation parameters. Finally. The former module computes the geodetic latitude and longitude from the position vector. Standard Mechanization Equations 193   VERTICAL POSlTlON DAMPlNQ LAT 0 + Y Z Y Z LONG h QRAVITY COMPUTER :g Az FIGURE 49 INTEGRATIONS (INERTIAL RELATIVE VELOCITY IN INERTIAL C W R D ) Basic elements of spacestable navigation. A. 410. transformation from inertial reference space to local vertical north reference space will be an output from this module. The spacestabilized system has the following advantages: 1. Since the computations are carried out in an inertially nonrotating frame. which is required in the computation of vehicle attitude by the INS data processing module. since no platform torquing is required. Inertialtolocal vertical north transformation is used in this computation.A. while the latter module uses the inertial position and velocity in local coordinates. . Note that a transformation from the platform inner element to the local vertical north.. 2. (average acceleration) over the computation interval with respect to the inertial reference coordinates. Also. no Coriolis or other accelerometer computation signals are required.
element computer I INSdata Space~stable :navigaton Translorma:ion to local vertcal ~ n e r t a l platform Accelerometers I preprocessng Platform 6.ii~gationblock dixgram. i . . drift predction A A ". vx x Y : ! " E VJ Acceleration transformallon I I I Platform control I I I I I !I Grav ty computer I I FIGURE 410 Generic rpiicrstahle n.
A barometric altitude is needed to damp the Schuler oscillations. The accelerometer data is processed through a transformation matrix which transforms it to the computational inertial frame. 4.4. z) with origin at the earth's center. 2. Locallevel systems have a hounded latitude error. 3. one obtains the perturbation or error equation where AR and Ag are the errors in computed position and gravitational acceleration. yaxes define the equatorial plane.4. Navigation calculations are a basic spacestable mechanization.3 [Eq. is given by . 4. its rate is predictable.4. it will be assumed that the z axis is the earth's spin axis and the x. that is. However.3. 3. since vertical velocity and position integrators may not be actually present. The system does not give earthreferenced velocity (ground speed) as an output. the product of angular velocity and time). 5. velocity. 4. Furthermore.1. The gravitational acceleration.y. the following hold: 1. (4.. assuming a spherical earth model. 5. 6. Standard Mechanization Equations 195 2. Error Equations for the SpaceStable System We have seen in Section 4. The platform does drift. The spacestable navigation system error dynamics are identical to those of the locallevel navigation system.12b)l that the specific force measured by the accelerometers is From this relationship. The system requires considerably more computation than localvertical systems. however. resulting in different system error propagation characteristics. respectively. The discussion of this subsection can be summarized by noting that for a pure or free (one that is not aided by external navaids) inertial navigation system. hut the spacestable system develops a latitude error whose amplitude is characteristic of the 24h mode increasing linearly with time (i.e. Now assume an inertial coordinate system (x. The system requires vertical position damping. and heading errors become unbounded. An alignment matrix is needed that indicates the position of the platform coordinate frame relative to a spacestable coordinate system. it should be noted that the dynamics of the inertial sensor errors which drive both systems are different. Position.
AA rcprcsent forcing h n c t i o n s in thc systcm cqr~ations of motion. (4. .c. Substituting Eq. the error in ihc measured acceler.. whcrc A R = [Au A? A:]".on Equar.~lignmc~lts. i:. 1.+ll (R..86) cdn be wrltten '1s Equations (4. The accelerometer : ] crrors AA.y. Since I< has ) components ( x . This is less scverc than the linear error growth associated with a constant gyroscope drift ratc bias.. .inally.o. it can be shown that l i ~ r whitc noise (i. AR3. Rat powcr spectr. Ecl.ls whcrc R = Rl.I. we obtain 181 A Ri I< . .c Compensa1. K. the radius of the cart11 and h is the altitude) and xi. and platform mis.thc cornpletc sct o f Eqs. Thcrcl'c~rc.itio~~ AA. 8 7 ~ )represent a set of three simultaneou\ linear secondorder dilTcrenlia1 equations which may hc solved to yield thc relationship between velocity crrors [ A i A j A>] and position errors [Ax A? A and the errors in sensed acceleration. ( R AR)R=AA R' R' [L)] In component Form.196 CHAPTER 4 .85) into Eq... (4.872~)( 4 . is the ZIavitational acceleration at the surface of the earth. AA.]'.X7a) ( 4 . AA.ll density) thc horizontal channel errors will grow with 1.nernat. (4. t. Similarly.83) and rearranging. then T h e error in the computed gravitational acceleration duc to computed position AK is .~ccelrrometrr crrors. (4. 8 7 ~ ) will contt~in forcing functioris due to gyroscopic drili.111 error in AA is AA=[AA..
3048 m per kilometer (or 1 ft per mile) standard deviation] but is poor in climbs or dives or in the presence of significant vertical acceleration. and absolute temperature. The vertical channel is damped with measurements of elevation above mean sea level. significant error develops in the barometric data with the INS closely following it. the vertical velocity V: cannot be obtained directly from Eq.5. The Vertical Channel 197 4. Specifically. the prime CADC free air temperature (TFAT) and static pressure (P. After initialization. This characteristic is commonly corrected by using an externally measured altitude reference (e. Specifically.)and freeair temperature (TFAT) used to adjust the altitude output for nonstandardare atmosphere conditions. . This is implemented with an algorithm that computes a corrected altitude by numerically integrating the physical relation for a column of air as a function of pressure.5. which is typically 0. Barometric and inertial altitude systems are complementary to each other. On the other hand. In a prolonged ascent and/or descent.g. A series of external fixes may also be used to provide damping of the errorinduced oscillations characteristic in all inertial navigation systems. This algorithm is then provided to the INS. climbing or diving through a nonstandard atmosphere will result in height errors of up to 8%. the vertical channel inherits an error that can persist for as long as 2 niin. Subsequently. It is well known that this output is inherently divergent (unstable). gravity. the time constant associated with a barometric altimeter is very large. because of the unbounded errors in latitude and longitude possible in such systems. The system altitude can be initialized either manually or automatically with altitude derived in the CADC from a standard atmosphere model.) used with the data from the are prime system in order to compute a reference altitude. Also. THE VERTICAL CHANNEL In pure inertial navigation systems using three accelerometers. This el~lor degrade weapon delivery.. can especially on reattack. (4. CADC static pressure (P.4. The fonner provides good altitude rate information in nearly level flight [subject only to the slope of the isobars in the vertical plane. necessitating a baroinertial loop to damp this equation. recourse is frequently made to the use of external inputs to update the position information.25~) since this equation is basically unstable. but provides direct information about vertical acceleration and a good shortterm reference for use during climbing or diving in highperformance (fighter) aircraft. the INS needs to be bounded by an external reference for sustained periods. Thus. The measured elevation is obtained from the Central Air Data Computer (CADC) outputs. which means that through prolonged ascent or turns. barometric or radar altimeter) to stabilize the INS vertical channel. vertical velocity and position are commonly derived by integrating the vertical channel accelerometer output.
( 2 ) instrument lags (e.198 CHAPTER 4 .c Compensation Equauons Consequently. the following error sources must be considered: ( 1 ) random instrument noise. one of the most important parameters to the pilot lhas been the measurc of the aircraft's height above the ground. In order to avoid the vertical channel instability problem. particulary where the aircraft has significant easterly velocity. The second most significant source of crror is thc short correlation time acceleration error ( c . . such as in thc Aeronautical Radio Incorporated 561 ( o r ARINC 561) commercial aircraft systems. Therefore. altitude rates can contributc significant Coriolis acceleration terms in combination with northerly torque rates. In climbs and dives the scale Ltctor induces signiticant vertical velocity error. Considrration of the implementation of the vertical INS channcl is important because of the impact on the propagation of other sources of errors. The most important source of error in the vertical channel is the fluctuation in the altimeter bias (due to scale fictor error and nonzero vertical velocity). Some systems assume a fixed cruising altitude. barometric altitude is commonly used. As we shall discuss in Chapter 6. the vertical error is critical during weapon delivery because this error greatly affects the miss distance of the weapon on a target. In fact. at this point. Also. as we shall presently see. it1 the CADC'). Theoretically. Sincc the beginning of flight. ment error during a maneuver). 41 1 ) . the inertial navigation system's velocities may be slaved to the external data. The vertical cler~rancc between an airplane and a mountain top is :In example of absolute altitudc (see Fig.g. by combining independent altimeter data with inertial altitude data. the vertical channel is usually slaved to barometric height data.. the vertical velocity crror car] be reduced by optimizing the loop gains. the INS vertical channel is frequently not implemented. as stated above. and ( 3 ) cffccts of winds. or an altitude determined as a function of speed. ~ .due to specific force measure.. Therefore. in systems for highperformance aircraft. in conventional locallevel mcchanirations. In cases where the vertical inertial channel is not mcchanized.) The height abovc the surface of the earth at a n y given surface location. the difference between the inertial and altimeter indications oraltitudc is.. altitude is a significant factor in the earth radii used in computing latitude and longitude rates. Kinema1. vertical channel errors can be damped and bounded. More spccifically. certain definitions rclating to the altitude are in order [14]: Absolute altitude (If. In cases where the external velocity is of good quality. fed back to the input of the vertical velocity and position integrators. Typically. Therefore. in certain mechanizations the atmosphcrc must be modeled stochastically. the baroaltitnclcr exhibits a scale factor error due to atmosphcrc not having a standardday te~nperati~realtitude profile. In arriving at a stochastic mathematical model of the atmosphere.
The weighting function is adjusted in order to minimize the air data computer sensor lag and angle of attack effects during maneuvers. When flying in a highpressure area. This refined estimate of system altitude is computed using CADC and INS data combined through a weighted mixing function. The Vertical Channel 199 ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE T T d PRESSURE SYSTEM MEANSEALEVEL 29. certain preliminaries are necessary. 4. The air data computation uses an openloop integration on pressure.5.) The height in a model atmosphere above the standard pressure datum plane (sea level) of 29. while the INS computations involve straightforward integration of inertially sensed vertical velocity.5. this section introduces and reviews briefly the basic laws of .4.921 IN.HG SEA LEVEL FIGURE 411 Types of altitude measurement.921 in. These concepts are illustrated in Fig.. (760 mm) of mercury.1.. The system altitude solution then achieves the longterm stability of the air data system with the shortterm accuracy of the INS. the indicated pressure altitude will be less than the true altitude. True altitude is the sum of absolute altitude and the elevation above sea level of the ground below the aircraft.) The actual height above the standard sea level. Physics of the Atmosphere Because the barometric altimeter is influenced to a large degree by the atmospheric physics. 411. System altitude (H.) System altitude above mean sea level (MSL) is obtained by correcting CADC pressure altitude for nonstandardday variations of temperature with altitude. Pressure altitude differs from the true altitude in that pressure altitude does not consider the high and low pressure or temperature variations which occur constantly on the surface of the earth due to changing weather phenomena. Pressure altitude (H. Before we proceed with the discussion of the vertical channel.. True altitude (H.
lyers arc dilrcrcntiated by their tempcraturc characteristics.ihc vcriicdl separation hciweer~ aircraft in a loc. thc SA model is adcquatc and a valuable t o < ~ lHowc\~cr. density.I nccd for tiircraft instrumcntalion sland:~~dization wcatlier forec. the atniospherc is never truly in a "standard" \talc. (The 1. and warms the air immcdiatcly above it. c<~nslantly changing weather. It should he pointed out that the St. The standard sealevel coltditions are f b r 45 north latitude.140 m (50. expanding in the summer. . i l is rn.~sting. given the input tcniperaturc profile.Tlicsc two independently and developed models ditfercd slightly.lturc with altitude. In t.~rth'swc.I solalr. and ( 4 ) the thermosphere.C I ~. the tropopausc. a slandald ( o r model) atmosphere ( S A ) which was an attempt to model a typical "column of atniospherc. T h e earth's atmosphere is no1 pcrfcclly homogeneous. For general purposes. 1952.indard Atmosphere depicted in Fig.ll vicinity is maintained because all nations have adopted the I C A O atniosphere model.oposphcrc T h c troposphere is the lo\+est layer of the atmosphere. It varies in altitudc. the actual tempemturc rarely matches the standard condition. Tlic troposphere contains niost o f t h c atmosphere's moisture. A computer program was written t o model the atmosphere to an altitudc of 90 km. so that thz measured altitude 11. o r lapsc rate.000 ft) has undergone scvcral rcvisions.i colleclor o f .200 CHAPTER 4 . The surfice of tlic carth acts as . T h c 1.as allyolie who appreciates thc . Thcsc diffcrcnces were rcsolvcd on November 7.~trirosplieric layers will now he described in some more detail: T~. The standard is still in use tod:~y. The air temperature decreases with altitudc. tlierchy turning this radiation into ltcat. T h e attnosphcrc is commonly described hy tabular <iat.) Thcsc . (2) the stlatosphcrc.although data above 15. This can cause problems in thc use of modeln navigation and lirecontrol systems that use SAbased algorithms. Kinefnatic Compensatjon Equavons the atmosphere.act. and temperaturc. Historically." was tilst defined in thc 19205 in both the I Jnited States and Europe to satisfy . they are ( I ) thc troposphere.ldiation. air mass. In fact. while the density profile is included as input data only for convenience. from 8 km a t tlic poles to l X km at the equator.i representing the altitude. is not thc actual height above sca lcvcl.~de up of scvcral layers. This negativc lapsc rate continues to the upper boundary of tltc str:~ti)sphcrc. L S rate is the change in air tcrnpcr. ( 3 ) the mesosphere. The equations solve for static equilibrium of tltc column of air. Figure 412 shows the characlcristics o f the ICAO 1976 Standard Atmosphere ( S A ) . This altitude range contains four atmosplicric layers.~tcst revision is I C A O Standard Atn~osphere1076. and the!cfbre niost of the e. I I o w e v e ~ .~tlie~phcnorncna. 412 is the result of extensive worldwide tiieasurcrncnts of temperaturc versus altitudc and represents the "average" condition. The various 1. when the International Civil Aviation Organizatio~i (IC'AO) adopted a new standard attnosphere. From the surfacc up.
.4. The Vertical Channel 201 AIR TEMPERATURE PC) FIGURE 412 The 1976 ICAO standard atmosphere.5.
In the Iangc o f altitudes of o u r irlterest.202 CHAPTER 4 . there is n o water vapor and no weather cn'ects arc observed.the density i5 expressed .itinn. the lapse rate reverses itsclf and temperature decreases with incrcasins altitude. Equations ( 4 x 8 ) gas . I H wlicre I1 is the altitude above [he reference ellipsoid. with sufficient accurac) I ) r a most model atmosphere comput.ity :I[ sea level (9. Iron1 the Ideal (ias L. is an efi'ectivc earth's radius at . may he assumed constlint .I function of altitude..7XOi2677 m .~tions. is the acceleration due to gra\. The gas rnoleculcs a t this altitude arc sep:~ri~tcd ielati\elq large hy distances.I spccilic latitude. R. Kinerllaric Cornpensavon Equa1. The increlnental change in pressure ill' fix an incremental chaligc in 1 height ( 7 is govcrncd hy the hydrostatic cquation 1141 where p is the atmosphcric density. h. where .. Making use ol'llie invelscsquare I.~tor)and R. the air tempcraturc increases with altitudc. Ionic atmosphcric phenomena such as Aurora Borcillis occur in the t h e r m ~ ~ s p h c r c . T h e stratosphere is also characterized by a marked decrease in water vapc~r.iti~ altitude. C:ollisions among them arc less frcqucnt and they maintain high \'elocity.I\ whcre M is the mean molccular weighl of air (assulncd conhtanl). and % is geometric .y. is the aceelelation due to gravity. and T is the ahsolutc temperature.With thc exception of occasional t l i u n d c r s ~ o r ~ i ~ top\ and jetstream effects.rltitudc. cat] he calcul:~tc~i from tlic cxprc\\ion /I ' =~~ IIR.. Meso.oris St~. ) ) \vith litllc crrol.atnsphere T h e lapse rate changes its dircctior~a t the trop115phcrc. ' a1 the equ. and the lernpernture increase5 u. weather phcnomen:~a]e not observed. This is whcre the stratosphere hegins.ILV of r. and thus higher temperature?.it standard scalcvcl value ( 4 .rlniosplicric layer. a n expression for : s . Tlrermosphcr~ Ahovc X O kni.is as follows: . Tlic gcopotential altitudc H.ivit.phrr<~ At the t o p of the slratosplicrc. R * is t l ~ c i~riiversal constant. In this .i~w.
Variations in the troposphere due to . Similarly. the temperature varies linearly with Z . then for a temperature To at the bottom of the layer and a lapse rate of l. and Po from the U. H. Thus.89) for T equal to r ( H . the density for an isothermal layer is given by If.g.) Also. (6.94a) and (4. The Vertical Channel 203 and (4. this results in the socalled exponential atmospheric pressure.89) results in If one neglects the variation of gravity and temperature with altitude. Combining Eqs.90) yields where Po is the pressure at sea level (e.89) form the basis for modeling the atmosphere. (4.5.. . Standard Atmosphere model. the solutions for Eqs. T=ToTZ ( N o t e : r is defined to be positive when the temperature decreases with height. integrating Eq.Ho)+ To are given by [I] R*T~ Hp=HogoM I' r=o Substituting the appropriate constants for r. T o . in a given layer.88) and (4.S. (4.88) and (4.94b) represent the algorithm used to obtain pressure altitude. Eqs. at the bottom of an isothermal layer).. (4.4.
315.: 36.) T ~ u fveestrcam air temperature 7 . ( K ) for for H.  2XX. Some other uscful relationships which are compatible with air dala computation techniques are Tcmprvatuve ratio Pressuve altitride I..15 0.204 CHAPTER 4 . KinernatJc Compensation Equatiorls ~ hcason and latitude have been known for years.2m ( o r 24. differences hetwce~itrue :iltitude and pressure altitudc of between 5 and 10'%. .565.] . The 15' Naltitude annual model differs from pressure altitude hy ahout 5% for the satnc range.0003048/1.rt the 75'Nlatiludc January inodel o f the atmosphere differs frorn the SA inodcl (i.' 36. . hut a t a lower rate... pressure altitude) in a linear fashion in the 0 7315. .999.617 l i [Nor?: P.. i n R (degrccs Rankine). 14 it is show11 th. Thercforc.080 II (10.c. in Ref. : I e ~ F o r standard day I.93 m) ' Static pressure PS (Note: P..call be considered typical.000li) range by a n amount equal L approximately IO'!4 of the true altitudc This o dilrcrcnce continues to increase above 7.2 m. F o r exatnplc. is given in inches of mercury. Pressure altitude and true altitude can diwer significantly.. is given in inches mercury a n d T .120 ( K ) Dcnsitv ratio ri 36.08')s H.089 fl 2l6. ! for H.
4504 x Ib/it~. 4.7 lb/in. The temperature remains constant starting at approximately 37.'= 1013.8 1b/ft2 p.277. More specifically. true airspeed (TAS).5. The Vertical Channel 205 TABLE 41 Relationship between Reference Altitude. and Mach number.6 m).3769 x slugs/ft3 1 standard atmosphere= 14.~ Table 41 gives the pressure ratio using Eq. = 2. The primary pneumatic and thermal inputs to the CADC consist of static air pressure (Ps) and total pressure (P. converting this information into electrical signals representing barometric altitude. Pressure Ratio.) from the pitotstatic system and freeair temperature (TFAT) from the temperature probe.25 mb (millibars) 1 mb = 1.4. The Central Air Data Computer (CADC) The CADC continuously measures and computes altitude and airspeed information.5.67"R Po= 21 16. and Temperahlre Reference altitude Z (ft) Pressure ratio Ternperatlire (OR) True pressure ratio 6 The ICAO atmosphere values at sea level are as follows: To= 518.91) and temperature as a function of reference altitude.000 ft (11. these input functions may be defined as follows: Static pressure (P. (4. .2. indicated airspeed (IAS).) This is the ambient atmospheric pressure and is the force unit area exerted by the atmosphere on the surface of a body at rest relative to the air mass.
(4) in military applications. "hcadupdisplay" (HUD). In block diagram form. The CADC interfaces with several instruments. 413." "horizontal situation indicator" (HSI).. is the only instrument dependent entirely on the CADC for operation. . which continuously displays computcd true airspeed. In the study of air data compotcrs. and TAS signals sent by thc CADC to thc tactical computer control panel. ) This is' the tempcrature of a sample of the cornpressed air mass that is brought u p to the speed of the moving body. one encounters several differelit airspeed terms which often rcsult in confusion unless the exact typc of BAROMETRIC ALTITUDE 'BARO (FROM AIRCRAFT PITOT STATIC SYSTEM 1 INDICATED AIRSPEED I IAS I TRUE AIRSPEED I TAS I ( FROMTOTALTEMPERATURE PROBE 1 T MACH NUMBER FIGURE 473 Block diigpriim o f ihc CAD('.206 CHAPTER 4 . and "attitude direction indicator" (ADI). Mach numbel. ( 3 ) signals of barometric altitude are scnt by the CADC to thc "forwardlooking radar" for sweep delay corrections. thc barometric altitude. The total temperature is greater than the ambient temperature by thc amount of heat associated with the adiabatic compression of the air sample. (2) the TAS indicator. ) This is thc sum of thc static pressurc and thc impact pressure.ssurr. the CAIIC signals of barometric altitude arc used to maintain the aircraft at the designated altitude. Some of these CADC signals provide information dircctly to cockpit indicators for pilot readout. while others provide information to instruments computing navigation and wcapon delivery solutions. Total iemperuture ( T . and is the total force per unit area exerted by the air mass o n the surface o f a body: P. is sometimes called piror prc. to convert slant range information into true ground range. We will discuss four of these signals: ( I ) When the automatic flight control system is in the "altitude hold" mode. in the ground mapping mode. "projected map display set. the CADC can hc represented as illustrated in Fig. Kinematic Corn~ensation Esuarions Totul pressure ( P . The CATIC makes direct measurement of the static and total pressures via the aircraft's pitot static system.
TAS is defined as the speed of the aircraft with respect 'The speed of sound at sea level is 661. Ps). steadystate value : Dynamic pressure (q) This is the force per unit area required to bring an ideal (incompressible) fluid to rest. p is the gas density (air). and Ps is the static atmospheric pressure. Specifically.478599 knots or 1. q = & p ~where V is TAS (see : . For convenience.3 the impact pressure and dynamic pressure are nearly identical. True airspeed V The true airspeed (TAS) is the speed of the airplane's .5. The instrument's displayed airspeed is computed from the pitot and static system pressures and is not corrected for installation and position errors. it is the pressure exerted at the stagnation point on the surface of a body in motion relative to the air. in the atmosphere through which an aircraft is flying. Indicated airspeed The indicated airspeed (IAS) is the speed indicated by a differentialpressure airspeed indicator calibrated to the standard formulas relating airspeed to pitotstatic pressures. the following definitions of airspeed and/or aerodynamic parameters most commonly used in avionics are given : Speed o sound (a) f This is the propagation of sound waves in ambient air. At speeds under M=0. a* = K A . The speed of sound is also given by where y is the specific heat ratio for air (constant). (Note: The conversion of knots to m/s is knots xO. the two differ because of the compressibility of the air. and is usually represented by the freestream. For higher speeds.) . The Mach number is the chief criterion of airflow pattern. Mathematically. it is equal to the total pressure minus the static pressure (P. That is. definition below) and p is the mass density of the fluid.116.576 ft/s.) This is the force per unit area required to bring moving air to rest. Impact pressure (Q.S14=m/s. center of mass with respect to the ambient air through which it is passing. The speed of sound is proportional to the square root of the static temperature T. The Vertical Channel 207 airspeed is specified and understood.4. Mach number ( M ) Is the ratio of the TAS to the speed of sound at that flight condition. where K is a constant.
Since Q. speeds. The c o ~ n p u t e d airspeed may be thought of a s thc indicated airspeed. and assuming stand.I J s . For this reason it is sometimes called trrrr in(li(. the ailihratcd airspeed and T A S are equal.= I.208 CHAPTER 4 . the relation for the total pressure behind the normal shock wave is llsing the relationships Q.~pecrl. computcd airspeed is as the airspeed related to thc diff'erential pressurc by the f o r ~ ~ i u lfor 0.. At standard sealevel conditions.. Ihr ah(. . Computeduivspred V T h e computed airspeed (CAS) is an air data function . related to the impact pressure (Q. r1= ( y P ..vc equatior~can hc rewritten as by whcrc the subscript O denotes the st.~rd sealevel conditions s o that lJC= C. .P. V is derived from Bernoulli's standard adiabatic formula l i ~ r cornprcssihle f l o w where y is the specilic heat Iatio for air (constant). corrected for instrument installation errors.For subsonic .~tion?IS .= P . is in units of Rankinc tetnperalurc ( K ) .= I ] . Klnernarjc Cornpensatjon Equafmns to the air mass that it is passilig: where T .:).~ndardscalevel vlilucs dcfit~ed the 1964 I C A O Standard Atn~ospherc.) Moreover. given below. wc can irewrite thc abovc equ. p ) ' '. .rrted irir. a n d the Cact that LTc is based on stankard sealcvcl conditions (whcrc 1. For the supersonic range ( M > I ) whele a normal shock wave occurs ahead of the pilot tube. .
and/or secondorder vertical channel mechanizations have been used because of computer limitations. and to achieve a satisfactory system response time to aircraft disturbances. thus.) Provides accurate altitude during periods of low vertical velocity 2. and generates velocity and position outputs by two vector integrations. we have where P.3. Today. via a processing module. An air data altitude is used to stabilize the vertical position component. The Vertical Channel 209 Since the Mach number is also a function of P. 414.5. Vertical Channel Damping The goal of vertical channel mechanization is to minimize altitude and vertical velocity output errors. From . consider the simplistic error model shown in Fig. As stated earlier. however. errors in the local geoid height will be common between altitude and target deviation. the need for an accurate gravity model will be required.5. static pressure (P. Central air data computerprimary data source Inputs: freestream air temperature F TI*^). first. and Ps are expressed in inches of mercury. The gravity correction is the cause of instability. The inertial navigation system mechanization accepts input accelerations from the inertial measurement unit. The difference between the indicated system altitude derived from baroinertial mixing and the measured system altitude can be used to correct the baroinertial altitude. the vertical component of this mechanization is inherently unstable because of the need for gravity subtraction. most systems use thirdorder mechanizations for two reasons: (1) they reduce errors originating from accelerometer (or other sources) biases.4. we note the following points: 1. Consequently. This type of altitude mechanization is used for radar bombing. Furthermore. In summary. and (2) the thirdorder vertical channel mechanizations achieve better response characteristics. in order to gain some insight into the vertical channel error behavior. and Ps. Historically. We will begin this section by analyzing a simple firstorder vertical channel. Altitude data from the INS is used to transform the threeaxis acceleration data into the local horizontally referenced coordinate frame in order to obtain measurements of the aircraft's vertical and horizontal acceleration components. Inertial navigation systemsecondary data source Inputs vertical velocity Provides accurate altitude during periods of high vertical velocity 4.
im of lhc icrlic. Tlic positi\c Ccedhack with gain (2. I V E L E R R L P R I N T " I N I T I A L VELOCITY ERROR (m/s) = " .( 0 ) and A h ( ( ) )are the initial vclociiy and altitude errors. Fol.it 2x1 R.7803267714 In s' 10 20 30 40 I N P U T ' I N I T I A L VELOCITY ERROR (nl/s) = " . K!ncrnahc Cornpensafton Equations FIGURE 414 Sitnplilicd ili. the systcni error model ccluations can hc w r i l l c n a s where w ( f ) rcprcscnts random noisc (or disturbances).1i.$ and Ro.4 : 0.s' and 10 120 s is givcn hclo\\'. I V E L E R R I N P U T "1NJTIAL. A L T I T U D E ERROR ( m ) .tl chaoiiel err111I ~ O ~ C I . rcspcclively. A program listing in BASIC for computing All and Al" Ibl . the Schuler frequency.." ..R. Noic l1i.~gl. IALI'ERR L P R I N T " I N I T I A L AL'rITllDE ERROR ( m ) = ' I : I A L T E R K . and using stale spacc notation. the closedloop solution f o r this systcni is  where A V .) is ihc destabiliring elfccl on t l ~ e loop.c. 414. ~ ~ thc c s fl)llowing valucs from WGS84: Equatorial radius: R. Neglecting the noisc term.137 ni Equatorial gravity: .= 6378.270 CHAPTER 4 . 21.0001 m.q=9.. Fig. where w. i!.
DELV INITIAL VELOCITY ERROR (m/s) = .5 INITIAL ALTITUDE ERROR (m) = 30. 415.5*(EXP(OMEGAT) + EXP((OMEGAT))) DELH = ((l/OMEGA)*HSIN)*IVELERR + HCOS*IALTERR + (AZ/(OMEGA*OMEGA))*(HCOS . The Verfical Channel 60 70 80 INPUT 'START TIME ( s e c ) =".0 TIME Is1 ALT ERROR [ml VEL ERROR lm/sl .5.4. DELH.EXP((OMEGAT))) HCOS = . STIME INPUT 'FINISH TIME (sec) = ".5*(EXP(OMEGAT) . FTIME INPUT "TIME STEP (sec) =": STEPT OMEGAT = OMEGA*ITIME ' HSIN = .1) DELV = (HCOS*IVELERR) + (OMEGA*HSIN*IALTERR) + + (AZ/OMEGA)*HSIN LPRINT ITIME . .5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 The results are plotted in Fig.
~l ~. T h e derivation for altitude divergence will be givcn in Section 4. LTlTUDE ERROR DUE TO Av.sigl~al. Viewing tlrc vertical channel a s uncoupled. n l c rilndarliped vcrt~c. then a typical secondorder vertical channel dampingloop mechanization is represented in Fig.h. Vcrtical channcl damping of an inertial navigatiolr system niay hc irnplemcnted by using a barometric altimeter to gencri~tc vertical position a 1.~lliludc error. we will consider the secondorder vertical channel damping mcchanizalion.~ltitude constitutes the reedhack signal. .1101.3 Next.which is fed hack to the input of lhc vcrtic.rtc the divergent llaturc ol' the undampcd vertical channel. ( h ) i e i n c l i y crrlrr . thc inertially dcrivcd altitude minus a generalcd barometric .5. Kmernaoc Compensaoon Equatmns Thesc figulex illustr. 4000 3000 2500 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 to00 900 800 700 SD O 500 400 300 200 100 0 (0) 0 . the baroaltimeter output is not used in the gravity calculation. 416. Howcvcr. 5 rnlsec = 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 FIGURE 415 I i r i l ~ .!I .~l velocity and position intcgrators.272 CHAPTER 4 . Statcd in other umrds.~nncl (.
4. . we note that the barometric position measurements hB are compared with the inertial navigation system's computed position Xi. that this model is based on the assumption that the inertial navigation system processes the altitude measurements and feeds back the altitude deviations for every computation cycle of the inertial navigation system's computer. The Vertical Channel 213 AV. 416. .5. (0) + ( w sinh wt) Ah (0) + A sinh wt W 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 1 rnin 2 rnin t [secl (b) FIGURE 4. and C2in order to adjust the computed (or indicated) vertical velocity V.. . It should be pointed out.15 (cunrrnued) From Fig. and the difference is fed back through the loops C. (cosh wt) AV. however. and the measured specific force A .
~ ~ r ~ l c c h m ~ ~ . .ons VERTICAL SPECIFIC FIGURE 416 S c c ~ ~ n ~ l .. I I .+l r ~ ~ ? l . bcrl~c. ! ~ ~ ~ p ~ r ~ gI.C C I>. c Il .nernaric Cornpensarior. K. ~ I ? < > I I .ar.214  CHAPTER 4 . It~>~ p. E<ri.
the velocity bias is approximated by .. This model assumes that the barometric altimeter error is modeled as a firstorder Markov process driven by an uncorrelated (white) noise process. The Vertical Channel 215 An error model derived from the above mechanization is shown in Fig.2m/s (0. Then. Moreover. Further. the system time constant is r = 100 s. a 100 pg accelerometer bias produces a 0.656ft/s) bias in velocity. For many applications. is positive and C2 is greater than 2g/R. 417 as follows: where ~ ' ( 1 = whitenoise ) driving process T = correlation lime . In order to illustrate this point. The vertical channel error dynamics can be written directly from Fig.. if one wishes the system to have two real poles at one chooses the gains to be [17] These constants are determined from specifications and/or requirements and time constant of the system r. consider a secondorder system with a 100s loop time constant.5. it can be shown that the characteristic equation of this loop is The loop will be stable provided C . A significant performance problem of the secondorder loop is that a steady vertical acceleration error causes a steadystate vertical velocity error.4. Mathematically. 417.
on Equabons This is a signiticant velocity crror for weapon delivery applications and must be reduced.24) we notc that the incrtial navigation hystem's output is A . . Thns. i 0 . change in altitude. plus ((11. and system altitude h.and ( 2 ) vertical velocity navigation error. A notc of caution is in order nt this point. These at changes are continuously summed to provide a n updated system altit~ldc all times.. Next. from Eq. First. systeln altitude computed by the baroinertial mixclreprcscnts the system's best cstimatc of true altitude ahove mean sea le\. In order to obtain adequate and. note 1h.tst~red specitic force. )The first intcgrator acts .ne. For this reason.?~. (~':. in Fig. More specifically. assuming o NFI) VI:tme. The . V is commonly taken itftcr thc first integrator rathe]. The feedback paths through C . ) heing fed back in the crror cq~~rttions. the . Also. comes from a slowly reacting barometric instrumc~tt.1) and (4. .~ltimeter output is pohitivc up. AII analysis of this systcni follows. plus .program. both these errors arc computed at thc instant ol. Since the refcrcncc i~ltitude I . Vertical velocity is critic:~l during weapon delivery because thib crror greatly affects the miss distance of thc wcapon on the target. The :tltimctcr outpul and vertical position are defined with their positivc directions being opposite: that is.ll vclocity V . d a m p and control this instability using the error signal ( / r I r .216 CHAPTER 4 . as in highpertbr~nanccmilitary aircraft. 416 w ~ l linclude a largc error in thc event of a rapid change in altitude. the Coriolis compensation. a thirdorder loop is commorily used in many applications.IS 3 filter during :I ri~pid . the two largcst conlrihutions to miss distance would he due to ( I ) .naOc Cornoensaf. tltc acccleration due to gravity. 418 is rcferencc altiludc h.'or improved pcrformancc. Thus.96b) are the equations that model the vertical channcl in an crror analysis cornputcl. (4. i (2. As shown in Fig. and C . ) . changcs in barometric dcrivcd altiludc and incrtially dcrivcd altitude arc combined in a h.I standard thirdorder vcrticnl channcl damping technique lbr mixing b. hut as we have seen earlier. the airdata computer's input to Fig. Fquations (4. K.tt since the inertial navigation systeni obtains a measuremen1 o f specific force in the platform " p ' axes. the result o f mixing the haromctric and t inertial changcs in altitude provides the total change in system altitude.troaltimeter and inertially derived data [ I .el (MSL). while vertical position is positivc down. weapon rclcasc.) V. 418.Ai'.than a f t e ~ ~ the summation point ( 6 ~ . it causes the instability tor in the unaided vcrtical channcl. T h e outputs are vcrtic. A " = C. . in delivery of ordnance. these axes in gencral d o not coincide with the geographic or navigation "n" axes. which accounts for the sum ( F X b 6 1 1 . which is thc accelcron~ctcrn~c. . V.96. / the feedback through ( . 171. Figurc 418 illuhtratck . Moreover. The positive kedback path through Z{LI? is required to compcnsatc r= changes in altitude.I'.~roinertielmixer that emphasizes barometric iltfor~nation t low vertical velocity Kites and inerlial information a : ~ high vcrtical velocity rates. A coordinate transformation is therefore required.~ltitudcnavigation errol. t (w. ) (.
.
I random walk modeling any h a s o r slowly varying crror in thc vertical .~usca stcadystate ditlercncc hctwccn thc systcn~and refcrc~rcealtitudes ( h /I.'. If the integral fccdhack werc . l l ~ o n ~ a l o r errol. r is choscn to bc 100 100 s. ~ ~ For the pilrpoacs of the present .5 and 0 . 7 6 ) An error nod el tol. iiY . the vertical velocity I.). ('i. 8 s [ I ] . the hitroincrlial equation l o he mechani7ed is Fq.218 CHAPTER 4 .IS tollo~vs: . If thc systcln gains arc iissumcd constant. Once the appropriate values for r and C:. (':I have been choscn so tli. y.. v . If (. r omitted. ( 4 7 6 ) . ( 4 . the gains given by Eqs. 418. .i l l the Coriolis leiins.~ccdby crror states (lih.I'Rc thirdorder vertical channrl rncchaniz~tionimpr<~ves significantly lhc system's performance. 9 7 ~ rcducc to ) . and h can bc approximated by solving Eq.0.compensates for i~ltirnctcr a ~The ~ n a i soulcr ( l .i I r) .97:~) ( 4 . e t c ) The error state h / l . can he taken to be . Kinematic Cornpensafiori Equations  fcedforward path t h r ( ~ u g h .the vertical channel can be designed similar (11 the one shown in Fig. whcre r is thc vcrtical channel tiinc constant. Thus. are chosen.the valucs of these pains that achicvc these syslrm poles arc as fc~llows: Typically. 'Shcrcfc~rc. wit11 the various pararnclcrs rcpl. depending on the systcri~ design.it the complex rrcqucncy .it the system characteristic cqui~tion yields three poles . Typical v.ilucs i ~ ( rangc between 0.the values of thc three gains (('.~nalysis.iccclcr:~tion due 10 accclerornctcr hiss. an INS vertical acceleration crror would c. (4. l~ of altimeter error due to dynamic lag i \ the prcssurc transducer. gravity . these relations yield a linie invariant linear system equation.
2:..=Z.=0 P. v. this method computes a dynamically corrected altitude by numerically integrating the physical relation for a column of air as a function of pressure gradients resulting from weather changes during flight.5.98b) P. . we can write this algorithm as follows: 0 sin 4 AZ. The Vertical Channel 219 The value of he provided by the air data computer can be calculated in the standard manner.=P..=V. T.=AZ.+(vgnVwa+V. =WN T.. = z... Blanchard develops an improved algorithm for computing hR in a "nonstandard" atmosphere.*. =initial groundtrack velocity V. HD=Zn*+C4V7 The algorithm is initialized by setting Z.075 s .. Rather than calculating pressure altitude based on a standard atmosphere (SA) model (and possibly compensating later for nonstandard conditions).4.. =A%.. V.. The difference between baroaltitude and true altitude is computed by the navigation (or firecontrol) computer. Z..=ho. C4=0. Z. cos yr. (4. Z.. sin yr.I=P. ... and absolute temperature. v..j + AZ..=h. 21.( v. =initial crosstrack wind velocity At=0. Figure 419 illustrates the error between standard and nonstandardday conditions.0625 s .=T.* = Z.I=TFAT V..w........~. or by means of the technique developed by Blanchard [ I . Using the trapezoidal integration method.="gL $)At AZ .=v. This algorithm has been Right tested and has demonstrated good performance.* . gravity.. AZ..
.=current static prrssurc P. ( R ) /'. .292115 x l O ' r a d .0625 ( s ) Z. Kinernatjc Cornoensatio.~rweight (dimensionless) re I<* = universal gas constanl ( R ) T..r('= compoter A1 iteration time: 0. s) I/. = 7 .075 s ) el r I: . a t prcvious iteration cycle htcp . I'..at previous iteration cyclc step .spllr!ic c o n d l l i o ~ ~ \ b~~/~(.timx. curlei~t = groundtrack velocity ( f t . . . s ) g.e a r t h rate of rotation (7.. . ( ft ) f =precomputed constant X 5 X ..lltitudc reference with gr:idicllt correction ( f t ) : A%. Euuations F I G U R E 419 Ritttoilc crror d ~ lo n.INS vertical velocity (ft s) .220 CHAPTER 4 .'s) \I..= current frcestrearn air tcmperalure 7 . nw =cast and notth wind components. ~ d ) 0 ..radial (or nornlal) component of local gravity ift 5 ' ) .Ill.. rcspectivcl? (lis ) %...?. = curre111 valuc o f wind component perpendicular to gl.rekrcnce altitude for damping the vcrtici~lchanncl ( i t ) $=geodetic lilritudc ( r . ~ t m ( ~ s p h rrnolecul. i = i ~ i t i ~ ~ ~lagc correctioil constilnt (0.ej . (inches Hg) V..=altitudc reference without gradient COIrection(nunstandard atmosphele altitude Ieference)(I?) % = ..nri. = pressure gradient correction tern. 1 7 7 [it' ( K\')I ( ' .ound track (f1..~ndsrd d i ~ ? c .
After algorithm initialization.4. .98a) and (49:r. while at the same time achieving a satisfactory response time to aircraft disturbances. However. these equations are iterated in the order in which they appear. In order to implement the thirdorder vertical channel mechanization with minimum altitude and vertical velocity output errors. An optimal set of gains must be found by minimizing the system's disturbance with appropriate response time. The reference altitude HD is made available to the INS in order to damp its divergent velocity and altitude.itiai conditions] ' r INS V> FIGURE 420 Block diagram for altitude determination. at previous iteration cycle step V ."'. = 0. Air data reference (true) altitude must include Nonstandardatmosphere model Horizontal pressure gradient (wind) effect correction Lag time of temperature and pressure sensors as functions of altitude LA 0 1 [Eqs. (4. when V. I = V.5. The discussion of the thirdorder vertical channel mechanization will now be summarized. such as 16 Hz. the algorithm would be iterated at a fairly high rate.= VW at previous iteration cycle step yrv = velocity heading (rad) The initial altitude ho is obtained from the navigator's entry of runway altitude. in order to keep the altitude information current for all onboard systems. Figure 420 shows the functional relationship between the CADCderived data and inertial system outputs. In most applications. The Vertical Channel 221 V . this iteration rate must be chosen to be compatible with the software in the navigation computer. 2. the following features must be considered in the design: 1.
~ n d bcttcr response characteristics thi111 secondorder mcch:rni7. 111~i~crs~I ga.lthcmaticalt~rclilhility.. TABLE 42 \dopkd I'rin~sr! C'osrtant5 Symbol Namr $ ~ . ~ n d . In addilion.ilihr:rtion pcrt?)rnred in the vicinity of the 1. II ! 22q11 k g 15 ( ' I S ' I 21 l h h Ill.irgct remo\'es mapping clcv.~ltiludc outputs. when propcrly designed.is  1 . .~l1142 11K I I ' TII..~riou$ coniput. I)8.~hov' target computalion.~ln a ~ i g ~ ~ f i o l ~ sys~em w'ill he required.15 K .onvcnitncc. 1.~lurc ol'ltlc icc porilt 277.IS radar homhing system?. 5...~tc incrti. This type of altitude rnechaniz~tioni i idcirl for military airclait applications s~lcli.l'hcsc valucs arc also published in the ICAO Standard Atmosphere.npcnsaOor.~tions. I '1 XOhhi nr ZS'Ihi .~ccu~. Therefore. "0 k m l .^ highly stt~hlr ~ n d .In some applicati<rll\. since an illtitudc c. I i'. UII>$~.  Kl. will reducc errors originating liom flie accclcrometcr ( o r other sourccs) biases. .141 67 1545 II I? I< * i:. tlic use of. Rlhle 43 gives helcctcd nume~ical\'alucs adopted as cxiict for t l ~ e v... Eqi~atio. Altitude calihrat~ons muht he implctncnted through a iccdfor\\~r~rcl Lccl~ niquc.~lcicl 'cin.r.rnd accuracy in veltical vclocil) and . l'lre thirdorder \rertical chiinnel ~ n e c l i .. 7.. . ~ n i z a l i o ~ ~ .gI11 r 1 2S')hf I icona1.222 CHAPTER 4 . 4.. 1 1 d~..>crnai/c Co. T l ~ i s minimi7es the output disturb.1 i ! l 1 1 'I K 11 1718 11i '.~ I "la"") S.~r~ces ci~uscdhy c.~iiltin I < . ~ n i ~ .~lihralic~n.I1 M ~ ~ l c c ~ i l ~ ~ <>I' wci.. ~ ~ l u p!c~s~civc icl S C . 1 1 11 117b47 11. p~cscntcd bclon arc fi~ctorsthat >hould he ill' help in ccrnv~rtingfrom olie certain convclsio~~ syslcm of units into irnolher.ichievc hettcr time rcsponsc characteristics.~lloncrrols hom the height . F o r thc rci~dcr's~..~tr. thc difference bctwern indicated system altitude deribcd from ha]oinertial mixing end thc measured system altitude is used t o correct the batoincrtial altitude. Thirdorder mechanization inhererrfly can achievc hettsr acct1r:lcy . Se.~I.) 11 1 ' 'I~l~rnpcr.! \ . a thirdorder m c c h . ~ t iis n o preferred tor the reasons of optimum ht~lancc hctueen pcrformancc and ~n. In order to gcl the hest pcrformancc .1tion..loic 5. ~ I C ~ C ...
Altitude Divergence In Section 4. for t = 15°C= 59.67"R Temperatures in the metric absolute scale (K) are given by where t is the temperature on the Celsius scale ("C): in the English system of units.0 (newtons)/m2 is T.0°F. we have For the melting point of ice stated above. since it affects the mechanization of all inertial navigation systems. this is Therefore. Now consider a simple vertical accelerometer with its input axis along the Z axis. these errors increase exponentially with the passage of time.5.4. The measured specific force A is given by . The Vertical Channel 223 Conversion Factors The absolute temperature (in kelvins) of the melting point of ice under a pressure of 101.325. in this section we will discuss the altitude divergence problem.=273. Therefore. Ti in the English system of units is obtained from the relation 4.5.5. The vertical velocity and position errors diverge. that is to say.15 K =491.3 we noted that the vertical channel of an inertial navigation system is unstable.4.
that is. (4Y')e). ( 4 . ...y is the acceleration due t<.xpansion into . gravity. Because of the negative sign on the lefthand side of Eq. is a n :irhitrnry initial point and fill is the 8r:ivily at L. one term in lhc solutiorl is a positive exponential f. From Newton's LAM' of <.. let Now %A%.i~lc g~\u'g rise t o l l i c i ~ ~ ~ r nd!\cu\edl ~ h ~ l ~ ~n thir scction..I 'raylor series yields .. ( 4 9 9 f l Ihas. I x t 11s now consider what happcns i( therc is an error AA in A . \ye ciln write ) *Note ihill f'q.99a)l. 9 9 ~ is linear.224 CHAPTER 4  Kinematic Conlpensation Equations where 2 is the altitude above the earth and .~ pole in t l l c iigh1hitnil pl.raviIi~lio~i \vherc Z. 9 9 ~ is the ecluation that must he mechanized in order to c o n ) pute 11. 14cncc lh F. ( 4 . one ohlains Equation ( 4 . 9 9 ~ )we have Substituting g illto the specific force equation [ F q . Retaining only the first two terllrs of Eq. (4. i t will be recognized that this equation diverges. Since Eq.unnctio of time.
2)) CONTINUE END .7803267714 1.99h) assuming the following values: C C CALCULATE ALTITUDE DIVERGENCE AS A FUNCTION OF TIME CONSTANTS RO GO CONSTl CONST2 = = = = 6378137.DELTAH FORMAT(2. The general solution of Eq. s i n h e . &.O*GO/RO) ! meters ! meters/s**2 C WRITE HEADER FOR OUTPUT C CALCULATE DeltaH(t) DO 10 T = 0.2) T.5*RO*CONSTl*(COSH(CONSTZ*T) WRITE(*.AA (2gu/Zo) (4.0. (4. 5000.1.0 9. computes Eq. 100.4.998) Assuming the initial conditions Ah(0) =Ah(O). we have the final result where Zo corresponds to the radius of the earth.0) 2 10 .F10.0 DELTAH = 0. The Vertical Channel 225 where Ah is the corresponding error in h.OE5 SQRT(Z.0.(5X. The FORTRAN program listing shown below.99f) is A h = A c O s h . (4. . + .5.
. .Ill~liidc dlvcrgcnci.226 CHAPTER 4 K~nernatic Cornpensatiorl Equations FIGURE 421 .
. A. . September 1972. Altitude calibrations are performed over terrain of known elevation and may be accomplished either on the ground or in flight." in Conlrol and Dynamic Systems. August 1 1 13. AES4(5).: "An improvement to an Algorithm for Computing Aircraft Reference Altitude. PrenticeHall. Carlson. A . Publication No. 5. In addition. 4. and Kouba. which can be as much as 23% of height above the terrain. WileyInterscience. The calibration mechanization uses radar ranging to determine relative height above terrain of known elevation to compute true altitude above mean sea level. 8. ed. Mass. Elanchard.." AlAA Guidance and Control Conference.: lnrrfial Nauizotion Sprems Analysis. R. 6. a lowaltitude calibration is accomplished. 685686 (Correspondence). N. radar altimeters exhibit a scale factor error. 1962. L. 1971. 1965.. AES7(6). W. Elrackstein. the pure inertial system cannot be used to provide altitude information. and Fried. November 1971 2.5.: "A New Algorithm for Computing Inertial Altitude and Vertical Velocity.: lnertiul Guidance finyineerhg." Litton Systems. 9. Paper No. 15960.References 227 The preceding table and plot (Fig. Elanchard. M. R. 1980. REFERENCES I. 4.J. If long periods are desired. A radar altimeter is used to measure the height above ground level. Wiley. and Fernandez. The proof of divergence given here is general. Consequently. New York.): Auionics Nauigafion Syslems.. R . Huddle.: "Inertial Navigation System ErrorModel Considerations in Kalman Filtering Applications. (eds. Kayton.. G. 1983. R. pp. 293 339. H. AIAA801771C8. Reading. T.: "Derivation of FreeInertial. all inertial navigation systems must be aided with external altitude information. 3." IEEE Tmnsucliuns on Aerospace and ljlrctronic Sy\rcms. Eritting. L. Altitude Calibration Altitude calibration may be performed periodically to correct for errors in system altitude caused by sensor errors or unpredictable changes in atmospheric conditions.). June 1981.. If a radar altimeter system (RAS) is used. T.: Clarsical Mechanics. Leondcs (ed. and is limited to a maximum of 5000 ft. N.. Englewood Cliffs. since there is no restriction on the choice of Zo or the location of the Z axis on the earth. because of the divergence problem. 421) indicate that an inertial navigation system can be used for measurement of vertical distance only for short periods." lEEE Trunsoclions on Aerospace and Elecrronic Syremr. : 'Fast Geodetic Coordinate Transformations. 7. 1969. 11431 146. Goldstein. The largest error in using a radar altimeter as an altitude reference is the unmodeled variation in the local terrain height above sea level. rev. Academic Press. I. R. Inc. K. AddisonWesley.5. General Wander Azimuth Mcchani~atianEquations. J. C. M. This is because inertial navigation requires prior knowledge of gravity. J. Macornher. R. New York. New York.
Ik'ir. Jot? 1971. M.228 CHAPTER 4  Kinematic Cornpensarion Equations 10 Nash.rin. S. K I "Frmr Arialysis OF SpaceSl. M c ~ ~ ~ a ~ v .lenispor<~ .z. M. . (amhiidge./icn..l. P." A I A A . .v. Levinc. i C . Mass.ior..s. s ~r 617 629.q.lizurnii/ ill (.opi< Tllcoiv.t.7</ . A. s ~ r i ~ 0 . T Lcondcb ied.lr (ed. . kind Stnha. 17. 13.. in f i ~ / i i c i t .i.Sy>t?.~l(io~ilancrTor Clat\e Vch~clc\.. 1962. Ilolliricr.io. W ti : (. i l m / i .tilgalion Syslcm Ikrror moil el^. ( j .. 11. I' K. PP. 16 Widnall. 14. ~ ~~ c ~b:l. 12. Wibh~ New Y w k .~hicl o c r l ~ : ~ l Na\. I.I ! i u M a y I I...). W S. 171 178.lr.n 4n. McGrawHill. 195'). P i n ~ o nJ. Nciu Y n r h . C.j.i. />?5i.. W. IYh0. .~. ~ e ..ind Cirundy..?a ~. 113 187. Wilc). W./<. S. iinil li~rirumcniiiri~i.~uir. 1963.' (iiirO<!nirotrd ( ' . Widnicll..~Ab. I n c r l i i t l U.s. irnd KO?. G a m s of the Him1nerli. R.igat~onSystem\. 1973. and Denhard.“ I E I J E T ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ... .): /rieri.. Wriglcy.V<. 3(?). I I (Y1)onneIl. 1 5 / .: " O p l ~ r n ~ r i o?hi. A ~c.q. W .: /nt'r!u>/ .v. I'ilntai~. ' S Simiclirrd Al. M .8l.r.. A .S7141.~rcli A p l l l I Y X I I IX.iiii/<arcc oizd Cii. R.rlic. l . Inlcnnctric~. New York.inncl.1.tl g Ch.il V~. .k l ~Y l." TR0371. ~ k 1'204 / !vcw l .t~. L . Suoolcincrit.<i/ (iuiilaiwi.. : "1neiti. ( ' .. A . I I Prcs?. 19/l(i l i S ( l o \ c r a r n c n I'rinltna Oliicu.
Moreover. For vehicles utilizing inertial navigation systems. Here. it is desirable that the system computes position and velocity with respect to the earth with high accuracy. a simplified system model will be sufficient . Generally. as will be discussed shortly. development. it is through error analysis that requirements (or "error budgets") on instrument accuracies are specified and system performance evaluated.1. then Monte Carlo simulation techniques are most likely to be used. misalignment of the inertial sensors on the platform. Specifically. INTRODUCTION Error analysis is an integral part in the design and development of inertial navigation systems. If the system dynamics are nonlinear. the underlying assumption is that the error dynamics are described by linear differential equations driven by white noise.5. The errors in an inertial navigation system are due to several sources. Some of these errors are accelerometer and gyroscope inaccuracies. several types of errors occur in inertial navigation systems. computational errors. and fielding of inertial navigation systems. the objective of error analysis is twofold: (1) to show how to obtain appropriate equations for programming the onboard navigation computer and to depict the error behavior of specific system mechanizations and (2) to introduce enough additional assumptions so that the behavior of the system may be analytically portrayed. initial errors in platform alignment. In some cases. However. and approximations in the mechanization of the system equations. For this reason. the prime concern is to determine variances of the resulting errors at the output. analysis and propagation of errors is one of the major analytical activities supporting the design.
t11.ln be provided to check tlic prohlem against . error budget) among the subsystcn~ssuch that tlie systcm mccts :r specified set of perlbrmance criteria..llly. .rtiona h .230  CHAPTER 5 Crror Analysjs to an. and sin~ulating error5 as heing thc o u t p ~ ~ofs stoch.. Finally. Furthc~more.rlyre the problem.iy of estirnating overall system performance a s a function of tlie performance of suhsystcms and components that contribute to hysteni elmor5 Error budgeting requires sc~lving the inverse prohlern. Ilicy can he clreclivcly suhtractcd (1u1o f t h e systeni. Stochastic 01 i.ln.rlion system arc duc to the following krcth: I . o r pointed out that both of these categories rcquirc \cr! good error rnodcls.~tcd arc fils. i l sho~rldhc . in stochastrc analysis..~ll! simple in form and itre easy to describe m:rthem. tlic erlor sources can be timev:rr?ing.ind ( 2 ) stochastic ( o r random) elrurs. 011 tlic othcr hand. 1.rtcs . it is necessary to clesclibe thesc errors mathematically.rsscs of errors must be considered: .~pproxiniatc answers c.i ~ ~ h t i i r ~ c c .rte.in crror .irtidonl crr(1rs. Furthcrmorc. crror covariance analysis c a n bc used a s :r tool for d e t e r m i n i n ~ thc dcsign requircmcnts of inertial sensors.rclcristic~ of such errors arc tliat they are constant. I pure while nolsc hut arc colrelated in lime.~rii~ncc 131opag. Deterririnistic errors arc usu. Regression i ~ n a l y s ~ s may he used i n sucli crror sourCCS.c. Incrtiiil navigation and guidance systcm performancc rcquircmcnts irrc usually spccitied in terms of such statistical quar~titiesas the rms position o r velocity crror. a Therefole. Thc covariance matrix P ( r ) is a ~neasrlrcof filler pcrformancc. in addition to the two main sources of error in a n inertial navig.The ch. h.cctor.igatio~i. 111 gencr:~l. have constant cocllicients. The covariance matrix gets smaller as 11io1c incasurcnicnts arc made.rstic proccsscs the t with whitenoise inpr~ts. This problem can he solvcd by adding stz~tcs tlie state to \. the 7cr0 calibration of an instrument is such a n error.rnd .~tic.llysis tool. which is to find :in allocation of allowable crrors (i.rl is.ire dliveir chiefly by gyroscope erlcrrs. siricc its diagonal clemcnts arc thc filler's cstimatc of thc meansquare crrors in the statevector es1ini. the Kalman filter development inbolves cov. When dcaling with errors in crror analqsis. o r the time "rate of growth" of rznh position errorb.~l.sonie of these errors do not consisl < . The atti~irclc error r. Elrors norrn:llly f. 1. r ~ ~ r r n i ~ lrc stale cstrnirtio~iis i~hcd in thih cxhe.rtistically. arc treatecl \t.~ll into lwo categories: ( I ) dctemiinistic crlors . or mil! bc sinusoidal in nature. l ~ ~ s i g linto lhc error propagirlioii can he gained i f rt the dominant cliaractcristics and parimmtcrs o f the system are identified. She tirne rates of chiuige of tlie veloc~ty errors arc dlivcn chiclly h) accclcrometcr crrors and gravity anomalies.In incrtial navig.~tioncyslcm. lliree other hasic cl. The main sources nf errors 111 .rsed ~ 1 1 1 ~iiathernaticolspccific:rtioii.these erl(>Is casily compcns. Ilo\vevcr.As discussed in the litcra1111c 71. in order to study tlicir prop. [2.I more sophisti~ated computer solutic~n. I 7 o ~ . It is a w.
we can define as systematic errors those errors that during repeated measurement of the same quantity either remain constant or change according to a defined law. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BASIC INS SYSTEM ERROR EQUATIONS Generally. The random errors. and the value of the variable as interpreted in the reference locallevel* navigation coordinate system when determined without error. Basic INS System Error Eqoatjons 231 1. Expanding on the classes of errors discussed in Section 5. INSs are essentially dead reckoning systems similar to compass/airspeed navigation.g. initial velocity vector. The reason for this is that. and initial platform misalignment." as it is sometimes called) coordinate frame is one in which two axes of the frame are always normal to g(R). on the other hand.2. but can be reduced by multiple measurements. For instance. accelerometer bias. The development of error models for inertial navigation systems is of the utmost importance in the analysis and evaluation of systems using the INS. by definition. the zero calibration of an instrument is a systematic error. a Kalman filter is implemented within an INS which accepts the bounding source (e. Construction errorserrors in the overall system construction such as mechanical alignment errors of the inertial sensors mounted on the platform. Initiul conditionserrors that arise from imperfect determination of the initial position vector. a *A locally level (or "local vertical. 5. It is possible to eliminate systematic errors if a good mathematical model of the phenomenon is available.1. 3. be reduced by experimental means. in inertial navigation systems.5. The main errors are gyroscope drifts.. unlike position fixing systems. Commonly. Physical component errorserrors that are usually deviations of the inertial sensors from their design behavior. These type of errors cannot. and scale factor errors of the gyroscope torquers and accelerometers. The degree of approximation between the numerical value and the real value depends on measurement errors. Note that the "model" is the mathematical description of the physical system which is used in the Kalman filter design. "error" is defined as the difference between the value of the variable as it physically exists in the system computer.2. the numerical value of a measured quantity as registered by any instrument is not necessarily correct and must be considered to be approximate. are those of undetermined value and source and result from both intervals of measuring instruments and nonnominal environmental conditions. 2. Specifically. .
In order to dclcrrnine how thc computed position and velocity dcviate from the true ( o r ideal). and heading. Tlircc sets o f coordini~tcaxes alc necessary in defining and deriving the sy?tern error equations: True set (Xr. attitudes. ctc. Computer scr (X. .. aided navigation systems the using external sources of position and vclocily are routinely uscd. However. inertial instruments.luse of the difficulty in co~rtrolling initialiration and suhscqucnt crrors. Z.) Specifics the actual platform alignnient (1MI1 "tilt" crror). Error Anaivsis secondary sensor such as Doppler. ). we define the three vectors a s follows: Angle from d e a l ( o r true) to platbrin axes (i. A number of g. system errol. Yi Z r ) Specifics the idcal ( o r erl<. simulation tccliniques must be used. the thrcc sets ere angularly divergent._ood textbooks discuss error analysis equations al1d crror propagation for :in INS [I. since crror propagation cannot he generally described hy closed form solutions. in terms of hoth conventional error analysis and statc variable description ol. position. Omega. Plutfi.. 7. Thc INS must be initialized with position and velocity inlbrn~ation.rcc syhtem... Errors induced into thc I N S propagate in a characteristic manner (i..232 CHAPTER 5 . \relocity. 81. TACAN. Schuler oscillalion. It must he noted hcrc that anomalies in the gravitational field cause errors in computing acceleration which must he included in the system model and corrected. and $. ~illgularposition error). The principal navigation crror pi~ramctcrs are vehicle position. 1 1 an actual system. The most adaptable convention. a s well a s estimates of the modeled error sources end the inertial system errors.bcha\.e. GPS. v. 5. The propagation cquations are dependent on the system position and velocity.su that in the free inertial mode the INS must delerrnine suhscquent vehicle accelerations irelalive to a reference frame and integrate these to maintain current velocity and position. position and velocity require an crror model encompassing the navigation parameters. employs the angle of error vectors 60... which is subjcct to navigation sensor a n d initial condition errors. platform mis. F o r smalldivergence irngles.~lignmcnlo r attitude error) . .Ifree)pl:~tfbrm oricnt:~tion relative t o thc earth. and heading.) duc t o opcrilti011 ill the gravitational field of the earth.) Specifics the cornpolcr's pclccptiun of pln~lbrni alignnient ( i c .. and noninertial cxlerlial measurement sensors. the three s c ~ s coordi1 nate axes arc coincident. >'.e.ior. Bec.vm set (X.. I n :In errort. e t c ) inputs and provides a best estimatc o f the vehicle velocity.
