General Questions about GSM 1. What are the three services offered by GSM?

Explain each of them briefly.
These objectives have been gradually achieved and a broad collection of services are provided. The GSM services are grouped into three categories:

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1. Teleservices (TS) 2. Bearer services (BS) 3. Supplementary services (SS) TS cover, in essence, telephony, BS encompass basically data transmission, and SS are the value-added features.

Teleservices Regular telephony, emergency calls, and voice messaging are within TS. Telephony, the old bidirectional speech calls, is certainly the most popular of all services. An emergency call is a feature that allows the mobile subscriber to contact a nearby emergency service, such as police, by dialing a unique number. Voice messaging permits a message to be stored within the voice mailbox of the called party either because the called party is not reachable or because the calling party chooses to do so. Bearer Services Data services, short message service (SMS), cell broadcast, and local features are within BS. Rates up to 9.6 kbit/s are supported. With a suitable data terminal or computer connected directly to the mobile apparatus, data may be sent through circuit-switched or packet-switched networks. Short messages containing as many as 160 alphanumeric characters can be transmitted to or from a mobile phone. In this case, a message center is necessary. The broadcast mode (to all subscribers) in a given geographic area may also be used for short messages of up to 93 alphanumeric characters. Some local features of the mobile terminal may be used. These may include, for example, abbreviated dialing, edition of short messages, repetition of failed calls, and others. Supplementary Services 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Some of the SS are as follows: Advice of charge. This SS details the cost of a call in progress. Barring of all outgoing calls. This SS blocks outgoing calls. Barring of international calls. This SS blocks incoming or outgoing international calls as a whole or only those associated with a specific basic service, as desired. Barring of roaming calls. This SS blocks all the incoming roaming calls or only those associated with a specific service. Call forwarding. This SS forwards all incoming calls, or only those associated with a specific basic service, to another directory number. The forwarding may be unconditional or may be performed when the mobile subscriber is busy, when there is no reply, when the mobile subscriber is not reachable, or when there is radio congestion. Call hold. This SS allows interruption of a communication on an existing call. Subsequent reestablishment of the call is permitted. Call waiting. This SS permits the notification of an incoming call when the mobile subscriber is busy. Call transfer. This SS permits the transference of an established incoming or outgoing call to a third party. Completion of calls to busy subscribers. This SS allows notification of when a busy called subscriber becomes free. At this time, if desired, the call is reinitiated. Closed user group. This SS allows a group of subscribers to communicate only among themselves. Calling number identification presentation/restriction. This SS permits the presentation or restricts the presentation of the calling party·s identification number (or additional address information). Connected number identification presentation. This SS indicates the phone number that has been reached. Freephone service. This SS allocates a number to a mobile subscriber, and all calls to that number are free of charge for the calling party.

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1800 GSM 1800 the number of carriers is 374. How many carrier frequencies are there in GSM-900/DCS-1800? How much is the separation between the carrier frequencies? 900 y y y y y y To allow maximum number of users access. In the days of AMPS phones.2±959.6 (centre freq. This concept. greatly increases the capacity of a cellular network.) 935.) 3 890.) .) GSM ± 900: Uplink spectrum is 890.1 .2±1784. Each of these carrier frequencies is further subdivided into time slots using TDMA. 124 914. . transmitting for one eighth of the time). This is to prevent 'snoopers' from capturing the ID. one radio channel can support 8 'full rate' traffic. Three-party service.2 -centre freq. Both in GSM 900 and GSM 1800. adjacent cells must use different sets of frequencies.8 Mhz 3. This SS permits the establishment of conference calls. each band is subdivided into124 carrier frequencies spaced 200 kHz apart. known as frequency reuse. In GSM 900 the duplex frequency (the difference between uplink and downlink frequencies) is 45 MHz. 2. Hence. Which uplink/downlink spectrum is allocated to DCS-1800? b. and obscene incoming calls. Which uplink/downlink spectrum is allocated to GSM-900? a.) 935. TDMA provides each user with the carrier frequency for approximately0.15.. Malicious call identification.4 (centre freq.2 -centre freq.e.8 (centre freq. What is Ciphering? Why do we need it? Name the algorithm(s) used in it? The data being transmitted from the BTS to the Phone and back is enciphered. In GSM 1800 this duplex frequency is 95 MHz.) 959.2±914..6 (centre freq.3 (935. In order to reduce the interference level. Channel Uplink signal (MHz) Downlink signal (MHz) 1 890. in order to avoid interference with services using neighbouring frequencies. .. and downlink spectrum is 1805.8 (centre freq.4 (centre freq. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) has 8 time slots (i. 16.935. it was aquite easy to acquire IMEI numbers .) 935. This SS permits the registration of malicious. 5.1 .890.577ms. A more economical 'half rate' scheme with 16 traffic channels is being introduced.8.8 Mhz and downlink spectrum is 935.8 4. nuisance.) 2 890.. Only widely separated cells are allowed to use the same carrier frequencies. no base station is allowed to use this complete set of carrier frequencies. using FDMA techniques.3 (890.. the lowest and highest channels are never used..) DCS ± 1800: Uplink spectrum is 1710. However.2±1879.

