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“Change” they say is inevitable, the only thing that is constant in life is change. Training and development is fundamental to the growth of every organization. It is obvious that the rapid growth in information and communication Technology (ICT), pose a big threat to corporate organizations that will compromise updating its workforce with the latest in technology at the expense of its productivity.
The process of training and development is a continuous one. Money spent on training and development of employee is money well invested. Employee, who has not received adequate training before being assigned to responsibility lack the necessary confidence with which to perform, an employee should be assisted to grow into more responsibility by systematic training and development, then left alone for the employee the confident to perform task assigned with much courage and enthusiastic.
The relevance of employee’s training & development cannot be considered a recent innovation. In the early traditional setting, children and maids of less privileged in Europe and America even in Africa were sent out to acquire basic skills in some forms of trade to better the lot of parents and guardian, such apprentice spend years to learn skills, and as years rolled by, those acquired trade gave birth to crude technology and today modern technology as a result of industrial revolution in Europe.
The industrial revolution brought about the need for the acquisition of skills through organized and procedural training and development such areas like Engine handling, thread spinning, cloth making, transport, rail, ship building, chemicals, electricity and electronic etc. It is no longer news that the world is now a global village as a result of technology and the effect is felt in all sectors; political, social and economic etc. The approach to doing business in the past cannot be practiced in this era called “JET AGE” especially with the invention of modern equipment that can give solutions to problems in a matter of seconds. In the light of this, it is of great importance that organization considers it of great necessity, the training and development of its human resources if optimum output is considered important and at minimal cost. In the 60’s, saturation in the Europe and America market compelled emerging conglomerates move to Asia and Africa, but the existence of a strong labour force alongside the huge mobility cost constrained industrialist to start training, local labour mostly in areas of manually aided plants and equipment. According to the national manpower board (1980), employee training and development in Nigeria received a boost through:
Establishment of Administrative and staff college of Nig (ASCON) through decree no 39 of 1975.
Establishment of Industrial Training Fund (ITF) through decree no 47 as amended by decree 32 and the national budget of 1975
Government Legislation and formation of the Centres for Management Development (CMD) decree no 51 of 1976.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The growth of any organization is largely dependent on the effective utilization of its resources; more importantly is the ways and manners such resources are harnessed towards its utilization for this purpose. Most crucial of all resources is human resources, but the level at which this human resources can be used depends on its level of training and development. The problems to be examined shall include among others:
a) Management general attitude towards training programmes
b) Whether training programmes are arranged in line with organization’s objectives c) If there are barriers to putting developmental programmes in place as at when due 1.2 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The study is designed to examine the following: a) Identify the training programmes and their relevance to staff duties
b) Establish if the method of training is result oriented.
c) Investigated the training method used d) To find out the criteria for courses e) To investigate how personnel are being selected for programmes f) To find out how often such programmes are organized g) To ascertain the method of evaluation of training
The study will be patterned to answer the following questions.
a) Are the training and development programme relevant to staff duties?
b) Does the method of training give positive result?
c) Are the training methods appropriate ?
d) How are the training modules selected? e) Is the method of staff selection appropriate? f) How often are training and development programme organized?
g) How is training and development programme evaluated?
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Workers training and development should be a going concern for every organization in the face of the present challenges introduced by information technology. The successful completion of this study is expected to reveal clearly the importance and need for continuous training and development. Furthermore, it will point out the aspect of training and development that should be improved upon, updated or rejected.
This is to say that the study will be of benefit to any organization or corporate body aim to be a major player in the present world of business. The benefits of training and development are both in the short and long run for the individual and the firm. Management should be interested in
5 SCOPE / DELIMITATION OF STUDY The study will cover training and development programmes of the Nigeria Ports Authority Lagos Port complex. integrity. service. innovation and team work both in their professional and personal lives. This parastatal is situated at Apapa Wharf. It will critically examine the training programme and course module and also the method of evaluation of the impact of the training and development programmes besides other issues 5 . safety. Lagos. 1. learn and ultimately live out the values of quality.being its human resource absorb.