[ = Angle from ideal (or true) to computer axes (i. FIGURE 51 + 88. which represent the angular displacement or misorientation in position and heading between the airborne computer's "conception" of where the navigation axes are with respect to the earth and where an errorless (or ideal) set of navigation axes lie. we will use the Pinson model that is parameterized with the error angles ry. and threemisalignment or attitude errors... 0.e.2. threevelocity errors. This involves threeposition errors. Figure 51 is a twodimensional illustration of the relationships between the error Euler angles defined above. If a wanderazimuth angle is mechanized. Therefore. Position errors can be defined by the three misalignment angles SO. The ninestate Pinson error model can readily be derived by application of the "psi" (v)equations to the tilt angle errors to obtain the position and tilt error state equations. . and thus vector addition is valid since the theory of infinitesimal rotations applies. = P .. and 60r. Basic INS System Error Equations 233 . The Euler angles between the three coordinate systems are very small.. SO. Platform Axes Computer Axes True Axes Twodimensional illustration of INS error Euler angles.. error in computed position) Angle from computer to platform axes (this corresponds to platform drift) The relationship between these three sets of error angles is Error analysis for inertial navigation systems can be performed by using the ninestate "Pinson" error model [ 5 ] ..5..:+.I....
rtional errors . % (hcrc we assume thtit tlic X axis points cast.4) is usually rekrred to as the "psi'. longitude (6%).ilso be written in component form . (3) torquing errors.ipdown configul. sin u t 60. 111particular.1 1 .  SF.itio~rswill be developed in terms o f 58. ens sin u" iiio1c~~i~rX). Error Analysis it can be show^^ (Eulcr transformation) [hiit A O .3) where tlrc differentiation refers to a n inerti.ttion of the Coriolis cquation.is in Eq. T h e psi equations are dliven by the gyroscope drifl rate vector E and a!c solved first.quation (5.2) where R is the position vector defining the location i ~ the vehicle u~itli f Icspect to the center of the earth.ll to tlic reference ellipsoid). tlic error in computed positioti (dclincd a \ computed posttion minus ideal position) is defined by thc rclation &R=bflx K (5.~nglc 1611)crrors by tire following expressions : 6 9 = 60. and the %axis opurard and no11iin.ind .ire c o ~ n ~ n o n small in gimbaled systerirs: Iiowevcr.dong tlic ci1n1pitted navigation axes X.but in gcncral they have timcvarying coetficients. Equation ( 5 . 611.~nt value sincc.equ. cquation and is ofsignific.25) l j l i w x y r = ~ Equation (5. tllc misalignment tp i\ caused hy four principal factors: ( I ) it~ilial misalignment (tp. .illy along the 11orm. (5. Therefore. itttd 60 itte Ielated to the latitude ( 6 9 ) . wit11 occasional reference to Eqs..4) o r we can write it . llicv become pr(.( .I driving Htnction for the position error equation. Pitman [ X I deduces that the behavior of v is governed hy the cquation *=a: 15. sin 4 In addition.~rions. ( N o t e that comput. with its use. 3 ) may be written in any coordin:ite system.4) can . ( 2 ) gyroscope drift. The vector error equations are lineal.. The error eqo. Ihc error cqualions h c c i ~ n ~ e hasically uncoupled. the psi cq~iationcan he expanded into .COY +] Arr = AO.2) to assist in their reduction to a simplified foln~. Y. and ( 4 ) computational error\.ilii~n\.~llytiwcd rcVcrcncc irnme and E is the vectorial platform drift due to gyroscope drift and torquer crrors. (4. q ~ and 6V (velocity errors). (5.234 CHAPTER 5 . Its solution then hcconrcs .). By :ipplic.end wander .ly nounced in str. the Y axis not111.) F. we obtain Q=r:+q~Xco (5.
The basic INS mechanization is [6] or in terms of error quantities where wlr is the angular rate of the computer frame with respect to the inertial space. is the angular rate of the computer frame with respect to the earth ( o E r = p = w l r R ) . SAP (in the platform frame).22)] yields From the Coriolis equation [Eq.. Basic INS System Error Equations 235 three firstorder differential equations: The state variable description of system error propagation may be computed by reference to the basic mechanization equations of an inertial navigator discussed in Chapter 4. We can write the Coriolis equation in component *6 represents a perturbation . plus errors due to transformation from the platform frame to the computer frame through the angle.7) into the error equation [Eq. Moreover.5. Sg=60xg (5.15)] we can write where o. Thus where products of errors have been neglected. (5. The term 6A* measured in the computer frame consists of errors due to the acceleration measuring instruments.7) in the computer frame.2. Substituting Eqs. v . since g is accurately defined in ideal coordinates. (6. (4.6) and (5.
6R .=60.2) in its component folm 612.5) and (5.f i t l Y R / = SO. .=6V.14) undcr t h c x conditions yicld the final . RI Since K .20. Y . and 6 d .R. & R . i i R . ..g .SR. 7 ) fnllows: as S ~ .clarity.1 I ) and (5.= ~ / . close to zero. Substitution of Eqs. 2 R. (5.10) finally yiclds liol.'" .navieation . Then 6/?=61'. = 6 / < .1 I ) 6 R .8) and (5. Z )undel. Eqs. p .12) into (5. 6 1. 6~.60. (5. and difkrentiating. :=60. (5. Y. yiclds for constantaltitude Right. (5.P/ AR. I p / 6 R .. (5. &d.wcd on the vchiclc (surface applications) o r assistance rrom a n cxtesnel altitude rel'erencc (aircraft applications) maintains ilR. t (p.9) p.(. Thcn.Y. Assumi~ig that either an altitude constraint is pl. R.Ixes (X. 6 R ...10) lltilizing Eq. Error Analysts tbrm in ci~mputedn:rvigation axes (. (5. Eqs.236 CHAPTER 5 . + p .13) will bc writken in cornpollent form in the cornputel. = 6 O 7 R r .thc assurncd conditions Considerahlc simplilication is possible for cruise conditions whcn A.R.s~  SR.hR~+p. (5.
~ + ~ ~ ) SV.( p + 2 n ) r s v .wXWY+ EZ Equation (5.~ z A x + ~ ~ ~ + ( ~ 68.2.18) 6v=[:  0 2w: a R . t p = accelerometer and gyro error terms excited by sensed acceleration (A.15) represents the basic inertial system error model used as a basis for the generation of the system dynamics Fmatrix.. Basic INS Svstem Error Erruations 237 state variable equations describing the error model of the subject inertial system: S V X = ~ A X + W Z A Y .~ x ~ R + ~ v 0 (5.17) (5. Using vector notation. 0.(nz+mz) SVYg 60y ~~Y+ ~ v Y = s A Y . error~6v=6V~xv g=plumbbob gravity vector = [ 0 glT O (g is assumed to lie entirely along the vertical direction) E.5.+g ~ 1 ~X=WZWYWNZ+EX ~Y=OXWZWZVX+EY ~ z = w y w x . :] @=(p+R)xyr+C~~ where R = position vector of vehicle [O. + hIT p = angular velocity of the locallevel frame relative to the earth2 (v x R ) / R ~ O=earth's angular velocity vector relative to an inertial frame w:=g/R=p/R3eSchuler rate I+I= smallangle error in the bodyearth transformation C = transformation matrix from the body frame to the locallevel frame= Ck v = vehicle velocity relative to the earth. the general ninestate error model can be summarized for a locallevel (NEU) coordinate system as follows: ~ R = . v.) : these error terms would be zero if the instruments were errorfree  . and statetransition matrix.v x * + c r .16) (5.
4 60 Platform v  Computer In sc:il.. the above error model can be dclivcd as followh. arid Ihas . Ilcrc we will .~z.p. In girnhalccl. plallbrm systems.I skcw synmmctric realization of the veclol.c.it rhc vcrlic. maintain the level :lxcs pcrpcndicular 111 the gravity vector (i. it is common to h.s. N c ~ l we note that . and.i~.~l case axis of the platform need nor be physically prcccssed.lr f i r m .238 CHAPTER 5 . consequcntl>. so that h v 7 6 V . less hardware is recli~ircdto mechanize the system.tllc matrix p is .st.~  The rel~itio~rship tlrc Pinson error modcl is indicated helou to + = v I se or q~ . dcfincd by its compi)ncnls ah T h e level components of p.lssumc that thc posit~onerrors 21csmall. Error Aiia1y. 'l'his is refelred to as the "11cc . .i~nutti" (scc Chapter 2). tlic ratlius vector R ) .r dclinite hcncfit in t1m.~vethe vcltical component of p equ:il and oppositc to the vertical component of a. l. as detined above.
C12EEI. A. + C~IE~. Also i vxA= j yl. I Combining all the above terms. C3lea1+ ~ Z E ~ C + CI~E.2. Basic INS System Error Equations 239 Assuming now that the earth rate vector C2= [Q cos (p + 2 0 ) x 6V term becomes i Y ( p + 2 S 2 ) ~ 6 V =V+ 2 n c o s +  + k 0 Q sin +IT.. CE. l C I I E ~ . k v. v: A: A.. The last term. becomes CII CE. R R 6 V. we have the following velocity error equations: . 2 0 sin 6 Vz + 6 V.5.= C 1 2 C2 1 C2 2 C2 3 [=]:I C3 1 E. the j V. C 3 R + + 1E I C21Ea\+ C22EI.
it is easy to derive the components of thc equation.s. lor level navigation. 6 C ' . since it is basically unstable. In somc applications. r ~ l o < i l ~ error er{~i<~/ion. Tlic equariolls for F i ' . and S v . following the above procedure. it can hc damped hy a hitroinerti. 6 C: callnot he obtained as Th indicated. and if we assitme error flec instrurncnth. These components . arc commonly callcd tlic Irvc4 ~ . c vertical velocity error equation. .Ire :is follows [solution o f ~ ( 1 for Lhc platform drift]: ) .240  CHAPTER 5  Error Analysis . where only horizontal navigation is desired.~hovc equations can bc simplified. Thus.rl loop to atrect a Ieasonehle solution for 6 V : . the . However. the cquations hzcomc .0 .
with resonant frequency the familiar Schuler frequency. 5. is the accelerometer bias error. the navigation system errors are defined as the difference between computed values and true values. encompassing the navigation parameters. The Pinson model is based on velocity and craft rate vector equations which may he evaluated in any coordinate system. That is. and neglecting the Coriolis term.. The principal navigation error parameters are vehicle position. and noninertial external measurement sensors. giving rise to the wellknown cosh instability in the vertical channel. General INS Error Equations 24 1 Finally. an error model is required. the Pinson error model is proh . these equations are as follows: GVT= v: .87~)can be simplified to three uncoupled equations as follows [making use of Eq.3. 8 ) ] : where V(. GENERAL I N S ERROR EOUATIONS In order to determine how the computed position and velocity deviate from the true (or ideal) position and velocity. while the first two equations have two poles on the imaginary axis and therefore act as undamped oscillators. are computed direction cosine elements and the CT are ideal direction cosines.87a)(4. Inertial platform (offlevel) tilt is also of interest in beam pointing or tracking applications.. for time periods short compared to the earth rate. inertial instruments. (4. Because of its simplicity. The last equation has a pole in the righthand plane. where the subscript c denotes computed values and T denotes the true or error free values.3.9 h). Eqs.. the navigation direction cosine errors are defined as SC=c. m.CT where the C.v. Expressed in true coordinates. l / Q (about 3. ( 5 . velocity. A commonly used error model for the navigation parameters associated with inertial systems is the Pinson model. discussed in the previous section. Similarly.5. and heading..
in inertial navigation system can he derived in the form of . to a I. it is assumed that the error sources arc r i ~ n d o min nature.3 we noted that inertial navigation syslcln mechanirations gener.imc. regardless o f the viiriablcs. lonsitude. Consequently. and Iefercncc velocity crror. I n Scction 4. a srni~llchange in . whilc Ihc (:m. the In will denote scts of numhers discussion that follows.I set o f lirstorder linear ditl'crcntial equations. spaccst:rhle. and strapdown systems. and attitude errors thenmsclvcs.~rgeextent.rnges in thc radius ell curvature of the earth. w is a white. wander azimuth. gravity anomalies.trackcr. The crror propagation equations for . since generally one is interested in earthreferc~iccd quantities. Britting [ I ] has shown that Ihe hasic error difi'crcntii~lc q u i ~ t i ~ ~ n s for any INS may he written in standard coordinates.~tcsthat represent the various crror sources driving the system such as gyroscope drift rate.rlrix.Thc Fmatrix defines the dynanmical coupling among the position. As a result. whereby the earth's s h . t'urthcrnmore. refcrcncc ellipsoid). completely independent o f system mechaniz:ltion. t l ~ choniugcncous (unfrrrccd) portion el' lhcsc difircntial equations is identical li)r any erhitraiy contigurcd tcrlcslrial INS. the standard li~lm these equations is [7] of x ( ) = F ( x ) + G ( ) u ( +( 1 ) . if used. M.~ccnotation.7.3.rhle). Consequently. states in thc altitudc and damping filters.lerolneter outputs arc nbui~llyeither transl'ormcd to thc localle\. the manner in which n:ivigation syhtern elrors arc defined is basic to an error dynamics formuli~tion.. I I ~ is ohlalc spheroid (i. In general. or the accelerometer outputs are integrated in the inertial ft.~cct.i~lsforn?ed opcnloop configuration to yield latitude. Position Error Equations Accurate navigation systems niust compelisate fi>r thc ch. and thcn t~. in and s o on.. ~ p c approximated as . Section 5. x(0) given (5. 5. INS crror propagation is.24) where x is the state vector. veloc~t). The state vector x consists of position and vclocily crrors coordinati7cd in thc inertial kame.~lllyfill1 intc categories of locallevel.242 CHAPTER 5 . Using state sp. velocity. undclphysical inechanililtion o r intcrnal navigatiol~ ccrtain vcry broad assumptions. and st. Error Analvsjs ably best s u ~ t e d system mechanizations in which the anglc nmc:tsulcments to itre made with a stal. the . platfor111 tilt. the symbol 1 5 obtained by diferencing thc computed vi~lues computer coordinates \vith in the truc values (in ideal coordinatcs). There arc three crror anglc scts that niust hc dctined in order to study error propagatiori in inertial systems.reovcr.e.. defines rhc coupling hclwren the navigation parilnlclcr crrors and the inertial sensorh.el frame. Gaussian forcing function conipcnsating for approximations in F ( 0 : and u is the rateofcorrection vector duc to noninertial aiding (when i~vail.2 defines thcsc crror angleb.
defined to be positive if the estimate is larger *In many navigation systems. x is the true value. and 6 x is the error in the estimation. The equations governing geographic latitude* 4. above the reference ellipsoid are as follows: Latitude Longitude Equations (5.3. longitude. therefore. we will consider a northeastup (NEU) coordinate system. . and altitude are estimates (because of approximations made in these equations).General INS Error Equations 243 latitude is defined as the radius of curvature r of the path ds r= I4 d4 From Sectiorl 4.5. and altitude. and altitude h. the system should be mechanized so as to yield those outputs directly. the computed latitude. however. longitude.27) can he used by the inertial navigator to compute latitude. the radius of curvature is In the present discussion.25) (5.3. longitude h. The estimate of a state variable is commonly defined as where 2 is the output (estimation) from the INS. the radius of curvature in the northsouth direction is while in the eastwest direction. latitude and longitude are the desired outputs.
244 CHAPTER 5 Error Analysfs . sin 4 ii j ) ) 4 .261 He~icc.\.11 ) thc longitude elror rate is Using Eq. I fsin' ~ ~ 7fsin j cos 4 & i ) .33) 111 gener.  (il'll Ahsumc that [lie inertial navigator c o ~ n p ~ ~its estimate 1 of longitude hy tes . 3 3 1 is ncglectcd. / .. . The first thlcc terms illc recognized as hcing the true longitudc rate i. 611. 6 V s . (5. the squares and 01cn1ssproduct\ of 6 0 . from Eq. Equation (5.i.x .. Tlicn The variable uj.~nding trigonometric fi~nctions the 10 . can bc ncglectcd. ( 5 .il.33) can thcrclbre he urittcn as where t~gainsecondorder ternis have hccn iicglcctcd. . cos j ) K. integration of the same equation using csti~natcd vaiiahles a s required. . a n d 11'R. .. firstorder in 8j). tind exp.. 2 8 ) for i'. ( L' t 5 . &I. the ti~ilc dcrivati~.= ..) The estimate 111' longitude and the time derivative 11l"longitudc error arc a s lnllows: t'rom Eq. we ohtiliii A.. (5. Similarly.~ ..( h t 6 h ) Rtil ) I ( I < .in the true state.lt~on 1s f. tlrc linearized error cquation is . 81.ccrf thc elror in cstirn.. (5. Ui. y. hh. 6. ( N o t e that ill purc inertial navigation systems this varit~hleis zero. .is uscd in aided navigation systems and is the rate of clinngc of the indicated longitude due lo the adding equations.. Therefore. the tcl111including/'6j) in E q ( i .
3." coordinate system. General INS Error Equations 245 Making use of the equations for p ~ p. z ) be the vehicle's locallevel geographic. "g.2. (5. Y. Velocity Error Equations In order to derive the inertial navigation system velocity error equations.5. R4. Finally. ~ p.39) where uh is the rate of correction of altitude due to the barometric altimeter or other altitude aiding source. from Eq.35) can be written in the form From Eq. t h e y axis with the north direction. let the (X.. and the z axis up (or vertical). .25) the latitude of the aircraft can be expressed approximately as Proceeding as in the case of the derivation for the longitude error.27). the reference frames must first be defined. . These coordinate systems are illustrated in Fig. (5. 52. Let (x. As in the previous section.3. (5. Furthermore. Eq. the differential equation for the latitude error assumes the form where urnis used in the case of aided inertial navigation systems. which is located at or near the surface of the earth. The equations of motion simplify for this ECI coordinate frame in the sense that no additional Coriolis crossproduct terms normally associated with a moving coordinate frame need be considered. and RX from Section 4.3. this is a northeastup (NEU) triad. 5. the error in the indicated altitude is Sh=6vU+uh (5. where the x axis is identified with the east direction. Y ) axes define the equatorial plane. this coordinate system is known as earthcentered inertial (ECI) (having an origin that is at the center of the earth and that is motionless with respect to the fixed stars). as we noted in Chapter 2. 2 ) triad be inertially fixed with the Z axis in the polar direction and the (X. y.
1 .~ CHAPTER 5  .t) ( 4 . / I . i. Since l l i c incrlial a n g u l t ~ rr.  I(.' =.~rillg ciil111. ib and CI < I t2 ( I : hincc 12. . ' .ialysis R o i  = vehicle posttlon vector geographc latitude celest\al langltude J.11011: e ~t (1 elll the pl.sporlds 1 0 c.R .1): V. .fl.?5.lst ( I ) .platiorni) can hc \ v ~ .~tc o f thc fcofr.  1.246 ~.q I4.llrd ihc 1 axis u p IU):A . (530:l) 1i.~tiornm( \ . ( + 2 +((> ~ t X j2 ' .1i (4. t l i r t l tllc vchiclc ~ e l o c i l ) ~ v i l hmspcct 1 0 llic rl)t. .A. l .1 u . 1 V t . :rxis rlorlll (N).IXL. 1 1 . I ..iris u?rrc.'. i l t c ~ i as w p + l L .t 2<2\)l. ! . . t It>. ! 2L2..z) . Tllc gcnelalired 11:1vigictiorl q ~ r n l i ( ~ lx p r ~ s s c ill c o ~ i ~ p ~ t i f01. 1 and I'! . v I x.) .~l~>. v.t ~ g 2 . : I are the compotienlh 0 1 the specific iorce. 2 5 ~ i)n tllc t i ~ r n i C. c ~ p r c s s c dill the local geographic cor>rii~liatcs.111 . Ihc. ? < l .~pliic i m m c (PI.. . + tthcrc tlre .is lollows (scc Section 4. i . It.v .s .25~) 1 I. 0 a). Error A. 52.II (540~) \in 41. ) V .S can he \rritlcn .25hj (4. call he w r i t t c l ~flom I'(i\~ (425. :=CL ci.40h) ( ( 1 1t 2 )' . l ) +x. rlt (when 1 = 0..~ ~ ( m <?>If' ! f N  (I!) +< I .
A . the veloc~tyerror can be written as ~v~=SAF+S~~(SON+SRN)V. (5.42) yhere the error in the specific force is the driving term and is given by SAt = A .6h Combining these results.3.General INS Error Equations 247 From the above discussion.41) T o a firstorder approximation. The error in the east velocity can be obtained from Eq.40a).40h) as . (5. we can now develop the velocity error equations. while (5.5. S ~ E VE= VE (5. +(6w:+6Rz)VN+(wz+Rz)6VN+u. the resulting velocity error differential equation is [3] Following the procedure outlined above for the derivative of 6 &.(~N+RN) 6V. The time derivative of the east velocity error is A . . and after some simplification. (5.43) 6wN+ 6RN= 6I$(2R sin I$) . and making use of the expressions 6AN=A^N~N the differential equation for the computed north velocity error is obtained from Eq.
4 0 ~ ) thc linealized diffcrcntial equation k)r the erlor.il velocity channel is h . .54~1) ?iAN!l~. ( 2 0 .54h) . CHAPTER 5 .the specilic forcc error is '.4.50) and (5. + p.t! + (.50) Recognizing that the specific force error in pli~tk)rmcooldiliates is defined by ..53) call he writtell i n componerit ibrm . ) 6 V . ) . 1 i lig.I!'= + &'.248  . fiom Eq.t+8c)c'f...% 8Al3 I> 15... I'rom the above discussion.48) A where again thc spccitic force errot. the attitudc crror may be tteated as a vector Y .A + ( . I lowcvcr. . The error in transforming from the accclerornctcr outpill to the geographic frame is termcd the '+attitudeerror" or il1crti...1~. !11.52) whcre secondorder efFects habe been iieglcctcd. = ~ !1lv.ity computation are necdcd.4 t l ~ ! ~ .I>. since the spccitic l i ~ r c c measured by a nonorthogonal set of itistrurnetits. Co~lscqucntly. ' p . r b (5.=A. l~~t + ~ ' . ~= (. Error Analysis Finally. [ .. (5. i 'The relationship between the coniputed 11ansformationand the truc transformation is [ I ] ( 1 . ~ 6 1..~. is the transforniation matrix is an estitnalc thal colitrihures to the specific force r o r T h e transforniation of thc spccilic lbrce from the platform to t l ~ c geographic frarnc i\ . Nest.t 11. .llfortn lirme.il systerli misalignment: since the angles invol\rcd arc small.!: /...' (5. ( 5 ..c'.48) results in 4&(1 ~ r .dl~ving fitnction is iiA.l. in the vertic.33) Eqllation (5.dl' (5.51 ) into Fiq. (5.rs follows: fiA.p + fi. T h c sken synrrnctric lrli~trixform o f ~ h attitude crror is c ? . K .~!' (5. (5. " a transtormation matrix C: korn the platform to the geographic frame g is Iequircd..2 p . i 6 . 1547) . we note that since the spccilic force is hcitig measured by the accelerometers in the pl.] (.51 1 substituting Eqs. (5.49) t+8s). (5.F . the crror telrns for the specific force iind grii\.(7C1lir ) 8+iP.) iiii I I 11.
53):. (5. are approximately zero everywhere.55a) Specifically.. the errors due to computing gravity arise mainly from two sources: (1) an imperfect model of the earth's gravitational field and (2) evaluating the gravity model at the estimated position rather than the true position.59) . . W . (5. consequently an error in altitude will cause an error 6g.57) Next.. For error modeling purposes. the error Sg. the gravity vector is assumed to act entirely in the radial direction.General INS Error Equations 249 where the terms wAE. A ~ vvA.48).28)] Sg~=kr ZE (5. the components of the gravity error can be written in the form [4] 5 3 3 Attitude Error Equations .. the horizontal components Sg. on the other hand. the errors in the transformation from the platform to the inertial frame are given by [lo] ?~=(IB~)C: (5.1 P (5. The differential equations governing the INS platform attitude errors can be developed by the use of transformation matrices between the inertial '5.represent the error due to truncation in Eq.5.2. and Sg.4.58) where 0 Pz PY (5. ~ N . (5. are by definition [see and Eq.3." geographic. is approximately (2g/Ro)Sh. The final step in the development of the navigation error equations is the attitude error. varies with changes in altitude. This transformation can be divided into the transformation from the platform to the inertial frame and the transformation from the inertial to the geographic frame as follows: @= i. The transformation matrix from the platform to the geographic frame is given by Eq. Therefore.fi.SAP. that is. BE. Thus. and platform reference frames. The vertical component of gravity. The errors in computed gravity 6 g ~S. Sg. and as discussed in Chapter 2. wg= CC:. From Section 4.
250
.
CHAPTER 5
.
Error Analysis

and in Lhc inertizll
111 geographrc
liarnc h?
Substiluting Eqs. (5.50). (SSX), and (5.60) inlo ELI. (5.57). neglecting secondorder terms and sirnplifyirig. u8c ohlain [I01
o r in vector limn
The time derivati\e of Eq. (5.63) i h
In order lo solvc li,r i.' and PC. wc titke tlrc lime dcrivati\cs of Eqs. (5.8) and ( 5 6 0 i
C'i, :(I
~~
B ' ) ( ; ,  I?(';,
NF,
pi:
(1
(I.
SF(,.
(5.65) (5.66)
'The tirnc rate of change of 21 dilcctiol, cosir?c rnirtri is rcl;~tcdIo thc ;ingul:~r velocity mi~trixby [see ('hapter 4. llq. (4.50)]
In ordcr lo solvc lor b. thc time dcrivativc of the pl:~tfi>rm inerti:~larigul;~r to crror. ;ipply I'q. (5.67) t i ) Eq. ( 5 . 6 5 ) :
The illdic;~tedpl;~tformangul;~rvclocily it/;, is detitrcd its
\\,hcrc 6R,,, is the plattorm angul;rr lelocity crror and u!: is thc :tlignmcnl correction rate. Substituting Eqs. (5.58) arrd (1.70) into Eq. (5.(111) and sol\itig li,r H' yields
W = ( ' ; > ( i i I x ; . u!iJ(':'
((71)
5.3. General INS Error Equations
251
Writing Eq. (5.71) in column vector form, we obtain In order to write the derivative of $ in the geographic frame, we apply the theorem of Coriolis in matrix form to
Substituting Eq. (5.73) into Eq. (5.72) and solving for
results in
Next, a solution to v', the time derivative of the inertial to geographic angular error, needs to be derived. First, an alternative form of Eq. (5.67) can be written
Applying Eq. (5.75) to Eq. (5.66) results in [lo]
Now, define the error in the computed geographic angular velocity as
fii =
+ &Ofg
(5.77)
Substituting Eqs. (5.60) and (5.77) into Eq. (5.76) and solving for N", neglecting secondorder terms, gives $ p = ~ g a s  R ~ N L + S ~ ~ B 'z IL ~g (5.78) Again, writing Eq. (5.78) in column vector form,
vg = n t v g+ 60;
(5.79)
Substituting Eqs. (5.74) and (5.79) into Eq. (5.64), we have
+
= nfgvg+ GW:
 O&flg+ C;(GWP~u) ;
+
(5.80)
Using Eq. (5.63). this can he written as
+a:8vgswe+W + :
where
+ u:,
(5.81) (5.82)
w t is the vector
that accounts for gyroscope errors and is given by
w t = CE &my,
Expanding Eq. (5.81) and writing the component forms results in
252
CHAPTER 5
.
Error Arialysis
In order to res!ilvc &a,,, first wrilc tlleconlponenls of Ihe;~rrgul;~r we vclr>cit) in the geographic fiarlx w with respect to inerti;~lbp;lce i ~ e e Fqb. (5.84'1) (5.84c)l [4] :
ill,, =
cb
(S.S4a) (5.84h) (5.84~)
tol,=
(a+ cos J, L)
u ~ ~  ( Q + j . ) h i 41 l ~
Using 'q. ( 5 . 2 8 ) . simplifying. and ncglecling higher01dcr tcims. we can write lhc elI(11eqo:tlions f c ~ r Eqs. ( 5 . 8 4 ~ ) . 5 8 4 ~a s tollows: 1 )
Finally, using Ecls. 15.26) and (5.39). and thc cqui~tions p , . (1,. p I'roni i'or Scctio~i 4.3. \ye can write thc linearized platfhrrii crror Ecls. (5.S3a) ( F X i c ) in the form
liqut~ti~~ns (5.30). ( 5 . 3 8 ) . (5.39). (5.45). (5.46). 15.47). and (5.Xha) (5.Xhc) reprebent the linearized I N S elror equation\. 'Tllesc cq~ialion\ can hc placcil in t t ~ c standard fillni
whcre the slalc vector r collsists
x
~ 1 1 thc '
\arious errors s11ct1lliill
$1,
6
I
'
8 % 8 1
rli,
g i ] '
The matrix F ( r ) is the system iiyliamic.; ~ n a t r i x :w is a whitc. <;aussian forcing functii>n compensating fol ;~pprouin~:itions madc in deriving the elror equations; and u is the r a t ~ ~  o t '  ~ o r r c ~~ iecc tio of the INS errors froln t > ~r any noninertial aiding equations. when the syclcni is i~nplem~.nted lhc in aided conliguratiot1. Consider ]low a slmplc hori7.!>nt:il navig;~tionex;rrnplc [as in i:q (5.22)1 operating in the puru (uiiaided) 1ncrti:ll mo(le. F~urthcr
5.3. General INS Error Equations
253
FIGURE 53
Locally level coordinate Frame.
more, a locally level northeastdown (NED) coordinate frame as illustrated in Fig. 53 is assumed. The aircraft inertial navigation system error equations are as follows: 6i=6Vx S j = 6 V,, + 6x(h sin 4)  6h(d, tan +) 6
vx
=6
~
~ V,(Q + i ) sin 2 6
+  6xi(2R cos2+ + i )
+ g~
~ v ~ = S A . + S V , ( ~ Q +i~ )+ + 6 ~ & ( 2 R c o s + + ~ s e c + ) s n +S~,&tan+g~,+g~

CHAPTER 5
.
Error Airalysis ~. .
I
ir  \chicle longitrlde
lat~trldc (dcpenil\ OII llighl p : ~ l h l +=vehicle 1;ilitudc ratc (positl\e 111 nortliwar<l d i r c c t i o l ~ ) h = vchiclc longitude ratc ( p o ~ i t i v c c a \ ~ \ v i ~ r dr c c t i o ~ r i ill Ji <2 earth's r;~lcof rot;llioli fi = accelel lion duc ti) gra\ it! R ~  ; ~ ~ i i ;distance f l . o l ~the c a r t l i ' i cclit~.: t u 1he aircrall. rl ~
4 operating
Inputs
[ i r ~ p u t o r c i l ~ piruictions i I N S c r r < , \ o i i r i c \ ) l : f ~
6.1 6.4
I
v accelelomclcr error
Y
= 1 .  i ~ c c c l c r o ~ i C I e~t C ~~ ~ ~ ~ I

I, :
gyro d r i f l rate gylo dril? rate I : . gyro d r i f rate ; = v cIi;lnncl vcltic:~ldcllcctii>~i i )  ~ v c l i i ~ ~ n i\ ~ r t i c : ~ l el dellec11011
I:~ 
_
.
Outputs
c h a n n e l p<)sition (1;ltitudc) error (also d c i ~ o t c d i ,541 c h i ~ l ~ np o s i t i o ~ ( I o i ~ g i t t ~ dc rir o l (also dcirotcd iii. I el i c ( n o r t h ) velocity elros 6 I,',v 8 1, . (c;lsl) vclocit!, c r s o l ~ il~,=plattiorm l i l t ahout the \ (no]111)axis = p I a l k ) r m tilt :lhout the I (c;l\l) axis 111=a7in1~1tli elror (mcasuscd clocknise flom niir.tlii
=
Y
.~
4 s another cxample. let us conriclel ;II~i r c ~ ; ~ (lying along a grcat circlc. ;i fi Iyor Rights along a grcat circle. the l i c a d i ~ ~ g ~ : ~ n ythrougli(>ut the nigh1 cl s (cxccpt i n north ; ~ n d south Rights). T i i c coordin;~tefl;lmc chose11 for lh15 enarnplc IS ; Iolatitig. w;~ndcl ;~/iniuth. Ioci~llevelrianic. \+it11 tllc I ~isik 1 I pointing n o r t h and the I , :lais wcsl ;!I 1 0 TIIIIS. I , ~ l i j r ; l)O Ire;~~ii!ig. 1 , = I' t i 7 hc;idil~g. and 1 ' 0 ;I[ /(I. z\g;~ir~. 111 t!le [irc~i<lcl\ CIS cxalnplc. \vc w i l l consider only Roli/.ont;~l11;rvig;11ion.'The p l a t f o r n ~ 1nisillig11I term I indicalcs h o ~the ditlclcncc i n 1ic;iding (cast \s. west I causes : ' I clifli.rcncc i n n ; ~ v ~ g a t i opcrfi)rrnancc. T l i c ,~ng:~l;~r n veloc~t! of t l ~ c c o g r i ~ p l ~ i c g i'ramc 01 ill irlcrti;~lspi~ccis given ill colnpi,ncilt li,lmi ,I\ Follo\vs:
~
w l ~ c r cS? is the angular velocity o l (hi. c : ~ r t l i .$ I\ t l ~ c gcogrnpllic l a l i t ~ ~ d e . is the di\tancc From the centel <!Ic;irtIi 10 the vcliiclc. ( F o r all the i ~ l l i t r l d cI i ~ h o ~ c rcficrcncc ellipsoid. t!lz c o r ~ a l u r c thc cart11 11ii1s1 / tllc c,t' be ;~ccounlcdfor. so that i<=K,l, tlr iol cast wcsl ; ~ n dRI<, i1 I'oI~ 1 IIOI~II s<,uth directions. rckpcctivcl!.) I:rorn EL!. 15 14) in: c:ln ivritc the \!$tcl~r
;III~ R
5.3.General INS Error Equations
255
dynamics matrix F as follows:
0 j l 0 ) 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0              1  _ _      glR 0 1 0 2Rz I 0 Az A, F= 0 g/R  n 2 . 0 A. 0 A ,        1        l   l       I I 0 a; o , I I 0 I O , I w , 0 o, I 0. 0 I
0

6x Sy
6V. 6V,
yr. yr, yr.
Position Position Velocity Velocity Platform misalignment
,
I
From the Fmatrix, we note that
$ ;
= ~ " W O,Wy X
& ,
T o this expression, the azimuth gyroscope drift must be added:
North
qz= o,l+lr o,yfy &; +
where
a,=(I/R)V,+R,=p,+R, wy=(l/R)V,+I;L,=p,v+Ry R, = R cos cos a R,=Rcos+sinu
+
Y Platform axes ( x , y , z )
256
CHAPTER 5
.
Error Analysis
In thcsc ecluations, the (1 valucs are thecrali rates ( I ' R ) and lr is thc uander azimuth angle measured positivc cl<~ckwisc from north. Thc complete cqua lion for !if is therefore
Since I',z0 and C2, z0,this equatiorr reduccs 10
Now, in (>Ider compare fol the cast wesl ;rfimutl~ to riltc. we s ~ ~ b ~ I i ltllc c u( respective velocities as tbllows:
Therefore. caking thc difirence
which indicates that the ratcs of change of tllc a7imuth rnisalignmcnl d i l k r by thc factor 2( V I R j v , . Furthermore. Lhis result indicates that lhc platform azimuth crror grows fiister when flying west. T o get a fecling for the crror magnitude, consider ;rn aircraft Hying at 440 hnclts. The value of the ~,plattorrn rv, after (1 mi11 of Dopplcr levcling is approximately 0.01X lilt (01 1 iirc~nin). Therefore, lhe ditkrencc in platli~rmdrifts is applowirnatcl!. 0.0046 dcg. 11. Some inertial system designers use ;I dilrcrent convcnlion to dcsignalc the earth axes. Specifically, thc X axis is t;lkcn to he dircctcd along the carth's polar axis. and thc ( Y . %) axes in Lhc equ;itori;~l plane, with the L axis in the Greenwich Meridian plane. The direction coines hetwcen the earth .Y
5.3.General INS Error Equations
257
axis and the platform (x,y, z) axes are given by CXx cos 4 cos a =
CX,. c o s 4 sin a =
Cfi=sin
4
Therefore, the north and east components of the position error can be expressed in terms of the platform x and y components of the error as follows:
The wanderazimuth angle error, in terms of the error in position, is given by
A a =  A 1 sin 4
Also A E = R c o s + . Ah or Ah=AE R cos 41
Making use of these relations, and substituting for AE=AxsinaAycosa we obtain tan 4 Aa=(Axsinu+Aycosa) R A more comprehensive example will now be discussed. Consider a global positioning system (GPS)aided inertial navigation system (INS). (The INS/ GPS integration and/or aiding is discussed in detail in Section 6.2.5.6). As in the previous development of the error equations, the present error analysis will be based on a set of linearized INS and GPS error equations. No specific INS accuracy and/or performance is proposed for this general example. The accuracy and error budget allocation will depend, to a large extent, on the intended use and mission requirements. Furthermore, the INS modeled in this example is a locallevel, NEU, wanderazimuth system, as illustrated in Fig. 54.
258
CHAPTER 5
.
Error Analysis
Earths
axls
of (
~
rotation
I
~
3 n,,
v
cos ,x
V>c o i i r
F I G U R E 54
( ' ~ , ~ t c l i ~>~S;I ~ ~ Ic 1'0s l h ~ c\,~!np!c. ) Ct I .
v i
(iyroscopcs and ;~ccclcrometersarc mounted on ;I gimbaled, st;~bilized pl:ltfbrrn. The plattorm is kept aligned to tlrc wander azimuth tiamc, dclined as a locallevel fiamc with the . I ; I I I ~ :~xcsdisplaced from the ~ 1 s and t !north axes by the wander a ~ i r n u t h angle by 21 pair of Idegreeofl'rccdom gyroscopes. Three accelcrometcrs measurc thc specific lijrce in the Y . I . . and z directions (components o f the wander ; ~ ~ i m u tf'r;llnc). A billoincrtial h ;~ltimrtevis also i~scdto aid tlrc INS by boundi~igtllc inherently unst;lblc INS crrors in the vcrtical c11;111nel. Morco\cr. thc INS rnodclcd bas a position
,.
5.3.General INS
Error Equations
259
error growth of approximately 1.852 km/h due to Schuler and 24h mode effects, instrument errors (i.e., instrument biases, drifts, misalignments, and scale factor errors), and environmental errors such as gravity uncertainty and variations in pressure. Consequently, a 54state system error model (or "truth model") will be developed in the form of a stochastic, linear, vector differential equation as given by
where
x(t) =the 54state vector (54 x 1) F(t) = the system dynamics matrix (54 x 54) G(t) = input matrix (54 x 12) w(t) =vector of white noise forcing functions (12 x 1)
In Eq. (5.87), x(t) represents a set of 54 firstorder linear differential equations, which model the errors and error sources in the GPSaided INS. The error equations, Eqs. (5.36). (5.38), (5.39), (5.45)(5.47), and (5.86a)(5.86c), will be used in a slightly modified form to account for the baroinertial altimeter loop, gyroscope, and accelerometer errors. For convenience, these error equations are summarized below. As before, these equations are expressed relative to the north, east, and up frames [9] :
+ (PNPE+ PNKJah
 (pr tan
I $
+ K.)
6 VE+ (03; +a,) 6 VN
$== a N+ P N tan (
4)  (p,/R)
Sh + (tan 4l'R) S VE+ W N W E
260 II./I(~~>
. 
CHAPTER 5

Error Analysis
=pl:~tform misalignment angles acceleronieter errors &or .l, = g y r o s c o p e errors ii~i=cslimated vcrlical acceleration elror in altitude channel L = longitude 9= geographic latitude r i = wander ;rzimuth angle f ; , = m c a s u r e d specific ~ r ins wander a7imuth coordinate:, p,,,.co~npone~itsofgr:~vitywander azimuth coordinates in ir,h,,, INS and baroincrtial ;iltin~eterindicated altiludes K , K 2 , K , = gains in the d a ~ n p i n p loop on the INS vertical channcl 11,,, = components of carth angular velocily in wander azimuth coordinates R, =radius o f curvature of the carth reference ellipsoid in east west direction R = radius o f culvature of the e ; ~ r t h , reference ellipstlid in north south direction V,, :east and norlh velncities 1' V V=v % . ,. clocity in wander azimuth coordinates 1 0 , . or, . ah =angular velocity of wander alimuth framc wit11 respect 10 incrlial sp:lce I,,.= V\ cos (L I", sin ( 1 C; = V, sin u + V , cos u h  1 ' tan 0 , R E.= V,:;(R,+/r) cos J, p,.  VN ' ( R , )t 11)
!~I,:.N.
.
.

,
ON
~~~
IP.,.,'(Rj.+/l)
pu lan $ K~ V~ I< ~,
(7 =

Thc 54state v;iri;ihles are summarized in Table 51. Thc systcm dynaniics matrix F ( t ) is repr~.scntcdby Figs. 55 51 I. Tahlc 52 gives the element:, appairing in Fig. 56. Before an altempt ;it system simulntion is made, the inertial system analyst o r dcsigncr lnust specify the initial conditions ;ind sta~isticsfor thc state variahles. In addition l o the basic error equations. error equations cm:~natingfrom accclcrorneler and gyroscope errors, gravity uncert:rinties, GPS rcccivcr errors. and baroinertiol altimeter crrors arc dclivcd. Tllcsc crror:, arc inodeled ah random constants, r:indorn w ~ l k s ;. ~ n d firstorder Markov processes. A random conrl;int is nlodeled a s the output ul' an integrator with zcrc inpul and ;In initial condition that has a zcr~1mean and variancc P i , Thc modcl is suitahlc for an instru~nenlhias 1 h n 1
5.3.General INS Error Eqoafions TABLE 51 Error Model State Variables
State variable Basic inertial navigation errors 1. 6h Error in east longitude 2. 6+ Error in north latitude 3. Sh Error in altitude 4. 6 V Error in east velocity , 5. SV, Error in north velocity 6. 6V: Error in vertical velocity 7. yr, East attitude error 8. ry, North attitude error 9. ry, Vertical attitude error Baroinertial altimeter error 10. e,, Altimeter scale factor error Vertical channel error variable I I . 8a Vertical acceleration error variable in altitude channel Clock errors 12. 61. User clock phase error 13. 6ib. User clock frequency error gInsensitive gyro drifts 14. DXr Xgyro drift rate 15. DY, Ygyro drift rate 16. DZr Zgyro drift rate gSensitive gyro drift 17. DX, Xgyro input axis gsensitivity 18. DX,Xgyro spin axis gsensitivity 19. DY, Ygyro input axis gsensitivity 20. DY, Ygyro spin axis gsensitivity 21. DZ, Zgyro input axis gsensitivity 22. DZ, %gyro s. i n psensitivity ~ axis .
~
261
Stste variable 32. YG, Ygyro input axis misalignment about 2 33. ZG, Zgyro input axis misalignment about X 34. ZG, Zgyro input axis misalignment about Y Accelerometer biases 35. AB, Xaccelerometer bias 36. AB, Yaccelerometer bias 37. AB, Zaccelerometer bias Accelerometer scale factor errors 38. ASF, Xaccelerometer scale factor error 39. ASF, Yaccelerometer scale factor error 40. ASF, Zaccelerometer scale factor error Accelerometer input axis misalignments 41. 0," Xaccelerometer input axis misalignment about Y 42. OZz Xaccelerometer input axis misalignment about Z t 43. O., Yaccelerometer i n ~ u axis misalignment about X 44. O,, Yaccelerometer input axis misalignment about Z 45. a:, Zaccelerometer input axis misalignment about X 46. 'azv Zaccelerometer input axis misalignment about Y
3..
g'Sensitive 23. DX,, 24. DY, 25. DZ,,
gyro drift coefficients Xgyro spininput g2sensitivity Ygyro spininput g2sensitivity Zgyro spininput g2sensitivity
Baroinertial altimeter errors 47, em Error due t o variation in altitude of a constantpressure surface Gravity uncertainties 48. Sgr East deflection of gravity 49. 6gN North deflection of gravity 50. 6gz gravity anomaly Clock errors 51. St,. Clock aglng bias 52. Ft,, Clock r a n d m frequency bias (r, is the correlation lime) Additional baroinertial altimeter errors 53. C, Coefficient of static pressure . measurements 54. rb Altimeter lag
Gyro scale factor errors 26. GSF. Xgyro scale factor error 27. GSF, Ygyro scale factor error 28. GSF, Zgyro scale factor error Gyro input axis misalignments 29. XG, Xgyro input axis misalignment about Y 30. XG, Xgyro input axis misalignment about Z 31. YG, Ygyro input axis misalignment about X
262

~
.
~~
~~
~
. .~~. .
CHAPTER 5
~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
.
Error A,ialysis
I1
I1 ll
,
I
!I
I,,,
I.,. 11
I,,,
I1
ll
F , ~
0
I1
I1
I
0
I1
11
F I G U R E 55
S>>IC,I, ,l>,,i,,llich
,ll,Llr,~. F!,]
normally chi~npcsc;~chlimc tllc inslrumcnc is iori~cclon. hut r c n ~ a i ~ wsl i i slant \bliilc thc ii~strc~rnent turned 011. Tlie r;~ndomwalk mollel is tlrc is oUrpLll o f ~ I I I i l ~ t c g x ~ t odrive11 I>? 7cromei11l. white. G:inssi;~n nolse. r Randomwalk modcls are uscful li>r crrc>rs that grc?\v without hound c,r chilngc slou,ly will1 time. The tirstorder Mn~ko\modcl is a tirstordcr Iirg driven by ;I zcromean white (;;lussian noisc. Tllc firstorder Malkov model is used to rcprcscnt ewpone~iti;~lly tinle correlated noises (i.c.. hand limited
iir
c&$
161,
i I>, R cus I , I<
&I,
4
I)
I
5
.,
ri1
' , 17% !,
'I'
0
,
I!
Ol,
1
2
11
7 S
I/
4)
ti,
.I .
,
I.
I,,,
l'i
I<
I>, I>\
!I
Ai
I< I?
F I G U R E 56
I : , , . i,l>pcr <) C Y p a ~ l j l ~ i01 F o l . m
5.3.General INS Enor Equations
263
TABLE 52
Notation Used in Fig. 56
~ , = ~ c o s + nz=nsin 4 p,=VNiR PN = V F ~ R P== VE tan +!R WF = PE o,=p,+Ru w;=p; + n ; K = V=/R : A,,=Z(n,V,R:V.)+p,V,/cos'b A,,= p , p PNK: ~ A = p L t a n 4K: A,i=2nNVEp,YElcos2 A,,=p,p,p~K. ~ai=Zg!R(pk+p:) A,,=o*p, t a n $
} Components of earth rate
I
Components of angular velocity of E respect to earth
N
z frame with frame with
I
Components of angular velocity of E  N  i respect to inertial space
glnaensilivc gyro drifts 14 15 16
17
18
gSensitive gyro drifts 19 20
21
22
FIGURE 57
F , , partitions of ginsensitive and Xsensitive gyro error state variables.
.
x2Sensitive gyro drifts 23 24 25
Gyro scale fdctor errors 26 27 28
Gyro input axis misalignments 29
30
31
32
33
34
FIGURE 58
F,,, partition ofg2sensitive, gyro scale factor, and gyro input axis misalignment state variables.
264
CHAPTER 5
.
Error Analysfs
FIGURE 59
F , . p i ~ r l ~ i i o ~ l ' i i c c e l e r ~ ~ m c l c r st;ttc io error
i'il~;lhli.r
c,,,
I7
(~;,avily ~,,,c~rt:,,r,l,c\ 4s 1') il!
('.,, il
I> 54
0.
1
i
/
6
7 10 II
I! I1 A: 11,.
,
1 1 I 1 1 ll
I!
!I
I!
0
I!
I
I!
0 3 ,
3
I!
I
ti,
Iriic
n,
I
rii
,a
A .
1'ichlcli speed: I = v c r t ~ c . t li c l ~ c i l )
F I G U R E 510 I . , , .tnd F , ~ pdilili08l ~ l ' g l i i ? ~ I > I ~ c c ~ I ~ ~ I I > I )~ r , ~ l ~ l c r t i.illlmeler c ~ i i SI:~IC, . L anil .~ddcllcln;il h , ol ~r
ii~rlichlcs
5.3.General INS Error Equations
265
errors). All modeled errors are assumed to be independent with initial covariance given by
where X, is the initial condition of the ith truth model state at t,,. The accelerometer errors modeled in the truth model are accelerometer input axis misalignment, biases, and scale factor errors. Accelerometer misalignment can be obtained by considering the following diagram. The angle OX7
measured specific force, ? P
 7
X
actual specific force, f x P Accelerometer Misalignment
(which is a rotation of the x accelerometer about the z axis) is a smallangle misalignment induced when the accelerometer is mounted on the platform. In essence, there are six misalignment angles that cause the accelerometer measurement e r r o r j as shown by the matrix
0
e,,,
Ox,
(5.99~) where
Each misalignment angle is modeled as a random constant. Next, accelerometer bias induces a constant specific force measurement error, which can be adequately modeled by a random walk. Scale factor errors induce a measurement error when a measured voltage is translated into a specific force reading. The scale factor is assumed to be linear over the range of the acceleron~eter and is modeled as a random constant. Gyroscope errors modeled include gyroscope drift (ginsensitive, gsensitive, and $sensitive), scale factor errors, and input axis misalignments. Gyroscope drift consists of a ginsensitive random component that exhibits growth in time. It is modeled by a random walk and is one of the most significant error sources. The gsensitive gyroscope drifts, on the other hand, induce a constant drift proportional to the specific force in each gyroscope.
9. on the other hand. 8. General INS Error Equations 267 judgment to adjust individual budget allocations until a satisfactory error budget is obtained. east.13 depicts an approximate breakdown of the error contribution to INS performance due to the inertial sensors. the total system errors can be found by taking the root sum square (RSS) of all contributions to the system's performance. Error covariance analysis is a commonly used tool for determining the design requirements of inertial sensor systems. 3. the error sources inherent to an inertial navigation system can be thought to consist of the following errors: 1. 4. these performance requirements are usually specified . that is. Error budgeting. 3.5. it is a method of estimating the overall system performance as a function of the performance of subsystems and components that contribute to system errors.3. and radial components) Ground track angle error True heading angle error Drift angle error Azimuth error Magnetic variation error 5. 2. if the error sources are uncorrelated. More specifically. 7. 6. requires solving the inverse problem. The navigation accuracy performance can be represented by the following performance parameters: 1. 2. It should be noted here that an error budget is essentially a special case of sensitivity analysis whereby the inertial system designer determines from the outset the individual effects of a group of error sources. These errors must be identified by the system designer before a sensitivity error covariance analysis is carried out. 7. 8. the military services or the airlines).. finding an allocation of allowable errors (error budget) among the subsystems. In addition. and radial components) Velocity error (north. In inertial navigation and guidance systems. Furthermore. Initial condition errors Gyroscope drift rates Accelerometer errors Platform misalignments Position and velocity errors Altitude reference (or indicated) errors Velocity reference errors Vertical deflections Gravity anomalies Figure 5.g. 5. 4. east. such that the system meets a set of performance criteria specified by the user (e. 6. Position CEP (circular error probable) Position error (north.
VI. M .<<. K 1ncrtiaI N.~' ~i .268 GYRO BIAS CHAPTER 5 . I led ) l. NCN Y o l k .I t i n i ~ i i\Vclcylnlcr~uien~c. I'JXi. (1 M. ('. 1. S .rnhei.~. i iind ('hui. P.kg. ~ r o i . .~~ ~ ~ ~ 1:. lluddlc. > . pp. 2. d c i('vnhidcl.i~. Kayloo. W ~ l c y .vii~rn\.iiii/ !Voui." I n t u r ~ melrics.S:. Sat. and t r ~ c d W (ed?.iiii/ioi~. e i York. ~l. 3. 1979.). ~ M . i962.: "lnertlsl N. 5 .>ci. ~~.in t:iltc~i n g Appliculiuna.. \4c<~. ( K . .~n./o. Oicgo. /<m r v c v o S~ l ~rc~ V o l X.~c.. i . SpiinpcrVcil. New York. ~ ~ Springer C c 1oircm.. . nonline~irities. n 0 1091. IT. in terms of statistical quantities such as the rootmcansquared ( R M S ) position 01. & a ~ c l c n ~ ~ c NCN l'rcs\./ 9. . niid ( i v i i r n i 01 I c r o i p i c < ' t ' ~ ~ i ~ . Pllm. c/~~~. G.condrs. loc.. pp. N ('lice. K . b i ~ l .vlgation Syslern f i r i . .?i. and rotation induccd clrors.St.. axis misalignment. 1973.< .<od +crn. Error Anaiysis   ACCELEROMETER SCALE FACTOR POSITION ERROR ALLOCATION GYRO RANDOM WALK ACCELEROMETER MISALIGNMENT FIGURE 513 Elror hmlgcls (scositlvil~znl. I<.illon S > s l c m h r u s Models. scale factor.utdu.virr.tlln. ( .1.velocity errors. I962 7 Mayhrck. .11gIcI . Ci. P. . 1'163. Rcrlirn Heidclhcrg N c \ '~1 1 .4~2/~/. i c d . Ac.ttion Scicncc\." ~ / ~ qr ~ P i . Siwris.N c u Y o r k ." i n C r t n i m i a n d Drnisrii~C ~ ~ i c t ~C r I ILcundc. 3 . IIICI~II:LI.~2ri.1. ~ w~ ii . ' I ' K ~ 0 1 ~ 7 "ray I I. .~5. 2nd cd. K.and t i i u n d y . Accrlernmcteu cwous: Bias.tttons ~nK. Ac. W~lc!. 4uioririi Vooifiiiior. and rotation induced errors. .del. C.~dcmlc P i c ~ r .. .W S .< J ~ V / ( ' o . 1.suiiori S~. ~ .: ''Nxvigatic>n.cr. K .#m. : /nr. 6hX 71:.(cd. 1971 .. / t c ~ ~ r i(.. I'IX7.~. scale filctor. ) . 8. rnis.tdemic I'ress. . Hritting. 293 179 4. > 7 ~ 1 ~ ~ r .. l i J W ~ d n a l l . .i/d R ~ ~ ~ . Vol 17. Yurk. ~ c ~~~ on</ />. N c i Yorh. REFERENCES I . t i ~ t l ~ I 7~ /~ ~ ~ r\n.>. M. ~ ~ i ~ o c c cl l ~ ~~ . 1'16'1 . M: / ~ ~ ~ ~ r i ~ ~ .tvig.t~vllill. gdependent clrors. Ie ~~~ ~~~r c~~~~.indc.f i .sr.llipnrncnt.\'<>I I. : l wood (:lifi\." ~ ~ S~ I I C ~ ~ i i z n ru~ ~ l ~ T ' .~c.. N I. T h e gyroscope and accelerometer crrors consist o f thc 1i)llowing crrors: Gyroscupr ervous: Bias.. crosscoupling.
and acceleration insensitive attitude data. velocity. One way of mitigating this growth and hounding the errors is to update the inertial system periodically with external position fixes. and (2) the INS's unique characteristics of selfcontained. the combination of INS velocity and CAD (central air data) airspeed can be used to warn the pilot of dangerous vertical windshear conditions during approach. More importantly. and CARP (computed air release point) is improved using INS data. This degradation is due. such as DME (distance measurement equipment) or TACAN (tactical air navigation). Inertial navigation systems exhibit position errors that tend to increase with time in an unbounded manner. Furthermore.1. the effect of position fixes is to reset or correct the position error in the inertial system . INTRODUCTION Modern commercial and military aircraft use inertial navigation systems principally for one of two reasons: (1) the INS's redundancy offers an economically viable alternative to the cost of human navigator crews on longrange transports. in part. INS data have been used successfully to provide velocity trend vectors and alongtrack acceleration to pilot's displays. to errors in the initialization of the inertial measurement unit and inertial sensor imperfections such as accelerometer bias and gyroscope drift. the INS drift angle and crosstrack velocity have proved useful in autonomous landing for reducing lateral touchdown dispersion caused by crosswind gusts and ILS (instrument landing system) beam degradation. Specifically. Accuracy of terminal area navigation and guidance using radio data.6. such as in the Boeing 747 and C5 (or C141). nonjammahle position.
Therefore.pcration the normal buildup of positioli errors duc to Scliulci. k usc one o r inore different sources of navigation infortnation integr.lke advantitge of size. (5.4lnin period (Schuler oscillatiotl) 2. Omeg:i. thc accurin acy (11' thc nitvigalion process cl he grcatly improved tllrough extelnal position and velocity rncasurcrncnts. and power savings.2 70  CHAPTER 6  .tted into . establishing aiicral't itttitude with respect to the local vcrtiial.~nnclclror with .16) ( 5 I X ) l that describe the bchavior of lhc systcin s t i ~ t c the ahscncc of updates reve. commonly using .. VOK 'IjME..lti 84.i proglarnmable multisensor display prosyhcessor to integrate data li.~tionaided(Navaid) systelns..om the navigation. as it will he discussed latrr. :i of sophisticated radar system a t severdl beam positions. thereby resulting in a n ordcr (>i magnitude improvcrncllt in perf'ol~manccover fief I unaic1t.ivig. position errors grow with time in the t'rcc incrtial mode. Therefore. ~. east. Diverging azimuth errors (in the north and cast coorclinates) utth . ~~ ~~ to the same level of accuracy inlielen1 in the position fixing technique. and other . This synergistic cfkct. For this rcason. aided navigation systems involve a n incrtial navigation system plus onc oi. . iri bclwcen position fixes. Kalman tiller integration of the inertial arid nonincrtiill navigation sensor inforn~.d) incrtial navigation. It is thcreli~rc nittural t o demand and expect that the INS data :ind that of the extertrnl aids bc combined in a n optilnal and eficient manner. weight. and down ( o r u p ) axes. thereby optimizing system pertirlniance.ora11. radar.display on a cornnlon display unit t:uttherm<~re. As nicntioncd i~bovc. Externally Aided lnerrial Navigation Systcins ~~. An enpollentially increasing vertical ch.I K a l m a ~ itiller soli\vare package residing in thc n~lvigalion computer.~vii)nics tclns fhl.oscillations can bc minitnizcd by making ~iie~rsure~nents rangetosea surfi~cewith. say..more additional nilvaid sensor suhsystell?~ such as CiPS.onsidcrthe navigation elrors alolig the north. systems.rls thi11 rliele should he the fcrllowing in bchavior : I .ill lhc discussed in t l ~ c next scctio~l. motivali(>n the for the integrated system approach is to t. TACAN.I illmin ilnlc co11Stallt. I. in ovcrwatcr ~. In order lo get a feeling of the free inertial mode behavior. and ILS to hci~tnd d:lrnp the navigation erlors. external sources of data arc in routinely used in air and marine rlavigatiori for inertial navigation systems operating for cxtctidcd periods of time (several hours). The various radio 11:tvigation aids \$.ltion of tllc sttlts cquali<)ns [Eqs. ..I single system.~tion ptovides a method ofutilizitig these updates in an optimal manner. is obtained through external measurements updating the inertial navigation systcni.. N. An integrated systetri coilfigulntion eliminates redondancy in display hardware by utilizitig . A n cxan1in. ~vlic~r nonillcrtial selisors arc available on boa]d the navigating vehicle. ~ l s o n m n :IS "hybrid'. the inertial system error grows at ti rate equal to the vclocity elt~r the system.~ . Ior instance.
Consequently. in 10s intervals). . the behavior of the vertical channel should increase linearly with time. while position errors grow according to the behavior discussed above. with the accumulation of attitude errors. so that the errors continue to grow. no measurement of attitude is available. However. there will be some spillover of the azimuth errors into the vertical channel and vice versa. As a result. The Schuler oscillations and resulting growth in azimuth and vertical channel arises from the double integration of accelerations sensed along wrong axes due to attitude errors. In the free inertial mode. As discussed in Chapter 5.g. is not directly affected by the barometric measurement. on the other hand. Note that the growth 84. Using the barometric measurement (e. there is crosscoupling of the azimuth with the vertical channel and vice versa. as attitude errors accumulate in the system.4 mln Xme (hours) FIGURE 61 Root sum square of north and east errors in the free inertial mode. Figure 61 depicts these errors in the free inertial mode. the crosscoupling of the azimuth with the vertical channel means that in the barometrically updated free inertial mode there will be a linear growth of errors with sinusoidal motion superimposed on all channels.. The azimuth channel. the north and east coordinates are expected to grow linearly in time with sinusoidal motion around that linear growth.
the scnsors are integrated via a mission computer.~tively small for slrort periods of time. L.tl sensor crrorh 2. 6.isted below arc the na\.rr ( M M R ) I Radio navigation aids: TACAN. TERC'OM.2.~tion systems involves thc f ~ ~ l l o u i n g : I . and in a jamming environment. since incrtial navigetion erlors sellously dcgradc over long periods of tirnc. and star hightinps) .IK. ~ I . and infolmation handling will increase the operator tasking. Loran.lutomatic navigation filnct~on will bccomc necessary Therefore.tda~[including mullimo~lc rad.1~ hostile tcrrain. As discussed in thc prcvi<)ussection. external sensor aiding is important for longrange miss~<lns. navigation systems lirust be capahlc of . Modeling extern.2 72 CHAPTER 6 Enternally Aided lriartial Navigation Systems will decrease in the down ( u p ) component because of the measurements in thal channel. sensor management. so that a fully . NAVAID SENSOR SUBSYSTEMS For several years now..4 nrin.~l rncilsurcments hecolnc available 4. Undcr these conditions. I)Mf7. Error propagation between updates 3. .~lnieasuremenl erlors 21s well as inerli. Position data K. GPS.pelating ovt. 61). Specilically. ~ d for I. T h e generation ol'a nominal ~nission( o r tra~jcctory)profile Consequently.llion involving several sensor subsystcms. V0R. ~ Im. c g ~ ('IPS. in order to achieve mission acculac) requirements. Fipurc 62 illustralcs a typical strapdown multiscnsor inavipation bystem. VOK.~tcd\vilh c ~ t c r n a l l y ilided inertial n.jvirids are classified in acc~rrdance with the INS updaling funcsources that will aid an tion they perform.~id scnsors that plovide position a ~ velocitv inform. the Schulcr frequency (sce Fig. Flyovcr.rtio~~ updating the INS. L . Updating ihc inertial systelir w11c11 cxtcrll. external i ~ ~ f o r ~ n a t i o n INS arc position and velocity data. after some o r a11 ground o r satellite navigation systems have hrcn disabled.TAC:AN. I'hc prohlenr associated wit11 studying navigation errors associ. aircraft operation. OI . FL. Oscillations can hc noted at 84. In such a multisensor navigation system. and J T l D S RelNav l'o\ition lixes ( e g . fulurc incrtial navigation systems will most likely include nlole navigation sensors and subsyslcm inodcs. incrtial navigation system dcsigncrs havc succcsshlly integrated a n d o r automated online handling of avionics navigation system inform. Multisensor n.rvig. In military applications. such navigation configurations usu:illy include an INS.. in conjunction with the use of simultaneous alternative navaid sensor subsystcms such a s T A C A N . and J T I I X KclNav. but arc rcl.
It should be pointed out here that. (2) radar altimeter. the navaids provide data which is good at low frequencies. and (3) laser altimeter. the vertical channel of an INS is unstable. Strictly speaking. Conventional altitude data can therefore be summarized here as consisting of ( I ) barometric altimeter.6. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 273 Rotation sensors I System outputs Strapdown inertial sensors Navaids Kalman filter . fire control)  Radio aids Doppler radar GPS Observation processing FIGURE 62 Typical aided strapdown system configuration. 2.2. as we have noted earlier in this book. external information data must be used to damp the altitude channel. Attitude/heading Star tracker Multiantenna GPS Since. . however. the vertical (altitude) channel must be stabilized regardless of whether the system is operating in the free or aided navigation mode. Velocity altitude Acceleration Attitude Heading Angular rate Application outputs (flight control. Velocity data Doppler radar IAS Global Positioning System (GPS) EMLog or Speedlog (used in marine applications) 3. as opposed to an inertial navigation system.