What is MA? 18. The A3 algorithm is implemented in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). I figure the NSA could break the codes in a second or two. and in GSM. Why do we need digitisation? 10. but it will certain discourage the average listener from getting anywhere! The algorithm 129-EEA3 and 128-EIA3. What is the difference between Synthesised Frequency Hopping and Base Band Frequency Hopping? 20. The first 32 bits of those 128 bits form the Signed Response.right off the air. Explain Speech Coding. A3 s task is to generate the 32-bit Signed Response (SRES) utilizing the 128-bit random challenge (RAND) generated by the Home Location Register (HLR) and the 128-bit Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) from the Mobile Station¶s Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) or the Home Location Register (HLR). What is Authentication? Why do we need it? Name the algorithm(s) used in it? The authentication algorithm used in the GSM system is known as the A3 algorithm. and start making calls which are charged to the original owner. not being transmitted over the air. What is equalisation? Why do we need it? 8. Most GSM network operators utilize a version of the COMP128 algorithm as the implementation of the A3 algorithm. What do you mean by Frequency re-use? 13. What is HSN? How do we apply it? . What are LAPD and LAPDm? 16. What is MAIO? Created by: Faisal Adnan Siddiqui 19. The ciphering is nothing to get overly excited about. It also prevents people from simplyh listening to cell phone converations. 3GPP Confidentiality and Integrity Algorithm is used for ciphering in GSM 6. What is channel coding? 12. A3 actually generates 128 bits of output. What is Cell Splitting? 14. What is Interleaving? Why do we need it? 9. Name the interfaces between a) BTS and MS b) BTS and BSC c) BSS and MSC d) TRAU and BSC e)BSC and PCU 15. This lead to authentication. 7. 11. What is WPS? 17. the ID details from the SIM. What is Cycling Frequency Hopping? 21. as could easily be done with AMPS phones. clone them.

What are TDMA frames. What is DRX? Why do we need it? 24. What is location update? Why do we need location update? 30. GSM900 and DCS-1800. Which channel is used by MS to request access to the network? 38. How can we minimise multipath fading? . What is a physical channel? How do we differentiate between physical and logical channels? 41. Do we keep BCCH on a hopping radio? Give the reason to support your answer. What is the purpose of PCH and CBCH? 45. What is an extended cell? How does it impact the system? Channels and TDMA structure 35. superframes and hyperframes? 42. What is TA? Why do we need TA? 28. What is Erlangs? What is meant by GoS? 26. IMEI and MS-ISDN? Why they are needed? 31. Why do we need SACCH and Idle bursts in a traffic multiframe? 48. Why do we need SACCH? 44. What is AGCH? 39. What are bursts? Explain various types of bursts. Which channel(s) is used for SMS? Created by: Faisal Adnan Siddiqui 37. SCH and BCCH? 43. Explain the structure of a Traffic Multiframe. What is ARFCN? Which ARFCNs are allocated to Ufone? 32. What is VSWR? Why do we need it? 51. We use two different bands for GSM/DCS communications. What is fading? What are its different types: a) Based on Multipath time delay spread b) Based on Doppler Spread? 54. multiframes. What is the difference between FDD and TDD? 34. Explain Power Control. What is multipath fading? Created by: Faisal Adnan Siddiqui 56. What is Polarisation? What are the types of polarisation? 53. Radio Propagation and Antennas 50. 33. TMSI. What is Rayleigh Fading? 55. Which one is the better of the two in terms of quality and coverage? 27. What is the gross data rate of GSM? 25. What is DTX? Why is it used? 23. Why do we need SDCCH? 40. 46. What do you mean by EIRP? 52. How is a FACCH formed? When is a FACCH used? 49. TDMA and CDMA? 36. What is meant by Location Area? 29. What is meant by IMSI.22. Why do we need FCCH. Why do we use Multiple Access Schemes? What is the difference between FDMA. How much delay is present between downlink and uplink frames? Why do we need this delay? 47.