training refers to the ways in which specific knowledge and skills are necessary to perform a specific job are target and learnt (Crawford. from the junior cadre up to the management cadre. Training and development activities are an integral and important aspect of human resources management. such activities make it possible to adjust as well as enhance the skill of the workforce.0 INTRODUCTION - LITERATURE REVIEW The term training and development are often used interchangeably. Development implies a parallel process in which people acquire more general abilities and information. or executive development. 1994). but in ways that cannot always be tied directly to a particular task. and technical capacity for future challenges. According to MCfarland (1968) “training” is the term used to describe the process in which the skills of non – managerial employer are enhanced while “Development” refers to the process by which managers and executives acquire skill. In the narrow sense. Thus to clearly distinguish both terms better. competence.CHAPTER TWO 2. 6 . even though they have different connotation. some experts refer to training as “employees training” and development as management development.
quality and quantity of output. interpersonal. the analysis here tries to focus on the weakness. the technical. the minimum acceptable standard of performance. analytical and diagnostic skills required to get the job done well. 2. percentage of the market share.13 PERSON NEED ANALYSIS The emphasis here is on the person i:e job holder. The analysis here focuses on individual strength and weakness and on what would turn the individual worker into a better performance. 7 .2. professional. 2.12 JOB NEED ANALYSIS Task or job needs analysis entails any extensive consideration of the specific requirement of the task to be performed. deficiencies or the training needs of each job holder within the present and the near future. task or job need analysis as well as person needs analysis. conceptual.11 ORGANISATION NEEDS ANALYSIS The organization need analysis entails a detailed examination of the short and long term objectives of the organization.1 DETERMINATION OF TRAINING NEEDS It is agreed that determination of training need provides a good basis for planning training programme. choosing the training methods as well as course content. but the determination of the training needs analysis. 2. managerial. This will normally include an analysis of the organization strength and weakness.
3 WHY THE NEED FOR TRAINING According to Banjoko (1996). Employee suggestions e. 1. a. Performance appraisal reports b.g union. 8 . the following factors among others can be used to identify training needs. qualification.14 GENERAL METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING NEEDS Training programme should be designed as targeted at employee deficiencies or weakness for better performance. Irrespective of an employee’s past experience. why the need for training? Every organization provides training for its employees for a number of reasons which includes. To remove performance deficiencies: Employee may exhibit lack of adequate expertise in the performance of his duty and as such may require some exposure for improvement. management may find variance between employee’s current abilities and job requirement in such instance training may be needed to fill such gaps. 2.2. To match the employee’s abilities with the job performance requirement and organizational needs. perhaps a good starting point for examining the relevance of training is to ask the question. 2. Observations c. Training needs survey d. skills and knowledge.
To induce certain behavioural charges in the employee’s To reduce cost of production and minimize waste To prevent skill obsolescence 7. professionals Dispersed Longterm Future job Broad Improve potential. characteristic of the two terms are in tabular form. Characteristics Primary target group Usual location Pay off Application Specificity Objective Linkage to performance Transferability Training Rank and File Local Rightway or soon Current job Narrow Improve performance immediate Narrow Development Managers. 8. employee’s morale and thereby improve organizational climate. capacity distant. 5. sometimes uncertain Broad 9 . 6. To improve quality and quantity of work To increase productivity and efficiency Sometime training may be untaken to enhance employee’s self-esteem. 2.3.4 CHARACTERISTIC OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT According to Crawford (1984) and Posuw and Randolph (1978). to boost 4.
There is little distinction between the two terms. definite and difficult to measure Small Across level Many special requirements Extended Sense of satisfaction General and uncertain ADOPTED FROM CRAWFORD (1984). 2. To provide the initial training for new employees. it includes. professionals.5 OBJECTIVE OF TRAINING There are several reasons why organizations undertake training programmes. The characteristic throw more light in the distributions between training and development which were highlighted in the definitions. training and development. according to flippo (1984). The objectives of training towards the achievement of corporate goals. technical and other skilled and semi-skilled personel (induction) 10 . 1.Number of target Employee at a time Scope Variation required Duration Participant gain/response Anticipation outcomes and measurable Large Single Comparatively uniform Short Sense of competence Specific.