~ncillnlyf ~ ~ n c t i oconsist o f acrial refueling and rendezvot~s with airholne beaconcquipped aircraf?.Four basic capabilities o f I l l i s radar type are ( I ) generating d:~t.~nuill tcrr. multirnode. Airhorne r. The weapon dclivcry iiiodcs arc plccision posilion fix.~in avoid. modc intcrlcaving.6 k ~ (50 N M ) : the primary accuracy limilalic)n Tor navigation n is the azimuth crror [O].ivionics system providcs flexibility and can he partitioned t o take advantage ol' autonomous suhsyster~icapabilities and f i ~ o l td e t e c t i o ~ ~ n thc suhsectio~ls I. I n Chapter 5 it was discussed that the error mechanism o f a n a i r c r i ~ f i ( o r surf:~ce vchiclc) may he described hy a set o f nine lincar lirstorder dilTcrenlial equations. I h e . twochannel. air data dead rcckolring. I'he navigation fu~rc:Ion consists o f the I'ollowing modes: highresolution mapping. and prograrnrnahle prnccssii~g. T w o gcncri~ltypcs o f crrvr hnurces arc identifiahlc: ( I ) those associated with lire inertial sensors (gyroscopes and acccleronicters) and (1)thosc associated with the external measurement processes (e. The irr~~ltirnodc racial.In . especially thosc for military applications.'colored" noise. Radar Basicillly. Figurc 63 shows a partial list o f the navigation functions.Iccur.rrtifici:ll . which i s Llicn I d to the INS. ( 3 ) ( weaporr delivery. Iiowcvcr.~ngc and ~ hearing Lo a previously known point.gcheckpoint i s limited to I c t o about 92. 6.1.I sellcontained airbased navigation devicc. digitill. atmospheric clrccts.lncc.~i l ~ ri~. 2 ) pcnctr. The . and ( 4 ) :rncillary fur~ctions such a h acrial refueling.2 74 CHAPTER 6 . M a n y o f the modcrn radars. exhihit complex statistical characlcristic\.lte velocity . Wedpon delivery dcnr.td:ir.~pe~tureelrated that is ovelcomes thc physical limits o f antcillra s i x . .Ireas o f the glohe Its useful position tixing ~ r i ~ ~ ~.ire suhjcct l o highfrequency noise. conventional airborne radar Ibr ~ i a v i g a t i o lprovidcs i. i n gcneral.g. Doppler racial.~vigation. thc axitnuth crror has been overcome through the use ol'syntlietic aperturc r.( M M R ) described ahovc. are colierent.~lLhe. re. h:ls unlimited covcragc ovcr land .~tion. wliich IS . and bias cfccts [IO]. Thcsc errors will. and altitude updatc.~nds !not only the ahility to locatc and i d c ~ l t i f )an ohscurc target area h u t . . that follow. Thc navigation function requiles th.~tion.~ni mapping. ~ n d altitude intbrm.lr ( S A R I . the various navaids that make up the avionics system will he discussed i n some detail. velocity update. ground ~is moving track.. monopulse sensors that employ phased array technology. position lix equipment). such as cxlx)ncntially correlated o r .~lso cxtrc~ncly . weather detection. 111 the highresolution ground mappin$ ( C i M ) modc. and grouncl beacon track. used i n military application\. Thc synll~ctic iipcrturc radar provides a highresolution image (IT a yround patch.lt the radar obtain an accuratc present position updatc. and ground clrccts [I?]. Externally Aided Inertial Navigatmn Systems they .ld.2. I'cnetriiLion requires automatic terrain following and rn.
FIGURE 63 The navigation function. .
hcaring. sight on lat~dniarkpatterns \ihosc position rclative I < ) tllc dcbired supply and ' o r personnel d r o p locatioir is known.2 76 CHAPTER 6 Externally Aided inertial Navigat.lsurctnents of range.ln hltcr. through a display.~vifa!ion i t ~ f o r n ~ a t i o 111 t11c icrmitral phasc o f fligl~t. In !his mode.lrk loc.tniple.lnd longitude) IS known. l'hc nar..= slant (range liom the aircraft lo the ground checkpoint K.hosc .rc p.~tio~l dircctly l o tlic Kalm. north.the navigator n. two lnodcs .iin n.11<.ig:~tor cgtn also use the M M R foi. R : 11' cos cx 1~.. go The hasic G M rad:lr equations used in the rnciisurelnenl of the error cqt~atiotis the :( u p ) .For cx.l If = measured baroinertial system alLitudc cr = tncasnred radar a711nuth.= slant range distance Ip. ct111.~sc. latitude . I I1 ' sin lr ph = \.un Systems provides inany modcs of opc~rticrn.inglc  rerrain patch lllumlnated by the sensor .sighling on landrni~rks u. Slant rnngc and hcaring data i \ provided by the M M R during the tcrmiilal plr.2.Ire used to ~1h1. nre. ~ n d in cast directions arc given hclou. and 1andm. . ~ h s o l r ~ t e position (i. i = \.
2.3 km [390 nautical miles (NM)] from a ground station and 370.5" (rms) Note that accuracy degrades with aircraft bank angle. a pair of dividers. and in conjunction with the horizontal situation indicator (HSI). . 30" bank angle may be 350 m. As a function of hearing. Onhoard navigation systems typically access commands entered by the pilot and use this information when estimating aircraft trajectory. thereby making it simple to determine the aircraft's position with a chart. For a scalar. TACAN coverage is limited t o LOS. say. smallsize. Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) Simple operation. and three acceleration states. 6. Beacon locations are displayed on navigation charts. The system also displays bearing from the beacon to the aircraft based on variations in the beacon's rotating antenna pattern.2. and low cost make TACAN the primary method of aircraft navigation in the United States. a n d a protractor [9]. the system measures the distance between aircraft and beacon. A TACAN system model can be developed consisting of nine states: three position. modest power requirements. Aircraft fly along these routes from one TACAN to another using the range measurement to indicate their position in the route and to provide an estimate of how long until the next course change. As mentioned above. Moreover. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 2 77 Position update accuracy is dependent on distance from the checkpoint. By transmitting pulses to a ground station and timing the delay before receiving response pulses. TACAN has a range of 722. Airborne TACAN provides the pilot and flight control systems slantrange and relative bearing information about a ground station. the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) has established airways and jet routes between TACAN beacons. while it is 100 m at level flight. Typical position update sighting accuracies are Range= 100 m or 0. so that the CEP (circular error probable) position error increases with range from the checkpoint or position fix. In order to simplify en route navigation using TACAN. the average update radial error while the aircraft is in a. three velocity.4 km (200 NM) from another aircraft. For example. TACAN navigation involves polar geometry.6. It also provides an audio identification of the ground station.5% of range (whichever is greater) Azimuth =0. TACAN provides TOIFROM and course deviation information relative to aircraft heading.2. the airborne equipment displays the aircraft slantrange and bearing from a ground beacon. Azimuth angle error varies inversely with slant range.
.
east.X B ) ( P . and down coordinate system based on the beacon's geodetic latitude (4B)and longitude (AR). D)components of the range vector are given by the standard coordinate transformation as follows: [i] [ s i n4 c oh s i n 4 sin he = sin hB cos hB cos 4~ cos hg COS $B sin hs c. while west magnetic variation is subtracted from the true heading P to give the magnetic heading y. Inaccurate bearing information.4B]rxe] s i n $.Ze (6.6. Magnetic North True North TACAN FIGURE 64 True bearing TACAN to aircraft. P . 64. and down (N.9) After calculating the north and east range vector components.. Figure 66 illustrates the position fix when more than one TACAN station is available. E. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 279 [ ( P A . Polar geometry causes the TACAN accuracy to decrease as distance to the station increases. Combining several more equipment components displays the aircraft slant range and bearing from a ground beacon. and three misalignment error states. two velocity error states. and the true position used in determining the positioning error. depicting the position fix for a single TACAN position fix. . east. YB PI. measurement noises. Figure 65 is a composite figure. The state vector of a representative Kalman filter TACAN model would consist of nine error states: seven navigation states consisting of two position error states.ZB)IT. Accurate range measurements can determine an aircraft's position without using bearing data.The north. The magnetic heading reported by the TACAN receiver will also have the local magnetic variation 5 at the beacon added to the true heading. and biases constitute the major error components of TACAN signals. is projected into a north. while the two TACAN error states would consist of a TACAN receiver bearing bias error and one receiver range bias error.2. It should be noted that east magnetic variation is added. using the inverse tangent gives the true heading from the beacon as shown in Fig.YB)(P.
i n.!rloii lix .tics: is : I list of stateollthcart digilal TAC'.inge: 962 1213 Mtlr N u m h c r o f channels av.N A V . ?X V dc Thc TAC'AN determines whcthcr a signal is invalid a r ~ d infornis the pilot by either garbling Lhc \(illion idcntiticr o r showing warning fltlgs.i11.Ychannels. K . 26 V ilc.~ccuracy: t l . K a n c rate i n l i ) r r n . atid 4 N S iaulotn. Molcove~r.ing charac(eri. ~ h l c R .\N po.iilloning c r ~ i n TACAN 1 Line of Constant Range TACAN 3 Q FIGURE 66 lclc:~l lr~plc ~ r l ~ ~ ix g e Position TACAN 2 Q Follou.I]e.1 p. Ilislitncc and bcaring call bc .O Frequency I. I N M ) Ilearing . the unit's o u ~ p u l is compatihlc w i l h INS. for .~ilablc: 252 ( 120 ..28 k n i 1390 N M ) Absolulc range accuracy: LOIX5L k m i 0 ... rcspcctivcly.N A V (.r pilot d u r i n g temporary signal loss. p r o l ~ i d i n g firll K h o Theta realtime update inform. ~ i l . 126 Yclianncls) Power rcquilements: I I V 'LC. vclocily memory keeps thc hearing and rangc indications t r a c k i ~ ~ g Lhc li.~vigation).~cquircd ill less than I and 3 A.280 CHAPTER G  Ext~mallv Ajded lncrtial Navioatiun Svsterns Bearing Estimated FIGURE 65 Slnple TA('.I . Finally.llic navigal~on syslcm). ~ l i ois ~ ~ illso i ~ v . t 1o11 ' to thcsc systcnir. while the T A C ' A N rcacquircs and lochs (111 t o the g n ~ u n d slation when the signal returns.\N hystcm Icangc ( o r readout capability): 722.
from which a receiver could determine its location. and the Gulf of Mexico. or the edge of the continental shelf. Historically. Predictable accuracies were 2.S. stations in Labrador.3.913. Army Signal Corps for "precision navigational equipment for guiding airplanes.6. Following the war.2. The first system. LoranC became operational and was used commercially for water navigation." as an aid to navigation. became fully operational in January 1943. the system was developed in the early 1940s by the Radiation Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The intended purpose of LoranB was to provide precision navigation in harbors and bays. which was defined as extending seaward from a harbor entrance to 92. More specifically. Long Range Navigation (Loran) The word "Loran" is an acronym for Long range navigation. Loran is a lowfrequency. technical problems prevented the deployment of an operational LoranB system. In addition. stations were built in the Aleutians. LoranA was phased out in 1980 because of station obsolescence and increasing operating costs. government to provide accurate navigation for the navigable waters of the United States to such users as commercial shippers and fishermen. from a commitment of the U. Known then as "LoranA.4 km. northern Pacific. More importantly. LoranC is a longrange (>I850 km). North Sea. in particular. "LoranB" was developed in an attempt to improve the accuracy of LoranA. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 281 6. In 1958. and Newfoundland also became operational.000 ft). in May 1974. Coast Guard to aid marine navigation. Consequently. Coast Guard. lowfrequency (100kHz) hyperbolic radionavigation system which uses the difference in time of arrival of signals from two synchronized transmitters to establish position. the Central Pacific area. However. consisting of two stations operated by the U. (2) receivable at a range of 926 km (500 NM) from the transmitter. LoranA had 83 stations located 4631 111. the development of modern "LoranC" for commercial use dates to the early 1970s. instead of two.S. hyperbolic radionavigation positionfixing system. 1900. operating at frequencies of 1850. and 1950 kHz.8 km at 926 km and 12.S. the requirement was for a system that had the following characteristics: (1) the capability of guiding aircraft in all weather. The lower frequency . and (3) receivable at an altitude of 10. and in the ChinaBurmaIndia theater. however.6 km (50 NM).2 km (250600 NM) apart. and recreational boaters. the Secretary of Transportation established LoranC as the official radionavigation system for the coastal waters of the United States.7 km at 2222.2. pulsed. By mid1943. The coverage areas were the northern Atlantic. transmitting at the same pulse rate.S. LoranB used three stations. in response to a requirement by the U. Loran stations were also built and operated in the Pacific area. its use was extended by the U." it consisted of two stations transmitting at the same pulse rate. Greenland.668 m (35. the area under concern was the Coastal Confluence Zone (CCZ).
is noted that [.IS . direct ranging). . and 251 arc recolnmci~dcd.Lor. 17. R. Tlicrelbre. I Gin piwvide . .rson. Mathemirtic. Rcll 22. Loran IS hnsed OII the conccpi that lhc alnount of time it takes for a radio polhe to travel .OP) represents a constant ~rilngc from a Iran~n~itLer. It is a lowpower Ir.ded Inertial Navigabon Systems . is a shortrange tactici~l version of the l.ori111C'D is all advanccd i ~ y p c r h ~ ~ l i c ~adion. Externally A.1. \vliocc pulse sequencing co~isists 16 phasecoded pulses 500 s apart in each g1oup. .~hlc. ZK. and with groundwave C I I V C T I I ~ C01.~lrcadymenti(1ned.oran charts alw hyperbolas.I certain distance is a mcasulemcnt ol'tli.~nC systcm.Force in tlic midIOfiOs. the lines o f constant [itne dilferencc marked on [. 6.oranC' 11:' 1.~hurrd precisely using a simple clock. in a hyperbolic navigation system an LOP rcpresents a constanl rangc Srom tw0 tri~~lsniillcrs. the tratismitlcr 1oc:ttions fix111 the loci (hr a f~rmily o f hyperbolic ILOPs. if the radio wavcs wcrc t ~ r v c l i n g rrrc space. i l ~ h ~ u 100 kni. I I I tlie multiple p ~ ~ l s c s ~ . dcvclopcd hy the 0 .rlly. I:i~omthe precedi~rgd i s c u s s i ~ ~irt .~llowtllc rcceivcr to ~lisli~rguisli shy wi~vct h i ~ t the bounces ntT the ionosphere fronr the g r o u ~ l d .ori~nD'hlange is lirnitcd to 1 100 km. ~ u cDrpendiug err gconlctry.iriilus tr.oran has changed tour tin~es since its inceptior~. of I.I hyperhol. S . w receiver time nicasurcment accuracy.'.orar1. positi~lnis rstahlislied h e t ~ e e nthe sources along n line that is in the k>rni of .or. then tlic time difkrencc bctwcc~r in ~cceptioriat thc vetiiclc i>f signals transn~ittcdi r o ~ n scparilte station5 \ r . 3 llilt For if carlh modcl ir absumed. .I gcornctric point o f view.~scd out.rnsniiftrls can he mc. "Lor.rdar. For this re. tlic inodcl f i ~ the ( o h s c r ~ c d time ditterciice can lic r l exprcsscd . :I line ol'position I I.~rrivalof signals from thc v. TACAN. and propag..~nsportahlc skstem.iting u'ithin the lowfieq~~ercy hand of YO 110 kll7. in tinle of .rtionsystcnr k ~ t.~r) use cooldinatcs.111(' provides predict.3.2. LoranD will he rcpl.~ccuri~cics ) oi'hctlcr Ihan 100 m. ~ n d [)MI. tlie word 'hypcrhc~lic" originates from thc fact that. Whcii co~npletely ph. depcriditig on position ill lhc g r i d FOImore details on 1.e.i. In the circular tnode (i. Theoretically.s cur\aturc for longer distancch. .~tdistance.~ccd by "l. Ail.tc[icaI r deployment. I t ni Loran('. Hyperbolic Navigation The most c ~ ~ r n m o n lhrrn of Loran used today is the hyperbolic mode..282 CHAPTER 6 .~nD. 11s signals are received from two diffelent sources. allows the ground wavc 11. Seen from . (distance measurement eqoipme~rt) range (circul. (~pposed o the circular n i ~ ~ dThe reason for this is [hat the time differcncc t e. As . . lollo\v the ealt11. Ilirdcr o p t i t i i ~ ~ c o i r d i t i ~ ~ ~ s .~tionct~nditionh.r\ig. oper. i~rsta~ice.tccuracics of hetuecn 100 alrd 200 m.is . o ~ ~ lhe proporiional to tlie d i l k r c ~ i c c d the distance traveled by the I \ \ < ) LVIIVCS.
and h. if we assume a flat earth model. and a "slave" or secondary station (S) transmits a similar pulse signal. but a function of the nature of the waveguide. h. In equation form. In hyperbolic navigation.LlNE EXTENSION TIME DIFFERENCE = 2 6 1 S M . however. the signals do not travel in free space. In reality. Instead. The slave station receives the master signal at time t = P microseconds. are hyperbolas of constant time difference (TD). h 5 . they are trapped in the space between the earth and the ionosphere... As before. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 283 where c i s the speed of light in vacuum.LlNE EXTENSION FIGURE 67 Loran timedifiermce grid. then a receiver (e. h 2 . and transmits its pulse at t = p + & microseconds. . an LOP represents a constant range difference from two transmitters. respectively. Two transmitters at points M and S transmit synchronized signals. Figure 67 illustrates how Loran is used for position determination using the hyperbolic navigation principle.g. 67. E is the error in the emission delay between master and slave stations. as we saw earlier. an aircraft or other vehicle) R will measure the difference in time of arrival of the signal from the slave and master stations. the velocity of propagation is not c. this time difference MASTER BASE. 6 microseconds (ps) after receiving the master pulse signal. Consider Fig. The "master" station (M) transmits a pulse at time t =0.6. and p~ and ps are the geodesic distances traveled by the waves transmitted from the master and slave stations. . h6.2. where h . Lorat] can be used as a stand alone system or as an integrated part of the navigation system. Consequently. L 1 I I I I \: SLAVE BASE .
the addition o1. configuration: the . There illc tlircc gencral types of chain station configurntions used in thc LoranC' system: ( I ) triad. A position fix requires another hyperholic grid.1 ll is. and ( 3 ) svar 1271.lstct. T h e triad and star configurations arc the most common transrnittcr layouts.tvc station 3. Hence.pulse signill. The covcr:ige arca of . 21s illustrated in Fig.yafiori Syrferris . ( 2 ) wye..i Loran chain dcpends on the gcornetry of the ch. the hypcrbolas would become great circles on the cal111and represent the loc~ls oi'.~tionsmay .lrerr /Z. Tlicrcforc. 07.I time difference. the complete array of hyperholab corresponds to the wye configuration.time for . making a tot. Other configur.. in which onc station is the rnaslcr and the rcmaining stations are secondarics Thus.station. a thild tratrstrrittir~g station must be coupled with the master transmitter to generate the second set 11f L.~in. By adding thc sl.rl o f livc stations that provide optimal covcrage.R ((3.I irliiii: a master and three slave stations is referred to a s tlrc 1r:v1. Eacli chain is designed to give co\.ttor uses thc nrastcr and the two slave stations that provide thc best coverage.I p.~\. Thus. The navig.trticul. A master and two slave stations o r secondaries is called .. such that 211 t?i>T1)26. each hyperbola is uniquely defined by .rr alGI. In I'ig.ict location based on the inlcrsectio~i of the two dilrcrent hyperbolic I.Exrernaily A d e d /nerf!al Nav.A Loran chain corrsists o l thrcc or more transmitter stations.crape to .~llp < ~ i n l \ with the i ~ l l o w i ~time differcnccs: sl. two transmitting slations itre not enough to obtain a position fix. then the inlersectioti of the two hypcrbolas 311 defined provides a position hx for the receivcr R .ition can be considered a s four triads. I arid 2. Included in the Loran cliilin is a monitor station that monitors 1 the syncirronirali~~nf the chain.a secondary station urould incrcasc the sizc (11' the covcritge.c tg baseline extension T D = 6: pcrpcndicular bisector of hascline T D . one can maintain the accuracy and sti~hilityof the hyperholic grid.284 CHAPTER G .ortt M to S n = time arter receiving the mastel.I ]radio wave to travel hctween S and R I. hy inonitoring the clrain.OPs. With both o r thcsc grids gencrittcd. If two timediH'ercnce measurements T D I and T D 2 are made using either a tliad or star transmitting station configuration.  (I'D) is given by I ' l l = ( [ i i S )+ I S K n.. before the slavc station transmits its own pulse signal Note that i f the reccivcr were on the slilve haselinc extension. The star contigur.P t 6 : master baseline extcnsic~nT D 21%I 6 . = time for . 68 ilie solid hyperbolas correspond to the triad configuration formed by Ilic master station and the slave station:.I radio n a v e to travel between M and R [ilitne for the radio witvc to travel li.. 68.stor configuration co~isistsof' fbur slave statiorrs and one ni.OP\. navigators are able to detcrmirie tlreir cx. As can be sccrl from Fig.
This geometric effect consists of two separate effects: (I) acuteness of the crossing angle of the hyperbolic LOPS and (2) proximity to the baseline extension.6. a dimensionless proportionality constant is obtained. Even with all these factors perturbing the hyperbolic grid.3 NM) at 1852km (1000NM) range and 1. the GDOP becomes .0 MISTER SLAVE 1 6 SLAVE 1 Star Conflgurstlon FIGURE 68 Triad. and with the addition of a plotter will actually plot the course of the vehicle. (3) atmospheric noise. When the hyperbolas intersect in a small acute angle. When the hyperbolic Loran navigation technique is used.0. the rms position error is approximately proportional to the rms timedifference measurement error.5556 km (0. the accuracy of the position solution is affected by the vehicle's (receiver) position relative to the transmitters. In addition to the chain's geometry.2. LoranC currently has 45 stations in 12 chains. called the geometric dilution ofprecision (GDOP).10. the coverage area is affected by the following factors: (1) ground conductivity. be dictated by special operational requirements or by practical considerations. When the time measurements are converted to distance by multiplying them by the groundwave velocity. and give the two time differences at once. Navaid Sensor Subsysfems 285 SLAW 4 0 . such as the availability of a suitable transmitter site. In regions sufficiently far from baseline extensions. and (4) dielectric constants. Many Loran receivers today can receive two chains at once.26 km (1 5 NM) at 4630km (2500NM) range and a repeatable accuracy of 91. Some also convert the time differences to latitude and longitude automatically..18520.44 m (300 ft). a LoranC chain has demonstrated predictable accuracies of 0. wye/star Loran chain configuration.. (2) signal strength. One final comment with regard to system geometry is in order.8529.
691. thc useful covcrage arca of n chain is inherently limited by the GDOP. approaching infinity a s thc crossi~rgis along the biscclor of the itcute crossing angle (scc Fig. Ilowc\.rnC position f i x occurs at thc intersection of two LOPS.lsurement errors.snear . In rcgio~. 69 it is rlolrd that a L<rr. such a s transmittcr/timer instability and propagation effccts.I time d i n ' e r c ~ l ~(TDI c tneasurcment. Assuming that the distribution of error5 is normal.I baseline cxtcnsi(~n. Furthermorc. This is because the gradient of the time dilrcrcnce associalcd with the baseline in qucstio~lis zero on the haselinc cxtension and very srnall near the bascline extension.cr. and that the errors associated with dstrbution FIGURE 69 Error5 d t ~ c I I ~ P C ~ ~CIOI\IIIE C :anglel 111 O~I . h t i position error docs not vary linearly with the n1e. various tictors.286 CHAPTER 6  Externally Aided lnertflal Navigatjon Systems very large. each resulting from . would causc random crlors in the LOP>. From Fig.
2.3. Relative accuracy Accuracy with which a user can measure position relative to another user or to some reference point such as a beacon or a buoy. Figure 610 illustrates the intersection of two lines of position. and 99. the standard deviation o corresponds to 68% of the distribution.. if a large number of measurements is made of a given quantity. the carrier frequency for the LoranC is 100 kHz. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 287 I FIGURE 610 LOP error ellipse. This frequency was selected because of its groundwave characteristics and since it was the only one available where the Loran pulse would . it is noted that three types of accuracies are commonly used in connection with LoranC [28] : Predictable accuracy Accuracy of position with respect to the geographic or geodetic coordinates of the earth (i. the two LOPS are independent.2. The LoranC Pulse System As mentioned in Section 6. the standard deviation of each LOP.6. At this point. latitude and longitude). Repeatable accuracy Accuracy with which a user can return. Numerically. to a position whose coordinates have been measured at a previous time and with the same navigation system. I t may also be expressed as a function of the distance between two users.2. A standard measure of error for an LOP is its standard deviation (rms error).3.e. then a region of equal probability of errors about the fix would he an ellipse. 68% will be within the range & l o of the mean value. The angle of crossing of the two lines of position is designated by the letter y. again and again. That is.2. Similarly. 6.6% within 5 3 0 of the mean value. and the ellipse defining the region of equal probability [22]. 95% will be within the range +20.
itions.(' pt.uid s l a w stations.~tcdperiod of time.ilion.or.icing hctwccn the pl~lscsn a group is 1000 115. (:inally. .K. since i n a LO~LLIII' c l l i ~ i n Ihc pulsc is thc sanic (r7r h o t h the master .. w i t h the width of .lls. 200 300 ps.lsc.~tion's pulse sequence consists o f cight pulses i11.ind (riicking.rnC pulsc.al Navigation Sysl~. . Pulse scquencinp increases the tlveragc power of the t ~ . ~ A sia\.iI arc I ps . o f tlic CIICIg) r i i d i i ~ t r d must bc \r.Ip.~stcr. itme.tlic pulse must have a sliort rise tilnc . I I r l order t o mcct llicsc spcciticati<rns.lnes.itnplitudc is iivail. I n t h ~ s case.. the puiscs oIe:ich group I are tr.rtions.ht. resents an I. W phase coding is possible.I gi\. ~ge ii~ w. depeliili~lg n the I o  SAMPLING POINT AT50 PERCENT AMPLITUDE microseconds 200 microseconds ) FIGURE 611 1 ' 1 1 ~lA>.ins to rcjccl sy~ichronI ousJamming s~gn. i t h eight pulses l i ~ i ~ ~ ~ s l n i t t c d . i t sho11ld be ~ i o t e d that the hyperbolic radio navigation system i s cqut~lly valid for a continuousw.eli phase dilrcrcncc docs not iscprescnl .OP i n each o f many l.istct. i l i o ! i slion1 thc s l a w st. I l i c i sclcc~iurl 100 ps hctwccn pulses x a s arbitrarily chosen to a l l i ~ w ol cnouglr Lime f o r the passing o l t l l c sky h a v e fi<.rrt.111normal opcl.Sp.~lc of 10 25 g~mups per s c c ~ n d .erl.e st. and Iicncc I the numbcr of Iilnes between a in. 21 tcchniyuc o f pulsc scqucncing is used l o distinguisl~ the ~ n a s t c r l .nl the p s c ~ i o l i \ pulse h e o r e transmitting thc next pulsc. T'hc frcqucncy b.288 CHAPTER 6  Externally Aided Ir.ora11C' pulsc. ~ n d slow decay t i ~ n e A short rise lime hiis the i ~ ~ l v a t ~ toi f ~ n ~ i ~ l i ~ isky.itlrii~this rcgi1111.~vc interference. o f thc p i ~ l s c .ms  n o t i n t e r l r c w i t h cxistillg broadcasti~lg st. SO':<..i n g n . at the 30ps XIo crossing of the I. klox'e\>er. skywavc c o ~ ~ t i i ~ n i n a t iis n o a\.s : typical 1. Figure (11 l 5hou.lnsniiticd fix : design. i n s r n i t t c ~ .ind : \lave station.ltion trilnsmits its pulses i n group5 o f ininc at a ~ c p c l i t i o n i.~vc system.Since the system uscs gioundwave trans~nissions. Pulse c o d i ~ l g prcividcs : me. g i \ w LOP u n . ~ ~ n h i g l ~ o u shut repI ly.ihlc l i ~ rcccivc~r detectiol~ . Moreover. M o s l skywave i~itcrfcrcnce begins at :ipproximateIy 30 115 atlcr Lhe start o f the polsc.rnd\vidtIi is 90 110 k l l r : ')i)'%.oided b y usirig pulse techniqucs. Each rn.
when connected. (2) it does not provide altitude information. 6. (3) its transmitters cannot be placed for best coverage. form a line.I)]. Since a line of position is defined as "a locus of points which.6.*. The Loran time differences are processed at. there is no ambiguity on a position fix. Furthermore. . Navaid Sensor Subsystems 289 carrier frequencies. and (4) its signal can be jammed. The advantages of Loran are that it provides the best accuracy for a given area of coverage.3. the Loran timedifference measurements are used in the Loran/INS Kalman filter innovation or residual ({H[@(Xk I . the time instants T.2. This form of LOP is used in LoranC. say.2. Constant distanceltimedifference LOP A hyperbolic line along the constant distance differential between two transmitting stations. and the receivers are affordable. and between successive FIGURE 612 Integrated Loran/INS. Constant azimuth LOP[Theta (B)] A straight line whose angle is measured from a true north reference. TD2) establish a position measurement at the intersection of the two hyperbolic LOPS defined by the time differences. LoranInertial System Mechanization In a Loran/INS system mechanization. the Kalman filter processes the Loran receiver time difference data. The function of the Loran receiver system on board the aircraft (or ship) is to receive the pulsed RF (radiofrequency) Loran signals transmitted by a triad (one master and two slaves) of Loran stations and measure precisely the differences in the times of arrival between the master and each slave signal.Z k ) )vector. in order to estimate the errors in the INS solutions." an LOP will take one or more of the following forms: Constantdfference LOP [Rho ( p ) ] A circle with the transmitting station antenna at the center. Figure 612 [12] illustrates a typical integrated Loran/INS. the Loran receiver time difference measurements (TDI.3. Its disadvantages are as follows: (1) it does not cover a large area. As stated earlier..
the L. ltrc I N S is periodically updated b y the Kalrnnn filter t o correct the I N S na\igatiori solutions. ~ v ycst.~nsmitlcr si.o ~ n network o f eight transmitter stations strategically a located around the world. the Omcga system includes tlie vehicle receiver and eight Iirdio 11ansrnittcrsoperating ill t l i ~ \. which a]c ohscrvations of the I N S position elror. thc LOIa11timc aucl differences) . (6) 6. worldwide.IS pioneered by Prt~fcssor. arc tlic dilTcrcnccs bctwccn the L. government.~tcs o f tlic time dilTerence I T ~ I .rt ' l h c i n n o v a t i ( ~ ncomponents. like Loran. Tlrcrcfc>rc. h sig11.S.I stochastic ~lilTcrcnti. N . is : lhypcrholic.tn I N S K a l m a n tiltcr solutio~rs h r p u s i t i o ~ ~ .rls can he received any place o n cart11 The eight tr.rtic \tation selection :~lgorithms sclcct the I<> 1111cc r four Orncga statio~isfio~n whiclr the signals \\.~hlished thc Onicga PIo.oran.~arc tlic coniniercial trirlincs. I!srrs o f Otneg. I N S K a l r n ~ i lfilter dilfcrcnccs the I N S l position s o l u t i o ~ ~ tlrc L o r a n position i n l i ~ r r n a t i u n(i. ) range. developing the syslcm to the point wlicrc today the system provides worldwide covcragc f l .r recei~ers employ autorn.I. navignliori systcni using phasc ditkrcncc o f coritinuouswi~vc (c\\.opcr.rls. Fig.Ihc I K S error estimates are added t o the I N S n. F o r instance.oran data hcing processed h? the K a l m e n filter arc v:ilid.~liuntimes. C'onseque~itly.rnd estirnales crrors i n the I N S . 517 also shows the L o r a n receiver usiirg the I N S velocily s < ~ l u t i < ~10s ohtain hetter dynamic pelior~n.rlc q l ~ a i i o n driven by a Wiener process.rny given transmitier can be received LIP ICI 14. and land vehicles.r\. Two o f these stalions arc controlled by the i J S .ill processed for o he use i n the navigation solulion.~). the system o~ldcr\vcntse~elai s1. Thcretbrc. Onicga.~tion's time dill'crcnce errors hy .290 CHAPTER 6 Exterrrally Aided Inertial Navigatiori Syslems ohscrv.rin the I. I ~ D Z ) and the K a l m a n tilter's estini.rl firom .icct otfice. A l 1c.rlion transmissions. ohtained f r o m tlie K a l m a n tiller cstimatcs o f l .cesium clocks arc uscil for synchronizing sl.or. .~ncc its linlc n in d i l k r c n c c measurements [ I ] When 1.~lcis time r ~ p d a l c d the times r . i \'clocit).) f i ~ d i osip~i.igation solutions to oht.ur. 'The Omega concept &.816 k n i ( 8 0 0 0 U M ) . I .lgcs oldevelopmcnt. while the rctnaining six slations are undcr the control of foreign govcrnmcnts. and ircading. ~ t i t u d e and longilude 1. 0meg. 612.~gnclicspcctrulii h c l w c c i ~ . if the l.~lions 11ansn~it at precise tiriics and t o r cxacl intelvals.e. . I vc~ylowfrcquc~rc).or:rn tinlc dificrcnccs ( ~ r l ) l . the itate vector cstim. A~ I'icrcc i n the late 1940s..4. and i n I905 the U.cryICIMTrcquenc) ( V L I . T D ? ) . Subscqucntly. Omega Onrega is a longrange. Tlierefi~rc.rting i n the elcctrom. ships.rst three o f t l r c Omega t l x n s r n i ~ l c r sign.2.rnC' is used i n an inlegrated modc. 1~11rthcrmorc. tire mastcr s l a ~ ctinlc dillerencc crrors can hc rnodclctl ac thc sum o f t w o i~idcpcndcniialldo~n proccsscs.rvigation system. A s seen i n Fig. onc may model llre inaslcr st.v t l r dayandnight firclion.
87 km (8 miles). since signals are propagated within the waveguide formed by the earth and ionosphere. Navigation information is obtained in the form of pseudorange (phase) measurements from.2. If a measurement with a phase difference of 10. the receiver synchronizes to the transmitter frequency and measures the phase relationship of the receiver's location. That is. the wavelength is nearly 25. Each station broadcasts four omnidirectional.33. this transmission format allows easy identification of both station and phase. degrading to 3.70 km during daytime operation. The period is divided into eight transmission slots. during transition from daylight to darkness or vice versa. the most obvious undesirable effect is the daily phase change from day to night. The location of a receiver in the Omega . Two or more LOPS define the receiver location.74 km (16 miles). however. Therefore. as mentioned above. Solar conditions also alter the propagation velocity. where each circle is a distance of a wavelength from an adjacent circle.40 km during night operation due to diurnal effects.2 s separating the slots.2.6 kHz during each 10second transmission period. 67. attack.5 km (10 NM). changes in propagation velocity of the signal occur as a result of changes in the ionosphere or differences on the earth's surface such as mountains. an Omega receiver can experience "lane slip" of about 18. Therefore. phase measurements from three or more stations provide position fixing (latitude and longitude) information to the user with an accuracy of 1. 11. accuracy of propagation corrections. propagation can be considered as taking place within a spherical waveguide formed by the earth and the ionosphere. Also. The phasedifference relationship between two received signals defines an LOP. Consider now two transmitters located on the baseline as shown in Fig. Since Omega operates at these very low frequencies (1014 kHz). ice. Lane ambiguity exists because a series of concentric circles emanates from the transmitting source.853. and receiver characteristics. navigationally. signal propagation effects can degrade the system accuracy. and natural disturbances. the network is vulnerable to jamming. Moreover. a minimum of three stations. an equal time of 0. Navaid Sensor Subsvstems 29 1 10 and 14 kHz. the timemultiplexing permits one station to be on at a time on one frequency.05. Each of these intervals are called "lanes." Figure 613 illustrates the signal transmission format [23].707. timemultiplexed 10kW signals on 10. repeating every 12. Consequently. and the signals are not denied to potential hostile forces and/or governments. Selection of the above frequencies prevents the "lane ambiguity. It should be pointed out. and plains. that the accuracy depends on geographic location of the vehicle.2 kHz is transmitted from two stations. As a result.6. Furthermore. and 13. 11. stations used. day or night." yielding at 133km (72NM)wide unambiguous lane. where we will designate the master (M) station to be transmitter 1 and the slave (S) to he transmitter 2. Specifically. oceans.
IS follows: 11 lr~.rsc .2 10 JAPAN +I FIGURE 613 . I 128 128 11 05 128 128 0 2 SECOND EOUAL TIME SEPARATION GAPS .rc A$ : change ill p11.I lhc Orncg..I (b.( 1 1.~l $..~sigtxcl tr:tr?srntsstm C ~ I ~ W L ! environmenl can be accomplislied by the phase me.=initial phacc a t iransrnitlcl. Define ihc phase diHkrence for a pair of tr:~nsmiuingstations . =distance (iom transmitter I 10 Ieccivcr p.=disla~icc Iron1 transmiitcr 2 10 r c c e i ~ e r Tlicrcf~rc ..rsc at lranhmitler 2 p.747 CHAPTER 6 Exrrrnallv A ~ d e d Inerbal Nav.rl ph..oauorl Svsterns 1 START I To 10 SECONDS 5 SECONDS 4  5 SECONDS b 40. ~rspccd of'liyh( 11'requency o f irnnsmitted siyn.=initi.isuremcn~ tcclini~~ue..
However. If ab is the phase repetition interval on the baseline. The basic operation of the ranging mode. if the range measurements are adjusted until a common intersection point is achieved. many of the Omega receiver systems today are operating using the "ranging mode. satellite) or counting of lanes from the initial point via an automatic lane counter are used to resolve exactly in which lane the receiver is located. However. In the hyperbolic system. +lo=4zo. (6. The phasedifference reading repeats on the baseline at integer multiples of half a wavelength." One of the main reasons for this change is that the ranging mode allows greater flexibility to the user.2. If a third station is introduced to complement the two range measurements.12b) simplify to This is the expression that defines the hyperbolic LOP distance difference from two fixed points.therefore. then where y is the crossing angle of the LOPs. These time measurements for each of the transmitters define a circular LOP.. then a b =h/2. since time differences between signals are not measured. thus decreasing the overall cost to the user. if a is the phase repetition interval anywhere in the coverage area. This is known as "RhoRhoRho" navigation. Any clock drift will directly affect the range measurement due to the induced clock error. The ambiguity of this position fix can be resolved by knowledge of approximate location. against which the time measurements are made. given by h = c/J Furthermore. while in the ranging mode only two ground stations are required to obtain a position fix. The main disadvantage of the RhoRho navigation technique is the requirement for a very accurate and stable clock or oscillator. several techniques such as the utilization of an external reference (i. However.12a) and (6.6. where the wavelength is . three circular LOPs are generated. These three LOPS will intersect at some common point. the clock bias is not a factor. often called "RhoRho" navigation. Now assume that the receiver is located on the baseline between the two transmitters. very accurate clocks are becoming more available and economical. at least three ground stations are required to obtain a position fix. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 293 Because of the precise synchronization of the eight Omega ground stations resulting from the use of cesium clocks. . only if there are no clock errors.e. In order to reduce the ambiguity of the LOPs. is the measurement of the total time it takes for each of the two signals to travel from the individual ground station transmitters to the receiver. Eqs. In the hyperbolic system. The Omega system was originally designed to be a hyperbolic system. The intersection of two circular LOPS defines a position fix. with the advancement of technology.
i position measurements of and the shortterm .. Ihc system must he initialized. but requires lhc use of a thild Onleg. A \ a rcsull. l'hc Orncga crror docs not :iccumulate with elapsed time. the while u s i ~ ~ g I N S stability lo correct 11111:lrle slip errors. as is the case will1 incrtial r ~ a v i g a t i o ~ ~ systems. is measulcd. preciscly k ~ i o w ~ ~ locillion witli an uplinh t ~ ~ n s m i l t cFigurc 614 depicts i n r. tlic use 01. whose location is preciscly known. in :I hyhrid OmegaINSaided navigation systeni.~lOmega concept. ( 3 ) earth Zeometry. clock ir~itiali/atior~ errors h .~system consists o f 3 ground unit with a monilor l o r rcfcrctice) receiver at a fixed. measures thc :~cttu~l m e p O signal phases and comparcs them with the 11omi11. the mixing 0l'Ornepa and inertial data takes a d v a n t a ~ e the longterm accuracy oiOmeg. t l ~ c largcst sourcc (ISerror in position dclcrmination with Omega is due to signal propagalion cll'ccts such a s ( I ) diurnal clTccts. A hyhrid Omega incrtial system uscs the Omega to d a m p ( o r limit) the error accumulation on the inertial system.~lOmeg.294 CHAPTER 6 . I'ro~agation unccr1.erthl Navigation Systems  the clock drift crror can he estimated and applied L O s u b s c q u c ~ ~ t iangc measurements.~ is thc "l)iferential Omcg. ~ c t ~ ~ i i l . (1) scasonal and sunspot activity ( I Iyear cycle) variations of ihc ionosphcrc. Moreover. and ( 6 ) latitude etl'ects. synchronifilior~errors arc reduced crlhcr.~ncc the accuracy of the original 01neg:i systctn. ( 5 ) ground conductivity. Thus.g.~. resulting in thc canccll:ltiorr o l initialization errors. The ground rcCcrcncc rccciver. 01' the known receiver location.~se dilterencc hctwccn the incom~ngsignal:.For the hyperbolic syslcm.by using lhypcrholic navigation 01by estimation tcchniqucs involving modeling oi'thc rcccivcr'\ inlcrnt~ltime soulcc ic. Prior to entering the Omcga nilvigatioi~ modc.1.ill radio navaids. (4) earth's magnetic field. Exterr~ally Aided l.~lposition to the Omega position.iccuracy due to the fact that only the ph. The differences hetween the nominal :ind . the longterm velocity and position drift5 in thc incrtial data must he corrcctccl hy continuously comp:~ringthe inerti.4. As is the case wit11 . The inputs of Omega . For this reason.lccuracy o f the inertial systcni. which is avail.~llo\vsfor thc lrsc (11 a less nccuratc and cnpensive clock..2. some airlines use two lNSs and one Omega rccciver. 6. Differential Omega A n improvcmcnl o w r the convcnlional Omcg. Also.ll phase characteristic:. The diHicrcnti. clock o r plecision oscillator).linties arc reduced with a predicted pr(~pagation corleclion computed using simplified models of the lonosphere. ~ n d INS arc cornhincd in a Kalniar~filter to yield the best estitualc of prcscnt position. The nominal cll>clivc ionosphere height (56 a1 is approni~lialcly70 krn (43 miles) during daytime and YO k n ~ n~iles) light. O m e y recluires heading and velocity inli>mrntion."T h e diferential Omcga system concept was developed 111 enh.rble from the INS. ~ \ c vcr) little cfkct on position . l111h rnelhod . block diagram ibrm [lie dillkrenti. l ~ l i t i a l i ~ a t i o n errors in the vanging modc arc rnorc signilicant because they add a corlsta~lterror to the position lin.! transrnittc~.
With good Omega coverage. the airborne receiver decodes the correction data from the uplink transmitter and uses these to correct the Omega signals measured by the Omega receiver. it is conceivable that the Omega system will provide day and night. which are uplinked (or broadcast) to the airborne differential receiver within the area of coverage. This improvement is based on having reasonably good Omega coverage over the area of interest. and precision airdrop activities). worldwide navigation with position errors of better than 1..6. phase measurements are used to generate signal correction data. The system can he used as a standalone system for this type of navigation or may be used as a backup for other navaids. The disadvantages of the differential Omega system .2. coastal and harbor navigation for ships. the differential Omega can reduce the errors resulting from propagation phase prediction errors hut cannot correct for poor phase measurements due to poor signal/noise (SNR) ratios or poor Omega station receiver geometry [7]. Because of its higher accuracy. For ranges of 1370. It should be noted that the signal reliability and data content of the differential Omega are essentially the same as that of the conventional Omega. and military applications (e. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 295 Omega Monitor Location ) Phase Erron Differential Transmitter FIGURE 614 Differential Omega concept. Omega is being used by both military and commercial aviation in a large number of aircraft as one of the navaids. With improved electronics and more efficient algorithms. allweather. inflight refueling. The Omega system is a relatively accurate longrange navigation system. the differential Omega finds extensive use in such applications as terminal or approach navigation. Flight tests have shown that the differential Omega system can provide a substantial accuracy improvement for the Omega system.g.852 km (1 NM).4 km (<200 NM) there exists a good correlation between the Omega signal errors measured by the monitor station and by the user equipment. Consequently.
ln(l .' would provide I'i111 worldwide coverage o f . align.~lions.lntages.~ircra(i.ltion system for ts. for such mililttry applications .rl cxplcrration. cornrn.irticular. ti.rcl~dcrvous.lrchandrcsc~te. 1)olI j o i n t scr\. .296  CHAPTER 6 . and reduczd airport congcstion. Orncga w i l l slowly be phased out wit11 :11i cxpcctcd date oi'termin. F o r insta~icc. F o r n~issic~ns c r c a n ..urthermore.~ntisuhm.satice. t11c system broadcasts continuously tllc info]matiotl nccdcd for a GPS receiver to compute its o w n posltion and velocity. Exterr~allyA d e d Inertial Navigatiori Syslenrs is that i t tequircs the installation iind niiliiitellance fa 1:rrge ~ ~ u r n b e r of surveyed r e h e n c e stations.in: placlically unlimited.~t~c) should one systctn lid The (. and c(~orciinatcd and is dcs~gncdprimarily firr gloh. .GPS . ~ l l wcathcr opcrilliolts.rl navigation o f a terrestrial o r ncarearth user. which has scvcral adv. n Ihyhrid o f the CiPS and an I N S can be used. . Other cix'ilian uscs o f the (iPS will he i n the arcas o f sc.~ I I . The GI'S can upd. and the ~recjuircmcnt for thc cstablishmcnt o f a comnrtmic. Le~gcling opcr.littonornous ~ ~ a v i g . p o t e n t i i ~cornmcrciol uscs for . l ships. spacehased.~pon dclivcry. Precision airline o r general aviation navigakion anywhere i n Lhe w o r l d w i l l be possible wherr thc syslcrn is fully operational.it14 control.ttion t o he approximately Lhc ). and land vchiclcs .and surveying. iic. ry ~CLIIIRLI~S . thc i n c r t i i ~ ~yste111 l would h a w a n ~ u c l morc rcceitt i i ~ p d a l c and \vould providc prccisc positioning thtough its hhorttern1 stability. ~ r n i c maneuvels. 6. 0 1 1 completion of the global positioning systcnl (CiI'S).~rcco~~ilai. I n p. the GPS w o u l d offer fkrreaching henelits fbr b o t h the ~ n i l i ~ a and civili.icc I prog'ani. and thc unlimited nurnber o f passive users that tlic system can support.~blyequipped usel.2. A t that time. I n this regard. and c21libratc the inettial system conti~luouslyuntil the GPS signals arc lost.~ . mincr. gcodcsy.PS is henrg developed as . and incrtial gt~id:lncc systems.d y ~ ~ . nearly continuous. civil applications as wrcll can hcncfit f r o m the total wc~rldwidc covelagc. thereby allowing for closer air traflic densities. ~rcsultingn substantial sayings to Llic airlines i n i terms o f fuel and other resources. ~rcduccdholding times. threedimensional posiuniversal tirnc t o tile suit. hc ~ I S C L I C S C ~ t~cxt.5.car 7000. m:~pping.lrine V I I . geology.tviyation ~edund. . .IS guidi~ncc. The NavstarGlobal Positioning System (GPS) The Navstal* GI'S is . velocity.itellite sysI tem that w i l l providc worldwide. and providc n.~nsrnission o f tlic compc~lsation signals front thc tcfersnce stations.~ncommunity. pscudoranging navigiitioli s.~tc. t. tion. ('onsequcntly.tII airports i n a cornmoll grid. This combination w i l l rcducc posilinn accuracy degniilatio~t during highcncrgy l r i g h . l t i o t ~ uh is needed.
known as "Program 621B. The space segment will be a 24satellite constellation (21 active+ 3 spares) continuously broadcasting signals containing time and satellite positioning information to an unlimited . providing continuous threedimensional global coverage with predicted accuracies in the 10m range.6. survivability. was essentially a twodimensional system that could not provide position updates in a highdynamic aircraft environment. Air Force since the early 1960s. and growth potential of the constellation to 24 satellites were considered in these studies. When first conceived. and a user segment. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 297 The idea that navigation and positioning could be accomplished using radio signals transmitted from satellites has been actively pursued by the U. stimulated both the Navy and the Air Force to develop a more advanced system that would provide enhanced capabilities and global coverage. During 1978 and 1979 Defense budgetary constraints forced a reduction in funding for the GPS program. the baseline constellation was reconfigured. satellite visibility. and the U. deployed with eight satellites uniformly distributed in each of three orbital planes. and renamed the program as the Navstar/Global Positioning System [4]. As a result. 1973. Basically. On April 17. Extensive studies have been made since that time to establish the optimum orbital configuration for these remaining 18 satellites. The success of the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS).2. with the TRANSIT program. presently consisting of 21 satellites and 3 active spares. the design for the fully operational system consisted of a constellation of 24 satellites. 1973. The TRANSIT system was made available to nonmilitary users in July 1967. ease of sparing and replacement.S. particularly from a survivability standpoint. the GPS consists of a space segment. The Air Force concept. the Navstarj GPS program was restructured and the number of satellites for the fully operational system was reduced from the 24 originally planned to 18. but had its own shortcomings as well. On December 22. again forming a constellation of 24 satellites. and the first commercial TRANSIT receivers became available in 1968.S. ease of buildup. TIMATION (TIMe and navigATION). location and duration of outages. Navy since the 1950s. each service separately established its own concept of such a system through an extensive program of studies and tests designed to demonstrate the feasibility of a spacebased positioning and navigation system. the Secretary of Defense approved the DNSS proposed by the Air Force in Paper No. better known as TRANSIT." designating the Air Force as the executive service to coalesce the Pos/Nav satellite concepts that were being developed by the Navy and the Air Force into a Defense Navigation Satellite System (DNSS). as it will be discussed in the next subsection. a control segment. The Navy's concept. At that time." could provide the high dynamic capability. the Deputy Secretary of Defense issued a memorandum entitled "Defense Navigation Satellite Development Program. System accuracy. 133. in 1980. After the mid1980s.
023 MHz and repeats itself every millisecond.15 ). Morcovcr. These three scgmcnts will now he discussed in some more detail.). . each set also receives and decodes tlic time sig~ials broadcast by each G P S satellite.r. :I 11 uill hc dcsign. at a n altitude of approximately 20. which is the constellation of earthorbiting satcllitcs.42 MHz and I. Space Segment The space vchiclc scgnicnt consists of all the G P S satellites. Ihc orhital planes will he separated from each olhcr in longitude hy hO' ..187 km ( 10. at any time.2.60 M H L Two ticqucncies are required to correct for ionospheric delay uncertainties in the transmission.ltelliles within the planes. is 1575.900 N M ) with an orhitctl period of 12 11. Satcllile positio~ming and time inform. :~isunilng consl~.1. T h e P code is a classified codc sequence. frequency will he tnodulated in quadlaturc by two pseudorandoni codcs. T h e orbital constellation consisting of 21 s. (2) the groundcontrol scgmcnt.5. T h e L. These orbils arc phased so that any uscr on earth can acquire. which is all the air. 6.A) code and a precision (PI code.S.898 10. hereinafter called simply CiPS. Figure 615 illustrates thcsc thrcc segments.183 20.8rii. Each sillcllitc is cquipped with a highly accurate atomic ccsiunm clock with a known o r prcdictahlc o f s e t from G P S timc. making it difficult to acquire. a coarsejacquisition (C. which is created fiom a product of two pseudorandom codes and modulated a t a frcqucncy o f 10. land.> is 1227.ltellites plus 3 activc spares will be deployed in subsynchronous circular orbits. territory a n d a master control station located in lhe CONIIS (CONtinental U. is divided into thrcc major segments: ( I ) the space vehicle ( S V ) segment. a n d L z : L.3ring 360 x I 24 .~tion will be updated through the control segment. Each satellite will transmit its infor~nalionon lwo Lband frcqucncics designated L. and is one week long. The contl01 scgmcnt consists of monito~stations located on U S . Exrerriaily Aided inertial Navigarjon Sysrenis number of' passive users.298 CHAPTER 6 . at least four satellites. Each OPS user set receives information hroadcc~sthy the G P S salcllites and derives the sct's position and vrlocity. each orbital planc inclined 55 to the equator with thrcc or ihur operational satellites in cacli planc. in six orbital planes.c ph. The user segment consist> ofappropriate G P S user equipment (receive]s)sets rnolrnled in aircraft or other veliiclcs. which monitors the orbits of all satellites and provides them with updated inlbrnmation several times each d a y : and ( 3 ) the uscr segment.23 Mf17. sc.itellitcs within a pl:~ne. The C A *For unitorm spacmg 01 the s.~lciliir 24 h 1 124 sats h planes rci. Figurc 61 0 shows how an optimized 21 sittcllitc constellation rnay he arranged 141. wit11 a nonunifor~nphasing* of the s. T h e C. G P S S y s t e m Overview T h e Navstar!GPS. and spaccbased users equipped with G P S receivers.A code has a frcqucncy of 1.llalton 01' ?4 ~ ~ ~ l c l l ~ l c ~ .
FIGURE 615 Navstar/GPS major segments. .
ed ?Is.it~nnp l i a ~ ~ n g .iirliltc con<lcll.OD PLANZ A 60" B 120" C 180" D 240" 24 0' f E FIGURE 616 Oprinii.
velocity. velocity. satellite ephemeris data. and estimates the user's position. Moreover. The master control station . the GPS user equipment measures the pseudorange and delta pseudorange to four satellites. utilizing the Pcode signal. and timing service. Control Segment The groundcontrol segment monitors the satellite broadcast signals and uplinks corrections to ensure predefined accuracies. positioned worldwide. frequency is modulated by the P code. It will provide a horizontal position accuracy of 40 m CEP (100 m 2D RMS).1 m/s RMS velocity accuracy. atmospheric propagation correction data. The navigation message contains GPS time. The widely separated monitor stations. The operational control segment will consist of five monitor stations. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 301 code is acquired first. In a "standalone" GPS installation. will allow simultaneous tracking of the full satellite constellation and will relay orbital and clock information to the master control station. The SPS. and (2) the Precise Positioning Service (PPS). The PPS. Colorado. The ranging data a ~ ~ u m u l a t e d the monitor stations will be processed by by the Navstar Operations Center (master control station) for use in satellite determination and systematic error elimination. The PPS will provide a 3D position RMS accuracy of 1016 m SEP. for maintaining the GPS system time. As mentioned above. Each frequency (L. and L 3 is further modulated by the navigation message. utilizing the C/Acode signal. 0. the use of two signals permits the user's equipment to compensate for the ionospheric group delay or electromagnetic disturbances in the atmosphere that may alter the affected signals. When fully operational. but not by the C/A code.2. and for uploading necessary information to the satellites three times each day. two classes of the GPS service will be available: (1) the Standard Positioning Service (SPS). and then the transfer is made to the precision code by using a handover word contained in the C/A code. and time. The transmissions are sent in five 1500bit data blocks in a hit stream of 50bit/s rate. system almanac data. the specific code sequences broadcast by each satellite are different and are used by the GPS receiver in order to distinguish the satellites from each other. Each satellite has a mean mission duration of 6. and three uplink antennas. a master control station.5 years.6. computes the position of the four satellites using the received ephemeris data.2 years and a design life of 7. is a highly accurate positioning. and I00 ns (Isigma) Universal Coordinated Time (UCT) time transfer to authorized users. The L. This segment is also responsible for monitoring and controlling the orbits of the satellites. and any other information needed by the GPS receivers. will be available to the general public. Specifically. the GPS position and velocity outputs are calculated by using passive trilateration. which will only be available to authorized users. The master control station is located near Colonado Springs.
\rcll.lnsfor~nthat information into :t coordinate system that is f. Howcver.~lionsignals passively ~reccived from each of lhcse satcllites.302 CHAPTER 6 .ir! iuld civilian user:. Ileading. Acquire and measure the signal of lour geometrically oplimum satcllitcs (if less than four sat~. currently if less than f11ur satcllites are available.al Nanyalion Systems  then folrns corrections th. and airspeed arc used \vith the satellite data.PS signals. latitude. Presently. which consists of three major li~nctional divisions: ( 1 ) an antenna 11) capture llic (. Proccss thc salcllitc data. longitude. earthcentcrcd earthfixed ( E C E F ) coordinate system. Using CiPS requires a CiPS receiver. Frequently. thcn the aircraft allitudc.ins a t o receix'c signals from other vehicle systems in both digital and analog as form.~Iion cont.~incdin ( the signal.llitcsarc in sight. ( 2 ) 21 fivechannel marinc model. dctcrrninc the position of thc receibcr. . the G P S navigation system will pcrfo~nnthree m. and altitude). in many applications the position solution is in thc WGS84. using tlle navig.~miliarto thc operator (i.vclocily.here onc o r rnorc of the satellilcs are temporarily obscured from the receiver antenna's vies. Hec.111optimally positi(~ned s. ill situatio~is\\.In arnplitier to inctease the power lcvcl of thc Icccivcd signal. lo calcult~tethe vehicle tix: also.III> desired mapping o r coordinalc system. Thc receiver processor ~l then convert:..e.rnodcls . 111esslnicc. ~ n d 3 ) a digit. ci\.tndardizcd on a worldwide hasis. Creale an interli~cc hctweeli the user and tlir vehicle by providi~ig nie.Ire produced: ( I ) a fivechannel aircrafi model. 3. the WGS84 coordi~latesystem. User Segment Tlic G P S user scgnic~llis intended Tor both milit.~tarc ~ ~ p l o a d cto the si~tcllites hy the uplink d antcrll~i~s. ( 2 ) . thcsc signals lo threedimcnsiollnl positiot~. T h e plimary coniputcr output is the position and velocity o l t h c Cil'S receivcr. That is. the GPS rcceivclprovides n o output on tlic MILSTD1553 ciatabus). the user's rccciver measures four independcnt pseudoranges atid pscudorangc rates to the sntelliles.The ak~rernentioneds o l ~ ~ t i degrades untll or~ the ncw satellites are .il al~clniilit:iry position ilat. four main receive]. a command outpilt to thc user's vchicle for such fi~nctions slccring signals.rrn. I h e user equipment can transtlxm navigation infolmation into other commonly used datums a:.to proccss thr. . Exlernaily Arded Inerr.il cornputel. and tr. I h c user segment sclccts the 11.~tcllites from tllose visiblc and. o f thc system. o~ . 2. ( 3 ) a twochannel rnoilcl.coordinate syslcm the user desires. and a n interaction with thc <)pelatoithroufli a contl01anddisplay unit (CI)ll).~can he st. 3 coordinate systcni can be converted to any othel. a l ~ system timc. the rccciver will have to acquire additional satellite signals in order to gcnctxte a conlinuous position~velocitytir~ie s<)lution.~usethe GI's informalion is avi~ilablein a common refelencc absolute grid.~ccluircd. inf.~jortasks: I .
Sequential tracking receivers Finally. In this case." operates in three different modes. receivers with fewer than four channels must listen to the different satellites sequentially. .. there are three basic types of GPS receiver architectures used to perform satellite tracking. a GPS receiver implements a phaselock loop and delaylock loop to acquire the satellite transmissions and extract the pseudorange and deltarange to each satellite. and combine them when all four satellite pseudoranges have been measured. If a fivechannel receiver is used. the fivechannel receiver parallel processes the range information from four satellites." Each channel can acquire and track only one satellite at a time. that GPS receivers with up to 12 channels are available from various manufacturers using the SPS or PPS service. Thus. occurs when no form of aiding is available. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 303 and (4) a onechannel model.g. depending on the type of aiding information available. which is referred to as the "Standard GPS IIIA receiver. while continuously collecting sampled data to maintain two to eight signal processing algorithms in the software. time tag the measurements. The first mode. In particular. the receiver will track one satellite at a time. frequencies in order to determine position and compensate for ionospheric delay. The delaylock loop locks on to the time sequence of a signal and is therefore able to detect any delay in signal acquisition. the four pseudorange measurements are made on both L.6. Moreover. The phaselocked loop locks on the phase of the carrier frequency and is therefore able to detect any phase change of the carrier. The navigation message is read continuously from all the satellites. The INS mode is employed when INS aiding is present and provides a generic INS error model to emulate the actual errors that the INS experiences. An example of a onechannel receiver is the portable battery powered "manpack. The last mode. operates when Doppler radar aiding is available. The continuous receiver is ideal for high dynamic environment vehicles. however. Continuous receivers A continuous tracking receiver will normally have four or more channels to track four satellites simultaneously. It should be pointed out. These are as follows: A sequential receiver tracks the necessary satellites by using one o r two channels. between the satellites being tracked. The fivechannel air model.2. and L. the Doppler radar system (DRS) mode. such as fighter aircraft. the position velocity acceleration (PVA) mode. 50 Hz). Multiplex receivers The multiplex receiver switches at a fast rate (e. Since solving the navigation equations requires data from four different satellites. the receiver uses the fifth channel to read the navigation message of the next satellite to be used when the receiver changes the satellite selections.
to thc GPS receiver at tlre speed oflight.l. signilic. Note 11131 r ~ c c i \ ~ cinput and output data uiay he managcd through the GPS r dcdic.lnsmittcd. tl~ercby rcsi~ltil~g in . As a rcsnlt ijf the user clock error. The Navigation Solution s e . Bcciiuse of factors such as cost and portability. position.lnt. T l ~ c s cclocks arc kept synclironized to Cil'S timc hy ihc m.lsuring the rangc hctween tt~eir antennil and four satclliles. ~ atomic tinrc st. figure of merit. ~ ~ ~ .I srttellitc.~tiot~. h e signal tri~ncmitted each salellite contain5 the tlme of the s1..111 in.g.uratcrange tmc. Extemsily Aided inertial Navigation Systems ~~  Typical (iPS receiver inputs and outputs . which causes .. Receiver aiding signals Initialization inputs (e. :~utoln. the (. crystal).~surcrncnlis referred to . which is const. ti.PS is .' Therehrc.PS reccivcr cmploys :I lc5s accurate clock (i. As mentioned earlier. M a t h c m a t i c ~ t l lthe pseudorange may he eupresscd ~.c.~rticolar .. o r as part of a n integrated system I~ncticln. pscudorangc is the term i~scd dcscrihc thc nicasured distance between the G P S creceivr~~ to . plished hy meilns of passive trilater.304 CHAPTER 6 .tcr contlol sli~lion. liscrs detelmine thcil.[re presented below.position hy mc. jamming detecticin.ls "pseudora11gc. land.~tic pcrtortnance monitorins. and huiltintest ( B I T ) ] 6. this range nre.lrt T by of the ir:uisrnission.and time 3D arca navigation and steering data I<ccciver status 1c.~nl I lime difi'crencc bctwccir the salellitc and thc reccivcr clock. each satellite contain5 its own highly acculate atomic ccsium clock. ~ n d p.* The ~ n e a s u r e ~ n r n l ihc signal's timc o f .5.~rrivalwill of (hereti>rche in elrolb? an amount equal to the did'erence b e t w c ~ thc~ . Sincc the transmission propagates liom Lhc satcllit~.2.2.~vip~tc>r) I Position..u s i n g (.Iceomthe N a v i g a t i o n whether 11 is air. .g.1iurernenl.~ci. and multiplying this diff'crcncc hy thc spccd of light.rted control and display unit (CIIIJ). the distance Iraveled hy ihc signal can be determined hy noting the timc the signal was received.~ndardmaintained by the ~atclliteand tllc timc maintained by tire C. s u h l ~ i c l i n gthe timc i t was tr. time) Waypoint navigr~tiondata (if the system i h t~scdas Selftest command .PS reccivcr. vcloc~ty.