Which modulation scheme is used in GPRS? In EDGE? Explain/Compare. What are SYNC handovers? How are the different from asynchronous handovers? 74. What is the difference between PSK. ASK and FSK? 84. What is FSPL? 66. Who makes the handover decisions in GSM? 80. What are the types of Handovers (intra-bsc. Explain Frequency Diversity. TDM and OFDM. What are Vertical and Horizontal handovers? 78. What are the different types of Handovers? (PBGT. b) 3dB Bandwidth and c) absolute Bandwidth d) Coherence Bandwidth e) Modulation Bandwidth f) Null-to-Null Bandwidth? 69. What are the basic mechanisms of propagation? 62. Quality. Explain Time Diversity. What is Scattering? 65.57. What are the different types of diversity? 58. How do we classify the handovers on the basis of decision making? Created by: Faisal Adnan Siddiqui 77. Drive Testing 90. Which modulation scheme is used in GSM? Explain. What are emergency handovers? 75. Explain various types of Antenna Diversity? 59. What is C/I? 91. What do you mean by Diffraction? 63. What is RxQual? How do we relate it to BER? 93. What is MSK? What is its application in GSM? 86. Explain FDM. etc)? 71. What is knife-edge diffraction? 64. What is QAM? What is its application in GSM? 87. inter-msc. What can be the reasons of Handover Failure? 72. 89. etc) 76. What is the role of the MSC in handovers? 81. 60. Level. 61. 83. What is beamwidth? What is the relation of beamwidth to length of antenna? 68. What is the difference between BER-Full and BER-Sub? . What is the difference between a soft handover and a hard handover? 73. What is meant by PAM and PCM? What is its application in GSM? 88. What is Multilayer Handoff Strategy? What is Ping pong effect and take-back ? 79. What is C/A? 92. Define: a) Bandwidth. What are QPSK and OQPSK? 85. What is meant by Fresnel zone and Fraunhofer zone? 67. What do we understand from the terms a) SNR b) F/B ratio? Handovers 70. What is the role of the MS in handovers? Modulation 82.

What are the main components of BSS? 121. What is a coupling system? 127. What do we mean by E1 and T1? . What is the basic difference between GSM and GPRS architecture? 114. What is cell selection? How does MS select a cell? 109. 110. What are the main components of NSS? 122. How many coding schemes are used in GPRS? Why are they important? 117. What is call re-establishment? 103. What are the paging limitations of a BSC? 126. What is EDGE? How is it different from normal GSM/GPRS? 119. What is RBS? 125. Why do we make short calls and long calls during drive test? 104. When do we need drive test? 100. What are counters? Why do we need them? 99. What is the gross data rate offered by GPRS and EDGE? 118. Why do we need EIR and AuC? 124. What is cell-reselection? 101. Explain the call flow for MOC and MTC. What are the functions of GGSN and SGSN? 116. How do we classify GPRS terminals? GSM System Architecture 120. What is AMR? Created by: Faisal Adnan Siddiqui 97. What is SQI? Why do we prefer it over RxQual? 95. What can be the reasons of a Call drop? 98. What is the difference between RxLev and RxQual? 107. What are C1 & C2? 102. 111. What is BSIC? Why do we need it? 96. What is RSSI? 106. What makes GPRS technology different from traditional GSM? 115. What is GPRS? 113. What do you mean by CEFR and CSSR? 105. What is the difference between FER and BER? Procedures 108.94. Handover procedures. Why do we need HLR and VLR? 123. How does a MS get registered with the network? (Explain IMSI attach procedure) GPRS and EDGE 112.

1)What is a typical NodeB sensitivity level? 2)What are the processing gains for CS and PS services? 3)How to calculate maximum number of users on a cell? 4)Brief describe the advantages and disadvantages of soft handover? 5)How many channelization codes are available? .

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