e. Such need may give birth to a training school or programme. 5. the training and development manager must fashion out the appropriate course for various categories of employers. i:e in technological development. To train new employees without specific skills. To increase organizational flexibility and stability i:e ability to adjust to short run variation in volume of work and also sustain corporate effectiveness despite loss of key personnel.g cover areas where there are difficulty recruity e. To bring supervisors and managers up to date on techniques in management. Clerical staff b. Training may be aimed at solving operational problems i:e reduce accident at the workplace e. Supervisors or foremen c. a. Company’s drivers. tool makers. 3. 4.2. 7. say in form of apprenticeships training. 2. To satisfy specific manpower needs. 11 .6 DESIGNING THE TRAINING PROGRAMMES Once the various training needs and objectives have been well spelt out. To retain employed workers to perform new jobs.g computer programmers. e. In doing this.c.g safety workshop 6. effort is shifted to designing an appropriate training programme that will effectively correct the various deficiencies.t.
i.e best technique. is the daily local or overseas? iii. WHO : Who will teach or do the training in each category. WHAT: What should be the course content for each category ii.In designing an effective programme. the following question will be of great necessity. 12 . internal or external trainers. HOW : How should the training be carried out i.
7 2. Training can be undertaken by developing internal programmes or using programme provided by external agencies. When there is substantial volume of activities ii. When outside agencies are not available iv. When the company specialist is required by the special techniques iii.71 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT METHOD INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL TRAINING The method of training adopted by any institution depends on factors such as cost. government manpower agencies e.2.g individual training fund (ITF). time available.the – job training Off . Organizations are likely to choose internal training programmes in the face of the following (Mcarland 1968) i. background of the trainee (beach. When training can accomplished more economically and in a better time Outside agencies includes schools of higher learning consulting firms. Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON).the – job training Simulation Method The three broad heading are sub-divided below 13 . number of trainees. depth of knowledge required. 1980 and French 1987). Training and development methods can be generally classified under three major heading: On .
On-the-job training Job rotation Internship Apprenticeship Coaching Committee assignment Task force Assignment Off-the-job training Classroom lectures Film show Demonstration vestibule training Role playing Education T. to organized and structured training packages.V Programme Simulation Method Case study Business game Critical incident in basket sensitivity training ADOPTED FROM BANJOKO (1996) ON THE JOB TRAINING This can be regarded as the most common type of training and the simplest method of training.g industrial training. INTERNSHIP : This method enables the trainee to gain useful insight into the relationship between theory and practical aspect. 14 . this methods includes. it can range from informal arrangement whereby an experienced employee demonstrate his job to a new recruits. it is given in the normal work situation. it uses all tools the recruit will use when fully trained. E. JOB ROTATION: This method of training is designed to fully equip the trainee with variety of experience by moving from one job section to another so as to competently handle greater responsibilities in the future.
1. who could be on experience and person. 15 . nevertheless. it is best to involved trainees in a committee or group assigned with certain responsibilities or findings. this also helps them to discover certain abilities in them not harnessed.c. the trainee. the efficiency of this method largely depends on how much time and interest the trainee has for the job. is made to understudy another supervisor or be given part of the responsibility in preparation for a higher office or duty.g carpentry. Self training or programmed instruction 2. Other training such as classroom lectures.7.t. 2. COACHING: This is a process where the trainee is been given continuous assistance by the trainer by guiding and entertaining questions all is a bid to find solutions to given problems.APPRENTICESHIP : For jobs that are technical in nature e. plumbing. UNDERSTUDY ASSIGNMENT : Here. SPECIAL OR COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENT : Often times. it enables the trainee to fully grasp or understand the intricacies and complexities of the job. This method of training is in this ways. electricity e.3 OFF THE JOB TRAINING There is no one best way of doing a job and that is why it is imperative that the trainees broadens their horizon by seeking for more experience or ideas outside the workplace. a period of apprenticeship training is usually require.
CLASSROOM OR LECTURE METHOD: This method is the most traditional form of training. This applies the use of modern technology in the learning process.g Audio-visual. VESTIBULE TRAINING This method tries to simulate the actual work environment so that the trainee are equipped with preliminary learning experience prior to actual work practice thereby minimizing the trainees risk in the workplace as fresher. it involves the transmission of knowledge. making this method relatively cheap. ideas from the instructor to the trainees at one time. PROGRAMMED INSTITUTIONAL METHOD. 16 . It is a self – training method based on the use institutional technology materials e.