1st Satellite FIGURE 617 Earthcentered.= time of signal transmission ATb=receiver's clock bias or clock offset At this point. Because of the earth's rotation.2. the user x and y axes are constantly changing in longitude with time. = actual or true range c = speed of light T. and (3) processes the pseudorange measurements and satellite positions to estimate the threedimensional user position and time. and the YEaxis completes the righthanded orthogonal system. Now consider Fig.= pseudorange R. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 305 by the equation where R. 617. The GPS user equipment performs the following functions: (1) measures the pseudorange to four satellites in view. At time zero. . it is appropriate to recapitulate the functions of the user equipment stated in the previous section. earthfired (ECEF) coordinate system.6. (2) computes the position of these four satellites using the received ephemeris data.= time of signal reception T. the XE axis passes through the North Pole.
terms can he eliminated. if the ith satellite is being 11ackcd. :. receiver clock drift y. 3 x. thcsc four quantitics may hc Ibond Srom thc simultaneous solulion <>Sli>orcoupled.. = ilhsatellite clock otfset from CiPS time R .\.306 CHAPTER 6 .5 s. and L . however.. The error A7: can also be eliminated since it can be prcciscly measured hy thc monitor stations.=terln which accounts f'crr any ( ~ t h c r biases in the syslrrn (e.8. . and c. Thc foul. This.ul the two frequencies.) be the position of the ith satcllitc hcilig tracked.. ..:) and the GPS receiver clock bias AT. Now let (.rcccivcr clock bias (unknown) A 7 .I R. antennas.hrr~2a . and altitude if desired. Spccilically.in coordito such nate system.. 2. since the ionospheric delay crror varies inversely with thc frcqucncy squared.. By using simultaneous multiple satellite observations. Note that pscudoralige is the ~ncasulcd signal delay expressed in units of dist.= statistic:~lerror in the measurement  T h e largest crror in the measurement is hy Car the ionospheric dispersive delay.ingc cstimatc .pseudorange rneasurcrncnt to the ith satellite I. Eq. y . As stated earlier. ..==position of the ith satclitc (known): i = 1. Thcrcfore. the ~iavigation data frame is (3 s long: however. j.. Ihe GPS Ieceivcr calculates prcciscly the position ol'cach satellite using the information tr:lnsmitted by the satellite. t h c 6 .5 s. lfsing four satellites.unknown quanlitics that must he solvcd for are the three coordinates o f the GPS receiver location ( 1. the GPS satcllilcs transmit identical signals . ?. most systems provide a code epoch pulse eve]y 1. Thcsc coordinatcs may bc conve~led somc otlicr systc~n a s lalitudc. 7. 16. Nnrmally. . :. can he obtained every 1. requires 3 multiplechannel receiver designed specifically for na\fisltion applications. l u r ~ ~ l i ~ ~ e : t i ~ equati<)ns11fthc k ~ r m 11.rnce. Externally Aided Inertial Navrgafion Systenjs  The GPS receiver calculates its position in an ECEF C'artesi. pseudor. j. However.lnsmissions to measurc pscudorange and delta pseudorange ( o r r a n g ratc) between the user and thc sclecled satellite.issumcs the simpler k ~ r m . longitude. J.. the CiPS receiver uses oneway 1r. Conscqucntly.. L .tbles) c. this term can he eliminated.17) . . In order to rcmovc this crror..( f ) = ionospheric delay 6 . c. : user ( o r receiver) position (unknown) = AT.
. = nominal (a priori bestestimate) values of x.AT. As an alternate way. . Let x. (i=l.+ A X .X ~ ) ~y n + A ~ .~ ~ ) ~ + ( ~ ~ + A(y . The GPS receiver's computer may be programmed to solve directly the navigation equations in the form given above. These four equations are called the navigation equations. Linearization of Eq.+AT R.xi)' + 2Ax(x. T. Substituting these incremental relationships into Eq..3.z ..2. even if only a few seconds. Their solution requires the measurement of the pseudoranges to four different satellites. z.+Ay z=z. (6..~ (z" ) A Z+.zj)2+ 2Az(zn.Z ~ ) ~ ] ~ ~ ~ (+ ~ ~ =Rnj+ARjT..yj)2+(~nz. may be too long for many applications.. the computation time required to solve them.. the following incremental relationships are obtained: x=x. Ay.Y~)+(AY)~ + (z. and ~~~ R.4) (6. However.+ AR. x.=nominal pseudorange measurement to the ith satellite ARj=residual (difference) between actual and nominal range measurements Thus.~ = [(x.18) can proceed as follows [8. (6.18]. y.+Az T=T.= R". z.) +(A~)~+(y~y~)~ +~AY(Y. + A x .18) yields [(x. Navaid Sensor Sobsvsfems 307 Note that the units in this equation have been so chosen so that the speed of light is unity.15..+ Ax y=y.2. Az.. y.6. ) ~ + (Az)']'" .)2+ T.19) + Working with the lefthand side of the equation and expanding terms results in [ ( x . and T Ax.=&X~)~+ (Y. these equations may be approximated by a set of four linear equations that the GPS receiver can solve using a much faster and simpler algorithm. ~ ~ ) ~z+ ) ~ ] ' ~ ~ z +Az. AT=corrections to the nominal values R.
12] b: [A\(r. the qu.?I) whcrc .:. A= and A T ) arc the corrections t1i:lt the user will makc to the current estimate of position and .~ l j+A:[:.:a+ higherorder trrms] By noting that all higherorder terms conl.)' '[I + /.Y. Exfernally Aided Inerbal Nav.24) =AR. Ay..yaf. A T + A R . ) '  R.271 (6.221 Substituting the i~icrcrne~ital relationship lor R.20) in the form . . we obtain a set o f l i n e a r i ~ e d equations (i: 1 .Y.lntitics to b e computcd (Ax. ((>. 2.308 CHAPTER 6 ..o. into this equation and himplifying. 3 ..) + A j . 4 ) that relate the pscudorangc rne.iAR.lining seco~idorderand highcr tcrms 01' A.. Systems Rearranging tcrms and eliminating secondorder term\.. [ y .21) can he expanded using the bit~omi. z.ivigation inform.. : lo)' '11 i h n ] = ( n ) ' ' + ( i i ) ' ' l h II] =((>)I2 ~ t + h / ' ( ( . this equation reduces to ! .u+2h Eel.~tion s well 21s the user's a clock bias: The quantities on the righthand side are known.. .4T Furthermore. (6.rl scrics cnpansion obtaining ( u f 2 h ) ' '=r (I>)' '11 i 2 h a ] '  ' (1.lsurements to the desired user n. . we have ( + h ( ) = ~'(II) / [ ! T .. based on knowledge o f the satellite position and culrent cstilnalc 01' the user's position and clock bias. we notc that Substituting this cxprcssion and the expression for 1) into Eq. they arc simply the dinercnccs between the actual measured pscudorangeh and the predicted rncasurcments. we can *rile (6. o r A can be ipnorcd..A. which :Ire supplied by the user's computer.. Thcrcfolc.)] l Equation (6.24).AT 16.7. (6.
e. a matrix of coefficients of the linear equations) x = user position and time correction vector r = the four element pseudorange measurement difference vector (i. AR2 AR. we note that these equations can be expressed in matrix notation as where P. this equation becomes simply [8] The position error and clock bias can he solved by taking the inverse of the matrix B. (6..2.4 discusses the method of least squares in more detail. and three to five iterations will reproduce the true coordinates within a few meters. Section 6. The coefficients of these quantities on the lefthand side represent the direction cosines of the lineofsight (LOS) vector from the user to the satellite as projected along the (x. This equation can be written more compactly by letting B = the 4 x 4 solution matrix (i. the procedure works very well since the initial estimate is not critical. y. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 309 clock time bias. The system of equations. Returning our attention now to the four linearized equations represented by Eq. Eq. (6.5. AR4IT Thus. premultiplying both sides of this linear matrix equation . can be solved by using a standard leastsquares procedure to form a new estimate and the entire procedure repeated.e. The most difficult problem is controlling the bias owing to the clock drift.2. is the direction cosine of the angle between the LOS to the ith satellite and thejth coordinate.25). For test data with noise but no biases.18). That is. the difference between the expected and measured pseudoranges) r=[AR.. z) coordinate system.6.
~ Figure 618 illustrates the concept of pscudol. singular) and no solution is possiblc from tlic I'c~ur equations. yields This equation expresses the relationship hctwccn pseudorange rne:lsurements and user position and clock bias in a compact form. Ewternrlly Airled lnerNa1  Navigation Systems by the inverse of H.. . CHAPTER fi .+ CAI.~ntof thc 4 x 4 solution matrix becomes 7ero (i. (C.e. .. When this occurs.we need only to examine the solutioli matrix. In order to ut~dcrst." .1tJ . navigation equations "hlo\v up. H. tht.I sIcsult of poor gcometr!. IS the ends 111' the unit vcctors from the user to the b u r satellites selcctcd arc in . ~ n d clror component\. . Tlic user range error is defined a t the pliase cetitcr o f ihc satcllitc itntcnna. + C(AtL.. ~ a point in tirne c a r 1 result in a system t outi~gc. the dirrctiun crlhinc o f t h e l'our unit vectors alollg . Consequently.I'S pseudoningc conccpl .~lues given for ionospheric del:~? compens:~tionerror LIIc 1  ~~~~ Error due to propagation delay and other errors...I d i r e c t i o ~ ~ pel~perldicular to this plane are equal. I t shor~ld be noted that rhc v. TIlc receiver ( o r oscr equipment) errors arc given in Table 61.angc and its asociatecl errors.Measurement p .itJ C = speed of light = FIGURE 618 (.hat is known a s a "system outage" c ~ c c ~as r.310 .tnd \\. = C (time s~gnal received tlme signal transmitted) R. 111c dctcrmin..~nd how the geometry of the satcllitcs . \i.I c o n i ~ n o n plane.
ranging error alone does not determine position fix error. this relationship can be expressed as E ~ = B'er where E.92 2. Since the overall position accuracy is a product of this value and other system errors.00 10. (6.5.= the covariance matrix of the resulting errors in the three com ponents of user position and clock bias . small DOP values are highly desirable.3. we note that where C. Mathematically.2. = pseudorange in user position and clock bias measurement errors From Refs.= the covariance matrix of errors in pseudorange measurements C. we must calculate the dilution of precision (DOP) values available from the four satellites selected.2.24 1.6. = emor E. it can also he used to express the relationship between errors in pseudorange measurement and the errors in user position and clock bias. since the navigation Eq. Furthermore.92 5. the budgeted value for the C/Acode receiver noise and resolution can be improved by digital phase locking techniques.28) is a linear relationship.21 based on dualfrequency delay measurements for the Pcode and the singlefrequency ionospheric delay model for the C/Acode. in order to determine the accuracy available from the four satellites selected as a function of their geometry.33 1. The relative geometry of the four satellites and the user also affects fix accuracy. Therefore. However. Navaid Sensor Subsvsrems TABLE 61 31 1 GPS User Equipment RangeError Budget PCode pseudorange error C/ ACode pseudorange error la (m) Error source Multipath Receiver noise and resolution Tropospheric delay compensation Ionospheric delay 1~ (m) 1. Geometric Effects In the previous section the pseudorange equation to the various satellites was developed. 6.10 1.24 7. 4 and 12. Moreover.48 1.
Y.. the error relationships arc functions only of the satellite geometry.and V . =I r = r Im errors in position error in time . . c.I~of~: = .(' Y. ELI. which 1c:uds to the concept of geometric dilution of precision ( G D O P ) . geometric dilution of precision ( ( i D O P ) it.t P. o a good approxiT mation. Furthermore. = variance of the clock bias ( o r clock drift rate) estitnatc From the t~bove discussion. this covariance matrix depends only o n the direction and is in n o way dependent on llrc dista~lcesbctwce~lthe user and cach salrllilc.utellitcs and the user's clock bias. Mathematically.het. a nreasurc of the erlor contributed by the gcornetric relationships of the G P S as seen by Lhc receiver. thcsc valr~escan he used to compare position accuracies (from a geometric standpoint) ofdilfercnt orbital configurations a s well as to measure the ovcrall effect ol'gcornctry to errors in the user's position and time bias.yar. t r ~ ( H r ~'1 ) =[Y.j ' (6. . t L 7 ~ t I. . then the fourdimensional G D O P is obtaincd by taking the square root of the trace (tr) of thc matrix: GI>OP: L . lhc diago~ral thc covariance matrix cc.29) can be written as c\=(B'B) ' (h.31) ~.. .on Systerns Tllc relationship between the two covali:unce malriccs can he writtcn a s ( 8 1 (~.hevr \ + m:. .29) where LI is the same 4 x 4 matrix of cocficicnts of 111c unknowns derivcd previously and is a f u ~ ~ c t only ~ thc direction cosines of the LOS unit i o ~ of vectors from the user to lhe four s. since the diagonal clcme~ltsof this covariance matrix are actually the variances of user position and time. Conscquently. . = v'~rianccof I position (or velocity) estimutc .3O) Assuming sufficient signal strength.3 72 CHAPTER 6 Externally Arded Inertial Nav. .iin\ of the variances of the position errors and the receivelclock bias error. C ' \ r a r i . : . a measule o f how satellite geometry degrades navigation :~ccuracy..o l ~1. various D O P valucs can be obtained from looking a( appropriate elements of this matrix. In modeling the CiPS receiver. . As stated above. 1m + m. the Knlman tilter will contain the covariance matrix of the estimates of' the pseudorange mcasurcrncnt errors.]' (6.(6. t n c e of z position ( o r velocity) estiniatc V . Thus. the G I I O P is given hy the following exprcssion: . l'.= variance of u position ( o r velocity) cstirnate Y. Expressing the diagonal elements of the covariancc matrix of errors in user position and clock bias a s V.nt...
A more frequently used measure of geometric performance is the threedimensional position dilution of precision (PDOP). The "system" errors depend on the accuracy of the ephemeris data and transmitted time from the satellites.5 to infinity.33) VDOP= (6. these various DOPs are defined as follows [21]: HDOP= [ V.32) + o. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 313 Equation (6. The product of PDOP and ranging error determines fix error. the PDOP can he expressed as . Mathematically. it is a strong factor of position error. The numerical value of PDOP ranges from 1. the maximum dilution of precision (MDOP).y+ 02. Computation of the PDOP involves taking the inverse of the square of a 4 x 4 matrix. + V. (2) altitude or vertical dilution of precision (VDOP). on a multitude of factors. This characteristic allows separate analyses of alternative orbital configurations.]"~ v. PDOP is an error amplification factor.'2 PDOP = [ V. user motion. ionospheric and atmospheric effects. they can be analyzed independently of system errors. knowing time is a secondary byproduct.2.]"~ (6. (3) time dilution of precision (TDOP). and satellite losses sustained for the purposes of comparison and choosing the optimal constellation. and (4) the larger component of horizontal posilion error. The position accuracy available from the GPS can be divided into two multiplicative factors: P W P and other "system" errors. which relates only to the three components of position error.6. which depend.31) includes all four unknowns (three dimensions of position and time) and is the conventional measure of overall geometric performance. and various other error sources.34) =& . The PDOP is also invariant with the coordinate system and is used because the most important consideration in any navigation system is position accuracy.& /. as we have seen earlier. Several other alternative DOP values are occasionally used in evaluating satellite constellations and relate only some of the variances of user position and time: (1) horizontal dilution of precision (HDOP). Mathematically. Since the PDOP factors depend predominantly on the user/navigation satellite geometries. PDOP is useful in aircraft weapon delivery applications. Thus.+ =es [v. which is not a trivial task. The receiver normally attempts to track the set of four among n visible satellites that has the smallest PDOP. (6. + V ] ' or PDOP = .
and I. should there be oltly f o u r visible si~tcllitesto ci~oosc from.~il.(i error i n titnc n .. The results o r this section car1 be s u n ~ m . .1. thcrc will he six o r mole s:~tellilcs i n view b y a n carth bilscd uscr and w e n rnorc by a l o w a l t i t i ~ d c si~lcllitc user. which yield the largest ictr. problem I t o the designers of usel.inalyscs c r~g 11f orbital constellatio~isfor cvalualion b u l is jost as significant . and T D O P is c of used i n time transfer applications. I n order to obtain the most accurak I I S ~ positin11. 0 . Similarly. (i%r.IS a scaling f .~l studies have demonI strated an almost total correl.~lredmn \olumcs.cquipmsnt.tt'i n.~nalytic.~tionso f satcllitcs is cxccssive. as tlic cquipmcnt 111i1stbc clrsigncd to operate quickly i n a dyn. 17igurc61'1 depict5 what constitutcs good o r bad si~tcllitc gcornctl1 [ I 31 'The rcsults o f many computer !runs and .urcch arc not av. ~ l ' l i i s presents n o problem. the system designcr must identify the "bcsl I h t ~ r "satcllitcs. however.I o errors i n positioli n . I . and the computational time required l o compute P D O P values for all the possible combin. the 1.~mic envirol~nrcnt.314 CHAPTER 6  Extein. ~ t i ~h dnoting that thc ( i I l O P e ! is . . it w ~ u l d highly ~ be desirable t o utilize those four ~ a t c l l i t c s\viltr the most tavorahlc gcornetli (lowest DOP values) u i t h respect t o the uscr at any Instant o i time.lrgcr t l ~ c volurlle o f this tetrahedron.gafion Sysferns . Thc p r o b l e ~ l i o f satellite selection is not only a probletn t o t l i i ~ s c o n d ~ ~ c t iglobal . and I'L>OI' must he divided by n .~\if.l . as all four most he used to dctctmine the user's th~eedirncnsio~r:~l position. ~ c t o ~ . OI<)Z 1vh~1. T h e nirljority o f the time.~rgec o r i i p ~ ~ i c r rvsi.. . . tctlahcdron forrncd by lines connecting the tips ot'thc l o u r unit ~ c c t o r s fiotn t t ~ cuser toward the i b u r satellites.+//y Airled /ncrf. Ilsually.lhle. .lsurement r (note that n .n/ Nav.~tion. . i n this u s e the equations for 111)OP.rlue \rill he tilr thi\ s:lnie set o f satcllitcs. n . ..I ( T error it1 t i ~ c . the smaller the corresponding PI)OP* v. Therefore. lipurc 11f rricrit for sclccting the best toru s:~tcllitcset with tire hest I .( T O A ) tne. V1)OI'. . ( ~ car1 bc considered .I~Icr. Geometric d i l u t i i ~ n prccisioti c J n also he defined as the ratio o f 1 n mcasure~nenterror normal to the lineotposition ILOP1 to the I n error i n position detclmination. 1II)OP is mostly used i n surfi~cc .ttion between P D O P and the \olumc o f . 'l'hcreforc.
Horizontal dilution of precision (HDOP) is a horizontal plane accuracy descriptor. without having to specify the user's position and trajectory.PDOP determined by geometry of satellites as seen by user (b) FIGURE 619 Navstar geometry for the determination of PDOP: (a) good (low)PDOP.6. Finally.2. geometry for tracking. Navaid Sensor Subsysrerns 315 . similar to the CEP.(b) poor (high) PDOP. VDOP is valuable in TF/TA (terrain following/terrain avoidance). The PDOP is used extensively in satellite constellation design and analysis. new signal processing techniques and currently developing technology have the potential for significantly improving .
~ i t l I l l I 3 mhps' 1. Externally Aided lnertjal NavrgaVon Sysremr GPS receive~s.PS performance characteristics are summarized bclow: ~ ~p Nnrigiition signals I'lcclse positioning scrvicc (PI'S) 1'code irnllllari J czingiii~ sgn. 1 !l?Z mhps W(. i ~ n dhigher jamming resistancc in military .31 ). 157512 MH. Yavtgation tneirsurements a r e dependent on three S. The GDOP. the oplimum set of four satellites to track is determined by the geometry hctwcen the user and the satellilcs in view.~l~ilil! Velocity s Acceier.riccrla~oly ~on 411 nl r' 14. 111 a normal environment (no jamming). smaller size.S~X4 I'ositiun Vciocily Time 1'cildc posit~un 4iJb~11 k.l??7.1 in? s 1 1 0 1 10Ozii ( l o ) 111 I YT. ( 2 ) incoming signal.q) Posltioll Velocil) Tlmz 10 lirst ti\ Suationi$ly Dynitmlc I'OWCI~ "Mrp. GPS U E Satellite Selection and LeastSquares Navigation Solution T h e ultimate objective of any satellite selection scheme is to select from the available satellitcs the set which minimizes thc user'\ n.il dilution of precision ( G I I O P ) .~pplic.rvigiltio~lerror\. Ac<rlu (civil) ranging * ~ ~ ~ liiirrh rnodcl Accurac) I . t 1011 availahlc to determine the satellite set which will providc the smallest nnvigation errors ovcr a particular period of time.l' lor ItJIJCII 21) r n h j (' 0. the G D O P is givcn by . Thc U E set uses a figure o C merit know11 a s thc G n O P to selcct from the ~ivailahle satellites the four satellite set with the hcst geomctry for tracking. (6.316 CHAPTER 6 .~clors(external to the U F signal processor): ( I ) geometry. and (3) noise.5.? 3I> SEI' h(lri ill 1)ynamtc ci~p. t ri. i'he C.wahlc i n ~ l ~ . T h c standard proccdurc for user equipment ( U E ) satellite sclcction is based solely on the geometric. however.(1ll b%tl. does not address the incoming signill and noihc.2.~tion Ail<.il Slaoduid positionilig sclvlcc (SI'SJ C .4. A n optid ' mum salcllite selcclion process must use every available piece of inform.:.. These improvcnients arc p~inra~ily lowcr production cost. 100 km 300 m 5 1511 i 470 \ dl 3111) II) r aI'W 6. From Eq.thils per second.~tions. ~ l i z .
is given by z=Hx+v (6.H 9 ) T ( .2.). This means that P should minimize J . called 9. z. with respect to 5 and setting the result to zero gives the wellknown leastsquares estimate as [I61 E~=(H~H)'H~z (6. from the point of view of the leastsquares estimation.He) ~ (6. (6. Navaid Sensor Subsvsfems 317 The usersatellite geometry matrix H. 2. select 2 so as to minimize the "sum squared" of the components of the difference (z. z.5. north.40) 2 Differentiating J . is formed by calculating the direction cosines of the LOS unit vector from the user to each satellite in view (expressed in user locallevel coordinates).2.37)] calculates a scalar value for each possible satellite set. up) coordinates j = number of available satellites in view Because of variations in geographic terrain.He). (6. to account for the equal uncertainty in range due to satelliteuser clock time bias for each satellite.2. and. That is. that is. In this section.41) It should be pointed out that.28). Thus wlrere h F ( . as discussed earlier. where B . all satellites below 5" elevation from the horizon are deleted from possible satellite selection. in the deterministic case. also called the visibility matrix. This measurement vector. when the additive noise v=O. )." The GDOP figure of merit [Eq.39) where H i s the matrix that relates the state to the measurements. the satellite set with the lowest GDOP is the best usersatellite geometry to provide the smallest navigation errors.6. One approach to this problem is the leastsquares estimator. The 5" angle is known as the "masking angle. ku( . is sought from the given z vector. corrupted by additive noise v and linearly related to the state x. This can be considered as an extension of the aforementioned section. the equation z = Hx corresponds to Eq. An estimate of x. Each row of the Hmatrix is composed of the 3direction cosines of the LOS unit vectors and the fourth element for all satellites is a one. = (z . ItN(. )=the respective direction cosines of the LOS unit vectors to each satellite expressed in user locallevel (east. we will discuss the navigation solution treated in Section 6. Now consider a vector of measurement components.
Externally Aided lnen. Smaller C. if they ale o f suliiciently highcr accuracy. good (i.~sscsscdby forming lhc crrol Making use of Eqs. I( the mcasurcniclit noise c o v a r i a ~ ~ cis not exactly the unit ~iiatrix. (6.11 )I. x represents thc statc vector. it is c l e n ~that all GCIO1'rcli~ted p c r h r m a n c e measures indicate thc error is .ill) G I I O P is often nsed as the selection criterion.~?. [:or thcsc rc:lsons.318 CHAPTER 6 . he preferable. Moleover. If .r>01' ni.c:~scs hy the scalar 0'.c.aluc E { of Eq.40) rcsults ill If the noisc r has zero mean. inherent in the GDOI'. is not so useful whcn ccrtai~i measurement comporicnls arc noisier than others..ai Navigation Systems corresponds to lhc measuiemcnl ( o r obser\. The covariance of the estimation error is related to the covariance o f lhc noise v . The quality of this estimate can be .43) shows that the estimator error ialso him e zero mean. From the preceding discussion. (6.is ibllows: : Furthermore. sni. if all components of r .lsuretnents. {hen whcrc T h c square root o f [ t r ( / I ' I f ) ' I ' rill bc recognized .ation) rnatrix /I. v v l j =In'.is the G D O P [ E q . whcli some itecdoni exists in thc choicc of the measurcmcnrs.39) and (6. ill1 the ahovc GIIOPrelated measures depcnd solely on the gco~iietrymatrix FI. It should be noted that the '. the set with the poorer (. 16. taking the cxpected \.I)OP values indicate stronger o r more ~rohustgconietric solutions to thc estimation prohlem.I choicc exist5 between two possible sets o r rne.per unit noisc" concept mentioned abovc. then the G D O P matrix incr. . c hut rather E .Ire pairwisc ilncorrelated ii~idhi~ve unit variance. and r corresponds to the measulemcnt vector z.In est~mated navijiation quancity "pcr unit of mcasurenicnt noisc" covariance.
the user determines its position by measuring the range between its antenna and four satellites. the user position vector R is determined by measuring the . 620. Similarly. FIGURE 620 GPSuser position solution vectors.41). Eq.5. The quadratic form of Eq. That is. and referring to Fig. as indicated by their variances. if all potential measurements have this same variance a2. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 319 Moreover. Minimization of Eq. Assuming for simplicity an ECEF coordinate system.' accurate measurements more and the noisy ones less. (6.46) results in which is a modification of Eq. W = R .2.6. The multiplication scalar o2will not affect the relative rankings.~ 2 ( Z HC) W ) ~  (6. the measurement noise is called nonuniform when different measurements have different noise levels.45) becomes From the above discussion and the discussion of Section 6. a weighted leastsquares approach to estimation is normally used.then the choice of the best measurement set will still he the best GDOP set. Thus J2 = (Z. (6. . In this case. (6. (6.46) Commonly.2. This choice weights the ance matrix. The range is determined by measuring the time the signal needs to propagate from the satellite to the user position scaled by the speed of light. More specifically.40) is modified by inserting a weighting matrix W . the weightingmatrix is selected as the inverse of the noise covariwhere R = &{vvT}.2.
which arc unknown. lakes the form n. The ith satellitc transmits R.161 p.correction considers a mullitude of . More specifically.. Therefore. T h e righthand side contains all known quantities. T h c propagation time scalcd by the speed of light yields the measured pscudorange p. where n .52) The lefthand side of this equation conlains thc four unknowns. certain preliminaries need to he addressed. hoth the user's position R.=(D.. ( ~ 1 z). ) is what wc actually compute. .R ..>.. Externally Aided Inertial Navigation Systems  magnitude of the vector D... the three coordinate directions o f position errur.(. which consists of the magnitude D. (known). Referring to Fig.)~ I ( I. = ' J r .~ .. B. This errol..+<. Rpi+#. ! (6.= the uscr clock oll'set bias from the (. 'The satellite knows and transmils its position. .=R. ) ' <.). (6501 so that thc range P..ingc clock olTsct. are determined hy solving Eq. (6. 620.) irh<.PS syslcm timc At.. .+rAl.the speed of light Ar.= ..S84 E C E F reference frame.A!... 1 .. and thc range crror due to the nscr'b clock crror. with elemcnts (1.13] R. is the satellitc r.) and thc time of that posilion.D.u .161. t o the ith satellite. .=R.. will be calculated in the W(. a n d the range error due to satellite clock crrol. .)' + (z:. (6.Y~v.49) Now we define a coordinate system with Icspect to thr uscr.51) where B. the user vector is exprrsscd a s [4. Urtining I .16) for ..rc.R R n.is transmitted with the satellite position information. (124) (6. pscndorangc ( p . The user components 111' R. a n d the satellite position R. based on Eq. (h. iind the uscr clock offset error h7:. which is the diftrencc hetween the uscr position vector and the ith satellite position vector R.320 CHAPTER 6 . . = propagation delay5 and other crrors R.is thc LOS unit vectors from the user to the ith s.r. ~ (i24) (6.= the true rangc: In order lo obtain the navigation solution. to the ith snlcllite can he wriltcn in a more cornplete rorm as (see also Fig...D. is the user rangc clock otiset and R. Combining Eqs. (6.49) becomes D. each satellite.. 618) j?.50) and (6. the measured pseudorange p.=satellite i clock oll'set from the GPS systcm timc A/.(hr. R B l . 1.51) yields I .I= Eq. . (6.itellile.ind noting that 1. = mcilsurcd pseudi~range Lhc it11 satellite 111 ~.
(6. 2.. = range offset of the user's clock (note that for 4 satellites used.55) 6.=the components of unknown user position (x= I. let Xu(4x . the subscript n = 4 ) The satellite position vector S4nxl given by is . [I (6.i=IRul Ru2 Ru3 BulT G ~ ( [rl r2 ~ ~ ~ ~ r3 r41T r3 = A r. 13. the leastsquares estimate can be obtained from *=H'~ (6. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 321 I corrections that we will treat as known biases.3) B. For the deterministic case mentioned earlier. which consists of the pseudorange measurement errors.54) which solves for R. Using the notation of Ref. and B. the measurement vector z . The solution is obtained by first defining certain vectors and matrices. That means we treat them as given and add (or subtract) as appropriate. can be expressed as z=Hx: Also. A general leastsquares formulation solves Eq.6.2..54).56) where R.
crs within a spccified area i ~ r o u n dthe R R . .4. Ria\ crror estimates . ephemeris crror c a n exist in the calcul. F o r example.'(PI P: 1>411 (hii)) Sctting up the system o f cquationc. ~ l t o m L G P S reference receiver ( R R ) in the vicinity of the GPS rcceivcrI equipped uscls that . ( 2 ) tropospheric delay. which is capable of tr.cr. c:[. Thcsc errors iricludc ( I ) satellitc clock error.lnd the mc:lsured pseudorange matrix hy P. S ~ ~ Note that the solution lo this equation rcquircs an itel. Since ttic reSerencc receiver's coordinates are known with good prcclsion. in Eq.\nge tr) a ~ location ihc satellite. That is..S p This cqnation car1 he placed in a leastsqu..I sirnil. so that the dilfcrcrlce . ..Ire then used to correct the mcasurerncnts of other CiPS recei\..X. thc vcctor R.l. the actual position and hence the initial direction cosities 11) tlie satelthc lites get updatcd. This concept involves the use of d a t . 1:urthcrmore.lge allows the ransc to he calculated. The dclta i.~tivc type s ~ ~ l u t i o i ~ based on an initial guess as to thc user's ilctuel position.I wellsurve>cd antcnn. ~ v c C.I ~refcrcnce rccciver a t a k t i o w ~W.C I I .5. [ A .sp1 'rile I~wstsqt~arcs algorithm implements following equation ( 1 3 j : ~ I I Iiterative lbhl colutio~ih.lr developtnent.~llows certain crrors that :ire common to hoth rccclvers to he removed from the uscr's position mc:lsu~ements. Deriving vclocity inform. 6. The measured range includes the .~ctualrange to the satellite and associ. (6. the D<. which has heen receiving increasing intercst it1 reccnt years.S L I ~ \ C ) I I L ~ nici~sures r. Morc spccifici~lly. thc solution iterates ~ ~ n t i l desired convc~gcncc rcsults. tllc satelill1 lite'\ e]. and ( 3 ) io~iospheric delay. On the basis o f that guess.(.5. Differential GPS One lcchniquc for improving the perll)rmancc ot the (iPS position.herneris rness. HOMCVCI.. .. in t l x x vcctor \\ill he replaced by the velocity vector V. Exterrrally Alded lnerf.on Systems .ttion Iesults flom .322 CHAPTER 6 ...83).~ted range.hli X.] ' .lcking all visihlc sntcllite\..PS Icfelcnccreceiver opcratcs from . Commonmode hios errors are dclermincd using tlie CiPS rcfcrencc rccci\.lnge o r range rate intorrn.A.~ted errols.x. we h .~t~on results from the receiver computing the Ijoppler s h i f s t ~ f t l i e arriving signals to cstahlish range rates to thc particulnr sntcllilc..=[C!.rres fillm a s li>llows:  (Oh01 c:c...2.62) gives the esti~natcof the [user pnsition a n d clock oITset.al Navlgaf. Equation (6. is the use o f the clilkrential G P S (DGI'S) concept.lscd o n thc (h.
The true values of the reference receiver's navigation fix are compared against the measured values. The most commonly used or preferred method when a large number of user vehicles must be accommodated is the "uplink of pseudorange corrections for participant onboard processing" [2]. In Ref. .2. If this range correction is applied to the measured range of a remote GPS user. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 323 between the measured and the calculated ranges includes all errors mentioned above. These differences are taken after the receiver clock bias has been removed and the calculated range to each satellite uses the satellite's position as defined in the ephemeris message. several schemes to accomplish differential GPS navigation are described. the users apply the corrections to their navigation data in order to produce position fixes that are free of GPSrelated biases. Figure 621 illustrates the DGPS concept [17]. a corrected range is obtained that will allow the remote receiver to remove the error in its uncorrected position. the user selects the optimum set of four satellites. or they may be recorded for postmission use. 2. and the differences become the differential corrections. As mentioned earlier. Strictly speaking. GPS SATELLrrES LOCATION FIGURE 621 The diKerential GPS concept.6. this method requires that the position of the RR be known and that the RR measures the pseudoranges to all visible satellites and computes the differences between the calculated range to the satellite and the measured range. These corrections may be transmitted to area user sets in real time. these methods are combinations of either corrections of pseudoranges. In either case. Specifically. or of the navigation solutions and whether the corrections are made on board the user vehicle or at the RR.
the K a l ~ n a n filter remains stahlc if the filter estimates all nodel led error states in the filler with with a hounded error.t pscudorange calculated using the survey coordinates is the corrected pseudorangc. (iPS manpack). Since the G P S receivcr provides pseudolange and delta pseudorange data.in INS operating alone ( i . in which the receiver contains its own internal K:ilmnn filter. such a s position. The d i k r c n c e hetween . free incrti. As mentioned . The INS provides the G P S with a relkrence that is corrected by the Kalman filter. or integrated with an INS. ci~rlicr.g. and other error parameters of the INS and GI's receiver clock.324  CHAPTER 6 . and vertical components [I I]." The ground truth rcprcscnts the navigation error in cast. velocity. G P S and inertial navigation systems have complimentary t'eaturcs that can be exploited in an integrated system. i l > ~ p r . tigurc 022 illusllatcs a sinlple Cil'S INS inlcgration. depending 011 the application) that acquires and tracks the salcllitcs and perf'or~ns p s c u d o ~ m g e and delta pseudorange measurements that are proccsscd sequentially in real lime to provide the best cslimalc o i uscr position. thus resulting in irnprovcd navigation performance.I benign environment is assumed.~li. velocity. The estimates of the INS error parameters allow GPS:INS n.lnnels. Finally. and attitude. the OGPS represents a costctTectivc method.I rccsibcr (with one to fivc ch. these data can be used for estimating crrors in position. and system time. ~ . a 622. The G P S can operate wlth suflicie~lt accuracy in a standalone configuration (c. The INS is able to provide acclirate aiding data on shortterm vehicle dynamics. velocity. The dilfrrence bctwccrl thc RR's navigation solution and the survey coordin. and attitude corrections. *In lliis qchcnic. GPSIlnertial Navigation S y s t e m Integration As with other navaids. and attitude to gcneratc thc best estirn.I reference reccivcr that i\ a wellcalibrated GI's receiver located . arc co~nhinedwith the INS measured position.the G P S user equipment consists of .in four s.~tes1s thc "ground truth.~tionof the GPSaided INS* is with both INS and G P S jointly providing r w data to a singlc Kallnan filter 21s shown in Fig. Even though the INS a n d i n r G P S may hccome unstable. north. ~ iperfornlitncc cikn cd hc t ~ c b ~ e i ' cwit11 less th. 6 . 2 5 6 .gabon Systems T h e discussion of this section can he sumrn.~lesof systcm position. Parameters estimated by this filter. Exterrraiiy Arrled Inerr!al Nav. In the standalone mode of opel~ltion.. velocity.lt a wellsurvcycd site. velocity. It is noted that the accuracy of the G P S solution degriides rapidly whenever lock is lost in one o r more satcllitcs. The optimal inlcgr. while the G P S provides accurate data on longterm vcliiclc dynamics..lvi_ration with substantially smaller crrors than could hc achicved with either a G P S standalone navipator o r . which significantly improves the reliability and accuracy of G P S navisation.irired by noting that all differential techniques require .liltc\ d .ll mode).
attitude. and other parameters. since the INS is a highquality extrapolator. thereby providing the best accuracy. this is not a problem if the INS is used in conjunction with the GPS. This alignment includes both the initial alignment of the INS and the subsequent inflight calibration or correction of inertial position." "ERyyj I Pseudo Range Standard OPS RECEIVER lllA 1 Pseudo Range Rate KALMAN . The Standard GPS Receiver Type IIIA* indicated in Fig. the primary benefit of filtering GPS data through the INS is not to improve on the accuracy of the GPS position and velocity but to optimize the system solution in case a GPS outage occurs. in order to aid the GPS the INS must be aligned. velocity. 325 System FILTER Navigation output Inertial Reference FIGURE 622 GPSIINS integration block diagram. the GPS and the INS have reduced sensitivity to jamming and maneuvers in military applications.6. The covariance simulation computes the covariance matrix of errors in the state vector that includes all the random variables that affect the GPS or INS measurements. However. As will be discussed later. The initial alignment is normally performed before an aircraft is ready to take off (ground alignment). Together. Furthermore. 622 is commonly designed to he integrated with an INS.2. Performance of the GPS/INS discussed here can be analyzed by performing a covariance or Monte Carlo simulation. Two major events executed by the covariance simulation are filter 'Note that the Fivechannel Standard GPS Receiver Type lIlA is intended for airborne applications while the IlIS type is for shipboard applications. Navaid Sensor Subsystems  I I I I . .
The hasic I N S e r r o r model ctlnsis~s i o ninc stiltcs (thrzc positions. The gyroscope crlors dilectly drive the p l a t f o r m t i l l eqnxtions and are niodelcd as a constilnt hias plus additional whitc noise.i\ iicfillcd 215 l is whcrc fir'. if :lpplicablc.~i o r i r d u c c d ordel.is n l a ~ r y 8 5 stales.o.IS t c (he :IS . . T l l c bias statcs (g)rohcope d r i l l i. such S slow \. I n . The basic INS trutli modcl car] he dcsctihcd h y the ccluatio~r where ti.111 a i i c ~ a f l N S c. T h e pelturhatinl~ equations can be XIitten as nlile lineill.ilignlnent>)..il<rng the i i ~ > r t l r e.ints thal arc a l ~ g ~ n e i ~11.63). Thus. ill the SCIISC t l l i ~ t is I 0111? lincar d y n a ~ n i c s m d lincnr relation\hips hctwccn sensor mc. and AC'. The nincstate INS c r r o r model discu\scd thus far is the niinirnum ~isrt'ul configuration for thrccdimensional applications and rcpresents the h. ktowcvcr.rnd v r l o c ~ t )crror component\ .~rnicsanil w.ite vector contains all tile errols that afect thc navigation system to a sigt~itic:~nt dcgrcc. I l i e tc covariiince s i m u l a t i o ~ ~ . .]riaI: tilrtls (11' ~ l hi. and three planforill tr~is. The INS Truth Model The ttut11 r n i ~ d c f l ~ r. F r o m Kd'. (6..ltion o f l l l c vchicle miincuvcrs.coi~tliinh rlrc crror p ~ ~ r . hut ~ c Ixxausc o f the slow c o u p l i ~ r go f tlicsc errors through tlie pletli. a suhoptirn. is the whitc driving noise term representing lhc instrument unccrt:~iiities. 12 ~ .1)) naxigation coordinate axex.. we note that thc crror statc vectoi. alld psc~isilivityerrors arc possible.lte vector arc moileled. all other than whitc noise.~tcs) i are m o ~ i c l c d ran(li>m co1lst.dill'cre r ~ t i a c q ~ ~ i i t i o nn u h i c l l l l i c 11 r 1 crior stale uectoi. is tllc n x rr m a l r i x represet~ting thc I N S linear crror dyn. ~ ~ n c t c r s . d system c q l ~ a t i o l i s . they atc n o t i t ~ c l u d c dn [he modcl. thc crror dynanlics [ E q .l\. W c \\ill now ewwrninc the "lrulh' nrodcl of the Cil'S and I N S . Ihc crror st. 1:roni Eq. Externaiiy ~ i d e d lncrfiai ~av.lscline I N S i error model.rsure~neirtsand i tllc crr<>rst.ist d o w n (NF.rt~i misl alignments .yat. Retincmcnts. more complete I N S model.is may also yield satisfactory results. ( h 6 4 ) j are driven t ~ d d i t i o n a l l yh y gyroscope and accclcronreter rrrors. tlirce vclc~citics. linear crror aliill)sis 1001.326  CHAPTER 6 . I n practice. scale factor. this system is augmented t o include elrols duc l o the barometric altimeter tncasurcmcnt and I N S instlurnentatio~~ crrc>rs. (I ~ and j E{~(I)W'(I t 7 ) : = ~ Q ~ ( T ) whcle Q is the slrcngth of tlie driving noise ancl ii(r) i c tile Dirac d e l t i ~ l'unclion.t r u t h modcl . arc the INS position .i Sysreirrs  ~ ~ p d aand propngation through tirnc (withoat ilrly update occurrilig).lnd the s l ~ o r du~.~tr lta\c l I .
three accelerometer error states 6A. The error model contains white noise plus two states for each accelerometer: bias B a n d scale factor SF. and DD represent the drift rates due to the north. and D down gyroscopes. where The dynamic equations associated with these states are . respectively. one range error state due to the user clock bias b. east. the stochastic differential equation for the basic GPS error model can be defined as follows [see also Eq. = FG6xG +w .64)]: SX. and one user clock drift state d.6. Both are modeled as random constants and augmented to the system equations The GPS Receiver Error M o d e l Now consider a basic 12state GPS receiver error model. three velocity errors SV. (6.2. E . The user position Sr and user velocity 6V are given in ECEF coordinates. one baroaltimeter aiding state 6h. The state vector SXGof this basic GPS error model consists of three position error states 61. As for the INS error model. The accelerometer errors are treated more accurately because of the direct nature in which they drive system errors during the short maneuver duration. Navaid Sensor Subsvstems 327 where D N .
~t~nn ~ giccn OII the s. 2.. .11cvc CHAPTER 6 . Externally Airled lnerfial Navigar.I . If the GPS recciver system designer wishes to incorporate such errors as atmospheric path delays a n d codctracking loop errors. =.=. ~. with s c c n ~ ~ d . Equations (6..\'. correlation =  T h e whitc driving noise .4)..is shown in Eq. (6.t.66) represent ihc bascline 12state CiPS receiver error n ~ o d e l dynarnics I'hc system equations for a simple 8state. 71..'I..on Systems  i . i =. w l i i ~ lis cnnipi~tiblewith the inli)rm.IS l'nllows: <. 4. Y time conslanl. 6 .. I9 gi\. 3. 5. baroaltimctcr urhitc driving n o i x TI. has a strcngth o f Q. these models must he augmented l o the basicsystem dynamics model such that . singlechannel... the basic ~ n n d c l [Eq.ad =?m:~.8. baro:~ltimetcr correl.I' ' Vspeed of the vehiclc I/.. A tirstorder Markov process describing the baroaltinrclcr crror must hc augmented to thc basic systcni equation .< .1 2 1 = 0 i = I .lvigation rncchanizalion in all EC'liF coordinate f ~ a m c .328 1!....ltcllilc ephemeris) are .66) \talc ?.~lritudc f a constant prcssurc o surface.64)] requircs ( a s a minimumj altitude aiding for stability pillposes. 2...el. ((~67) wlrere n. lolvdynamics CiPS manpack ~rccciver (Ref.~tiondistance == n.o r d e r ( codetracking loops contributing eight additional stalcs.I.... is the stand:ltd devi.= 7.I. Since the INS vertical c h a ~ i r ~ isl inhcrcntly unstablc bccausc o f thc e gravityinduced compensation error positivefeedback loop.4v.~rionof the .. (6. these errors call he rnodeled a s a constant bias and a sccondorder code[racking loop [20]. 3.cs the n.. Consequently.
2. u *The atmospheric error model for a tropospheric delay is given by is=(l/r.rr are the velocity and clock bias drift correlation time constants. two horizontal accelerometer biases. two horizontal velocities. Navaid Sensor Subsvsfems 329 where x. and x8 are the user clock bias and bias rate terms. a few remarks concerning the codetracking loop error model are in order.6. Before we proceed with the discussion of the integrated system truth model. and two horizontal accelerometer scale factors. are the user velocity components. x8IT I ~1 '. and q and qr are the corresponding random fluctuations in the user . r .and x x. xd.) A 22state Kalman filter uses approximately 32K words. a. The 17state Kalman filter includes the following error states: two horizontal positions. A commonly used codetracking loop in which two states for each receiver channel are implemented is that of a secondorder. is a white Gaussian noise: with zero mean.+ w. the system model is given by x(t) =Fx(t) +q(t) where ~ ( t= [x. In this particular case.. = an internally generated variable arc= position error due to code loop .)r. respectively. three platform tilts.. the equation for describing the code loop error model is where a. 2 . term. x5. q is the velocity additive randomnoise .=error due to uncompensated atmospheric path delays* v. and x. . 20. are the components of the user position. three gyroscope scale factors. = constant. predetermined gains r. and x. the vertical channel information is obtained from a barometric altimeter. The Kalman filter structure can be designed in two configuration modes: ( I ) as a closed loop filter for inair alignment of the INS by the GPS. where . and (2) as an open loop filter for the GPS/INS integrated mode. (Note that the vertical channel is not modeled since it is unstable. From Refs. 19. . clock phase and frequency errors. Furthermore. v rl(f)=[o 0 0 ' " QP 1 1111~ A typical Kalman filter INS error model will commonly consist of 1722 filter states. and . . and 24. three gyroscope biases. ) X2 .
= white driving noise h = range error duc to user clock hias Aiter specifying tlie damping ratio and handwidth 8. in Eq.. The System Truth Model Thc truth modcl is fbrmrd by combining common states in the lotal INS model arid the total GPS receivcr nod el. < where the nominal value of thc damping rxtio is takcn as C0.rnic. T h c driving n o i x strength ol' 1 1 . . Notc ~ I I ..Externally Aidcd Inertial Nav. is determinctl by solving the Kiccati cqu. T h e valuc n is determined from 1241 ' while the signi~ltonoisc ratio ( S N R ) secn by the G P S .~rthe code loop is clrcctcd hy thc projection 01' the velocil? vector onto thc iiscr tu s ~ t c l l i t c lincallsight (LOS) vector. is the bandwidth of the codc loop. This cquatiol~statcc th. I I I ~ ere clclcrnmincd by the equations (1. ~ h GPS cstimatcs must he ~ ~ .. atid i'iV arc all cwpresscd with respect LO tlic N E D navigatiorr coordinalc f'rntnc. llic parameters (I. (6... + ri.68) is whcrc the tour vectors of I. is thc strength of thc signill.. error in the externally supplied aiding vclocit) ir. I I since thc G P S posilion illid \.i is detelniincd f m t n the equation CT = . ...galiorr Systems 6 K. n.clocily cstinialcs arc i l l thr EC:EF fr. I'lic term F C'.7071. B. is the thcrrnal noisc ior tlie system. and 0 is tlic v.~ri.n I + 1 ?P.intrnn.rtforrn cooldinates.a ~ i s f o r r l ~ e d c in?o ihc pl. SNR j whcrc N.. P.330  CHAPTER 6 .~ncc the ccmde ' of loop error.. o f the codc loop.~tion ( J 2u'n' 2u..
GPS signals will be used to update the INS at a rate of once per second [ 5 ] . Thus. where a fire control computer (FCC) is used. In designing an integrated GPS/INS system. and these states are eliminated from the GPS truth model. FUR adds the terms 6 ~ = 6 A due to the acceleration adds the terms due to the error modeled within the GPS receiver. the fire control computer's Kalman filter determines the best system navigation solution and calculates the errors in the INS estimate of position. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 33 1 while eliminating the redundant states. Figure 623 depicts a simple GPS/INS integration employing two Kalman filters in a filterdrivingfilter configuration. Now consider a filter that is "external" to the GPS receiver. This is necessary because the GPS receiver error model does not simulate the dynamics of the INS mechanization. Neglecting time correlation.. represents the unit lineofsight vectors from the INS position to the satellites. The truth model dynamics matrix F. The resulting error state vector is given by where all the symbols have been defined previously. and FCL error in the velocity aiding signal to the codetracking loop. it cannot estimate the timecorrelated nature of the INS information. We now have the outputs of one Kalman filter being used as inputs to a following Kalman filter. the best information the GPS receiver Kalman filter has available to simulate the INS velocity aiding error is if SVsidof Eq. That is where I. . Finally.69) is treated as an additional white driving noise on the codetracking loop.6. At the same time. and barometric altimeter states are duplicates. These two interacting models are referred to as the "twofilter" fullstate system [Id].. the INS is providing velocity aiding to the GPS code loop. The position. For this reason. velocity. care must be taken so that system stability is guaranteed. (6.2. The GPS produces a navigation solution and provides its estimate of the vehicle position and velocity to the INS Kalman filter in the form of measurements. only one position error vector and one velocity error vector are included in the truth model. relating these states is formed as where F. FG is the GPS truth model minus the redundant states. is the full INS error truth model. In military applications.
thc Kalman tilter performs a series o r calculattons Lhnt require approximately ten seconds to complete.er. _ _ _. Systems r . fix tighter aircraft using a fire control computer. and position and vclocity vectors. the G P S is integrated illto thc tirecontrol system. Ground position vclocit) lixes Discrete i c r o vclocity Continuous zero velocity . These computations k ~ k epl.I . and the Central Air Data Computer ( C A I I C ) . an estimate of how tiiuch error cxibts in the INS. . STANDARD GPS RECEIVER IIIA 1 .IS GI's. OUtput Range Velocity Range Rsle ." Notc that the INS solution diltirs from the "real" solution hy position and velocity errors and platlbrm misalignment angles. The inputs to tlic Kalman filter can be grouped in the following ways: I . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r .lining 21 navigation solution utilizing data from indcpcndent sensors such . gyroscope hias. Twoliltci GPS FIGURE 623 'INS !ntcgi.lcc in thc Kalman filter. and platform alignment. the lire control computer is responsible fix 1naint. Morco\. o which more closely approxiniates the aircraft's "Ieel position..~llon vclocity. As a result. The tilter compute:. INS 8 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . a ~ INERTIAL NAVIGATOR : . and random noise to estimate INS misalignment angles. Therrforc. gr. which uses position and vclocity inputs and niatliematicall? applics values for the earth's curvature.332 CHAPTER 6  Externally Aided Inerfial NavigaNo. torquing terms (in the case of gimbaled systems)..ivity. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . This data is applied lo the INS'S navigation solution in the 50lTz range L yield the F C C computed system navigation solution. INS.
and (4) T39 for INS alignment using GPS computed corrections. integrated navigation algorithms can be developed and/or written that produce position data that have the smooth. The GPS measurements of position and velocity are available anytime the GPS is powered up and not in an initialization or builtintest (BIT) mode.2. can be much better than either system in the standalone mode. Consequently. the velocity accuracy of the integrated system.5. depending on the complexity of the integrated algorithms. which the fire control computer compares to the INS computed rangetosteerpoint. In summary. Note that a radar fix would be considered more accurate than an overily fix. if the latter were accomplished at a high altitude where exact position is difficult to ascertain visually.7.6. Each satellite transmits a spreadspectrum signal encoded with the time of transmission and a set of orbital elements from which the satellite location at the time of transmission can be computed. The GPS avionics system must be able to function as the aircraft's sole means of navigation for en route and terminal phases of flight and nonprecision approaches. (3) FI I IF. allowing its users to calculate their position and velocity much more accurately than any previous system. Navaid Sensor Subsvsfems 333 2. By simultaneously delaytracking the signals from four satellites. Regular position fixes are accomplished in the standard manner.S. Each fix measures true rangetosteerpoint.1 m/s can . GPS GPS position only a GPS position and velocity The ground fix modes provide a means of updating the aircraft's position and velocity while on the ground. Air Force aircraft: (1) AC130U (Gunship). a realtime position estimate with an absolute threedimensional accuracy on the order of 10 meters RMS in each axis and a velocity of 0. Navstar/GPS Operational Capabilities When fully implemented. 6. nonnoisy characteristics of an INS and at the same time do not degrade the position accuracy of the GPS. (2) F16C/D.2. Examples of GPS/INS integration can be found presently in the following U. Regular position fixes Visual overlly a Radar Headup display (HUD) 3. the navigation performance of the integrated GPS/INS system is better than either the GPS standalone or the INS standalone. the GPS will provide continuous worldwide coverage. Also. The fire control computer Kalman filter estimates are used to correct INS data to give it the accuracy required for fix and weapon delivery functions.
. ~ l aloader).~\.334  .I unique f i x . inflight. GPS user eqilip~nc~ii I S cap.~ble f o p c r . ~i\ INS within 10 In of its lruc position for all cntirc flight I2Ol. ~ n d status data.c. in the determinalion o l posiliol~computed from thc GPS pscudorangc rneasurc~ncntsfrom four sntellites ( 1 1 . position. .~shccn claimcd tlrat.~lnavigation systcrn a Faster and more accuralc alignment (including ground. The rcal value and o r bcnctils of the CiI'S car1 be summari.lly posilion data can he standardized on . civil and n1ilit.powcl.clocil> and time. 11ack angle and crosstrack r time . ~ twith i)tller navig. i the ~ dcsig~ledto minimize sources of crror and to uornpens. e ilnique fix is not guarantccd.itus data: rit.yarion Systerrrs .  bc (~htained.i. elcvalion anglc to waypoint. accclcration and allilude (ironl :lidi~rg navigation system).~ o s i l i o ~ ~ . ~ i n t . ~ t i l ~ g an .~t could not be eliminated by design.ai Nav.I worldwide h:~sis. ~ n d distance to \c. true magnetic heading. Enternaily Aided berr.red a s iollows: I . calendar and time of d i ~ y . velocity. 5 I3ecausc thc GPS system is relixci~ccdto .haracteristicsusually i ~ r c dependent [. magnetic variation.I comnioii grid. steering i!iforrnation (i. Kcce~ltly..tnslbrm navigation inf~rrn. ur it can o in ous be i ~ ~ t e g r .r!tdaloncl mode. ~ u t o n ~ ~ r n (i.!I the typc o i inst. waypoints (entered 1.~llation.rtiol~ other conlnlonly into used d a t u ~ n s s \vcll. requiring :ti least 112 satellites i l l order to assunie . Ilouever. Typical (. .4 ) . lnterlllcc ~. N. i t Ir.lltitudc (mean sea level o r ahsolute).~clianti landing a Wi~ypoint .rlcllitc signals. . allitudc. and othcr requirements. Tlic uscr equipment can 11. ~ n d .ltc for error sources tli. tlic WGS84. In particular. s. sI. W e a p o l ~systems a Bcttcr weapon delivery pcrform~rnccthrough reduction of nuniher o C bombs required a Better accuracy and PIohability of kill a Passive o r bli~ldwcapon rclcase a K e d u d i c ~ nof exposure time Kcduction in target acquisition time 3.c.This Irish accuracy is possiblc hecause thc sybtcm ~ . llic GPS bounds INS drift errors and n i .~tio~l cd systems such as inertial and ilopplcs r.l/Jlrl.PS rcccivcr inputs atid outputs arc as Sollows: i?~pr. As stated in tlie p r e v i ~ ~ u s a section.igation Accurate general navigation ( ~ I Iroute and terminal) a Area navigation and instrumcnt appro. Inerli.. 1. ~ i tltc ~11s. and test .nypoint.tiding navigation syslcni mode and st. groundspeed and groundtrack angle. CHAPTER 6 . and transfer alignmen0 a Kcductioti o l drift a Continuous update 2.1oma C I I I I o r d . p \.
Both the Navstar/GPS and the Glonass include a military (Pcode) and a civil (C/A) component.5. the INSsupplied rateaiding signal allows the codetracking loop to retain track longer than if no aiding signal were present.6.2. the GPS receiver supplies only range information. Similar to the U. while Russia's Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS or Glonass) system was inaugurated four years later. The transmission carrier frequencies chosen (3) for the Glonass satellite navigation system operate in the Lband.. the navigation of such aircraft requires rapid processing of the information transmitted by the satellites.S.8. The U. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 335 a Rendezvous Steering for desired track Backup steering in the event of INS failure a Air traffic management (e. frequency carries the civil C/Acode. Navstar/GPS. allweather navigation for such common weapon delivery modes as (1) continuous computation of impact (target) point (CCIP).S. for this reason it is desirable to use an INSsupplied rateaiding signal to the codetracking loop. Each GPS receiver contains its own digital computer for the processing of this information. Radiofrequency carriers used by the Glonass are within the bands 12401260 MHz and 15971617 MHz. an optimally integrated GPS/INS system can provide precision. around 1250 MHz (L2) and 1600 MHz (LI). civil air traffic control and collision avoidance) Flight control When GPS receivers are used in supersonic aircraft. Finally. . the Glonass satellite navigation system foresees an operational configuration of 24 satellites (21 satellites+3 active spares) with 8 satellites in each of 3 orbital planes separated in right ascension of the ascending node of 120. compute the point on the ground where the weapon would impact if released at that instant. that is. and (5) limitation of roll command steering. (4) computergenerated release signal.2. (2) continuous computation of release point (CCRP). International Efforts in SpaceBased RadioNavigation Systems Global satellite radio navigation systems have been under development since the 1970%notably by the United States and Russia. 6. in a highjamminghighdynamics environment. Consequently. Navstar/ GPS system was first launched in 1978. Only the L. (3) timetogo weapon release. With regard to weapon delivery. Automatic landing for transportcategory aircraft using an integrated GPS/INS guidance system promises to he more costeffective and rival the accuracy of microwave landing systems (MLS) This type of automatic landing system uses the signals from the satellites as well as inertial navigation data to determine aircraft position.g.
Scccion 2. Haniiwidths for the Glonass Imnsmission can he taken a t 1 M H ? and 10 M H z for thc civil and military codes. When the 1111 24satellite operational Glonass ci~nstcllationis deployed in the 1 9 9 6 I997 time frame.ilent bandwidths.ttellitc radiates a t a slightly ditrcrent ftcqucncy.lonass receiver is that the atomic clocks used in the Russian satellites arc synchronized to a slightly ditlicrcnt reference than the ones used in the G P S satellites.S. Unlike the GPS.'Cilonass receivers will he able to :tcquirc the <::A signal with equal accuracy. In addition ti. the tnaslcr co~itrolstatio~is iill inter~nediittc usc timc rcfelence for thc individual s p ~ c c vehicles.6).~tellitcis identitied hy a code in its riidiatcd sign. while the UTC' ( S O ) rctcrs to the hydrogen atomic clock in Moscow. the European Space Agency (ESA) is designing its own spacebased radio navigation system.I conihincd G P S 'C.il Time ( U T C ) . navigation satellites transmit details o f their own positions and a timc refcrcncs.l length of 51 1 hits its compared to Navstar's 1013 hits fnr its cquiv?~lc~lt code.on Systen>s the channel spacing is 0. in which each s. This time is known as "system timc" and is transmitted as part of thc nornial data message. The carrier I'scqucncics tllemselvcs arc also mult tiples of channel spacing.gat.. Naval Obselv.(iPS and Russia's (ilonass systems. the U.indonr noisc code. h c h sstcllitc sends d n c < a t lowspeed from which its own position at ally i.~sts1 nis. For example.S.4375 M H L at the lower ircqucncies and 0. I'or the purposes of allowing the llser to compute its own position.2.5615 MfIz i ~ the higher fiequencics. the numhcr of planned channels he in^ 24.'CiPS system.I compilrison o f .to correct inr gyroscopic drifts. A code sequzncc l. this data is transmitted al a 50hps (hits pcr d. it is clc.ts . National lahoratorics running atomic standards tire used 111 compute the IITC. which is periodic and longer than a single data hit. 'fhc Cilon. Kussii~plans lo phase i ~ u tthc groundbased navaids. Glol~ass navigation data can he used to updiile the INS oncc each second in ordel.ekrcncc time ~ ]nay he ~ ~ l c u l a t cSpecifically. which corrcsponds to . the Glonass system is certain to be linkcd to the IrTC.~sslowprecision code h.~tory. These ligurcs compare with 2 MI l r and 20 MH7 for Navstar's equiv. ~ l s o C'haplcr 2. Therefore.11the Bureau de L'Hcurc (see . o ~ i cpotential ohst. fbr the purposes of global time comparison. 111 satellite navigation systems such 21s N.~clc to . Nevertheless. the ESAlNAVSAT is in the study phase. for marly years the measurement of time has beer1 coordinatcd .~l.In error in range of about R O O m.I comhinatio~l of GPS. However. respectively.~rthat .tr. Tahle 62 presents ." At thc prcscnt tinre.336 CHAPTER 6  Externally A. second) rate and supcrirnposed on a pscodor. the relationship hetwecn the Navstar <iPS inid Cilonass remains unresolved at an accuracy o f better than 1 ps.&d Inertial Nav. cacli tilonass s.I common rcfcrcncc timc is the Coordinated Iinivcrs. Historically.ivstar. However. designated "ESA"NAVSAT. Navst. As in thc Navstar. Civil aviation users cquippcd with G P S (11. the IJTC' ( U S N O ) rcl'crs to the atomic rnastcr clock at the I1.GPS and Glonass.
The transmitter. 6. The function of each of these components will now be briefly described. 12h period Autonomous Lband spre'ddspectrum datamodulated Horizontal : I00 m Vertical : 150 m (predicted) 0. Navaid Sensor Subsystems TABLE 62 337 Summary and Status of the Various SpaceBased Radio Navigation Systems Svstem Sponsor Coverage Satellite constellation Navstar GPS U. starting with a precise frequency. the VOR system consists of a transmitter.g.. modulates and amplifies that signal to provide a properly modulated highlevel VOR carrier to the antenna bridge. DoD Worldwide 21 3 spares Inclined. VORs operate within the 108117.95 MHz frequency band and have a power output necessary to provide coverage within their assigned operational service volume. 12h period highly noentric orbits Transponder Lbald spreadspectrum data modulated 12. an improved compatible VOR is capable of providing better accuracy. Although the accuracies of standard VOR are comparable to TACAN.5 m SEP (predicted) Not known Not known In study phase + Signals Autonomous Lband dual frequency spreadspectrum datamodulated Accuracy Position Velocity Time Status SPS: 40m CEP or I00 m 2 .0 rms PPS: 10 15 m 3D SEP 0. and automatic ground check antenna.2. Commonly. a VOR antenna. Decca.S. Some of the Navaids listed in Table 63 (e. approximately 50.1 m/s Partial operation Full operation planned by the end of I993 the spacebased radio navigation systems discussed above. LoranA) have been phased out or are in the process of being phased out in favor of the Navstar/GPS. lowlevel output from a temperature compensated crystal oscillator. a monitor.2.6.4".15 m/s In development Full operation planned by 1996 ESAiNavsat European Space Agency Worldwide 6 geosynchronous and 12 inclined. The goniometer also . Finally. 12h period Glonass Russia Worldwide 21 + 3 spares Inclined. the various radionavigation aids discussed in this chapter are summarized in Table 63.6. VeryHighFrequency Omnidirectional Ranging (VOR) The VOR is a groundbased radio system which provides bearing measurements similar to TACAN. a goniometer.
nh <$\i.ah t ~v P i t~t ~ I x ~ r .s lkv ~ n l c r n > ~ ~ wa ~% z t r r ~ o ~ X ~ ~ ~ I I C X I S I X I l'l'lk el :~i n' cI r . I h c Radii> Tcchiilc.(1.t. A the : i ~ t c ~ i ~ .il ( ' o m m ~ t t u c 1114 .AT?LI .trdt.c I i911c Rzl:re$ics SL.eci. t ~l L l ~ ~ l'rcct~!~!t:I)I~!.tnd :xn . Rho Rho T h ~ t .l i krn .%. h ( i L l l l i i . I<!8. i c > of : 2 i 59 rn r h r d~fl'erenilal1.~. I!I~fl: I 1 S ~ ! ~ t z w I t ? 1946.cll l LOS IC17X! Carrwr b a n d < : 1 .!?'.~.~ng u ~ ~ v cS>>IC~I ! b l L S ) I1 13c:t111 b 1 l ~ S ~CCII~I~L~LK ~CICCIC~I .t ~I~LI.? ~ < ~ I ~ I ~ \ .0s 211s I'lh: LOS 5 GIIL lq60 1215 b I H z ) 711 I icillc.50 '1)npplci .i S].tr~d:trd IIII. !l7.!\IC~? I~<L:..!rci .cit\ ..liicu o ~ : i h o u t 3 .. \ .?.rion.iccu~.n \cic.~l!~alO m s p i r r i i o n oper.lTcct~ic In 14511 W o r h UII thc h l i ~ r ~ ~ IAI~IXIC rzpl. L' S.lt> o i 0. IC:r.n Tor Llnrlilme Scnlc? I K T C M S I c. I ~~.5 I. .~~~l. '.I l h c . >tiil~ii:iid I I w I< A 0 ~ ~ ~ .il c r l l r O h l .~ndztxdi~ed I L S . I 1'1 .1 0 l?'. \\ o ~ l d i \ l d c I ' ~ > r ~ l ~ SPS.!...!IIC t>!7ic~.\ 7 1 1 ~ I ~ C U :?IIC~~I.? \l. ~ i c u r ..tri. ~ lh\I!. i R h o Theta H!peiholtr liioerbollc Frequency IOX I I X M H ? (km) nl1 i \rcurary (m)CEP \ X i ' iI S iP I'jiOs I l ~l.m ( F!' o r l i l l i ~ n ~ l l on. 'In lY4.rnnli\s!<..Ic>~I m ~ ~ l r l l c ~ l .HI C~I 1985 The \[IS !< ~ c l ? c ~ l ~r ~ p l~ ~ c!hc 11.:u I \lc..42 L l t i i PC ade 1 l l l .~ll> i..I) 1511.t> .\:rpcrt~ . ~ ? I ~~ i .0 1.5'' I Y 39 1. In 01 irloi..ir> r ~ ~ ~ ~ n~ c .I ! .L!~L~.I r.tw:~ng F L ~ L U ~ ~ 8~!>\{I. .c 111c\ ' t l r .I > sI:ll 11.n ~ C l r g .ihlliheil .il ( <..t i ~ L~ ~ IC .L~ ~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ ! ~ ~ ! v C !I.~ ~~ :~ t ~~I~ r \ ( > l : i l w .l. g o \ e r r ~ ! ~ ? e ! ~i ll :i!kI ~miltl.PS l l 3 G P S i accuidcy k s v c n .~nd..:+t.~.+cc l l ~ c S l b : ~ f ~ t ? ~1 1~167 In.TABLE 63 Performance Comparison of Modern Radiolaligation S>\tem\ System LOR Year introduced 1946 Range I!pe Theta Thst..1 !TI i K M S $11 c.i.\ 5 10 m R M S in cact! c t i 3 p<>.tnd. i t ~ ~ ~ o i i l h! !IIC I l : \ O .3.in DCir'S ~n Ucncmbcx 1983.\!!. l h c I ~ I I c ~ ~CivrlI .id !! I LP. ~ ~ ~ ~ L ~ ~ ~ I ~ L ~ ~ I .ic! I \ rated at 0. l~ Rh1S I'PS.~ .itme t'rcqusnc! :and lh. i l l .~. "Tlie diHcri.
the aircraft should generally fly above and within the boundaries of the groundbased elements of the DME network. under these conditions.2. Specifically. while others have a DME transponder in the aircraft and a number of interrogators on the ground. which is about 1. these sidebands automatically track the carrier power level through feedback control in order to provide constant modulation percentage.52 m (lo). However. Moreover. the aircraft's position relative to these precisely surveyed locations can be determined. which has been designed to overcome the multipath problems created by buildings and local topography. The audio components of the two doublesideband pairs are in phase quadrature and are switched 180" in R F phase on alternate half cycles of the 30Hz navigation signal. Navard Sensor Subsystems 339 starts with the crystal oscillator output and provides the antenna bridge with two balanced doublesideband suppressed carrier signals offset 1 3 0 Hz from the carrier. A variation of the standard VOR is the Doppler VOR (DVOR). and the distance between groundbased elements should be comparable to the altitude of the aircraft. Consequently. 6. Distance Measurement Equipment (DME) Distance Measurement Equipment is the most precise method known for updating airborne inertial navigation systems in real time. similar to artificial satellites. 16throw solid state switch. are subject to geometric dilution of precision (GDOP). The DME range measurement link consists of a cooperative interrogatortransponder pair.2. The VOR wavelengths are about ten times greater than that of TACAN. and an azimuth phase measurement is performed for each antenna radial. these systems measure the ranges from the aircraft to a number of fixed. it is subject to lineofsight restrictions. Using multilateration methods. known points on the ground. there is some spillover. The VOR automatic ground check equipment consists of 16 monitor antennas with radomes and a single pole. and reception at an altitude of 305 m is about 7483 km. Multilateration DME systems.7. When distance measuring capability is added to VOR. The VOR monitor utilizes a microcomputer design approach and performs the VOR executive monitoring function. In order to minimize the GDOP. one at each end of the range link being measured. it is called a VOR/DME . Since the equipment operates in the VHF frequency band. under control of the monitor microcomputer. Some systems have the DME interrogator in the aircraft and a number of transponders on the ground.6. This distance increases with altitude. These ground check antennas are switched to the VOR monitor in a synchronized manner. and its range varies proportionally to the altitude of the receiving equipment. the accuracy of the multilateration position fix becomes equivalent to the accuracy of the range measurements themselves. VOR is the standard shortrange navigation aid in the United States and for other members of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
riiil .. and T.71h) ~ ( T J ~~.x + w arc a s follows: I.(I~~T)<. =:?n:..I system using .DME is frciluently co~itarninatcdby aircraft m.tnd D M E errols atc heplratcd imo two componcnls: .71~) E~<.ind slant range from the st.~ddcd lhc s>slcm to model x = 1..exa~nplc..ri E { < ~ . and n.llly. and e\: the VOK crrnr c(11nponentswith a long ..I 7 0 . respcc~ and lively.. = 0 A typical value for n.arc Lhe standard de\ialion and corlelatroil lime ol.&(~1 (h. .. ill Ref. .~tiolltime. For an aircraft flying a t a spcc(l o f 0 2 0 kni '11 ( 5 0 0 k~lotsi. and similarly h...340 CHAPTER G  Exteinslly Aidcd Inertial Nav~gat. ~ O ~ = ~ ~ ~ ~ .and 7. = 0 h. .rehpci. a s well ...(I~. Den(1ting h.0 h .. is I . It bhould he noled that bcaring infc.. F01.rnm. and a component with a sholt colrelation time that can bc niodelzd as \vhite noisc. V O R . ~ n d .rtion mude fi>r civil . D M E system depends u p < ~the n relative location of the aircraft and tlic VOR..The VOR I I M E cnablc onhoard determination of an aircr.I short correliition timc.lgt~ctichcading in thc i~ircraft receivers so lI1. D M E station. ~rircrart fly directly to o r from lhc ground he. the V O K I I I M E error state cquatioiis that niohl he .71<1) where rr.In inertial nn\igator..~tion... d c n o ~ cthc D M E error components witti a long and a short coircl.. 1)ME infortnation can he used to update the inertial navigation systcm. both VOK .I component with a long correlation timc 111.rO~ 1 . . the use o f VOR D M E infortnation suggests the pmssihility of using a n error model in a Kalman filter configurnlion so a s to obtain improved navigational accuracy.(6.IS the numhcr of VOR and [)ME slations used. rchpcctively. the standard deviation o f c ~ h. O h. we have 131 h. C:onseqi~critly. . and r .. Ih. Since the accuracy of the positin11 infbrrnalion derived from the VOK. When used in conjunction with an INS.lSt llying in the airspace o f many countrieh in thc worl~l. respect~vely.i Systcms  station... that is.itive to north at llic lixcd groond statioi~..lnd u. 3. .tft's hearing 1rel. 0 C[(a. =0 ( 6 71.lirc~.cly.ti\.7:. thc VOR D M E systcm involves primarily radial navigation.ltion from VOR. for .~ E[l'.e.o.1t can he nodel led :IS a random bias.tt rirngc .. rchpuctivcly.. ./. Such an ertor model ibr the V O R I D M E has bee11 trcatcd cxtcnsivcly in the literature..rnd hcirriny data ~rcsulth in instrumentatioll crlllrs.rcotls. Spccitic. ( I + T ) < ' . VOK '[)ME is llic primal! ~rav~g. ...
flexible . minimum en route altitudes (MEAs) are specified by the FAA for airway routes. As with VOR and TACAN. at a VOR/DME. VOR/DME. and identification capabilities. DME. their lineofsight propagation characteristics further limit the horizontal and vertical coverage. triservice program providing integrated communications.1852 km and 3. Note that although the RhoTheta systems inherently have omnidirectional or area coverage. and other U.2. and provide navigation service to civil and military aircraft over the continental United States.6. TACAN. is 0.). because of the VORTAC lineofsight characteristics and problems with terrain obstacles. The equipment is designed for maximum commonality of the VORTAC. There are approximately 1200 stations located throughout the National Airspace System that are operated and maintained by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). and .852 km (d. On the other hand. b. Alaska. However. JTIDS was developed to facilitate secure. RhoTheta systems have the desirable feature that the lateral position error decreases linearly as the station is approached. typical values of CS~. 6. the correlation distance of ev is about 1.S. a reasonable value for a. These VORTAC stations include VOR. Navaid Sensor Subsvstems 34 1 a correlation time of 7. respectively. their application has been largely restricted to the use of radials for routes or airways.2. and is designed to provide the user Rho (range)/Theta (azimuth) information.8. VORITACAN (VORTAC) A collocated VOR with a TACAN constitutes a VORTAC beacon system. since these groundbased radio systems operate in the VHF and Lband regions of the spectrum. T are 0. VOR and TACAN signal reliability is extremely high. the only significant differences from the VORTAC are that the 5kW TACAN power amplifier is replaced by a 1kW DME power amplifier and that the primary ac power is singlephased. territories. Similarly. The maximum useful range of VORTAC stations is typically 185 km or less. these systems provide relative range and angle (bearing) data with respect to the station. Finally. For instance. Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Relative Navigation (RelNav) The Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) is a military.2. the useful maximum range is limited by the everincreasing lateral error with increasing distance from the station. however. VORTAC is a groundbased radionavigation system operating in the Lhand. = VT. As mentioned above. 6. navigation. the standard deviation of h.259 km. and VOR facilities.6 s.9. and DVOR. no vertical or velocity data is available from these systems. Hawaii. Furthermore.2 s.
velocity. In most app1ic. air data systems. The T D M A mcthod cont. and attitude and heading refcrcncc systcms ( A H K S ) are usrd L extrapolate thr 'TOAderived dala hctweeri o liltcr updates. Therefore. the primary intended application of . ( 2 ) source selection.:rcl processors of inertial subsystcnl <I. The location (1s the grid origin is defined b) onc moving user o r two st.ivigatii)n (RelNnv) with respect to other terminals in the net. 624. More specifically. velocity.lsurcd TOA of these messages from the signal processor. <I .nnds of bits each sccond and can bc rccci\ed by any ter~ninalu. we note three primary software modules used to providc the RelNav functio~i: I ) Kaltnan filter.~lT O A ) hetween cooperative tncmbcrs.itionIeqoircments.~tigcbut also permits measurement of tinlc of :~rriv.itic~n in tcrnih of positioti.lnsrnitter).ITIDS RelNav is for tactical relative navigatio~i.itive 11.receiver (R 1r.342 CHAPTER 6 Externally Ajded Inertla1 Nanqaoon Systems . timedivision niultiplc. ~ s inherent c. hy fr and sci~tus means of a Kalman liltcr mechanization in the user computer. sprca<ispectrum.itions.~hilthe it! of furnishing high. Figure 624 illustrates the RelNav f ~ ~ n c t i o n 'T."Consequently.The 'itrl. Its T D M A communications arcliitccrure not o~ily hopports interunit dat. J l l U S information is broadcast omnidircctionally a t many thout. Basic 10 tile operation o f the system grid. syritllesis is possible to support tnctic.~tfor~ns.~cccss( T D M A ) .~ins:I uniquc propagation guanl period which . .11. which provides co~npatiblc interoperalion is a stable relative n a v i ~ a t i o n lor dilfering terminal types found in a highly interactive tactical systcm. integrated communication syhtem which h . The softwi~rcis provided will1 received Pmessage data and the me. synchronous. From Fig. the RelNav algorithm is implemented in software contained in the unit's terminal processor (scc Fig. RelNav f u n c t ~ o n provides the synthesis in :I sofiwarc ensemble o F ~ n o d u l e s that were designed to providc geodetic and grid navipi~tioninfo~m.~tlitude. . t i l l users continuously update their estimates of position and velocity in the relative grid a s well a s thc location of the grid oligin hascd on the T O A of J T I D S messages called "position report" (Pmessages) ~receivc~l o m other uscrs. ( and ( 3 ) dcadreckoning data processor.angingby means of these TOA tneasurements.~tionaly userh assigned to the role of "navigation eontrc~llcr. Furthernrore. 624).~p. Wheri precision T O A nica( surcrncnts are made available to onho.~nd jamresistant data and voice transrcr in real time among the dispersed :ind rnobilc clcmcn~s tlie military services.iccuracy rel.1 throughput over . Normally.i exch.issurcs t l i t i t the T D M A system will provide d.itliin rangc. J'I'I1)S is a of highcapacity.~lni~vig. e:ich terminal passively determines its position. dcadreckoning ( D R ) data from such sensors as inertial pl. and .I 550 km range. each selects one of it5 mrmbcrs as the relative grid relative navigation con~rnunity origin and idcntifics tliih fact to ttic community hq setting its transmitted relative position quality to the highest value allotted. . and time bias with respect to systcm time 011 the basis of these sequential T O A measurements. Iloppler radar. . The navigation function is obtained by fieque~itpassive ranging and infrcquent a c t i ~ c (round trip) ~.
6. if gome of the terminals are surveyed ground terminals or have independent knowledge of their absolute (geographic) position. k)xx+ o. .2. This permits the acquisition of precise firecontrol solutions based on sensor data derived from multiple platforms and stations.. A simplified model will now be developed by considering an nmember user network attempting to navigate in a horizontal plane by means of JTIDS TOA measurements and roundtrip timing measurements. . +u .x. JTIDS disseminates its navigation data to the entire tactical community. and anitude I A Screening 1 criteria 1 INS data preprocessing Kalman lnetlial navigation system Clock corrections ~ ~ I 1 filter I I I I I I Signal processor and R / l unit I I Position. accurate* absolute navigation data can also be obtained by the user. FIGURE 624 Basic JTIDS RelNav concept. Navaid Sensor Subsystems I 343 I I I I I Terminal processor RelNav software functions Source selection Screening messages and TOAs I I Received I I I I I I messages and TOAs I I I I I I I l Position. As a 'The position accuracy o f JTIDS is limited only by its TOA measurement capability. It is important to note that the JTIDS RelNav function can be obtained by adding only a software module to the computer program of the basic JTIDS communication terminal computer. However. P(0))  Measurement: I = H. but to all data derived in the community from onboard sensors. velocity. velocity. This consistency applies not only to the positions of each member. thereby providing an essential consistency of position location to each of its elements. Data sources for the JTIDS RelNav function may be both airborne and groundbased. ~ ( 0 )J(fiO). = @(k+d. and attitude corrections I I System:  1 1 Kalman filter X. which is a function of the signal handwidth and SNR.
. YI.. .=crror in the INS indicalcd velocity in the I direction ht:. = c r r ~ rin the indicated range between ~ n e n ~ b e ir s ~ n d .I mc. Ihc TOA is known a\ .lsurc of the range between tire nienihers.elror in the INS indicated Y c o o r d ~ n a t e &!.= relative J T l D S clock phase error = hi...344 CHAPTER 6 ... Similarly... .IS Let tlie range between memhers i a n d . let each member have a n INS and a JI'IIIS clock.. 6u. we can dclinc an crror vector.the angle of the LOS with the . Externally Aided 1nert.2). whose components define thc simplified model of lhc twodimensional navigation errors of the ith INS.= .of the net who receives a J T l D S hroadcast from :!nother mcmbcrcan construct a TOA measurement by subtracting the timc of broadcast of the message from the time of reccplion. coordinatc 6u. Thcrcli)rc. I / 6v. t o member i 6co. 511 lhal the speed of light equals unity. hc. Now.:platfor~n niisalignment about the 2 axis tit. Ilowever. Fx:. ..ITIDS clock tyequency elror wit11 rcspcct to the (irccnwich Meridian time The error states 61.= I).I range ~ne. = 61.= inertial i~ngillarrate of thc 1..=crror in the INS indicated velocity in the I . 1 1 ) he inodclcd as let an crror state fix. and 6f.= J T I D S clock phase crror with rcspccl 111 the G r e e n ~ i c h Meridi i ~ time ~i Sf. 6u.which is thc set of the "rclativc" navigation crrors of member j with respect to mcniher i. Furthcrn~orc. in the As case of the CiPS (see Section h.I p s c u d < ~ ~ . riy..5..: is called the poinring angle) rr~. are expresse~li n range ecluivalcnt units. ..= 0.\ axis rr. i i u .. 6u 4) = 6i18= e r r o r in the indicated LOS velocity hu. .=crror in the indicated inertial angular velocity of tlie LOS 6r.= pointing error of member .] 1whcr<9 6r. Thus fix:l=[hr.=pointing error of nicmbcr i to m e l n h e r j Su. hi. the statc ol'tlic ith member ( i = I ..= thc angle of the I D S with thc ill1 INS platform axis (tlii. hi..l h r ..~surcment.IS . 2.al Navigation Systems  result.ci~n r c p r c s ~ ~ i t c d foIlo\vs. The rclativc geometry hctwccn mcmhcls i i~nd.dl..=error in the INS indicated j.2.. . the himplificd crror state vector is given by fix:=[fu.. This results in . ~ n g e measurement... errors in their clock phase\ prevent the immediate use of the T O A . = Iclative J T l D S clock frcqucncy crror ef. hf.. he . . .0s f. a membcl... e/. 601.. . direction W...
.=Q.2 m or 250 ft AGL). and radial errors. For TACAN and radar updates. where now the term "track" refers to the true bearing from the update navigation reference point (NRP) to the aircraft position. and 26 provide a more detailed description of the JTIDS system. and a. Aircraft true latitude. cinetheodolite cameras. Specifically.2. to the geodetic coordinates of the two members i and j can he expressed by the simple geometric equations [25] I. References 6. Flyover updates can be accomplished with an accuracy of less than 30. crosstrack.X . for sensor updates such as TACAN..) As before. Visual Flyover Visual flyover position updating is commonly used in flight test and evaluation of inertial navigation system performance. and altitude can be recorded from testsite range support. = OCj. crosstrack.Y .=FiSxj+w. while the navigator updates the system. the data must be reduced to alongtrack.48 m (100ft) while flying lowlevel (76. The visual flyover update mode is generally easy to perform. and FLIR (see next section). 25.6. and other tracking systems (see Table 64). which may include timespaceposition information (TSPI) from an FPS16 instrumentation radar. (Note that the definition 0. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 345 Since navigation takes place in the horizontal plane. Flyover updates must be reduced to alongtrack.. and radial error.10.72a) a. radar. ) ~ + ( Y ~ . Table 64 compares the various tracking options that are available.= ( X ~ . the accuracy decreasing with increasing altitude.v.. implies that @. the flyover (also operatorinserted position updates) position updates require the pilot to maneuver over a known landmark. driven by the white noise w. The differences between aircraft INS position update and TSPI position must be compared in order to provide the mission computer update errors.+rr. Note that the laser trackers (PATS) are the primary source of trajectory data... 6. slant range error and azimuth angle error must be calculated. ) ~ a J (6. longitude. Furthermore. Note that the radial error decreases at lower flyover altitudes because it is easier to determine when the aircraft is actually overhead the NRP. Figure 625 shows these errors. and there are no serious operator interface problems.2. At the Yuma Proving Ground six laser trackers are used . the system errors can be modeled by the linear dynamic system 6x. the relationship of the relative parameters r. where the term "track" refers to the aircraft true track. O.
xis 10 I 11.n\li.52 m 10 I n~r.rgcl orily Sul1. ~ bTest I l a u g .id E l : 11.lrcd deteclion set ( I i I S ) .hcghnccur. FI.lmetcy ('IKIS (olAKS) 3'Jh . the I opcrator would nortnally use the FLIR to locatc an IR (inll.2.lR sensor (discussed briefly in Chapter 2. 181 lorn.cngc . provides 11ic pilot with azimuth and elevalion .2 rnrial K .fil isrc.2 i p s pel :~sisl Suil. d A iclcrcnce s\itsrn: H A M O T S .~lio~l ~n ruins 1:tr:iilahlc I F H ) . designated target. Exrrrnally Arded Inertial Navlgarion Systems Cumpariron between Various Tracking Sy5tcrn.' ~ I v ~ r n u .!t>gc ~ l l J . FATScslcndcdarca ivacktrig wslcm. to determine the position of an aircraft o r ground vehiclc litlcd will1 retroreflectol.IR B A R 0 and FLIR 'I(AL.U t .tcy molliplc ohlcct 1r. onl?  l<.ns I'A IS=picc~s~i. Section 2. 0 rmi m 1l.0 m Su~tahlc ~ l ~ l l ~ t ~ s Kcqi~ircs cuht.1 I ) . tk n ~ l Suit..~npec 7 l ) l l km Poiition only Ketrorcflcctor \ h ~ c l i I ~ n g in l i l ~ i ~ > 1il'S Ill 0 15.ge..~cking \y\lcm: UTTR .a9 rn cameras Tc~mio.r" Svstrrn l'inctl~eod~ililc~ Accarrcv 1.cl ~ r e a land li.IS infr.11.iim\ Tracking li.~n pod lo SK~' c.irni.99 in VI:R I 4 CJCJ 1 Y l I K r:. also k n o w n . ~ t i o n i "Ahhrcviauc. ForwardLooking Infrared (FLIR) Updates .<l rcfrrence it>~trurncnv~ttlon rystcc~r: K S .2 mr.>>cr>t~e tl~e aircralr Data dropoul. I n using t'llK for position updating.o automated tracking syrlcm: C ' I K I S c o m p l c t c l y inlcgr:~ti.277 X k m IOS HhMOIS Real l>mc: 7L)X I 4 YY I?.I 6 xidnl A..346 TABLE 64 CHAPTER 6  . .ld. ~ ' 4 .7 ..I I'A r~ lk~ser A I:! I II 11 I mr.ngc Pi~sltion ~ n l y < Anlcnna slileldlng furnr 1. I)~"~lOpm~lllill S)StClll Posltioo ooly I P S .I T h e Fl.rdl Consrrainrs Remarks I ' o s ~ l ~ oonl? n Wcalhcr c<.) FATS PmoI M o g u range I'oslt~on only Antenna shicldi~lg turn$ tlipllspccd l i n c ~ l 1 . H O K 14 'J'J 2cJ.arcd) Largcl of known po\iLion with Lhc system cursor.2. hpccd 'Tcm>in.TI.~hle lranspoodcr geometr? Pcrli~rm:lnccdcgr.ihlc . 6.xnd t~cnuig Allitilde I ~ m ~ f .~nglesto .: 0.~<l K.thlc gcornelr) Valncnt pointjne .
Navaid Sensor Subsystems 347 True north A Update NRP .6 mrad in pitch and roll over a 6h flight. Human factor measurements have shown that the random error associated with cursor placement is approximately 0. gimbal readout (in the case of gimbaled systems) of LOS to platform misalignment. Relative azimuth angle Aircraft heading FIGURE 625 Flyaver update error description.2. Typical position update sighting accuracy for the FLIR position update mode is 3 mrad (RMS) in both azimuth and elevation. The FLIR narrow fieldofview (FOV) image subtends a 6. This corresponds to a resolution of 0. When conducting an error analysis. .6. accelerometer errors. crosstrack. errors due to bending of the aircraft structure from the INS to the . which is presented on a 482 x 300pixel (interlaced) display. and radial errors. the data can be reduced to alongtrack. These azimuth and elevation angle errors consist of such errors as LOS misalignment. Higher aircraft speeds and closer target downrange and/or larger crossrange distances will result in larger overall errors due to an increase in operator cursor placement error.0 mrad in heading and 0.3 mrads/pixel.127 cm. respectively. As in the case of visual flyover updates. The update error increases with decreasing elevation angle. and gravity anomalies are expected to contribute l o bias errors of not more than 1. . can he used to achieve a more precise update. INS timedependent errors due to such factors as gyroscope drift.7" X 5" FOV. INS altitude. and operator target cursor placement accuracy. . modes providing barometric altimeter and radar altimeter ranging information. .
illustrated b) the block diagrnm in 1. Tlic rcsultant n.~tly rcduccd navigation error. As a result. call be evaluated using a s i n i u l a t i o ~ ~ of a "Ryby" at.I given S ~ of these ~iombcrs L describes .tlly developed by the LTVElectrosystems in 1958. for uxample.348 CHAPTER 6  Extemallv Aided Inertial Navi.ation:. ~ ~ u l ( l reduce this error to less than 30 ni and enahle the pilot to continue oil aitli :I gre. of the terrain in llie fixe point arcas arc stored in the vchiclc's onboard nabigation cotnputc~.~cquisition. (j20.12.. d. Historically. The basic operation of T E R C O M i. while performing an en route n.g of c~iorrgh to accommodate the alongtrack 21nd crosstrack navigation arrival unccrt.2.'ig. securing source material that contains contour infortii. the relbrencc column.qafjon Systems FLIK mount nus st be included. 6. and . Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) T E K C O M (TEKIain C o n t o u r Matching) is a technique ibr deternrinnlion o f the geographic position location o l ' .and ( 3 ) data corrcletic~n.rtion. The process of determining vehicle position by the use ol'tcrr:lin cont<>ur matching can generally he described a s consist~ngof three hasic steps 8s follows: 1 I ) data preparation.~tion o f that uniqueness as a fixtaking technique to update a n inertial iiavigati<~n system was origin. FLIK pointing perfbrm:~nce. the concept of terrain profile nniqueness and the utili/. and the11 digitizirrg the terrain e l e v a t i ~ n data inlc a matrix ~ ~ C c c loriented along the ls intended Right path.~ls. . Data preparation c ~ ~ n s i s t s sclccling a fixpoint arca l i ~ l . Specitia l l y .In interval cqu. Kefcrencc lcrrain clev. Tlicsc data arc in the fomi or a horizontally arranged matrix of digital clcc:ltion numbers.s groundspeed with the FLIK target oll\ct to the side of the aircraft. which is comparcd against the radilrderived tcrrain contours. I t should be noted that this navigation system requires extensive computer memory storage for o digitized m.ll to the Icfelence m a p cell size. whicli has lhc greatest correlation wit11 the . The last step in the process is the correlation of the data in the terrain elevation lile with each column of ihc rcfcrc~icematrix.I 1' < I<III s < ~ u r cdata descriptive of the relative elc\.I tcrrain prolilc.lti~describing the actual terrain profile beneath the vehicle are acquired.~vigationerror is 457 rn CEP. A FLIR : B A R 0 posilion update .~vigationupdate. provides the position location.~intics.I[ this distance u .~t~ix pr<>files.I( . Now a s the vehicle Ries over the matrix area.and comparcd against ihc sli~rcdrn.~l profile d:tt:l acquired using a combination of radar 2nd barometric altimeter outputs sampled a t specific intcrv. 1111 aircraft that II:IS not performed a position update for the last hour. say. I h e actu. ~ nairborne vehicle a i t h respect lo the terrain over which the vehicle is flying.lp of thc route to he flown. (2) data . Tlat:~ acquired by sampling the :~ltitudc the vehicle is of above the terrain directly below it. 115m. Consider.
626 describes the stored or reference data loop. then the match column would be the center column of the map. terrain elevation file. Furthermore.2. the geographic coordinates of the matching reference profile are used by the navigation system to update the vehicle's navigated position. If the navigation error were zero. The deadreckoning navigation subsystem supplies velocity information from which position estimates may be extrapolated.6. This function may be replaced by an airspeed and compass combination or . this measured terrain profile is then compared with a set of prestored reference terrain profiles which correspond to the area over which the vehicle is flying. since that is the ground track that the navigation system is steering along. the TERCOM system utilizes barometric and radar altimeter measurements to construct a profile of the terrain that is coincident with the ground track of the airborne vehicle. As indicated in Fig. 626 describes the data acquisition loop. Once a match is found. As mentioned above. Source material in the form of survey maps or stereophotographs of the terrain are used to collect the set of altitudes which constitute the reference matrix. is the column down which the vehicle has flown. the left side of Fig. 626. The right side of Fig. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 349 0 Terrain signature source Pressure altimeter Radar altimeter Matrix Position estimates rl I Dead reckoning I ! navigator I FIGURE 626 Basic TERCOM concept block diagram.
T E R C O M position fixing techniques k11I under two categories: the "long s. As the vehiclc I ' i ~ p p r ~ ~ a c a etix a r m .~inelevation rncasurcments. Each pair is diHerenccd \bill1 the result of that the scquc~icc differences yield:. .SSM) and the "short san~ple.ll. l'he output is dilTcrcnced w ~ t h . the m. The cell size is denolcd hy d. For the LSSM.I scquence of lcrr. \vhere:ls the other is altitodc above the ti. mean removal and quantization) are then perforrrred o n thc dilrerenced d a l i ~ .~vig. Altitude eslirn. ~ t i ~t 1 of i . ( 3 ) midcourse.~\silicd . and size. ( 2 ) en route. TEKCOM maps can he cl. an estim. From the preccding discussic~n. The circle\ in Fig. Acquisitiori o f thcsc rncasurelnents is colllinucd until the vcliicle is well past the fix area. is dctcr~nincdfrom contour nraps o r stereophotographs. 627.I tix by con~p:~rison .350 CHAPTER 6 . o r ( 4 ) 1crrnin.rsurch s ments cvcry interval (1.~romctric altimeter.~lcsahocc the terrain are acquired by the radar altinictcr.RC'OM systct~ryields .~lrixi\ made wide enough in order to accotnmodale the navigation crosstrack arrival unccrVainly. in which each cell i\ d x ilt~ictcrsin sift.I set of' acquired d . In hoth cases. Exrernaliy Alded Inerrral N a v g a t m n Systems by an inertial n. shorl matrix" (1. Lhc measured terrain elevation tile is long enough to accomn~odatethe downtrack uncertainty and sampling hegins prior to arriving a t ths m a p area. rcrcrred to as the locul tlrc.: Nil is the lcngllr III' t l ~ c profile used f b r correlation. width.1t a matrix is composed of 1tr x rt cclls. 628. Onc of the two is i~ltitudcabove mcan sca ic\cl.I h.MI. the form of . with a bet ot slorcd data in the form of.^ matrix o f r c f e r e ~ ~ c c terrain clccations.fhc ft. L. while for the SSLM. Vi~riousarithmetic operalions (s. Notc tI1.1rain. the stored rcfcrcncc matrix is VEHICLE TRACK FIGURE 627 TI'RCOM ccil deslgnalion.. 627 rcpresctrt points al which the terlain altitude.rrnplc. Now consider fd'ig. and ! 1s the nunrher ot' cclls. These maps ditter in lenath. Thcsc two concepts arc illustrated in Fig.~lor. TERC'OM bcgins to acquire two altitude nre.i{~z calur.g.IS ( I I landf:~ll.lte of the terrain protile along tlic vehicle track. long matrix" (SS1.
L . path flown FIGURE 628 TERCOM fix concept.. navigation uncertainty) is kept small and enough data . Navaid Sensor Subsystems 351 Long sample. faster updating is achieved.e. In this mode. Furthermore. the LSSM is used whenever the vehicle arrival uncertainty is relatively large or if only small fix areas are available. The SSLM can be employed during a multiple fixtaking mode.2.6. long enough to accommodate the downtrack uncertainty and sampling begins and ends while the vehicle is over the map area. long matrix CT = crosstrack navigation uncertainty DT = downtrack navigation uncertainty 1 . short matrix Short sample. provided the search area (i.
Usually. and their velucs call give an indication of the terrain's ability to obtain a successful T E R C O M position fix: SignlaT. The remaining L I samples arc shifted down one loc'I t'1(111 ' c S. Thc length of the mcasurcd tcrrain profile L can be the same for either mode. ~ n d scrccncd so that the only ones used arc those that cxhibit a sufficiently low probability of false fix.c. terrain in the reference matrix area dccrcases. the first sample S . thc There is always.can be computed fairly accurately by takirlg the ditl'erence hetween the highest and lowest terrain clcvation points. as sho\r..). "Sigmaof T" (0.or.352 CHAPTER 6 Externally A. S . the oldest with respect to t i ~ n e ) is discarded. however. As a result. arrd the terrain correlat~onlength X . a t which timc no more samples arc taken and correlation of thc file with the rct'crcncc matrix begins. Thus. so that the quality ol'this signal increases directly with increasing amplitude. However. frequency.thc terrain.lrerr II.). A closer examination rcvci~ls that in the SSI. ) .ltio~~ ot' the pointlopoint changes in tcrrain clcvation (i. referred to a:. Cor~sequently. the updated file is correlated with the reference matrix. and once the terrain elevation file has been lillcd. This process continucs for some distance past thc rckrence m a p area in order to ilcco~nmodate downtrack position uncertainty. this probahility of false fix incrc'ase:. Thus n. it i:.=highcst tcrrain clcvation abovc the mean sea lcvcl f i = l ( ~ u c s ttcrrain elevation above the rncan sea level Specifically.ignal. S . This give:.M tcchnique. three parameters are usually used to describe the T E R C O M related terrain. M.rti<~n begins. the uniqucnrs:. the measured terrain elevation sample5 are sequentially stored in the terrain elevation file until it is lilled. Systems is available for the longer rcfcrcncc matrix. a probability that the T E R C O M system will lix on a part of the rcfcrcncc matrix that the vchiclc did not actually fly over. end randomness of the terrain. .0 . In the I S M tcchnique. the slope). tested. a:.. Therefore.ded Inert~al Navigat. u ~ e d selecting an update area is the roughness ol. sampling bcgins prior to arrival at ~ h rcfcrcncc matrix area.n . ( i e . rise orre factor that is to the consideration of terrain roughness. of tht. Thc variation in in terrain elevation provides the T E R C O M :. the reference matrices tnust be carefully chosen. . . Sigma.~theniatically. and the most recent sample is stored . c corrcl.rt the top of the filc ( i e . Sigmaz is delined :is the standard devi. after the tilc has been corrclatcd wit11 all the ]reference colurnns. terrain roughness is defined as the standard deviatiol~ the terrain elevation samples: that is.
2.I and D=  1 NI N1 1a (6.( d / X ~ ) ' ] : (6.=IH. cell size) and where a Gaussian terrain autocorrelation function is commonly assumed. the TERCOM process involves matching the measured contour of the terrain along the ground track of the vehicle with each downtrack column of the reference matrix which is stored in the Reference I Local mean Actual Measured FIGURE 629 Definition of Sigmaz (a. a. As indicated in Fig.6. Expressed mathematically. 629.. are independent of each other.H. The correlation length XT represents the separation distance between the rows or columns of the terrain elevation matrix required to reduce their normalized autocorrelation function to a value of e l . the two parameters SigmaT and Sigmaz are related with the third parameter XT as follows: o = 2&[l .75) where d is the distance between elevation samples (i.).e. is given by where D. 629. it is usually assumed that parallel terrain elevation profiles. the value of Sigmaz provides a direct indication of terrain roughness and can be an indicator of TERCOM performance. . which are separated by a distance greater than X T . Navaid Sensor Subsvstems 353 in Fig.e .74b) Finally.+. Furthermore. Similar to SigmaT.
M technique. Note that this profile is correlated with all sets of reference profiles in the niatrix. tiI)  F o r operation in the SSLM mode. column. ( 2 ) meansquared ditlerence ( M S D ) .. and will he hrielly discussed here. I s k sti N = the number of samples in thc measured terrain elevation file: also. which rcsults in the minilnu~nM A D . is column of the rcfcre~icc detined a s follows: br'l~rre MADx. A common assumption to the terrain correlation proccss is that thc geographic distance between the rncasured tcrrain clcvation profilc and the best matching reference m..Y clcvation samples and con~puting M A D v. then . If each of the N elevations (i. 117. fbr performing rcilltime tcrrain contour matching in an airborne digital computer environment. . for the SS1.tluc for it and for M rckrence m a p columns.t h e number of mcilsurcd terrain elevation liles used in the correlation process ie. I/. These algorithms include the following: i I ) Inearl . Of these.. repeated for each column of storcd data.: the prcstorcd rcfcrcncc matrix d a t a . in both crosstrack and downtrack directions. A f numher ( ~corlelation algorithms of varying coniplexity and accuracy mist. the tcrrain profile measured during the flight will plohahly never exactly match one of the rcfcrcncc matrix profileb. the M A D algorithm provides the best conihination o f accuracy and colnputational etficiency. which is most commonly used for correlating the measured terrain elevation file with each downtrack matrix.. I . However.354 CHAPTER 6 .=the Xth ineasured terlain elevation file. I S ~ I I S M . (3) normalized M A D . the location of the reference matrix set.. dcsignzrtes the n u ~ n h e r f rows in thc rcfcrc~icc o matrix M the number of reference rnatrix colurnns K . hince the TEKC O M system is not noiseless. the M A D v:ilue will . which could he used to correlate the measured data with the reference data...I( the end of the corrcl:ition. and ( 4 ) normalized MSI)... X = row.I sfis!\ /I. is the position tix...lt~ix column n . and terrain elevation tile indiccs II. Therefore. thc correlation process consists of taking thc onedimensional measured terrain thc elevation tile containing .itrix column provides an cxccllcnt measure of the crosstrack and downtrack position crrors of the vehicle as it flew over the refcrcncc matrix area. The MA11 algorithm.lbsolute dilfercnce ( M A D ) .=the value of the mean absolute diHerence between thc Xth terrain elevation tile and the rlrth rcfcrcncc m.g.e. Externally Aided Inertial Nawgafion Sysre.) are equal....ns vehicle's digital computer memory prior to flight.
Now. Note that downtrack position errors must also be considered in a fullscale analysis. and it is the planned course that the navigation system directs the vehicle along. the objective of the TERCOM process is to update the vehicle's inertial navigation system by providing the navigation system with a measured crosstrack and downtrack vehicle position error. . since the guidance system successively Determined position errol Actual vehicle ground track Corrected position error . which flies the vehicle back onto the planned course. the maps would be of smaller and smaller areas. Usually. The navigation system then uses the measured position error to update its estimate of the vehicle's true geographic position. which makes the necessary corrections.6. Navaid Sensor Subsysfems 355 be zero. Consequently. the magnitude of this MAD residue represents the degree of mismatch between the reference matrix column and the corresponding terrain elevation file. the radar altimeter scans the map and develops a terrain height profile that is compared with the data in the vehicle's map storage device. each cell in the matrix specifies a terrain height. It is noted in Fig. After the navigation system has been updated.2. a Kalman filter is used to reduce the navigation system's errors. the actual ground track of the vehicle will he either to the left or right of the planned course. However. Furthermore. As the vehicle proceeds toward its intended target. Figure 630 depicts a typical course correction update process.. as the vehicle approaches the designated map. as discussed earlier. The navigation system then steers the vehicle toward the next predetermined map area. The difference between where the computer's memory says the vehicle is and its actual position over the mapped area is fed through the Kalman filter. if the elevation pairs are not identical. then the MAD computation will produce a value or residue greater than zero. The radar altimeter captures the profile of the overflown land and compares it with the cells in the map. 630 that the planned course of the vehicle is down the center of the fixtaking area. On the other hand. As slated at the outset of this section. position correction commands are sent to the flightcontrol system.Planned ground track Position err01 FIGURE 630 Course correction after a position update. indicating a perfect match. with crosstrack errors present in the navigation system. based on the measured vehicle position error.
~lnumbers that represent tlre expected radiometric ternperaturc at each point on the ground are stored and cotnparcd reitelativelq will1 realtime data Srom a scanning radiometer in order to update pusition. ~ T E R C O M system error sources are normally due to ( 1 ) vertical Incasurement errors that directly yield erroneous altitude measurements and ( 2 ) Iiolizontal errors that i ~ ~ d u c e vertical errors by causing mcasurc~nentsol' terrain elevation to be horizontally dihplaced from the desired meitsurcmcnt locotion. and horizontal quantization (i. on thc other hand.~ssive and fully i~utonomous and can be uscd cithcr day o r night. ( 2 ) radar altimeter nieasuremenl errors. carliel. T h c .lrd digital computer for prccisc guidance. Instruments. other position updating nav. other firms cnlcred into research and developtncnt of T E R C O M .~i(ltechniques have been eithcr used a13d.~inprofile navigation syste~nusing data from a radar altimclcr and a digital map to determine the plecise position of the vehicle. vehicle i~ttitudcerrors. a n d Texa:. In addition to T E R C O M .35fi CHAPTER 6 . including ( I ) LXgitel Sccnc Mntch~ng are. and subsequent night testing. T E R P R O M . Since the early 1960s. The DSMAC sensor ope]ales by vicwing . velocity. More specifically. H o r i ~ o n t a l errors that aITect the T E R C O M performance arc hori7ontal velocity and skew errors.rnd comparing it with n stored scene in an onbo. tcrr. r ~ ia]rn of I:md. digitizing the view. were initiated.irnount o f ellergy i h detclmilled hy the emis\~\.rtching ( T E R P R O M ) .TVE in the I963 1965 ti~ile frame. .TVE between 1963 and 1966.. . notahlc among thcm thc ESystems Inc. That ih. developed by British Aerospace. Horizontal errors. and Roeinp .~ccuracy the Kalman filler's internal elror estilnate irnprovcd the of with a resulting decrease in the p o s i t i o ~erlor growth rate. and other paramclcrs. Externallv Afded Inertial Navioation Svsrerns rcrnovcs the errors.~scd.e. vertical measurement errors arise froni thrcc main sources: ( I ) vertical inaccuracies in the sourtie data. cell size)..in this subsecti~>n. concept o f t c r rdl11 C O I I ~ I > L I I thc As ~ n e ~ l t i o n c d matching to dctcrnmine vehicle geographic position was originillly developed by Lhc I.ject being observed.TVElectro\ystenis in 1958.^ Correlation ( D S M A C ) . induce vertical errors into the terrain correlation process by causing an altitude profile to bc displaced hori/ontully from its desired localion. research and devclop~ncnt o f several programs demonstrating the feasibility of the TERCIOM concept. digit. Some of these early programs were the Low Altitudc C o n t o u r Matching ( L A C O M ) developed by L.c RADiometcr ( M I C R A I ) ) . ( 2 ) Radiometric Area Correlirtion ( R A C ) . ( 3 ) TERrain PROfilc M. and ( 3 ) barometricpressulc measurement error\. The radiometric syslcln is p. highaccuracy. MICKAD uses :i scnsitivc receiver that senses thermal nlicrowave radiation emitted and reflected from tclrain fcaturcs. the RApid C o n t o u r Matching ( R A C O M ) system also dcveli~pedby I.or propo\cd. is a computerh. each time 21 terrain corlelation position lir 1s rni~dc. Since that time. and (4) MICruwa\.ityof the ob. The t<AC system uses ~rcfcrenccmiip d a t a : that is.
and developed the Ground Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM).2. allweather. (2) a .13. The heart of an astroinertial system is the star tracker (or stellar monitor).S. Air Force's SAMSO (Space and Missile Systems Organization) during 19631971 to investigate the application of terrain correlation techniques for ballistic missiles such as the Terminal Position Location System (TPLS). 6. is based on the use of accelerometer sensed quantities. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 357 Aerospace Company's Subsonic Cruise Armed Decoy (SCAD) in 1968. the shipboard launched Tomahawk cruise missile developed by General Dynamics/McDonnell Douglas was used successfully against Iraqi air defense systems during "Operation Desert Storm. aircraft TF/TA (terrain following/terrain avoidance). McDonnell Douglas also supported the U. with impressive results. the TERCOM position fixing system is a selfcontained. A star tracker will normally consist of the following basic components: (1) a modified Cassegrainian telescopeoptics for collecting the electromagnetic energy from the particular star(s) being tracked. and Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) to produce a trajectory whose accuracy is much greater than that produced by the INS alone. and the Terminal Sensor Overland Flight Test (TSOFT). Star Sightings Star sightings. During the late 1960%LTVE's original RACOM system was improved and renamed Recursive All Weather Contour Matching (RAWCOM). the directions of which are determined by gyroscopes with updating from star fixes. This new program used smaller cell sizes and a special processing algorithm which markedly improved the terrain correlation position update system accuracy.S. One more program using the terrain contour matching concept is the Sandia National Laboratories developed SITAN (Sandia Inertial TerrainAided Navigation) program. by Boeing Aerospace in the wellknown ALCM (AGM86B) program (the General Dynamics ALCM was designated as AGM109).S. SITAN is a flight computer algorithm that combines the outputs from a terrain elevation sensor." Summarizing the discussion of this subsection. TERminal Fix (TERF). Stellar aided inertial navigation. and low/high altitudes.6. TERCOM operates equally well under ECM (electronic countermeasures) conditions. McDonnell Douglas Astronautics and General Dynamics have been conducting TERCOM flight tests since 1973 in support of the U. The use of TERCOM has been successfully applied.2. or astroinertial navigation. precision navigationguidance system for drones. several programs were sponsored by the U. used to update an inertial navigation system. Air Force TERCOM studies during the same period for the ALCM (Air Launched Cruise Missile). and cruise missile types. Finally. imply that a star tracker is available on board the vehicle. Navy's Submarine Launched Cruise Missile (SLCM) program. an inertial navigator. daynight. Also.
a n observer's position can be lixed on the earth's surI"icc.= l O .il. it is thc result of the onhoard navigation cumpuler i ~ ~ t c g r a t i ~ i g this uelocity crror that is correctcd hy the stelln~informatioli.~nd actual LOS to the stat. sensor stahili/ation. .so that. this indication is corrupted with n<)isc. t ~ ~ . In a locally level systcn~.I data reference hase. however. This process.~utoni.~cccleromctcriiilegratc to . f employs the known rcl. The star trackcr indicates the angular crror between the star line and the platform rcfcrcncc linc.rzi~nuthand vertical rcfcrcncc.A highly accurate star trackcr would provide correction of inertial platlhrm erroxs hq precisely tracking an avclagc of three stats per minulc. and ( 4 ) attitude heading rcfcrcncc.c is widehand compared with the bandwidth of the overall system. The telescope has 2 dcgrccs o f freedom (azimuth and elevation) a n d is mounted in such . I'oinling angles lo .ltot. i111d ( 4 ) a scanning servomechanism for determining the positioli of the celestial body in the fieldofview ( F O V ) and telescope positioning.This i~dditivenoi:. the telescope systcnl rotiitcs about a vcrtical axis relative to the inertial platforni. Thus the indicatcd [~ngular error IS given b y 0 . ( 3 ) ilssociatcd electronics for signal detection and processing. ( 3 ) dead reckoning. Positioti fixing. corrections in platfor~n lilt angle and.I way that it can view the sky through a suitable window.~inlaincd doring the sightings. of navigation arc possible: ( I ) astroincrtiiil incrti. and .'or positio~ican he made. Azimuth corrcction is hased on the known relationship of the sun and stars with respect to tlue north.( I ~ i S I ) Magnetic ('ompils:. based o n thcm.I value of velocity crror that just compensates the gyroscope drill causing the tilt. tclcscopc FOV varies between 30 and 40 i~rcscconds. i ~ n d . on the other hand. Moreover. a n d by appropriate sightings to selected celestial bodies derives thc true heading ( ~ the carrier vehicle. assumcs that a perfect vertical is m.358 CHAPTER 6 . i f ) (6. and attitude refetencc information.~lairspeeil. it provides . I l o r i ~ o n l a lSituation 1ndic.. The telescope system measures the crror angles between thc computcd .. The instantaneou:. By taking two o r tnorc sightings and computing the intersection o f the LOPS. 'Typically. position. Externally Aidcd Inertial Naviyatior. day o r night. A n astroinertial systcm provides continuous longlcrm precision heading.I given point on the earth a t any spccifiz time. Higlir Dilcctol. Thus.77) . platfor111 the tilts only until the gravity forces sensed by the . Wlicn intertaced with the airspccd turd cumpass unit:. and cnn be :~pproximateda s a white noise.~tic vehiclc steering ll~roogli cc>ntrol of the autopilot. Furthermore. other displays.Stellar trackers arc generally used for azilnuth correction and position fixing. and at any altitude. the star tracker is mounted on a gilnhaled inertial platfolm with known . Ilowever.L celestial body are computed based on time and colnpulcd present position. the f o l l o n i ~ ~ g mode:. and can be designed to intcrfacc with other avionics. such .IS Air Data Coniputcr.itionship of the stals with . Systems photosensor to convert the clectromagnctic energy into an electrical sign. . ( 2 ) inertial only.
and accurate worldwide navigation. Litton Guidance and Control Systems. it is passive. Note that the actual star tracker noise is wideband noise rather than a truly white noise. dayornight tracking system capable of providing continuous longterm precision heading. this system utilizes a single multiexposed holographic optical element to produce three wideangle. with bounded position error and calibration of gyroscope drift rates. References 9 and 15 contain a more detailed account of stellarinertial systems. and w ( t ) is a white process noise. The appropriate number of focal plane arrays is determined by a vehicle's altitude and mission requirements. is the angle of the star line with respect to the inertial reference.. autonomous. largeaperture lenses. similarly superimposed on the first two. using holographic lens technology. and uses star sightings as the navigation reference. 0. The U. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 359 where 0. position.2. optical. collects light from yet another direction and focuses on a third focal plane array. and reference systems. Recently. Thus. As noted in Section 6.S. Air Force as well as private industry (e. accelerometer biases. the second lens. independent of ground fixes. A single star sighting determines azimuth information and consequently permits corrections of heading misalignment. Other system characteristics are its ability of yielding bounded position error over an extended period of time. nonjammahle.2. superimposed on the first. As in the case with other aided systems.g. the NorthropElectronics Systems Division developed a strapdown astroinertial navigator.2. and KearfottGuidance and Navigation Corporation) have been actively supporting research and development in the field of celestial navigation and guidance. The holographic lens replaces the gimbaled telescope assemblies with a solid state. using a star tracker (sensor). More specifically. whereas two star siyhtings yield position information. NorthropElectronics Division. is the platform angular error.13.1. Star Tracker Stellar sensing and tracking devices have been used for several decades now for improving the accuracy and performance of aircraft navigation systems. heading. The function of each of these lenses is as follows: one lens is pointed in one direction in space and focuses on a focal plane array. 6.6.13. with gravity disturbance being the only limiting error source. one can determine azimuth alignment by measuring the . collects light from another direction in space and focuses on another focal plane array. platform tilts. attitude reference information. The resulting navigation system will be selfcontained. wideangle lens star tracker. velocities. The star LOS data is provided to the Kalman filter to update the state vector estimate of positions. stellarinertial navigation systems are integrated by a realtime Kalman filter. and star tracker elevation bias. missile guidance. the third lens. astroinertial (or stellarinertial) navigation is an independent. gyroscope drifts. Attitude readout of better than 25 arcseconds can he obtained routinely.
this system is designed to interface with other avionics systems. which is tlie angle between the aircraft longitudinal axis and the ground velocity vector. a know11 \. It lnust be pointed out. GPS. Thus. Presentday star trackers are capable of tracking star magnitudes l'rom I to t4. the elTccls a of bias and scalc f:ictor errors are indistinguishable. FOI. Doppler groundspeed crror. o r within 3 of other stars. prcdictcd hq the Auslrian physicist Christian Johann l)oppler 1n 1842. arc a s follows: Navigation Waypoilit steering Ground alignment :~ndcalibr:ition Inair alignment and calibration Continuou:.2..14.nf O. ( I ) radar velocity. As an exa~nplcof an astroincrtial system.5 i ~ the f sun. and attitude rcference information. Doppler Radar T h e Doppler radar system utilizes tlie Dopplcr frequency shift pl~cnomcnon. rzallime Kalman tiller mechanization. 6. the onboard navigation computer can a store permanently in its ~ n e m o r y stcllar ephemeris of more than 100 stars. the drift angle is in crlor by a bias. ( 3 ) true airspeed.I0C of groundspccd. and drift . which bounds position crlor advertised lo hctter than 305m C'FT' independent of Right time.triinsmits radiofrequency ( R F ) enelgy to the ground and measures thc frequency shift in the returned cnelgy to dctcrnmine groundspeed. T A C A N .ertical rcfcrcnce must exist. Typically.. the vertical reference and initial position must he knourn. Also.error is exprcsscd :is a percentage o f groundspeed. Northrop's NAS26 astroinertial navigation system is a very accurate. Note that for inflight alignment of inertial systems.and can auto~iiatically cxclude stars that are within 12. tlic Doppler racial. selfcontained navigation system. The Doppler output C. velocity.lnglc. must he resolvcd into component?. in thc inertial measurements unit's coordinate system using lhc drift angle and the platfornm azimuth gimbal angle.360 CHAPTER 6 Externally Aided lnertjal Navigation Systems  01ientation of the inertial platlbrm with respect to thc stals. hou~cvcr. The groundspccd and drif't . Doppler radar outputs groundspeed V. and ( 5 ) haromclric altitude 6. Uopplel. which can use the following observations ( a s available): ( I ) position. T h e vertical reference is obtained by leveling the twc horizontal acceleromelcrs during aligtimcnt and operation. Basically. Dopplcr speed hias crror is on thc ordcl. ( 4 ) stellar. heading. providing continuous position. a s it will hc discussed later. is charactcrizcd by hias and scale faclur errors.constantspeed mission. The bcnefits of astn~incrtialnavigalion for i~ircraliimpplication:. that in cslablishing an LOS to a spar. such a s Doppler racial. ground mapping radar. Precise vertical rcference is provided via the star tracker. In addition. and altimeter. Also.
Three noncoplanar beams supply velocity information in D three orthogonal directions. reliance on the inertial system is necessary. During this period. such as a barometer. such as in a fighter aircraft environment. there is no longterm degradation associated with Doppler radar.78) where h is the wavelength of the carrierfrequency radiation. Therefore. The signal from a single beam can provide only the velocity component in the direction of that beam. the Doppler principle states that a transmitted radar wave will be received by the aircraft with a Doppler frequency shift [91 Af = ( 2 / h )V cos u (6. Doppler radar accuracy degrades during highacceleration maneuvers. The three beam version is called a "lambda" configuration.6. Modern Doppler FIGURE 631 Basic Doppler beam configuration. when operating in combination with an inertial system. Referring to Fig. In a twobeam system. vertical velocity is supplied by an external sensor. Complete velocity determination requires the use of at least three beams.2. and a is the angle between the antenna beam and the velocity vector. . the Doppler radar's most significant errors are those that occur during overwater operation. However. Doppler provides good longterm speed information. The constant ( 2 / h ) is called the Doppler sensitivity. The Doppler frequency shift Afis an extremely small fraction of the transmitter frequency f. that is. it results in a system with bounded velocity error that is smaller than that obtained from the inertial system itself. in Dopplerinertial mode. 631. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 361 angle measurements are available as inputs to the onboard navigation computer. Vis the magnitude of the aircraft velocity vector relative to the ground. The fourth beam is used for redundancy to increase both reliability and accuracy. Also. The radar beamwidth is shown in two orthogonal directions by A and Ay. Unlike the unaided inertial navigation mode.
~ nAc . t e n n a c l~ types uscd in 1)opplcr radar navigation iticlu~le .~ random errors. antenna. Typically.~reofthcart systcms.. the measurements :Ire described hy the equations wllcrc V N and Vi. arc thc north and cast vclocity c ~ ~ m p o n c n t~rcspcctivcly.CHAPTER 6 . an inertial platform) is available. . and 1 1 and 11.rnd heading (1.I Doppler radar vclocity sensor consists o i lhc li. a 1)opplcr radar since its characteristics dctcrniinc systcm pcr( i ~ r ~ i i . microwave lenses. For simplicity.!sured velocity to a n earth oriented coordinate system. and displays.ll generators. T o relate the beam directions. s. ~ r . and the other for the Doppler borcsight hias h. Doppler update3 arc norni. a n d linear planar arrays. the .ls arc fixcd to tlic aircraft instcad o l hcine gimhnlc<I. cd in gencral. ) .lrsystems use a fourbeam technique tbr symmetry (one alltentla for cach h c a ~ n ) I)oppler frequency measurements are obeained scqucnti~~lly .~sic componcnts: transmirte~receiver. and hcncc the rne..il mode. The azitnuth misalignmeiit at~glc11. . in the Doppler inertial niodr. In newer. designed and developed by the Singcr ('~~nlpanyKearfott Division (such .g. The :inrenn. . V . In this case. Note that.I very cr~tic:~l clcmcnt ol.id. thc outpul can be transformed to totel ground vclocity. In the Doppler incrli. Doppler frequency r n c i ~ s u r i n dcv~cc. st. as follows: As stated earlier. tlic various Lloppler radar error sources are modeled a s lirslorder Markov piocesses of thc form where is the correlation time and ~ ( 1 is a whitenoise driving process uith ) slrcngth Q. 11~11pul sign. thc INS'S <iyn. Figitre 632 illustrates thc fourbeam tcchniquc.~~nic cqualions will requirc two . one I ' I I ~ the Doppler vclocity bias h . for cach o f Lhc Four bcam directions.is the A N / ' A S N I 2 8 Ilopplcr navigation system).llowing h.I vert~cal rcfcrencc is required. the Doppler radar far~iishesalongheading vclocity and acrossheading (drift) velocity When LI suitable rcrcrcncc systcni (c. Externally Aided Inertial Navigation Systems  ~.i is .idditional constant bias terms. ~ h o p Iclidh. is ~ are included to retlect the fact that the inertial systcm ( t h a t is misaligned irom tl~c tlue norlhl is the refclcncc systcm ~ ~ s hy the Doppler radar.intcnn.~ll) rnadc cvery minute for the duration of the Right. .