Sometimes. usually. case studies. These methods are commonly used in improving organizations. role playing. CASE STUDY : Cases are prepared basically to demonstrate the reality in the business world by describing actual business situation.g “The Intern” T. This method is primarily used to develop the trainee with the ability to plan strategically and get the best out of every business and competitive situation e. its product. the cases would contain background information about the company. business games. they include.EXTENSION OR CORRESPONDENCES COURSES Correspondence programme either in the classroom or on-line are now organized by various institutions for interested persons to upgrade themselves e. 17 .4 SIMULATION METHODS. BUSINESS GAMES: Under this situation.7. critical incidents and in-basket methods. executives talents. finances as well as organizational structure.V reality business game show sponsored by Bank PHB. typical business situations can be simulated and presented in a case form. 2. participants are trained in handling situations or events that involves competition between equally strong opposing groups.g National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN).
g A supervisor and a subordinate switching positions. marketing research information.ROLE PLAYING: In this method. awaiting attention within a specified time limit.8 ORGANISATION OF TRAINING 2. IN BASKET METHOD: This method tries to simulate possible situation or critical issues that are actually stacked up in the “In basket” tray of the executive. finance. Atypical in-basket tray contains. training employee development manager is responsible for initiating the idea of training within the organization and this develop on atmosphere conducive for sound human resource development. and acting the role of other individual in a given situation e.8. 2. ensured queries and on this method enables the trainee to know how best to attend to these issues within the stipulated time. complaints. More specifically. organized development opportunities and plays a motivating and policy determining role for the organization as a whole in areas of training and development. names. 18 . The head of this unit addressed as training manager. the training director and his staff must perform a number of function covering the planning and implementation of training programmes. petition from staff. letters on issue relating to the complaints.1 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The training and development section performs service functional plans and facilitates systematic. the trainees are made to assure the attitude and behaviour of.
Learning c. Selection of qualified instructors and training of operating personnel.e in terms of improvement in tangible individual and organizational outcome. appropriate evaluation procedures and criteria must be put in place for the planning stage.These includes. Reaction b. Direct instruction in terms of certain courses such as orientation and supervisory v. 19 . Job behaviour d. Collection and preparation of curricula and training methods iv. Determining the training needs ii. To ensure proper evaluation. Results. iii. Kirkputrick (1959) has listed such evaluation criteria measurement to be a. This involves evaluating the training programme based on Criterion measurement Experimental design. i. Development of overall plans objectives and assignments of responsibilities. EVALUATION OF TRAINING AND DVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES Evaluation of training and development programme is usually conceived as a stock taking exercise designed to determine the extent of learning that has taken place and the extend to which the programmes goals and objectives have been attained i.
quality and so on. JOB BEHAVIOUR: Similar to learning criterion. it determines the degree of improvement in attitude and productivity. depth of the course content. job behaviour measures the depth of the new knowledge that has been acquired as a result of performance in the work place. better product.REACTION: Training evaluation can be carried out by assessing participant reactions towards the extend of coverage of essential materials. RESULT: On the onset. LEARNING: Learning is said to take place when there is a change in behaviour. This could include profitability. The flaw here is that it sometimes become unnecessarily subjective and overtly biased in the sense that trainees may tend to be nice by giving favourable report to avoid the wrath of the boss. it is pertinent to assess the extent at which those objectives have been achieved. Has the programme paid off for the organization? Has achieved positive result in terms of training and development and objectives. reduced absenteeism and turnover. specific goal and objectives were set for the training and development programmes. The basis question therefore is. method of presention and effectiveness of the teaching methods. this criterion seek to know the extend and how much learning has taken place i.e extend of change in behaviour as a result of the new knowledge acquired. At the end of the training and development programme. improve moral. 20 .
Provided by continue training activities. thus with the continuous acceleration of technological change such as development in computers. in service training and so on. retraining. Also with deregulation competition. 21 . Establishment of Industrial Training Fund (ITF) through decree no 47 as amended by decree 32 and the national budget of 1975 vi. According to the national manpower board (1980). employee training and development in Nigeria received a boost through: iv. automation information systems. Nigerian enterprises will have no choice but devote more resources to training and development if they are not to become “ weak citizens” of the global village. Establishment of Administrative and staff college of Nig (ASCON) through decree no 39 of 1975. v.9 FUTURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT According to Folayan (1998). Government Legislation and formation of the Centres for Management Development (CMD) decree no 51 of 1976. In the face of the world changing technological system. enterprising and forward looking and they will have to get more involved in research and development activities which can only be promoted primarily through training and development. the future belongs more to organizations which are innovative. These will create several challenges that will confront employee development in no distant time from now. it has been documented in the literative by human resources expert that skills and knowledge generated through formal schooling and on-the-jib training may wear off without the stimulation extension and enrichment. many jobs will be revolutionized several times over.2.
It is often said that a lot of changes have taken place in knowledge. management technology and in management so much that no one day passes without a noticeable change under the sun. the implication of these changes is training and re-training in order to catch up. Some of the workers who benefited from such training are today self- 22 . the rate of staff training has increased because the salient features of that programmes was backward integration. The upgrading of skill becomes necessary when there is a proportionate variation of actual performance standard from expected performance standard. which every employee possess. material and management play techniques development programmes are more directed at the whole person and consequently and most appropriately for individuals moving towards assuring more responsibility in a wide range of work. accounting. ideology. the difference is addressed with a training programme. Updating and re-training of employee must keep pace with development in global market expansion. With the introduction of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in Nigeria between 1985 – 1992. result in chaos. but the rate this variation is compensated for largely depends on the facilities used for the training of personnel. an organization can only assist its workforce to achieve this through the right training and development program. it relates to skill areas and do occur at the organizational level. the satisfaction of one need gives rise another and if not satisfied. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of need.Training and development activities equally differs from one organization to another. others focus on technical skills. concept. financial. supervisory skills and relatively specific areas of management activity like communication. At the bottom of his list “self esteem or actualization need”.
close down. Training programme for employee is a continuous process which if well coordinated will result in effective jobs performance and increase productivity. religion. Nigeria Port Authority. and later resulted in the opening of ports at Apapa and Port-Harcourt which eventually led to the establishment of the Nigeria Port Authority in 1954 to maintain the ports as well as hardly of cargo. the development of sea port in Nigeria started in the mid 19 th century. its auxiliary functions includes ensuring greater versatility and adaptability to new methods. In October 1996 due to the Federal government interest in her activities. 2. It was initially limited to its opening at the Lagos lagoon. maintaining and raising the standard of performance as well as increasing morale and confidence in performance of duty. political infusion. some organizations falsity their annual profit (a performance indicator) so as to satisfy interest groups. 23 . It is against this background that this study is aimed at evolving the importance of worker training and development on productivity with reference to NPA. other constrain factors includes distortion experienced in performance appraisal e. preparing an individual for higher jobs. lesser needs for close supervision.g. Although the major objective of training is to increase productivity and quality. The extent to which training and development has enriched performance has always remain an issue of controversy among management scientist due to influences like customs.employed because of the massive incident of organizational rationalization.10 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA PORT AUTHORITY According to NPA report (2000). culture. retrenchment. It commenced full operation on 1st April 1955 and on the 15th June 1992 it was commercialized and was called Nigeria Port Plc. it regain the ownership and reverted back to its former name.
Its major functions included: i. 24 . that is dominant business. iii. providing stevedoring service. To make the provision and operation of port facilities in Nigeria. In the light of this new order. iv. i. To conduct all the operations efficiently. it led to forgo the responsibility of law cargo. Maintaining. ii.The provision of port facilities and services in Nigeria is the responsibility of the Nigeria Port Authority. v. providing structures and machineries. improving and regulating the labours approaches thereto in all the Ports of Nigeria presently open to the ocean going vessel. effectively. The federal government was not satisfied with the performance of the organization and in 2005 through the bureau of Public Enterprise (PE) concession the main operation area of NPA while (NPA) provided the technical and pilotage services to the port users acting as a landlord and the concessionaires the tenant. Identification and satisfaction of the demand for port facilities and services at minimum cost to the nation ii. To optimize the generation of sufficient offshore revenue. To maintain a credit worthy posture and attractive to investors. vi. To corporate with neighboring ports in the provision of common services. competitively and profitability and this generate significant amount to the national economy. Providing a safe and comfortable business environment for concessionaires The main corporate objective of the organization includes the following.