.
a r ~ d( 3 ) thc antenna is lixcd to t l ~ e body of tlic aircraft. using aircraft velocity and hcading. In error analyses. In ordel. A simplification is possible if the aircraft is assu~nedto fly over land and surfice motion crrors arc nzglcctcd.TNS Kaltniin filter mechanization. Externally Aidcd lnert/al Navjgatfon Sysferns In this casc. these errors will appear explicitly in thc truth model. only pitchstabilized.ibilircd.olvcrs . the resulting aircrafi body coodin. surface motion. Velocity crrors inherent in the radar system arc either random O I ~ bias. installation alignment.Doppler radar is modcled to compensate I'OI errors in beam direction. where the heading inlbrniation is supplied by Llic inertial platforni. the inertial vclocity indication is T h e Iloppler radar first obtains the vehiclc velocity along the aircraft . tracker time constant. a n cxprcssion involving the INS and reference :. Thus Letting the true vehiclc velocity he V. Cicncri~lly.rtions are found in 1)opplcr ]radars: ( I ) the antcnn. Moreover. and then this velocity vector is transformed via the inertial platform re:.rxcs.to be used in . there is also thc crror in the valuc o f heading uscd.ti>rdcr Markov processes. A:. In all tlircc case>. T h c alig~imentpitcli calibration crrors arc nodel led a s lir:.III integrated Dopp1er. Doppler radar navigation is a selCcontained. Dopplcr radar systcnl crrors ihll under two categories: ( I ) vclocity error from the radar systcm itself and ( 2 ) errors in attitude and hcading supplied to the radar systcrn by tlie attitude hcading systenl.ensor errors can be obtained. F o r the attitude heading rctelencc.l is roll!pitchst. dead reckoning systcm. temperature. Doppler radar navigation is a type of airborne radar system fbr determining ilircrdft velocity relative to tlie earth's surfiice. .I Dopplcr crrur model is rccluircd. INS attitude. From Chapter 4. slated earlier.364 CHAPTER 6 . ( 2 ) the antenna i:. Random errors valy with time and arc independent of the flight path (ncflccling thc cft'cct oI' terrain).~tcdsignals are then transformed into thc navigation coordinate :. the INS velocity indication is compared with the Dopplcr radar reference velocity indication and the ditierencc is thc mcasurcment vector z ( z z H x + r ) . :lnd beamwidth. three basic configur. For the fixed antenna the]e is error in the i n a c c u ~ ~ c y thc of valucs of pitch and roll. Tlie first two cilscs introduce errols duc to hardwi~reused f i x stahili~alionand the error due to roll i i i the second casc. Bias crrors arc conbtant with time but arc clcpcndent on hardware and terrain.ystem in the onboard ~lavigatioli computer using the knowledge of aircraft attitude. Assuming that Doppler errors arc dorni~iatedby alignment pitch calibration errols.
assume a NEU local vertical coordinate system.er= V + GVR (in vehicle axes) VrCr=V+SVRryXV (in inertial platform axes) where ry is the vector of error angles between the platform axes and the computer axes. two accelerometer biases about the east and north axes. This is the term that causes a delay in airborne azimuth alignment. since the error in the reference velocity. longitude. is limited by this term. the reference velocity vector is V. three gyroscope drift rates about these axes. Thus. north velocity.6. The nonzero elements of the observation (or measurement) matrix H are given by . Indicating the Doppler radar sensor error by 6Vn. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 365 into the platform coordinate system. the comparison of the velocity can be made in the same coordinate system. and two Doppler radar bias errors (i. and vertical or azimuth axes. three misalignment angles (about the east..e.2. ground east velocity. For purposes of illustration. velocity and boresight). assume the state vector to consist of the following states: latitude. Furthermore. north. a significant contributor to azimuth misalignment. respectively). the velocity difference Vdi=is given by The term yr x V takes into account the error induced in resolving the Doppler velocity into the inertial platform coordinates. Therefore.
a directrciiding / ) . gause is usi~all? placed directly on thc instrument panel o f the : ~ i r c r a f . thc sealcvcl air dcnsity.rtcd airspeed to safe flight.lirspccd data f r o m thc C'ADC can be uscd t o continuc dead rcckoning..ronl Ihc IC'AO standard :~tmosphrre puhlishcd values. Dopplcv dead reckoning This mode can he sclcctcd i n CBSC of I M L I f. it should hc noted that the I A S i h not thc truc airspccd. Ewrerrlally A i d e d Inertial Navigarion Sysrcrns  Then the ohszlvation matrix takcs the form Aircraft inertial navigation systems have numerous builtin equipment redundancies i n order to enhance the overall system reliability.5. depending. ~ n d has thc value (lo. .= 15 C . position d:lt:~ f ? o ~ nLoran./ I .iilurc. Omega.~irspecddriven l i o m the C A D C The directrcadi~is gauge i\ calibrated t1> Icad I A S o r V. I n d i c a t e d A i r s p e e d ( I A S ) I n Sectiorl 4. indicated airspccd was defined as the speed indicated hy a dilTcrcntialprcssulc indicator calibrated to the standard formulas relntilig airspeed to thc pitot static pressures. the sc.. hcc. .kg. or any other of' the navaids discussed ill this chapter c i ~ n also hc uscd to updiltc the hest cstimilte o f the sl..lncc o f indic. F o r this . and barometric pressure measurements of altitude. I b u r basic n.tte \cctol. Specifically.llcvcl air density p. TAC'AN. on cquiprncnt ilvailahility: Fvcv inevtiul I n this mode. i:. A H R S and .2.'m3./ I ...~usc o f ttlc irnport..75. i s specified at I. 1. In any o f thcsc hasic modes.2250 llowever.lvigation modes can he selected. 6. by the relation where p. Dopplerinertial This mode adds Doppler radar mrlrsurements 10 th(~sc used i n the free inertial mode. For example.in addition to any indication o f .366 CHAPTER 6 . 1s the dynamic prcssurc. ofcoursc. onboard digital computer. provided Doppler radar and A H R S equipment arc availahlr. one uses the IMU. The quantity / I . Tvue airspeed ( T A S ) dear1 vcckoning If hotti the IMU and tlic 1)oppIer radar fall. 1.2.
it is common practice to augment the system state vector by additional variahles.h.(h) are known functions of altitude and the physical characteristics of the specific pressure transducer and V: is the vertical velocity. Letting h. are the scale factor errors associated with the pressure transducers and b. descent. . and h. In addition to the IAS discussed in Section 4. when the directreading gauge is used. Although the instrument bias may he considered constant. The specific air data measurements which are most useful in an aided inertial navigation system are those ofaltitude and altitude rate.(h) and r. and cruising speeds.5. the function of the CADC was discussed. respectively. and b. Therefore where 5. are based on indicated airspeed. In situations where the measurements themselves have dynamics. be the auxiliary state variables to account for the dynamics in barometric altitude and barometric altitude rate. as well as climb. As a result. (6. are the bias errors. a manual correction must be applied in order to obtain the true airspeed. + b.84a) (6. IAS is used in autopilots to maintain the same dynamic response over a wide range of airspeeds. include the bias error present in the instrument itself as well as bias that is present in a datum (commonly established before takeoff). this intermediate device creates a time delay between the input and output signals. where k . then the dynamic equations governing these variahles are given by where r. random variations in sealevel temperature and pressure suggest that the bias term reflects this random variation.= h. In both cases. The determinations of minimum and maximum safe flying speed. The barometric altitude and altitude rate measurements can he expressed mathematically in the form y.84b) y.6. Navaid Sensor Subsystems 367 reason. and k . the actual measurement is of static pressure that must he converted to an electrical signal by means of a pressure transducer. + k.are random disturbances.h.2. The terms b. and 5.+k.+b.=h.2. and b.
and I. a stochastic difercnlii~l equation (firstorilcr M a ~ k o v ) ili . The EMLog consists of a probe that extends in front of tlie vehicle ( e g .gafion Sysrerris 6. a n electric ficld is induced in it. an external measurenlcnt of velocity is oftell used.. . EMLog or Speedlog The previous sections etnphasircd that.licrchy these errors include the efects nf occ. in the direction of motion a s follows: where Vis the vclocity o f t h e vehiclc relative to the earth. which is picked up hy two horizontal poles. it is the waterspeed only along the desired axis of rnotion that IS measured. T h e EMLog has hcen found to give a very accurate n i c .. to thc INS f c > velocit) ~ damping... For a htraightsteaming vehicle.jvelocity component:.+ I:>..ith the INS bc velocity creating a A V . radar measurements of groundspeed arc used. . the EMLog vclucity outputs are l " r . . . .. sincc thc electric held is only induced perpendicular to thc magnetic field. proportional lo the speed of the vehicle with respect to the water. A n ac magnetic field is maintained between two vertical poles on the probe. the salt wC~tclrnovcs lhrough this held.. F o r aircraft.. + I:.  Va. ..87h) where q ~ is the vehicle's true heading. an E M (clcctrornagnctic)Log o r Speedlog may he used to measure waterspeed... . an EMLog model is nccesw r y ..og bias error. . and hence. However...  ((1.in currcnts in addition to instrument errors. it is desired t o cstimate these errors in order to hc able to compensate Sor t h a n ... since the undamped Schuler loop has crrnrs that grow unbounded with time. Furthermore..368 CHAPTER 6 Exrerr. Since salt water is an electrical conductor. and I. This ma4 he accomplished hy using the E M .MLog rnodel is developed. we note that thc EMLog sensor model provides 1.e ~s + I. in order to reduce the Schuler errors. . Thus. randoni vclocity crrors in tllc EMLog data.* . In ma]i~ie inlcgreted navigation systcms. .C'.l a g nieasurement. the EMLog c a n be modeled a:. (6X7a) I". Before the E. as we havc seen. it should he notcd that thcrc may he a small bias calibration error associated witli tlic EMLog..eL. the EMLog gives the ualerspccd C .. ~ s u r e m c ~ ~ t of watcrspeed.2. a ship) in tlie water. This velocity is compared u. T h c resulting clcctric field is proportional to the speed CISIhc con~luclor(i. cos v . A s the probe rnovcs. Now let C. is the ocean current hias error. sin {I!. \\. tih is Llie EMl.16.e. salt water) through tlic magnetic lield. Specifically. ~ ~. As in any optimally integrated INS.ally Alded Inertial Nav.... . 4 F. 'Therehrc.
. Between updates. The Updating Process 369 the form dV". and sensor errors as well as the statistical uncertainty (i. . the position and velocity computations are in error due mainly to accelerometer and gyroscope imperfections and initial position and velocity uncertainties. respectively. VOR/DME. velocity. and the (T values are the a priori covdriances associated with the EMLog instrument noise in the alongtrack and crosstrack directions. the Kalman filter provides a fully rational approach to the design of aided navigation systems. As a result. In an inertial navigation system. GPS). the navigation computer computes the aircraft's position and compares it with the aircraft position as supplied by the updating system (e. by utilizing initial vehicle position and velocity at the time of IMU turnon. the filter updates the inertial navigation system's position and velocity on the basis of statistically weighting the estimated accuracy of the external measurement against the estimated position or velocity accuracy of the system itself. not only because it supplies an optimal estimate of navigation system errors that are directly observable.e. When an external position or velocity measurement is made. the filter propagates in real time the best estimate of the system's position. v ~ m + d ' m l l l (6. However. 6 3 THE UPDATING PROCESS . For example.3. radar. the Kalman filter is a statistical weighting and error propagation device.6. The best method of combining position fix information and inertial navigation data in real time is through a centralized Kalman filter mechanization..._ dt ~ v . it is important to determine the influence of sensor and initialization errors on system position and velocity accuracy. Therefore. in the mechanization mentioned above. but because it also provides estimates of all modeled navigation sensor error sources which have significant correlation times.g. This error signal is multiplied by a set of filter gains and added in at various modes or states in the inertial computation chain to . In essence. the onboard navigation computer integrates the accelerometer outputs to determine vehicle position and velocity outputs. attitude. covariance matrix) associated with these errors. such as position and velocity.88a) where q is a whitenoise forcing function and P = l / r (r=correlation time). Moreover. the difference between the computed and measured positions is an error signal. in designing inertial navigation systems.
no position crl01saccumulate. Vclocity update mode In the velocity itpdalc mode. the]chy minimizing position crror buildup hetween updates: and ( 2 ) the position crrors arc removed 31 tile titile of a position updatc. Specifically. ill an optimal manner.is accclcration and platform torqui~ig ratc informalion (in the case ofgirnbalcd pl:lttor~iis). the velocity mcaxurcnient of. and elevation angles. At this point.~l't dynamics. the statist~cal covarii~ncc ul~ccrt. a llight mission profile.~tionbetween the nicasurcmcnls a n d the state being updated. vclocity.ai Navioarion Svste~nr correct o r reset those conipuuitional states.'The cvrors modeled in the sitnulation program :Ire tre. range.a simulation program must be written that evaluates the cll'ccliveness of external measorcnicnls in the aiding of an ineltial navigation systcni..~te scqucncc arc input l o the program.IS . Ihc Kiilrni~ri gilins vat). say. Putthermorc.ded /nerr. let us look more closcly a t the position and vclocity updatc 11~11d~~. Tlic etTect is to minimize Lhe freeinertial grontli of position.llmen tiller cornpules the gains . and a n upd.~inty associated will1 syslcm crrors. and ( 3 ) the correl. .is long as position updalcs arc available. velocity states being updalcd with positivn 1ne.~tcd. As in the p ~ ~ s i l i o n update modc.ltion equations. The efkct of incorpor. In addition. r h e s c measurements . In order to address the updating problcn~.sition updatc mode In this modc. . to stored checkpoints ( o r waypoints). wilt1 tinie and with aircr. range rate is used by the Kalman filter lo update thc rangc ratc ptedicted by the liavigation equations.I function 01' ( I ) the rcl. velocity. Thcrc arc two reasons for Ihis: ( I ) the position update mcasurcrncnts tiiinimirr a t t i t ~ ~ d e crror. ]range rate.~tingcxtcrnal measurement inli. Initial errors (incliiditig specified navigation sensor errols).or vclocily me. say.tsis of linc. arimuth.rnmalion via the Kalman lilter is to reduce.rsnrenienls vs. range mc. and attitude crrors on ttic h. that is.lsurcInents.~live accoracies of the nicasurcd and compuled positions.g.ire used by the Kalman tiltel. thc cll'cct is to prevent buildup of posilion erlor? that would otherwise be seen in the tkeeinertial mode. The velocity updntc alolie cannot remove position crrors. ( 2 ) tllc relative geomctr) hcI\vcen thc measured and computed position (e. updatcs to the systcm state arc made hy feedbi~ckofmcasurcmcnls of.3 70 CHAPTER 6  Exfernally A. the inertial systcm designer must construct a simulation program that will updatc periodically the systcrn error covariance matrix on the basis of cxtcrnai positior~ and. ~ n d attitude errors in all channels. Po.IS .lsurcments. the K. latitude longitude).to compute and apply corrcctions to the system state being propagated by the nnvig. A propagation routine propagates input CIrols into system position. In general. Initial position crrors will remain with the systern state after velocity updates. it can only minimize llic buildup of such errors.
the effect of the position fixes is to reset the position error in the inertial system to the same level of accuracy inherent in the position fixing technique. This covariance matrix is updated with a Kalman filter whenever position or velocity observations are available.e.3. one can estimate the velocity accuracy of the updated system by dividing the position update accuracy by the available smoothing time. As stated in Section 6. and modeled sensor errors is propagated along a reference trajectory. These updates can he made at regular intervals over any part of the flight. In order to keep track of the relative accuracies of the measured and computed positions. which can he printed out when desired. the updated quantity) and velocity error. 633.) m Inertial velocity error C Position  ~~ Time FIGURE 633 Navigation error behavior for a typical INS using updates from navaids. the former is essentially the direct integral of the latter. velocity. Figure 633 shows the error behavior in an inertial navigation system using external information sources. Kalman filtering techniques also generate an improvement in the inertial system's velocity accuracy by virtue of the strong correlation between position error (i. normally distributed random variables having zero means. In between position fixes. the Kalman filter includes error models of both the updating device and the inertial system.6.1. the inertial error grows at a rate equal to the velocity error in the inertial system. This results in the wellknown sawtoothed position error curve as indicated in Fig.  . The Updating Process 371 initially uncorrelated. An initial covariance matrix position. (Note that the available smoothing time is defined as the time it takes an acceleration error to create a position error equivalent to the position updating error.. attitude. Furthermore.
slowly varying (correlated eflects o r "colored" noise). the discretetime Kalman filter equations needed for the measurement update and time update step are given below.k.I ) = ( x(olo)=II.gar.95) Combining both thc measurement and time update steps for the calculation of P ( k + I l k ) yields the following single expression f o r the discretetime . I k I ' I ) (6. . Mcr~.k)=$(k/k (6. scale fhctor crrors. and covariance m.I)HT(k) (6. ..93) Covilriancc: P(/. 1I Filtcr: C ( k : k . For the rcader's convenicncc. [Gaussianly distributed. with known Incan p.: Filter gain: K(k) = P(k!ki I)HT(k)[H(k)P(/I. ( 2 ) velocity. Although not mechanircd as true states. /k):P(k X I ) . I)] 1. R(k)] Filter: 4(k.94) Covariance: P(k.kI)=@(k.K ( k ) I 3 ( k ) P ( k I/. 1)PIk.I)@k.92) (6. the ell'ecls of instrument crror sources such as bias noisc.~trixP(O)].I .91 I i ) + K ( l < ) [ z ( k ) .k.H ( k ) P ( k .srtn~rn~~~~r upt/<rt~. . and ( 3 ) attitude.. 2.I) +Q(kI) k = l .3 72 CHAPTER 6 Externally Aided Inertial Nav. Random errors utilized by the program may be essentially constant (unknown biases). or rapidly varying ("white" noisc) rcli~tivcto a given mission time. and instrument nonorthogonalitics arc rnodclcd a s noisc input driving terms. (6.on Systerris The typical filter states mechanircd in a n inertial navigatiorl system are ( I ) position.
25(2). October 1973.4 Jour~al. ic January 1987." IEEE Transaclions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. 111. C. 1989. May 1820. 24(1). Jr. 89 100. Wiley.: "Decentralized Filtering and Redundancy Management for Multisensor Navigation. 1977. 1978. and TenCate. R.: "Principles and Simulation of JTlDS Relative Navigation. Jr. D." I8EE Tr~~~tsuctiorrs otr Aerospuce and E l ~ e l r ~ nSystem$. REFERENCES 1. Fried. 831 19. W." Nauixalion: Journal of !he institute of Nauigoliun. W. Cox. 8. J. 2. Kerr. R." paper presented at the 6th National Technical Meeting of the Institute of Navigation. 10. 7. 11. which distributes information according to defined priorities.." Navigation: Journal ojthe Instilure qlNovigalion. M. Y. W. This architecture provides significant benefits for realtime multisensor applications." papers published in Navigution.: "Updating Inertial Navigation Systems with VOR/ D M E Information.. D. and Fried. Kayton. and processing procedures. such as integrated inertial navigation systems. Bobick." A1. Ohio. and SatelliteBased Radio Navigation Systems. H. January 2327. 4858. R. In a federated architecture. B.References 373 Riccati equation: This single equation can he used to provide P(k/k. which is applicable to decentralized sensor systems with parallel processing capabilities. Jorgensen. May 35.. January 1978. f 6. San Mateo. pp. each subsystem operates independently and has its own link with the central computer. 236245.: "NavstarIGlobal Positioning System I8Jatellite Constellations. J. Fried. C.. Lee. Brown. Wierenga.: "Integration of GPS with Inertial Navigation Systems. AES23(I). WrightPatterson AFB. New York. Blackwell. distributed architecture subsystems have a common link. 1989. W. 1980. 1969. 9. : "Overview of Differential GPS Methods. AES14(1). Calif. A.: "Ground Monitoring Schemes for the GPS Integrity Channel. 89IW. R. 27(2).. 3. AirBased. pp. destinations. 13771384. 11(10). K. Current research in optimal control and estimation theory indicates that it may be advantageous to use a federated Kalman filter architecture. E. G . (eds): Avionics Nouigalion Systems. A. Furthermore.. E. ." Novigalion: Journal o the lnstiture of Nauigalion. V. 331340. 4. 1986. 5.: "Kalman Filter Design and Performance f for an Operational F4 Loran Inertial Weapon Dclivery System. M. : "NAVSTAR/GPS Operational Principles and Applications. Vol. P." Short Course. Ohio. Bird. and Bryson." Proceedings o the NAECON'76 (Dayton. T.. 1976).' "A Comparative Performance Analysis of Modem GroundBased.4.1) for all k's of interest. 7684. S.
lloc./ ~ ~ i r i u 15. 1'178. ..hc. A . Uccernhcr IL184~ 1')..<'. . I (Di. .~ ~ c ~ / i r($1.nu t i c q u c n c ? 22 V.~lioo S y i l c m i I:und. " A 1Kc.~ITioir. I1)XZ). M "N. : "Tlic GI'S V.A.i.np~oecri~>g C'oorse. Ohio).' Pot:i*. 1'170. W. pp.k:E Trrii?.AESIY(11. 411 38. ~ ~ i t ~ o I... ~ r i . T . atid N ' i i i ~ ii.. ~ c l i o i e f r i . I ~ i l c ! m r l r ~ r l i i c (':~mhridgc.~. I! S ('o. i ~c i i il .' Prr. CII CC and D C I C I O ~ ~SCIVICC.% llyprrhol~c Tcchniqocs. 1978 24 Wldoall. M i i r 21 25. pp.r>cat>on. i ~ r ~ l ~ ~I ~ t'li.i.n.ved Cieilmcrnc P c r l i ~ r m .~n~cntal*01I. 1)cccrnhsz n 19SO. . c ~ \ + .n for impn. Ac. S t h c ~ ~ l1. J. V e l X. Ollicc or Systerns I'npcncering Mnnngcmcoi: I .AllKS: A S y n c r ~ ? s t i cMix. ..iiiit.VAE('O.ilair. h.yir. 197'1. v i ~ l u i i l t o n o l V./r.45(2).ccc</i. I'p Y I 0 18 T h o r n i ! ~ . ~ ~ ~ i g a l ~ . Ilpadhyay.i11~a<' itnil Ek. July 28. C..ii. " J T l D S KclsLivc Nilvie. ( ' ." ('onllitcl I : 3 i h l 577CllJ04. W Global Pniitioning S y r c m A Modilicatton l o Ihe RnscI8r1e Satullilc ('onsrclliil~.('. Alaskit.?l~~i. "CiPS. Scplcn~hcr25.q.irrnul g o / fkc /. ~ ~ l i i n g l o ~ ~ . N .li.ktion Syslcm: I'rcscnl Statu5.l('ONLIS. W.?.: "Slithll!t) 01' l l i c I)cccnlr. ~ l ~ n.tlion u i l i l Mc.owlion. ltlXl ~ ." 1b.~dcnr) L o r a n .~wiuz." Pro.IF .e$ r l u \rdl:('O.. 7 .vniir. I). and D c f i r c n l i a l Omega Appllcd t o C i v i l A i r Navisatcon Kcquwemi. i v i ~ .~vcpalion h1ess.. 1 ( ' .iod OHShorc..Omcg. . M . COI ' I . V. 33'1 348 17 Tc.i$ o r ) ic. Siooris. ~i i' i hi ii ~ ~l I'ri i ~rlic l r I i . Sturr. 11. I'ress. olTcchn. ~ l i oSymp..tsl Gu. and Kcrnp.~eriicoliori.rricoi (i~m. Ineriii~l.iirid li.3 74 CHAPTER 6 .vcr./ llic . i ' l ' l ~ ~ r 1 ~ l i . / I.lnd I'lan.isirliri<' o l .~pttiun. b l . W M . fir.si~. IZO 112. C'alii.. (i..i)ion. P.. ~ n . Oliio. 27.l.tlliid tr:ltn." l'oci. / r . . It .I ' l i 7 I080..M .iil .Iorri.~. C. 25 W i d n i ~ l l ..~i." W : ~ s l ~ ~ o g ~ .C .winp I>cs<goand Peifbrmsnce.?ii .(I. 1'12 312. r.tnd VcrpL..<i.~vlg. I 1 7 Ih i 1978 .eiiiie.lvhp. . ~ t i O n <.i. 251 1). S S.qi .liiu(qrilion. J.. W. 5 . S I). cr .. 19841. ILL!) I).Sj dcni%.and Birilh.< I:. 1987.wti J.and N . M A .i. S.e l U .~eili.Ilci.i. . Vul.' Ncm L o n d o t ~Coon . Externallv Atdcd Inertial Naviyar.~. F. A K.tiicy. I . n.ti~m. . Vass..on Svsrenis . i ~ r c c ..in Ctten. ..\uviwnrin. I'JXS.tahingtoll.. 1 ' N. "Ornrg. pp. 25(?1." I . Scqt~cnltalFlltcring Algorilllm lbr GI'S l ~ . ~ r a n . a n d (iohhini.I. I< "l)iHecr~iiiisl CiPS Niivi$iitmn.~ N. I 1 . l>hS 717.~rlnirnt US Transporful!~rn. Ruascll. r l r c inslilute ~ . and 1)iirnoulakis." P.' r'~in.~a!nml.in/ o/ rhe I n v r i i i i r i r i l .cllon in l h c S l'll>S Kclattve Uav>gatii.tdcmii. 729 719.\ ' 7 9 ibl. Noucmher I'JS3. .~! 15 X:~vig:sl~<~r~ (01 17.irious N i ~ v i p a t l o n Sysicni ('onccpls..O y r ~ ~ i r ~ ~ ~ c s Syslerm.: " l 3 c o c I i l ~~ ~ I ' l n l c g r ." VoI. I).l'S ~ ~ l Sys:crn\.V'SJ.lngy. F R . S?slcln\ R \ . pp.incl l ~ ~ e r l ! : !X a ~ ~ g . Brown.ri~ i r t ~ ~ l i j i irt s r h i II<Ft: 1'1 ANS (Posirio>>.Siicti<c. S. 117. J S I L U ?Snn Ilicgo.. 1978 ?'I I : S l)cp.ind Kcllcy. . ) 21 V a n L>scrcndonck.S h i i I'orcc ~ ~ c I > I ~ # I v M s. 240 24'). Kopl1. g a t ~ o n ~ ~ I ~ . ?X li S l ) c p a r l r n e ~ ~o f T r n # ~ s p u i t a t ~ oI n A A . ('. .. S X . S i ~ n 1)iego.io/ ilie I E E C P L I M i I ' . 211~LJpdI>yay. and Johl>aon." . Widniill.~suscmcnl Sh. 1': "N.n. M a r c h I'lXJ 2h. ' ' S t i l h ~ l ~ lof Alternate I ) c r ~ g n for K:~reAldlng o l NonCohcrcol Modc o? ) i i j GI's Kecc~acr..~gc. .W S.inl Ac.
and VLSI/VHSIC technologies made possible the use of navigation systems to he designed for commercial aviation aircraft to use alldigital inertial reference systems (IRS). the interfacing of navaids with an inertial navigation system is accomplished by using a Kalman filter based on an error model of the system elements that accurately characterizes the significant system errors for the specified dynamic environment in which performance capabilities must be achieved. angular rates. In addition. can be achieved by providing a precision navigation capahility and a precision targeting capability using highresolution synthetic . and other navigation systems. Advances in inertial sensors. displays. pitch/roll attitude. weather radars. In modern avionics systems. they have comprehensive input/output capabilities. The IRS interfaces with a typical transport aircraft flight management system. both digital and analog.Modern Avionics Systems 7. For example.7. the avionics system is partitioned to take advantage of autonomous subsystem capabilities and fault detection. The primary outputs from the system are linear accelerations. In addition. Alldigital laser IRSs are now flying aboard commercial aviation aircraft such as the Boeing 757/767. and north eastvertical velocity data used for inputs to a transport aircraft flightcontrol system. autopilots. modern avionics systems provide flexibility and growth potential for future requirements. for instance. air data systems. for instance. Allweather airtosurface weapon delivery. INTRODUCTION Presentday commercial and military navigation systems are designed to facilitate functional interfacing with existing and future avionic systems such as flight directors. fighter aircraft avionic systems support allweather airtoair and airtosurface combat missions. Furthermore.
and (5) attitude rate. and wcapon systems.STEERING Basically. and TV video informittion on two independent multifunction displays simultaneously. Also. (4) attitude. Sreenng. this set provides the ~ n a i nhuman machine interface hetween all of the aircraft weapons and sensors and allo\vs integrated or multifunction operations to be accommodated specifically within . in wcapon delivery and aircraft flightcontrol computations. Vchicle ettitudc rate data can be obtained from gyroscopes that are part of thc flightcontrol system. attitude. and attitude ratc. stccring involvcs determination of the change in vehiclc motion required to obtain a desired result. cach with a diserenl symbology ovcrlay. and yaw in relation to the geodetic locallcvel. Omega. dual video recorder outpuls are provided from the set to allow the operator to record the display scene that is being presented o n either multifunction display. In a gimbaled inertial system. for exan~ple. As mentioned above. (2) velocity.establishing I N S requirements that ensure maximum capahility with external ilavaids such as GPS. Thc steering program provides steering . Recent multifunction display sets represent an advanccd concept in fighter aircraft controls and displays. and eliminate the costs associated with separately designed systems. and estimation theory need to hc applied efectivcly to achievc both improvcd effectiveness and lifccycle cost ( K C ) . electrooptical (EO) weapon. and guidance computer technology will be used t o the fullest extent in achieving future requirements. models must be developed fol. 7. and Modern Aviontcs aperturc radar (SAR). New approaches based on modern systcm. Currentgeneration multifuncti(~ndisplay sets provide high contrast images of radar. JTIDS. roll. Formatted displays and master mode design enhance oneswitch selcctioli of optimized text and video in easily discernible displays. the following inertially derived data arc required: ( I ) linear acceleration. T h e incrtial instrumcnts sense dircctly the linear acceleration. avionic. increase the reliability. consequently. In thc irnplcmentation of multiscnsor integrated navigation systems. and Loran. In cssence. control. 111 addition. new developments in inertial sensor technology. Special Navigation.376 CHAPTER 7 . vehicle attitude is obtained from the gimbal angle measurements.I vcry small cockpit. (3) position. new systcms must incorporate advanced integration concepts with greater complexity and sophistication. Thc ultimate integration of complete avionics systems undcr a unifying architecturc and information structure will enhance system performance. estimation theory. Future avionics systems will impose increasingly stringent requirements on etrectiveness and lifecycle costs of navigation. In ordcr to meet thcse requiremcnts. northpointing ( o r other) reference frame. the inertially sensed data is used to compute the velocity a n d position.2. providing thc vehicle pitch.
and (4) trackangle error. Therefore. The initial operation is to transfer vehicle velocity and position of this inertially referenced coordinate system into a localvertical system. In the case of an automatic steering program. thereby providing several advanced features to the flight crew. CDUs of modern design incorporate either LED (lightemitting diode) or CRT (cathoderaytube) alphanumeric displays. The Litton design employs an LED matrix display.7. The steering software converts the navigation equations output from inertially referenced quantities into earthreferenced and coursereferenced quantities. The top line gives the title heading while . which displays five lines and 16 characters per line of data entered via dataentry pushbuttons. The aircraft can be flown manually using the information displayed on the instruments or automatically by engaging the AFCS. Thus. and can he loaded into the CDU.2. The second calculation is to compute the desired localvertical parameters for a defined course. navigation is not operative until the alignment is complete. Figure 71 illustrates the INS units used in steering. The objectives of the steering task are as follows: Provide autopilot steering control parameters Develop intercept steering algorithm(s) that account for anticipated coordinated turns in subsequent course changes Modify the CDU displays in the steering software It should be pointed out that the steering functions are enabled only after the system modes NAV AUTO and NAV MAN are selected. Honeywell. and steering errors to the automatic flightcontrol system (AFCS). this procedure and/or program will have the capability to take the aircraft through preselected flight paths. (Note that timeofarrival control is sometimes implemented by automatically computing the true airspeed required to achieve a userspecified timeofarrival at a selected waypoint. (2) timetogo. Steering endpoints or waypoints can be specified by a destination number. advantages accrue through a fully automated interface with the autopilot that reduces the pilot and/or navigator workload. offers opportunities for fuel savings. and increases the probability of obtaining the desired position fixes. These display values include (1) distancetogo. Steering 377 commands and related information to the displaying instruments. For this reason. and Collins Avionics Division (Rockwell International). (3) crosstrack position error. 7lb is of an earlier design. the pilot enters present position in terms of latitude/longitude and destination into the CDU prior to departure. Leading companies in the area of CDU design and manufacturing are Litton Aero Products.) The FROM and TO displays on the CDU (controlanddisplay unit) identify which prestored endpoints are being used. The CDU illustrated in Fig. the difference between the actual and desired values are used to compute the display values for the controlanddisplay unit (CDU). As mentioned earlier.
coritrol keys. Figuic 71 depicts thc 1. All integral modeselect \witch eliminates thc nccd xnd space . The Honeywell CVlJ design featurcs a CRT data display cotlsisting of a 26clcmcnt alphanumeric keyboard. and systemopcratioii annunciators.378 CHAPTER 7 .itton ('DL1 design. Special Navigatiori. and Modern Avionics Mode Selector READY NAV annunciator ALIGN switch OFF @ \ BATT annunciator (a) the remaining b u r lincs aic data c~ltcicdo r INS output data. Sreenng.
The CDU can display the following navigation data when the navigation (NAV) mode is initiated: (1) true heading (THDG). ( 6 ) true desired . ' N LON ' W ENTER pushbunon ALERT annunciator OFFSET annunciator Data entry pushbunons HOLD pushbunon Brightness controls F I G U R E 72 LED/CRT controlanddisplay unit. a scratchpad line lets the operator touchin data and correct it without losing the currently displayed data. . (3) true track (TTK). Moreover. (2) magnetic heading (MHDG). providing a logical and versatile operation.7.. A message keylight signals the presence of a message from the INS. All systems offer automatic and direct great circle flight planning when departure point and destination are entered into the CDU. (5) track angle error (TKE). depicts alphanumeric flight data in rows of 14 characters and standard notations. The highcontrast CRT display. This selfprompting interactive display guides the flight crew through data entry and selection of available features and modes. the Collins CDU design also employs a CRT display. As in the Honeywell design. Steering LED matrix display ALPHANUMERIC pushbunon 379 CLEAR pushbunon POSITION LAT DATA * o. readable in sunlight. the display data are grouped into pages that can be called by depressing a given function key.2. (4) magnetic track angle (MTK). In this design. required for a separate mode selector unit (MSU).
and Modern Avionics track ( T . Lat. These points may be identified visually. The waypoints (sometimes also rcferred to as "action points") are used to definc each change of state o r flight mode. o r via radar to providc the pilot with assurance relative to navigation accuracy. Terminul na~'igation The terminal navigation l ~ ~ n c t i oprovides relative n position tbr autonomous landing guidance tu a sclccted touchdowri point. : ~ n d 3 ) furwardlook( ing infrared ( F L I R ) . and from present direction cosine values. that may bc defined as points along the niission profile o r tri~jectory near which the aircraft is commanded to fly. Navigating tiom. These navigation functions are defined as follows: En route navigation The en route navigation function is required to operate in course "flyto" mode. Flyto mode nz~vigates between the aircraft present position and a selected waypoint. Soecial Nanoarion.'Lon updated and nonupdatcd). A waypoinl is commonly defined a s a geographic p o s i t i o ~in terlns of ~ latitude. either directly o r radially. true ailspeed.. F o r waypoints described hy latitudeilongitude. the resolution capability of the system must he 1. whereah for waypoints descrihcd a s a bearing and distance f r o m a latitude:longitude. ( 1 3 ) aircraft altitudc ( A L T ) . Waypoints arc geographic points. Each turn. (10) true airspeed (TAS).01 minute or hettcr. Flyto guidance will be perfbrmed only when course mode is not availahlc. It should be noted that the wind direction and speed are calculated by the navigation computer Srom known heading. and aircraft velocity in relation to II local vertical. Thc terminal navigation function is rcquired to opcrate in the fidlowing modes: ( I ) radar. free 111.g. the resolution capability for both values must he 0. Other informatio~i.I known location dclincd by a latitudeilongitude. ( 7 ) crosstrack distance ( X T K ) . The navigation function supports "en route" navigatiol~and "terminal approach" navigstion. via clcctrooptical sensors. is also possible. o r any other missiondependent parameter is performed by changing the appropriate command a t the desired waypoint. waypoint I t o waypoint 2 can be visualized by referring to Fig. change of altitude.longitude o r bearingldistancc from .180 CHAPTER 7 . (12) present position (e. C:oursc modc navigates between two points. (9) wind direction and velocity (WD). (15) Greenwich Mean Time ( G M T ) . ( 2 ) dead reckoning. a n d (17) present position in terlns of radial slant range L closcsl o T A C A N station when available. given in terms of latitude and longitude.wander iuirnuth frame. Sreerino.D T K ) . rcspectivcly.depending on mission requirements. change of spced. say. the aircraft will be steered along a n operator "flyin" radial.0' and 0. 73. ( I I ) drift angle ( D A ) .1852 krn o r better. (16) position of selected waypoints. ( 8 ) groundspeed (GS). If the radial option is selected. (14) distancc and time to waypoints on the flight plan. .
The computation of latitude and longitude is accomplished by using the direction cosine values that define the present position vector. Airplane longitudinal axis T O waypoint 2 HDG From waypoint 1 FIGURE 73 Definition of aircraft present position and waypoints. the pilot can accomplish waypoint bypassing.True north 4 . All these data are available for cockpit display. and waypoint position change. . the INS will automatically navigate from waypoint to waypoint and continuously provide navigation data for the aircraft's autopilot or flight director control. the Depression of the first key in the loading process locks the display to the keyboard. pilot may also load present position using the keyboard. After the pilot enters the data and initiates the initial track leg (note that this can be done on the ground or during flight). when the data selector is set to ~os. latitude and the longitude of the aircraft's present position are displayed. and attitude data for the aircraft's instrumentation. as well as several methods of track change to allow for flightplan changes. The data will not be provided to the onhoard navigation computer until the ENTER key is pressed. In addition. Flight instructions can be commanded or changed only at waypoints. Furthermore. When the data selector switch on the CDU is set to ~os. That is. the display will reflect the keys pressed by the operator and will be updated as successive keys are pressed. When the data selector switch is set to WFT (waypoint).
waypoints will remain in the INS until new waypoints are entered.ly in dcsrees. minutes. 1.) Additiunal w:iypoint coordinates can he entcrcd sequentially into subscquent w:~ypoint storage loc. ( I n some l N S s all w. Special Navigation.This time. Thc latitude and longitudc of the higllust stored destination number will :rppc.al waypoints. True north F I G U R E 74 Muillple waypoinl n. and Modcrri Avior~ics the same type of operation is cornn~anded. and tenths of minutes.~lloii .382 CHAPTEfi 7  Sfeerir.Figurc 74 shows nal'igation along sevel. C'oordi~yatesor more than 25 waypoints can be e~itereclinlo the INS navigation computer either during the selfl. Once entered.aading of waypoints latitude and longitude is accomplished essentially the same :lr loading of present position. Iiowcvcr.tbig.iypoints arc automatically clearcd when thc mode selector swiich is sct to thc 01I position. that waypoint coordinatrs cannot bc cntcred until after thc present position coordioates have hccn entered. more than 25 destinations (latitude and longitude) can be storcd in the onboard navigation computer.tr in the displ. I t should be pointed out. thc navigation cornputcr supplies latitudc and longitude o f thc wilypoint selected.~lignmcnt sequence while thc aircraft is on the ground o r after takeoff.~tions. that is.y.
or if the vehicle is having a position error such as in a cruise missile. such as strategic missiles.tan (Ayrl2) h. In the automatic leg change mode. more than 250 waypoints can be stored in the onboard navigation computer.7.. a turn angle can be executed whereby the vehicle flies close to the intermediate waypoint WP.+l and at a distance equal to the tangent of onehalf the turn angle multiplied by the turn radius. Consequently. The bypassing of a waypoint can be intentional as in the case of a commercial aircraft where the pilot can change course. This situation is evident in cruise missiletype applications. waypoint 1) to its destination (e. Therefore. Steering 383 In military applications. In this case. The following steering modes are commonly used from the preceding d~scussion : Direct steering to waypoint Direct steering in the great circle guidance mode results in the aircraft flying a great circle path directly from its current position (e. the track leg change occurs prior to arrival at the waypoint in order to permit a smooth turn onto the new track.. from WP. and determined in advance by the mission planner. the distance at the point of turn initiation is AB. in flying two legs (AB and BC) of a great circle.g. waypoint 2). Mathematically. the turn position should occur before waypoint WP. 75). where the vehicle is commanded to fly a large number of legs stored on the onboard computer. that is.. the aircraft speed and new track angle will determine the time when the track leg change occurs. Note that R * (Ay1/2) can only he determined after Ayr is determined.... the aircraft will be steered along the extension of the previous desired track.g. to WP. (see Fig. For instance.R * tan(Ay1/2). A2 R = turn radius AW = change of heading from ABto BC FIGURE 75 Geometry of waypoint bypassing..2. . Distance = R .
75. and altitude hold modes. Right director computers. This information (i.'L and airspeed ( T A S ) . the yaw dampcr engages automatically. (21 hank hold.384 CHAPTER 7 . rl. componcnts by applying the translormation from rcctangular to polar coordinates. The yaw danipcr system is connected to the ruddcr :~nd can he independently engaged. defined by the great circle path hetwecn its initial position and its destination. . In the engaged modc. radar. In transport applications. Morcocet. Special Nawgatjon. instead of overflying a waypoint. and automatically coordiheading. cast velocity. Assuming n o wind and turns are coordinated ( i . a n d altitude with m i n i m ~ n n nates turns and provides for roll and pitch adjustments. T h e autopilot system tiormally functions in two modes: ( I ) engaged and (21 coupled. nonterminal). The turnshort o r waypoint bypassing geometry is illustrated in Fig. posilion.. attitude. Modern transport AFCSs consist of Right controls and enhanced guidance and flight director system processing contained within the onhoard navigation comthe puter (or mission computer). T h c autopilot cannot he couplcd to the flight director unless a lateral mode has bee11 selected.d from thc cast and north velocit). T h e lateral aircraft motion resulting from thc deflection o f thc ruddcr a n d ailerons is measured by the navigation sensors. ( 3 ) heading hold. and ruddcr are controlled by three servos. acrodyna~nic surfaces are positioned in Iesponse to computcd steering commands during en route ( i e . and other navaids.~ c pitch. When the autopilot is coupled. ailerons. velocity. and yaw dampel. it is desired to perform an anticipatory turn. . pilot effort. and the elevator trim tabs a!c controlled automatically to c o ~ n p e ~ ~ sl'or t outoftrim conditions in . t l ~ c grc~und track anglc ( G T A ) .e. the AFCS consists of a flight director computer and an autopilot. Furthermore. and (4) en route KNAV. ~ . Basically. Steering. north velocity. T h e autopilot system maintains the aircraft at a prcdctermincd attitudc. and roll anglc.. itrca. an automatic flightcontrol system (AFCS) is used to reduce the crew workload and aid in precision navigation tasks. to aid in precision navigation. true aircral't groundspeed . The lateral na\. This system uses inputs f r o ~ n inertial navigation system. when the autopilot is engaged. ILS approach. Lcro side slip). especially in military applications with morc than two crew members. heading.mputL.igation mcasurenients used in the navigation computer during autopilot operation arc the . and Modern Avionics Centevline recovery stecring Centerline recovery steering in the grcat circle guidalicc mode results in the aircraft achieving and maintaining a desired trajectory. Turnshort steering In certain cases.rircraft latitude. the operation o f the elevators. longitude. The Ilightco~ltrol tilodes are ( I ) pitch hold. altitude. lateral and vertical steering cornmands are accepted from the flight director computcr In this case. attitude rates) is sent to the navigation computet.
7.1.the lateral aircraft dynamics are given by the following firstorder. the steering problem is the determination of the ground track required at the present aircraft position to reach a given destination by the shortest route. Current methods of determining great circle routes and distances use tables and equations that limit the accuracy to locations less than 10. the best course to take from point to point on the earth's surface is a great circle route. time.9 NM) apart. Great Circle Steering In order to minimize fuel. whereby the steering is accomplished along a great circle in the plane determined by the center of the earth.406. Historically. This is known as great circle steering. and distance. In summary.013. aircraft present .7 km (5. Thus This is a linear model for the lateral aircraft dynamics. since a great circle is the shortest distance between two points on a sphere.2. The following two subsections will discuss in some detail great circle and rhumbline steering. nonlinear differential equations: dq .tan dt v* + These equations describe how roll angle and aircraft velocity translate into GTA and crosstrack position. great circle calculations relied on astronomic navigation tables. This is due to the use of trigonometric equations that originated from celestial navigation and the appropriate tables from the Hydrographic Office. which were simply an extension of celestial navigation. The above equations can be linearized by making smallangle approximations. Many of the operational inertial navigation systems discussed in this book are particularly suited for great circle steering.
Steerjng.dw YELOCrn RELITIVE TOEAllTH COMPVTE YRCRlFl COYPVTE LITrrUDE 1 LOHGWUDE . Special Nav. ~ n d closedloop ( h ) gnidilncc rnod~..n*d U ~ p r d LAT YG? TlUEOP ARRIVAL COMPVTATmONS cmm.nd.d LIT H.nd.p.tg~.) Conm."d.nd.) LON eornrn.gal.nd.. and Modern Avionjcs WIND COUP~ATIONS 7 .d UtIUd.d W l W FIGURE 76 Openloop ( a ) .on. * Wld Md Dinolio" t t OPEN L M P EUlDINCE MODEL Comn.d .d li.d UII1Udm . t . l .386 CHAPTER 7 .hlock db.d * LOW C0rnrn.d ~mm.UToWlnc GUIDANCE UID nEEPlHE COHPUTITlDHS Corn"2.im ."d.
and j is a unit vector completing the righthand coordinate system. However. 76. or similar. Lateral steering. a brief discussion of the trajectory generator is in order. that is. and 1 2 . roughly from release by the departure control to pickup by the approach control center. The great circle segment (or leg) is commonly defined to be from top of the climb to top of descent. Steering 387 position. problems can arise in obtaining flight clearances because the air traffic control (ATC) on these routes requires reporting points designated in advance by the flight crew (the flight crew knows only the departure and arrival points of the intended great circle track). and the desired destination. Furthermore.2. Depending on the mission requirements. I . velocity. . the present position. The great circle guidance equations that are used in the trajectory generator are commonly expressed in an earthcentered inertial (ECI) coordinate frame. Before the equation for a great circle flight path is developed. since three points (the current position. since for transcontinental flights it is not required that commercial IRSs o r INSs be designed to indicate geographic coordinates along the great circle track line (except present position and inserted waypoints).. In the openloop guidance mode. 77. In the coordinate frame shown in Fig. and then there are an infinite number of great circles (all the same distance).2. 77. a great circle is defined as a circle on the surface of a sphere. and heading commands. only one great circle occurs. Between two points on a sphere. and destination of an aircraft can be defined by three unit vectors I. of which the plane of the circle passes through the center of the sphere. can be accomplished by nulling out track position and velocity or relocated latitude and north velocity. In applications where a trajectory generator is required. where the unit vectors i and k pass through the Greenwich Meridian and the earth's polar axis. the trajectory generator can operate in either an openloop or closedloop guidance mode as depicted in Fig. if desired. and that plane forms only two arcs between the points on the surface of the sphere: a long arc (the long way around a sphere) and the desired great circle arc. there is only one great circle route. Transcontinental and intercontinental transport aircraft equipped with inertial reference systems and/or inertial navigation systems use their capability of flying a great circle route between departure and destination points routinely. However. In the closedloop guidance mode.2) guidance equations and associated steering equations. analytic system. great circle steering can also be mechanized as a spacestabilized azimuth system. That is. destination. For the present analysis. heading commands are computed automatically by solving either great circle or rhumbline (see Section 7. we will assume a unit sphere defined by the unit vectors (i. define the position unit vector in .7. respectively. respectively. the inputs to the flight control loops are determined by the user in the form of altitude. unless the points are exactly opposite each other. j. initial position. and the center of the sphere) determine a plane. k) as illustrated in Fig.
. Soeoal Navigaf.e..trnc t o r great circle guidance lcrms of spherical coordinates (i.ile fi. Therefore. Plane contalnlng des~red trajectory defined by unit vectors 1.. and Modern Avion.cs . Sreenng.388 CHAPTER 7 . the unit vectors I . latitude and longitude) as [7] whcrc i.7 t C l cooidin. . j. is the mean radius of the spherical earth plus altitude abovc the carth. k are unit vectors along the earthlixcd coordinatc axes defined above. 1. and 1.on. . . and 1 . Note that the magnitude of this vector I. / / + ALT / / True nonh Equatorial plane FIGURE 7 .
Thus Since 1. directed at the desired position. = [cos 4.I . 515 (7.. .8) . the great circle distance can he found by defining two points on the sphere with the unit vectors l I (a vector from the center of the earth to the point 1.e.* : sin (7. = [COS * cos ho] * i + [cos 4. 77 using vector notation. solving for p yields Therefore.. the inner product can be used to find the angular distance between the two positions on the surface of the sphere. .5) po=r cosC'(1. Similarly. pd. (a vector from the center of the earth to point 2. the distance from the vehicle present position p.2a) (7. can be written as 1. the angle Q can be formed by the unit vectors expressed in terms of the vector dot product as follows: 5 and I. +.2h) (7. the destination). 12) The commanded heading and rangetogo can be readily obtained from Fig. * l2=(1. are unit vectors. can be expressed as l. Thus Furthermore. and 1. to the destination is given by 1. s=rQ) can be determined from the following relationship: where r = R E + h (RE is the radius of the earth and h is the aircraft altitude). * cos li.] * i f [cos $I * sin XI] * jt [sin $11 * k l2 [cos +2 = * cos h2] * i + [cos +2 h2] * j + [sin *k In general. The nnit vector Id. the arc length (i.2~) I .lI12l cos po (7. and Yd are normalized.j=lo[lo. the origin or vehicle present position 0) and 1.Note that here we assume that the distances po. and 1. Let 5 be a unit vector perpendicular to the geodesic defined by the nnit vectors l I and 12. * sin L ] j + [sin 401* k .
and I ? .=O . Therefilre Note that the anglc y ~ is also the desired ... = .>O.  + where .I360 .. h ] ..IS li. can he computed from the cxprcssion (7. the desircd coursc is 0 o r 1x0 '.... Speoai Naviqation.17imuth ftorn the true north.ll~..  Note that these angles apply only for departing the present position.hilc the crosstrack error Y. { [ R .t o the meridian plane containing the dcsircd trajectory I . with 0 and 360' the true north. hctwccn the airelaft and the nresent nosition whcrc KI and h have becn defined aho\. the desired course is westerly and y ~ .. l ' h e sign conventtons commonly used ror I.: ihc 1 ' (k component 1 If (k component If (k component If q * E. I. and as rcsult the hcading must be updatcd. . the li)llc~wingtcsts arc nccdcd 10 ~ l e t c r ~ n i n c proper quadrant for yr.yr. yr.390 CHAPTER 7 . the timctogo can be colnputctl frornl the relr~tionship where C'g is thc groundspeed. The dcsircd. f is the angle hetwccn I. and Modern Avionics u. Tlic rangetogo.u\: arc @latitude: north from cquator is positive south of thc equator is negativc >. is given by where q is a unit vector perpendicular. then If q * C ( 0 . he:~dinganglc rv.e. the distance from the present positi(~n to thr destination.. course is a n angle between O ' and 360 .~ o f t ) .~titndcend longitude i l l the gltilt circlc e q u a t i < > ~ ~ r .=longit~ldc:cast from Greenwich is positivc west froln Greenwich is rncgativc 1)O 3 6 0 'c h0 0 <@sYU ' s @ c 0 0 <?. then ti of 6) > 0.12) KT. and I ? . the dcsircd coursc is easterly and rr. Trne .0 . that is. since q x 51 is always positive. yrt1= 180". tiowever. v. or commanded.Steering. of 5) r 0 . which is givcn by t'inally.
Note that. As is the case for the planar triangle. the great circle equations are not valid if the great circle distance between destinations or between present position and a destination is greater than (rrRE/2)= 10. Finding the true course for a great circle route is difficult because almost all great circle routes require a constant heading change along the route. (4) the greater of two unequal sides is opposite the greater angle and conversely. a great circle route from New York to London begins in a northeasterly direction. The solution to the spherical triangle can be achieved in much the same manner . and then these are used to compute the position vectors. be cumbersome. The heading should be updated during each data sample. The position vectors are geocentric unit vectors pointing toward their respective locations on the earth. obtaining solutions to spherical triangle problems entails using the equations known as the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines. in the discussion that follows.e. but arriving in London would be a southeasterly direction. Unfortunately. the equations for the great circle distance and initial heading will be developed using trigonometric relations. Only a route along the equator or a line of constant longitude will have courses that remain constant. The spherical triangles that are used in great circle navigation are subject to the following conditions: (1) the sum of the sides is less than 360". Commonly. For example. (3) equal sides are opposite equal angles.As a navigation system starts from a known position and travels a distance along the great circle. Assuming for simplicity that the platform does not drift and depart from the great circle track. (2) the sum of the angles is between 180" and 540". the platform will drift off the great circle track. RE=6.137 m. the vector calculations are a twostep process. these equations are not those used in planar trigonometry and are referred to as the Law of Sines and Cosines for Spherical Triangles. First. the position is converted to latitude and longitude it1 degrees (to 16 decimal places). as stated earlier. the new position is found by adding the angular distance traveled on the great circle from the last known position. instrument errors. the navigation system must determine its new position and update the heading.406.675 km (or 5.. The navigation computer will sample data such as the current position and velocity at some sampling rate l/t. However. For this reason. at times.013. An important aspect of spherical triangles is to be aware that the sides are measured in degrees of arc. Coriolis effect. and modeling approximations are not corrected. i. and (5) the sum of two sides is greater than the third side. for this computation.378.952 N M ) . The course changes because the great circle route crosses every line of longitude at a slightly different angle. Working with vectors can. This is a significant fact because the magnitude of the angle for a constant length side will not be constant from one sphere to another but will depend on the radius of the sphere. the value of the earth's radius used was from the WGS84 system. if wind. The next heading is calculated between the new position and the destination.
Given the right combination of three o f t h c quantities.stunc. ( N o t e that I N M = 1.) NOW. Using the known parameters in colijunction with the Law of Sines a n d / o r Cosines of Spherical Trigonometry will result in determining the great circle path distancc in dcgrees. S ~ c c i a Navigariori. Suppose now it is desired to navigate from point I to poinl 2 a s deti~ied in Fig.e. Obtaining thc great circle path distance requires the spherical triangle to he positioned on the sphere :is shown i n Fig. 78.ng.852 km. The sphere in this case is the earth with its appropriate !radial dimension. i n Fig. the remaining three can be solvcd for by using thc Law of Sines and Cosines for Spherical Triangles. simply multiply hy 60. nautical miles to degrees. I t is clear that this is the shortcsl distance to be navigated. i .il irianflr f x p c a t circic computations. and Modern Avionics l a s for the planar one. 78.392 CHAPTER 7 Sreer. let u be detined a s the Earth's polar axis =e t FIGURE 78 Sp1iecic. 78.76 NM:dcg. this is called t h c p t w r circ/cdi. T o convert this result from. say.
P/a=cosl{sin + I sin +Z+COS cos +2 cos(hl .h2) ~. The initial heading angle y ~ .8]: c o s ( ~ / a= sin ) +. for travel from point 1 to point 2 [1.h2)j +I (7. Then For small angles.LA)] cos +A cos(hB. cos cos(:) (7. ha) is the destination.can similarly be obtained using the Law of Cosines for Spherical Triangles as follows: p=a sin +*sin cos yo= ms or.= time in seconds V. [sin(")] + cos +B + cos +B cos +A cos(hg .2.=velocity components of the velocity vector lying along the great circle path between points 1 and 2 . Steering 393 average radius of the earth.[sin sin +A cos +Ad11 ( s i n +R sin +A where LA) is the lat/long of the current position and ( + B ..7. we obtain for the spherical triangle 1N2.16) From the Law of Cosines for Spherical Triangles. we obtain the heading angle in the form +B ylo = cosI i sin +B . sin +> +COS +I cos +2 C O S (.. p = all or cos 8 = cos(p/a) (7. since sin(p/a) = d m * cosl{sin 41sin + > + C O S +.= ( 0 1 6 ) r cosC1(sinc$~+ sin +j where At. V.sin +. The time required to travel along a great circle path from waypoint 1 (or from point j ) to waypoint 2 (or to point j + 1) is computed as follows: At.19) +.hA)*] .h2)) This is the great circle path distance between waypoints 1 and 2.18) cos(hl.
i . is the earth's equatorial radius. is the geodetic latitude. is the computed ' earth's radius a1 thc ith point. = ( . although not significantly. where R. the accuracy of the information providcd by the program is degraded as the distance betwcen the two points sclccted incrcascs. a spherical earth model is utilized in all derivations. e sin' I. ' whcrc u.!) errors cxpccted if an initial iircorrect heading is flown from the first ( o r initial) position. so that the average radius is c:rlculated a s Refkrring to Fig. .' = cosucoshcos( sin h sin <. . s radius can bc computed for thc second point. . which utilizes the "ellipsoidal" tnodel. K . I . I Therefore. elevation above the mean sea level.= [.I. (I<( I ( e ' ) sin L sin2 1. sincc the eatth's radius is not constant between the two points of interest. and Modern Avionics In the prcccding developmcnt. the s and y components ol' Lhc clcvation normal to the adopted ellipsoid are AI.. ) and crossrange ( Y. the . Snecial NavisaNon.. As a result of this approximation. The purpose of the following discushion is to clerive itnd incorporate into a computer pro$ram thc neccssnry n~athematical equations for calculati~?g grcat circle distance between two the given points on the surf. Wc can now write the i and coordinates for a point on the ellipse as follows [ I ] : (I.I1 * cos L and A= I1 * sin 1.Y ~= {~ cos L  I P . and t. I' = I1 . in terms of the geodetic latitude. except for the calculations of the earth's radius..r a n d 1. .. Sincc the basis for the mathe~naticsinvolved in the calculations is from spherical trigonometry.aw of Cosines 21s follows: cos . the initial heading A between the two points can he obtitined from thc L. components assume the form \= r 5 sin' I. . it f<~llows directly that R . this ellipsoidal model is used t o calculate the radius at each of thc two points and the average of thcsc two calculations is utilized in the subsequent calculations employed in the program. Similarly. .sin. Furthermore. ! Therefore.' is the eccentricity.394 CHAPTER 7 . and ccccntricity.~ + ~ ' )'. Steerino. The program also includes calculations for the corrected initial and final heading between these same two points and allows the user to sclcct the number of intermediate hcadings desired. I up( I   ?') t H sin I. I. a spherical carth model wah uscd for the derivation of the great circle distance. For a point that is an elevation I/ ahovc the ellipsoid (assumed to hc the mean sea level). + H cos L [d~.2 1 and . ~ ~ .acc o f the earth and for estimating the downrangc ( X . 79.
or A = HDG In the program. the angle B can he calculated from the expression [4] from which we can obtain the final heading (HDGF) as HDGF=180"B (7.24) . Similarly. the initial heading A is called ZETA. Steering 395 A (1st point or current position) B (2nd point or destination) a=90°Lat2 FIGURE 79 Geometry for calculating the downrange and crossrange.2.7.
cos COS(RG:R..'= COS(ARG.Lat B ' ) or Lat R ' = s i n ' ( c o s o ' ) cos h'=cos(9O 1. and as statcd above.) p~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ cos(Lat B') S ~ ~ ( ( R ( . we ohtain the following relationships: cos a'= cos h' cos c' + sin b' sin c' cos .25) Y. Since C" represents the change in longitude (TIELONG)... =cos A"  . and clossrange I:.) sin d l l ~ ~~p~~~ 1 (7..I' cos n'=cos(YO .. Finally.. ) sin ill (7. arc obtained SIom the relations X. i n order 111 compute the intermediate headings betwccn the two points A and B.. ~ ~ ) (7. ' R . 79) call he divided into two other spherical triangles.ARC)..'R. Again.on.. Sreenng Specla/ Nawgat.e.ONG (7.~) coslsin ' [ s i n ( ~ c 'R. it ]nay be desirable to calculilte the downrangc and crossrange errors expected from an initial great circle and an initial heading selected from the first point ( A ) .396 CHAPTER 7 . A R G ) . Defining the croshrange a s the perpendicular distance from the point to the initial great circle as shown in Fig.~.'R.211 1 ) = s i ~ ~ ( I . .sin(Lat 2 ) c o s (I' cos((RG. . tlic downrange X. = R. c= RG.~) sill c'=sin(ARG..n o m i n a l initial heading= A u . the great circle distance remaining will be the dilTcrencr between the total great circle distance (A lo B) minus the distancc firom point A t o the point in qucstion being computed.. wc can similarly use the Laws of Sincs and Cosines once again t o compute the anglr C".A R G ) I R : . From thesc relations. at which the crossrange is measured...76) whcre d= A . and Modern Anon.27) If we desire to calculate the longitude at the intermediate point (B'). is given by cos /I.28) . 79.!^.. and RG is the great circle distancc from A to B (i... In this case..i= R.. j whcre Lat R' represents the latitude of the inter~urdiatc point... the spherical triangle ArVB (scc Fig. R.) cos ~ ~ " = c o s ~ ( R ( .. ... the intermediate heading A.)...cs Intcnncdiatc headings and great circle distances from the intermediate point to thc destination can similarly be derived using the Laws of Sines and Cosines. In certain situations. Solving the righl spherical triangle A P B using spherical trigonometry. * sin sin(^((. we can easily obtain the new longitude at the intermediate point using the relationship Long R ' = Long I + DEL. a t I) cos (. .. using the Law5 of Sines and Cosines for spherical triangles.'R. ....... then the downrange is the distancc along the i~iitiiilgreat circle from the initial point to point P.
F10.F10. M IF (H.LONGZ FORMAT('LAT2 ='.LAT.HZ.2.HDGD.N.3048/1852.LT.LATl.LONG2. Captain.HDG.Ml.STEP.LONG1.LAT2.Rl.SPEED.LATZ.1415926 AEd443.PARTX.LONG2.F10. Steering 397 A FORTRAN program* for these above calculations is as follows: C C C C C C C C THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES THE GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS.LONGl.LONG2. . 0 TO TERMINATE PROGRAM' READ *.XJ. 1 'SPEED(N0 WIND) = '.' DEGREES'/.R(:.ATM. IT THEN COMPUTES THE CORRECTED INITIAL HEADING.PI.NE.AE REAL ECTY.L.2.' DEGREES') PRINT 60. THE PROGRAM WILL CALCULATE THEM AS WELL.HDGF.SI.2.O) LONG1=2*PI+LONG1 LAT2=LAT2*PI/180.LAT2.RAVG.R.HZ.l) GO TO 700 PRINT *.B.S.HDG.LONGl FORHAT(I'LAT1 ='.NG4BR PL3.' DEGREES') PRINT 50. U.HDG PRINT *.COSAP.H1.0 'This program was written by David W.NBR PRINT *.'LONGl ='.'ENTER ELEVl(FT MSL). REAL LAT1.2.ELEV2.SPEED. LAT1.LONGH INTEGER M.7.' DEGREES'/.922786 ECTY=.ZETA.TIME REAL DIST.DELIING.H.F10.O.' DEGREES'/.O.0 IF (LONGZ.2' KNOTS') LAT l=LATl*P1/180.XD. Air Force. FINAL HEADING. Thomin.R2.2.F10.0 LONG2=LONGZ*P1/180.0 H=H1*.COSAPP. SHOULD THE USER DESIRE INTERMEDIATE HEADINGS ENROUTE.I.SPEED FORMAT('EST1MATED HEADING = '.'ENTER (DEGREES) LATl.F10. AND TIME OF FLIGHT BETWEEN THESE TWO POINTS FOR A GIVEN SPEED.'. IN ADDITION TO THE DOWNRANGE AND CROSSRANGE DISTANCE FROM AN INITIAL GREAT CIRCLE DETERMINED FROM A NOMINAL HEADING FROM THE FIRST POSITION.2. LATZ.SPEED(KNOTS).0) LONG2=2*PI+LONG2 HDG=HDG*P1/180.LT.'LONG2 ='.0 LONG1=LONG1*PI/180. 1 'NUMBER OF STEPS' READ *.08182 PRINT 40.LONGl.0 IF (LONG1.'ENTER 1 TO ENTER DATA.HDG' READ *.