25 .11 POLICY STATEMENT The Prime objective of the authority’s effort is to meet immediate medium and larger needs of the organization. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN NPA The seaport industry is a dynamic system with complex operational arrangements. 2. which are over affected by technology. This should be adopted as the main guiding principle for all training activities in the authority. To maintain an update management information system in all aspect of the authority’s activities. The training department shall explore areas of the authority’s training scheme. keep abreast of developments and enhance productivity. which can be extended to Port users and other Port related organizations with a view of ensuring smooth operations as well as generating revenue to offset cost of running such programme.11. maintain comparative understanding of the system. This way to foreign trade with the attendant influence of international maritime regulations and practices makes it expedient to expose the staff to regular training and development schemes to ensure the proper orientation. 2. To pay attractive wages and maintain a sound workforce. This implies that the authority’s training plans and projection should focus attention on factors that would lead to improved revenue generation and sustained availability of highly skilled manpower. viii. economical and political changes.vii.
Attainment of employee’s sense of ownership of the organization and commitment to its success vii. Increased efficiency and effectiveness iii.AIMS OF THE PROGRAMME i. Management Succession Programme e. Career Development Programme b. Local Courses The Nigeria Port Authority equalled have a Technical Training Centre solely designed for training and development its technical engineering manpower resources. REF 26 . Availability and introduction of new ideas through research development viii. Good understanding of the authority’s corporate goals and objectives among the workforce. ii. Marine Training d. iv. Motivated work force with sustained confidence and job satisfaction. Basis for determining appropriate reward’s on merit’s v. Overseas Courses c. Development of a civilized and disciplined workforce Programmes organized include. Maintaining organization continuity through a succession plan based on the development of subordinates vi. a.
An important guiding principle in selecting a sample is that it must as far as possible have the essential characteristics of the target population. 3.3 SAMPLE SIZE This is a subset of a population selected to meet specific objectives. the sample size was 40 27 . The total population of the employees is about 600 in the entire complex and the research shall be limited to certain number among this lot. stratified sample technique. attention will be focused on the collection and treatment of necessary data for conducting the study. 3. This will ensure an effective gathering and analysis of data 3. For the purpose of this research and easy collection. Information will be gathered from primary and secondary sources of data using valid and reliable data collection instrument based on our research questions. where the population is divided into distinct strata is used.2 POPULATION STUDY The target population is the Nigeria Port Authority employees.CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION In this chapter.1 RESEARCH DESIGN An explanatory research design will be adopted for this study and the aim is to show the existing relationship between the variables.
Training and development and dependent variables. 3. junior and senior members of staff representing 5. formed the basis for data analysis. 28 . which was designed according to the research questions. labour productivity.persons comparising of male and female. and frequency table.5 DATA ANALYSIS For ease of comprehension. the data collected was analyzed manually with the use of percentages.4 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT For the collection of primary data questionnaire was administered five (5) scale like questions was used in the questionnaire having a range from Strongly Agree – Strongly Disagree and three sections based on the independent variables. The responses gotten from the questionnaire.5% of the total workforce 3.
age of respondent. job experience. 8 of the respondents were females representing 20% of the sample size while the remaining 32 of the respondent were males representing 80% of the whole lot. Attempt is also made on the analysis of data gathering through the use of research instruments relevant to the research study The responses provided through the research questions and other relevant data is also analysed with the use of tables and other statistical techniques. the responses are classified accordingly to sex.CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA In this chapter. 29 . educational level.7% of the total workforce of the organization. marital status. a total of 40 questionnaires were distributed and all of them were received. this number represents 5. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA ANALYSIS As indicated in the previous chapter.
an indication that the male are more in the total workforce.5% of the a sample size.5 35 10 100 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46 & Above TOTAL NIL 1 4 10 8 2 25 2 5 6 2 15 1 6 15 14 4 40 The result from the table above shows that the active labour force is within the age bracket of 31yrs – 45yrs representing about 87. TABLE 2 DISTRIBUTION BY AGE AGES NUMBER OF RESPODENT JUNIOR SENIOR STAFF STAFF TOTAL PERCENTAGE % 0 2. 30 . an indicator of a productive labour force.TABLE 1 DISTRIBUTION BY SEX SEX NUMBER OF RESPODENT TOTAL MALE FEMALE TOTAL JUNIOR STAFF 20 5 25 SENIOR STAFF 12 3 15 PERCENTAGE % 80 20 100 32 08 40 From the above table.5 15 37. it is evident that there are more male employees than there are females.
5% for 21yrs – 25yrs and 12.20Yrs 21. this labour turn over could be as a result of retirement and other factors such as health conditions. Those that have served between 16yrs.5 12.5% to those between 16yrs – 20yrs to 17.5% of the workforce and as we move down the table we find out that the workforce reduces.5 17.5Yrs 6.25Yrs 26.TABLE 3 DISTRIBUTION BY JOB EXPERIENCE JOB EXPERIENCE 0 . representing 32.10Yrs 11. 31 .15Yrs 16 .5 25 32.20yrs are more.30Yrs 31Yrs & Above TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPODENT JUNIOR STAFF 3 6 9 4 3 25 SENIOR STAFF 2 4 4 3 2 15 TOTAL PERCENTAGE % 12. an indication that recruitment is not a regular exercise.5 100% 5 10 13 07 5 40 The above distribution shows that there are no workers or staff that is 5yrs and below in the organization.5% for 26yrs – 30yrs. from 32. death etc.
MBA & OTHERS TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPODENT JUNIOR STAFF 10 5 6 4 25 SENIOR STAFF 1 1 2 8 3 15 TOTAL PERCENTAGE % 27.5 15 20 30 7.NCE B. 32 . this set of persons are those who have put in many years in the service and benefit from mass or general promotion. It is not out of place that we have persons who never read above O’ Levels in the Senior Staff. they do not get beyond certain level in the organization.SC/HND MSC.5 100 11 06 08 12 03 40 The statistics above reveals that the workforce comprises of educated personnel or that the benefit of academic development is appreciated as of 50% of the workforce are read above the Senior School Certificate level.TABLE 4 DISTRIBUTION EDUCATIONAL LEVEL EDUCATIONAL LEVELS PRY SCH & BELOW O LEVEL OND.
Simple percentage and correlation techniques will be used in conjunction with tables. 36 persons representing 90% are married and only 04 persons representing 10% are not married.TABLE 5 DISTRIBUTION BY MARITAL STATUS MARITAL STATUS MARRIED SINGLE TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONDENT JUNIOR STAFF SENIOR STAFF TOTAL 36 04 40 22 3 25 14 1 15 PERCENTAGE % 90 10 100 The result above reveals that majority of the workforce are married. The questions are divided into two (2) broad sections and each summed up with a title applicable. 33 . responses were provided by the respondent and the analysis is based on the responses. the research questions were included in the questionnaire. ANALYSIS OF DATA For ease of gathering and analyzing of data for this research study.
Q1.Expected responses will be graded by using a 5 likert scale ranging from Strongly Agree (SA) to Strongly Disagree (SD) The analysis is carried out on the two parts of the questions. the totality of the first part shall be the numbers of questions (12) multiplied by the number respondent (4) giving us total of 480 responses while the second part comprising of 8 questions shall give 320 responses in the analysis proper. the Strong Agree response shall be tested against others. Does Training improve or have positive impact on productivity DISTRIBUTION EDUCATIONAL LEVEL FORM OF RESPONSE SA A U TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONDENT JUNIOR STAFF SENIOR STAFF TOTAL 330 146 04 480 230 70 300 100 76 04 180 Expected Value (EV) = rt x ct gt Where: rt = total row value Ct = total column value gt = Grand total 34 .
75 4 x 300 480 = 2. The is done to show the relationship between the independent and dependent variables in the research questions SA 330 x 300 480 330 x 180 480 Others 146 x300 480 146 x 180 480 = 54.25 = 206.25 = 123.5 4 x 180 480 = 1.75 = 91.The expected value of the Strongly Agree response will be tested against the other responses.5 35 .
54.91.The results above are the value expected and the values in table 6 are those observed using chisquare test between the observed expect: At 95% confidence interval.2.25 = 4.75 = 2.73 = 4.25 ( 0 .5) 2 2.5 36 .95 (76 .75 = 8.25 (100 – 123.75) 2 123.25)2 206.25) 2 91.56 (70 . we have X2 ∑ (0i – Ei) Ei Where: Oi = Values Observed Ei = Values Expected (230 – 206.75) 2 54.5 = 2.
9+4-2 EV = 27.2 X 2 = 2.11 Resultant Hypothesis Ho: The two variables are independent of each other Hi: The two variables are not independent of each other Decision Rule: We reject the null hypothesis of independent at X = 0. Before we take our decision e must compute (r-1) (c-1) degrees of freedom where r= number of rows c= number of columns.25+0.5 = 4.56+4. then (r-1) (c-1) = (3-1) (2-1) =(2)(1) = 2 degree of freedom Decision 37 . exceeds the tabulated value of X2 0. if the computed value of the test statistics.5) 2 1.( 4 .05.73 + 4.95+8.95 for (r-1) ( c-1) degrees of freedom. X2.1.