' DEGREES'/.F10.XD.' HDG UPDATE DIST REMAINING') IF (L.RAVG FORMAT('AVERAGE RADIUS OF EARTH ='.TIHE FORMAT('T1ME TO TRAVERSE ='.2.F10.HDG.' NM') PRINT 100. Sfeenng Speoal Navigation.HDG.' NM' ) PRINT 80.3.F10.DIST . and Modem Aviorncs GO TO 400 R2=R RAVG=(RZ+Rl)/Z RG=KAVG*ACOS(SIN(LAT2)*SIN(LATl)+COS(LAT2)*COS(LATl)* 1 COS(LONG2LONG1)) ZETA=ACOS((SIN(LAT2)SIN(LATl)*COS(RG/RAVG))/(COS(LATl)* 1 SIN(RG/RAVG))) HDGF=ACOS((SIN(LATl)SIN(LAT?)*COS(RG/RAVG))/(COS(LAT2)* 1 SIN(RG/RAVG))) SI=ABS(ZETA)ABS(HDG) XD=RAVG*ACOS(COS(RG/RAVG)/COS(ASIN(RG/RAVG)*SIN(SI)))) YD=RAVG*ASIN(SIN(RG/RAVG)*SIN(SI)) HDG=ZETA TIME=RG/SPEED PRINT 7O.RG FORHAT(/~'GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE = ' .(NBR1)) GO TO 10 LL+1 DIST=RGSTEP*L PRINT 135.' HOURS') PRINT 90.' NH'I'YD '.LATM.F10.3.3.P10.LONGH.GE.F10. 1 'FINAL'HEADING = ' .2.3.YD FORMAT('XD ='.HDGF FORMAT('INIT1AL HEADING = '.2.398 CHAPTER 7 .' NM') 118 120 GO TO 680 HDGD=HDG PRINT 115.' DEGREES'//) PRINT 118 FORMAT(/' LATITUDE LONGITUDE 1 .F10.
7.0+HDGF HDGF=18O.PI) IF ((LONG2LONGl). RhumbLine Navigation In Section 7.50 DAYTON.800.75 DEGREES GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE = 3400.25 LATl = 39.25.LT.2.O+HDGF HDGF=180. in the first case.LONGl.SPEED(KNOTS). the shortest course for an aircraft (or a ship) flying between the two points will make the same angle (i. Similarly.LONGZ.PI) IF ((LONG1LONGZ).PI) IF ((LONG1LONGZ).698 NM YD = 108.ELEV2. the course will maintain a constant angle (i.OHDGF 680 700 SAMPLE CASE ENTER (DEGREES) LATl.e. NUMBER OF STEPS 0. is the distance measured along the equator. For any other case. 90") with every meridian crossed. Steering 399 650 IF ((LONG1LONGZ).049 NM INITIAL HEADING = 47. for two points not on the equator or the same meridian. while in the second case.1 we saw that the shortest distance between two points on the surface of the earth is the distance measured along a great circle that passes through both points.75 DEGREES 7. From the preceding discussion. the shortest distance between two points on a meridian is the distance measured along that meridian.GE.GE... it is clear that .PI) IF ((LONG2LONGl).997 NM AVERAGE RADIUS OF THE EARTH = 3438. the shortest distance between two points.e.75.0.50.0HDG HDGF=180.250 HOURS XD = 3399. OHIO TO LONDON..0HDGF HDG=360.84.51.LT.LT. the great circle that joins the two points will cut each succeeding meridian at a different angle.834 NM TIME TO TRAVERSE = 4. that is. O") with the meridian.GT.PI) GO TO 110 IF ((LONG2LONGl).2.NE.2.OHDG HDGF=180.12.0) GO TO 130 GO TO 110 END HDG d60. Thus. both of which are on the equator. For example.2. UK ENTER ELEVl(FT MSL).PI) IF (L.83 DEGREES FINAL HEADING = 113.LATZ.HDG 39.
From Fig. Consequently. co~rsiderFig. a s mcntioncd above..ts the pole is approached. for distances that are not grcilt. A rhumb linc ( o r ioxo(1runir) is defined as a linc on the earth's surface which intersects all meridians a t the same angle.~nceand heading angle bctwccn the current position and the desired destination. It should be noted that in the lower latitudes incar the cquator. the tlack must he the arc of a grcat circlc. T h e par. 710 it is noted that c\cn thouglr the right trianglc ABC' is not spherical (only R A$ lies on the great circle). Since the rhumbline course is cutting all thc meridians at the samc angle. the convcnicncc of using a constant course outweighs the disadvantage of a Iongcr run. it should he noted that special rhumhline courses are also great circlc courses: this anglc is 1 9 0 for an equatorial flight a n d O for meridional flights. F o r this reason.I constant course. Rhumbline ateering call be used with any inertial navigation system are contiguration. the meridians. for the con\!cnicncc of maintaining . s o Lhal the rhumb linc is vcr! nearly the shortcst distance between two points o n the earth's surface: while . rhumbline guidance and.the loxodrome was used in marine navigation to which the track of a ship was made to conform.~llels are a special type of rhumb line. Any two places may he connected by such a linc. spirals that approach the poles but never reach them). and s o the rhumb linc may he used more t'rcquently than the great circlc trilck. as they are at right angles to all the meridians and arc everywhere equidistant from the poles. Rhumbline courses may be approximated by assuming that thc distances involved are short cnough that a flat earth assumption is satisfactory. Under the above delinition.~lly. the saving in time by following a great circle track is very small: in addition. it can be considered as a .400 CHAPTER 7 Steering. All other rhumb lines are loxodromic curves (i. and the parallels are rhumb lincs. the spiral becomes more pronounced as it must cross the converging meridians a t the same angle and the din'ercnce between the great circlc (shortest) distance and rhumbline distance becomes greater. o r to follow a rhurnh /in<'.e. Speoal Navigation. so that the direction of such a track is constantly changing. unless the distance between the point of departure a n d destination is great.or steering is based on traversing a straightline course on a mcrcator chart that yields a "constant heading" command over the trajectory flown. A sphcrical carth is assumed for the derivation. 710. this involves considerable calculation and requircs frequent changes of course. Therefore. when steaming moderate distances.Historic. it is generally more convenient to steer a constant course. and Modern Avionics if n vehicle is moving from one place to another by the shortest route. the loxodromic curve is fairly flat. 111 order to dcrivc the rhumbline dist. Both a loxodrome and a great circlc arc important geometric curves in ni~vigation. if positio~iand vel~)city transfolnied to latitude and longitude and north and east velocities. the equator. However.
we obtain two dA tanyI d+ cos + and Since the rhumb heading (or bearing) angle y~ is by definition constant. spherical triangle only when A+ and Ah are chosen to be sufficiently small. 4) (T. for points on the path can he written as follows: Ah cos 41 tan y~= A+ and Ascosy~=RA+ where R is the radius of the earth.7. respectively. two differential relationships in terms of the latitude and longitude angles (+. In the limit. we . Steering 401 a (Q. Initial posltlon (ViPL..A). 4).) FIGURE 710 Lonodrome (rhumb line) geometry..2. Therefore. as A+ differential equations: =  (7. 4) Final position (or destination) (T..29b) 0.
Special Navfgatjon. h. Steerhg. in radians. and Modern Avionics obtain by integrating Eq. (4 cos * ' + ' h = tan yr[~n t'ln (4 2) + (. I o r by solving for yr yields ~ I =tan I .402  CHAPTER 7 .30. and $. I I If 1. then T h e equation for a rhumb line truc course ( o r hearing) over the surface of a n ellipsoidal earth is given by B =tan I ' X 4 [tanh '(sin $ ) e tanh ' ( esin $11 while the range along the rhumb line track (from the equator to the point .and h. are givcn in degrecs and $. (7.i) the expression (fA = tan u.
7.. 2. (7.30b) results in From Eq.FOR C C C C LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. Lt. results in while the shortest path along a meridian (yr=O0.PHIi)/COS(PSI). i.) = ATAN((LAMBf . the subscripts I . =change in latitude a = semimajor axis of the ellipse b = semiminor axis of the ellitlse e = eccentricity of the ellipse U Finally.LAMBi)/ALOG(ARGUMENT)) C C Req*(PHIf . The following is a FORTRAN program** for computing the rhumbline distance and heading: CCC PROGRAM: L. (7. U. integration of Eq. Cano.)/TAN(PI/4. Col. "This program was written by Dr. and cos I+J= is 1) indicating that the path along the rhumb line is twice as long as that along a great circle. Steering 403 where it intercepts the parallel of latitude) is p = a ( l e2)[(1 +$e2)$i sin 241 sec + I where A+ = $>. Air Force Reserves. it can be noted that a flight path to the North Pole [$= (x/2)] with a constant angle v=6O0. Gerald G . 'Note that in the preceding equations. . + PHIf/Z. + PHIi/2.2. AND FINAL LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE.S. THE PROGRAM IMPLEMENTS THE FOLLOWING EQUATIONS: ARGUMENT PSI AND RHO = = TAN(P1/4.4. and fare used interchangeably. for example.29b).
F1LE=FNAME. Slcenng./ RADIANS . THE NAVIGATION HEADING ANGLE IS NEEDED: THEN COMPUTE THE DISTANCE.DISCONTINUITY.5002) READ(*.EO. DOES *The r.IS EQUAL TO ONE AT DISCONTINUITY. t ~ i .TOFILE...EQ.OR.1415927/. Av.~torl.Req/637Ul37.'Y' .5003) FNAME OPEN(] .*) PHIi WRITE(*.PT/180. NOT HOLD WHEN THE INITIAL. !hi\ nccd no1 hc t h c i .~iliilio i units 01' I<.tl are lhc cibllh. Although Ihc ~illliiisin thi. ANOTHER DATA PI/3.404 CHAPTER 7 .ES FROM DEGREES ' ' RADIANS 10 PHIi = PHIi*RADIANS CCC C C C TO COMPUTE THE DISTANCE ALONG A RHUMB LINE. \ I > ? value o f R c:irl he ~ ~ s e d . Special Nangariorl and Moden.1 CHARACTER*64 FNAME CHARACTER*l TOFILE.STArUSss'NEWI ) ENDIF CCC ENTER INITIAL AND FINAI. AND THE DISTANCE EQUATION FINAL LATlTUDE ARB THE SAME . pwcn l o meters.'YOTHEN WRlTE(*.. COMPUTE ARGUMENT AND USE AS A TEST . 7002) 50 CONVEKI' ANGI. 7000) READ(*.on/cs VARIABLE DEFINITTON TABLE: INPUT5 PI111 : INITIAI 1 ATTTIJDE PHTf : FINAL LATITUDE LAMB.: INITIAL LONGITUDE LAMBf: FINAL LONGITUDE RHO : DISTANCE ALONG RHUMB LINE CONSTANTS Req : EQUATORIAL RADIUS IN METERS* BEGIN PROGRAM CODE IMPLICIT REAL (1. pmgrarn is thc cqo. ('OOKDINATES WRITE(*.0 IF(TOF~LE.
NE. IF(LAMB€LAMBi.PHIi)/COS(PSI) ENDIF C FOR CONDITIONS INDICATED.LT.GE.1)THEN FOR CONDITIONS INDICATED.OR.LT. + PHIi/2.*PI/2.) PSI = 3. Steering 405 c ARGUMENT = TAN(P1/4.LT.LT.LAMBi)/ALOG(ARGUMENT)) PSI = PI + PSI RHO = Rea*(PHIf .O.8004) PSI. O<=PSI<~O IF(PH1fPHIi. RHO IF(TOFILE. ~ OLAMB£ ..LAMBi)/ALOG(ARGUMENT) PSI = PI + PSI RHO = Req*(PHIf .LAMBfLAMBi.7.O.2.AND.)THEN PSI = ATAN((LAMBf .'Y'. + PHIf/2.O..O.LAMBfLAMBi.8000) LAMBi.)THEN PSI = ATAN((LAMBf .AND.PHIl WRITE(1.PHIi)/COS(PSI) ENDIF C C FOR CONDITIONS INDICATED.LAMBfLAMBi.O.8002) LAMBf.GE.'Y')THEN WRITE(1.PHIf O~~ WRITE(*.GE.EQ.) IF(ABS(ARGUMENTI.)THEN PSI = ATAN((LAMBf .PHIi)/COS(PSI) ENDIF ELSE C ACCOUNT FOR DISCONTINUITIES AT PSI = 90 AND PSI = 270 PSI = P1/2.4000) WRITE(1.TOFILE.PHIf .LAMBi)/ALOG(ARGUMENT)) PSI = 2. RHO = Req*ABS(LAMBf .LAMBi) ENDIF C CONVERT ANGLES FROM RADIANS TO DEGREES PSI = PSI/RADIANS W R I T E ~ * ..)/TAN(PI/4.EQ.LAMBi)/ALOG(ARGUMENT)) RHO = Req*(PHIf .O.*PI + PSI RHO = Req*(PHIf ..GE.0.AND.O.AND.O.LT.LAMBfLAMBi. 270<PS1<360 IF(PH1fPHIi. 90<PSI<=180 IF(PH1fPHIi.)THEN PSI = ATAN((LAMBf . 180<PS1<270 IF(PH1fPHIi.PHIi)/COS(PSI) ENDIF FOR CONDITIONS INDICATED.
gat.ANOTHER.N'rFR I N I T I A L LONGITUDE I N DEGREES >: ' ) FORMAT(' I N I T I A L P O S I T I O N : ' FH. 3 . Steerjng. 71 1 7. Thus.ONG RHUMB L I N E I S : ' F l . tlic coliirnanded Iicndinp angle hctwccn two waypoints may hc represented a s shown in Fig. S ~ e c . 1 .1. 1 F 8 . it is a method of navigating in the absence of position lixes.EO. 5 0 0 1 ) ANOTHER I F ( A N O T H E R . 3 . there are disconlinuities . ' I ' D I S T A N C E AI. aNav. ' DEGREES LONGITUDE ' . F 8 .ONGITUDE I F R . More specifically.406 CHAPTER 7 .and P H I . ' DEGREES L. Howcvcr. 3 .GREES >: ' ) F. Avjonics / W R I T E ( 1 .SPECIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS 7.OR. KIIO WRITE(1 . PSI is n function of PHI.l. .tt headings of 90 and 270 . and Moderr. E O . ' Y ' . 3 . and consists ol. ' . 4 0 0 0 ) ENDIF WRIrE(*. tlic program corrccts for these. the deadreckoning navigation modc provides navigation cap21hility and serves as backup to the aided o r unaidcd inertial m o d c In these modes. .calculating thc position of the vehiclc by integrating the eslimaled o r lneasurcd groundspced ThcreIbrc. ENDIF STOP ' Y ' )THEN 5000 5001 FORMAT(' DO YOU WANT OUTPUT ALSO TO F I L E ( Y / N ) FORMAT(A) >: ') 6000 7000 11107 FORMAT(' FORMAT(' FORMAT(' DO YOU WANT TO CONTINUE ( Y / N ) >: ') ENTFR I N I ' r I A L LATTTLIDE I N DE. ' M E T E R S ' ) RND 8000 .3. DeadReckoning Navigation Dead rcckoning ( I I K ) is a technique of c o m p o t ~ n g positiorr 01'21 vehicle the fiom rncasuremcnts of velocity.6000) R E A D ( * . ' DECREES 1.3. ' DECREES.ATITUDE' ) 8 0 0 2 FORMAT(' F I N A L P O S I T I O N : ' .o. 8 0 0 4 ) P S I . Kcgardless of whcther an aircraft is flylng a ?real circlc route o r a loxodromr. This is ignored in doing an integration to derive R H O . 3 . T h e computation for distalicc R H O is somewhat approximate. F B . ' DEGREES L A T I T U D E ' ) 8 0 0 4 FORMAT(' HEADING I S ' .
. Thus. two basic pieces of information are needed: (1) the magnitude of the vehicle's velocity and (2) the direction of this velocity relative to the geographic coordinates. heading data from the auxiliary flight reference unit and velocity data from the Doppler radar or from true airspeed (TAS) plus winds are used for deadreckoning navigation. in the event of inertial system failure. In the dead reckoning mode. sin (w) RE cos (latitude) range to go =time of arrival "GIG. A f 60 cos '$o if = 90". sin OTC . provide velocity and heading angle data to the avionics control unit. Special Navigation Systems 407 North Waypoint Waypoint i+ 1 d (longitvde) dt "GAD . 270" .. when such a system is used. V .3.. The deadreckoning (DR) position can be computed from the following expressions : hd=ho V. R= FIGURE 711 Commanded heading for navigation between two waypoints.7. the Doppler or Central Air Data Computer (CADC) and the gyroscope stabilized subsystem (GSS).
S ~ e o a Naviqation..408 CHAPTER 7 .tiid ( 3 ) updates thc aircrafl latitudc and longitude via a simple intcgr:ltion procedure. The GSS supplies part of the missing directional information. In this casc the navigation cotiiputer supplies a correction for niagnetic variation based on t. in this case the n a v i g t i o n cornpuler computes the change using slorcd heading ( o r corrected magnetic hcnding) as a n initial value [2. = destination longititdc Or. Deadreckoning navigation computationb are quite simplc.rhul. ( N o t e that the flight path may not cross the Notth Pole.itc\. we will discuss the airspced a n d Doppler radar deadreckoning modes.tst navigation coordinates.g.=initial latitude @.) In Llic Dopplcr D R mode. the Dopplcr supplies the rnagnitudc of the vehicle's velocity ( o r groundspeed) and the oricn(ation of the velocity vcctor relative to. The computer supplies tllc remaining information (e. that is. for In addition. dss" coordinates) lnust tirst be rcsolvcd in airclaft body .~r intcrpolation In the ftecazimuth modc. when the GSS operates in thc slaved magnetic niodc. the indicated airspccd ( i n . a correction for magnetic variation from true north). the GSS heading angle changes in time with respect to some initial value.. and thctl ..6]. In casc tlic Doppler radar fails. Sfeennq. the aircrafl crnterline orientation relative to the GSS reference axes. the airspeed DK modc provides aircraft navigation data. lntttal longitude .cr. Normally. thc G S S has two basic modcs: ( I ) slaved magnetic and ( 2 ) free azimuth.. In the discussion tI1. E. itlld kt~owitig tlic Doppler radar's drift angle.ttt heading ( o r yaw angle) is basici~llymagnetic heading.time hctwccn positions .lircrafl heading relative to tlre north. say.. ..=destination latitude j . the navigation computer must supply a velocity cotrectio~i wind. o r tlic motion of this airmass relative lo the cartli. . and Modern Avionics l ~vhcrr $. drift angle). Irr using airspccd IIK.c..r\. = true coursc angle Fir= groundspeed At. Aftct.h. ( 2 ) computes Ii~titudeand longit~tdei. thc aircraft ce~iterlinc(i. Therefore. in the airspccd DK mode.rncs.tI follows.ing functions: ( I ) resolves thc groundspeed in[<> north and c. Thus. Note that position fix data may he used to correct the indicated latitude and longitudc. the navigation computer performs the k~llou. its indicated ail.ing computed the . Furthcrrnorc. the CADC' supplies 7'AS (the magnitude of the aircraft's velocity rclativc to the airmass).
7.. is the GSS reference axis heading from north. Therefore.3ha) VE= VTASIEWE + where VE and V . before the aircraft position can be determined. the Dopplerindicated groundtrack speed and drift angle information must be converted into velocity components into the GSSrelated eastnorth (or westnorth) navigation coordinates. latitude and longitude are updated on the basis of integrating the relative aircraft angular rates about the east and north axes. and 6 is the Doppler radar drift angle. Special Navigation Systems 409 transformed into the navigation axes. the transformation from "airmass" coordinates to airframe coordinates is given by the equations V T A S / X ~VTAS P cos a = cos VTAS/ = VTAS p Y.e. The airmass velocity components in navigation coordinates must be corrected with the last best wind estimate. the velocity transformation from Doppler to navigation coordinates (i. Therefore. are now the estimated aircraft velocity components in eastnorth navigation axes and W Eand WN are the wind estimates. Figure 712 illustrates in block diagram form the airspeed DR mode. As a result. a. Airspeed dead reckoning can now proceed as does Doppler D R . In the Doppler radar DR mode. eastnorth coordinates) can be expressed simply as where V. expressed in navigation coordinates.3. sin V T A S / Z ~VTAS P sin a = cos Yb where a is the angle of attack and p is the sideslip angle. the wind correction equations are given in the form (7. that is. is the groundtrack speed. y is the GSS yaw angle (projected aircraft centerline from the reference GSS axis).so that sin p = 0 and cos p = 1 in the transformation equations. For the present discussion. Furthermore. The latitude and longitude equations are then given by the following expressions: . it is also assumed that the sideslip angle is less than So. it is assumed that the angle is made available by the CADC.
and thc outputs from tlie Doppler block are the groundspeed .Morcovcr. in the GSS slaved magnetic modc.ihle for magnctic vari.rnd drift angle. rr. Llic airspccd sensor o r CAUC senscs (sc. we G I I ~ . in the (iSS frcc at. whcrc R. 71 1 .iriiuth tirode. Compute GSS heading Compute aircraft headfng angle I Resolve velocity in latitudelonglude FIGURE 712 i r s p c c d de. Finally. is tlic radius of tlic cart11 . with tlie exception that the coordinate trstisforniation block is rcplaccd by thc Lloppler radar. thc angle u.~nglc.~tion. In equation form. ~ ~ I 1 Yaw I GSS .tdreckoning inciilr..assumilig tlic l o l . is the correction ilnglc supplied by the MAC. The Ilopplcr radar hlock diagram 1s similar to Fig.40) whelc u.~ n (7.ular) tlic velocity ol' Lhc aircraft relative 10 the airmass.und 11 is supplicd flom l l ~ cCAI)C. is an initial value. VAR t.410 CHAPTER 7 Steerinu Spccj8l N a v w a ~ o nand Modern Avionics . As stated earlier. is the hyslcm wi~ndcr.. such as slorcd heading 01corrected magnetic t~cading.
.42) where ASF is the scale factor error and r r ~ is the dynamic lag time in ~ c seconds. ) sin rp df+ a90 Initial heading I I I I k V GSS I o r a0 = y r M cos rp FIGURE 713 Doppler deadreckoning mode. Special Navigation Systems 411 write the following relationship: Vair= V. Therefore. the true airspeed is modified by a dynamic lag of the sensor. X=X+AX I A rp Position fixing radar . noise.3. However. is the groundspeed and W is the wind vector.W. the airspeed output can be modeled more completely by the equations Vair= (I  + ASF) V. and subsequently the output process adds a scale factor. and bias errors. I I I a 90 $= +n . Figure 713 shows the mechanization equations that constitute the Doppler deadreckoning mode. + + Vblas (7.7. VI =(Vk + Vk)'12 (7.41) where V. l.. because of various errors existing in the airspeed hardware. .
a I I R crrtrr ~ n o d s in terms of the vclocity. :rccept. minus tlic D M E distance). and c511m:lted wind vclocity. and I".idliig Vclocll\ l. the measurcmcnts of thc Killman filter illc distance ditfcrcnccs (i.l~lcc .liysissirnul.d.e.c.ltion program satisfies the following line:lr stoch. that can he used in connection with ?I covari..ny 1)riIi . Furthcrmole. ?L TABLE 71 Ucdd Reckoning Output5 Parameter I. Special Navigatiori.). the process noisc w = [I!.lblc short~rnngen..ty Vccticiil v c l o c ~ t(up1 ~ Noilli wind 1:ast ulnd (iroundspccd Kllll I'IIcI.412 CHAPTER 7  Sreeri/ig.st b'cl. ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ . li. Trrlc hc. > O ) denotes the correlation time. In today's airspace envlronmcnl. heading....c. 1 v . distance from the DK position to the D M E $round st:ltlon uscd.. and 6 and denotc tlic latitudc and longitude errors. and Modern Avionics A simplilicd version To]. and l latitudc longitude elrors.~n. denotc thc north and casl components of the velocity crror.lv~gation system accuracy can hc accomplished using V O R D M E .1 ~ is a Wiener process with independent components.I 1)R syslem outputs. respectively..II~I~U<IC Svrnlml L<liigllude Allitt~dc North reloc~lj [?'. In an integiated VOKJDMEDl< system that tlscs true i~irspced(C'.lclic d i l t c r c ~ ~ lial equations: <I $(I)= bd1) ( 7. Tahlc 71 lists the vi~riouspalanlctcrs t l ~ a t . Note t h i ~ tthis niodel does not represent the real world hut is used hcre for the purposes o ~ i l l u ~ t r : ~ tion.44i1l (11 where (r.
the system can automatically control the channel or frequency selection of. the updates are corrected by sequential measurements of DME range and VOR omnibearing. . such as the Litton Aero Products LTN72RL system. A typical inertial based RNAV system. When using the VOR/DME mode (using range and bearing. Inc. the Kalman filter uses the varying aircraftstation geometry. As noted in Chapter 6. flight and fuel management. Area Navigation Area navigation (RNAV) is a flight technique for straightline and pointtopoint parallelroute air navigation used by commercial and military transport category aircraft as well as general aviation aircraft. so that sequential data from multiple stations is available for use in the system update Kalman filter. More specifically. however. Groundbased systems applicable to RNAV include the following: (I) VOR/DME. A typical flight. caused by the aircraft moving relative to the station. or within the limits of selfcontained system capability..3. and ( 5 ) GPS.e. In this mode. true or magnetic heading reference. especially in hightraffic areas. In the RNAV mode.3. In the direction of 'Aeronautical Radio. It might be pointed out that use of VOR/DME is extensive. however. the pure inertial navigation system error propagation is reduced by the corrections to the INS error sources estimated during the update process. the RNAV system provides highly accurate horizontal navigation. area navigation utilizes the airspace or corridors removed from the basic VOR/DME ground routes. to execute system position updates.7. RhoTheta). independent of time and inertial navigation system drift errors. With regard to accuracy. offers accurate. Greenwich mean time/ETA (estimated time of arrival). (2) DME/DME. and automatic radio updating and tuning capability. say. VOR and TACAN receivers aboard the aircraft. (3) TACAN. is not a straight line directly between the point of departure and destination hut is a sequence of straightline segments. Following a period of radio updates. thus eliminating convergence at the en route VORTAC stations. Soecial Navioafion Svsrems 413 7. From the preceding discussion. it is seen that when provided with signals from groundbased navaids. i. Above all. (4) Loran. Moreover.2. Area navigation permits aircraft operations on any desired course within the coverage of station referenced navigation signals. worldwide allweather area navigation. position in Lat/Long and bearing to a VORTAC ground station. the groundbased aids provide angle accuracy data as a function of range to the station. the inertial navigation system functions as an area navigation system. this system is a stateoftheart navigation system and is compatible with the ARINC*561 INS installations. system position in latitude and longitude is computed from the inertial navigation system position and the latitude and longitude update of either radio navaids or manual entry. defined by waypoints. (4) Omega.
Typically. On the otlier hand.1 N M ) . and command g u ~ d a n c csignals rcl. Thcsc systclns corriputt distances. with a minimum of pilot operations.eltical angle to fly from one waypoint to another. bearings.iutomatically cornpute the \. The following diagram illustrates the concept of area n. I n addition. Scllcontained inertial navigation systcnis operating indcpendcntly of ground radio aids also (11Tcr area tiavigation capability. . The :iforerncntioncd lisl of groulid stations a h well .1812 km (0. the accuracy is about 0.itivc to prcsclcctcd waypoints using Lhc prcsent positioli obtained from DR. as well as in executing an R NAV approach to an airport. Special Navigation. and ( 4 ) select arrival and approach.lnually hy the by operator. the RNAV system ciin guide an aircraft ovcr a complete tlight. RNAV features the following: ( I ) sclccl desired Right plan (note that thc desired flight plan is selected while the aircraft is a1 thc gatc). Finally.~vigationin Ilic lateral modc.iccuracy is dircctly proportional to the hearing lneasure~nenterror and range.I catalogue o f groundbased navaids o r stations is stored in the aircraft's navigation conipnter mcmoly for use during en route navigation. o r ni. Stations can bc tuned . . Typically. and Moderr) Av.orr. the system can . the RNAV can bc used to provide continuous lateral a n d vertical guidancc without the necessity of o p e rd t 1011011 conven' tional airways.is geographic and operational data on individual stations is avail:~blc fur display on the control and display u~iit(CIIU). (2) select deparlurc runway and proccdurc. Steering.cs ~~ ~ the station. with the sclcctcd along(rack ofsct.~utomalici~lly the system "autotune" fcatnrc. (1) cnlcr en route changes as required by A T C (air traffic control).414 CHAPTER 7  . in thc pcrpcndicular direction the .
On the other hand. while the airspeed. pitch. position. as well as inertial navigation systems used in the most demanding applications. Because of the widespread use of ring laser gyro (RLG) and/or fiberoptic technology. an AHRS is a deadreckoning system which provides continuous attitude. and heading information to aircraft indicators. the AHRS provides lowaccuracy position and velocity with unbounded errors. where they are processed by attitude propagation and navigation algorithms to compute aircraft roll. Strictly speaking.. and other avionics subsystems. and accelerations are also available for use by other aircraft subsystems. an integrated GPS/AHRS system combines the best properties of both systems. pitch. An attitudeheading reference system implies the availability of heading and velocity reference information. and velocity information. a typical modern strapdown system will consist basically of a strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU). in the ensuing discussion we will consider a strapdown AHRS configuration. and a triad of three accelerometers to detect linear acceleration. The air data system provides temperature and pressure data for computing the true airspeed and barometric altitude. as well as the level velocity errors of the system (i. then the system performance will only be limited by the Doppler radar performance and the dynamical response of the strapdown system itself. heading. Figure 714 shows a generic AHRS. an air data system. resulting in a continuous navigation system with bounded errors [lo]. is provided by a flux valve or other . For the AHRS system under consideration. heading. position. AHRS). If a Doppler radar is available for aiding instead of the airspeed sensor.e. Magnetic heading reference information. as provided by the CADC. and a flux valve. velocity. while the baro altitude provides a reference for damping the system's vertical channel. constitutes the velocity reference.3. Therefore. magnetic heading data is assumed to be available for use as the heading reference. such as velocity. and position. most AHRS systems in use today are of the strapdown type. In the unaided mode. flight controls. In addition. Note that other navigational data.AttitudeandHeading Reference Systems An attitude heading reference system (AHRS) provides roll. This inertially derived information is processed via the appropriate computational algorithms and then combined with reference data in a Kalman filter to generate optimal estimates of aircraft attitude and heading. For this reason.3. the true airspeed (TAS) is employed in order to control the roll and pitch. The inertial package will normally consist of three singledegreeoffreedom gyroscopes to measure angular motion in three axes. and body rates. as mentioned above. flight directors. and fills the gap between slaved directional gyrocompass systems and vertical gyroscopes.7. Body angular rate and acceleration data are transferred to the highspeed digital computer in the form of angle and velocity increments.
I  NAVIGATION C O M P l m R 1 OTHER DISPLAYS AND SYSIEMS AND A m T U D E t T'ALVE COMPENSATlON ERROR CONTROL = Fx +w 1 I STATlC & 'TOTAL TEMPERATURE I FIGURE 714 Strapdoiin .\HI<\ block iilagriim .
7. From Chapter 2. As with all navigation systems. As discussed in Chapter 6. Specral Navrgation Systems 417 magnetic sensor. northpointing system.3. which transforms the aircraft hody axes ( B ) into a locallevel northeastdown (NED) navigation coordinate frame (N). Consequently. Corrections for magnetic variation (MAG VAR) can be considered to he generated in the computer via an appropriate positiondependent model.10.2. attitude. Since for the present discussion a strapdown system has been assumed. and (6) hody accelerations and angular rates. the development of the AHRS error model will be brief. pitch. altitude. then a rotation through the pitch angle (0) about an interme . For this reason. velocity and position are obtained in north. these estimates are fed hack into the system via an errorcontrol algorithm. v. 7. (2) true ( v ) and magnetic heading ( r y ~ ) . Section 2. and down (NED) coordinates by integration of the transformed incremental velocity data. the Kalman filter provides statistically optimal estimates of all variables in a dynamical system based on noisy observations of some of these variables and their interrelations. east. and heading errors. (4) altitude ( h ) . 0. yaw or azimuth). a Kalman filter can be employed to estimate the AHRS error state from redundant sensor data.WEwind components. and attitude integrators every filter cycle. as well as to reduce the rate of position error growth. and magnetic field data in the Kalman filter to obtain minimumvariance estimates of the system timecorrelated errors. and compensates measured acceleration and angular rate data for estimated gyroscope and accelerometer bias errors [lo]. pitch.1. Estimated errors are fed back into the system using a combination of continuous and impulsive control methods in order to hound the inertial velocity. VE. System Error Model The development of the AHRS system error model is similar to the error models developed for an INS in Chapters 5 and 6. Furthermore. It should be noted that the proper utilization of the magnetic heading and airspeed data is necessary for effective operation of the attitude system.3. The Euler angles (roll. (5) W N . an attitude and heading reference system is designed to determine the orientation of the carrying vehicle relative to a locally level. the compensated gyroscope outputs are used to propagate the direction cosine matrix C : . VD velocity components. roll. (3) VN. This orientation or attitude is defined by the conventional Euler angles (4. TAS. and heading are combined with barometric altitude. which resets the inertial velocity. and yaw) can he computed from this direction cosine matrix.3. we know that the direction cosine entries may be derived by successive applications of rotations about the Z direction through the azimuth angle (v). AHRS system outputs include the following parameters: (1) roll (4) and pitch (O). position. inertially derived velocity. attitude. The attitude and heading can he generated via a thirdorder quaternion algorithm. In particular.
and a final rotation through thc roll anglc (+) about a second intcrrncdi.35)] Roll Pilcl~ A~imuth x =longitudinal axis (nose) y =pitch axis (right wing) z = normal to x.~vig.ttionframe.lte axis. ) denotes thc cosine function and s ( ) denotes the sine filnction. the transformation frotn the navigation (N) body coordinate h t m c to thc hody ( B ) coordinates is give11 by [see also t q . Nolc that thc A H R S must he aligned before the . 1:roni Lhc Lransl'c~rmalioti matrix we ohtain thc Euler anglcs 21s follows: ('L. r 1 When ihc ~~ccclcrornctcr outputs ate transfbrrned into thc n. (2. then AVN = ('~Av''. Special Nav. 0. y (belly) cg = center of gravty Y\ Right wing "Down" '~~ where c ( .ire initialized: this is donc by calculating the starting value of .418 CHAPTER 7  Steering. and Modern Avionics diate axis.rttiiudc algorithms . r ( ~ )arc t l ~ cusual Euler anglcs. T h c anglcs (4. Therclbrc.gation.
(2) the states describing the dynamical characteristics of the plant error sources (i. the vertical errors do not exhibit the interaction between the states in an AHRS that the horizontal errors do. INS) aircraft navigation system fails..g. Thus. namely.46) (7. The Kalman filter used for processing the AHRS sensor data is a variabledimension model of the system error behavior. three gyroscope bias errors.. and (3) the states describing the errors in the references (i. The mathematical model (or plant) is of the standard form x=Fx+w z=Hx+v (7. Consequently. In particular. H (m x n) is the measurement matrix.e.50" (true) 0.0 kt 0. Typical AHRS performance characteristics achieved with the present stateoftheart inertial sensors are as follows: Attitude accuracy (rms): Heading: Pitch/roll: Angular rates (rms) : Groundspeed : Linear acceleration: 0.47) where x (n x 1) is the state vector. The discussion in Chapter 5 can be used to set up the appropriate inertial error equations. to guide pilots if the primary (e. two wind error equations.1 m/s2 . gyroscope drift and accelerometer errors).e. the AHRS systems serve an important function. Furthermore. z (m x 1) is the measurement vector.. the vertical velocity and position do not have to be included in the plant dynamics. the crosscoupling is further weakened.7.3. and v (m x 1) is a white measurement noise sequence with covariance R. and one airspeed sensor bias error. F (n x n) is the system error dynamics matrix. The AHRS makes an excellent backup system for commercial as well as military transport aircraft. three angular (or attitude) errors. three accelerometer errors. if a constant altitude flight profile is assumed. The state vector x can be partitioned into three subvectors as follows: (1) those states describing the unforced dynamical behavior of the unaugmented plant. These two parameters can be updated in a separate loop. errors in the magnetic heading and airspeed) 191. w (n x 1) is a white process noise vector with spectral density Q. The number of states can be reduced by noting that. in general. That is.20" 0. one magnetic heading reference error. A typical dynamical error model that can be used for error propagation in the analysis of the strapdown attitude system will consist of sixteen states: three velocity errors. Special Navigation Systems 419 c:.1 deg/s 4. the vertical axis error equations are not strongly coupled to the error equations of the horizontal axes. this model defines the way in which the system errors propagate in time.80" (magnetic) 10.
v .q l dril'l 01 a i r c t .l u + ~ a n ' \y. . = .trite airspccd u... .tpat~oo anglci 'The various aircraft angular relationships (in the horizontal planc) that atc used for steering. r r ~ I M miignetic hcading=ri.. dead reckoning.. . and Mudeni Avionics .= platfor~nheading ~1 =true hcading.  F I G U R E 715 N. 715 are defined as ibllo\r~s: V a i r c r a S t groundspeed ..~y. and niivigation from one waypoint to another are surnrnarizcd in Fig..izim~tth (wander) anglc P = great circle bearing to destination " f r ~= grcill circle beitring error r 6 : angle = 0.~\.p.'( I . ) . ITh)] . T h e angles in Fig. CHAPTER 7  Sfecnng... .. . Special Navigation. 715... i+q~. ~( t)NL ' CII = witid speed I'.a l i grot~lid(true) 11:tckangle.420...:~.
The definitions for the appropriate application are given in the following lists.(Bsc yMv) SC = selected course (magnetic) E=aircraft centerline + HSI knob) Some of the definitions. magnetic heading is with respect to magnetic north. usually expressed as an angle. Heading may be true or magnetic. such as course and heading. "Heading" should not be confused with "course. Relative hearingthe direction of an object from the ship. and (3) compass. Headingthe angle formed between the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and a north reference measured clockwise from the north in the horizontal plane.7. but is never off the heading. that is. True heading is with respect to the true north. There are three kinds of headings: (1) true. Bearingthe direction of a point from an aircraft. Drift anglethe angular difference between the true heading and ground track.3. Marine Applications Coursethe direction prescribed for the ship's movement or progress. Course may be expressed as magnetic or true. Headingthe direction in which the ship actually points or heads at any particular moment. refers to the heading of the ship. Truckthe actual direction o r path of travel over the ground with respect to true north. Azimuthbearing in the horizontal plane. relative to the ship's head. = relative bearing Osc= selected magnetic course (selected via the Bco =course deviation = p . magnetic. also defined as the direction in which the ship sails from one place to another. may vary in aircraft and marine applications. Bearing may be true. measured clockwise from true north or magnetic north from 0" to 360". Aircraft Applications Coursethe intended direction or path of travel over the surface of the earth with respect to north. a planned route or direction of flight with reference to a line on the surface of the earth that gives the desired track. and equals the angle . Special Navigation Systems 42 1 I vnrv magnetic variation = OR. or relative." A ship frequently is off course. measured in a clockwise direction in the horizontal plane from a line of reference. (2) magnetic.
1 6 C I l ) arc equipped with a variety of electronic countcrmcasures (ECM) systems.422 CHAPTER 7 . and the F. During war operations.tt allow the pilot to select the system modes ol. Iadar warning receivers ( R W K ) provide warning and classitication o f radar threats and rough directional information. The azimuth indicator is a C R I ' that displays threats as alp1i.operation.rtu5. and Modern A v i o n ~ c s bctwcen foreand aft 1i11cof the ship and the bcaring line of the ohJcct.3. USAF tighter\ werc hcavily supported during their ~ n i s s i o ~ ~ s EFI I I . The IJSAF made a large investment in clectronic warfitre technology. and communications (c')systems.~ir ~nissilcsand flares in order t o divelt infrarcd (1R)guided missiles. pi~rlic~rlarly radarJamming protection pods in that have been used since the Vietnam W . control.2. supporting attack as well a s air superiority missions by j a ~ n m i n genemy comniand. This section describes briefly thc Jamming methods prcscntly . either landbased o r shipbased. it was mentioned thal thc .ivailable. it lhecomes necessary to jam cncniy !radars a n d / o r communications systems. the EC13011 Compass C. These radars arc desigrled to confuse threat radars as to the aircraft's present position. As stated above.ITIDS system i5 designed to he j:ln~rcsistanl. and determine thc azimulh bearing of the various threats.tnumeric o r gcornetric symbols relating t o each threat. racl:rr jammcls arc carried internally o r in exter~i:~l pods. Special Navlganon.9. The USAF's attack and fightcr aircraft are also prutccted hy c1cct1onic cornhat support aircraft. I ~ . whcthcr the aircraft is hcing tracked o r whether a weapon has hccn launched. T h c Compass C. Jamming techniques have been used by the USAF with considcrahlc success during thc Pcrsian Gulf War ("Operation Desert Storm"). F . (Thc external radar jilmmelpod is normally carried below the f ~ ~ s c l a on a weapon pylon). Specifically.tlso indicaLc SAM (surfacetoair missile) weapon st. A105. . mcasurcd clockwise from 0 to 360 7. In addition to the ahovc equipment. identify.111is n specially conlignled aircraft built and clcctronically integrated by the Lockheed Company. T h e prime indiciltor control pallel contains six pushhutton indicators tI1. Fli('. For instancc. such its the E F l I IA R.. Tlic system can .iven radar jamming aircraft. C o ~ i l pass Call aircrali flew numerous sorties in Operation Descrt Storm. and is commonly locatccl to the left of the headup display. Furthermore.4.Steering. ge the IJSAF's tactical aircraft ( e . Expendable decoy dispensers cJcct chaff to divcrt radarguided surfaceloair and airlo.ttions jamming aircraft.E. g . which horncs in on enemy radars. ~ n d Navy's by the the EA6B dedicalcd jamming aircraft and hy H A R M Stired at encniy air defense .4 G Wild Wcascl dcfcnse suppression aircrnll. Thc F4G aircraft is armed with thc Texas Instruments' Highspeed Alltiradiation Missile ( H A R M ) .111 comrnunic. aircraft equipped with "radar threat warning" systems can detect. Electronic Combat Systems and Techniques In Scctior~6.
and AHRS to provide a simple determination of position at any given time. (2) simplified future avionic upgrades. are everincreasing in complexity. (3) simplified and consistent pilot procedures. At the present time. input/output (I/O). and Litton are some of the companies in the United States that are in the forefront in the design of advanced flightcontrol systems. GPS. which will automatically reconfigure responses to failures or changes in system status. using intelligent management software. particularly during critical phases of the mission. which will make the pilot's task easier. These newer flight management systems include an advanced flight management computer with bubble memory. Some of the benefits of such a system include the following: (1) reduced cockpit workload. 7. Above all. Even today. Doppler radar. and power supply generation. MODERN AVIONICS SYSTEMS Presentday commercial and military aircraft avionics systems. and accurately locate and destroy enemy target tracking and acquisition radars with HARMS. The integrated modular avionics suite will enable the integrated avionics to share such functions as processing. and (4) fully redundant avionic control. it is certain that the 1990s will usher in a new era of advanced avionics systems for commercial airliners. Advanced flight management systems have already been incorporated into the Boeing 757/767 and 747.4. Modem Avionics Systems 423 radars by F4G Wild Weasels and Navy A7s and F/A18s. which will become an integral part of the avionics architecture for these aircraft. Furthermore. will reduce a multiple of controls into essentially one panelmounted CDU. it is anticipated that the new generation of commercial aircraft will use integrated modular avionics. Each has dedicated controls that require the pilot's attention. providing twice the memory of current generation systems. SEXTANT Avionique in France is also a leader in this field.7. navigation systems. the cockpit management system will provide graceful degradation. identify. aircraft survivability systems. RockwellCollins. Sperry. Honeywell. using integrated avionics systems.4. as we proceed into the 1990s. Moreover. Heading into the twentyfirst century. with minimal impact to the mission. memory. For instance. the task is compounded when the pilot's accessibility to dedicated controls is limited by cockpit space restrictions (such as in a fighter aircraft). it will estimate the error states in the individual navigation subsystems to improve the quality of navigation following the failure of any subsystem. and flight management systems. Loran. the F4G is the only aircraft that can autonomously detect. such as multiple radios. weapons. The flight decks of these new genera . cockpit management systems. The cockpit management system will combine internal navigation inputs from the INS.
unless the crew n i ~ ~ s t takc steps to d o something about thc ftiilurc. well . thrust. In addition.rte advanced features such as flatpanel screens instcad of cathodcray tubes (CR'is). Such co~nbinedair datatinertial reference systems have been developed by 1. and Modern Avionics tion of airliners will incorpor.424 CHAPTER 7  Steering. Anothel. no mechanical linkages o r control c. no change in functionality o r safety) on the tirst f i u l t .. will incorporate into the . Thc AIMS system will provide thc Rightdeck crcws with pcrtincnt in(brmatio11 on the condition of the aircraft. :uid engine information.~vionics suite an airplane information management Fystem (AIMS). This level of performance can be achieved by building redundant) into the system. such a systcm must fail active (e.1oneywell and Delco.In air dala/incrtial rcfcrcncc systcm ( A D I R S ) . In this dcsign. ~ n d lower maintcnancc cost\ hy m u n s of improved reliability and fewer wire5 and connectors. f>il active o n thc sccond fi~ult. As a result.R L G ) package. since airline operations are drive11 by seat mile economics. and the speed brake. The ADlKS will replace the conventional air data. 7. Flight Instruments and Displays I'his section will hc devoted to the flight instlurnents and d~splaysthat arc part of cornmclcia1 a n ( I . Special Navigation. the leadingedge Rap powcr drivc unit. :IS well as .4. Displays associated with the navigation system arc o n thc datacntry displ. being developed by Honeywell for the Bocing 777. advanced electronic mechaniz.~tionand control theory are used to eliminate the conventional mechanical linkages and control cables in all axcs. Seen from another point of view. which will help ~the flight crew p e r o r m their duties in the most eRic~ent manner and colnplctc the mission safely.1. Plybywire will save weigllt .and fail passive (with no dcgradation in High1 safety) on the third fault. Many of the new ge~ieratio~i jetliners will bc designcd using "Hyhywire" Rightcontrol systems. in . and communication\ management. faulttolcrant avionics may not even alert the Right crew that a failure has occurred.IS kc? opcratas ing fu~ictions such a s Aight.I skewcdaxis configuration for faulttolerant operation. In particular. o r the systcm is a failure away from serious opelational degradation requiring their immediate attention. l g n c t ~ c 01. navigation.rbles arc uscd bctwcen thc cockpit conlrollcrs (sidestick.) and the control surface integrated servoactuators. When fully dcvclopcd. The A D I R S navigation system.'' in which n o single failure can cause the loss of an essential avionics function. ctc. rudder pedals.g. its mainterlancc require~nents. will consist of a six ring laser gyro ( 6 . 1x14load and range factors that enable (he airlines to otfer services more economically. commercial aircral't manufiicturcrs designing new aircraft for thc 1990s and beyond. which will display Right. inertial rcfercnce hystem. such as the Boeing 777.~y\ the upliront controls. .important area is that of "fiulttolerant avionics. suitcs. tllc n ~ . ~ omilitary aircraft avionic:.
as these systems become operational. that is. which allows a decision height of 4. (3) loading position update information during flight in order to correct position errors. latitude. the flight management system and computer allow the pilot to insert the route numbers. and other information and directs the pilot to fly the designated route. and two sets of servos. Furthermore. The CDU provides the flight with the following capabilities: (1) loading the flight plan into the navigation computer. are described below. a dualflight augmentation computer. vertical speed indicator) have been combined into one instrument..g. time into alignment. The rate of intensity change is timed to the eye's adjustment speed. the present units have photometers that read light striking the surface and adjust the intensity of the displays. the AFCAS system is still certified for Category 3A landings [the Category 3A autoland system allows a decision height of 15. The keyboard provides the capability of loading flight information. altimeter.24m (50ft) and runway visual range of 200 m (656. some of which are conventional while others are modern. many of the avionics functions (e. (2) monitoring navigation data derived from the computer. The INS memory display shows the contents of the memory locations entered by the operator. and true heading. Consequently. and (4) providing a means of reading malfunction codes supplied by the computer. the advanced displays and/or integrated flight management systems are an outgrowth of airlineaircraft manufacturer cooperation.57 m (15 ft) and runway visual range of 150 m (492 ft). attitude display. the computer plots all headings. replacing currentgeneration CRTs as primary flight and engine instrument indicators.2 ft)]. . Modern Avionics Sysrems 425 variation display will show the automagnetic variation or it can he entered via a manual mode. longitude. system altitude. As is the case with current generation aircraft.7. the flight management system can take corrective action automatically as the aircraft enters such a region. In addition. airspeed. and it is the interface unit that permits the operator to communicate with the onhoard navigation computer. in today's modern airliners that are using flat panel color displays. In case one of the components fails. the autoland system is designed to be compatible with microwave landing systems (MLS) and the global positioning system.4. The various flight instruments and displays. an aircraft can be flown automatically from immediately after takeoff to landing. Other innovations include a Category 3B Automated Flight Control and Augmentation System (AFCAS). The Category 3B system. flight times. All control inputs are fed through the flight control computer. the INS alignment mode shows the alignment status. T o improve readability. Thus. Finally. so that commands that would exceed the aircraft's design limits are ignored. includes three flightcontrol computers. ControlandDisplay Unit (CDU) The CDU contains the primary navigation display and dataentry controls for the operation of the INS. In the case of wind shear. As mentioned above.
and word messages. which is height above sea level. depending on the position selected on the modc switcl~oil thc instrument modc select coupler.426 CHAPTER 7 . and other nurncrical. illid the desired performance index numher.In analog value of the aircraft's altitudc. aircraft pcrformancc data ftoln ailcraft flight sensors. and flight path angle lines arc constantly displayed. Thc purposc of thc C A R A is to provide the pilot and other avionics subsystems with accurate altitude information from 0 to 15.Navigation information is dcrivcd from the INS.240 m (50. Radar Altimeter Some aircraft and 'or cruise missiles are equipped with a combincd .. Suecia1 Nav. altitude. The H U I ) operates in navigation. F o r ext~mple. Headup Display (HUD) 'The headup display is :In electronic and optical instrument that presents. o r T A C A N . In addition. discrctc display. The flight path malkcr. and discrctcs. five different scales arc used to display the aircraft's altitude. while thc W A R N and IJA I lamps arc illuminstcd by discretes received from thc navigation unit. Altitude information can be displayed on a hcadup display. Steerin". navigation. malfunctions. comes from the CADC. waypoil~tdestination position coordinates. and displi~ycdin front of the pilot a t eye level. landing. magnetic heading. and A R when in the autoradar altitude node. and Modern Av. in symbolic form. velocity vector). auack. The symbology i h focused navigation o r landil~g to infinity. and manual modes with appropri. 'I'he intcrfacc bctwecn thc CARA and othcr avionics suhsystenls consists of data blocks of serial dlgital words to the lieadup and display unit that arc . In this case. instrument landing system (11. and vcrtical vclocity are displ. T h e HUD receivcs computed tittack.the power supply is enahled hy a discrete from the navigation unit when the INS is placed in the standby mode.ics initial position coordini~tcs. projcctcd on a transparent combiner.lyed or can be turned otT a t the ~ i l o t ' sdiscretion. for representing the point toward which the . The radar altitude IS displayed in a dedicated window that is preceded by the lcttcr I< when in the barometric altitude mode.I tiglltcr) and guidance on a single display.rircrnfi is flying (i.lltitude radar altimeter ( C A K A ) .. 'The HSI provides the following displ:~ys: . Scalcs indicating airspeed. such cssenti:~l tilnctions a s aircraft pcrformancc infurmalion and attack (in the casc of . and landing data from thc computer. The inforrn.~tc indicators and "flyto" steering co~nrnands each.s). Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) The horiront:rl situation indicator provides the pilot with heading and navigation infor~nation. T h e altitude information.000 ti).c. indicators show thc hystcm state of readiness.~tion is er~codednncl routed to the computer I : 0 section.uarion. requested data displays. and discrctc signals from various ailcraft systems.u.
. the aircraft is heading away from the station. A split double bar on the outer periphery of the compass card rotates to indicate the selected heading. the aircraft is heading toward the station: if the arrow points to the tail. Selecred heading A heading may be selected using the HDG knob. The selected course is indicated by an arrow. The course selection is also displayed on a threedigit course display in the upper right corner of the instrument. GROUND IPfII1 0. lRlDYT. two small arrows on the dial face indicate whether the aircraft is to or from the selected station. Distance Distance to or from the TACAN station or INS computed range to destination (in nautical miles) is indicated by a threedigit display in the upper left corner of the instrument face. Figure 716 shows a conventional (analog or digital) HSI rBENIITIYITI OISTANCE TO ANNUNCI&TOe . which is read against the compass card. Bearing Bearing to or from the TACAN station selected is indicated by a bearing pointer located on the outer periphery of the compass card. Selected course Here. Modern Avronics Systems 427 Aivcvaft magnetic heading This heading is displayed by a rotating compass card that is read against a fixed lubber line at the top of the dial. Also. If an arrow points to the head of the course arrow. LATERILTRACI LA7eRaL O I T B C T II**U*CIATOR CH&NOE ALERT ILEFTI FIGURE 716 Conventional horizontal situation indicator.7.4.SPLA" TO FROM couese $ELECT POlNTER "TIDING I l l E C T eurj /HEWING CARD CO"RII DSYlATlDU CO" ANNUNCIITOR POlNTEe NPYl(il\TIONIL MODE ANNYNEIATOR VERTICAL OZVIATID* BEARING T O THE W l l P O l N T  /PATH PolNTIR Oll\D RlCXDNlNO LNNUNCIATOR VERTICaL TRACX /CMANOL ALBRT <UP1 __LATERAL TI1ICI C"A*OE &Lee. a TACAN course can be selected using the CRS knob.
AluvrnJiag.~cemcnttype forcescnsing control stick and rudder pedals and through pilot initialed trim commands in each of the three axes. The attitudc displa!.on and Modern Av.~ Four alarms indicate malfulictions in the indicator o r to indicator inpuls. The fl.ition. \ic\\. Thc horizontal and glide slope pointers display the aircrat't vcrtical position with respect l o the propel. (:ommand augmentation is used to provide thc pilot with superior threeaxis control via the tbllo\3'ing hydraulically actu.~ttitudc spherc that 1s read against a fixed aircraft symbol f o ~ pitch and pointers o n thc top .s)alarm flag: indicates loss of flight dircctor inform>iti011 t o the horizontal pointel. and loss <> cxternal . During normal opcration. The attitudc display consists of an . Primary FlightControl System Thc principal filnction of thc primary Rightcontrol system (PFCS) is to provide aircrafl threeaxis flight path control.428 CHAPTER 7 .glide path. ill addition l o continuous automatic damping about the thrcc conllol axes.ink>rm:~tion to the vcrtical pointer. Localizer ( L O < ) alartn flag: indici~tcs loss of flight dircctol.> This display consists o f horironti~l alid verlical steering bars across the front o f the indic>rtor and a glidc slope pointer on thc left of the attitude display. failure of the roll and pitch displays to track attitudc input signals.. Attitude Direction Indicator (ADI) Thc conventional A D 1 plovidcs pitch and roll altituds. These two pointers indicatc thc follo\ving information: T h c vertical pointer displays thc aircraft horizontal position \vitlr rebpcct to the proper glidc path.5' in pitch and 0' to 360' in roll.~ttitudc data validity i'rom the attitllde Iefercnce sourcc. ZLII~ hottom o f the sphcrc.h~s?mmctric deflection of ( the allmovable l i o r i ~ o n t a l tail.cs . This is accorl~plishedthlough lhc use of ~ninimurndispl.lpcrons on cach wing and asymmetric deflection of (lie allmo\. :IS well as aircraft turn rate and slip informatioli.illg ~ ) condilionsloss of I IS V to ADI.~gs indicatc the following: Glide slope ((. flag: indicates one o r more of the iollou. ~ tthc ADI is d ~ s playing attitude information from a backup source. Attitude warning ( r ~ t . T h e PFCS includes stability augmcntation to provide static stability in pitch.gat.on.. Flight diuertov di.~plu.~blchorizontal (ail.lled control surf~tccs: I ) pi/c. (2) mllabymmetric deflection of fl. bas operating ranges of 0 ' to 87. which arc read against tixrd roll indicts along the ( ~ u t c r periphery of the indicator t'ice. Auxiliary attitudc ( A L I X ) alarln fl:rg: indicates t h . Steermy Speoal Nav. . ILS glide slope and localizcr i1eui. The AD1 consists of the li>llo\viilg displays: Attitude clispluj. all flags arc 11u101..
It contains a rotating compass card with magnets attached so that the card continuously aligns with the magnetic north. Indicated airspeed is displayed by a moving pointer against a fixed dial. the pilot achieves longitudinal (i. acquire. Key elements include the following subsystems: (1) firecontrol radar (FCR). The Mach number is used in the weapon delivery computations and in the automatic flight control computations. The longitudinal (pitch) axis employs both command augmentation and stability augmentation for achieving precise flight path control. navigation.4. (2) ILS/TACAN. pitch) control through the foreandaft forces applied to the sidestick controller. Normally. and (7) radar altimeter. in the F16 fighter aircraft. . The indicating range is from minus 5" to *40" true AOA (fighter aircraft applications). FireControl System The firecontrol system works in conjunction with the communication. (5) firecontrol computer (FCC). AngleofAttack lndicator The angleofattack (AOA) displays true AOA using a moving tape read against a fixed lubber line. ( 3 ) NAV. and (4) ILS/NAV. (6) stores management set.e.. enabling the pilot to maneuver the aircraft to its maximum usable angleofattack without loss of control.7. Vertical Velocity lndicator The vertical velocity indicator is used to provide rateofclimb or descent information. (3) multifunction display set. south. Modern Avionics Sysfems 429 and (3) yawdeflection of the rudder on the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer. (2) HUD. and deliver airtosurface and airtoair weapons. Airspeed Mach lndicator The airspeed Mach indicator is pneumatically operated by Pitot and static pressure. and identification and survivability avionics to penetrate defenses and locate. For example. The mode select control knob is used to select one of four input combinations: (1) TACAN. (4) INS. The PFCS interfaces directly with the secondary flightcontrol system and the air data system. Magnetic Compass The magnetic compass is used as a standby to the HSI compass card. and west indications with 50" graduations following each indication. The PFCS uses an angleofattack limiter function to limit the maximum obtainable angleofattack. the compass card is graduated in north. Instrument Mode Select Coupler The instrument mode select coupler (IMSC) is a panelmounted control unit that provides switching functions to select and control the displays of the HSI and ADI. It should be pointed out that weapon delivery calculations require frequent velocity information. east.
tck in 9.c cotnhined TF. and presents informt~tioriin groundmap o r PPI (plan position indicator) display on the radarscope. The glidc slope hcam rcquircs reflection from the airport sur(hcc to forni thc guidancc signal.s.the threshold ha5 been crosscd. 2. 7 i ~ r r r i nf o l l o ~ v i n(7F)displays ~ telrain following information in s 18.rorrndmup/)in~ (.r heo<.<117 interrogates airhornc (~. Instrument Landing System (ILS) Tlic instrument landing system has beer] in use since the 1940s. each subsystem h i ~ s rclated ground a tlansmitter that must be operational in order to make an ILS approach.cr. ('ro.slry~r~.430 CHAPTER 7 S t e e r i ~ r ySpecial Navigation.N M ) range and enilhlcs ( tnaneuvcring around terrain obstacles. This requires that :I 457m (15t10ft) arca in front of the . ( 2 ) 1ocoli. 7C~providesdisplay o n closedcircuit tnonitor for aiming weapons.1) displays all terrain a t o r above tlie aircrart altirude tr. 9.ovides later.. slantrange infor~nationto the Navigation.'TA scanning. and Modern Aviomcs ForwardLooking Radar The forwt~rdlookingradar's ( F L K ) primary function is to provide sliint rangc to target infor~nationto the taclical computer for computed updating o f H l J D intbrrnation: it iilso sends requircd pitch c(.g. Furthermore.pt.S are to provide of guidance displays and to allow the pilot to makc a safe.r.sl~/~ped hrrrm) provides highaltitude ground mapping.~ltitudes.. Hct1r.t. 6 . Prnrirr uuoidirrrcc ( T. Grountl nlu/~piny( perrril hrrrr~r)provides liiglicrresolution mapping at lower .mmand signals to tllc AIII. enables the pilot to fly at a present altitude above thc ground and tcrrain obslaclcs and contl01s H U D [>ollup command symbology.lurrkc.use hy the autoniatic weapon release system and activntcs the "inrang" light on thc tiOD whcn the aircraft achieves Lhe desired range from Lhc lilrgct. The FLR provides tlic pilnt with nine modes of operation a s follows: 1. the ILS consists of three suhsystcms: ( 1 ) filir11. 3. 4. Airloyrowld nrr1fiing~provide:.Weapon Delivery Computer ( N W D C ) and supplies range inforrnation to the tactical computer tor. 7 . (iossscrrr~grourld mu/.26km ( 5 .11 guidance to allow the aircrali to the ccntcr o f the runway: and ( 3 ) .52km ( 1 0 .N M ) o r 18. .N M ) range.provides vertical to align the aircraft on a descent path that will intersect thc runway a t a point aftel.~rru~ r~rrrrinaooirlrrn<.ortprovides thc posilinnal guidancc and is used to determine the approximatc distilncc from thc aircrali to the runway threshold. 5. whcn the fighter aircraft is so equipped. (. (pcncil heunr)&presents simultaneous terrain f111lowing commands with groundmap pencil display. 8. allweather apploach to a suitably equipped runway. Tlic main fl~nctions tlie I1.52k~n 1 0 .lnkcr) beacons and the reply is displayed as coded pulse on the scope to indicate rang and bearing ol' the rargct for rcndczvous. In csscncc.
and is usually collocated with the AZ antenna. Two MLS formats have been proposed: (I) a "scanning beam" MLS and (2) a "Doppler radar" MLS.S. The ILS cannot be installed in sites with irregular terrain because its usefulness will be limited. Specifically. and scans a beam up to &60" in azimuth to either side of the runway centerline (most sites in the U. as is the ILS localizer. The following is a list of ILS characteristics: Power requirements Frequency range Localizer Glide slope Marker beacons Channels 28 V dc 108. Markers are placed as follows: outer marker (OM)distance varies from 7. and a "precision D M E (DME/P) signal capable of being transmitted over a 200channel range.4.9"30".10 11195MHz 329. There are several operational advantages of using the MLS. Modern Avronics Systems 43 1 antenna be flat and free from obstacles. inner marker (1M)required only at airports certified for Category I1 landings where the glide slope is 30. The elevation (EL) antenna is located approximately 305 m (1000 ft) from the runway threshold at the glide path intercept point (GPIP). middle marker (MM)placed where the glide slope is 61 m (200 ft) above the runway or 1067 m (3500 ft) from the threshold.7.48 m (100 ft) above the runway [2]. Each marker beacon radiates a fanshaped vertical beam that is approximately *40" wide along the glide path by *85" wide perpendicular to the path. Even though not fully operational. the threedimensional position of the aircraft. An International Civil Aviation Organization (ICA0)compatible MLS calls for a single accuracy standard to be implemented worldwide. will scan *40"). a set of basic data words.00 MHz 75 MHz 40 Microwave Landing System (MLS) Basically. can be determined. The localizer beam is a wide beam (6"10") that should be free from interference from nearby structures. The addition of a back azimuth (BAZ) antenna to the approach end of the runway will provide guidance to the aircraft for takeotf and missed approaches. The DME/P transponder has a 360" coverage up to 41 km (22 NM). This basic configuration can be expanded to include a back azimuth signal and a set of auxiliary words.4 to 13 km (47 NM) as specified in the approach charts for each airport. it provides a distinct advantage over the ILS by providing command guidance in a much greater coverage volume.15 335. By using the three signals (AZ. . a GPS/ILS integration is possible. in relation to the runway. The EL antenna has a scan coverage of 0. the microwave landing system configuration consists of an approach azimuth (AZ) signal. The approach azimuth antenna is located at the stop end of the runway. EL. approach elevation signal. and DME/ P).
Therck)re. The < I S . 'l'hc controller will no longer ~ ~ e c d provide continui~us to radar vectors to the pilot t ~ interception of thc ILS localircr hcam o r . it will hc assumed that the SAR is moitnlcd in an aircraft. (short takeolrand provides advantages for special opcralio~is landing) and decelerated :rpproachcs.incuvcrs and when flying in restricted airspace. The rcsolution in the r. M1. Air Force's updated C130s were the first aircraft equipped with a n ailhornc M1. and the signal scatterer. There arc three SAR modes o f operation: ( I ) tlic stlip map rnode.~chesare required when conducting noise abatement and obstacle clearance m.rircrnli scparatioli.~lin 1098. working toward the goal of having Ihc systcni fully opel. At the present time. G P S system is also h c i q inccsligated fix c o ~ n ~ n c r c i.~t continuous reabeam coverage of the area to he mapped is required. 111 tlie strip ]nap ( mode. the pilot has much more flexibility in approaches lo landing.cr ..rtlge is cletcrmincd by the accurate tiruing oCpulscs. if the real hefrm is t o o n a r r o n to provide the continuous covclage o\. Sreenng.~pproach and t l ~ c lack o l pc~sitivc guidance. . In thc spotlight niode.I lixcd squint angle 0. thc image can bc easily cc~nstructedin nonrcal time. S ~ e c i aNavigaf. and is used in a ground mapping mode. the pilot will fly a prcscrihed approach to landing. T h e antenna in this casc is not steered during the mapping process.S will he btoppcd.432 CHAPTER 7 .iviation.S coverage area. and Modern Avionics l  Consequently. complex appro. t l r ~ ~ s r rcJucing thc controllers wurkload. i h c strip map nrodr is generally used in military applications such as rcconnaissancc.on. an image is generated about specific rnap coordinates. For thc present discussion. l'hcrelhre. SAK is an imagemaking radar that is generally used to produce a twodimensional m a p of an array ol'radarwave scattcrcrs. the area to be mapped trllverscs through the real heam of the antenna. there is a rcquiremet~tthat there exist relative motion bctwccn the SAP.~lly. ~ n d 3 ) tlie Doppler beams1r.S. The M L S also such .the SAR achieves high resolution o f the photographlike image by coherently processing the Doppler histories of the hackscattcred signrlls. However. which has . Conscqucntly. someti~irea sprcad in tilnc during transtnissioll via chirping or a similar technique.lrpening ( D R S ) nrode.~td:ttc that the Category I1 and I11 approaches can he flown with tlie GPS. i t is conceivable that work on thc M1. 'The Fcdcral Aviation Administration ( F A A ) continues research and development on the MLS. many approaches can hc flow11only to nonprecision decision heights because of tlic colriplcxity of thc .ltion. i~l SyntheticAperrureRadar(SAR) As is thecasc with traditional (realheam) radars. arid if the return signal is suitably recorded. if i t is determined hefi)re th. Morsover. ( 2 ) the spotlight mode.is STOL. missed approaches. and takcolrs. the synthetic ape]ture radar forms images by resolving the tar@ reflectivity in the range (LOS) and azimuth directions.S is also advantageous to thc ailtraffic controllers. An integlated M1.S . F o r instance. Spccitic. once a n aircraft is in the terminal and M1. so th.
FIGURE 717 Broadside SAR geometry. Coherent processing then provides enhanced resolution. except that realbeam steering is provided to allow a variable squint angle. so that all signal processing is done in real time. The way in which the SAR processing differs from previous methods is its handling of resolution in the azimuth direction. while at the same time allowing a PPI display. Consider the azimuth (crossrange) resolution 6 of a real aperture radar for an airborne . the angular resolution of a real array antenna is proportional to the wavelength of the signal and inversely proportional to the diameter of the antenna. Generally speaking. In order to achieve better resolution with smaller antennas. the resolution will be 10 mrad. The 3dB heamwidth of a conventional antenna of dimension D operating at a wavelength h is nominally 0 = h / D [ 5 ] . . uses the motion of the aircraft to synthesize an antenna of larger aperture. tr Realbeam footprint .. Modern Avionics Systems 433 the SAR processing time. for an XBand radar (h=3 cm) and a 3m antenna. To a rough approximation. SAR.7. Finally.4. then realbeam steering is required. the DBS mode is similar to the strip map mode. = range resolution Sa= azimuth resolution Real antenna panern . The spotlight mode is used for navigation system updates or weapon delivery. Figure 717 illustrates the SAR operation. z (UP) Direction 6. system. . . as mentioned above.
.cs p~~ For the SAK hystem. and (4) insulficicntly high data rates.. motion compensation study a must he earlied out in ordcr to identify tlic principal error sources for motion their impact at thc output of hoth processor . ( 2 ) dilfcrcntial motion hetween the motion sensor and the radar antenna that is not observable a t the sensor.U the range resolution 6.. is given hy In highrcsolution SAK systems. I:ron~ the preceding discussion. and the azimuth resolution 6. cv. one must increase the aperture size I) in order to improve the angular resolution.49) Therefore.lncc K is given hy This equation indicstcs that. it is noted th. Typically. the position of the antenna is calculated fiom the navigation data of the I N S onhoard the aircrafi. In designing a SAR systen~. Fnr instance. Steering. tlic colresponding ilngular resolution at a disl. it is important to know the precise positiun of the antenna during tlic integration time. for a given upcrating frcqucncy. the true value of tlie LOS velocity must hc available and correctly used. hut d o not by themselves totally detine the quality of tlic image produced. A number of k c t o r s can cause errors in the calculated position. in SAK the 3dB hcamwidth 1s exprcsscd hy tlic cqualio~i so that the ideal SAK azimuth (crossrange) resolution a. For ..~le display. tlie range rcsolution is determined by the eftecti\. define tlic resolving power ( i c . an error can he caused by the flexible modes of the antenna Icvclarni.434 CHAPTER 7 . thc mi~xiniunieffective aperture si/c DsAn approximately is /I5. There arc a numhcr of reasons why this velocity may not be correct: ( I ) quantization of acceleronieter and attitude outputs.~lu. the ability to distinguisl~hctwecn two closely spaced scatterers) of SAR. Specifically. Speoal Navigation. T h e synthetic aperture radar requires accurate inertial d a t a in ordcr to track signal phase and t o subsequently pcrforni coherent processing used to . In ordcr for the proper phase compensation lo bc made so as to accc~ont fnr the motion of tlic radar.. . = RO (7. ( 3 ) sensor noise.I pencil heam antenna with O<'20 .. and invcstigi~tc mctliods l i ~ rcducing the impact of such crrois O I I r the image PIoduced.~ncl compensation. and Modern Aviun.c length of thc transmitted pulse wliilc the azimuth resolution is determined by the cfictive antenna heamwidtli.
the amount of image displacement is the basic observation used to update the navigator. pitch. as stated earlier.g. the basic approach is to augment the navigation Kalman filter with two additional "image states" that account for the integrating properties of coherent SAR processing.4." of a coherently processed point source image. so that the image measurement serves to optimally update the navigated estimates of position and velocity. roll. . The ISAR image is a rangeDoppler display of radarreturn intensity.. Through integration over the time span of the aperture. and yaw). As noted earlier. in a twodimensional "image plane. SARaided navigation modeling has been proposed and/or used. motion compensation errors are important limiting factors for SAR performance. The image is stabilized by precision rangeDoppler tracking of a dominant scatterer on the target. the Doppler shift caused by the ISAR's own aircraft velocity relative to the ship. Here. However. The Doppler resolution results from continuous Fourier transform processing of the coherent radar signal that shows Doppler effects caused by target motion (i. In addition to SAR. an inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) is used to account and/or track targets that are in motion. As its name implies.e. in which the SAR image is used to update the navigator. ISAR will enable airborne surveillance radars to display the profile contours (e. Moreover. as well as the ship's own forward motion.7.. in order for ISAR to he effective. a highresolution synthetic array requires that relative targetantenna motion be tracked to within a fraction of a wavelength over the entire synthetic aperture. in which a stationary target is illuminated. the two SAR image states are reinitialized at the start of each synthetic aperture. ISAR utilizes the inverse techniques used in an airborne SAR. it should he noted that SAR is relatively insensitive to weather. However. must be canceled out so that the radar senses only the Doppler shifts due to the relatively slow roll. the displayed information is of a photographic nature. this procedure accurately models the integrated effects of navigation error as it enters the processing of a SAR image. resembling an isometric view of the target. twodimensional profile image) of a surface ship. Thus. which uses the different Doppler shifts in echoes from fixed terrain that result from the motion of an airborne radar antenna. Developed by the Naval Research Laboratory and Texas Instruments [designated as AN/APS137(V)]. These additional states are essentially the coordinates. which can translate into a subcentimeterlevel accuracy requirement in position over kilometers of flight. For instance. facilitating its identification. Consequently. pitch. that is. the two image states are highly correlated with position and velocity. and/or classification. the Kalman filter provides a precise means of estimating the amount of image smear attributable to the navigator. On the other hand. and yaw motions of different parts of the ship. Modern Avionics Sysrems 435 obtain an image.
For example. and Modern A v m ~ .g.5 f(is) during bomb delivery.c l u f i u r t o DZ o r OAP.iutopilot and cockpit instrunrenls. T h c precision airdrop function rcqt~ires capability to compute an airrclease point hctween sequential waypoints [viz.il wcapon delivery includcs homhing.'or manually inserled ballistic data. Note th.to 112 o r OAP. 4. FLlR r<. 2. S ~ e o aNav. airtoair. From the preceding discussion.I C A R P i b based on average parachute ballistics and fundaniental deadreckoning thc principles.qar. while the navigator is responsible fbr the actual solution of tlrc C A R P . s o (0. L'isual rrlufivt~ l o initial poinl.Ire to serve a s the primary hus controller for thc serial digital buses.inagc:nent information. airtosurhcc. ) A portion of the precision airdrop processing is the C A R P computhe tation. and 10 providc storagc for centralized faiolt gathering and reporting of weapons control . the initial point ( I P J and the d r o p zone ( D L ) ] . T h e C A R P system computation perfor~ns following functions: I. and energy m. 2. Hc~lli>ticco~npulation airreleztsc point. the precision airdrop function uscs stored and.lrrliur.IS p(issihlc 1 0 the axis of the DZ.4. and missilc launching. GPS integration). The rnosl important functio~ls l the FCC' . when availahls. The kirmulas must incorporate corrections tbr nonstandard atmospheric conditions. the C A R P system supporls the fnllowing tilnclions: 1. on the basis o f lhesc budgets. the most stringent IRS velocity requirement is about 0.I\sumes the responsibility for maintaining the oft'sel distalice and rcquired track. . The pilot and navigator jointly confirm the otrsct distancc for the CAKP. Supply of C A R P steeling signlrls to thc .IS the avionics multiplex and the display multiplex buses. thc most stringent inertial reference systcm ( I R S J requirements occur with unguided weapons.. such . progra~nnied r sensor derived point o of impact location. 3. /l~ud reckoning using geodetic coordini~lesa n d aircraft velocity. c s l Computed AirRelease Point (CARP) The colnputcd airrclcasc point is a standard tactical d r o p system. Specifically.thc I P should be l<. Fire Control Computer (FCC) In essence. Sreenny.1 54 m..76 CHAPTER 7 . (Thc pilot . giving alongtrack and crossof the track oll'sets of thc C A R P relativc to the point of impact. Rrrdur I .on. whereby its related tcrtninals 211cintegrated into a highly flexihlc and accuvatc means of computing automatic airtoair and airtosurface weapon deliveries. In this case. Mathematical in naturc. the F C C is the principal component of the wcaponscontrol subsystcm. the approach is to establish unguided weapon crror budgets in which velocity errors are commensurate with other system error>. As such.catsd as closc . 1. and OAF% (offset aimpoints). navigation functions (e. Annunciation of arrival a t the C A R P and end of the d r o p zone can he done via the FIST as well as numeric display o f the distance and time l i t CARP.
energy management. and multiplex (i. stores (weapons) data select. In particular. etc. The 1 / 0 system is the means by which the FCC communicates with external sources. and steering information.e. when loaded into the firecontrol computer. 32. Within a subframe. timesharing) bus control. (The 1/0 system consists of an analogtodigital converter card.) The FCC OFP. and (4) other inputs as necessary. (3) angular updates.) stabilization and pointing. measured from the start of one subframe to the start of the next. and single. navigation. in the 64K (64kilobyte) core memory. The central processing unit (CPU) of an FCC normally uses 16. this information may be used to control sensor (radar. For instance.e. close to one another. will provide the required realtime computations for the following functions: airtoair combat. FLIR. and it uses a 16bit general register file to accomplish this function. The CPU accomplishes all arithmetic computations for the FCC as dictated by the operational flight program (OFP). Multiplex Databus Systems In an inertial navigation system. Commonly. Naturally. heading (both true and magnetic). display control. known as the subframe time or subframe rate. in a typical aircraft. For example.and doubleprecision fixedpoint. and the serial digital interface. fixtaking. An invalid message is any message containing an invalid word. Outputs provided by the INS over the MUX databns include pitch. A remote terminal (RT) must validate command and data words received from the bus controller. and 48bit data words for single.7. and to support various flight director and guidance functions. Specifically. system data management.. a discrete 1/0 card. present position. This involves detection by a remote terminal of electrical and protocol errors in a message. airtoground attack. the FCC has six major addressing modes that enable it to address 64K words of memory. internal and external interface is accomplished via a multiplex (MUX) MILSTD1553/1553B databus.4. something other than 16 bits plus parity or incorrect parity). selftest. the state information of modern INSs is transmitted to the mission (or onboard) computer via the MILSTD1553B system datahus. Words and messages with errors are divided into two classes: (I) invalid and (2) illegal. Modern Avionics Systems 437 terminals for selftest information.. Messages on the 1553 databus are typically grouped into suhframes and frames. Data on the MUX buses is normally transmitted and received at a I MHz rate. roll. The 1553 databus protocol has one mode . it's on the order of milliseconds.. An invalid word is any command or data word containing an improper sync character or a bit with an abnormal Manchester I1 code (i. master mode select. messages tend to be grouped in time. these values may change with higherspeed digital computers.g. latitudelongitude). subframes are transmitted at regular intervals.and extendedprecision floatingpoint calculations. velocity. for instance. (2) velocity updates. which is stored. The INS accepts the following digital inputs in serial format via the MILSTD1553B databns: (1) position updates (e.
verification. Finally. With regard to reus. The nlinilnuln C P U proccssing speed. Ada encourages good programming practices by incorporating software cnginccring principles such as modularity. This feature allows programs to be written in portions by sofiwarc teams working in palallcl before being integrated into the tinal product. 111military i~ircraft.IS n desirable tool for large and . MILSTDthe 1553 and 15518 d . Reliability is another key feature of Ada. Ada (MIL. Combined with modern avionics softwarc design.STLIl553H databus. a n d tcstcd separately. Ada will be used in the design.lids arc inlegrated into a selfcon1. With modularity. and ' o r changed without arecting the rest of the program. and I S 0 (International Standards Organization).all onboard navigation . 'l'hc dilterence between protocols is lhc mode commands. ~ h u s 15538 bus protocol can accomplish up l o 10 ditlerent functions u. Ada's generic program unils allow progr:unmcrs to perform the satne logical functi~)n more than on one type of data.~llowsusers to develop software conlponents that may be rctricvcd. used. and Modern Avionics command that is used for polling the terminals only. based on average operation times and a typical instruction mix.~bility. Ada's package concept . Ada's increasing acceptance in government.173 highorder language (MILSTD15898). Morcovcr. Speoal NangaOo. Ada organizes code into sclfcontained units (i. and readability. Ada's cxceptionhandling mechanism supports t.i. written.rlue . since Ada compilers arc validated upfront and stand. and mi~intenance. reusahilily. is 120 KOPS (kilooperations per second). Consequently.~ssociatcdwith software dcvelopnient. scientific. portability.1rdi7cd internationally by MILSTI)IXISA. debugging.~tions the F C C by the operafor tional flight program (OFI'). Software It was mentioned above that the central processing unit (C'PU) accomplishes all arithmetic comput.e.Ada developed for onc system can easily bc recompiled and ported to othcr systems. Modularity also a11<1ws pack:tgc rnoditication without atfecting othcr programs. ANSI (American National Stirndards Institltte).ith o r without it11 i~ssociate data word. compiled. and niaintenancc stages of the softwarc lifc cycle. Spccifi~ally.. I n the existing systems. with regard to maintainability. Future avionics syste~ns will use higliorder languages such a s Ada. Steering. and coniniercial sectors demonstrates its v. In the portability f a ~ t u r e .438 CHAPTER 7 . slructured) that can be planned.STD1815) is a highorder language developed for osc throughout the life cycle o f i ) o D emhedded bystcms. Ada's program structuring based on modularity and high level of readability make it easier for one programmer to modify o r improve software written by anothcr programmet.iulttolerant applications by providing a complete and portable way of detecting and gracefully responding to error conditions. development.rincd navigation system through lhc MIL. the O F P is programmed in the JOVIAL . ~ t . Thus. these features rcducc costs in software development. implementation.
The upgraded C130 was first flown early in 1991 in a 4h test. such as the Collins Avionics. the Collins FMS800 integrates the functions of communication. Above all. and engineoperating data on the screens. stores and radar for transport. Today's modern avionics cockpit consists of a flight management system (FMS). Several airlines have already begun studies for modernizing existing jetliners and/or new generation jetliners (e. autopilot. each measuring 6 x 8 in. On the negative side. the Ada computer programming has been accepted by the DoD and the NATO nations. tanker.7. GPS/INS navigation. activematrix LCD displays. In fact. crosscompiler maturity will remain a critical issue in the design of Ada embedded software [3]. navigation. In the near future. six fullcolor. In these flight tests. the FMS800 outputs dynamic guidance data to the flight instruments and automatic flightcontrol system using the MILSTD1553B or ARINC 429/561 signals. Boeing 777. The LCDs use digital processing for lower power consumption. weather radar. and power savings over the conventional displays. Five displays were on the main instrument panel and one in the navigation station. and utility aircraft. increased durability. the LCDs are expected to succeed the CRTs as the next generation of electronic displays for both military and commercial aircraft. weight.. Modern Avionics Systems 439 complex systems. replaced more than 60 analogtype cockpit instruments on an operational C130. Ada carries an overhead penalty into the object code that affects both memory and throughput performance. In addition. the entire display is lost when a CRT goes out.S. These new displays present flight attitude. they are more reliable.4. navigation. and I F F (Identification/Friend or Foe) control. . The purpose of the flights was to study LCD reliability and maintainability over electromechanical instruments and cathoderay tubes (CRTs). The LCDs offer volume.g. The FMS800 is also designed to take maximum advantage of color multifunction displays such as the Collins digital Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS85) display system. and reduced weight. since Ada is a relatively new language. liquidcrystal displays (LCDs) discussed earlier. and will probably cost less with increased production. Specifically.. In particular. MDI 1/12) with these nextgeneration cockpit displays. The Air Force's C17 transport will also have an allnew flight deck with the most advanced avionics instruments. thereby improving mission precision. The FMS800 automates navigation and routine cockpit functions to reduce aircrew workload. Air Force is replacing analog instrument panels in an upgraded C130 Hercules cockpit with the new generation of flatpanel. Cockpit Instrumentation AS part of an avionics modernization program. Rockwell International Corporation's FMS800. Whereas only parts of an LCD screen fail. flight instruments and controls. Figure 718 illustrates the Collins Avionics highresolution. testing continued through October 1991. the U.
o.IS %ell a s specd comriland and basic roll and pitch data. locttlirer.n) the Elcctmn~c Horvontal Situation lndic.ition. and Modern Avionics  FIGURE 718 The ('oilins EFIS700 dcspl. EFIS700 systcm consisting of tile Electronic Allitude Director Indicator ( E A I I I ) display unit and the Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator ( E H S I ) display unit. Kockwcll 1ntcn~.iltiludc.440 CHAPTER 7  Steerinq Special Navigation. Thc E A D l display includcs groundspeed.iy unlts: ( l o p ) lthc Electronic Attitude 1)irccior Indicelor (HAD1 ) (hoi.~ulopilot and thrust manrtgmciit .tI Corpor:~lion) fullcolor. In addition.%toi(IiASI) (Coorlesy oTColllos A ~ ~ a n i c r . . Iadio . and glideslope dcvialion information on approach .
the FMS800 is also designed to take maximum advantage of color multifunction displays such as the Collins EFIS85 display system and APS85 autopilot used on the U. R. 1971 . E. or ILS modes. (Courtesy of Collins Avionics. Rockwell International Corporation.. and 747400. Weather radar displays may be superimposed over the map. R. expanded ILS or VOR formats. Specifically.. The Collins EFIS systems have been selected for such Boeing aircraft as the 757/767300.S. Dover. Figure 719 illustrates a partial cockpit instrumentation for modern U. Five pilotselectable EHSI modes include the traditional compass rose.S. 737300. and White. the Collins FMS800 can drive conventional electromechanical flight instrnments. Mueller. Air Force Tanker Transport Training System (TTTS). a map mode showing the aircraft's position relative to specific waypoints. VOR. However. and Fokker 100.: Fundamenrols of Aslrodynamics. D. D. Air Force aircraft.References 44 1 FIGURE 719 Modern cockpit instrumentation compatible with the USAF TIA program.) mode annunciations are also displayed. 1. Batc. and a northup mode showing the flight plan. New York. REFERENCES 1 .
li. 1962 5 ..J. l r "Perfbrmaoce of ii Ring L. A . Paper Nu. V Si~n C.tlkkm. l c d .. M. N J.l.~eri.ru/ V o l 8. Camhiidgc iJnlvrrsity Press. 1988.iii<lirii<i. Srurz.i/o~.~.!sc. Wilcy.onics 7 . a n d Pricd.CC./ror. I. T c ~ / . M.u !hi... 8.si~~. C.: "lncrlial Xt~vigaIi<m." P~rrii. orld ('onrroi Prr.< ' : t l ~ r . G .: . hlass. C ' F. 196') S.sltc Mix. M.. pp 12 19 Ill. Ohio. R.. Norwood. P S A H R S : AS>nerg."b:tzcrc/o/~~diu l'l~r. I991 . ~~r. Kayton.i. Macclmhrr. C.iv.N. M li.ok o. v PrenticeHal.Sphcririi/ ilrmr>i~r. (.in.and Kemp. Rskrence for Aircr. e i . cd.i.('ONX4.i . t n w i n r ~ .iovar>ni. 668 717. LiK. V. : C I o d ~ r n Cl~ll's.~v. A. Smifirt. 11. May 21 25. 1962. 7. August 7 'I.. Riown...~e. San Dicgo. Morrir. q ~ <. New York. 6 . Specla1 Nav/yiit/on.: 7ixrA<. 1987. Nouirolion.~.t.alo All<>. pp ??<I 148 id ~ ~ . <' : ' ( . Neiv York.rp Ptr/. 4. L. l'. pp. and bcrnandcl... Mb. (edsl: Aux.~scrSliiipilowl. K... ~ ) l I e w ~ < ~ d Pr Cr 3 .. (.H i t l l .Artcch I luuse.442  CHAPTER 7  Steering. Ci.rt..si./ u/ . W . Fnelcwood Clifs.i Wile). I'itrnao..c. Acadec~iic Prcss. V o I I (Ilaylori.rli<!/f.tfl. c n l i ~ ~ .i>>c:rNouipoirr. 1'178. Siourih.. 1962. M. t ~ ~ ~ / ~ ~ . R." AlAA Cuid. Att!t~idc dnd Headins .q. IYXJ). W. ' 5111 Camhridgc.scd I I ~ ~ p p lKu</or. R.tncc and Control ('onkicncc. 781240.SC~~V. ) .rcriic~/(iui'/. and Moderri Av.
A. the CEP concept comes from the general bivariate (twovariable) Gaussian distribution [3]. CIRCULAR ERROR PROBABLE This section develops the basic mathematical concepts of CEP leading to the currently used simplified formulas that an engineer can immediately employ for a given situation. by understanding what CEP means. how it was generated.. and what limitations it has. namely (I) circular error probable (CEP). (2) spherical error probable (SEP). in the analysis of the accuracy of a given delivery system. Therefore. I . also known as "circle of equal probability".e. missiles. and (3) radial position error (RER). The error in . bombs. why it is used. success) is equivalent to the area enclosed by the circle. ordnance) onto a selected target. this CEP parameter is often used..Appendix A System Performance Criteria The objective of this appendix is to provide the basic formulation of system performance measurement methods. that is. the engineer can then apply it as a useful tool in measuring system performance with some level of confidence in the numbers produced. "Circular error probable" is simply that radius of a circle (centered at the mean point of impact) that encloses 50% of the probability of a hit. this is a very important military concept relative to the accurate delivery of a weapon (e. The circular description arises because of the twodimensional aspect of the problem of hitting any target. a 50% probability of a hit (i. Basically.g. In addition to its use in evaluating inertial navigation system performance. Above all.
the smaller the errors.s.~ calledethe "cross~a~~ge" direction. fl.~nt concept for the engineel.wc can state that the smaller the CEP.rnc. The Gaussian density function can therefore he used to study the C'EP concept. and the other pcrpcndicuIar to the c i ~ i w ~ ~ . APPENDIX A . is given by thc tollouring relationship 131 : IL. and hence. random in nature. i ~ n y .. if t l ~ c~ ~ u r l l b c r crror of sources is large enough.raugc coordinate 11. fiir cxi~mple. =range crror 0 . = thc error correlalii~n cc>elticicnt l>ctwcn \ a n d n.lmctcr can relate . This means that C E P is :i functio~lof the totc~ldclivcry system crror. This is an ilnporl. Thereforc.are sum totals of the crrnr contributions of . i\s stated earlier.to understand. Errors in a weapon delivery system (c. standard . ~ Since C E P has the crror distribution information in its ibr~nulation. hiascs and standard dcvialions).=. System Performance Crhena the position o l the earth's surface has two dimensions: one along the lligllt direction called the "downrangc" o r . the total will approximate the Gaussian distribution (via the central limit theorem). rangeislsf)<l (r. standard deviation i n deflection dircctio~l .I numhcr o f subsystcms and operational error sources and can be characterized as unpredictable and. The general bivariatc Gaussian distrihution functioll (also referred to a s the "'joint distribution of two valiables") cxprcssed in planar Cartesian coordinates v and I . = covariance deviation in range di~xction rr.8.ln of range v11. therefore..~ng or planar targeting problem must contend with errors in these t u directions.I whole wealth of inl'orniiltion ahout the ovcrall pcrkirmance 01' the systenr. C'EP is independent of \vllcrc rhc actual target is. the derivation of the C E P is based on ~Latisticalconcepts. Irrespective of the protx~hility distributions o f the individual error hources. howcvcr.444 . the morc accurate the system. Note that quoting thc performance of an inertial navigation o r weapon guidance and control system using this C'EP par./I('IC PI.. it states nothing about the quality or accuracy o f ihe data used in computing the location of the target.T directiol~. since il is a measure of dispersion and not a mcasurc o f central tendency.
which requires the correlation coefficient in Eq. In general.A. Coordinate rotation takes care of the correlation. A simple translation would accomplish this by shifting and collocating the center of the distribution at the center of the target.2) would simplify to one having fewer variables.1) to equal zero (p=O). in order to do this. (A. they must be statistically independent.4) into polar coordinates yields the following equation: where ~=[$+y~]"~ . In order to evaluate the ellipticity for conversion to CEP. (A. If there were no correlation (p=O) between the downrange and crossrange variables (i.2).v). crossrange and downrange). a coordinate transformation or rotation is necessary to transform x and y into normally distributed. uncorrelated random variables. (A. a simpler integral to work with results. Circular Error Probable 445 y = deflection coordinate p = mean of deflection . (A.e.. then Eq. (A. it is very desirable to treat the downrange and crossrange errors separately. if the bias can be removed so that the mean p is zero in each direction (i.e. 7. y . It is important to note that the correlation can be removed via a rotation so that we can achieve statistical independence. a change in x does not affect .& =deflection error This function is called an "elliptical distribution" because the lines of equal densities form concentric ellipses.. while it does not change the absolute distribution. This rotation then simplifies Eq.2) into a more manageable form as follows: Now. Therefore. the probability that a hit will be scored within a region R can be expressed as [2] T o simplify the integration of Eq. Thus Transforming Eq.
il is seldom used in practice. n . .hich yields o valuc o f 0 . w special case of n. Figure A2 shows. t w o strilightline approxirn. ~. R = I . (A. ( pc.~ p~~ .  .tic manipulation. I ) . a modified Hcsscl function of ~ c r o e t h is order and p = n ." wliich i s tolnicd w h m r Z = R and rr.7) Similarly.. iA. thc C'EP is that value o f R u. a special casc ol P(R) n = the circular standard deviation.(A. probability. Anolhcr cquation li)r the CEl' i s ihc following: CFP = I 1774. (A. W i t h honic algchr. =the circular probability distribution function. R .I plot of Eq. in addition to . System Performance Criter~a  F r o m the prcccding dibcussion. A special ciisc of Eq.. ELI.5) is thc "circular case. Sor 75'%.P f o r a truly circular (i. I Obviously. For this special msc. Z G . 5 f r o m thc integral of F q .0.n. . wllere the subscript c denotes ihc circular c.~tion:. when .5) must he solved in term5 of Ressel fitnclions. ( A .5).(T.  APPENL)IX A .446 . tlial the en&' '~neer could ircadily use: CEP=05X9[o. this cquation can he plotted.i\e. 9 ) .=G.j (A. IS. symmetric.e. (A X i This cquation produces an crror of as much as 14'!01. Figure A1 presents the circular normal distributions. IS. 6 6 5 1 ~ ~ . (A. curve that is tedious and frubtrating for ihe engineer t o sjork witli.. 0. IS. Eq.) distribution i s cornp i ~ t c d the following equations: by 01 C E P = 1.17740.. therefore.+~.5) lakes thc whcrc I.~vc I P.=IS. F o r thc "noncirculi~r" casc. resulting in .the radius o f the probability circlc The CF. we Ii.10) . =G.
the engineer is interested in relating the 50% circular error probability to other standard error probabilities. feet.. the engineer should be suspicious about the distribution. sin2 8)"'+ (a: sin2 8 + a t cos2 where If x and y are independent.589[(0: cos2 8 + a . 3a=99.269%.449%. This linear conversion is comparatively illustrated in Fig..730%. This CEP value. l o = 68. The engineer should become inquisitive when "quoted" the CEP of a particular INS or weapon delivery system. for varying degrees of accuracy. says something of the accuracy of the system. However. or whatever units. without information about the variances and the means.993% So= 99. Now consider two variables with input variances a: and 0. 2a= 95. such as Isigma or 2sigma (that is. 4 a = 99. and there is no correlation. Circular Error Probable 447 FIGURE A .980%. this equation reduces to Eq.A. whether in meters.lO). 3.l The circular normal distribution curve.999%). A more general equation for the CEP that takes into account correlation is given by CEP = 0. (A. A3. Often. .50=99. 7. Table Al summarizes the equations available for computing the CEP.
apprn~irn.448 APPENDIX A System Performance Critena FIGURE A . n .il~ons.2 ('El' c u r v e hi eiiiptlcni erriw d ~ s t r ~ h u l i o.
A 2.A 1. .49% Straightline approximation far 0.Osw50.B 2. Circular Error Probable 449 TABLE A7 Summary of CEP Equations" Method l....Zsw<I.6152u.8200~ 0.= oy=u. FIGURE A3 Normal linear distribution. .3 os=o.154sws1. W = uamdl/ulars= ux/uv. 7 7 4 ~ ~ CEP=0.O Special case: when a.26% Error < 0.0 Straightline approximation for 0 . 0 Parabolic curve for O.5887 (os+ul) CEP = 0 . 3.. 1 5 4 Straightline approximation for 0 .8 + 0.. ~ E r r o r s 3% E r r o r s 3% Error<0.A.+O. 3 s w 5 1 . 0 s w s 0 .0070) rr.6745a..B 3. (circular case) Error < 17%~ CEP = 1 . "The following definitions are basic to the six equations given above: ol=ul. 6 7 4 5 ~ ~ CEPF=[0. 1.l~.S620uJ C E F = (0.A Formula Accuracy Remarks Straightline approximation for O.
SIGMAx=SIGL=SIGMA LARGE.3<w<1. the area under thc Gaussof ian curve.5887* (SIGS + SIGL) CEP = Error<?% Straight line approximation for 0.incar Frror Conversion Factors 'l'hc circular error probable represents 50'!4.A CEP  0.B CEP = (0.0. THE FOLLOWlNG DEFINITION IS BASIC TO THE SIX FORMUI.1774*SIGC ?.562*SIGL E ror<O.82*w .6745*SIGL Error<j% 3.AE GIVEN BELOW.1774* SQRT(SIGS'2 + SlGL'2)/2) CEP = 1.6745*SlGL ENTER VALUES FOR SIGMA SMALL AND SIGMA LARGE WHICH WILL REPRESENT .49% *SIGS + 0.B 0. System Performance Criteria  I.0 Special case: SIGS=SIGL=SIGC (circular) FORMULA  ACCURACY Error<l7% I .007) Error<0.154<w<1.2<w<1.A CEP .3 2.B 1. SIGMAy=SIGS=SIGMA SMALL.6152*SlGS + 0.0 Straight line approximation for 0.450 TABLE A2 APPENDIX A . A program for computing thc CEP equations piven in Table Al is r>rcsc~~ted here: CEP FORMULAE: THIS PROGRAM CONTAINS THE SIX MOST COMMONLY USED ESTIMATES FOR CEP CALCULATIONS. Table A2 shows the factors k)r convertinp from one prohahilily level to another.SIGS/SIGL REMARKS Straight line approximation tor 0.0.0 Parabolic curve for O<w<0.0 Straight line approximation for 0. w METHOD ~p .A CEP = 1.154<w<1.?6% r 3.
/.A.562*SIGL Error<.26% = (0. for' 0.0' Parabolic' curve for' O<w<O./.6x. 1) WRITE(9.' .4)FNAME FORMAT(A) OPEN(9.A 1.A 2.B 1.B CEP 1. THE ' 1 .007) Error<././. for' O<w<O./.154<w<l.' I.49% *SIGS+0.B 1.O' Straight line' approx.A 3.5887* (SIGS+SIGL) 0.' 1./.6xPr WRITE(*.3) FORMAT(' WHAT IS THE DESIRED OUTPUT FILENAME ? ' .504000 70. ./.' I. for' 0. w=SIGS/SIGL' 1 METHOD ' 1 ' l.450000 68. 1 FOR EXAMPLE: A:CEP.' CEP FORMULAE: THIS PROGRAM CONTAINS THE SIX MOST ' I.3') CEP = Error<3% 1' 3.6x.82*w ././. 1 ' 2.' 1.A 2. FORMULA CEP = 1.5) = 0.A CEP 1.3<w<1.A 1.6x. Straight line' approx.644000 67./.l) FORMAT(Sx./. 1' 1.6xpF 1../. 1././.' CEP = 0. / ) ' READ(*. Circular Error Probable 45 1 THE STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE CROSSRANGE AND DOWNRANGE ERRORS: SIGS l.STATUS='UNKNOWN') WRITE(*.6745*SIGL Error<3% Straight line' approx.' 1.6x.8 3.590000 3 4 1 PROGRAM CEP CHARACTER*15 FNAME WRITE(*.0000 84. 1 ' 3. SIGMAy=SIGS=SIGMA SMALL.6x.FILE=FNAME.' COMMONLY USED ESTIMATES FOR CEP CALCULATIONS./.DAT ' . 1./.6x. for' Special case:' SIGS=SIGL=SIGC' (circular)' ) I. 1' SIGMAx=SIGL=SIGMA LARGE.' .B ~~ = 20.0000 CEP = CEP= CEP= CEP = CEP = SIGL = 100./. FOLLOWING DEFINITION IS BASIC TO THE SIX FORMALAE BELOW. / ./.6152*SIGS +0.6745*SIGL .154' Straight line' approx.1774*SIGC 7 FORMAT( 1' 2.0./ .1774* SQRT(SIGS'2+SIGL^2)/2) CEP = ACCURACY Error<l7% REMARKS ' .6x. .' l. 5) WRITE(9.903520 80.6x.
the spherical error prohahlc (SEP) is a n integral of the trivariatc (threevariable) Gaussian prohahility density function ovcr a sphere. 1' WHICH WILL REPRESENT THE STANDARD DEVIATION OF THEr.llysis a more gencral case of weapon system performance.P15.1774*SIGC WRITE(9.0. SlGL WRITE(*. EPS = SIGL .F14.15) 15 FORMAT(' l./.' STGL = '.6) CEP3A = 0.L.SIGS IF (EPS .SIGL 9 FORMAT(' SIGS '.2O)CEP2A  = SIGC (CIRCULAR CASE) FORMAT(' 7.007*SIGS + O.5887*(SIGS + SIGL) WRITE(*.APPENDIX A .LE. 1' CROSSRANGE AND DOWNRANGE ERRORS:'.0001) THEN SIGC = SIGL CEPlB = 1./) C DEFINE W = SIGS/SIGL 5  C C C STRAIGHT LINE APPROXIMATION FOR (. ~ O ~ C E P ~ A 10 FORMAT(' l.5O)CEP3B FORMAT(' 3. SPHERICAL ERROR PROBABLE I'hc ahovc results can he exlcndcd to thc thrccdimensional case.l.F15.LT.in. the SEP .15)CEPlB WRITE(9.6) END A./.40)CEP3A FORMAT(' 3A CEP = '.4O)CEP3A WRITE(9.4.17% CEPlA1.h745*SIGL WRITE(*. System Performarrce Criteria FORMAT(/.' ENTER VALUES FOR SIGMA SMALL AND SIGMA LARGE'. Thcrcfi~rc.F14.LE.) WRITE(*./) READ(*.9)SIGS.B CEP = '.6) ENDIF CEPZA = 0. which is centered a t the me. wc call apply thc theory of C'EP t o the an.issumcs ./.5O)CEP3B WRITE(9.F14.8 CEP = '. .6) C C C SPECIAL CASE: WHEN SIGS SIGL TEST IF THEY ARE REALLY CLOSE.2.h) CEP3B = (0.5.6152*SIGS + 0. .LT.*)SIGS.F14. In particular.82*SIGS*SIGS/SIGL) .O) ERROR .1774SQRT((SIGS*SIGS + SIGL*SIGL)/Z.F14. by extending o u r coi~rdinalcsto three dimensions.lO)CEPIA WRITE^^.B CEP = '.5620SIGL WRITE(*.A CEP = '.W. In spherical coordinates.
V/9.. RADIAL POSITION ERROR In certain cases. (A. = north standard deviation ar=east standard deviation ou = vertical (or up) standard deviation A FORTRAN program listing for computing the SEP is presented here: PROGRAM SPERPR WRITE(*. and c2= u: . The radial position error can .*)'SEP = '. a2= u:. The best of the analytical approximations to the SEP. e)r2 sin + 4 (A..&)'abr I.. b2= u. and weapon delivery system performance in space.e.3. GPS). is given by the following equations [I] : where r r = total standard deviation ~ a . for the unbiased case.SEP END A. the engineer is called on to determine the radial position error (RER) of an inertial navigation system. Radial Position Error 453 the form [compare with Eq.12) r2 cos2 e r 2 sin2 4 sin2 8 hZ + where r is the radius of the sphere. SIGMA EAST.] The above integral can be solved by means of an infinite series expansion. [Note that in Eq.0)**3 SEP = SQRT(SIG1) WRITE(*. Working with trivariate Gaussian distributions.*)SIGN. ellipsoids and spheres).5)] P ( R )= (. (A.12) I$ is the colatitude and 8 is measured along the longitude.3. SIGMA UP' READ(*."1 lo2z p(r.*)'ENTER SIGMA NORTH.0 .A. we would be looking at error volumes (e. The SEP finds application in such areas as determination of the threedimensional position error of orbiting satellites (i.SIGE.SIGU SIGT = SQRT(SIGN**Z + SIGE**Z + SIGU**E) V = 2*(SIGN**4 + SIGE**4 + SIGU**L)/SIGT**4 SIGI = SIGT**2*(1.g. 4.
......lierc ~qi<b~J~l<'+ (iL)%i...$)'..' PLEASE ENTER READ ( 5 ......... REAL DEFINITION(S) C**************************** REAL*B DELTH PHI REAL*8 DELTALAMBDA REAL*8 RADERREAL*8 R C C**************************** C INITIALIZE VARIABLE(S) R = C**************************** R = 6378137..... System Pcrforniance Criteria he dctcrmii~cd from ttic relation ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ RFR it.....tm for cornpuling the radial position crror...... 1. $ ) ' . C R*R ... 0.' PLEASE ENTER READ ( 5 .. cos' lA..14) $. ...=initial latitude hi.454 . ' PLEASE ENTER READ(5....ATITUDE (IN DEGREES):' INITIAL LONGITUDE (IN DEGREES):' FINAL LATITUDE (IN DEGREES):' FINAL LONGITUDE (IN DEGREES):' ....= initial loligit~lde R = l:ldius of tlic eartl~ ill Thc rildial position crror call also be cxprehhed ...c r Thus terms 11f thc CF. giver1 thc initial position and longitude...*) INITLONGITUDE PRINT '(a............. PROMPT USER VALUES PRINT * PRINT '(a..P hy A progr...$)'... m .....' P1....... is presented as follows: in terrns of l a l ~ t u d e PROGRAM RADERR C C ...*) INITLATITUDE PRINT ' ( a .$)'.. * ) LATITUDE PRINT '(a.. APPENDIX A .EASE ENTER READ(5...)'~l<' qi..~ssuniing that cr....... * ) LONGITUDE INTTIAL...
.A...... the following statistical parameters are presented as a convenience to the reader [2] : 1...INIT LONGITUDE I DELTA~LAMBDA DELTALAMBDA = RADER = SQRT((DELTAPHI * R) + DELTA LAMBDA (DELTALAMBDA*R*COS_€HINOT))  c************************* C OUTPUT RADER c************************* 11 PRINT * WRITE (5........ Sample mean : where x... Radial Position Error 455 c************************************************** C CONVERT INPUT VALUES FROM DEGREES TO MINUTES c************************************************** c COMPUTE RADER ....5) END In summary... Root mean square (rms): ..........ll) RADER FORMAT(' RADER = '€16. = n = number of samples 2..3.. COS PHI NOT = COS(IN1T LATITUDE) * COS(IN1T LATITUDE) DELTA P f fI LATITUDE INIT LATITUDE DELTAPHI = DELTA PHI * DELTAPHI DELTALAMBDA = LONGITUDE ... Geometric mean (GM) : where n = sample size r = radial error from target (in meters or feet) 3.. individual sample at time t...............
I'nnoulta. G M rms] 5.. I).. I). . Thcn Y= l'hcrcforc GM rliib ~~~ ~~ REFERENCES C'liild\. l . r m s )+0.tn (CiM) 10 the rms. M . M c G I . r i l P t o i c i c . R I I J 1. Nen Yolk.~lc). I'IX? 1 1 1 . computed . 1111 N K s . .. for discrete values of r = 0. .r. the 90pcrccntilc valuc o f thc radial error.3] r i 0 .6: IfM APPENDIX A . . 1. . I \ . 2 s. \\. f i 1 1 . 'tud TWYIS. Crosscorrelation coefficient: 6. f o l l o u . ~ 2nd 1. ~Lcl y he the ralio ol'lhe geurnelric 1ilc. R. l i 1 1 0 1 MC~~YUICS ~ i i ~ i i c l ~ r i d t l n l S. 6 : CEP= rmsl0. l ' n .predictions. 7.d . " I / / .Ro. .$.. .icrriol (. I . can be .ilii/iiri<c. rms) +0. h i i h i / i ~ ~ . System Performance Crjrena C E P = rlns[O. ! ~ ~ .4.7(GM.l 4 1 l 64 h i .. ' l .~ s i iSioi h i . for succcssivc static and niohile tehth. <'oHcy.t. 1 . . . It is sonieti~nes preferred to asscsh the navigation sysleni's perforrn:rnce in terms of 90percentile errol. Specilically.7(GM . Ii1II.I. P .iiiiii liirioille. 2 . i .456 If(iM:rmsS0. h c i l Y o i k 1'162. Jitnuitr) Ii)7X. Autocorrclarion function: where r = t .\ppc~ldtr I' I .
Therefore. The WGS84 coordinate system is defined as follows [I]: 1. but leads to a closed formula for normal gravity at the ellipsoid surface. An equipotential ellipsoid is an ellipsoid defined to be an equipotential surface on which all values of the potential are equal. The Z axis is parallel to the direction of the conventional international origin (CIO) for polar motion as defined by the Bureau International de L'Heure (BIH) on the basis of the latitudes adopted for the BIH stations. The Y axis completes a righthanded.Appendix 6 The World Geodetic System The Department of Defense World Geodetic System (DoD WGS) geoid is defined by a spherical harmonic expansion. The origin of the coordinate system is the earth's center of mass. Furthermore. earthfixed orthogonal coordinate system. 2. all the military services participated in developing the first DoD WGS60 sys . The X axis is defined by the intersection of the WGS84 reference meridian plane and the plane of the mean astronomic equator. the reference meridian being parallel to the zero meridian defined by the BIH on the basis of the longitudes adopted for the BIH stations. Historically. 3. because of the failure of local systems to provide intercontinental geodetic information. the DoD in the late 1950s generated a geocentric reference system to which different geodetic networks could be referred. Consequently. the equipotential ellipsoid serves not only as a reference surface or geometric figure of the earth. which is based on an equipotential ellipsoid of revolution. 4. measured in the plane of the mean astronomic equator 90" east of the X axis. a unified world system became essential [I].
ti vel<.in Airy (1830) tischcr ! I'lhoi I'sscher I 1'1681 f Where used IKussla North Ajncrica lbr:.000 6.+l Sooth A o ~ c ~ ~ cIl'lh'li . .rl'i.135U00 h..pc lapan 111diil rlilstra1l. Ll.?l. APPENDIX E . ~ W.~l Al~gul.378.tl Ih.il(normal) gr..\~'T. I 29X.. The World Geodetrc System   Reference lillipsuid Constants Equatorial radius 4m) Flattening Rrfcrcncr ellipwid* Krasovsk~i (1940) Cl.ilhi.il c.M 10 ' K K \ I \' 39XhOll5 n III?II' S M.SX4 6.~rihsgr.37X.378. I?un.117 !I00 1 2'18 111 I 2YX.iImosphcrri 'Il~corciic.ti Ihc eqo.iv~tation. Since 1960. 484166X5 7."cc. 111order to d o this.tvily cll~psoid) .i Soutli America I!olicd Kingdom South Asin South l h i .trth r h c c.lrke 11866) ('lilikc (1880) 1nlcrniltl~~n.2572?3563 tem.$I If cI71172X x Ill" ki' '17803267714ni thc polcs (oo tlru 7. it was necessary to considcr all available observed data to determine the best absolute rel'erence system to provide a good fit for the entire earth..cl~an Naiton.rldwtde Worldwide WCS72 W(.lvily . and geodetic requirements. .iior (oil i l l ~ cll~psocd) Thcorcliciil (norm. additional surface .i~~~ (mas* ol'i.arlh tincllldcs thc .458 TABLE B1 ..l!~noolc comtlicicnl iol'lhc $col.X??IXh36Xiin <~ '1.tr~h'\ itlrnorpl>e~c ~ ~ l u d c d i ir ( .tll gr. 150.292115 * 10 " <I (.c!ly or lhc c.G. In 1966.797hJih5hl M c s n vitluc of i l ~ c o r c l ~ c (norrni~l) al gravily 7 rn r ' . TABLE 8 .2 Geodetic and Geophysical Parameters of the WGS84 Lllipscrid Parameter\ Yotation Value Sccond degree inn.ll (1Y?41 Rcs~cl 1841 i ( trcrcst ! 1830) Auslr.oiellli.iss . a World Geodetic Systcm (WGS) Committee w a s chargcd with the responsibility of dcvcloping a WGS needed to satisfy t n a p p i n ~charting.
[l+ 0. giving rise to a more accurate world geodetic system. SUMMARY OF SELECTED FORMULAS Reference Ellipsoid where a = equatorial radius +.2) (B.0820944379496 0.6 .0818191908426 0.0000059 sin2 241 where + W.=geocentric latitude f = flattening International Gravity Formula Jeffreys : Airy: g=g.7523142 m 0.0066943799901 3 0.356. the WGS Committee adhered to the approach and methods used by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) in establishing the Geodetic Reference System1967 (GRS67). In 1970 the WGS Committee began work for a replacement of the WGS66. and in 1972 completed the DoD WGS72 system. respectively.0052891 sin2 +0.3) go= gravity at the equator = 9.f ) Value 6. 7 Summary of Selected Formulas 459 TABLE 8 . 8 .0052884 sin2 $0.3 Associated Constants of the WGS84 Ellipsoid Constants Semiminor axis Major eccentricity (first eccentricity) Major eccentricity squared Minor eccentricity (second eccentricity) Axis ratio Notation h E Formula h=o(l . The WGS66 gravitational model was thus developed.996647189335 ~=[. results from the extension of triangulation and trilateration networks. Since 1972.780373 m/sL +=geodetic latitude . extensive gravity data has been collected and analyzed.f(2f)]'" ~~=f(2_/) E ' = s/(I f ) b / a = 1/ ' P E' b/o gravity observations. and data from Doppler radar and satellites became available. In developing the WGS72 system.0000059 sin2 2+] g=go[l +0. 1 . while Tables B2 and B3 give the various parameters and constants of the WGS84 system. the WGS84 system. Table B1 lists the various reference ellipsoid constants.
M= mass of earth Il= angular rate R =gravi~ltionalconstant = 06.M K.7 x 10 (1 =ellipsoid semimaior axis h = ellipsoid semiminor axis / f l a t t e n i n g of ellipsoid Ill ' <12<12/1 ~~ ~ ' ~  jJ cln g 3 I s REFERENCE . cqualorial gravity = /1=altit11de 4 latitude .460 Normal Gravity Formula APPENDIX B . The World Geodetic System (..
415419 Autocorrelation function. 86. 218. 141. 196 centripetal. 353. 428 Attitude error equations. 199. 265 bias. see also Strapdown inertial navigation System Angleofattack indicator (AOA). 421 Boltzmann's constant. 199 true. 143144 Accelerometer. 206. 439 Airmass. (ARINC). 384 Bearing. 377. 95 Bureau International de L'Heure (BIH). 197198 error model. 199 calculation. 24 Area navigation (RNAV). 140. 241 misalignment. 28. 3. 199. 249252 Attitude and heading reference system (AHRS). 329 exponential.413414 Atmosphere. 413. 215. 36. 19 . 7. 200 Attitude direction indicator (ADI). 414 Altimeter. 265 output. 342. 231 Ada. 20. 387. 85 Angular velocity. 198 barometric. 429 Angstrom. 427 relative. 141 random constant. 197199. 216 Altitude. 457 CaleyHamilton theorem. 266 scale factor. 48. 438439 Aeronautical Radio. 219221 standard. 203 nonstandard. 456 Automatic flightcontrol system (AFCS). 224 divergence. 421. 277. 95 equation. 156. 198. Inc. 199 Analytic inertial navigation system (INS). 223226 pressure. 280.Acceleration. 204 system. 408409 Air traffic control (ATC). 41. 197199 absolute. 135. 198.
10 gylosc<. 117 I S X . I ? hody. 141 132. 41 5 43h I)ilulion of precision (DOI').i~lcc . m. Y I 0 geocentric. 10 googr:lphic. 14'1. 67 Deadreckoning ( D K ) ~iilvisation.C'cntcrlinc recovery ctccrlng. . 160. 2311. 366 367 ('cntripct:11 accclcr.~lh!i.R). 266 168 Error cqu. 177 370. 143. 267. 248 I'orwiirdlooking radar (I:I. 341. 2b 27. 14'). 34'1. 3lX 11'). Error ~nodcl. I I 4 I I S .lnlc. 436 ('omputcd airspced (('AS).425 426 Coordinated 1Jnivc1sal'1imc (LII'C). 311 333 l 42'1. 29. 259.01. 317 314 I)ircction cosine matrix ( I I C M ) . scv.irsI poi111oi 4rics. 221) 231 Ilrror anglcs. I 5 t n l e r anglcs. 14. 1x8.l".ltlix.og I F M . 3 1 1 CraSl rate. 75. 300. 17 1') propagation. 13 incz~lii~l. 241 245 l o c i ~ lcrcl. 175 I':lhry P k .1. 26Y. 267. I I X 123 Inlcrfcrnmctlic f i b e ~ o p t i c y r ~ g O I II I 123 r i r e c o i l l ~ ocomputer.ition. 414 Ephetncris Tune ( E f ) .~ccclcromelul. 458 460 flyhywire. 28 Coilrilinalc fr.~tl. 3x4 <'cntr:ll A i r I h t a Computer (C'A1)CI. 144. 7 I3 .ly ro1.~lions. specific. 370 371 ('i. counlcrmcasurcs (I:CM). nr. 267 Frroc statc vector. 3 1 1 112. 143 ('oulsc. 61 63. 277. 205 200.. 216. 99 Fa~~acl. 432 Piher~optic gyro (I'O(i). 230 231. 252. 13 51 ('orlolis acceler:ition. 237 238 l wdndcr c t ~ i t n u t l254 2(10 ~. 40. 342. 2 8 1:1. 40. 1 9 . 341. 344 t!uclldcan norm. 143 Coriolis law. ?Y Flilltming. 75.I. 427 Ellipticit). 140. 132 213 Frrur hodgct.otc nilvigati<ln. 31 1.~llcning FII li. 69. 223. iln~lysis. Covariance. 4311 . 1411. i r i ~ o Fl.lalii>n. 364. I I 7 Peilel. I I Cooldinatc transiolmation. 197 100. 208 ('ontlul :ind Display IJnit ( C D I I ) . 14 17 ditYerentlal equ.v. 20 22. 230. Ihh 167. s<r' Spcedlog k:lvcliooii. 9 cnavigi~tion.Ill n o l l o r t l ~ ~ ~ g o n12l .85. 141 fccenlricity. 443 452 C'omhincd altitude radar nllirnelelICAKAI. 152..ilor. 42 1 ~. 406 412. l iiite~rcrameter. I56 wander azimuth. 426 ('<)nrpotcd . 424 force. 153 Circular crror probable (CFP). 5. 219.ltion. I ? tangenl plane. ?X 29. 3X. 381.L o g ) . 256 liar111 r:rlc. 10 e~lrll. 436 437 1.jt!on Adrnin~stratiot~ (FAA). 229. 259 204 Irmr sourccs. 1 1 1 ' Elcdromagncl~c L.II~lelr:isc point (('ARP). 13 il platrorni. 3x0.
372373 Kinematic equations. 115. 289290 Instrument landing system (ILS). 93~94 lockin. 4142. 113 null shift. 189. 195 Gravitational potential. 3 6 9 370. 128129. 265 fiberoptic. 45. 341343 Kalman filter. 269. 42042 1 Headupdisplay (HUD). 147. 11. 9091. 145 Great circle navigation. 110112. 109. 191 Leastsquares estimate. 161 drift. 97798 scale factor. 162. 150. 150. 270. 108109 oscillation modes.. 296324 differential GPS. 187196 Lapse rate. 9 5 97 error model. 132 energy levels. 206. 111 metastable. 426 Horizontal dilution of precision (HDOP). 105 lasing action. 123 bias. 172. 3. 310 Glonass (GNSS). 428.. 312. 459 Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). 107. 145 . 136137. 270271 Gaussian distribution. 1071 13 gain medium. 358. 165. 409 geodetic. 46. 335337 GPS/INS integration.. 142. 123125 error sources. 9294. 135140 Heading. 104. 435 Joint distribution function. 316322 Legendre polynomials. 95. 254. 443444. 107. 147. 90. 253254 spacestabilized. 426. 238 Free inertial mode. 10. 9597 mode pulling. 89. 24. . 127 coherence. 146 Gravitational acceleration. 206. 229236.. 100 dither. 85. 197 Free azimuth system. 8386 beat frequency. 317 Glide slope. 41. 390. 272. 202203 Laser gyro. . 224 gradient. l I. 444 Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS). I 2 5 127 Latitude. 88. 241260 freeazimuth. 103.). 314315 system outage. 375 Innovation. 453 GanssMarkov process. 324332 Gravitation. 2. 215 Geometric dilution of precision (GDOP). 341345 RelNav. 207. 4547 locallevel. 86 107 Inertial reference system (IRS). 257. 322 3 2 4 geometry. 115 bias. 385399 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). 7. 132 Gyroscope. 126125. computation. 84. 309. 191. 200. 205. 230.~394 . 118123 laser. 200. 1121 13 multioscillator. 28 Gyrocompassing. 430 Global Positioning System (GPS). 366367 Inertial navigation system (INS) concept. 197198. 205. 121. 157. 234.47. 313 Horizontal situation indicator (HSI). 222 International gravity formula. 187. 254.430431 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).Free air temperature (T. 426427 Indicated airspeed (IAS). 285286. 141144.
153 154. 241 1'latli)rni.10. osullI:ition modcs I'crturhillion. Mach number.~riral~on.r). 175 ilrilt rate. 45. 793 Rho thcta. 430 4 1 Markov model. I87 I9h w.). 199. 157 161 spaccslabilized. 293 2'14 Reaction time. 172. 1 5 .ocalircr. 291 I:~ncslip. 227. 190. 430 431 I. angles. 216. I l l 3 . I 61 I76 Mcridia~iconvergence. 105. 195. 417.. 172 173.lndcrm u.rdlal L. 5. 2XI 2x7 0meg.a. 428.ll level incrtikll nauigation system. 272 274. 238. 302.lnt ( o i hias). 25 ! ' Nav~gat~irn. 147.evcrarm correction. r n i s a l ~ g n ~ ~ ~48. scc L:lrer gyro. 296 294 Ianc i~~ilbiguily. 262. 280.. 77 78 Mesosphere. 175 I'ol. 460 Nurmal gravity Yector. 287 Lc~xodronic. 133. t5 0 cn . 240 ~ncrti. 124 I<iln<Iomconst. 399 406 Rot:iting u~~oniinatcs. 289 291. 341. 415 417 Magnetic~sliation ( M a g V. 375 1. 410 Loran C . 282 287 ~ncrtial. . 411 41. 429 Magnetic compass. . 287 I. 421 Malker haacon. 274 277 Radat altimclel. 276 Multiplex datahus. 43 JJ. 202 Microw~ve landing systcm ( M L S ) .oli~n pulsc. 293 Ncuton.iti\.oc. 9. 150. 188 1'1irn. 272. 47 K. 235 Pinslln crrol model.OP). 176 Maximum dilution of prccision ( M D O P ) .lhs attraction. 10. 453 450 Random bias. I l l . 345. 274. 130 R. torquing. I. 293 cllor allipsc. 436 438 Navaids.~lionmodes. 155 157. 290 diffcrc~~lial. Rhumb line srt. 335. 428 Pscudornngc. 151 kttitudc longitude. 4. 341 341 Rho rho navigation.ldar.lry il~gl~tcontrol systcm (PFC'S).~di:tl positton crror (RPt:). 142 Normal gravity I'orrniila. 215. 431 432 Multimode radar.~l. 233 2 3 5 I. 165. 41. 291.lndcr . Position dilrrtlon of prccision (PDOP). 4 2 rho rho.~lk. 111 112 Ilcfcrencc cllipso~d.. 347 K. 127 129. 135. 302 308 I'si equation..c Navigation (RclN. ~ / i m u l h . 2OO Random drill. 425. 140 137 . 410. 434 Lint o l position (1. 426 R. 3l? 3 l J Posltlon vcclor. 144.~b).91. 141. . 294 Oscill. 313 314 Mean sea level (MSL. 41 Iongitildc compulation. 137. 420 421 hypcrholic. 282 287. 205 207. 353 Mechanization equations. 429 Magnetic heading. 413 Rhumb line. 48 angulilr rolc. v Rcl. l I S 117 03. 362 M.rror. 124. 218 Rauging moilc. I X X gcoccntric.I. I46 Nollhslavrd systern.
345346 VOR/DME.Rotation matrix. 410 Wanderazimuth system. 248 Speedlog.. 432435 System altitude. 88. 413 Wander angle. 4647 . 199 Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN). 117118.41. 713. 188. 69 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). 32 Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS) system. 7375 Variance. 1. 14. 202 Synthetic aperture radar (SAR). 145. 273.48. 242 State transtion matnx. 313315 VeryHighFrequency Omnidirectional Ranging (VOR). 87V39 Schuler frequency. 417 True equinox. 447 Star tracker. 1819. 342344 Timespacesposition information (TSPI). 84. coordinate. 28 Skewsymmetric matrix. 206207. 368~369 S~herical error orohable (SEP). 170 angular.36. 188 time. 195. 4647. 120121 interferometer. 162165. 7778 false easting. . 209 210 Vertical dilution of precision (VDOP). 144. 408 Strapdown ~nertialnavigation system. 46. 452453 .216. 375. 10. 156 Stratosphere. 241. 359360 Statespace notation. 50. 345 Transformation. 158. 313314 Timedivision mnltipleaccess (TDMA). 45. 260. 169170. 1 3 ~ ~ 4 1 Transport rate. 342 Time of arrival (TOA). 333. 145 Thermosphere. 202 Time dilution of precision (TDOP). 161165.212225. 187195 Specificforce. 341. 141142. 276. 150 Troposphere. 256257. 315. 7981 Sagnac. 44. 270 Sidereal day. 10. 47 Unit vector. 319 Velocity.63. 430 Spacestable system.430 Terrain Profile Matching (TERPROM). 197198. 87 effect. 277278 Terminal navigation. 1 1. 200. Spherical harmbnics. 337. 312. 408 Stored magnetic variation. 17. 223. 380 Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM). 12. 200 True airspeed (TAS). 357. 27 Truth model. 41. 326. 385. 383385 Stored heading. 2426. 457 Standard deviation. G. 210. 330331 Unipolar system. 356 Tesseral harmonics. 259. 248 Slant range. 348357 Terrain foUowing/terrain avoidance (TF/TA).415. 41. 165. 357. 7375 false northing. 48. 412413 VOR/TACAN (VORTAC). 237 Steering. 444. 41. 148. 6872 convergence. 19. 245247 Vernal equinox.413 Visual flyover. 152153. 171172. 21 Rotation vector. 3233. 29 Verticalchannel. 27 hour angle. 154 computation.270271 damping. 2628. 16. 173174 error equations. 287. 144. 13.
334. 196. I[]. 20 22. ? X O 3x3 Wl~llc i~oisi. 125. 372 World Cicodetic System ( W G S ) . 33 34. 304.W:iyp<>int. 212. I i 5 I S B N OL2b46890? . 36 37. 210.!xi\. 157 450 Yam . 39 7<>1ii1li i ~ r ~ l ~ o ~ lI 4c s . 40..