05 level of significance and accept the alternative hypothesis TABLE 7 Q2: Can Training motivate employees to work hard? FORM OF RESPONSE SA A D SD TOTAL EV= rt x ct gt JUNIOR STAFF 120 30 30 20 200 SENIOR STAFF 75 25 20 120 TOTAL 175 55 50 20 320 195 x 200 320 = 21.25 195 x 120 320 = 73.95=5.88 50 x 200 320 = 31.991. we reject the null hypothesis at the 0.75 38 .51 is greater than X2 0.13 50 x 120 320 = 18.Since 25.
5 55 x 120 320 From X2 ∑ (0i – Ei)2 Ei = 20.38)2 34.5)2 7.88 (75 -73.0154 = 12.05+0.56+0.93+0.38 20 x 200 320 = 12.48 +0.5+3+0.0154 12.63)2 20.13 (30 – 34.63 20 x 120 320 = 7.048 (0 -7.75) 2 = 0.08 18.08+0.93 = 0.5 (120 – 121.55 x 150 320 = 34.25) 2 31.05 = 0.18 (20 – 18.5 ∑ = 7.63 (30 – 31.38 (25 – 20.25 = 0.5 = 7.88)2 = 0.75 39 .13)2 73.56 = 0.
05 level of signicance and accept the alternative hypothesis.5) 2 18.95 =7.(20 – 12.75 =3 RESULTANT HYPOTHESIS HO: Training and development have no impact on labour productivity HI: Training and development have impact in labour productivity ( r-1) (c-1) = (4 -1) ( 2-1) = (3) (1) = 3 degree of freedom DECISION: Since 12. we reject the null hypothesis at the 0. 40 . From this brief investigation we can say that training and development is very necessary for smooth operation of any organization willing to improve productivity.18 (calculated) is greater than X2 0.81. tabulated.
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS. 41 . The methods and procedures utilized in this study were designed to accomplish the purpose of the study. During the study. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The challenge or problem which this research work is concerned with is determing the relationship that exists between training and development and labour productivity. it was found out that:• • • There are more male than female in the organization The active labour force lies between ages 31yrs – 45yrs Manpower recruitment is occasional ad there are no employee lee than 5 yrs in the service • • • • • • The workforce value educational development Majority of the workforce are married The level of education of members of staff is appreciable Training program come periodically The training exercise boost morale The nature of the organization has encouraged personal development.
Chisquare test for indepence and homogeneity was used to determine relationship at 0. CONCLUSION From the analysis of the data. • With a good training programme development level can ho higher • Programmes are well organized and should be improved upon • The organization employs more of male staff to female staff • There is a drive within the organization to personal development • Periodic recruitment of staff puts the few in service on their toes to work harder.05% level of significance. standard distribution was used to ascertain relationship.Data analysis were both descriptive and inferential. hence better productivity 42 . The use of percentage of frequency was employed to determine the impact of training and development on labour productivity. the following tentative conclusion can be made:• A strong relationship exist between training and development and labour productivity.
the following suggestions are made:• Nigerian Ports Authority should pay more attention to her human resource development. • The Organization should invest in her human capital because money spent in training of personnel is money well invested • Growth and advancement opportunities should be created for employee it is morale booster • More female staff should be employed into the organization.RECOMMENDATION Based on the finding and conclusion of this study. • Openings should be created more often in the organization for fresh hands as it comes with fresh ideas. 43 .
L. January) Is there an ROI in ROI? Technical & Training.21 – 26 Kirkpatrick. Donelson .REFERENCES Barron T. Forsyth Evaluating Training Programms: The four levels Group Dynamics. Kirkpatrick. (1997. Discussion various aspect of group from development. performance. Smalley 101 ways to make Training active Facilitating Training Group: A Guide to Leadership One – the Job Orientation and Training. (1998) Evaluating training programmes: The four levels. Wheelan Larry R.L. Donald. Schein Organizational culture and Leadership 44 .H. D. San Francisco: Berret – Koehler Mel Silberman (2001) Susan A.R. A Practical guide to enhanced performance. conflict and change Edger. 8.
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